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Sample records for fabrication technology development

  1. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  2. Fabrication issues and technology development for HELEOS

    SciTech Connect

    Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S. ); Balk, J.K.; Hall, C.A.; McDonald, M.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Starfire is a joint railgun of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The goal of Starfire is to develop a Hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher for Equation of State (HELEOS) experiments. A two-stage light-gas gun is used as a pre-injector. Each round-bore HELEOS railgun module is 12.7 mm in diameter and 2.4 m long. The muzzle end of the railgun is connected to a vacuum tank. Common materials and fabrication technology are used in the manufacture of all components, and modular design allows for extending the length of the railgun as progress dictates. The launcher uses a vee block geometry, which is designed to: (1) provide compressive preload, (2) operate with a 300-MPa (3-kbar) internal bore pressure, and (3) easily accommodate interchangeable materials in the bore support structure and rail. The authors have performed full-scale material testing of the railgun and have developed a precision round-bore fabrication process. Air-gage inspection is used to determine bore diameter and straightness. They have also developed a surface mapping system to document the surface topography of the bore before and after an experiment. This paper presents fabrication details, results of tests conducted, and areas for potential improvement.

  3. Fabrication Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  4. Development of blanket box structure fabrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mohri, K.; Sata, S.; Kawaguchi, I.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication studies have been performed for first wall and blanket box structure in the Fusion Experimental Reactor designed in Japan. The first wall must have internal cooling channels to remove volumetric heat loading by neutron wall load and surface heat loading from the plasma. The blanket which is higher than 10 m and 1 m wide withstands enormous electromagnetic load (about 10 MN/m). And a fabrication accuracy is required in the order of 10 mm from the machine configuration and remote assembling standpoints. To make cooling channels inside the first wall and to reduce the deformation during fabrication, the authors adopted advance techniques Hot Isostatic Pressing method (HIP) and Electron Beam Welding (EBW) respectively. Evaluation studies for the bondability of the HIP bonding joint have been performed. To evaluate the bondability, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact value, low cycle fatigue strength and creep strength of the bonded part were investigated using HIP bonded test specimens. And the detectability of ultrasonic detection tests were also studied on them.

  5. Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

  6. Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high-quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

  7. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  8. NASA Funding Opportunities for Optical Fabrication and Testing Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Technologies to fabricate and test optical components are required for NASA to accomplish its highest priority science missions. For example, the NRC ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey states that an advanced large-aperture UVOIR telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exo-planet science; and that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. The NRC 2012 NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report states that the highest priority technology in which NASA should invest to 'Expand our understanding of Earth and the universe' is a new generation of astronomical telescopes. And, each of the Astrophysics division Program Office Annual Technology Reports (PATR), identifies specific technology needs. NASA has a variety of programs to fund enabling technology development: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research); the ROSES APRA and SAT programs (Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science; Astrophysics Research and Analysis program; Strategic Astrophysics Technology program); and several Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) technology development programs.

  9. NASA Funding Opportunities for Optical Fabrication and Testing Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    NASA requires technologies to fabricate and test optical components to accomplish its highest priority science missions. The NRC ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey states that an advanced large-aperture UVOIR telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exo-planet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. The NRC 2012 NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities Report states that the highest priority technology in which NASA should invest to 'Expand our understanding of Earth and the universe' is next generation X-ray and UVOIR telescopes. Each of the Astrophysics division Program Office Annual Technology Reports (PATR) identifies specific technology needs. NASA has a variety of programs to fund enabling technology development: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research); the ROSES APRA and SAT programs (Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science; Astrophysics Research and Analysis program; Strategic Astrophysics Technology program); and several Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) programs

  10. NASA funding opportunities for optical fabrication and testing technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-09-01

    NASA requires technologies to fabricate and test optical components to accomplish its highest priority science missions. The NRC ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey states that an advanced large-aperture UVOIR telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exo-planet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. The NRC 2012 NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities Report states that the highest priority technology in which NASA should invest to `Expand our understanding of Earth and the universe' is next generation X-ray and UVOIR telescopes. Each of the Astrophysics division Program Office Annual Technology Reports (PATR) identifies specific technology needs. NASA has a variety of programs to fund enabling technology development: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research); the ROSES APRA and SAT programs (Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science; Astrophysics Research and Analysis program; Strategic Astrophysics Technology program); and several Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) programs.

  11. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Technology Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley has developed a the EBF(sup 3)process and currently has two EBF(sup 3) systems in house. EBF(sup 3) process offers potential cost reduction and fabrication of complex unitized structures out of metals. EBF(sup 3) has been successfully demonstrated on Al, Al-Li, Ti, and Ni alloys to date.

  12. Developing Fabrication Technologies to Provide On Demand Manufacturing for Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica S.; Good, James E.; Gilley, Scott D.; Howard, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and risk for manned and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are developing technologies for in situ fabrication capabilities during lunar and Martian surface operations utilizing provisioned and locally refined materials. Current fabrication technologies must be advanced to support the special demands and applications of the space exploration initiative such as power, weight and volume constraints. In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) will advance state-of-the-art technologies in support of habitat structure development, tools, and mechanical part fabrication. The repair and replacement of space mission components, such as life support items or crew exercise equipment, fall within the ISFR scope. This paper will address current fabrication technologies relative to meeting ISFR targeted capabilities, near-term advancement goals, and systematic evaluation of various fabrication methods.

  13. Layered Metals Fabrication Technology Development for Support of Lunar Exploration at NASA/MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth G.; Good, James E.; Gilley, Scott D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and risk for missions to the Moon and beyond. In support of these missions, engineers and scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center are developing technologies for ground-based and in-situ fabrication capabilities utilizing provisioned and locally-refined materials. Development efforts are pushing state-of-the art fabrication technologies to support habitat structure development, tools and mechanical part fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of ground support and space mission hardware such as life support items, launch vehicle components and crew exercise equipment. This paper addresses current fabrication technologies relative to meeting targeted capabilities, near term advancement goals, and process certification of fabrication methods.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED ESFF (ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF FABRIC FILTRATION) TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes work on electrical stimulation of fabric filtration (ESFF) with the major objectives of defining the role of some primary variables and understanding the mechanisms of electrostatic enhancement. It was concluded that the magnitude of particle charge has a st...

  15. Development of an indirect stereolithography technology for scaffold fabrication with a wide range of biomaterial selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-09-01

    Tissue engineering, which is the study of generating biological substitutes to restore or replace tissues or organs, has the potential to meet current needs for organ transplantation and medical interventions. Various approaches have been attempted to apply three-dimensional (3D) solid freeform fabrication technologies to tissue engineering for scaffold fabrication. Among these, the stereolithography (SL) technology not only has the highest resolution, but also offers quick fabrication. However, a lack of suitable biomaterials is a barrier to applying the SL technology to tissue engineering. In this study, an indirect SL method that combines the SL technology and a sacrificial molding process was developed to address this challenge. A sacrificial mold with an inverse porous shape was fabricated from an alkali-soluble photopolymer by the SL technology. A sacrificial molding process was then developed for scaffold construction using a variety of biomaterials. The results indicated a wide range of biomaterial selectivity and a high resolution. Achievable minimum pore and strut sizes were as large as 50 and 65 μm, respectively. This technology can also be used to fabricate three-dimensional organ shapes, and combined with traditional fabrication methods to construct a new type of scaffold with a dual-pore size. Cytotoxicity tests, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography analyses, showed that this technology has great potential for tissue engineering applications. PMID:22443315

  16. Weaving the Fabric of Professional Development in the 21st Century Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesbro, Patricia; Boxler, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Network learning supported by 21-century technology is reweaving the fabric of how educators acquire and create new knowledge. At the Alaska Educational Innovations Network (AEIN), educators believe this has the potential to change how a profession looks at professional development. They have learned that using technology to support networks…

  17. TOWARD LOW-COST FABRICATION OF MICROCHANNEL PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES - COST MODELING FOR MANUFACTURING DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, Steven D.; King, Dale A.; Paul, Brian

    2010-11-07

    identify new paths to lower cost fabrication. Through systematic exploration of fabrication process capabilities and associated cost structures, the MBI is developing volume-sensitive cost estimation models for predicting manufacturing costs of MPT devices fabricated using different processing technologies. The process-based cost models are used to develop an understanding of the economic trade-offs between candidate processes and are utilized in a design for manufacturing approach to MPT device fabrication. In this paper we present results and analysis of the cost modeling effort to date and apply the methodology in case study of a stainless steel MPT device designed, built and tested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Extensions of the model to adjacent material sets and the interaction of device designs with fabrication processes will be discussed.

  18. From Lunar Regolith to Fabricated Parts: Technology Developments and the Utilization of Moon Dirt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, C. A.; Fikes, J. C.; McCarley, K. S.; Good, J. E.; Gilley, S. D.; Kennedy, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Space Exploration Policy has as a cornerstone the establishment of an outpost on the moon. This lunar outpost wil1 eventually provide the necessary planning, technology development, testbed, and training for manned missions in the future beyond the Moon. As part of the overall activity, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating how the in situ resources can be utilized to improve mission success by reducing up-mass, improving safety, reducing risk, and bringing down costs for the overall mission. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), along with other NASA centers, is supporting this endeavor by exploring how lunar regolith can be mined for uses such as construction, life support, propulsion, power, and fabrication. An infrastructure capable of fabrication and nondestructive evaluation will be needed to support habitat structure development and maintenance, tools and mechanical parts fabrication, as well as repair and replacement of space-mission hardware such as life-support items, vehicle components, and crew systems, This infrastructure will utilize the technologies being developed under the In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) element, which is working in conjunction with the technologies being developed under the In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) element, to live off the land. The ISFR Element supports the Space Exploration Initiative by reducing downtime due to failed components; decreasing risk to crew by recovering quickly from degraded operation of equipment; improving system functionality with advanced geometry capabilities; and enhancing mission safety by reducing assembly part counts of original designs where possible. This paper addresses the need and plan for understanding the properties of the lunar regolith to determine the applicability of using this material in a fabrication process. This effort includes the development of high fidelity simulants that will be used in fabrication processes on the ground to

  19. FULL SIZE U-10MO MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL AND FUEL PLATE FABRICATION-TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Moore; J-F Jue; B. H. Rabin; M. J. Nilles

    2010-03-01

    Full-size U10Mo foils are being developed for use in high density LEU monolithic fuel plates. The application of a zirconium barrier layer too the foil is applied using a hot co-rolling process. Aluminum clad fuel plates are fabricated using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or a Friction Bonding (FB) process. An overview is provided of ongoing technology development activities, including: the co-rolling process, foil shearing/slitting and polishing, cladding bonding processes, plate forming, plate-assembly swaging, and fuel plate characterization. Characterization techniques being employed include, Ultrasonic Testing (UT), radiography, and microscopy.

  20. Optmization and Fabrication Studies in the Development of Structurally Integrated Thermal Protection System Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Craig A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA HYP M&S is pursuing the development of SITPS: 1) Working with HYP MDAO to formulate methodology to incorporate SITPS into hypersonic vehicle design trades. 2) SITPS-0 to SITPS-1 (FY10): a) Manufacturing development and weight reduction (5.8 to 3.1 lb(sub m)/sq ft); b) Structural testing to mature SITPS model. 3) SITPS-2 (FY11): a) Focus on panel closeout, panel-to-panel load transfer, and panel curvature. 4) Extend fabrication technology to include alternate cores and insulations (FY12).

  1. Development of cylindrical reactive ion etching technology for fabricating tubular microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Tomoki; Takeuchi, Yugo; Shirao, Akitoshi; Nakashima, Yuta; Sato, Katsuya; Minami, Kazuyuki

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel technology that can form a dense and complex pattern on a polymer tube without thermal damage. We have developed an etching mask and equipment capable of processing the tubular material. We named this technology cylindrical RIE (reactive ion etching). In order to evaluate the fundamental processing characteristics of this technology, etching rate, side etching ratio and etching uniformities along the tube axis and circumferential directions are evaluated. As a result, a vertical wall caused by anisotropic etching could be observed, and the average etching rate was 1.0 µm min-1 and the average side etching ratio was 0.027. The maximum differences between etching rate along the axis and circumferential directions were 0.25 and 0.12 µm min-1, respectively. The cross-section of the etched through-groove (slit) processed in a PP (polypropylene) tube having wall thickness of 200 µm was evaluated. By the bowing phenomenon, pattern width decreased most at the middle of the thickness of the tube wall, and average width errors at the middle of the thickness was 22.4 µm. To demonstrate the usefulness of the cylindrical RIE, a stent made of PP tube was fabricated. It was possible to fabricate a stent with an outer diameter of 4.4 mm, length of 19 mm, main strut width of 300 µm, and connecting strut width of 80 µm.

  2. Fabrication issues and technology development for HELEOS (Hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher for Equation of State)

    SciTech Connect

    Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Balk, J.K.; Hall, C.A.; McDonald, M.J.

    1988-02-01

    Starfire is a joint railgun project of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The goal of Starfire is to develop a Hypervelocity Electromagnetic Launcher for Equation of State (HELEOS) experiments. A two-stage light-gas gun is used as pre-injector. Each round-bore HELEOS railgun module is 12.7 mm in diameter and 2.4 m long. The muzzle end of the railgun is connected to a vacuum tank. Common materials and fabrication technology are used in the manufacture of all components,a nd modular design allows for extending the length of the railgun as progress dictates. The launcher uses a ''vee block'' geometry, which is designed to: provide compressive preload; operate with a 300-MPa (3-kbar) internal bore pressure; and easily accommodate interchangeable materials in the bore support structure and rail. We have performed full-scale material testing of the railgun and have developed a precision round-bore fabrication process. Air-gage inspection is used to determine bore diameter and straightness. We have also developed a surface mapping system to document the surface topography of the bore before and after an experiment. This paper presents fabrication details, results of tests conducted, and areas for potential improvement. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Film Fabrication Technologies at NREL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has extensive capabilities for fabricating a variety of high-technology films. Much of the in-house work in NREL's large photovoltaics (PV) program involves the fabrication of multiple thin-film semiconducting layers constituting a thin-film PV device. NREL's smaller program in superconductivity focuses on the fabrication of superconducting films on long, flexible tape substrates. This paper focuses on four of NREL's in-house research groups and their film fabrication techniques, developed for a variety of elements, alloys, and compounds to be deposited on a variety of substrates. As is the case for many national laboratories, NREL's technology transfer efforts are focusing on Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA's) between NREL researchers and private industry researchers.

  4. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  5. Fabrication technology for ODS Alloy MA957

    SciTech Connect

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; MM Paxton; WF Brown

    2000-03-16

    A successful fabrication schedule has been developed at Carpenter Technology Corporation for the production of MA957 fuel and blanket cladding. Difficulties with gun drilling, plug drawing and recrystallization were overcome to produce a pilot lot of tubing. This report documents the fabrication efforts of two qualified vendors and the support studies performed at WHC to develop the fabrication-schedule.

  6. Development of a hybrid scaffold with synthetic biomaterials and hydrogel using solid freeform fabrication technology.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Jong Young; Park, Min; Park, Jaesung; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2011-09-01

    Natural biomaterials such as hyaluronic acid, gelatin and collagen provide excellent environments for tissue regeneration. Furthermore, gel-state natural biomaterials are advantageous for encapsulating cells and growth factors. In cell printing technology, hydrogel which contains cells was printed directly to form three-dimensional (3D) structures for tissue or organ regeneration using various types of printers. However, maintaining the 3D shape of the printed structure, which is made only of the hydrogel, is very difficult due to its weak mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a hybrid scaffold consisting of synthetic biomaterials and natural hydrogel using a multi-head deposition system, which is useful in solid freeform fabrication technology. The hydrogel was intentionally infused into the space between the lines of a synthetic biomaterial-based scaffold. The cellular efficacy of the hybrid scaffold was validated using rat primary hepatocytes and a mouse pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell line. In addition, the collagen hydrogel, which encapsulates cells, was dispensed and the viability of the cells observed. We demonstrated superior effects of the hybrid scaffold on cell adhesion and proliferation and showed the high viability of dispensed cells. PMID:21725147

  7. Development of a fabrication technology for integrating low cost optical interconnects on a printed circuit board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Steenberge, Geert; Hendrickx, Nina; Geerinck, Peter; Bosman, Erwin; Van Put, Steven; Van Erps, Jurgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Van Daele, Peter

    2006-02-01

    We present a fabrication technology for integrating polymer waveguides and 45° micromirror couplers into standard electrical printed circuit boards (PCBs). The most critical point that is being addressed is the low-cost manufacturing and the compatibility with current PCB production. The latter refers to the processes as well as material compatibility. Multimode waveguides are patterned by KrF excimer laser ablation in acrylate polymers with 0.13 dB/cm propagation loss at 850 nm. Single mode waveguides using inorganic-organic hybrid polymers show an attenuation loss of 0.62 +/- 0.08 dB/cm at 1.3 μm. A process for embedding metal coated 45° micromirrors in optical waveguiding layers is developed. Mirrors are selectively metallized using a lift-off process. Filling up the angled via without the presence of air bubbles and providing a flat surface above the mirror is only possible by enhancing the cladding deposition process with ultrasound agitation. Initial single mode coupling loss measurements at 1.3 μm show an excess mirror loss of 1.55 dB. Multimode coupling loss measurements will improve this excess loss, because of the lower surface roughness of the mirrors using the acrylate polymers for multimode waveguides.

  8. Development of the technology for the fabrication of reliable laminar from control panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.; Kays, A. O.; Ferrill, R. S.; Young, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Materials were assessed and fabrication techniques were developed for use in the manufacture of wing surface materials compatible with the application of both aluminum alloys and nonmetallic composites. The concepts investigated included perforations and slots in the metallic test panels and microporosity and perforations in the composite test panels. Perforations were produced in the metallic test panels by the electron beam process and slots were developed by controlled gaps between the metal sheets. Microporosity was produced in the composite test panels by the resin bleed process, and perforations were produced by the fugitive fiber technique. Each of these concepts was fabricated into test panels, and air flow tests were conducted on the panels.

  9. In Situ Fabrication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolin, Terry D.; Hammond, Monica

    2005-01-01

    A manufacturing system is described that is internal to controlled cabin environments which will produce functional parts to net shape with sufficient tolerance, strength and integrity to meet application specific needs such as CEV ECLS components, robotic arm or rover components, EVA suit items, unforeseen tools, conformal repair patches, and habitat fittings among others. Except for start-up and shut-down, fabrication will be automatic without crew intervention under nominal scenarios. Off-nominal scenarios may require crew and/or Earth control intervention. System will have the ability to fabricate using both provisioned feedstock materials and feedstock refined from in situ regolith.

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support. Annual report, January 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  11. Development of a technology for fabricating low-cost parallel optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Steenberge, Geert; Hendrickx, Nina; Geerinck, Peter; Bosman, Erwin; Van Put, Steven; Van Daele, Peter

    2006-04-01

    We present a fabrication technology for integrating polymer waveguides and 45° micromirror couplers into standard electrical printed circuit boards (PCBs). The most critical point that is being addressed is the low-cost manufacturing and the compatibility with current PCB production. The latter refers to the processes as well as material compatibility. In the fist part the waveguide fabrication technology is discussed, both photo lithography and laser ablation are proposed. It is shown that a frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser (355 nm) offers a lot of potential for defining single mode interconnections. Emphasis is on multimode waveguides, defined by KrF excimer laser (248 nm) ablation using acrylate polymers. The first conclusion out of loss spectrum measurements is a 'yellowing effect' of laser ablated waveguides, leading to an increased loss at shorter wavelengths. The second important conclusion is a potential low loss at a wavelength of 850 nm, 980 nm and 1310 nm. This is verified at 850 nm by cut-back measurements on 10-cm-long waveguides showing an average propagation loss of 0.13 dB/cm. Photo lithographically defined waveguides using inorganic-organic hybrid polymers show an attenuation loss of 0.15 dB/cm at 850 nm. The generation of debris and the presence of microstructures are two main concerns for KrF excimer laser ablation of hybrid polymers. In the second part a process for embedding metal coated 45° micromirrors in optical waveguiding layers is described. Mirrors are selectively metallized using a lift-off process. Filling up the angled via without the presence of air bubbles and providing a flat surface above the mirror is only possible by enhancing the cladding deposition process with ultrasound agitation. Initial loss measurements indicate an excess mirror loss of 1.5 dB.

  12. Fabrication technological development of the oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA957 for fast reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; GD Johnson; WF Brown; MM Paxton; RJ Puigh; CR Eiholzer; C Martinez; MA Blotter

    2000-03-27

    A significant amount of effort has been devoted to determining the properties and understanding the behavior of the alloy MA957 to define its potential usefulness as a cladding material, in the fast breeder reactor program. The numerous characterization and fabrication studies that were conducted are documented in this report. The alloy is a ferritic stainless steel developed by International Nickel Company specifically for structural reactor applications. It is strengthened by a very fine, uniformly distributed yttria dispersoid. Its fabrication involves a mechanical alloying process and subsequent extrusion, which ultimately results in a highly elongated grain structure. While the presence of the dispersoid produces a material with excellent strength, the body centered cubic structure inherent to the material coupled with the high aspect ratio that results from processing operations produces some difficulties with ductility. The alloy is very sensitive to variations in a number of processing parameters, and if the high strength is once lost during fabrication, it cannot be recovered. The microstructural evolution of the alloy under irradiation falls into two regimes. Below about 550 C, dislocation development, {alpha}{prime} precipitation and void evolution in the matrix are observed, while above about 550 C damage appears to be restricted to cavity formation within oxide particles. The thermal expansion of the alloy is very similar to that of HT9 up to the temperature where HT9 undergoes a phase transition to austenitic. Pulse magnetic welding of end caps onto MA957 tubing can be accomplished in a manner similar to that in which it is performed on HT9, although the welding parameters appear to be very sensitive to variations in the tubing that result from small changes in fabrication conditions. The tensile and stress rupture behavior of the alloy are acceptable in the unirradiated condition, being comparable to HT9 below about 700 C and exceeding those of HT9

  13. Development of Stacked Core Technology for the Fabrication of Deep Lightweight UV Quality Space Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary; Kirk, Charlie; Maffett, Steve; Abplanalp, Cal; Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. Under Science and Technology funding, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ITT Exelis have developed a more cost effective process to make up to 4m monolithic spaceflight UV quality, low areal density, thermally and dynamically stable primary mirrors. A proof of concept mirror was completed at ITT Exelis and tested down to 250K at MSFC which would allow imaging out to 2.5 microns. The parameters and test results of this concept mirror will be shown. The scale-up process will be discussed and the technology development path to a 4m mirror system by 2018 will also be outlined.

  14. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1997-02-01

    On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA.

  15. Are we There Yet? ... Developing In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) Technologies to Explore and Live on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassler, Julie A.; Bodiford, Melanie P.; Fiske, Michael R.; Strong, Janet D.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and great risk for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Engineers and Scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center are evaluating current technologies for in situ exploration habitat and fabrication and repair applications. Several technologies to be addressed in this paper have technology readiness levels (TRLs) that are currently mature enough to pursue for exploration purposes. However, many technologies offer promising applications but these must be pulled along by the demands and applications of this great initiative. The In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) program will supply and push state of the art technologies for applications such as habitat structure development, in situ resource utilization for tool and part fabrication, and repair and replacement of common life support elements. This paper will look at the current and future habitat technology applications such as the implementation of in situ environmental elements such as caves, rilles and lavatubes, the development of lunar regolith concrete and structure design and development, thin film and inflatable technologies. We will address current rapid prototyping technologies, their ISFR applications and near term advancements. We will discuss the anticipated need to utilize in situ resources to produce replacement parts and fabricate repairs to vehicles, habitats, life support and quality of life elements. All ISFR technology developments will incorporate automated deployment and robotic construction and fabrication techniques. The current state of the art for these applications is fascinating, but the future is out of this world.

  16. Development and transfer of fuel fabrication and utilization technology for research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.; Domagala, R.F.; Matos, J.E.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 300 research reactors supplied with US-enriched uranium are currently in operation in about 40 countries, with a variety of types, sizes, experiment capabilities and applications. Despite the usefulness and popularity of research reactors, relatively few innovations in their core design have been made in the last fifteen years. The main reason can be better understood by reviewing briefly the history of research reactor fuel technology and enrichment levels. Stringent requirements on the enrichment of the uranium to be used in research reactors were considered and a program was launched to assist research reactors in continuing their operation with the new requirements and with minimum penalties. The goal of the new program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is to develop the technical means to utilize LEU instead of HEU in research reactors without significant penalties in experiment performance, operating costs, reactor modifications, and safety characteristics. This paper reviews briefly the RERTR Program activities with special emphasis on the technology transfer aspects of interest to this conference.

  17. Technology Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomory, Ralph E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolutionary character and complexity of technological development is discussed, focusing on the steam engine and computer as examples. Additional topics include characteristics of science/technology, cultural factors in technological development, technology transfer, and problems in technological organization. (JN)

  18. Fabrication Technological Development of the Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloy MA957 for Fast Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Margaret L.; Gelles, David S.; Lobsinger, Ralph J.; Johnson, Gerald D.; Brown, W. F.; Paxton, Michael M.; Puigh, Raymond J.; Eiholzer, Cheryl R.; Martinez, C.; Blotter, M. A.

    2000-02-28

    A significant amount of effort has been devoted to determining the properties and understanding the behavior of the alloy MA957 to define its potential usefulness as a cladding material in the fast breeder reactor program. The numerous characterization and fabrication studies that were conducted are documented in this report.

  19. Development and Characterization of the Bonding and Integration Technologies Needed for Fabricating Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig,Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding technology, titanium interlayers (coatings and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness, and processing time were investigated. Electron microprobe analysis was used to identify the reaction formed phases. In the diffusion bonds, an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner interlayers of pure titanium and/or longer processing times resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Nondestructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ``Capabilities Activation`` and ``Capabilities Demonstration`` to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ``Small Glass Shell Deliveries`` and ``Composite Polymer Capsules`` for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ``Onsite Support`` at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ``Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats`` and established ``Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities`` at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ``Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.`` We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process.

  1. Development of technology for the fabrication of reliable laminar flow control panels on subsonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of using porous composite materials (Kevlar, Doweave, and Leno Weave) as lightweight, efficient laminar flow control (LFC) surface materials is compared to the metallic 319L stainless Dynapore surfaces and electron beam drilled composite surfaces. Areas investigated include: (1) selection of the LFC-suitable surface materials, structural materials, and fabrication techniques for the LFC aircraft skins; (2) aerodynamic static air flow test results in terms of pressure drop through the LFC panel and the corresponding effective porosity; (3) structural design definition and analyses of the panels, and (4) contamination effects on static drop and effective porosity. Conclusions are presented and discussed.

  2. Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

  3. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiNunzio, Camillo A.; Gupta, Abhinav; Golay, Michael; Luk, Vincent; Turk, Rich; Morrow, Charles; Jin, Geum-Taek

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  4. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  5. Development of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steels and fabrication technologies for Indian test blanket module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Baldev; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-10-01

    For the development of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel (RAFMS), for the Indian Test Blanket Module for ITER, a 3-phase programme has been adopted. The first phase consists of melting and detailed characterization of a laboratory scale heat conforming to Eurofer 97 composition, to demonstrate the capability of the Indian industry for producing fusion grade steel. In the second phase which is currently in progress, the chemical composition will be optimized with respect to tungsten and tantalum for better combination of mechanical properties. Characterization of the optimized commercial scale India-specific RAFM steel will be carried out in the third phase. The first phase of the programme has been successfully completed and the tensile, impact and creep properties are comparable with Eurofer 97. Laser and electron beam welding parameters have been optimized and welding consumables were developed for Narrow Gap - Gas Tungsten Arc welding and for laser-hybrid welding.

  6. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  7. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers: fabrication technology.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Arif Sanli; Huang, Yongli; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Oralkan, Omer; Yaralioglu, Goksen G; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2005-12-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) technology is a prime candidate for next generation imaging systems. Medical and underwater imaging and the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) societies have expressed growing interest in cMUTs over the years. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer technology is expected to make a strong impact on imaging technologies, especially volumetric imaging, and to appear in commercial products in the near future. This paper focuses on fabrication technologies for cMUTs and reviews and compares variations in the production processes. We have developed two main approaches to the fabrication of cMUTs: the sacrificial release process and the recently introduced wafer-bonding method. This paper gives a thorough review of the sacrificial release processes, and it describes the new wafer-bonding method in detail. Process variations are compared qualitatively and quantitatively whenever possible. Through these comparisons, it was concluded that wafer-bonded cMUT technology was superior in terms of process control, yield, and uniformity. Because the number of steps and consequent process time were reduced (from six-mask process to four-mask process), turn-around time was improved significantly. PMID:16463490

  8. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  9. Technology development.

    PubMed

    Gomory, R E

    1983-05-01

    In technology development significant advances are as often the result of a series of evolutionary steps as they are of breakthroughs. This is illustrated by the examples of the steam engine and the computer. Breakthroughs, such as the transistor, are relatively rare, and are often the result of the introduction of new knowledge coming from a quite different area. Technology development is often difficult to predict because of its complexity; practical considerations may far outweigh apparent scientific advantages, and cultural factors enter in at many levels. In a large technological organization problems exist in bringing scientific knowledge to bear on development, but much can be done to obviate these difficulties. PMID:17749515

  10. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  11. Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stafsudd, O. M.

    1980-01-01

    Device fabrication and photoconductive lifetime decay measurements were used to characterize single and polycrystalline silicon substracts. The device characterization of the processed materials was done by spectral response measurements and absolute quantum efficiency at a single wavelength. The results were then reduced to yield the diffusion length of the various samples. The photoconductive lifetime decay method was implemented in order to determine the minority carrier lifetime in unprocessed wafers.

  12. The Development of Stacked Core Technology for the Fabrication of Deep Lightweight UV-quality Space Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kirk, Charles S.; Maffett, Steven P.; Abplanalp, Calvin E.; Stahl, H. Philip; Effinger, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. Under Science and Technology funding, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Exelis have developed a more cost effective process to make up to 4m monolithic spaceflight UV quality, low areal density, thermally and dynamically stable primary mirrors. A proof of concept mirror was completed at Exelis and tested down to 250K at MSFC which would allow imaging out to 2.5 microns. The parameters and test results of this concept mirror will be shown. The scale-up process will be discussed and the technology development path to a 4m mirror system by 2018 will also be outlined.

  13. System of Labs Direct Fabrication Technology

    SciTech Connect

    DIMOS,DUANE B.; OLIVER,MICHAEL S.; SCHLIENGER,M. ERIC

    1999-11-01

    The System of Labs Direct Fabrication Technology program was intended to foster cooperation and development in a cooperative effort between Sandia National Labs, Idaho National Energy and Environment Lab and Oak Ridge National Lab. The goal of this program was to bring together LENS (Laser Engineered Net Shaping) from Sandia, INEEL's spray forming process and the alloy development expertise of ORNL. This program investigated the feasibility of combining the LENS and spray forming processes to exploit the best features of both approaches. Further, since both processes were thought to result in a rapidly solidified structure, the alloy design expertise of ORNL offered the opportunity for alloy design or processing options which could more fully utilize the unique capabilities of the processes.

  14. Innovative forming and fabrication technologies : new opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.

    2008-01-31

    The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest

  15. Smart fabric sensors and e-textile technologies: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano, Lina M.; Flatau, Alison B.

    2014-05-01

    This paper provides a review of recent developments in the rapidly changing and advancing field of smart fabric sensor and electronic textile technologies. It summarizes the basic principles and approaches employed when building fabric sensors as well as the most commonly used materials and techniques used in electronic textiles. This paper shows that sensing functionality can be created by intrinsic and extrinsic modifications to textile substrates depending on the level of integration into the fabric platform. The current work demonstrates that fabric sensors can be tailored to measure force, pressure, chemicals, humidity and temperature variations. Materials, connectors, fabric circuits, interconnects, encapsulation and fabrication methods associated with fabric technologies prove to be customizable and versatile but less robust than their conventional electronics counterparts. The findings of this survey suggest that a complete smart fabric system is possible through the integration of the different types of textile based functional elements. This work intends to be a starting point for standardization of smart fabric sensing techniques and e-textile fabrication methods.

  16. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  17. Automated Fabrication Technologies for High Performance Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart , M. J.; Johnston, N. J.; Dexter, H. B.; Marchello, J. M.; Grenoble, R. W.

    1998-01-01

    New fabrication technologies are being exploited for building high graphite-fiber-reinforced composite structure. Stitched fiber preforms and resin film infusion have been successfully demonstrated for large, composite wing structures. Other automatic processes being developed include automated placement of tacky, drapable epoxy towpreg, automated heated head placement of consolidated ribbon/tape, and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. These methods have the potential to yield low cost high performance structures by fabricating composite structures to net shape out-of-autoclave.

  18. JPL antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Plans for evaluating, designing, fabricating, transporting and deploying cost effective and STS compatible offset wrap rib antennas up to 300 meters in diameter for mobile communications, Earth resources observation, and for the orbiting VLBI are reviewed. The JPL surface measurement system, intended for large mesh deployable antenna applications will be demonstrated and validated as part of the antenna ground based demonstration program. Results of the offset wrap rib deployable antenna technology development will include: (1) high confidence structural designs for antennas up to 100 meters in diameter; (2) high confidence estimates of functional performance and fabrication cost for a wide range of antenna sizes (up to 300 meters in diameter); (3) risk assessment for fabricating the large size antennas; and (4) 55 meter diameter flight quality hardware that can be cost effectively completed toto accommodate a flight experiment and/or application.

  19. PARTICULATE CONTROL HIGHLIGHTS: RESEARCH ON FABRIC FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report highlights significant developments in fabric filtration technology. It reviews results of several field and laboratory studies performed over the last 10 years, by or under the sponsorship of the EPA, so that the reader may be better able to assess filtration equipmen...

  20. New technologies for fabricating biological microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Bradley James

    This dissertation contains the description of two technologies that we have developed to reduce the cost and improve the quality of spotted biological microarrays. The first is a device, called a fluid microplotter, that uses ultrasonics to deposit spots with diameters of less than 5 microns. It consists of a dispenser, composed of a micropipette fastened to a piece of PZT piezoelectric, attached to a precision positioning system. A gentle pumping of fluid to the surface occurs when the micropipette is driven at specific frequencies. Spots or continuous lines can be deposited in this manner. The small fluid features conserve expensive and limited-quantity biological reagents. We characterize the performance of the microplotter in depositing fluid and examine the theoretical underpinnings of its operation. We present an analytical expression for the diameter of a deposited spot as a function of droplet volume and wettability of a surface and compare it with experimental results. We also examine the resonant properties of the piezoelectric element used to drive the dispenser and relate that to the frequencies at which pumping occurs. Finally, we propose a mechanism to explain the pumping behavior within the microplotter dispenser. The second technology we present is a process that uses a cold plasma and a subsequent in vacuo vapor-phase reaction to terminate a variety of oxide surfaces with epoxide chemical groups. These epoxide groups can react with amine-containing biomolecules to form strong covalent linkages between the biomolecules and the treated surface. The use of a plasma activation step followed by an in vacuo vapor-phase reaction allows for the precise control of surface functional groups, rather than the mixture of functionalities normally produced. This process modifies a range of different oxide surfaces, is fast, consumes a minimal amount of reagents, and produces attachment densities for bound biomolecules that are comparable to or better than

  1. Advanced fabrication technologies for nano-electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.A.; Weckwerth, M.V.; Baca, W.E.

    1996-03-01

    Three novel fabrication technologies are presented which greatly increase the tools available for the realization of nano-electronic devices. First, a sub-micron area post structure descending from a metallic airbridge allows gating of regions as small as 0.1 {mu}m in diameter. This has enabled the study of such quantum phenomena as coupling of parallel quantum point contacts, and electron focusing around a tunable quantum antidot. We also describe two new techniques for backgating multiquantum well structures with submicron lateral resolution. These techniques enable separate ohmic contacts to individual quantum wells spaced as closely as 100 {Angstrom}, and thus allow the fabrication of novel quantum tunneling devices. The first technique uses regrowth over a patterned ion-implanted substrate. The second involves a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) processing scheme, whereby the original substrate is etched away and the backside then patterned using conventional methods.

  2. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-17

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors. Therefore, the overriding motivation behind the FFC R&D program described in this plan is to foster closer integration between fuel design and fabrication to reduce programmatic risk. These motivating factors are all interrelated, and progress addressing one will aid understanding of the others. The FFC R&D needs fall into two principal categories, 1) baseline process optimization, to refine the existing fabrication technologies, and 2) manufacturing process alternatives, to evaluate new fabrication technologies that could provide improvements in quality, repeatability, material utilization, or cost. The FFC R&D Plan examines efforts currently under way in regard to coupon, foil, plate, and fuel element manufacturing, and provides recommendations for a number of R&D topics that are of high priority but not currently funded (i.e., knowledge gaps). The plan ties all FFC R&D efforts into a unified vision that supports the overall Convert Program schedule in general, and the fabrication schedule leading up to the MP-1 and FSP-1 irradiation experiments specifically. The fabrication technology decision gates and down-selection logic and schedules are tied to the schedule for fabricating the MP-1 fuel plates, which will provide the necessary data to make a final fuel fabrication process down-selection. Because of the short turnaround between MP-1 and the follow-on FSP-1 and MP-2 experiments, the suite of specimen types that will be available for MP-1 will be the same as those available for FSP-1 and MP-2. Therefore, the only opportunity to explore parameter space and alternative processing

  3. Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Tongcheng

    2012-01-01

    Micro/nano-fabrication techniques, such as soft lithography and electrospinning, have been well-developed and widely applied in many research fields in the past decade. Due to the low costs and simple procedures, these techniques have become important and popular for biological studies. In this review, we focus on the studies integrating micro/nano-fabrication work to elucidate the molecular mechanism of signaling transduction in cell biology. We first describe different micro/nano-fabrication technologies, including techniques generating three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. We then introduce the application of these technologies in manipulating the physical or chemical micro/nano-environment to regulate the cellular behavior and response, such as cell life and death, differentiation, proliferation, and cell migration. Recent advancement in integrating the micro/nano-technologies and live cell imaging are also discussed. Finally, potential schemes in cell biology involving micro/nano-fabrication technologies are proposed to provide perspectives on the future research activities. PMID:20490938

  4. Light emitting fabric technologies for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Mordon, Serge; Cochrane, Cédric; Tylcz, Jean Baptiste; Betrouni, Nacim; Mortier, Laurent; Koncar, Vladan

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a promising method for treating various types of cancer. A homogeneous and reproducible illumination during clinical PDT plays a determinant role in preventing under- or over-treatment. The development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of optical fiber into flexible structures could offer an interesting alternative. This paper aims to describe different methods proposed to develop Side Emitting Optical Fibers (SEOF), and how these SEOF can be integrated in a flexible structure to improve light illumination of the skin during PDT. Four main techniques can be described: (i) light blanket integrating side-glowing optical fibers, (ii) light emitting panel composed of SEOF obtained by micro-perforations of the cladding, (iii) embroidery-based light emitting fabric, and (iv) woven-based light emitting fabric. Woven-based light emitting fabrics give the best performances: higher fluence rate, best homogeneity of light delivery, good flexibility. PMID:25481663

  5. Fabrication of Planar Gradiometers by Using Superconducting Integrated Circuit Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezawa, Masaaki; Ying, Liliang; Gorwadkar, Sucheta; Zhang, Guofeng; Wang, Hai; Kong, Xiangyan; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    We present fabrication technology for planar-type superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) comprising trilayer Nb/AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions and thin-film pick-up coils integrated on a single chip. A well-established superconducting integrated circuit technology that was originally developed for digital applications has been modified for developing SQUID fabrication processes with high reliability and controllability. Combination of two photolithography techniques, a high-resolution stepper and a large-shot-area mask aligner, has been introduced to fabricate fine-scale patterns such as 2-μm-square junctions and large-scale patterns such as 10-mm-square pick-up coils with a 2.5- or 3.0-cm baseline on the same chip. We successfully fabricated planar gradiometers and confirmed the operation with typical modulation amplitude of 50 μV, achieving gradient field resolutions as small as 3.5 fT/Hz1/2cm.

  6. Self-Cleaning Technology in Fabric: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohani Saad, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    This article gives an overview on photocatalytic self-cleaning technology on fabric resulting from titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as photocatalyst which decompose the organic stain into water and carbon dioxide (CO2) in presence of UV light source. The self-cleaning concept is useful in various application including the textiles materials which are normally used in daily life. This technology also can be developed in other application for instance medical textiles, athletic wear, and military uniform and also outdoor fabrics. Additionally, it is beneficial as it effectively conserves water and improves the appearance of the environment and in long term it will reduce energy, laundry cost and time as well.

  7. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; M.Carroll

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. This development has resulted in graphite being established as a viable structural material for HTGRs. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermomechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. This Technology Development Plan outlines the research and development (R&D) activities and associated rationale necessary to qualify nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor.

  8. Update On Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Development

    SciTech Connect

    C. R Clark; J. M. Wight; G. C. Knighton; G. A. Moore; J. F. Jue

    2005-11-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Advancements have been made in the production of U-Mo foil including full sized foils. Progress has also been made in the friction stir welding and transient liquid phase bonding fabrication processes resulting in better bonding, more stable processes and the ability to fabricate larger fuel plates.

  9. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-06-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  10. Study of orifice fabrication technologies for the liquid droplet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, David B.; Hayes, Donald J.; Bush, J. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Eleven orifice fabrication technologies potentially applicable for a liquid droplet radiator are discussed. The evaluation is focused on technologies capable of yielding 25-150 microns diameter orifices with trajectory accuracies below 5 milliradians, ultimately in arrays of up to 4000 orifices. An initial analytical screening considering factors such as trajectory accuracy, manufacturability, and hydrodynamics of orifice flow is presented. Based on this screening, four technologies were selected for experimental evaluation. A jet straightness system used to test 50-orifice arrays made by electro-discharge machining (EDM), Fotoceram, and mechanical drilling is discussed. Measurements on orifice diameter control and jet trajectory accuracy are presented and discussed. Trajectory standard deviations are in the 4.6-10.0 milliradian range. Electroforming and EDM appear to have the greatest potential for Liquid Droplet Radiator applications. The direction of a future development effort is discussed.

  11. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  12. Technology Selections for Cylindrical Compact Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Phillips

    2010-10-01

    A variety of process approaches are available and have been used historically for manufacture of cylindrical fuel compacts. The jet milling, fluid bed overcoating, and hot press compacting approach being adopted in the U.S. AGR Fuel Development Program for scale-up of the compacting process involves significant paradigm shifts from historical approaches. New methods are being pursued because of distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of process mixed waste. Recent advances in jet milling technology allow simplified dry matrix powder preparation. The matrix preparation method is well matched with patented fluid bed powder overcoating technology recently developed for the pharmaceutical industry and directly usable for high density fuel particle matrix overcoating. High density overcoating places fuel particles as close as possible to their final position in the compact and is matched with hot press compacting which fully fluidizes matrix resin to achieve die fill at low compacting pressures and without matrix end caps. Overall the revised methodology provides a simpler process that should provide very high yields, improve homogeneity, further reduce defect fractions, eliminate intermediate grading and QC steps, and allow further increases in fuel packing fractions.

  13. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Hamid; Wagiran, Rahman; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar

    2014-01-01

    Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors), polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types. PMID:24784036

  14. Fabrication of porous silicon nitride ceramics using binder jetting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinskiy, L.; Ripetsky, A.; Sitnikov, S.; Solyaev, Y.; Kahramanov, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the binder jetting technology application for the processing of the Si3N4-based ceramics. The difference of the developed technology from analogues used for additive manufacturing of silicon nitride ceramics is a method of the separate deposition of the mineral powder and binder without direct injection of suspensions/slurries. It is assumed that such approach allows reducing the technology complexity and simplifying the process of the feedstock preparation, including the simplification of the composite materials production. The binders based on methyl ester of acrylic acid with polyurethane and modified starch were studied. At this stage of the investigations, the technology of green body's fabrication is implemented using a standard HP cartridge mounted on the robotic arm. For the coordinated operation of the cartridge and robot the specially developed software was used. Obtained green bodies of silicon powder were used to produce the ceramic samples via reaction sintering. The results of study of ceramics samples microstructure and composition are presented. Sintered ceramics are characterized by fibrous α-Si3N4 structure and porosity up to 70%.

  15. Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, Roger; Helms, Richard; Bilbro, Jim; Brown, Norman; Eng, Sverre; Hinman, Steve; Hull-Allen, Greg; Jacobs, Stephen; Keim, Robert; Ulmer, Melville

    1992-01-01

    What aspects of optical fabrication technology need to be developed so as to facilitate existing planned missions, or enable new ones? Throughout the submillimeter to UV wavelengths, the common goal is to push technology to the limits to make the largest possible apertures that are diffraction limited. At any one wavelength, the accuracy of the surface must be better than lambda/30 (rms error). The wavelength range is huge, covering four orders of magnitude from 1 mm to 100 nm. At the longer wavelengths, diffraction limited surfaces can be shaped with relatively crude techniques. The challenge in their fabrication is to make as large as possible a reflector, given the weight and volume constraints of the launch vehicle. The limited cargo diameter of the shuttle has led in the past to emphasis on deployable or erectable concepts such as the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), which was studied by NASA for a submillimeter astrophysics mission. Replication techniques that can be used to produce light, low-cost reflecting panels are of great interest for this class of mission. At shorter wavelengths, in the optical and ultraviolet, optical fabrication will tax to the limit the most refined polishing methods. Methods of mechanical and thermal stabilization of the substrate will be severely stressed. In the thermal infrared, the need for large aperture is tempered by the even stronger need to control the telescope's thermal emission by cooled or cryogenic operation. Thus, the SIRTF mirror at 1 meter is not large and does not require unusually high accuracy, but the fabrication process must produce a mirror that is the right shape at a temperature of 4 K. Future large cooled mirrors will present more severe problems, especially if they must also be accurate enough to work at optical wavelengths. At the very shortest wavelengths accessible to reflecting optics, in the x-ray domain, the very low count fluxes of high energy photons place a premium on the collecting area. It is

  16. Heater Development, Fabrication, and Testing: Analysis of Fabricated Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Dickens, R. E.; Farmer, J. T.; Davis, J. D.; Adams, M. R.; Martin, J. J.; Webster, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal simulators (highly designed heater elements) developed at the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fission in a variety of reactor concepts. When inserted into the reactor geometry, the purpose of the thermal simulators is to deliver thermal power to the test article in the same fashion as if nuclear fuel were present. Considerable effort has been expended to mimic heat from fission as closely as possible. To accurately represent the fuel, the simulators should be capable of matching the overall properties of the nuclear fuel rather than simply matching the fuel temperatures. This includes matching thermal stresses in the pin, pin conductivities, total core power, and core power profile (axial and radial). This Technical Memorandum discusses the historical development of the thermal simulators used in nonnuclear testing at the EFF-TF and provides a basis for the development of the current series of thermal simulators. The status of current heater fabrication and testing is assessed, providing data and analyses for both successes and failures experienced in the heater development and testing program.

  17. Fabrication development for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, B.W.; Copeland, G.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the fuel fabrication development for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The fuel element is similar to that successfully fabricated and used in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for many years, but there are two significant differences that require some development. The fuel compound is U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} rather than U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and the fuel is graded in the axial as well as the radial direction. Both of these changes can be accomplished with a straightforward extension of the HFIR technology. The ANS also requires some improvements in inspection technology and somewhat more stringent acceptance criteria. Early indications were that the fuel fabrication and inspection technology would produce a reactor core meeting the requirements of the ANS for the low volume fraction loadings needed for the highly enriched uranium design (up to 1.7 Mg U/m{sup 3}). Near the end of the development work, higher volume fractions were fabricated that would be required for a lower- enrichment uranium core. Again, results look encouraging for loadings up to {approx}3.5 Mg U/m{sup 3}; however, much less evaluation was done for the higher loadings.

  18. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices by Applying Microsystems Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, L. M.; Alpuim, P.; Correia, J. H.

    2010-09-01

    Microsystems technologies were applied in the fabrication of thermoelectric (TE) microconverters. Common techniques used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication, namely wet etching, lift-off (with SU-8 photoresist), reactive ion etching (RIE), and lithography-electroplating-molding, were compared in the fabrication process of TE microsystems based on Bi, Sb, and Te thin-film compounds. Thin films of bismuth and antimony tellurides were deposited by co-evaporation, with figures of merit comparable to those of bulk materials. Test structures were fabricated using lithography and wet etching. The etching recipe was optimized by varying the etchant dilution and composition until higher etch rates and desired material selectivity were attained. Since the etching process is applied after deposition, this process allows prior deposition of TE materials by any deposition method; thus, films with high figure of merit can be fabricated. Moreover, wet etching does not require the use of expensive equipment.

  19. Cell membrane array fabrication and assay technology

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Victoria; Sirenko, Oksana; Schafer, Robert J; Nguyen, Luat; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brade, Lore; Groves, Jay T

    2005-01-01

    Background Microarray technology has been used extensively over the past 10 years for assessing gene expression, and has facilitated precise genetic profiling of everything from tumors to small molecule drugs. By contrast, arraying cell membranes in a manner which preserves their ability to mediate biochemical processes has been considerably more difficult. Results In this article, we describe a novel technology for generating cell membrane microarrays for performing high throughput biology. Our robotically-arrayed supported membranes are physiologically fluid, a critical property which differentiates this technology from other previous membrane systems and makes it useful for studying cellular processes on an industrialized scale. Membrane array elements consist of a solid substrate, above which resides a fluid supported lipid bilayer containing biologically-active molecules of interest. Incorporation of transmembrane proteins into the arrayed membranes enables the study of ligand/receptor binding, as well as interactions with live intact cells. The fluidity of these molecules in the planar lipid bilayer facilitates dimerization and other higher order interactions necessary for biological signaling events. In order to demonstrate the utility of our fluid membrane array technology to ligand/receptor studies, we investigated the multivalent binding of the cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) to the membrane ganglioside GM1. We have also displayed a number of bona fide drug targets, including bacterial endotoxin (also referred to as lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) and membrane proteins important in T cell activation. Conclusion We have demonstrated the applicability of our fluid cell membrane array technology to both academic research applications and industrial drug discovery. Our technology facilitates the study of ligand/receptor interactions and cell-cell signaling, providing rich qualitative and quantitative information. PMID:15960850

  20. EHD as sensor fabrication technology for robotic skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jeongsik; Lee, Woo Ho; Nothnagle, Caleb; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.

    2014-06-01

    Human-robot interaction can be made more sophisticated and intuitive if the entire body of a robot is covered with multimodal sensors embedded in artificial skin. In order to efficiently interact with humans in unstructured environments, robotic skin may require sensors such as touch, impact, and proximity. Integration of various types of sensors into robotic skin is challenging due to the topographical nature of skin. Printing is a promising technology that can be explored for sensor integration as it may allow both sensors and interconnects to be directly printed into the skin. We are developing Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) inkjet printing technology in order to co-fabricate various devices onto a single substrate. Using strong applied electrostatic forces, EHD allows the printing of microscale features from a wide array of materials with viscosities ranging from 100 to 1000cP, highly beneficial for multilateral integration. Thus far we have demonstrated EHD's capability at printing patterns of Poly(2,3-dihydrothieno-1,4-dioxin)-poly(styrenesulfonate) for pressure sensor applications, generating patterns with modified commercial photoresist for mask-less lithography, and obtaining ZnO microstructures for direct device printing. Printed geometries range from a few tens of microns to millimeters. We have used inks with viscosities ranging from 230 to 520cp and from non-conductive to 135μS/cm. These results clearly show that the EHD is a promising multi-material printing platform and would be an enabling technology that can be used to co-fabricate various devices into robotic skin.

  1. Advanced technologies for fabrication and testing of large flat mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellowhair, Julius Eldon

    Classical fabrication methods alone do not enable manufacturing of large flat mirrors that are much larger than 1 meter. This dissertation presents the development of enabling technologies for manufacturing large high performance flat mirrors and lays the foundation for manufacturing very large flat mirrors. The enabling fabrication and testing methods were developed during the manufacture of a 1.6 meter flat. The key advantage over classical methods is that our method is scalable to larger flat mirrors up to 8 m in diameter. Large tools were used during surface grinding and coarse polishing of the 1.6 m flat. During this stage, electronic levels provided efficient measurements on global surface changes in the mirror. The electronic levels measure surface inclination or slope very accurately. They measured slope changes across the mirror surface. From the slope information, we can obtain surface information. Over 2 m, the electronic levels can measure to 50 nm rms of low order aberrations that include power and astigmatism. The use of electronic levels for flatness measurements is analyzed in detail. Surface figuring was performed with smaller tools (size ranging from 15 cm to 40 cm in diameter). A radial stroker was developed and used to drive the smaller tools; the radial stroker provided variable tool stroke and rotation (up to 8 revolutions per minute). Polishing software, initially developed for stressed laps, enabled computer controlled polishing and was used to generate simulated removal profiles by optimizing tool stroke and dwell to reduce the high zones on the mirror surface. The resulting simulations from the polishing software were then applied to the real mirror. The scanning pentaprism and the 1 meter vibration insensitive Fizeau interferometer provided accurate and efficient surface testing to guide the remaining fabrication. The scanning pentaprism, another slope test, measured power to 9 nm rms over 2 meters. The Fizeau interferometer measured 1

  2. Mission critical technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, Nancy

    1991-01-01

    Mission critical technology development is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: organization/philosophy overview; fault management technology; and introduction to optical processing.

  3. Fabrication of biochip based on CD/DVD manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Xu, Bin; Li, Lihua; Yan, Mingming; Pan, Longfa

    2009-08-01

    Biochip is a kind of nano/microfluidic chip based on biology system. All advanced microfluidic are moving into small micro-meter and nano-meter scale and need a low cost and high production manufacturing method. The history and situation of biochips as well as the situation of optical storage industry, including the difficulties which producers face to, are surveyed. The advantages and disadvantages for the fabricating method of biochip based on CD/DVD production line are put forward. Once the low cost technology is developed, it will be able to speed up biotech research as well as revival of optical storage industry and make use of the unemployed optical instruments.

  4. Converted silicon carbide technology developments for optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duston, Christopher; Woestman, Ken; Vargas, Hugo; deBlonk, Brett

    2007-09-01

    Silicon carbide structures fabricated by converting near-net-shape graphite preforms via Chemical Vapor Conversion (CVC) phase reaction have long provided improved performance components for electronics processing. In recent years, this same technology has been applied to the fabrication of simple and lightweighted mirrors and is moving into optical bench applications. To support the expanded applications, Poco has further evaluated the material properties of SUPERSiC® silicon carbide, developed technologies to mount silicon carbide mirrors on benches of similar and dissimilar materials, and fabricated complex monolithic geometries using in situ conversion bonding of mating graphite components. Overviews of each of these areas will be presented.

  5. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  6. Flexible MEMS: A novel technology to fabricate flexible sensors and electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Hongen

    This dissertation presents the design and fabrication techniques used to fabricate flexible MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) devices. MEMS devices and CMOS(Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) circuits are traditionally fabricated on rigid substrates with inorganic semiconductor materials such as Silicon. However, it is highly desirable that functional elements like sensors, actuators or micro fluidic components to be fabricated on flexible substrates for a wide variety of applications. Due to the fact that flexible substrate is temperature sensitive, typically only low temperature materials, such as polymers, metals, and organic semiconductor materials, can be directly fabricated on flexible substrates. A novel technology based on XeF2(xenon difluoride) isotropic silicon etching and parylene conformal coating, which is able to monolithically incorporate high temperature materials and fluidic channels, was developed at Wayne State University. The technology was first implemented in the development of out-of-plane parylene microneedle arrays that can be individually addressed by integrated flexible micro-channels. These devices enable the delivery of chemicals with controlled temporal and spatial patterns and allow us to study neurotransmitter-based retinal prosthesis. The technology was further explored by adopting the conventional SOI-CMOS processes. High performance and high density CMOS circuits can be first fabricated on SOI wafers, and then be integrated into flexible substrates. Flexible p-channel MOSFETs (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors) were successfully integrated and tested. Integration of pressure sensors and flow sensors based on single crystal silicon has also been demonstrated. A novel smart yarn technology that enables the invisible integration of sensors and electronics into fabrics has been developed. The most significant advantage of this technology is its post-MEMS and post-CMOS compatibility. Various high

  7. Heterogeneous integration technology for hybrid optoelectronic and electronic device and module fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Michael Sungchun

    Various forms of optical computing architectures have promised enhanced processing capabilities well beyond the limits of traditional VLSI technology during the past decade. However, the progress toward realizing this vision has been severely limited by the lack of mature technology to fabricate heterogeneously integrated optoelectronic transceiver arrays (consisting of VLSI electronics with optoelectronic devices) that are necessary to link the functionality of photonic input/output devices with electronic processors. This dissertation describes a research effort that addressed this need by exploring innovative, yet highly manufacturable integration approaches that can be utilized to fabricate hybrid optoelectronic transceivers by integrating thin silicon device layers on bulk electro-optic (e.g. lead lanthanum zirconate titanate- PLZT) and other host substrates. The two integration techniques developed are: (1) B& P (Bond and Processing) technology involving bonding of bulk-quality thin silicon layer to PLZT followed by low temperature NMOS processing and (2) DDB (Direct-Device Bonding) technology, where circuit layer fabricated in SOI-silicon is thinned and bonded directly to a PLZT substrate. Characteristics of electronic circuits and modulators in integrated Si/PLZT SLMs are measured to be comparable to that of reference devices fabricated in bulk silicon and PLZT substrates. The application of the developed integration technology specifically toward fabricating Si/PLZT spatial light modulator is examined in detail. The developed device layer grafting technology based on chemo-mechanical lapping and reactive ion etching processes can be applied to assemble miniature ``mixed technology'' systems consisting of devices fabricated by different manufacturing processes (e.g. CMOS, MEMS, VCSEL and GaAs processes) in a monolithic fashion. The latter half of the thesis details experimental

  8. Graphite technology development plan

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    This document presents the plan for the graphite technology development required to support the design of the 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR within the US National Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. Besides descriptions of the required technology development, cost estimates, and schedules, the plan also includes the associated design functions and design requirements.

  9. Internal fabric development in complex lava domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Závada, Prokop; Kratinová, Zuzana; Kusbach, Vladimír; Schulmann, Karel

    2009-03-01

    Viscous lava extrusions were modeled using plaster of Paris with admixed magnetite dust which served as a tracer of the internal anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility fabric in model lava domes. Used analogue material showed pseudoplastic behavior and yield strength level proportional to increasing mixing ratio of plaster powder and water. A series of models ranging from simple gravity flows to complex lava domes showing combined endogenous and exogenous growth were created by intrusion of plaster into a sandbox. The similarity of model bodies is compared with natural lava domes on the basis of dynamic scaling analysis. Growth dynamics, exogenous growth and internal fabric development in natural lava domes is critically discussed using the experimental results.

  10. 275/sup 0/C thick-film hybrid microcircuitry fabrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bonn, P.A.; Palmer, D.W.

    1980-07-01

    High-temperature electronics is needed for geothermal well-logging tools, jet engine monitors, nuclear reactor instruments, and fossil fuel exploration and production systems. The step-by-step fabrication technology of thick-film hybrids useful for at least 1000 hours at 275/sup 0/C is described. Hybrid technology, qualified to standard military specifications, was modified both in materials and fabrication processes to achieve this high-temperature operation. In addition to documenting this Sandia-developed technology, various alternate approaches are described to increase the versatility and applicability of these methods.

  11. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  12. In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) Technologies; New Challenges for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassler, Julie A.; Bodiford, Melanie P.; Hammond, Monica S.; King, Ron; Mclemore, Carole A.; Hall, Nancy R.; Fiske, Michael R.; Ray, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and great risk for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Engineers and Scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are continuing to evaluate current technologies for in situ resource-based exploration fabrication and repair applications. Several technologies to be addressed in this paper have technology readiness levels (TRLs) that are currently mature enough to pursue for exploration purposes. However, while many technologies offer promising applications, these technologies must be pulled along by the demands and applications of this great initiative. The In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) Element will supply and push state of the art technologies for applications such as habitat structure development, in situ resource utilization for tool and part fabrication, and repair and non-destructive evaluation W E ) of common life support elements. As an overview of the ISFR Element, this paper will address rapid prototyping technologies, their applications, challenges, and near term advancements. This paper will also discuss the anticipated need to utilize in situ resources to produce replacement parts and fabricate repairs to vehicles, habitats, life support and quality of life elements. Overcoming the challenges of ISFR development will provide the Exploration initiative with state of the art technologies that reduce risk, and enhance supportability.

  13. NASA Balloon Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program s technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, balloon-craft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

  14. NASA balloon technology developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, D. A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program has been, and will continue to be, committed to improving the capabilities of balloons to support science missions. Fundamental to vehicle improvement is a program of technology development that will enable improved flight performance throughout the next decade. The program's technology thrust areas include: materials, vehicle design & development, structural analysis, operations & support systems, performance modeling and planetary balloons. Building on the foundations of the 18-year research and development program, a technology roadmap has been generated which identifies specific areas of interest to NASA and the vision of future developments. The major components of the roadmap are: vehicle systems, ballooncraft systems, operational and safety support systems, and planetary vehicles. Current technology activities include nanocomposite balloon films, a new balloon designed to lift 3600 kgs to 36 km, a balloon rotation rate study and Mars pumpkin balloon investigations. The technology roadmap, as well as specific projects and recent advancements, will be presented.

  15. NIF Optical Materials and Fabrication Technologies: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J H; Hawley-Fedder, R; Stolz, C J; Menapace, J A; Borden, M R; Whitman, P; Yu, J; Runkel, M; Riley, M; Feit, M; Hackel, R

    2004-02-23

    The high-energy/high-power section of the NIF laser system contains 7360 meter-scale optics. Advanced optical materials and fabrication technologies needed to manufacture the NIF optics have been developed and put into production at key vendor sites. Production rates are up to 20 times faster and per-optic costs 5 times lower than could be achieved prior to the NIF. In addition, the optics manufactured for NIF are better than specification giving laser performance better than the design. A suite of custom metrology tools have been designed, built and installed at the vendor sites to verify compliance with NIF optical specifications. A brief description of the NIF optical wavefront specifications for the glass and crystal optics is presented. The wavefront specifications span a continuous range of spatial scale-lengths from 10 {micro}m to 0.5 m (full aperture). We have continued our multi-year research effort to improve the lifetime (i.e. damage resistance) of bulk optical materials, finished optical surfaces and multi-layer dielectric coatings. New methods for post-processing the completed optic to improve the damage resistance have been developed and made operational. This includes laser conditioning of coatings, glass surfaces and bulk KDP and DKDP and well as raster and full aperture defect mapping systems. Research on damage mechanisms continues to drive the development of even better optical materials.

  16. Flexible subterahertz metamaterial absorber fabrication using inkjet printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongju; Sung, Hyuk-Kee; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a flexible metamaterial (MM) absorber was designed at 0.1 THz and fabricated using inkjet printing technology. The unit cell of the MM absorber was designed using a finite element method-based full-wave simulation. The unit cell comprised square rings, and it was printed with silver nanoparticle ink on flexible Kapton polyimide film. The fabrication processes were performed using a material printer. The absorber's reflection coefficient was measured using a vector network analyzer and a WR-10 waveguide. The absorption ratio was 93.5 % at 0.102 THz. Therefore, we demonstrated the possibility of inkjet printing at a subterahertz band.

  17. Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modem pressurized water reactors.

  18. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks

  19. JPL antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Systems-level technology for evolving cost-effective, STS compatible antennas that will be automatically deployed in orbit to perform a variety of missions in the 1985 to 2000 time period is discussed. For large space-based antenna systems, the LSST program has selected deployable antennas for development. The maturity of this class of antenna, demonstrated by the success of smaller size apertures, provides a potential capability for satisfying a significant number of near-term, space-based applications. The offset wrap-rib concept development is the basis of the JPL LSST antenna technology development program. Supporting technology to the antenna concept development include analytical performance prediction, the capability for measuring and evaluating mechanical antenna performance in the intended service environment, and the development of candidate system-level configurations for potential applications utilizing the offset wrap-rib antenna concept.

  20. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/LARC 160 polyimide structural elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, R. K.; Jones, J. S.; Dynes, P. J.; Wykes, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of manufacturing technologies for the structural application of Celion graphite/LARC-160 polyimide composite material is discussed. Process development and fabrication of demonstration components are discussed. Process development included establishing quality assurance of the basic composite material and processing, nondestructive inspection of fabricated components, developing processes for specific structural forms, and qualification of processes through mechanical testing. Demonstration components were fabricated. The demonstration components consisted of flat laminates, skin/stringer panels, honeycomb panels, chopped fiber compression moldings, and a technology demonstrator segment (TDS) representative of the space shuttle aft body flap.

  1. Mobile Router Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  2. Composite Group Technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehoff, Kevin

    A comprehensive classification methodology for graphite composite assemblies was developed at Boeing Helicopters. This classification scheme was used to create a Group Technology (GT) database containing part features and attributes which capture both product and process definition. GT data is available to both Engineering and Operations personnel for retrieval and analysis. This paper will address the applications of group technology at Boeing Helicopters. In particular, the role of GT in Aircraft Design Build (concurrent engineering) processes will be highlighted. Examples of design standardization efforts for composite airframe structural parts will be discussed. In addition, the group technology foundation for cellular manufacturing and a methodology for planning future composite manufacturing facilities will be presented.

  3. An Overview of Current and Past W-UO[2] CERMET Fuel Fabrication Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas E. Burkes; Daniel M. Wachs; James E. Werner; Steven D. Howe

    2007-06-01

    Studies dating back to the late 1940s performed by a number of different organizations and laboratories have established the major advantages of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems, particularly for manned missions. A number of NTP projects have been initiated since this time; none have had any sustained fuel development work that appreciably contributed to fuel fabrication or performance data from this era. As interest in these missions returns and previous space nuclear power researchers begin to retire, fuel fabrication technologies must be revisited, so that established technologies can be transferred to young researchers seamlessly and updated, more advanced processes can be employed to develop successful NTP fuels. CERMET fuels, specifically W-UO2, are of particular interest to the next generation NTP plans since these fuels have shown significant advantages over other fuel types, such as relatively high burnup, no significant failures under severe transient conditions, capability of accommodating a large fission product inventory during irradiation and compatibility with flowing hot hydrogen. Examples of previous fabrication routes involved with CERMET fuels include hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and press and sinter, whereas newer technologies, such as spark plasma sintering, combustion synthesis and microsphere fabrication might be well suited to produce high quality, effective fuel elements. These advanced technologies may address common issues with CERMET fuels, such as grain growth, ductile to brittle transition temperature and UO2 stoichiometry, more effectively than the commonly accepted ‘traditional’ fabrication routes. Bonding of fuel elements, especially if the fabrication process demands production of smaller element segments, must be investigated. Advanced brazing techniques and compounds are now available that could produce a higher quality bond segment with increased ease in joining. This paper will briefly address the history of

  4. Fabrication and characteristic analysis of a poly(propylene fumarate) scaffold using micro-stereolithography technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lan, Phung Xuan; Kim, Byung; Lim, Geunbae; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2008-10-01

    Scaffold fabrication for regenerating functional human tissues has an important role in tissue engineering, and there has been much progress in research on scaffold fabrication. However, current methods are limited by the mechanical properties of existing biodegradable materials and the irregular structures that they produce. Recently, several promising biodegradable materials have been introduced, including poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). The development of micro-stereolithography allows the fabrication of free-form 3D microstructures as designed. Since this technology requires a low-viscosity resin to fabricate fine structures, we reduced the viscosity of PPF by adding diethyl fumarate. Using our system, the curing characteristics and material properties of the resin were analyzed experimentally. Then, we fabricated waffle shape and 3D scaffolds containing several hundred regular micro pores. This method controlled the pore size, porosity, interconnectivity, and pore distribution. The results show that micro-stereolithography has big advantages over conventional fabrication methods. In addition, the ultimate strength and elastic modulus of the fabricated scaffolds were measured, and cell adhesion to the fabricated scaffold was observed by growing seeded cells on it. These results showed that the PPF/DEF scaffold is a potential bone scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:18335437

  5. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  6. Solid Freeform Fabrication: An Enabling Technology for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.; Dicus, Dennis L.

    2002-01-01

    The emerging class of direct manufacturing processes known as Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) employs a focused energy beam and metal feedstock to build structural parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data. Some variations on existing SFF techniques have potential for application in space for a variety of different missions. This paper will focus on three different applications ranging from near to far term to demonstrate the widespread potential of this technology for space-based applications. One application is the on-orbit construction of large space structures, on the order of tens of meters to a kilometer in size. Such structures are too large to launch intact even in a deployable design; their extreme size necessitates assembly or erection of such structures in space. A low-earth orbiting satellite with a SFF system employing a high-energy beam for high deposition rates could be employed to construct large space structures using feedstock launched from Earth. A second potential application is a small, multifunctional system that could be used by astronauts on long-duration human exploration missions to manufacture spare parts. Supportability of human exploration missions is essential, and a SFF system would provide flexibility in the ability to repair or fabricate any part that may be damaged or broken during the mission. The system envisioned would also have machining and welding capabilities to increase its utility on a mission where mass and volume are extremely limited. A third example of an SFF application in space is a miniaturized automated system for structural health monitoring and repair. If damage is detected using a low power beam scan, the beam power can be increased to perform repairs within the spacecraft or satellite structure without the requirement of human interaction or commands. Due to low gravity environment for all of these applications, wire feedstock is preferred to powder from a containment, handling, and safety

  7. Stirling technology development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochat, George R.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power converters have the potential to meet the many future space power requirements for a wide variety of applications with less mass, better efficiency, and less total area (collector and radiator) than other power converter options. These benefits result in significant dollar savings over the projected mission lifetime. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)—Lewis Research Center (LeRC), which has the responsibility to evaluate and develop power technologies that can satisfy anticipated future space mission power requirements, has been developing free-piston Stirling power converters and is bringing the Stirling technology to readiness. As the principal contractor to NASA-LeRC, Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) is under contract to develop the necessary space Stirling technology but also demonstrate the readiness of the technology in two generations of full-scale power converters. The first generation Stirling power converter, the component test power converter (CTPC), initiated cold end testing at the end of 1991, with hot testing scheduled during 1992. This paper reviews test progress of the CTPC including the initial hot engine test results. Modifications incorporated into the CTPC from the earlier space power demonstrator engine are reviewed as well.

  8. Stirling technology development status

    SciTech Connect

    Dochat, G.R. ); Dudenhoefer, J.E. )

    1993-01-15

    Free-piston Stirling power converters have the potential to meet the many future space power requirements for a wide variety of applications with less mass, better efficiency, and less total area (collector and radiator) than other power converter options. These benefits result in significant dollar savings over the projected mission lifetime. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)---Lewis Research Center (LeRC), which has the responsibility to evaluate and develop power technologies that can satisfy anticipated future space mission power requirements, has been developing free-piston Stirling power converters and is bringing the Stirling technology to readiness. As the principal contractor to NASA-LeRC, Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) is under contract to develop the necessary space Stirling technology but also demonstrate the readiness of the technology in two generations of full-scale power converters. The first generation Stirling power converter, the component test power converter (CTPC), initiated cold end testing at the end of 1991, with hot testing scheduled during 1992. This paper reviews test progress of the CTPC including the initial hot engine test results. Modifications incorporated into the CTPC from the earlier space power demonstrator engine are reviewed as well.

  9. Design, analysis, and fabrication of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.; Meade, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous design concepts, materials, and manufacturing methods were investigated analytically and empirically for the covers and spars of a transport wing box. This information was applied to the design, analysis, and fabrication of a full-scale section of a transport wing box. A blade-stiffened design was selected for the upper and lower covers of the box. These covers have been constructed using three styles of AS4/974 prepreg fabrics. The front and rear T-stiffened channel spars were filament wound using AS4/1806 towpreg. Covers, ribs, and spars were assembled using mechanical fasteners. When they are completed later this year, the tests on the technology integration box beam will demonstrate the structural integrity of an advanced composite wing design which is 25 percent lighter than the metal baseline.

  10. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  11. Solid Free-form Fabrication Technology and Its Application to Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Jong Young; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2010-01-01

    The development of scaffolds for use in cell-based therapies to repair damaged bone tissue has become a critical component in the field of bone tissue engineering. However, design of scaffolds using conventional fabrication techniques has limited further advancement, due to a lack of the required precision and reproducibility. To overcome these constraints, bone tissue engineers have focused on solid free-form fabrication (SFF) techniques to generate porous, fully interconnected scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. This paper reviews the potential application of SFF fabrication technologies for bone tissue engineering with respect to scaffold fabrication. In the near future, bone scaffolds made using SFF apparatus should become effective therapies for bone defects. PMID:24855546

  12. A Magnetically Suspended Wheel for a Miniature Gyro Made Using Planar Fabrication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauwalter, Charles R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical feasibility of a magnetically suspended rotating wheel for miniature gyro applications was investigated under a NASA SBIR contract. A concept for a configuration for a system of compact, lightweight magnetic actuators capable of generating the necessary suspension forces and fabrication using millimachining planar fabrication technologies was developed. Both capacitive and electromagnetic position sensing concepts were developed for implementing a closed loop control system for supporting the wheel. A finite difference technique, implemented in a spreadsheet environment, for analyzing the force characteristics of the actuator was used and the results verified with Finite Element Analysis.

  13. ABC Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-14

    The Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) facility will be designed to accomplish the following mission: `Provide a weapon`s grade plutonium disposition capability in a safe, economical, and environmentally sound manner on a prudent schedule for [50] tons of weapon`s grade plutonium to be disposed on in [20] years.` This mission is supported by four major objectives: provide a reliable plutonium disposition capability within the next [15] years; provide a level of safety and of safety assurance that meets or exceeds that afforded to the public by modern commercial nuclear power plants; meet or exceed all applicable federal, state, and local regulations or standards for environmental compliance; manage the program in a cost effective manner. The ABC Technology Development Program defines the technology development activities that are required to accomplish this mission. The technology development tasks are related to the following topics: blanket system; vessel systems; reactivity control systems; heat transport system components; energy conversion systems; shutdown heat transport systems components; auxiliary systems; technology demonstrations - large scale experiments.

  14. Textile technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Bharat M.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate and select resin systems for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Powder Towpreg Material, to develop and evaluate advanced textile processes by comparing 2-D and 3-D braiding for fuselage frame applications and develop window belt and side panel structural design concepts, to evaluate textile material properties, and to develop low cost manufacturing and tooling processes for the automated manufacturing of fuselage primary structures. This research was in support of the NASA and Langley Research Center (LaRc) Advanced Composite Structural Concepts and Materials Technologies for Primary Aircraft Structures program.

  15. Development, principles, and applications of automated ice fabric analyzers.

    PubMed

    Wilen, L A; Diprinzio, C L; Alley, R B; Azuma, N

    2003-09-01

    We review the recent development of automated techniques to determine the fabric and texture of polycrystalline ice. The motivation for the study of ice fabric is first outlined. After a brief introduction to the relevant optical concepts, the classic manual technique for fabric measurement is described, along with early attempts at partial automation. Then, the general principles behind fully automated techniques are discussed. We describe in some detail the similarities and differences of the three modern instruments recently developed for ice fabric studies. Next, we discuss briefly X-ray, radar, and acoustic techniques for ice fabric characterization. We also discuss the principles behind automated optical techniques to measure fabric in quartz rock samples. Finally, examples of new applications that have been facilitated by the development of the ice fabric instruments are presented. PMID:12938114

  16. ECH Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard

    2014-12-24

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is needed for plasma heating, current drive, plasma stability control, and other applications in fusion energy sciences research. The program of fusion energy sciences supported by U. S. DOE, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences relies on the development of ECH technology to meet the needs of several plasma devices working at the frontier of fusion energy sciences research. The largest operating ECH system in the world is at DIII-D, consisting of six 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotrons capable of ten second pulsed operation, plus two newer gyrotrons. The ECH Technology Development research program investigated the options for upgrading the DIII-D 110 GHz ECH system. Options included extending present-day 1 MW technology to 1.3 – 1.5 MW power levels or developing an entirely new approach to achieve up to 2 MW of power per gyrotron. The research consisted of theoretical research and designs conducted by Communication and Power Industries of Palo Alto, CA working with MIT. Results of the study would be validated in a later phase by research on short pulse length gyrotrons at MIT and long pulse / cw gyrotrons in industry. This research follows a highly successful program of development that has led to the highly reliable, six megawatt ECH system at the DIII-D tokamak. Eventually, gyrotrons at the 1.5 megawatt to multi-megawatt power level will be needed for heating and current drive in large scale plasmas including ITER and DEMO.

  17. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; R. Bratton

    2007-09-01

    This technology development plan is designed to provide a clear understanding of the research and development direction necessary for the qualification of nuclear grade graphite for use within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor. The NGNP will be a helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Considerable effort will be required to ensure that the graphite performance is not compromised during operation. Based upon the perceived requirements the major data needs are outlined and justified from the perspective of reactor design, reatcor performance, or the reactor safety case. The path forward for technology development can then be easily determined for each data need. How the data will be obtained and the inter-relationships between the experimental and modeling activities will define the technology development for graphite R&D. Finally, the variables affecting this R&D program are discussed from a general perspective. Factors that can significantly affect the R&D program such as funding, schedules, available resources, multiple reactor designs, and graphite acquisition are analyzed.

  18. Technology Development Center at NICT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Ujihara, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) is developing and testing VLBI technologies and conducts observations with this new equipment. This report gives an overview of the Technology Development Center (TDC) at NICT and summarizes recent activities.

  19. The biomaterialist’s task: scaffold biomaterials and fabrication technologies

    PubMed Central

    GERVASO, FRANCESCA; SANNINO, ALESSANDRO; PERETTI, GIUSEPPE M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on tissue engineering (TE) from the biomaterialist’s point of view. With the aim of answering some simple but key questions about TE, the related literature is here reviewed. In order to obtain an engineered tissue the following steps are mandatory: (a) cell selection, (b) identification of the ideal three-dimensional scaffold for cell seeding and proliferation, (c) choice of the most suitable type of cell culture. Whereas the biotechnologist working in the TE field is responsible for optimizing the cell seeding and culture, the biomaterialist has the challenging task of optimizing the three-dimensional cell support, or scaffold. Therefore, in the present paper, scaffold properties, biomaterials and fabrication technologies are analyzed in depth and reviewed on the basis of the current literature. Finally, mention is also made of the most recently emerging and innovative technologies relating to scaffolds for TE applications. PMID:25606523

  20. Measuring DNA through a Nanopore Fabricated Using Plasma Processing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossnagel, S. M.

    2009-10-01

    We have been developing a device based on a 2-3 nm diameter pore between two electrolyte volumes for the transit of DNA by means of a potential gradient. The nanopore is configured with 3 electrodes, each about 3 nm thick with 2-3nm dielectric spacers. The nanopore electrodes can be used to trap DNA in-transit, and ideally measure the impedance and hence the identity of each nucleotide as it passes through the nanopore, allowing real time sequencing of the DNA. The goal is to operate at megahertz, allowing sequencing of the entire genome within a few hours a fairly modest cost. This project has lead to numerous new developments in nanoscale fabrication, particularly for nanofluidics. The nanopore devices are fabricated using a number of critical plasma processing steps, both deposition and etch, in our 200mm pilot facility.

  1. A U. S. Perspective on Fast Reactor Fuel Fabrication Technology and Experience Part I: Metal Fuels and Assembly Design

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas E. Burkes; Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Porter; Douglas C. Crawford; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-06-01

    This paper is Part I of a review focusing on the United States experience with metallic fast reactor fuel fabrication and assembly design for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II and the Fast Flux Test Facility, and it also refers to the impact of development in other nations. Experience with metal fuel fabrication in the United States is extensive, including over 60 years of research conducted by the government, national laboratories, industry, and academia. This experience has culminated into a foundation of research and resulted in significant improvements to the technologies employed to fabricate metallic fast reactor fuel. This part of the review documents the current state of fuel fabrication technologies for metallic fuels, some of the challenges faced by previous researchers, and how these were overcome. Knowledge gained from reviewing previous investigations will aid both researchers and policy makers in forming future decisions relating to nuclear fuel fabrication technologies.

  2. Fabrication of multijunction high voltage concentrator solar cells by integrated circuit technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valco, G. J.; Kapoor, V. J.; Evans, J. C., Jr.; Chai, A.-T.

    1981-01-01

    Standard integrated circuit technology has been developed for the design and fabrication of planar multijunction (PMJ) solar cell chips. Each 1 cm x 1 cm solar chip consisted of six n(+)/p, back contacted, internally series interconnected unit cells. These high open circuit voltage solar cells were fabricated on 2 ohm-cm, p-type 75 microns thick, silicon substrates. A five photomask level process employing contact photolithography was used to pattern for boron diffusions, phorphorus diffusions, and contact metallization. Fabricated devices demonstrated an open circuit voltage of 3.6 volts and a short circuit current of 90 mA at 80 AMl suns. An equivalent circuit model of the planar multi-junction solar cell was developed.

  3. Technology and fabrication of plutonium-238 radionuclide heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikh, Y. A.; Aldoshin, A. I.; Danilkin, E. A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper outlines a brief technical description of the facility for production of plutonium-238 and fabrication of Radionuclide Heat Sources (RHS) containing Pu-238. Technical capabilities of the RHS fabrication facility are presented. The results of development of the RHS design for sea application are discussed. RHS fuel pellet comprises the tantalum shell with an annular slot intended for release of radiogenic helium and the Pu-238 dioxide core with reinforcing elements inside which contact with the shell. RHS is a double encapsulation consisting of the inner ``power'' capsule and the outer corrosion-resistant capsule. The chromium-nickel-molybdenum XH65MB alloy which is equivalent to Hastelloy-C alloy has been selected as a material for both capsules. Upon expiration of working life, RHS design is capable of withstanding the internal pressure of radiogenic helium at 1073 K within 30 minutes and the external hydrostatic pressure of 100 MPa at normal temperature.

  4. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  5. Emerging Sealing Technologies Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Under this Cooperative Agreement, the objective was to investigate several emerging sealing technologies of interest to the Mechanical Components Branch of National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (NASA GRC). The majority of the work conducted was to support the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for application to aeronautic auxiliary power units, though technical investigations of interest to other groups and projects were also conducted. In general, accomplishments and results were periodically reported to the NASA Technical Monitor, the NASA GRC Seal Team staff, and NASA GRC project management. Several technical reports, journal articles, and presentations were given internally to NASA GRC and to the external public.

  6. SEDSAT-1 Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, Mark W.; Wells, B. Earl

    1996-01-01

    The Students for the Exploration and Development of Space Satellite (SEDSAT-1) is an ambitious project to design, build, and fly a generally-accessible low-cost satellite which will 1) act as a technology demonstration to verify the suitability of novel optical, battery, microprocessor, and memory hardware for space flight environments, (2) to advance the understanding of tether dynamics and environmental science through the development of advanced imaging experiments, (3) to act as a communication link for radio amateurs, and (4) to provide graduate and undergraduate students with a unique multi-disciplinary experience in designing complex real-world hardware/software. This report highlights the progress made on this project during the time period from January 2, 1996 to June 1, 1996 at the end of which time the SEASIS 0.7 version software was completed and integrated on the SEASIS breadboard, a functional prototype of the Panoramic Annual Lenses (PAL) camera was developed, the preferred image compression technique was selected, the layout of the SEASIS board was begun, porting of the SCOS operating system to the command data system (CDS) board was begun, a new design for a tether release mechanism was developed, safety circuitry to inhibit tether cutting was developed and prototyped, material was prepared to support a comprehensive safety review of the project which was held at Johnson Space Center (JSC) (which was personally attended by one of the Principal Investigators), and prototype ground software was developed.

  7. Update on US High Density Fuel Fabrication Development

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Clark; G.A. Moore; J.F. Jue; B.H. Park; N.P. Hallinan; D.M. Wachs; D.E. Burkes

    2007-03-01

    Second generation uranium molybdenum fuel has shown excellent in-reactor irradiation performance. This metallic fuel type is capable of being fabricated at much higher loadings than any presently used research reactor fuel. Due to the broad range of fuel types this alloy system encompasses—fuel powder to monolithic foil and binary fuel systems to multiple element additions—significant amounts of research and development have been conducted on the fabrication of these fuels. This paper presents an update of the US RERTR effort to develop fabrication techniques and the fabrication methods used for the RERTR-9A miniplate test.

  8. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT ON THE DUPIC SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    H. KIM; H. CHA; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    A safeguards system has been developed since 1993 in the course of supporting a fuel cycle process to fabricate CANDU fuel with spent PWR fuel (known as Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In CANDU, DUPIC). The major safeguards technology involved here was to design and fabricate a neutron coincidence counting system for process accountability, and also an unattended continuous monitoring system in association with independent verification by the IAEA. This combined technology was to produce information of nuclear material content and to maintain knowledge of the continuity of nuclear material flow. In addition to hardware development, diagnosis software is being developed to assist data acquisition, data review, and data evaluation based on a neural network system on the IAEA C/S system.

  9. Analysis and correction of defects within parts fabricated using powder bed fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Morton, Philip A.; Hinojos, Alejandro; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2015-09-01

    Quality assurance is an important topic for additive manufacturing (AM) and often seen as a requirement for the transition and adoption of the technology toward fabrication of end use applications. As AM technologies are used for production, it is necessary to ensure high quality, repeatable, and reproducible components are manufactured. Various nondestructive examination techniques have been used to evaluate AM-fabricated parts to determine part quality post-fabrication (e.g. scanning and/or microstructural characterization). In situ monitoring methods have been developed for AM technologies to enable defect detection and have potential to be used for in situ monitoring and correction of fabrication anomalies (e.g. undesired temperature gradients and porosity). In this research, defects (e.g. pores) were seeded into parts fabricated using the powder bed fusion AM process, electron beam melting, and monitored using in situ infrared (IR) thermography. Results from layerwise thermography were compared with results obtained using computer tomography (CT) scanning techniques. Although the measured geometry of the seeded defects between IR thermography and CT was substantially different (area difference of ∼60%), the thermographs did provide a good indication of defects present within a fabricated part. Furthermore, defect correction methods were evaluated including post-processing methods such as hot isostatic pressing as well as in situ correction methods such as layer re-melting. Re-melting a porous layer successfully corrected defects and demonstrates a potential method for in situ defect correction if implemented in future systems equipped with automatic feedback control of powder bed fusion processes.

  10. Fabricating binary optics: An overview of binary optics process technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Margaret B.

    1993-01-01

    A review of binary optics processing technology is presented. Pattern replication techniques have been optimized to generate high-quality efficient microoptics in visible and infrared materials. High resolution optical photolithography and precision alignment is used to fabricate maximally efficient fused silica diffractive microlenses at lambda = 633 nm. The degradation in optical efficiency of four-phase-level fused silica microlenses resulting from an intentional 0.35 micron translational error has been systematically measured as a function of lens speed (F/2 - F/60). Novel processes necessary for high sag refractive IR microoptics arrays, including deep anisotropic Si-etching, planarization of deep topography and multilayer resist techniques, are described. Initial results are presented for monolithic integration of photonic and microoptic systems.

  11. Multifunctional universal SPM nanoprobe fabrication with laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Golubok, A. O.; Levichev, V. V.; Zuong, Z.; Yakovlev, E. B.

    2009-05-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a high spatial resolution method of surface topography visualization and measurement of its local properties. The detecting of interaction arising between the sharp solid-state probe and the sample surface is the foundation of SPM. In dependence from nature of this interaction the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning force microscopy (SFM), scanning near field optical microscopy (SNOM), etc. are distinguished. The spatial resolution of all types of probe microscopy determines both sharpness of increasing of interaction between a probe and a sample at their approach, and shape and size of a top of a solid-state probe. So, the progress in SPM information capabilities is highly depends on probe properties and first of all on properly fabricated aperture size. Fabrication procedures are rather complicated because of nanometric scale size of aperture and hard requirements to reproducibility and need to be improved. The way how to do it by laser-assisted drawing-out is involving of feed-back in a processing procedure-results in two types of feedback for the process of drawing-out has been suggested, tested and installed into the technological set-up. Different probes have been fabricated by above mentioned laser-assisted stretching during this work: SNOM types from optical fibers, micropipettes from quartz glass capillaries, micropipettes with microwires inside and with metallic covers outside. Some examples of application of above mentioned combined probes for cell membrane technology are described. Most important from them are topographical studying of cells and bacteria in living condition (in liquid) and studying of the mechanical properties of cell (rigidity of cell membrane) using the nanopipette as a tip of a force sensor. Except for that using the model sample the measurement of ion current that runs through nanopipette which also carries out a role of a tip of a force sensor have been done. Thus it is shown, that using

  12. IDC Infrasound technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialle, P.; Brown, D. J.; Le Bras, R.; Charbit, M. J. C.; Given, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The first atmospheric event built only from infrasound arrivals was reported in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2003. In the last decade, 48 infrasound stations from the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are transmitting data to the IDC. The infrasound component of the IMS daily registers infragenic signals originating from various sources such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, microbaroms, meteorites entering the atmosphere and accidental explosions. The IDC routinely and automatically processes infrasound data reviewed by interactive analysis; the detected and located events are then included in the IDC products. The IDC advances its methods and continuously improves its automatic system for the infrasound technology. The IDC focuses on enhancing the automatic system for the identification of valid signals and the optimization of the network detection threshold by identifying ways to refine signal characterization methodology and association criteria. An objective of this study is to reduce the number of associated infrasound arrivals that are rejected from the automatic bulletins when generating the reviewed event bulletins. A number of ongoing projects at the IDC will be presented, such as: - improving the detection accuracy at the station processing stage by enhancing the infrasound signal detector DFX-PMCC (Detection and Feature eXtraction - Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation) and by evaluating the performances of detection software. - separating infrasound data from other waveform technologies at the automatic network processing stage for technology development and for preparing the implementation of next generation of waveform association algorithm. Infrasound rules in Global Association (GA) are revisited to pursue a lower ratio of false alarms. - determining station noise for IMS infrasound, seismic and

  13. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  14. Aerocapture Technology Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Michelle M.; Moon, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will explain the investment strategy, the role of detailed systems analysis, and the hardware and modeling developments that have resulted from the past 5 years of work under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program (ISPT) Aerocapture investment area. The organizations that have been funded by ISPT over that time period received awards from a 2002 NASA Research Announcement. They are: Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Applied Research Associates, Inc., Ball Aerospace, NASA s Ames Research Center, and NASA s Langley Research Center. Their accomplishments include improved understanding of entry aerothermal environments, particularly at Titan, demonstration of aerocapture guidance algorithm robustness at multiple bodies, manufacture and test of a 2-meter Carbon-Carbon "hot structure," development and test of evolutionary, high-temperature structural systems with efficient ablative materials, and development of aerothermal sensors that will fly on the Mars Science Laboratory in 2009. Due in large part to this sustained ISPT support for Aerocapture, the technology is ready to be validated in flight.

  15. Development of High Temperature Gas Sensor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of engine emissions is important for their monitoring and control. However, the ability to measure these emissions in-situ is limited. We are developing a family of high temperature gas sensors which are intended to operate in harsh environments such as those in an engine. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) The development of SiC-based semiconductor technology; and (2) Improvements in micromachining and microfabrication technology. These technologies are being used to develop point-contact sensors to measure gases which are important in emission control especially hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this point-contact sensor technology. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. Of particular importance is sensor sensitivity, selectivity, and stability in long-term, high temperature operation. An overview is presented of each sensor type with an evaluation of its stage of development. It is concluded that this technology has significant potential for use in engine applications but further development is necessary.

  16. Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

  17. Noncontact Microembossing Technology for Fabricating Thermoplastic Optical Polymer Microlens Array Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xuefeng; Ge, Xiaohong; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Thermoplastic optical polymers have replaced traditional optical glass for many applications, due to their superior optical performance, mechanical characteristics, low cost, and efficient production process. This paper investigates noncontact microembossing technology used for producing microlens arrays made out of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate), PS (polyStyrene), and PC (polycarbonate) from a quartz mold, with microhole arrays. An array of planoconvex microlenses are formed because of surface tension caused by applying pressure to the edge of a hole at a certain glass transition temperature. We studied the principle of noncontact microembossing techniques using finite element analysis, in addition to the thermal and mechanical properties of the three polymers. Then, the independently developed hot-embossing equipment was used to fabricate microlens arrays on PMMA, PS, and PC sheets. This is a promising technique for fabricating diverse thermoplastic optical polymer microlens array sheets, with a simple technological process and low production costs. PMID:25162063

  18. Noncontact microembossing technology for fabricating thermoplastic optical polymer microlens array sheets.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xuefeng; Xie, Dan; Ge, Xiaohong; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Thermoplastic optical polymers have replaced traditional optical glass for many applications, due to their superior optical performance, mechanical characteristics, low cost, and efficient production process. This paper investigates noncontact microembossing technology used for producing microlens arrays made out of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate), PS (polyStyrene), and PC (polycarbonate) from a quartz mold, with microhole arrays. An array of planoconvex microlenses are formed because of surface tension caused by applying pressure to the edge of a hole at a certain glass transition temperature. We studied the principle of noncontact microembossing techniques using finite element analysis, in addition to the thermal and mechanical properties of the three polymers. Then, the independently developed hot-embossing equipment was used to fabricate microlens arrays on PMMA, PS, and PC sheets. This is a promising technique for fabricating diverse thermoplastic optical polymer microlens array sheets, with a simple technological process and low production costs. PMID:25162063

  19. RETRACTED: Auricular prosthesis fabrication using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mayank

    2016-06-01

    At the request of the editorMayank Shah 'Auricular prosthesis fabrication using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies' Prosthetics and Orthotics International, published online before print on October 8, 2013 as doi:10.1177/0309364613504779has been retracted. This is because it contains unattributed overlap withK. Subburaj, C. Nair, S. Rajesh, S. M. Meshram, B. Ravi 'Rapid development of auricular prosthesis using CAD and rapid prototyping technologies' International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery 2007; 36: 938-943 doi:10.1016/j.ijom.2007.07.013. PMID:24104058

  20. Development of metal-forming machine for fabricating micromechanical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Isamu; Takahsashi, Toshinori

    1996-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a die-forming machine for fabricating 3D microcomponents. Today, most micromachines or devices are fabricated by chemical etching of silicon. From a practical point of view, fabrication using metals as the raw materials should be studied. In this study, die-forming of medical forceps, as an example of a typical medical microtool, was investigated. The forceps currently used are fabricated by a combination of precision machining and hand finishing, thus requiring a considerably long period of time and high costs. We have developed a fabrication technique for metal medical components based on mould-forming. Use of this method results in excellent productivity but there are restriction on the shape of fabricated components. In order to overcome this problem, a micropress system that exclusively fits the fabrication of 3D microcomponents was designed and developed. This is based on the turret punch press, and material processing operations such as rotation of the material and other functions are incorporated. Also, round wire is used as the raw material. The results of practical forming experiments confirmed that the developed micropress reliable for fabricating microcomponents.

  1. Development of an indirect solid freeform fabrication process based on microstereolithography for 3D porous scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2009-01-01

    Scaffold fabrication using solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technology is a hot topic in tissue engineering. Here, we present a new indirect SFF technology based on microstereolithography (MSTL), which has the highest resolution of all SFF methods, to construct a three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold by combining SFF with molding technology. To realize this indirect method, we investigated and modified a water-soluble photopolymer. We used MSTL technology to fabricate a high-resolution 3D porous mold composed of the modified polymer. The mold can be removed using an appropriate solvent. We tested two materials, polycaprolactone and calcium sulfate hemihydrate, using the molding process, and developed a lost-mold shape forming process by dissolving the mold. This procedure demonstrated that the proposed method can yield scaffold pore sizes as small as 60-70 µm. In addition, cytotoxicity test results indicated that the proposed process is feasible for producing 3D porous scaffolds.

  2. Optical connecting devices fabricated by self-written waveguide technology for smart optical interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Tadayuki; Soeda, Yukinobu; Mikami, Osamu

    2014-03-01

    Recently the importance of optical interconnect is increasing particularly in board-to-board interconnection. The success of smart optical interconnects for practical use strongly depends on the development of sophisticated coupling technologies achieving both high coupling efficiency and easy alignment. One promising technology for solving these problems is self-written waveguide (SWW) method which uses light-curable resin. This method is flexible and may allow substantial advances in the practical application of optical interconnect technology. We fabricated a micro 90° light-path converter on the top of MT connector. Four channel SWWs are fabricated by irradiating a blue laser beam (406nm wavelength) from a multi-mode fiber in light-curable resin. The SWWs are covered by cladding resin. This converter is useful for connecting between fibers and an optical wiring board. We have further developed this fiber- SWW technology into a new technology we call the "Mask-Transfer SWW method". The Mask-Transfer SWW technology involves contact exposure of UV-curable resin through a photomask. Alignment of the photomask pattern with the target can be precisely accomplished by employing a conventional mask-aligner. We proposed a new Vgrooving method by applying the Mask-Transfer SWW method. V-grooves are a well-known technique for aligning optical fibers for coupling. Unlike the conventional methods and material, this new method has an advantage that Vgrooves can be easily fabricated precisely on various kinds of substrates as designed. Therefore, optical coupling between fibers and devices is achieved simply and efficiently. We believe that these devices will be a key for smart optical interconnects in near future.

  3. NASA Development of Aerocapture Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Bonnie; Munk, Michelle; Moon, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Aeroassist technology development is a vital part of the NASA ln-Space Propulsion Program (ISP), which is managed by the NASA Headquarters Office of Space Science, and implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Aeroassist is the general term given to various techniques to maneuver a space vehicle within an atmosphere, using aerodynamic forces in lieu of propulsive fuel. Within the ISP, the current aeroassist technology development focus is aerocapture. The objective of the ISP Aerocapture Technology Project (ATP) is to develop technologies that can enable and/or benefit NASA science missions by significantly reducing cost, mass, and/or travel times. To accomplish this objective, the ATP identifies and prioritizes the most promising technologies using systems analysis, technology advancement and peer review, coupled with NASA Headquarters Office of Space Science target requirements. Plans are focused on developing mid-Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technologies to TRL 6 (ready for technology demonstration in space).

  4. NASA Development of Aerocapture Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Bonnie; Munk, Michelle; Moon, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Aeroassist technology development is a vital part of the NASA In-Space Propulsion Program (ISP), which is managed by the NASA Headquarters Office of Space Science, and implemented by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Aeroassist is the general term given to various techniques to maneuver a space vehicle within an atmosphere, using aerodynamic forces in lieu of propulsive fuel. Within the ISP, the current aeroassist technology development focus is aerocapture. The objective of the ISP Aerocapture Technology Project (ATP) is to develop technologies that can enable and/or benefit NASA science missions by significantly reducing cost, mass, and/or travel times. To accomplish this objective, the ATP identifies and prioritizes the most promising technologies using systems analysis, technology advancement and peer review, coupled with NASA Headquarters Office of Space Science target requirements. Plans are focused on developing mid-Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technologies to TRL 6 (ready for technology demonstration in space).

  5. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  6. Planetary rover technology development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedard, Roger J., Jr.; Muirhead, Brian K.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.; Hirschbein, Murray S.

    1989-01-01

    Planetary surface (including lunar) mobility and sampling capability is required to support proposed future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solar system exploration missions. The NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) is addressing some of these technology needs in its base research and development program, the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and a new technology initiative entitled Pathfinder. The Pathfinder Planetary Rover (PPR) and Sample Acquisition, Analysis and Preservation (SAAP) programs will develop and validate the technologies needed to enable both robotic and piloted rovers on various planetary surfaces. The technology requirements for a planetary roving vehicle and the development plans of the PPR and SAAP programs are discussed.

  7. Haystack Observatory Technology Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, Chris; Corey, Brian; Niell, Arthur; Cappallo, Roger; Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Technology development at MIT Haystack Observatory were focused on four areas in 2012: VGOS developments at GGAO; Digital backend developments and workshop; RFI compatibility at VLBI stations; Mark 6 VLBI data system development.

  8. Technology Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinica, Aleksandar, Ed.; Calafate, Carlos, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The widespread deployment and use of Information Technologies (IT) has paved the way for change in many fields of our societies. The Internet, mobile computing, social networks and many other advances in human communications have become essential to promote and boost education, technology and industry. On the education side, the new challenges…

  9. Mars Technology Program Planetary Protection Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the NASA Planetary Protection program are to preserve biological and organic conditions of solar-system bodies for future scientific exploration and to protect the Earth from potential hazardous extraterrestrial contamination. As the exploration of solar system continues, NASA remains committed to the implementation of planetary protection policy and regulations. To fulfill this commitment, the Mars Technology Program (MTP) has invested in a portfolio of tasks for developing necessary technologies to meet planetary protection requirements for the next decade missions.

  10. New hybrid technology for planar fluxgate sensor fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Dezuari, O.; Belloy, E.; Gilbert, S.E.; Gijs, M.A.M. . Inst. of Microsystems)

    1999-07-01

    The authors have adapted a new printed circuit board (PCB) technology to the fabrication of ultraflat and sensitive fluxgate magnetic field sensors. The two outer layers of the PCB stack compose the electrical windings of fluxgates, while the inner layer is made of a micro-patterned amorphous magnetic ribbon with extremely high relative magnetic permeability ([mu][sub r] [approx] 100,000). Two basic configurations were considered: one based on a toroidal magnetic core and the other on a rectangular core with and without an air gap. The field response and sensitivity of the fluxgate devices have been studied as a function of the gap length, the excitation current, and excitation frequency. Compared to fluxgate sensors of similar size, a relatively high sensitivity of 60 V/T was found at 30 kHz for a five-winding detection coil would around a rectangular E-shaped magnetic core. This high performance is primarily attributable to the high-permeability magnetic core. The results clearly show the potential of this fluxgate device for application as a magnetic sensor.

  11. Using Powder Cored Tubular Wire Technology to Enhance Electron Beam Freeform Fabricated Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Devon; Liu, Stephen; Domack, Marcia; Hafley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) is an additive manufacturing technique, developed at NASA Langley Research Center, capable of fabricating large scale aerospace parts. Advantages of using EBF3 as opposed to conventional manufacturing methods include, decreased design-to-product time, decreased wasted material, and the ability to adapt controls to produce geometrically complex parts with properties comparable to wrought products. However, to fully exploit the potential of the EBF3 process development of materials tailored for the process is required. Powder cored tubular wire (PCTW) technology was used to modify Ti-6Al-4V and Al 6061 feedstock to enhance alloy content, refine grain size, and create a metal matrix composite in the as-solidified structures, respectively.

  12. Organic Binder Developments for Solid Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Mobasher, Amir A.

    2003-01-01

    A number of rapid prototyping techniques are under development at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Rapid Prototyping Laboratory. Commercial binder developments in creating solid models for rapid prototyping include: 1) Fused Deposition Modeling; 2) Three Dimensional Printing; 3) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). This document describes these techniques developed by the private sector, as well as SLS undertaken by MSFC.

  13. MEMS product engineering using fabrication process development tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, K.; Schmidt, T.; Ortloff, D.; Popp, J.; Wagener, A.; Brück, R.

    2008-12-01

    The development of MEMS devices differs substantially from product engineering methods used in more traditional industries. The approach is characterized by a close customer involvement and product specific fabrication processes. A large number interdependencies between device design on the one hand and manufacturing process development on the other hand make product engineering in the MEMS area a rather tedious and complicated task. In this paper we discuss a comprehensive customer-oriented MEMS product engineering methodology. Both MEMS design and fabrication process development are analyzed with regard to procedures and interfaces used in order to develop an appropriate CAD support either in terms of existing tools or by specifying individual tools to be implemented. The manufacturing process development is part of this holistic approach and is supported by a CAD environment for the management and the design of thin-film MEMS fabrication processes. This environment has been developed by the authors and became recently commercially available.

  14. Development and fabrication of an advanced liquid cooling garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    A tube/fin concept liquid cooling garment head cooler was developed, fabricated and delivered to NASA-ARC. The head cooler was fabricated from polyurethane film which sandwiches the transport fluid tubing and a thermally conductive fin material. The head cooler garment is sewn to form a skull cap and covered with a comfort liner. In addition, two Neonate heating garments were fabricated and supplied to NASA for further finishing and use in medical tests. The resulting garment is flexible, elastic and conforms to the head comfortably. Tests on a tube/fin element of identical construction as the head cooler demonstrated good thermal effectiveness. Use of commercially available materials and development of relatively simple fabrication techniques give the potential for a low garment cost.

  15. Developments in Enzyme Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Enzyme technology has a well-established industrial base, with applications that have survived competition. The most prominent applications of enzymes in biotechnology are examined with an explanation of some theoretical background. Topics include extending an enzyme's useful life, partition and diffusion, industrial uses, and therapeutic uses.…

  16. A Fully Integrated Humidity Sensor System-on-Chip Fabricated by Micro-Stamping Technology

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Che-Wei; Huang, Yu-Jie; Lu, Shey-Shi; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated humidity sensor chip was designed, implemented, and tested. Utilizing the micro-stamping technology, the pseudo-3D sensor system-on-chip (SSoC) architecture can be implemented by stacking sensing materials directly on the top of a CMOS-fabricated chip. The fabricated sensor system-on-chip (2.28 mm × 2.48 mm) integrated a humidity sensor, an interface circuit, a digital controller, and an On-Off Keying (OOK) wireless transceiver. With low power consumption, i.e., 750 μW without RF operation, the sensitivity of developed sensor chip was experimentally verified in the relative humidity (RH) range from 32% to 60%. The response time of the chip was also experimentally verified to be within 5 seconds from RH 36% to RH 64%. As a consequence, the implemented humidity SSoC paves the way toward the an ultra-small sensor system for various applications.

  17. Robotics Technology Development Program. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) is a ``needs-driven`` effort. A lengthy series of presentations and discussions at DOE sites considered critical to DOE`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Programs resulted in a clear understanding of needed robotics applications toward resolving definitive problems at the sites. A detailed analysis of the Tank Waste Retrieval (TWR), Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA), Mixed Waste Operations (MWO), and Decontamination & Dismantlement (D&D). The RTDP Group realized that much of the technology development was common (Cross Cutting-CC) to each of these robotics application areas, for example, computer control and sensor interface protocols. Further, the OTD approach to the Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) process urged an additional organizational break-out between short-term (1--3 years) and long-term (3--5 years) efforts (Advanced Technology-AT). The RDTP is thus organized around these application areas -- TWR, CAA, MWO, D&D and CC&AT -- with the first four developing short-term applied robotics. An RTDP Five-Year Plan was developed for organizing the Program to meet the needs in these application areas.

  18. New Space Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Visitors from Moon Express, a privately funded commercial space company, will be visiting KSC Swamp Works. This presentation includes a high-level introduction to NASA and commercial partnerships, as well as brief background on the moon - what we used to think about it hundreds of years ago, and what we know today with advanced technologies.***This third part being added includes Swamp Works technical capabilities and has a high-level overview of a selection of projects.***

  19. Recent developments of gigatron technology

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, P.M.; Elliott, S.M.; Gray, H.; Lee, B.; Pang, Yaoqi; Popovic, M. . Dept. of Physics; Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC; Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    Gigatron is a new design concept for microwave power devices. A gated field-emitter array is employed as a directly modulated cathode. A ribbon beam configuration is used to mitigate space-charge effects and provide for efficient output coupling. A traveling-wave output coupler is used to obtain optimum coupling to a wide beam. Recent cathode tests are reported. Modeling of the bunched-emission process has led to an improved cathode fabrication procedure. A new application of a similar structure has led to a design for a new technology for precision tracking chambers for SSC detectors.

  20. Science and Technology for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlinguet, Louis

    1981-01-01

    Presents the viewpoint that science and technology are an integral part of international development and that governments in the developed countries should invest money in science and technology in the Third World for the mutual benefit of all. (Author/CS)

  1. Constellation-X mirror technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. W.; Bolognese, J.; Byron, G.; Chang, K. W.; Content, D. A.; Hadjimichael, T. J.; He, Charles; Hill, M. D.; Hong, M.; Lehan, J. P.; Lozipone, L.; Mazzarella, J. M.; McClelland, R.; Nguyen, D. T.; Olsen, L.; Petre, R.; Robinson, D.; Rohrbach, S. O.; Russell, R.; Saha, T. T.; Sharpe, M.; Gubarev, M. V.; Jones, W. D.; O'Dell, S. L.; Davis, W.; Caldwell, D. R.; Freeman, M.; Podgorski, W.; Reid, P. B.

    2008-07-01

    As NASA's next major space X-ray observatory, the Constellation-X mission (Bookbinder et al. 2008) requires mirror assemblies with unprecedented characteristics that cannot be provided by existing optical technologies. In the past several years, the project has supported a vigorous mirror technology development program. This program includes the fabrication of lightweight mirror segments by slumping commercially available thin glass sheets, the support and mounting of these thin mirror segments for accurate metrology, the mounting and attachment of these mirror segments for the purpose of X-ray tests, and development of methods for aligning and integrating these mirror segments into mirror assemblies. This paper describes our efforts and developments in these areas.

  2. JWST Mirror Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Since the initial Design Studies leading to JWST, Mirror Technology was identified as a (if not the) critical capability necessary to enable the next generation of large aperture space telescopes required to achieve the science goals of imaging the earliest galaxies and proto-galaxies after the big bang. Specific telescope architectures were explored via three independent design concept studies conducted during the summer of 1996. Achieving the desired science objectives required a never before demonstrated space telescope capability, one with an 8 meter class primary mirror that is diffraction limited at 2 micrometers and operating in deep space at temperatures well below 70K. Beryllium was identified in the NASA "Yardstick" design as the preferred material because of its ability to provide stable optical performance in the anticipated thermal environment as well as its excellent specific stiffness. Because of launch vehicle constraints, two very significant architectural constraints were placed upon the telescope: segmentation and areal density. Each of these directly resulted in specific technology capability requirements. First, because the maximum launch vehicle payload fairing diameter is approximately 4.5 meters, the only way to launch an 8 meter class mirror is to segment it, fold it and deploy it on orbit - resulting in actuation and control requirements. Second, because of launch vehicle mass limits, the primary mirror allocation was only 1000 kg - resulting in a maximum areal density specification of 20 kilograms per square meter.

  3. Recent Developments in Microsystems Fabricated by the Liga-Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, J.; Bade, K.; El-Kholi, A.; Hein, H.; Mohr, J.

    1995-01-01

    As an example of microsystems fabricated by the LIGA-technique (x-ray lithography, electroplating and molding), three systems are described and characterized: a triaxial acceleration sensor system, a micro-optical switch, and a microsystem for the analysis of pollutants. The fabrication technologies are reviewed with respect to the key components of the three systems: an acceleration sensor, and electrostatic actuator, and a spectrometer made by the LIGA-technique. Aa micro-pump and micro-valve made by using micromachined tools for molding and optical fiber imaging are made possible by combining LIGA and anisotropic etching of silicon in a batch process. These examples show that the combination of technologies and components is the key to complex microsystems. The design of such microsystems will be facilitated is standardized interfaces are available.

  4. On the Application of Rapid Prototyping Technology for the Fabrication of Flapping Wings for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kurtis Leigh

    Micro air vehicles (MAV) are a class of small uninhabited aircraft with dimensions less than 15 cm (6 in) and mass less than 500g (1.1 lbs). The aim of this research was to develop a fast, accurate, low-cost, and repeatable fabrication process for flapping MAV wings. Through the use of the RepRap Mendel open-source fused-deposition modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping machine ("3-D printer"), various wing prototypes were designed and fabricated using a bio-inspired approach. Testing of the aerodynamic performance of both real locust wings and the 3-D printed wing prototypes was performed through axial spin testing. Bending stiffness measurements were also performed on the 3-D printed wings. Through the use of open-source rapid prototyping technology, a fast and low-cost fabrication process for flapping MAV wings has been developed, out of which further understanding of flapping wing design and fabrication has been gained.

  5. Process of magnetite fabric development during granite deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamtani, Manish A.; Piazolo, Sandra; Greiling, Reinhard O.; Kontny, Agnes; Hrouda, František

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluates the fabric defined by magnetite grains in a syntectonically deformed granite and deciphers the processes that led to magnetite fabric development. Anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence magnetization (AARM) analysis is performed in samples taken from different parts of the granite to establish that the magnetite grains define a fabric. Along with microstructural studies, the AARM data help conclude that this fabric is on account of shape preferred orientation (SPO) of the magnetite grains. The intensity of magnetite fabric (degree of anisotropy of the AARM ellipsoid) is higher in the southern parts as compared to the north, which is inferred to indicate a strain gradient. Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analyses of magnetite grains were performed to determine if there are intracrystalline deformation features that could have influenced magnetite shape and SPO, and thus AARM data. Detailed crystallographic orientation data coupled with orientation contrast imaging did not reveal any subgrains and/or significant variations in crystallographic orientations within magnetite grains. Instead, grains exhibit fractures and are in places associated with quartz pressure fringes. Hence, neither the SPO nor the variation in the magnetite fabric intensity in the granite can be attributed to intracrystalline deformation of magnetite by dislocation creep. It is concluded that the magnetite grains were rheologically rigid and there was relative movement between the magnetite and the matrix minerals (quartz, feldspar and biotite). These matrix minerals actually define the fabric attractor and the magnetite grains passively rotated to align with it. Thus it is demonstrated that the magnetite fabric in the granite stems from rigid body movement rather than dislocation creep.

  6. Development and fabrication of structural components for a scramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchmann, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    A program broadly directed toward design and development of long-life (100 hours and 1,000 cycles with a goal of 1,000 hours and 10,000 cycles) hydrogen-cooled structures for application to scramjets is presented. Previous phases of the program resulted in an overall engine design and analytical and experimental characterization of selected candidate materials and concepts. The latter efforts indicated that the basic life goals for the program can be reached with available means. The main objective of this effort was an integrated, experimental evaluation of the results of the previous program phases. The fuel injection strut was selected for this purpose, including fabrication development and fabrication of a full-scale strut. Testing of the completed strut was to be performed in a NASA-Langley wind tunnel. In addition, conceptual designs were formulated for a heat transfer test unit and a flat panel structural test unit. Tooling and fabrication procedures required to fabricate the strut were developed, and fabrication and delivery to NASA of all strut components, including major subassemblies, were completed.

  7. A US perspective on fast reactor fuel fabrication technology and experience. Part II: Ceramic fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Makenas, Bruce J.

    2009-08-01

    This paper is Part II of a review focusing on the United States experience with oxide, carbide, and nitride fast reactor fuel fabrication. Over 60 years of research in fuel fabrication by government, national laboratories, industry, and academia has culminated in a foundation of research and resulted in significant improvements to the technologies employed to fabricate these fuel types. This part of the review documents the current state of fuel fabrication technologies in the United States for each of these fuel types, some of the challenges faced by previous researchers, and how these were overcome. Knowledge gained from reviewing previous investigations will aid both researchers and policy makers in forming future decisions relating to nuclear fuel fabrication technologies.

  8. GSFC Technology Development Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himwich, Ed; Gipson, John; Gonzalez, Raymond; Vandenberg, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the GSFC Technology Development Center for 2003. The report forecasts activities planned for the year 2004. The GSFC Technology Development Center (TDC) develops station software including the Field System (FS), scheduling software (SKED), hardware including tools for station timing and meteorology, scheduling algorithms, operational procedures, and provides a pool of individuals to assist with station implementation, check-out, upgrades, and training.

  9. Composite Tank Technologies Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The need for cryogenic fuel tanks continues to expand, and research at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressing these needs. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of composite tank development, including tank testing, cryogenic materials research, tank liners, and dual-walled tanks, at MSFC.

  10. Development and fabrication of improved Schottky power diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, L. F.; Garfinkel, M.; Taft, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    Reproducible methods for the fabrication of silicon Schottky diodes have been developed for tungsten, aluminum, conventional platinum silicide, and low temperature platinum silicide. Barrier heights and barrier lowering under reverse bias have been measured, permitting the accurate prediction of forward and reverse diode characteristics. Processing procedures have been developed that permit the fabrication of large area (about 1 sq cm) mesageometry power Schottky diodes with forward and reverse characteristics that approach theoretical values. A theoretical analysis of the operation of bridge rectifier circuits has been performed, which indicates the ranges of frequency and voltage for which Schottky rectifiers are preferred to p-n junctions. Power Schottky rectifiers have been fabricated and tested for voltage ratings up to 140 volts.

  11. Development and fabrication of an advanced liquid cooling garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leith, J. R.; Hixon, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The elastomeric film fin/tube concept which was developed is a composite of polyurethane film, fine expanded silver mesh, a serpentine pattern polyurethane transport tubing and an integral comfort liner, all bonded via adhesive application and vacuum-bagged for final cure. As demonstrated by thermal analysis, the composite garment material is capable of removing a 293 watt (1000 BTU/hr) metabolic load through a head and torso cooling area of .46 sq m (5 sq ft) with tube spacing of slightly under one inch. A total of 60 test elements, each .15m x .15m (6 in. x 6 in.) were fabricated in support of the liquid cooling garment concept development. In parallel with the fabrication of these elements a continuing series of laboratory tests to support the fabrication techniques was carried out. The elements and supporting tests are described.

  12. Arcjet Testing of Woven Carbon Fabric Seams for Adapative Deployable Placement Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J. O.; de Jong, M.; Prabhu, D. K.; Boghozian, T.; Kruger, C.; Cassell, A. M.

    2014-06-01

    The joining of gores of woven carbon fabric, robust to loading experienced during atmospheric entry is enabling for Advanced Deployable Entry Placement Technology. This paper demonstrates the viability stitched seams for use in ADEPT vehicles.

  13. Innovative technologies for anti-flammable cotton fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its environmentally friendly properties, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this presentation, innovative approaches for preparation of flame retardant fabrics were obtained by utilizing supercr...

  14. Insensitive control technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, C. A.; Pope, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    THe investigation of two insensitive controller synthesis techniques was reported. The finite dimensional inverse approach produces a time varying insensitive controller and/or parameter identifier by constructing inverse functions derived from a finite number of input output pair relationships. The MD/IM concept relies on the information matrix theory that was developed in the estimation and identification field. The MD/IM synthesis technique is based on the hypothesis that minimizing the information matrix will reduce system identifiability and consequently system sensitivity to uncertain parameters. The controllers designed with both techniques were evaluated on a realistic C-5A aircraft flight control problem. Results indicate that the FDI controller is more suited to trajectory type problems because of its time varying nature. The MD/IM controller performed as well as the top-rated controllers of the initial effort and has direct application to aircraft flight control problems.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND FABRICATION OF A PROTOTYPE FIBROUS AEROSOL MONITOR (FAM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a program whose objective was to develop, design, fabricate and laboratory-test two prototype instruments capable of real-time selective detection and measurement of airborne fibrous-shaped particles. The selective detection of the fibers is effected by sync...

  16. Development and fabrication of a solar cell junction processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, S.

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell junction processing system was developed and fabricated. A pulsed electron beam for the four inch wafers is being assembled and tested, wafers were successfully pulsed, and solar cells fabricated. Assembly of the transport locks is completed. The transport was operated successfully but not with sufficient reproducibility. An experiment test facility to examine potential scaleup problems associated with the proposed ion implanter design was constructed and operated. Cells were implanted and found to have efficiency identical to the normal Spire implant process.

  17. Magnetic Suspension Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin

    1998-01-01

    This Cooperative Agreement, intended to support focused research efforts in the area of magnetic suspension systems, was initiated between NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Old Dominion University (ODU) starting January 1, 1997. The original proposal called for a three-year effort, but funding for the second year proved to be unavailable, leading to termination of the agreement following a 5-month no-cost extension. This report covers work completed during the entire 17-month period of the award. This research built on work that had taken place over recent years involving both NASA LARC and the Principal Investigator (PI). The research was of a rather fundamental nature, although specific applications were kept in mind at all times, such as wind tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS), space payload pointing and vibration isolation systems, magnetic bearings for unconventional applications, magnetically levitated ground transportation and electromagnetic launch systems. Fundamental work was undertaken in areas such as the development of optimized magnetic configurations, analysis and modelling of eddy current effects, control strategies for magnetically levitated wind tunnel models and system calibration procedures. Despite the termination of this Cooperative Agreement, several aspects of the research work are currently continuing with alternative forms of support.

  18. Bioactive treatment promotes osteoblast differentiation on titanium materials fabricated by selective laser melting technology.

    PubMed

    Tsukanaka, Masako; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technology is useful for the fabrication of porous titanium implants with complex shapes and structures. The materials fabricated by SLM characteristically have a very rough surface (average surface roughness, Ra=24.58 µm). In this study, we evaluated morphologically and biochemically the specific effects of this very rough surface and the additional effects of a bioactive treatment on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Flat-rolled titanium materials (Ra=1.02 µm) were used as the controls. On the treated materials fabricated by SLM, we observed enhanced osteoblast differentiation compared with the flat-rolled materials and the untreated materials fabricated by SLM. No significant differences were observed between the flat-rolled materials and the untreated materials fabricated by SLM in their effects on osteoblast differentiation. We concluded that the very rough surface fabricated by SLM had to undergo a bioactive treatment to obtain a positive effect on osteoblast differentiation. PMID:26830832

  19. Human cartilage tissue fabrication using three-dimensional inkjet printing technology.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaofeng; Gao, Guifang; Yonezawa, Tomo; Dai, Guohao

    2014-01-01

    Bioprinting, which is based on thermal inkjet printing, is one of the most attractive enabling technologies in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. With digital control cells, scaffolds, and growth factors can be precisely deposited to the desired two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) locations rapidly. Therefore, this technology is an ideal approach to fabricate tissues mimicking their native anatomic structures. In order to engineer cartilage with native zonal organization, extracellular matrix composition (ECM), and mechanical properties, we developed a bioprinting platform using a commercial inkjet printer with simultaneous photopolymerization capable for 3D cartilage tissue engineering. Human chondrocytes suspended in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) were printed for 3D neocartilage construction via layer-by-layer assembly. The printed cells were fixed at their original deposited positions, supported by the surrounding scaffold in simultaneous photopolymerization. The mechanical properties of the printed tissue were similar to the native cartilage. Compared to conventional tissue fabrication, which requires longer UV exposure, the viability of the printed cells with simultaneous photopolymerization was significantly higher. Printed neocartilage demonstrated excellent glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II production, which was consistent with gene expression. Therefore, this platform is ideal for accurate cell distribution and arrangement for anatomic tissue engineering. PMID:24961492

  20. Human Cartilage Tissue Fabrication Using Three-dimensional Inkjet Printing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Tomo; Dai, Guohao

    2014-01-01

    Bioprinting, which is based on thermal inkjet printing, is one of the most attractive enabling technologies in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. With digital control cells, scaffolds, and growth factors can be precisely deposited to the desired two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) locations rapidly. Therefore, this technology is an ideal approach to fabricate tissues mimicking their native anatomic structures. In order to engineer cartilage with native zonal organization, extracellular matrix composition (ECM), and mechanical properties, we developed a bioprinting platform using a commercial inkjet printer with simultaneous photopolymerization capable for 3D cartilage tissue engineering. Human chondrocytes suspended in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) were printed for 3D neocartilage construction via layer-by-layer assembly. The printed cells were fixed at their original deposited positions, supported by the surrounding scaffold in simultaneous photopolymerization. The mechanical properties of the printed tissue were similar to the native cartilage. Compared to conventional tissue fabrication, which requires longer UV exposure, the viability of the printed cells with simultaneous photopolymerization was significantly higher. Printed neocartilage demonstrated excellent glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II production, which was consistent with gene expression. Therefore, this platform is ideal for accurate cell distribution and arrangement for anatomic tissue engineering. PMID:24961492

  1. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, ceramic component developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teneyck, M. O.; Macbeth, J. W.; Sweeting, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    The ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company while performing as a principal subcontractor to the Garrett Auxiliary Power Division for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project (NASA Contract DEN3-167) is summarized. The report covers the period October 1979 through July 1987, and includes information concerning ceramic technology work categorized as common and unique. The former pertains to ceramic development applicable to two parallel AGT projects established by NASA contracts DEN3-168 (AGT100) and DEN3-167 (AGT101), whereas the unique work solely pertains to Garrett directed activity under the latter contract. The AGT101 Technology Development Project is sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA-Lewis. Standard Oil directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and nondestructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This permitted engine testing to proceed without program slippage.

  2. A Proposal to Develop Interactive Classification Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBessonet, Cary

    1998-01-01

    Research for the first year was oriented towards: 1) the design of an interactive classification tool (ICT); and 2) the development of an appropriate theory of inference for use in ICT technology. The general objective was to develop a theory of classification that could accommodate a diverse array of objects, including events and their constituent objects. Throughout this report, the term "object" is to be interpreted in a broad sense to cover any kind of object, including living beings, non-living physical things, events, even ideas and concepts. The idea was to produce a theory that could serve as the uniting fabric of a base technology capable of being implemented in a variety of automated systems. The decision was made to employ two technologies under development by the principal investigator, namely, SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) and SL (Symbolic Language) [see debessonet, 1991, for detailed descriptions of SMS and SL]. The plan was to enhance and modify these technologies for use in an ICT environment. As a means of giving focus and direction to the proposed research, the investigators decided to design an interactive, classificatory tool for use in building accessible knowledge bases for selected domains. Accordingly, the proposed research was divisible into tasks that included: 1) the design of technology for classifying domain objects and for building knowledge bases from the results automatically; 2) the development of a scheme of inference capable of drawing upon previously processed classificatory schemes and knowledge bases; and 3) the design of a query/ search module for accessing the knowledge bases built by the inclusive system. The interactive tool for classifying domain objects was to be designed initially for textual corpora with a view to having the technology eventually be used in robots to build sentential knowledge bases that would be supported by inference engines specially designed for the natural or man-made environments in which the

  3. Supporting the Knowledge Continuum through Technology: From Consumption to Fabrication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blowers, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Spaces such as the Chicago and Miami YOUmedia centers are great examples of digital media labs. Focused on providing technology and services that allow teens to explore their passions in an unstructured creative process, these labs provide technology that encourages the self-expression and creation of ideas in almost any digital format, such as…

  4. Development and fabrication of an augmented power transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisler, M. J.; Hill, F. E.; Ostop, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of device design and processing techniques for the fabrication of an augmented power transistor capable of fast switching and high voltage power conversion is discussed. The major device goals sustaining voltages in the range of 800 to 1000 V at 80 A and 50 A, respectively, at a gain of 14. The transistor switching rise and fall times were both to have been less than 0.5 microseconds. The development of a passivating glass technique to shield the device high voltage junction from moisture and ionic contaminants is discussed as well as the development of an isolated package that separates the thermal and electrical interfaces. A new method was found to alloy the transistors to the molybdenum disc at a relatively low temperature. The measured electrical performance compares well with the predicted optimum design specified in the original proposed design. A 40 mm diameter transistor was fabricated with seven times the emitter area of the earlier 23 mm diameter device.

  5. JWST Mirror Technology Development Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Mirror technology is a critical enabling capability for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST requires a Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA) that can survive launch, deploy and align itself to form a 25 square meter collecting area 6.5 meter diameter primary mirror with a 131 nm rms wavefront error at temperatures less than 50K and provide stable optical performance. At the inception of JWST in 1996, such a capability did not exist. A highly successful technology development program was initiated including the Sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBMD) and Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) projects. These projects along with flight program activities have matured and demonstrated mirror technology for JWST. Directly traceable prototypes or flight hardware has been built, tested and operated in a relevant environment. This paper summarizes that technology development effort.

  6. VLBI Technology Development at SHAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xiuzhong; Shu, Fengchun; Xiang, Ying; Zhu, Renjie; Xu, Zhijun; Chen, Zhong; Zheng, Weimin; Luo, Jintao; Wu, Yajun

    2010-01-01

    VLBI technology development made significant progress at SHAO in the last few years. The development status of the Chinese DBBC, the software and FPGA-based correlators, and the new VLBI antenna, as well as VLBI applications are summarized in this paper.

  7. GSFC Technology Development Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himwich, Ed; Gipson, John

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the GSFC Technology Development Center (TDC) for 2012 and forecasts planned activities for 2013. The GSFC TDC develops station software including the Field System (FS), scheduling software (SKED), hardware including tools for station timing and meteorology, scheduling algorithms, and operational procedures. It provides a pool of individuals to assist with station implementation, check-out, upgrades, and training.

  8. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Moore; Francine J. Rice; Nicolas E. Woolstenhulme; W. David SwanK; DeLon C. Haggard; Jan-Fong Jue; Blair H. Park; Steven E. Steffler; N. Pat Hallinan; Michael D. Chapple; Douglas E. Burkes

    2008-10-01

    Within the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program directed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), UMo fuel-foils are being developed in an effort to realize high density monolithic fuel plates for use in high-flux research and test reactors. Namely, targeted are reactors that are not amenable to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel conversion via utilization of high density dispersion-based fuels, i.e. 8-9 gU/cc. LEU conversion of reactors having a need for >8-9 gU/cc fuel density will only be possible by way of monolithic fuel forms. The UMo fuel foils under development afford fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. Two primary challenges have been established with respect to UMo monolithic fuel development; namely, fuel element fabrication and in-reactor fuel element performance. Both issues are being addressed concurrently at the Idaho National Laboratory. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL); including development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fabrication processes to be discussed include: UMo alloying and casting, foil fabrication via hot rolling, fuel-clad interlayer application via co-rolling and thermal spray processes, clad bonding via Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB), and fuel plate finishing.

  9. Development and fabrication of improved power transistor switches. [fabrication and manufacturing of semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hower, P. L.; Chu, C. K.

    1976-01-01

    A new class of high-voltage power transistors has been achieved by adapting present interdigitated thyristor processing techniques to the fabrication of NPN Si transistors. Present devices are 2.3 cm in diameter. The electrical performance obtained is consistent with the predictions of an optimum design theory specifically developed for power switching transistors. The forward safe operating area of the experimental transistors shows a significant improvement over commercially available devices. The report describes device design, wafer processing, and various measurements which include dc characteristics, forward and reverse second breakdown limits, and switching times.

  10. Space technology developments in Malaysia:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabirin, A.

    The venture of space is, by nature, a costly one. However, exploring space is not just an activity reserved for international superpowers. Smaller and emerging space nations, some with burgeoning space programs of their own, can play a role in space technology development and interplanetary exploration, sometimes simply by just being there. Over the past four decades, the range of services delivered by space technologies in Malaysia has grown enormously. For many business and public services, space based technologies have become the primary means of delivery of such services. Space technology development in Malaysia started with Malaysia's first microsatellite, TiungSAT-1. TiungSAT-1 has been successfully launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on the 26th of September 2000 on a Russian-Ukrainian Dnepr rocket. There have been wide imaging applications and information extraction using data from TiungSAT-1. Various techniques have been applied to the data for different applications in environmental assessment and monitoring as well as resource management. As a step forward, Malaysia has also initiated another space technology programme, RAZAKSAT. RAZAKSAT is a 180kg class satellite designed to provide 2.5meter ground sampling distance resolution imagery on a near equatorial orbit. Its mission objective is to demonstrate the capability of a medium high resolution remote sensing camera using a cost effective small satellite platform and a multi-channel linear push-broom electro-optical instrument. Realizing the immense benefits of space technology and its significant role in promoting sustainable development, Malaysia is committed to the continuous development and advancement of space technology within the scope of peaceful use of outer space and boosting its national economic growth through space related activities.

  11. Development of restraint material and tucked fabric joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmullen, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate and select a suitable restraint material for the exterior of space suits pressurized to 4.0 PSID for normal operations, and to develop and improve tucked fabric joints for motions associated with the human shoulder, elbow, knee, waist, hip, ankle, and wrist. The many attributes of the end items are summarized to include structural integrity, simplicity, low maintenance, lightweight, high durability, low elongation, full range mobility, long life, and resistance to degradation in the operational environment.

  12. Lost Circulation Technology Development Status

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, David A.; Schafer, Diane M.; Loeppke, Glen E.; Scott, Douglas D.; Wernig, Marcus D.; Wright, Elton K.

    1992-03-24

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30-50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April, 1991-March, 1992.

  13. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights) need to be developed. This enables, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in, for example, a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, nearground obstructions, and ground targets. Furthermore, curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations needs to be developed and applied. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs.

  14. Microplasma fabrication: from semiconductor technology for 2D-chips and microfluidic channels to rapid prototyping and 3D-printing of microplasma devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatford, R.; Karanassios, Vassili

    2014-05-01

    Microplasmas are receiving attention in recent conferences and current scientific literature. In our laboratory, microplasmas-on-chips proved to be particularly attractive. The 2D- and 3D-chips we developed became hybrid because they were fitted with a quartz plate (quartz was used due to its transparency to UV). Fabrication of 2D- and 3D-chips for microplasma research is described. The fabrication methods described ranged from semiconductor fabrication technology, to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining, to 3D-printing. These methods may prove to be useful for those contemplating in entering microplasma research but have no access to expensive semiconductor fabrication equipment.

  15. Technology to Develop Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polly, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Students' use of technology allows them to generate and manipulate multiple representations of a concept, compute numbers with relative ease, and focus more on mathematical concepts and higher-order thinking skills. In elementary school mathematics classrooms, students develop higher-order thinking skills by completing complex tasks that require…

  16. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  17. Novel femtosecond laser development with applications in biomedical imaging and photonic device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalevicz, Andrew M., Jr.

    Over the past decade, improvements and refinements in the field of ultrafast optics have led to more widespread implementation of femtosecond technology. As applications become more diverse, the development of specialized sources is vital in order to meet the requirements of the experiment. This thesis explores the theory and development of innovative femtosecond lasers and their application in biomedical imaging and photonic device fabrication. The first part of this thesis focuses on mode-locking and the cavity design theory behind KLM lasers. We explain the mechanisms that enable stable, ultrashort pulses to be produced. The master equation is introduced to provide insight into the interplay between competing nonlinear effects. Based on the operation of a standard laser, we introduce a new cavity design based on the Herriott cell. The theory of multi-pass cavities (MPC) allows for a new class of femtosecond lasers to be built with space-efficient layouts and significant performance enhancements. Part II of the thesis reports on the development and application of three novel femtosecond sources. The first is an ultra-low threshold KLM laser. The laser has a mode-locking threshold of 156 mW, and produces 14 fs pulses with 200 mW of pump power. We demonstrate the utility of low-threshold technology by developing a portable, robust, and low cost source for biomedical imaging. The 124 nm bandwidth enables ultrahigh resolution imaging of the human retina. A long cavity laser is also developed. By using the theory of MPC lasers, explained in Part I, pulse energies of up to 150 nJ with 43 fs durations are reported from a 5.85 MHz laser oscillator. This laser serves as the enabling technology for photonic device fabrication in transparent materials. A variety of 2D and 3D devices are fabricated and characterized. The ability to directly write waveguides and structures inside transparent materials is a significant advance over current 2D fabrication techniques.

  18. Development and fabrication of a graphite polyimide box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, M. A.; Darms, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of graphite/polyimide structures was evaluated and key design and fabrication issues to be considered in future hardware programs are defined. The fabrication and testing at 500 F of a graphite/polyimide center wing box beam using OV-10A aircraft criteria was accomplished. The baseline design of this box was developed in a series of studies of other advanced composite materials: glass/epoxy, boron/epoxy, and boron/polyimide. The use of this basic design permits ready comparison of the performance of graphite/polyimide with these materials. Modifications to the baseline composite design were made only in those areas effected by the change of materials. Processing studies of graphite fiber polyimide resins systems resulted in the selection of a Modmor II/Gemon L material.

  19. A Low-Voltage Rotary Actuator Fabricated Using a Five-Level Polysilicon Surface Micromachining Technology

    SciTech Connect

    JAKUBCZAK II,JEROME F.; KRYGOWSKI,THOMAS W.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; RODGERS,M. STEVEN; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.

    1999-09-22

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a low-voltage rotary stepper motor are presented in this work. Using a five-level polysilicon MEMS technology, steps were taken to increase the capacitance over previous stepper motor designs to generate high torque at low voltages. A low-friction hub was developed to minimize frictional loads due to rubbing surfaces, producing an estimated resistive torque of about 6 pN-m. This design also allowed investigations into the potential benefit of using hard materials such as silicon nitride for lining of both the stationary and rotating hub components. The result is an electrostatic stepper motor capable of operation at less than six volts.

  20. Unshrouded Impeller Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Droege, Alan R.; Williams, Robert W.; Garcia, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    To increase payload and decrease the cost of future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs), engineers at NASA/MSFC and Boeing, Rocketdyne are developing unshrouded impeller technology for application to rocket turbopumps. An unshrouded two-stage high-pressure fuel pump is being developed to meet the performance objectives of a three-stage shrouded pump. The new pump will have reduced manufacturing costs and pump weight. The lower pump weight will allow for increased payload.

  1. New developments of process technologies for microfabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotter, Volker; Hanemann, Thomas; Ruprecht, Robert; Thies, Andreas; Hausselt, Juergen H.

    1997-09-01

    Economic success of microsystems technology requires cost- effective fabrication in large series as well as a great diversity of materials processing technologies. The different techniques of micro molding meet all these requirements. An important economic factor is the reduction of cycle time by process and tool optimization with simulation techniques. Actually, minimal cycle times are about two minutes in certain cases. Evolution of thermoplastics processing technologies is demonstrated by application of technical or even high- performance polymers like PEEK, PMMA or PSU. For manufacturing of metal microstructures, we develop three possibilities: microstructures like stepped LIGA gear wheels are obtained from galvanization on lost molds, which have been injection molded using conductively filled polymers. Additionally, electroless plating is used to replicate nonconducting plastic microstructures and the metal injection molding (MIM) process is under development. A quite different approach uses polymer precursors containing monomer/polymer mixtures in reaction injection molding. We chose photoinduced polymerization without any preheating step using photopolymerizable resins. Avoiding the time consuming thermal cycle, molding takes place at ambient temperature. Due to the low viscosity, the microcavities should be filled completely. The process is characterized by the integration of a powerful UV-source and a partially glass made molding tool.

  2. Fabrication technology to increase surface area of ionomer membrane material and its application towards high surface area electric double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Alberto A.; Patel, Jasbir N.; Cordoba, Cristina; Kaminska, Bozena; Kavanagh, Karen

    2014-03-01

    An application friendly technique to increase the surface area of the ionomer membrane such as Aquivion™ has been developed. By utilizing existing micro-fabrication technologies, square pillars were fabricated onto glass and silicon substrates. In combination with a low cost heat press, the glass and silicon stamps were used to successfully hot emboss micro-features onto the ionomer membrane. Consequently, the surface area of the Aquivion™ membrane was drastically increased enabling potential improvement of sensing and energy storage technologies. Preliminary results show successful fabrication of devices with systematic higher surface area and an improved capacitance.

  3. Photo sensor array technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossman, M. W.; Young, V. F.; Beall, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an improved capability photo sensor array imager for use in a Viking '75 type facsimile camera is presented. This imager consists of silicon photodiodes and lead sulfide detectors to cover a spectral range from 0.4 to 2.7 microns. An optical design specifying filter configurations and convergence angles is described. Three electronics design approaches: AC-chopped light, DC-dual detector, and DC-single detector, are investigated. Experimental and calculated results are compared whenever possible using breadboard testing and tolerance analysis techniques. Results show that any design used must be forgiving of the relative instability of lead sulfide detectors. A final design using lead sulfide detectors and associated electronics is implemented by fabrication of a hybrid prototype device. Test results of this device show a good agreement with calculated values.

  4. Mirror Technology Development for The International X-Ray Observatory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Will

    2010-01-01

    Presentation slides include: International X-ray Observatory (IXO), Lightweight and High Resolution X-ray Optics is Needed; Modular Design of Mirror Assembly, IXO Mirror Technology Development Objectives, Focus of Technology Development, Slumping - Status, Mirror Fabrication Progress, Temporary Bonding - Status, Alignment - Status, Permanent Bonding - Status, Mirror Housing Simulator (MHS) - TRL-4, Mini-Module (TRL-5), Flight-Like Module (TRL-6), Mirror Technology Development Team, Outlook, and Small Technology Firms that Have Made Direct Contributions to IXO Mirror Technology Development.

  5. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  6. Residual Strength Characterization of Unitized Structures Fabricated Using Different Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, B. R.; Smith, S. W.; Johnston, W. M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes residual strength analysis of integral structures fabricated using different manufacturing procedures. The topics include: 1) Built-up and Integral Structures; 2) Development of Prediction Methodology for Integral Structures Fabricated using different Manufacturing Procedures; 3) Testing Facility; 4) Fracture Parameters Definition; 5) Crack Branching in Integral Structures; 6) Results and Discussion; and 7) Concluding Remarks.

  7. Night vision device technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.; Nordholt, J.; Suszcynsky, D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop microchannel plate (MCP) technologies for enhancement of night vision device (NVD) capabilities. First, the authors addressed the need for segmented microchannel plates with independent gain control to minimize loss of low level light images in the presence of a bright light source (e.g., battlefield lasers, flares, and headlights). This would enable, for example, enhanced vision capabilities during night operations in a city environment and continuous capability of aviators to see the horizon, near-ground obstructions, and ground targets. Second, the authors addressed the need for curved microchannel plate technology to increase the field of view of NVDs while minimizing optical aberrations. This development would significantly enhance peripheral vision capabilities of aviators and result in easier adaptation of the human eye to NVDs. The authors have developed two technologies to overcome these problems, and they have initiated a collaborative effort with an industrial partner to develop a proof-of-principle prototype.

  8. Development and Coil Fabrication for the LARP 3.7-m Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Jochen, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kovach, P.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore,, J.; Nobreaga, F.; Novitsky, I.; Peggs, S.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Schmalzle, J.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2008-08-17

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has started the fabrication of 3.7-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole models. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are 'Proof-of-Principle' magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb{sub 3}Sn technology is mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, developed at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. The plans for the LQ R&D and a design update are presented and discussed in this paper. The challenges of fabricating long accelerator-quality Nb{sub 3}Sn coils are presented together with the solutions adopted for the LQ coils (based on the TQ experience). During the fabrication and inspection of practice coils some problems were found and corrected. The fabrication at BNL and FNAL of the set of coils for the first Long Quadrupole is in progress.

  9. Development and coil fabrication for the LARP 3.7-m long Nb3Sn quadruple

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; /Fermilab /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /Texas A-M

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has started the fabrication of 3.7-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole models. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are 'Proof-of-Principle' magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb3Sn technology is mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, developed at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. The plans for the LQ R&D and a design update are presented and discussed in this paper. The challenges of fabricating long accelerator-quality Nb{sub 3}Sn coils are presented together with the solutions adopted for the LQ coils (based on the TQ experience). During the fabrication and inspection of practice coils some problems were found and corrected. The fabrication at BNL and FNAL of the set of coils for the first Long Quadrupole is in progress.

  10. Fabrication of Optical Devices Based on Printable Photonics Technology and Its Application for Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Tatsuro; Okuda, Norimichi; Yanagida, Yasuko; Tanaka, Satoru; Hatsuzawa, Takeshi

    The specific optical characteristics which can be observed nanostructured optical device have great potentials for applying to several applications such as lifescience, optical communications, and data storage. Application of nanostrcutured optical device to industry, we suggest “printable photonics technology” for fabrication of nanostructured optical device based on nanoimprint lithography (NIL). In this study, using printable photonics technology, fabrication of flexible photonic crystal (PC) and its application for biosensor was performed. Using printable photonics technology-based PC for biosensing application, high sensitive detection of protein adsorption (detection limit: 1 pg/ml) could be detected.

  11. Compatibility of gas and flow sensor technology fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabate, Neus; Gracia, Isabel; Cane, Carles; Puigcorbe, Jordi; Cerda, Judith; Morante, Joan Ramon; Berganzo, Javier

    2003-04-01

    The requirements of flow measurement and control in the home-appliances field lead to the need of a measurement system able to monitor the flow and the quality of gas. The integration of a set of sensors with different functionalities on a single chip arises as an advantageous solution. In this paper, the description of the structures and technologies required for the gas, flow and temperature sensor devices is presented prior to the complete description of the process flow for the full on-chip compatibilization. In this sense, semiconductor gas sensors and thermal flow sensors have arisen as the best candidates to address the compatibilization.

  12. Development of Self-Expanding Idealflo (tm) Sandcontrol Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff A. Spray

    2007-09-30

    Development of Self-Expanding Idealflo{trademark} Sandscreen Technology was a successfully executed design-by-analysis through field demonstration project. This final report is presented as a two-part progression of concept development and manufacturing activities. The first part, conceptual development activities, discusses novel specifications creation and non-linear analytical design generation. The second part, manufacturing, contains achievement related information for detailed-design, fabrication, mechanical testing, and field demonstration activities.

  13. Innovative molding technologies for the fabrication of components for microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotter, Volker; Benzler, Tobias; Hanemann, Thomas; Woellmer, Heinz; Ruprecht, Robert; Hausselt, Juergen H.

    1999-03-01

    Economic success of microsystems technology requires a wide range of materials as well as the related manufacturing processes. A suitable technology for medium/large scale production is micro injection molding which actually allows the manufacturing of plastic microstructures with 20 microns minimum thickness, structural details of approximately 0.2 microns or maximum aspect ratios of more than 20. These microstructures are, for example, applied as components in micro optics, micro fluidics or minimally invasive surgery. This is demonstrated by microparts that are currently available or will be available soon. For higher economic efficiency and cost reduction, fully electrical injection modeling machines of higher accuracy have been applied. Also, micro insert injection molding reduces mounting costs. Manufacturing of metal or ceramic microparts by powder injection modeling allows large-scale production of complex shaped microstructures with a wide range of materials. Typical examples are sintered structured like stepped LIGA- gear wheels with minimal dimensions of 50 microns in different metal and ceramic materials. Micro Precision Casting originating from conventional investment casting is a suitable process for small/medium-scale production. Examples are microturbine housings made of precious metal alloys. An approach similar to rapid prototyping applies photocurable reactive resins. Photoinduced molding of low viscous resins under ambient conditions leads to significantly reduced cycle times. Additionally, rapid testing of new composite materials can be performed easily. Microcomponents molded from polymers and different composites like dyes with nonlinear optical properties and nanosized ceramic powders will be presented.

  14. Development of solid state moisture sensors for semiconductor fabrication applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, K. B.; Kelly, M. J.; Guilinger, T. R.; Peterson, D. W.; Sweet, J. N.; Tuck, M. R.

    We describe the design and fabrication of two types of solid state moisture sensors, and discuss the results of an evaluation of the sensors for the detection of trace levels of moisture in semiconductor process gases. The first sensor is based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology. A moisture sensitive layer is deposited onto a SAW device, and the amount of moisture adsorbed on the layer produces a proportional shift in the operating frequency of the device. Sensors based on this concept have excellent detection limits for moisture in inert gas (100 ppb) and corrosive gas (150 ppb in HCl). The second sensor is a simple capacitor structure that uses porous silicon as a moisture-sensitive dielectric material. The detection limits of these sensors for moisture in inert gas are about 700 ppb prior to HCl exposure, and about 7 ppm following HCl exposure.

  15. Technologies for the fabrication of the E-ELT mirrors within the T-REX project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareschi, G.; Aliverti, M.; Bianco, A.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Pariani, G.; Sironi, G.; Riva, M.; Vecchi, G.; Zerbi, F.

    With its primary mirror with 39 m of diameter, the E-ELT will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world and will gather 13 times more light than the largest optical telescopes existing today. The different optical sub-systems of E-ELT, including the primary mirror based on hundreds of reflecting tiles assembled together, represent key components for the implementation of the telescopes. A huge amount of aspherical reflecting elements have to be produced with "state of the art" figuring and polishing technologies and measured with proper metrological equipments. In the past couple of years, in the context of the T-REX project, a specific development program was carried out at the Brera Astronomical Observatory-INAF in order to address a numbers of technology aspects related to the fabrication of the E-ELT mirrors. In this paper we give a short overview of the activities that have been carried out. Other papers in this volume report on specific activities that have pursed within such a development program. skip=8pt

  16. Advanced technology satellite demodulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Stephen A.

    1989-01-01

    Ford Aerospace has developed a proof-of-concept satellite 8 phase shift keying (PSK) modulation and coding system operating in the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) mode at a data range of 200 Mbps using rate 5/6 forward error correction coding. The 80 Msps 8 PSK modem was developed in a mostly digital form and is amenable to an ASIC realization in the next phase of development. The codec was developed as a paper design only. The power efficiency goal was to be within 2 dB of theoretical at a bit error rate (BER) of 5x10(exp 7) while the measured implementation loss was 4.5 dB. The bandwidth efficiency goal was 2 bits/sec/Hz while the realized bandwidth efficiency was 1.8 bits/sec/Hz. The burst format used a preamble of only 40 8 PSK symbol times including 32 symbols of all zeros and an eight symbol unique word. The modem and associated special test equipment (STE) were fabricated mostly on a specially designed stitch-weld board although a few of the highest rate circuits were built on printed circuit cards. All the digital circuits were ECL to support the clock rates of from 80 MHz to 360 MHz. The transmitter and receiver matched filters were square-root Nyquist bandpass filters realized at the 3.37 GHz i.f. The modem operated as a coherent system although no analog phase locked (PLL) loop was employed. Within the budgetary constraints of the program, the approach to the demodulator has been proven and is eligible to proceed to the next phase of development of a satellite demodulator engineering model. This would entail the development of an ASIC version of the digital portion of the demodulator, and MMIC version of the quadrature detector, and SAW Nyquist filters to realize the bandwidth efficiency.

  17. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY_

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Moore; F. J. Rice; N. E. Woolstenhulme; J-F. Jue; B. H. Park; S. E. Steffler; N. P. Hallinan; M. D. Chapple; M. C. Marshall; B. L. Mackowiak; C. R. Clark; B. H. Rabin

    2009-11-01

    Full-size/prototypic U10Mo monolithic fuel-foils and aluminum clad fuel plates are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). These efforts are focused on realizing Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) high density monolithic fuel plates for use in High Performance Research and Test Reactors. The U10Mo fuel foils under development afford a fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort, including application of a zirconium barrier layer on fuel foils, fabrication scale-up efforts, and development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fuel plate clad bonding processes to be discussed include: Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB).

  18. Development and fabrication of heat-sterilizable inhalation therapy equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a completely heat sterilizable intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) ventilator in an effort to reduce the number of hospital acquired infections is reported. After appropriate changes in materials and design were made, six prototype units were fabricated and were successfully field tested in local hospitals. Most components of the modified ventilators are compatible with existing machines. In all but a few instances, such as installation of bacteria-retentive filters and a modified venturi, the change over from non-heat-sterilizable to sterilizable units was accomplished by replacement of heat labile materials with heat stable materials.

  19. Development of molded, coated fabric joints: Fabric construction criteria for a spacesuit elbow joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a molded, coated fabric elbow joint capable of operating reliably at 8 psi internal pressure for extended periods of flexure is considered. The overall design of the joint includes: (1) selection of heatsettable fiber of sufficient strengths; (2) choosing an optimum fabric construction; (3) a fatigue resistant; flexible coating; and (4) a molding technique. A polyester yarn of type 56 Dacron and a urethane coating system were selected. The relationships between yarn and weave parameters which lead to an optimum fabric construction for the 8 psi elbow joint are defined.

  20. Interleaved arrays antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Phase one and two of a program to further develop and investigate advanced graphite epoxy waveguides, radiators, and components with application to space antennas are discussed. The objective of the two phases were to demonstrate mechanical integrity of a small panel of radiators and parts procured under a previous contract and to develop alternate designs and applications of the technology. Most of the emphasis was on the assembly and test of a 5 x 5 element module. This effort was supported by evaluation of adhesives and waveguide joint configurations. The evaluation and final assembly considered not only mechanical performance but also producibility in large scale.

  1. Magnesium Research and Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joost, William; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-12-30

    The Magnesium Research and Technical Development (MR&TD) project supports efforts to increase using magnesium in automotive applications, including improving technology, lowering costs and increasing the knowledge needed to enable alloy and manufacturing process optimization. MR&TD supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project in collaboration with China and Canada. The MR&TD projects also maintains the magnesium bibliographic database at magnesium.pnl.gov.

  2. EAGLE: relay mirror technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Mary; Restaino, Sergio R.; Baker, Jeffrey T.; Payne, Don M.; Bukley, Jerry W.

    2002-06-01

    EAGLE (Evolutionary Air & Space Global Laser Engagement) is the proposed high power weapon system with a high power laser source, a relay mirror constellation, and the necessary ground and communications links. The relay mirror itself will be a satellite composed of two optically-coupled telescopes/mirrors used to redirect laser energy from ground, air, or space based laser sources to distant points on the earth or space. The receiver telescope captures the incoming energy, relays it through an optical system that cleans up the beam, then a separate transmitter telescope/mirror redirects the laser energy at the desired target. Not only is it a key component in extending the range of DoD's current laser weapon systems, it also enables ancillary missions. Furthermore, if the vacuum of space is utilized, then the atmospheric effects on the laser beam propagation will be greatly attenuated. Finally, several critical technologies are being developed to make the EAGLE/Relay Mirror concept a reality, and the Relay Mirror Technology Development Program was set up to address them. This paper will discuss each critical technology, the current state of the work, and the future implications of this program.

  3. Cyberfeminism, technology, and international "development".

    PubMed

    Gajjala, R; Mamidipudi, A

    1999-07-01

    This article reports on the implications and benefits of Internet technology among women from developing countries. Cyberfeminism is the practice of feminism in cyberspace. Feminists believe that women should take control and augment Internet technologies to empower themselves. Learning to use the computers, getting "connected," and surfing the Internet are encouraged among all women with the aim of advancing feminist causes and empowering women. The Internet has been observed to cause radical changes in the way business and social activities are conducted. A description of how two women have engaged in cyberfeminism and worked in development and technology programs is included. One contributor, Annapurna Mamipudi, is involved in a non-governmental organization working with traditional handloom weavers in India Another contributor is Radhika Gajjala, who works in academia and creates on-line "discussion lists" and Web sites from her North American geographical location. Her job is to create spaces that provide opportunities for dialogue and collaboration among women with Internet access all over the world. PMID:12349221

  4. SYMPOSIUM ON THE TRANSFER AND UTILIZATION OF PARTICULATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY (4TH). VOLUME 1. FABRIC FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papers in the three volumes (of which this is one) were presented at the Fourth Symposium on the Transfer and Utilization of Particulate Control Technology in Houston, TX, October 11-14, 1982. Volume I relates to fabric filtration; Volume II, to electrostatic precipitation; a...

  5. Nano Polymeric Carrier Fabrication Technologies for Advanced Antitumor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Mengxin; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Li; Li, Huafei; Zhang, Fulei; Sun, Yun; Dai, Jianxin; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun

    2013-01-01

    Comparing with the traditional therapeutic methods, newly developed cancer therapy based on the nanoparticulates attracted extensively interest due to its unique advantages. However, there are still some drawbacks such as the unfavorable in vivo performance for nanomedicine and undesirable tumor escape from the immunotherapy. While as we know that the in vivo performance strongly depended on the nanocarrier structural properties, thus, the big gap between in vitro and in vivo can be overcome by nanocarrier's structural tailoring by fine chemical design and microstructural tuning. In addition, this fine nanocarrier's engineering can also provide practical solution to solve the problems in traditional cancer immunotherapy. In this paper, we review the latest development in nanomedicine, cancer therapy, and nanoimmunotherapy. We then give an explanation why fine nanocanrrie's engineering with special focus on the unique pathology of tumor microenvironments and properties of immunocells can obviously promote the in vivo performance and improve the therapeutic index of nanoimmunotherapy. PMID:24369011

  6. Developing optic technologies in Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubanov, Alexander S.; Shkadarevich, Alexei P.

    2001-03-01

    In this work we give a retrospective analysis of the development of optical technologies in Belarus. In the post-war period a great scientific and technological potential has been built up in this sphere, highly skilled specialist have been trained and prestigious scientific and technical schools have appeared. Belarusian multiprofile optical industry is noticed to be capable of producing not only the materials and equipment for optical production but also optical goods of the highest level of complication. The characteristics of cosmic photoequipment, photogrammetric and cinetheodolite techniques, a variety of laser devices and optical goods for civic purposes are given as an example. The instances demonstrating the realization of unique optical projects are considered as well. High quality of Belarusian optical production makes it be much in demand in Russia, Japan, USA, Germany, France, China, Korea, Sweden, Spain, England, United Arab Emirates and other countries.

  7. Development of the Direct Fabrication Process for Plutonium Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.

    2001-07-10

    The current baseline process for fabricating pucks for the Plutonium Immobilization Program includes granulation of the milled feed prior to compaction. A direct fabrication process was demonstrated that eliminates the need for granulation.

  8. Continuously graded extruded polymer composites for energetic applications fabricated using twin-screw extrusion processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Frederick M.

    A novel method of fabricating functionally graded extruded composite materials is proposed for propellant applications using the technology of continuous processing with a Twin-Screw Extruder. The method is applied to the manufacturing of grains for solid rocket motors in an end-burning configuration with an axial gradient in ammonium perchlorate volume fraction and relative coarse/fine particle size distributions. The fabrication of functionally graded extruded polymer composites with either inert or energetic ingredients has yet to be investigated. The lack of knowledge concerning the processing of these novel materials has necessitated that a number of research issues be addressed. Of primary concern is characterizing and modeling the relationship between the extruder screw geometry, transient processing conditions, and the gradient architecture that evolves in the extruder. Recent interpretations of the Residence Time Distributions (RTDs) and Residence Volume Distributions (RVDs) for polymer composites in the TSE are used to develop new process models for predicting gradient architectures in the direction of extrusion. An approach is developed for characterizing the sections of the extrudate using optical, mechanical, and compositional analysis to determine the gradient architectures. The effects of processing on the burning rate properties of extruded energetic polymer composites are characterized for homogeneous formulations over a range of compositions to determine realistic gradient architectures for solid rocket motor applications. The new process models and burning rate properties that have been characterized in this research effort will be the basis for an inverse design procedure that is capable of determining gradient architectures for grains in solid rocket motors that possess tailored burning rate distributions that conform to user-defined performance specifications.

  9. Children's Developing Understanding of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawson, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The issue of children's conceptions of technology and technology education is seen as important by technology educators. While there is a solid body of literature that documents groups of children's understandings of technology and technology education, this is primarily focused on snapshot studies of children aged 11 and above. There is little…

  10. Graphite/epoxy composite stiffened panel fabrication development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the manufacturing development procedures used to fabricate a series of carbon/epoxy panels with integrally molded stiffeners. Panel size was started at 6 inches by 18 inches and one stiffener and increased to 30 inches by 60 inches and six integral stiffeners. Stiffener concepts were optimized for minimum weight (or mass) to carry stress levels from 1500 lbs/inch to 25,000 lbs/inch compression load. Designs were created and manufactured with a stiffener configuration of integrally molded hat, J, I, sine wave I, solid blade, and honeycomb blade shapes. Successful and unsuccessful detail methods of tooling, lay-up methods, and bagging methods are documented. Recommendations are made for the best state-of-the-art manufacturing technique developed for type of stiffener construction.

  11. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  12. Technology Development for Nickel X-Ray Optics Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell

    2008-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysics using the electroform-nickel replication process. In this process, mirror shells are fabricated by replication off super-polished cylindrical mandrels. The mirrors fabricated using this process have a demonstrated optical performance at the level of 11-12 arc seconds resolution (HPD) for 30 keV x rays. Future missions demand ever higher angular resolutions and this places stringent requirements on the quality of the mandrels, the precision of the metrology, and the mounting and alignment of the mirror shells in their housings. A progress report on recent technology developments in all these areas will be presented along with a discussion on possible post fabrication, in-situ improvement of the x-ray mirrors quality.

  13. Fabrication of a resin appliance with alloy components using digital technology without an analog impression.

    PubMed

    Al Mortadi, Noor; Jones, Quentin; Eggbeer, Dominic; Lewis, Jeffrey; Williams, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a resin appliance incorporating "wire" components without the use of an analog impression and dental casts using an intraoral scanner and computer technology to build the appliance. This unique alignment of technology offers an enormous reduction in the number of fabrication steps when compared with more traditional methods of manufacture. The prototype incorporated 2 Adams clasps and a fitted labial bow. The alloy components were built from cobalt-chromium in an initial powdered form using established digital technology methods and then inserted into a build of a resin base plate. This article reports the first known use of computer-aided design and additive manufacture to fabricate a resin and alloy appliance, and constitutes proof of the concept for such manufacturing. The original workflow described could be seen as an example for many other similar appliances, perhaps with active components. The scan data were imported into an appropriate specialized computer-aided design software, which was used in conjunction with a force feedback (haptic) interface. The appliance designs were then exported as stereolithography files and transferred to an additive manufacturing machine for fabrication. The results showed that the applied techniques may provide new manufacturing and design opportunities in orthodontics and highlights the need for intraoral-specific additive manufacture materials to be produced and tested for biocompatibility compliance. In a trial, the retainer was fitted orally and judged acceptable by the clinician according to the typical criteria when placing such appliances in situ. PMID:26522047

  14. A novel fabrication technology for anti-reflex wafer-level vacuum packaged microscanning mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldsen, M.; Hofmann, U.; Quenzer, H. J.; Janes, J.; Stolte, C.; Gruber, K.; Ites, M.; Sörensen, F.; Wagner, B.

    2008-02-01

    The use of microscanning mirrors in mobile laser projection systems demands for robust fabrication technologies. Dust, change in humidity and temperature can only be tolerated if the fragile devices are enclosed in a hermetic package. A novel fabrication process is presented based on two 30 micron thick epitaxially deposited silicon layers and a buried interconnection layer. This technology allows the fabrication of stacked combdrives for electrostatic mirror actuation and lateral feedthroughs needed for hermetic encapsulation with standard wafer bonding processes. High display resolution requires large scan angles of the mirror plate. Therefore, a fabrication technology for structured glass wafers is presented to provide deep cavities for large mirror plate movements. A solution for effective laser spot reflex suppression is presented based on a static tilt of the mirror plate in relation to the glass cover wafer during eutectic bonding. By doing so, the reflex generated at the glass surfaces is shifted out of the image area. The cavity pressure of packaged devices has been measured showing the necessity of a getter layer in order to provide cavity pressures below 1 mbar. The performance of a packaged device with integrated getter layer has been evaluated. A driving amplitude of only 6 V is needed to achieve scan angles of above 50 deg. White light interferometric measurements showed excellent planarity of the mirror plate with a radius of curvature of about 18 m.

  15. Lab on fiber technology: a versatile fabrication path for optimized nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quero, G.; Consales, M.; Crescitelli, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Esposito, E.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2013-05-01

    We recently introduced a reliable fabrication process enabling the integration of dielectric and metallic nanostructures directly on the tip of optical fibers1. It involves conventional deposition and nanopatterning techniques (typically used for planar devices fabrication) suitably adapted to directly operate on the fiber tip. By using this approach, and with a view towards possible applications, here we demonstrate the realization of different technological platforms based on the integration on the fiber facet of periodic and quasi-periodic metallo-dielectric nanostructures supporting localized surface plasmon resonances, that can be used for chemical and biological sensing as well as polarization sensitive devices.

  16. Technology Development for NASA Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on technology development for NASA Mars Missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Mars mission roadmaps; 2) Focus and Base Technology programs; 3) Technology Infusion; and 4) Feed Forward to Future Missions.

  17. Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of exploration systems, including un-tethered extravehicular activity suits and transportation systems including landers and rovers. Similarly, improved fuel cell and electrolyzer systems can reduce mass and increase the reliability of electrical power, oxygen, and water generation for crewed vehicles, depots and outposts. To achieve this, NASA is developing non-flow-through proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks, and electrolyzers coupled with low permeability membranes for high pressure operation. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments over the past year include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale non-flow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. NASA is also developing advanced lithium-ion battery cells, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiatedmixed- metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety.

  18. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  19. Design, development, fabrication and delivery of register and multiplexer units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, A.; Lombardi, T.

    1971-01-01

    Two complementary MOS monolithic chip types were developed, which contain a register and multiplexer unit to be used in the central processing unit of a digital computer. The partition of the logic into a chip size consistent with the characteristics of the packages is discussed. The logic was implemented by specially configured circuitry designed to layout, as well as to optimize, performance by taking advantage of the properties of CMOS logic. Of several approaches considered for generating LSI CMOS arrays, the CMOS standard cell array design technique was selected. These design automation techniques were used to generate the chip layout, art work and working master plates, followed by the fabrication and testing of the two chip types. Sixty functional LSI arrays were delivered.

  20. Development and fabrication of improved power transistor switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hower, P. L.; Chu, C. K.

    1979-01-01

    A new class of high-voltage power transistors was achieved by adapting present interdigitated thyristor processing techniques to the fabrication of npn Si transistors. Present devices are 2.3 cm in diameter and have V sub CEO (sus) in the range of 400 to 600V. V sub CEO (sus) = 450V devices were made with an (h sub FE)(I sub C) product of 900A at V sub CE = 2.5V. The electrical performance obtained was consistent with the predictions of an optimum design theory specifically developed for power switching transistors. The device design, wafer processing, and assembly techniques are described. Experimental measurements of the dc characteristics, forward SOA, and switching times are included. A new method of characterizing the switching performance of power transistors is proposed.

  1. Silicon Web Process Development. [for solar cell fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, ribbon form of silicon and capable of fabrication into solar cells with greater than 15% AMl conversion efficiency, was produced from the melt without die shaping. Improvements were made both in the width of the web ribbons grown and in the techniques to replenish the liquid silicon as it is transformed to web. Through means of improved thermal shielding stress was reduced sufficiently so that web crystals nearly 4.5 cm wide were grown. The development of two subsystems, a silicon feeder and a melt level sensor, necessary to achieve an operational melt replenishment system, is described. A gas flow management technique is discussed and a laser reflection method to sense and control the melt level as silicon is replenished is examined.

  2. Development of Constellation-X Optics Technologies at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, S. L.; Jones, W. D.; Smith, W. S.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major technological challenges for the Constellation X-ray Mission is the development of light-weight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence optics. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing and evaluating candidate technologies, based upon full-shell replication off precision mandrels. Here we report on recent progress in meeting the weight and imaging-performance requirements, using very thin, high-strength electroformed nickel alloys. In addition, we briefly describe MSFC's optics fabrication, metrology, and x-ray test facilities.

  3. Development of Constellation-X Optics Technologies at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, S. L.; Jones, W. D.; Smith, W. S.; Ramsey, B. D.; Engelhaupt, D.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major technological challenges for the Constellation X-ray Mission is the development of light-weight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence optics. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing and evaluating candidate technologies, based upon full-shell replication off precision mandrels. Here we report on recent progress in meeting the weight and imaging-performance requirements, using very thin, high-strength electroformed nickel alloys. In addition, we briefly describe MSFC's optics fabrication, metrology, and x-ray test facilities.

  4. Development of Constellation-X Optics Technologies at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; ODell, S. L.; Jones, W. D.; Smith, W. S.; Engelhaupt, D.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major technological challenges for the Constellation X-ray Mission is the development of light-weight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence optics. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing and evaluating candidate technologies, based upon full-shell replication off precision mandrels. Here we report on recent progress in meeting the weight and imaging-performance requirements, using very thin, high- strength electroformed nickel alloys, In addition, we briefly describe MSFC's optics fabrication, metrology, and x-ray test facilities.

  5. Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2011-01-14

    As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

  6. Advanced Refrigerator/Freezer Technology Development. Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaseor, Thomas; Hunter, Rick; Hamill, Doris

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center, through contract with Oceaneering Space Systems, is engaged in a project to develop advanced refrigerator/freezer (R/F) technologies for future Life and Biomedical Sciences space flight missions. The first phase of this project, a technology assessment, has been completed to identify the advanced R/F technologies needed and best suited to meet the requirements for the five R/F classifications specified by Life and Biomedical Science researchers. Additional objectives of the technology assessment were to rank those technologies based on benefit and risk, and to recommend technology development activities that can be accomplished within this project. This report presents the basis, the methodology, and results of the R/F technology assessment, along with technology development recommendations.

  7. LISA Technology Development at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James Ira; McWilliams, S.; Baker, J.

    2008-01-01

    The prime focus of LISA technology development efforts at NASA/GSFC has been in LISA interferometry, specifically in the area of laser frequency noise mitigation. Laser frequency noise is addressed through a combination of stabilization and common-mode rejection. Current plans call for two stages of stabilization, pre-stabilization to a local frequency reference and further stabilization using the constellation as a frequency reference. In order for these techniques to be used simultaneously, the pre-stabilization step must provide an adjustable frequency offset. Here, we report on a modification to the standard modulation/demodulation techniques used to stabilize to optical cavities that generates a frequency-tunable reference from a fixed-length cavity. This technique requires no modifications to the cavity itself and only minor modifications to the components. The measured noise performance and dynamic range of the laboratory prototype meets the LISA requirements.

  8. Developing technologies for synthetic fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprow, F. B.

    1981-05-01

    After consideration of a likely timetable for the development of a synthetic fuels industry and its necessary supporting technology, the large variety of such fuels and their potential roles is assessed along with their commercialization outlook. Among the fuel production methods considered are: (1) above-ground retorting of oil shale; (2) in-situ shale retorting; (3) open pit mining of tar sands; (4) in-situ steam stimulation of tar sands; (5) coal gasification; (6) methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen; and (7) direct coal liquefaction by the hydrogenation of coal. It is shown that while the U.S. has very limited resource bases for tar sands and heavy crudes, the abundance of shale in the western states and the abundance and greater geographical dispersion of coal will make these the two most important resources of a future synthetic fuels industry.

  9. Technology in Sustainable Development Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kimio

    The economic and demographic growth in Asia has put increased importance to this part of the world whose contribution to the global community is vital in meeting global challenges. International cooperation in engineering education assumes a pivotal role in providing access to the frontiers of scientific and technological knowledge to the growing youths in the region. The thrust for advancement has been provided by the logic coming from the academic world itself, whereas expectations are high that the engineering education responds to challenges that are coming from outside the universities, such as environmental management, disaster management, and provision of common knowledge platform across disciplinary lines. Some cases are introduced in curriculum development that incorporates fieldwork and laboratory work intended to enhance the ability to cooperate. The new mode is discussed with focus on production, screening, storing/delivery, and leaning phases of knowledge. The strength of shared information will be enhanced through international cooperation.

  10. Engineering research, development and technology. Thrust area report, FY93

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff, tools, and facilities needed to support current and future LLNL programs. The efforts are guided by a dual-benefit research and development strategy that supports Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence and economic competitiveness through partnerships with U.S. industry. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes the activities for the fiscal year 1993. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and results from nine thrust areas for this fiscal year: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering; and Emerging Technologies. Separate abstracts were prepared for 47 papers in this report.

  11. SOFC technology development at Rolls-Royce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, F. J.; Day, M. J.; Brandon, N. P.; Pashley, M. N.; Cassidy, M.

    Fuel cells have the prospect for exploiting fossil fuels more benignly and more efficiently than alternatives. The various types represent quite different technologies, with no clear winner, yet. Nevertheless, the high temperature MCFC and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) types seem better suited to power generation in a hydrocarbon fuel economy. Presently, the costs of MCFCs and SOFCs are too high to compete directly with contemporary power generation plant. Seeking to overcome the drawbacks of first generation fuel cells, over the past 7 years an innovative second generation SOFC concept has been evolved in the Rolls-Royce Strategic Research Centre, with encouraging results. It is distinguished from other types by the name: Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IP-SOFC). It is a family of integrated system concepts supporting product flexibility with evolutionary stretch potential from a common SOFC module. Fabrication of the key component of the IP-SOFC, the "multi-cell membrane electrode assembly (multi-cell MEA) module" carrying many series connected cells with supported electrolyte membranes only 10 to 20 μm thick, has been proved. Development of the internal reforming subsystem, the next big hurdle, is now in hand. Following an outline of its salient features and test results, the methodology and results of recent IP-SOFC stack costing studies are presented, and the continuing research and development programme indicated.

  12. Technology transfer and international development: Materials and manufacturing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Policy oriented studies on technological development in several relatively advanced developing countries were conducted. Priority sectors defined in terms of technological sophistication, capital intensity, value added, and export potential were studied in Brazil, Venezuela, Israel, and Korea. The development of technological policy alternatives for the sponsoring country is assessed. Much emphasis is placed on understanding the dynamics of the sectors through structured interviews with a large sample of firms in the leading manufacturing and materials processing sectors.

  13. Fabrication Technologies of the High Gradient Accelerator Structures at 100MV/M Range

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Juwen; Lewandowski, James; Van Pelt, John; Yoneda, Charles; Gudkov, Boris; Riddone, Germana; Higo, Toshiyasu; Takatomi, Toshikazu; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2012-07-03

    A CERN-SLAC-KEK collaboration on high gradient X-band structure research has been established in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the CLIC baseline design for the main linac stably operating at more than 100 MV/m loaded accelerating gradient. Several prototype CLIC structures were successfully fabricated and high power tested. They operated at 105 MV/m with a breakdown rate that meets the CLIC linear collider specifications of < 5 x 10{sup -7}/pulse/m. This paper summarizes the fabrication technologies including the mechanical design, precision machining, chemical cleaning, diffusion bonding as well as vacuum baking and all related assembly technologies. Also, the tolerances control, tuning and RF characterization will be discussed.

  14. Instructional Technology and Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Carole A.

    This paper explores the challenges instructional technology presents to faculty and administration. For example: students will not accept lectures that fail to draw upon Internet resources; integrating technology sparks the faculty debate that the use of technology will "dehumanize teaching and learning"; community college professors criticize…

  15. A laser-based technology for fabricating a soda-lime glass based microfluidic device for circulating tumour cell capture.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Daniel; Couceiro, Ramiro; Aymerich, Maria; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Abal, Miguel; Flores-Arias, María Teresa

    2015-10-01

    We developed a laser-based technique for fabricating microfluidic microchips on soda-lime glass substrates. The proposed methodology combines a laser direct writing, as a manufacturing tool for the fabrication of the microfluidics structures, followed by a post-thermal treatment with a CO2 laser. This treatment will allow reshaping and improving the morphological (roughness) and optical qualities (transparency) of the generated microfluidics structures. The use of lasers commonly implemented for material processing makes this technique highly competitive when compared with other glass microstructuring approaches. The manufactured chips were tested with tumour cells (Hec 1A) after being functionalized with an epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody coating. Cells were successfully arrested on the pillars after being flown through the device giving our technology a translational application in the field of cancer research. PMID:26218523

  16. Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Charles Chamberlin; Robert Chaney; Gang Chen; Godwin Chukwu; James Clough; Steve Colt; Anthony Covescek; Robert Crosby; Abhijit Dandekar; Paul Decker; Brandon Galloway; Rajive Ganguli; Catherine Hanks; Rich Haut; Kristie Hilton; Larry Hinzman; Gwen Holdman; Kristie Holland; Robert Hunter; Ron Johnson; Thomas Johnson; Doug Kame; Mikhail Kaneveskly; Tristan Kenny; Santanu Khataniar; Abhijeet Kulkami; Peter Lehman; Mary Beth Leigh; Jenn-Tai Liang; Michael Lilly; Chuen-Sen Lin; Paul Martin; Pete McGrail; Dan Miller; Debasmita Misra; Nagendra Nagabhushana; David Ogbe; Amanda Osborne; Antoinette Owen; Sharish Patil; Rocky Reifenstuhl; Doug Reynolds; Eric Robertson; Todd Schaef; Jack Schmid; Yuri Shur; Arion Tussing; Jack Walker; Katey Walter; Shannon Watson; Daniel White; Gregory White; Mark White; Richard Wies; Tom Williams; Dennis Witmer; Craig Wollard; Tao Zhu

    2008-12-31

    The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory was created by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in response to a congressionally mandated funding opportunity through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), specifically to encourage research partnerships between the university, the Alaskan energy industry, and the DOE. The enabling legislation permitted research in a broad variety of topics particularly of interest to Alaska, including providing more efficient and economical electrical power generation in rural villages, as well as research in coal, oil, and gas. The contract was managed as a cooperative research agreement, with active project monitoring and management from the DOE. In the eight years of this partnership, approximately 30 projects were funded and completed. These projects, which were selected using an industry panel of Alaskan energy industry engineers and managers, cover a wide range of topics, such as diesel engine efficiency, fuel cells, coal combustion, methane gas hydrates, heavy oil recovery, and water issues associated with ice road construction in the oil fields of the North Slope. Each project was managed as a separate DOE contract, and the final technical report for each completed project is included with this final report. The intent of this process was to address the energy research needs of Alaska and to develop research capability at the university. As such, the intent from the beginning of this process was to encourage development of partnerships and skills that would permit a transition to direct competitive funding opportunities managed from funding sources. This project has succeeded at both the individual project level and at the institutional development level, as many of the researchers at the university are currently submitting proposals to funding agencies, with some success.

  17. A monolithic array of three-dimensional ion traps fabricated with conventional semiconductor technology.

    PubMed

    Wilpers, Guido; See, Patrick; Gill, Patrick; Sinclair, Alastair G

    2012-09-01

    The coherent control of quantum-entangled states of trapped ions has led to significant advances in quantum information, quantum simulation, quantum metrology and laboratory tests of quantum mechanics and relativity. All of the basic requirements for processing quantum information with arrays of ion-based quantum bits (qubits) have been proven in principle. However, so far, no more than 14 ion-based qubits have been entangled with the ion-trap approach, so there is a clear need for arrays of ion traps that can handle a much larger number of qubits. Traps consisting of a two-dimensional electrode array have undergone significant development, but three-dimensional trap geometries can create a superior confining potential. However, existing three-dimensional approaches, as used in the most advanced experiments with trap arrays, cannot be scaled up to handle greatly increased numbers of ions. Here, we report a monolithic three-dimensional ion microtrap array etched from a silica-on-silicon wafer using conventional semiconductor fabrication technology. We have confined individual (88)Sr(+) ions and strings of up to 14 ions in a single segment of the array. We have measured motional frequencies, ion heating rates and storage times. Our results demonstrate that it should be possible to handle several tens of ion-based qubits with this approach. PMID:22820742

  18. Energy efficient engine high-pressure turbine single crystal vane and blade fabrication technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giamei, A. F.; Salkeld, R. W.; Hayes, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the High-Pressure Turbine Fabrication Program was to demonstrate the application and feasibility of Pratt & Whitney Aircraft-developed two-piece, single crystal casting and bonding technology on the turbine blade and vane configurations required for the high-pressure turbine in the Energy Efficient Engine. During the first phase of the program, casting feasibility was demonstrated. Several blade and vane halves were made for the bonding trials, plus solid blades and vanes were successfully cast for materials evaluation tests. Specimens exhibited the required microstructure and chemical composition. Bonding feasibility was demonstrated in the second phase of the effort. Bonding yields of 75 percent for the vane and 30 percent for the blade were achieved, and methods for improving these yield percentages were identified. A bond process was established for PWA 1480 single crystal material which incorporated a transient liquid phase interlayer. Bond properties were substantiated and sensitivities determined. Tooling die materials were identified, and an advanced differential thermal expansion tooling concept was incorporated into the bond process.

  19. Design and Fabrication of a Radiation-Hard 500-MHz Digitizer Using Deep Submicron Technology

    SciTech Connect

    K.K. Gan; M.O. Johnson; R.D. Kass; J. Moore

    2008-09-12

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) will use tens of thousands of beam position monitors (BPMs) for precise beam alignment. The signal from each BPM is digitized and processed for feedback control. We proposed the development of an 11-bit (effective) digitizer with 500 MHz bandwidth and 2 G samples/s. The digitizer was somewhat beyond the state-of-the-art. Moreover we planned to design the digitizer chip using the deep-submicron technology with custom transistors that had proven to be very radiation hard (up to at least 60 Mrad). The design mitigated the need for costly shielding and long cables while providing ready access to the electronics for testing and maintenance. In FY06 as we prepared to submit a chip with test circuits and a partial ADC circuit we found that IBM had changed the availability of our chosen IC fabrication process (IBM 6HP SiGe BiCMOS), making it unaffordable for us, at roughly 3 times the previous price. This prompted us to change our design to the IBM 5HPE process with 0.35 µm feature size. We requested funding for FY07 to continue the design work and submit the first prototype chip. Unfortunately, the funding was not continued and we will summarize below the work accomplished so far.

  20. Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell technology program, phase 1/1A. [design and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell was studied for the purpose of improving the characteristics of the technology. Several facets were evaluated, namely: (1) reduced fuel cell costs; (2) reduced fuel cell weight; (3) improved fuel cell efficiency; and (4) increased systems compatibility. Demonstrated advances were incorporated into a full scale hardware design. A single cell unit was fabricated. A substantial degree of success was demonstrated.

  1. Orbital transfer vehicle engine technology: Baffled injector design, fabrication, and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    New technologies for space-based, reusable, throttleable, cryogenic orbit transfer propulsion are being evaluated. Supporting tasks for the design of a dual expander cycle engine thrust chamber design are documented. The purpose of the studies was to research the materials used in the thrust chamber design, the supporting fabrication methods necessary to complete the design, and the modification of the injector element for optimum injector/chamber compatibility.

  2. Colorado Technology Transfer Plan for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Advanced Tech. Inst., Denver.

    Recognizing the importance of technology transfer to economic growth, the U.S. Economic Development Administration (EDA) provided the Colorado Advanced Technology Institute (CATI) with a grant to coordinate the development of a plan for using technology transfer in Colorado's economic development. The plan, outlined in this report, describes the…

  3. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yu, Cheng; Kong, Lun

    2014-01-01

    This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs), piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs), surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs), magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs), micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs), micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs), micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs), and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail. PMID:24424468

  4. Advanced Technology Development for Active Acoustic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis N., III; Nishida, Toshikazu; Kurdila, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives include: (1) Develop electro-mechanical/acoustic models of a Helmholtz resonator possessing a compliant diaphragm coupled to a piezoelectric device; (2) Design and fabricate the energy reclamation module and active Helmholtz resonator; (3) Develop and build appropriate energy reclamation/storage circuit; (4) Develop and fabricate appropriate piezoelectric shunt circuit to tune the compliance of the active Helmholtz resonator via a variable capacitor; (5) Quantify energy reclamation module efficiency in a grazing-flow plane wave tube possessing known acoustic energy input; and (6) Quantify actively tuned Helmholtz resonator performance in grazing-flow plane wave tube for a white-noise input

  5. The design, development, fabrication and testing of a 100 watt skutterudite thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Matthew

    Thermoelectric technology is a method of renewable, alternative energy that utilizes the Seebeck effect to convert some of the thermal energy in a temperature gradient to electricity. The optimal temperature range for skutterudite thermoelectric devices is around 650°C, making them ideal for high temperature applications. At this temperature range, the skutterudite thermoelectrics have a device-level conversion efficiency of about 9% [1]. As these devices are still in the development stage, testing that simulates real-world conditions is necessary to assess the feasibility of implementing skutterudite thermoelectric technology with current processes. A standardized procedure to test the skutterudite thermoelectric devices has been established to reduce variability in device fabrication and generator assembly. This procedure includes a measurement and tracking system to aid in establishing relationships between component properties and thermoelectric performance. In addition, a technology has been developed to electrically bypass any failed devices to preserve overall power generation. Results indicate that additional efforts are needed to address the high level of thermal stresses the devices experience during operation. Several methods to reduce thermal stresses and investigate potential stressors are proposed. In addition, the successful performance of the electrical bypass technology suggests that it is indeed a viable method of bypassing individual devices for experimental tests. Additional testing and improvements can be made as necessary to implement this technology in the envisioned 1 kW skutterudite thermoelectric generator.

  6. Fabrication process development for high-purity germanium radiation detectors with amorphous semiconductor contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looker, Quinn

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) radiation detectors are well established as a valuable tool in nuclear science, astrophysics, and nuclear security applications. HPGe detectors excel in gamma-ray spectroscopy, offering excellent energy resolution with large detector sizes for high radiation detection efficiency. Although a robust fabrication process has been developed, improvement is needed, especially in developing electrical contact and surface passivation technology for position-sensitive detectors. A systematic study is needed to understand how the detector fabrication process impacts detector performance and reliability. In order to provide position sensitivity, the electrical contacts are segmented to form multiple electrodes. This segmentation creates new challenges in the fabrication process and warrants consideration of additional detector effects related to the segmentation. A key area of development is the creation of the electrical contacts in a way that enables reliable operation, provides low electronic noise, and allows fine segmentation of electrodes, giving position sensitivity for radiation interactions in the detector. Amorphous semiconductor contacts have great potential to facilitate new HPGe detector designs by providing a thin, high-resistivity surface coating that is the basis for electrical contacts that block both electrons and holes and can easily be finely segmented. Additionally, amorphous semiconductor coatings form a suitable passivation layer to protect the HPGe crystal surface from contamination. This versatility allows a simple fabrication process for fully passivated, finely segmented detectors. However, the fabrication process for detectors with amorphous semiconductors is not as highly developed as for conventional technologies. The amorphous semiconductor layer properties can vary widely based on how they are created and these can translate into varying performance of HPGe detectors with these contacts. Some key challenges include

  7. Development Of Methodologies Using PhabrOmeter For Fabric Drape Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chengwei

    Evaluation of fabric drape is important for textile industry as it reveals the aesthetic and functionality of the cloth and apparel. Although many fabric drape measuring methods have been developed for several decades, they are falling behind the need for fast product development by the industry. To meet the requirement of industries, it is necessary to develop an effective and reliable method to evaluate fabric drape. The purpose of the present study is to determine if PhabrOmeter can be applied to fabric drape evaluation. PhabrOmeter is a fabric sensory performance evaluating instrument which is developed to provide fast and reliable quality testing results. This study was sought to determine the relationship between fabric drape and other fabric attributes. In addition, a series of conventional methods including AATCC standards, ASTM standards and ISO standards were used to characterize the fabric samples. All the data were compared and analyzed with linear correlation method. The results indicate that PhabrOmeter is reliable and effective instrument for fabric drape evaluation. Besides, some effects including fabric structure, testing directions were considered to examine their impact on fabric drape.

  8. Development of a Direct Fabrication Technique for Full-Shell X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Kolodziejczak, J. K.; Griffith, C.; Roche, J.; Smith, W. S.; Kester, T.; Atkins, C.; Arnold, W.; Ramsey, B.

    2016-01-01

    Future astrophysical missions will require fabrication technology capable of producing high angular resolution x-ray optics. A full-shell direct fabrication approach using modern robotic polishing machines has the potential for producing high resolution, light-weight and affordable x-ray mirrors that can be nested to produce large collecting area. This approach to mirror fabrication, based on the use of the metal substrates coated with nickel phosphorous alloy, is being pursued at MSFC. The design of the polishing fixtures for the direct fabrication, the surface figure metrology techniques used and the results of the polishing experiments are presented.

  9. Development of a Fluid Structures Interaction Test Technique for Fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory G.; Heineck, James T.; Schairer, Edward T.; Mosher, Robert N.; Garbeff, Theodore Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Application of fluid structures interaction (FSI) computational techniques to configurations of interest to the entry, descent and landing (EDL) community is limited by two factors - limited characterization of the material properties for fabrics of interest and insufficient experimental data to validate the FSI codes. Recently ILC Dover Inc. performed standard tests to characterize the static stress-strain response of four candidate fabrics for use in EDL applications. The objective of the tests described here is to address the need for a FSI dataset for CFD validation purposes. To reach this objective, the structural response of fabrics was measured in a very simple aerodynamic environment with well controlled boundary conditions. Two test series were undertaken. The first series covered a range of tunnel conditions and the second focused on conditions that resulted in fabric panel buckling.

  10. A US perspective on fast reactor fuel fabrication technology and experience part I: metal fuels and assembly design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Fielding, Randall S.; Porter, Douglas L.; Crawford, Douglas C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.

    2009-06-01

    This paper is part I of a review focusing on the United States experience with metallic fast reactor fuel fabrication and assembly design for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Experience with metal fuel fabrication in the United States is extensive, including over 60 years of research conducted by the government, national laboratories, industry, and academia. This experience has culminated in a considerable amount of research that resulted in significant improvements to the technologies employed to fabricate metallic fast reactor fuel. This part of the review documents the current state of fuel fabrication technologies for metallic fuels, some of the challenges faced by previous researchers, and how these were overcome. Knowledge gained from reviewing previous investigations will aid both researchers and policy makers in forming future decisions relating to nuclear fuel fabrication technologies.

  11. Success factors in technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Universities in the U.S. have a significant impact on business through the transfer of technology. This paper describes goals and philosophy of the Technology Licensing Office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This paper also relates the critical factors for susscessful technology transfer, particularly relating to new business formation. These critical factors include the quality of the technology, the quality of the management, the quality of the investor, the passion for success, and the image of the company. Descriptions of three different levels of investment are also given and the most successful level of investment for starting a new company is reviewed. Licensing to large companies is also briefly reviewed, as this type of licensing requires some different strategies than that of licensing to start-up companies. High quality critical factors and intelligent investment create rewards for the parties and successful ventures.

  12. Cutting Edge Technologies Presentation: An Overview of Developing Sensor Technology Directions and Possible Barriers to New Technology Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    The aerospace industry requires the development of a range of chemical sensor technologies for such applications as leak detection, emission monitoring, fuel leak detection, environmental monitoring, and fire detection. A range of chemical sensors are being developed based on micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate microsensors with minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and the use of nanomaterials and structures to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity, However, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. These technologies and technical approaches have direct relevance to breath monitoring for clinical applications. This presentation gives an overview of developing cutting-edge sensor technology and possible barriers to new technology implementation. This includes lessons learned from previous microsensor development, recent work in development of a breath monitoring system, and future directions in the implementation of cutting edge sensor technology.

  13. Situating Technology Professional Development in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Ellen B.

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Technology and School Change (CTSC) is a research and development center specializing in professional development, evaluation and technology integration research. The goal of the qualitative research reported in this article was to identify factors that strengthen the integration of technology in classrooms in ways that are…

  14. Design and Characterization of a Fully Differential MEMS Accelerometer Fabricated Using MetalMUMPs Technology

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Peng; Qu, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a fully differential single-axis accelerometer fabricated using the MetalMUMPs process. The unique structural configuration and common-centriod wiring of the metal electrodes enables a fully differential sensing scheme with robust metal sensing structures. CoventorWare is used in structural and electrical design and simulation of the fully differential accelerometer. The MUMPs foundry fabrication process of the sensor allows for high yield, good process consistency and provides 20 μm structural thickness of the sensing element, which makes the capacitive sensing eligible. In device characterization, surface profile of the fabricated device is measured using a Veeco surface profilometer; and mean and gradient residual stress in the nickel structure are calculated as approximately 94.7 MPa and −5.27 MPa/μm, respectively. Dynamic characterization of the sensor is performed using a vibration shaker with a high-end commercial calibrating accelerometer as reference. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured as 0.52 mV/g prior to off-chip amplification. Temperature dependence of the sensing capacitance is also characterized. A −0.021fF/°C is observed. The findings in the presented work will provide useful information for design of sensors and actuators such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and electrothermal actuators that are to be fabricated using MetalMUMPs technology. PMID:23645109

  15. Development, fabrication and evaluation of composite thermal engine insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Foil enclosure configurations of 10 variations were fabricated and evaluated. A discussion of the thermal protection system panel design includes: (1) description of 3DSX/foil concept, (2) design environment, (3) material selection, (4) fabrication enclosure, (5) structural design, (6) thermal sizing, and (7) weight analysis. The structural design study includes foil evaluation, venting pressure loads, thermomechanical behavior, and enclosure venting (burst) pressure tests. Results of experimental demonstrations of performance and reuse capabilities are given for both thermal and acoustic testing.

  16. Design and fabrication process of silicon micro-calorimeters on simple SOI technology for X-ray spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliane, A.; Agnese, P.; Pigot, C.; Sauvageot, J.-L.; de Moro, F.; Ribot, H.; Gasse, A.; Szeflinski, V.; Gobil, Y.

    2008-09-01

    Several successful development programs have been conducted on infra-red bolometer arrays at the "Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique" (CEA-LETI Grenoble) in collaboration with the CEA-SAp (Saclay); taking advantage of this background, we are now developing an X-ray spectro-imaging camera for next generation space astronomy missions, using silicon only technology. We have developed monolithic silicon micro-calorimeters based on implanted thermistors in an improved array that could be used for future space missions. The 8×8 array consists of a grid of 64 suspended pixels fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer. Each pixel of this detector array is made of a tantalum (Ta) absorber, which is bound by means of indium bump hybridization, to a silicon thermistor. The absorber array is bound to the thermistor array in a collective process. The fabrication process of our detector involves a combination of standard technologies and silicon bulk micro-machining techniques, based on deposition, photolithography and plasma etching steps. Finally, we present the results of measurements performed on these four primary building blocks that are required to create a detector array up to 32×32 pixels in size.

  17. Mobile Sensor Technologies Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Lawrence C.; Oberle, Lawrence G.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing small mobile platforms for sensor placement, as well as methods for communicating between roving platforms and a central command location. The first part of this project is to use commercially available equipment to miniaturize an existing sensor platform. We developed a five-circuit-board suite, with an average board size of 1.5 by 3 cm. Shown in the preceding photograph, this suite provides all motor control, direction finding, and communications capabilities for a 27- by 21- by 40-mm prototype mobile platform. The second part of the project is to provide communications between mobile platforms, and also between multiple platforms and a central command location. This is accomplished with a low-power network labeled "SPAN," Sensor Platform Area Network, a local area network made up of proximity elements. In practice, these proximity elements are composed of fixed- and mobile-sensor-laden science packages that communicate to each other via radiofrequency links. Data in the network will be shared by a central command location that will pass information into and out of the network through its access to a backbone element. The result will be a protocol portable to general purpose microcontrollers satisfying a host of sensor networking tasks. This network will enter the gap somewhere between television remotes and Bluetooth but, unlike 802.15.4, will not specify a physical layer, thus allowing for many data rates over optical, acoustical, radiofrequency, hardwire, or other media. Since the protocol will exist as portable C-code, developers may be able to embed it in a host of microcontrollers from commercial to space grade and, of course, to design it into ASICs. Unlike in 802.15.4, the nodes will relate to each other as peers. A demonstration of this protocol using the two test bed platforms was recently held. Two NASA modified, commercially available, mobile platforms communicated and shared data with each other and a

  18. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  19. Chemical mechanical polishing: An enabling fabrication process for surface micromachining technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1998-08-01

    Chemical-Mechanical-Polishing (CMP), first used as a planarization technology in the manufacture of multi-level metal interconnects for high-density Integrated Circuits (IC), is readily adapted as an enabling technology in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication, particularly polysilicon surface micromachining. The authors have demonstrated that CMP enhances the design and manufacturability of MEMS devices by eliminating several photolithographic definition and film etch issues generated by severe topography. In addition, CMP planarization readily allows multi-level polysilicon structures comprised of 4- or more levels of polysilicon, eliminates design compromise generated by non-planar topography, and provides an avenue for integrating different process technologies. A recent investigation has also shown that CMP is a valuable tool for assuring acceptable optical flatness of micro-optical components such as micromirrors. Examples of these enhancements include: an extension of polysilicon surface-micromachining fabrication to a 5-level technology, a method of monolithic integration of electronics and MEMS, and optically flat micromirrors.

  20. Thermoelectric Development at Hi-Z Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kushch, Aleksandr

    2001-08-05

    An improved Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) for the Heavy Duty Class Eight Diesel Trucks is under development at Hi-Z Technology. The current TEG is equipped with the improved HZ-14 Thermoelectric module, which features better mechanical properties as well as higher electric power output. Also, the modules are held in place more securely. The TEG is comprised of 72 TE modules, which are capable of producing 1kW of electrical power at 30 V DC during nominal engine operation. Currently the upgraded generator has completed testing in a test cell and starting from August 2001 will be tested on a Diesel truck under typical road and environmental conditions. It is expected that the TEG will be able to supplement the existing shaft driven alternator, resulting in significant fuel saving, generating additional power required by the truck's accessories. The electronic and thermal properties of bulk materials are altered when they are incorporated into quantum wells. Two-dimensional quantum wells have been synthesized by alternating layers of B4C and B9C in one system and alternating layers of Si and Si0.8Ge0.2 in another system. Such nanostructures are being investigated as candidate thermoelectric materials with high figures of merit (Z). The predicted enhancement is attributed to the confined motion of charge carriers and phonons in the two dimensions and separating them from the ion scattering centers. Multilayer quantum well materials development continues with the fabrication of thicker films, evaluation of various substrates to minimize bypass heat loss, and bonding techniques to minimize high contact resistance. Quantum well thermoelectric devices with N-type Si/Si0.8Ge0.2 and P-type B4C/B9C have been fabricated from these films. The test results generated continue to indicate that much higher thermoelectric efficiencies can be achieved in the quantum wells compared to the bulk

  1. Using imprinting technology to fabricate three-dimensional devices from moulds of thermosetting polymer patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jem-Kun; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Chan, Chia-Hao; Huang, Chih-Feng; Chang, Feng-Chih

    2006-09-01

    The fabrication of moulds for imprinting can be simplified significantly by using specialized cross-linking polymers to define the pattern on a silicon wafer. Thermosetting polymers (SU-8) can be used to pattern silicon moulds for imprinting technologies because (1) silicon oxide moulds bearing a thermosetting polymer pattern can be obtained using conventional semiconductor technologies and (2) thermosetting polymers have no obvious glass transition temperature (Tg) because of their cross-linked structure, but the hardness decreases significantly when the temperature is above the Tg. In this study, we used Su-8 resist as the thermosetting polymer pattern to obtain moulds on a silicon wafer. We have tested the thermal properties of thermosetting (SU-8) and thermoplastic polymers (22A4) for use as imprinting patterns and imprinted resists. We fabricated a hill-like structure by applying an electron beam strategy and used this thick film to increase the adhesion between the pattern and the silicon wafer. We used scanning electron microscopy to investigate the resolution of the thermoplastic polymer resist (22A4) pattern that we imprinted using the thermosetting polymer (SU-8) pattern. To define the feature size after imprinting, we determined the feature size shrink factor after separation of the thermosetting polymer pattern (SU-8) from the thermoplastic polymer (22A4) resist. In addition, we have fabricated a microlens of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through replication using the thermoplastic polymer resist (22A4) obtained after imprinting the mould with the microlens structure of the thermosetting polymer (SU-8).

  2. Compact Submillimeter-Wave Receivers Made with Semiconductor Nano-Fabrication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, C.; Thomas, B.; Lee, C.; Peralta, A.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Gill, J.; Cooper, K.; Mehdi, I.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced semiconductor nanofabrication techniques are utilized to design, fabricate and demonstrate a super-compact, low-mass (<10 grams) submillimeter-wave heterodyne front-end. RF elements such as waveguides and channels are fabricated in a silicon wafer substrate using deep-reactive ion etching (DRIE). Etched patterns with sidewalls angles controlled with 1 deg precision are reported, while maintaining a surface roughness of better than 20 nm rms for the etched structures. This approach is being developed to build compact 2-D imaging arrays in the THz frequency range.

  3. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  4. Digital Fabrication as an Instructional Technology for Supporting Upper Elementary and Middle School Science and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this three-paper manuscript dissertation was to study digital fabrication as an instructional technology for supporting elementary and middle school science and mathematics education. Article one analyzed the effects of digital fabrication activities that were designed to contextualize mathematics education at a summer mathematics…

  5. Information Technology Developments for Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensen, G. D.; Meertens, C. M.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2004-12-01

    Some recent research at UNAVCO and the University of Colorado has been focused on Rocky Mountain tectonics, and Information Technology (IT) in the areas of data visualization and distributed data serving. At UNAVCO, we are participating in the geodynamics work in the Rocky Mountain Testbed of the GEON NSF funded (IT) Research project (www.geongrid.org). As part of this work, a variety of seismic tomography models, GPS velocity vector data, strain rate models and other data have been recompiled into a standard format. These data and models are being incorporated into our OPeNDAP server and the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). OPeNDAP servers are platform independent, self-describing distributed data servers allowing easy access to a wide audience. The IDV is a freely distributed visualization and analysis tool developed by UCAR that has several exciting capabilities such as online collaboration, and a variety of 1-d, 2-d and 3-d viewing options. Necessary solid earth viewing capabilities (earthquakes, focal mechanisms, faults, etc.) are currently being added to the IDV. Both our OPeNDAP server and visualization tool are being integrated into the GEON portal, a website for data searching, analysis, and visualization. Designing and implementing such systems now allows us to be more prepared for the volumes of data anticipated from various EarthScope projects. As part of the scientific research for GEON, we have also begun investigations of Colorado seismicity. The 1992 Rocky Mountain Front IRIS/PASSCAL seismic experiment recorded many local earthquakes. We have begun to locate these events and are working to create focal mechanisms and calculations of stress drop for this region. These will aid in improving seismic hazard and risk assessments for the rapidly growing Rocky Mountain population. New IT capabilities will help augment the quality of this work through sharing the data with a larger audience, providing a means to view and analyze integrated data, and quickly

  6. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  7. Nanomembranes and soft fabrication methods for high performance, low cost energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-09-01

    The production of integrated electronic circuits provides examples of the most advanced fabrication and assembly approaches that are generally characterized by large-scale integration of high-performance compact semiconductor elements that rely on rigid and essentially planar form factors. New methods of fabricating semiconductor membranes of nanoscale thickness with intrinsic mechanical flexible features are beginning to provide a set of means to lift these constraints by engendering deformable, three-dimensional device configurations that are difficult to achieve with bulkscale materials while retaining capacities for high (or altogether new forms of) electronic and/or optoelectronic performance. Together with enabling means of deterministic assembly realized via the advancing technology of transferprinting, these light-weight nanomembrane elements can be distributed over large areas on a soft, bendable, and even biocompatible secondary substrates with high throughput and yields to realize interesting new functionalities in technology. Exemplary cases include: large-area integrated electro-optical systems laminated onto curvilinear or other 3-D surfaces for use in sensing and imaging with capacities for accommodating demanding forms of mechanical flexure; and unconventional hybrid systems for lighting and photovoltaic energy conversion that provide a potentially transformational approach to supplant current technologies with high performance, low cost alternatives. Taken together, the results of recent research efforts illustrate important opportunities for exploiting advances in materials in synergy with physical means of patterning, fabrication and assembly. In this review, we explore several exemplary applications taken from this work, and specifically highlight scalable approaches to high performance integrated systems for low cost energy technologies.

  8. Development of Pollution Prevention Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Polle, Juergen; Sanchez-Delgado, Roberto

    2013-12-30

    This project investigated technologies that may reduce environmental pollution. This was a basic research/educational project addressing two major areas: A. In the algae research project, newly isolated strains of microalgae were investigated for feedstock production to address the production of renewable fuels. An existing collection of microalgae was screened for lipid composition to determine strains with superior composition of biofuel molecules. As many microalgae store triacylglycerides in so-called oil bodies, selected candidate strains identified from the first screen that accumulate oil bodies were selected for further biochemical analysis, because almost nothing was known about the biochemistry of these oil bodies. Understanding sequestration of triacylglycerides in intracellular storage compartments is essential to developing better strains for achieving high oil productivities by microalgae. At the onset of the project there was almost no information available on how to obtain detailed profiles of lipids from strains of microalgae. Our research developed analytical methods to determine the lipid profiles of novel microalgal strains. The project was embedded into other ongoing microalgal projects in the Polle laboratory. The project benefited the public, because students were trained in cell cultivation and in the operation of state-of-the-art analytical equipment. In addition, students at Brooklyn College were introduced into the concept of a systems biology approach to study algal biofuels production. B. A series of new nanostructured catalysts were synthesized, and characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. Our catalyst design leads to active nanostructures comprising small metal particles in intimate contact with strongly basic sites provided by the supports, which include poly(4-vinylpyridine), magnesium oxide, functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide. The new materials display a good potential as catalysts

  9. Fresnel lenses: study and fabrication in silicon technology for medium-IR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rubio, Rafael; Hildenbrand, Jürgen; Moreno, Mauricio; Marco, Santiago; Santander, Joaquín; Fonseca, Luis; Hartwig, Susanne; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    Diffractive Fresnel Lenses (FL) were designed, fabricated and tested. The lens aims for increasing the sensitivity of a Non-Dispersive InfraRed (NDIR) silicon based optical gas system, focusing as much radiation as possible onto the detector. The studied wavelengths are 10.6μm and 3.4μm, which are the main absorption lines for ethylene and ethanol respectively. The lens diameter (5mm) and the focal length (4mm) are fixed by the detector package. Those diffractive lenses are compatible with the planar nature of silicon microtechnology. A theoretical study about the global lens efficiency as a function of the technological constrains and the process complexity has been carried out. Using only three photolithographic masks, eight quantization steps can be etched and a theoretical lens efficiency of 95% can be achieved. Once the devices were fabricated, the focal length and the spot size have been measured.

  10. Laser-light delivery microtools based on laser technology: design, fabrication, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, Vadim P.; Voznesensky, Nikolay B.

    2001-06-01

    A set of new laser-light delivery microtools (LDM) based on laser technology is investigated and discussed. Wide application of LDM in different fields of science, medicine, biology, industry and information processing is considered. Fiber optical networks in medical diagnostics and technical, civil engineering and other technological areas are discussed. The general approach based on electromagnetic field equations-transformation for all range of dimensions (mini-, micro and nanodomain) is given. Laser-assisted technology for drawing-out and for microstructuring optical tools is investigated, high-speed movie has been applied to study the process and compared with theoretical description. Finally a number of fibers and micropipettes-based medical tools and SNOM-tips has been fabricated and tested. Applications of some tools for medical operations (thermocoagulation), protein rasters preparing, SNOM-microscopy investigation have been demonstrated.

  11. Opportunities for Technology Development at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, D. A.

    1999-05-01

    Many opportunities for space science-related technology development exist at NASA. They include the following programs: Advanced Concepts, Cross Enterprise Technology Development (CETD), Enterprise-unique (or focused), New Millennium, mission-specific, and Small Business Innovative Research. The ability to access the opportunities depends upon the maturity of the technology being sought for additional development and the customers who would benefit from the technology products. NASA is divided into Enterprises or business units. Customer requirements are derived from the Enterprise Strategic Plans, and the Strategic Plans are updated based upon the results of the Enterprise roadmaps. The CETD program funds technology applicable to more than one Enterprise that has not achieved mid-level maturity. The Advanced Concepts program funds very early technology development. Enterprise-unique programs such as the Explorer technology and X2000 programs focus on technology development unique to space science that has not achieved mid-level maturity. The New Millennium Program focuses on systems-level flight validations of breakthrough or enabling technology. Space science-unique instrument technology is developed within the space science program. Technology that has achieved pre-prototype validation in a relevant environment and is applicable to a specific mission is developed as part of the development of the mission. Small Business Innovative Research provides an opportunity for small businesses to develop technology for future NASA and commercial applications. Most of the technology development is funded through competitive procurements. Announcements of the procurement forecasts and procurement releases are available on the Internet. Details of the contents of the technology programs will be presented.

  12. Development and fabrication of bismaleimide-graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzenberger, H.; Herzog, M.; Roemer, W.; Scheiblich, R.

    1979-01-01

    The successful fabrication of high temperature resistant composites depends mainly on the processability of the resin binder matrix. For two new bismaleimide type resins the processing of graphite fabric prepregs to composites is described. One resin coded M 751 has to be processed from N-Methylpyrrolidone, the other resin evaluated is a so-called hot melt solvent-less system. Commercial T300/3000 Graphite fabrics were used as reinforcement. The M 751 - Resin is a press grade material and laminates are therefore moulded in high pressure conditions (400 N/sq cm). The solvent-less resin system H 795 is an autoclave grade material and can be cured at 40 N/sq cm. The cure cycles for both the press grade and the autoclave grade material (Fiberite W 143 fabric prepregs) are provided and the mechanical properties of laminates at low (23 C) and high (232 C) temperatures were measured. For comparison, the neat resin flexural properties are also presented. The water absorption for the neat resins and the graphite fabric laminates after a 1000 hour period was evaluated.

  13. Development of DIPRES feed for the fabrication of mixed-oxide fuels for fast breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, C W; Rasmussen, D E; Lloyd, M H

    1983-01-01

    The DIrect PREss Spheroidized feed process combines the conversion of uranium-plutonium solutions into spheres by internal gelation with conventional pellet fabrication techniques. In this manner, gel spheres could replace conventional powders as the feed material for pellet fabrication of nuclear fuels. Objective of the DIPRES feed program is to develop and qualify a process to produce mixed-oxide fuel pellets from gel spheres for fast breeder reactors. This process development includes both conversion and fabrication activities.

  14. Developments in Hollow Graphite Fiber Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Michael; Brantley, Lott W., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Hollow graphite fibers will be lighter than standard solid graphite fibers and, thus, will save weight in optical components. This program will optimize the processing and properties of hollow carbon fibers developed by MER and to scale-up the processing to produce sufficient fiber for fabricating a large ultra-lightweight mirror for delivery to NASA.

  15. Development of Hot Pressing as a Low Cost Processing Technique for Fuel Cell Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Sarin, V

    2003-01-14

    Dependable, plentiful, and economical energy has been the driving force for financial, industrial, and political growth in the US since the mid 19th century. For a country whose progress is so deeply rooted in abundant energy and whose current political agenda involves stabilizing world fossil fuel prices, the development of a reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly power generating source seems compulsory. The maturing of high technology fuel cells may be the panacea the country will find indispensable to free itself from foreign dependence. Fuel cells offer an efficient, combustion-less, virtually pollution-free power source, capable of being sited in downtown urban areas or in remote regions. Fuel cells have few moving parts and run almost silently. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly to electrical energy. Unlike batteries, which store a finite amount of energy, fuel cells will generate electricity continuously, as long as fuel and oxidant are available to the electrodes. Additionally, fuel cells offer clean, efficient, and reliable power and they can be operated using a variety of fuels. Hence, the fuel cell is an extremely promising technology. Over the course of this research, the fundamental knowledge related to ceramic processing, sintering, and hot pressing to successfully hot press a single operational SOFC in one step has been developed. Ceramic powder processing for each of the components of an SOFC has bene tailored towards this goal. Processing parameter for the electrolyte and cathode have been studied and developed until they converted. Several anode fabrication techniques have been developed. Additionally, a novel anode structured has been developed and refined. These individual processes have been cultivated until a single cell SOFC has been fabricated in one step.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride powder by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Xiaoliang Wang Sheng; Yang Hua; Duan Xinglong; Dong Xuebin

    2008-09-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powder was fabricated prepared by the spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The effects of nitrided temperature on the phases, morphology and particle size distribution of hBN powder, were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one obvious band gap (4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm ({lambda}{sub ex}=230 nm). FESEM image indicated that the particle size of the synthesized hBN was mainly in the range of 0.5-1.5 {mu}m in diameter, and 50-150 nm in thickness. The high-energy ball-milling process following 900 deg. C calcining process was very helpful to obtain fully crystallized hBN at lower temperature. - Graphical abstract: hBN powder was fabricated prepared by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The results indicated that spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology assisted with high-energy ball-milling process following calcined process was a hopeful way to manufacture hBN powder with high crystallinity in industrial scale.

  17. Technology Mapping: An Approach for Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    Technology mapping[TM] is proposed as an approach for developing technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). The study discusses in detail instructional design guidelines in relation to the enactment of TM, and reports on empirical findings from a study with 72 pre-service primary teachers within the context of teaching them how to teach…

  18. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-05-15

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  19. Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-09-30

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  20. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher E. Hull

    2005-11-04

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  1. JWST Primary Mirror Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Mirror Technology was identified as a (if not the) critical capability necessary to achieve the Level 1 science goals. A never before demonstrated space telescope capability was required: 6 to 8 meter class pri mary mirror, diffraction limited at 2 micrometers and operates at temperatures below 50K. Launch vehicle constraints placed significant architectural constraints: deployed/segmented primary mirror (4.5 meter fairing diameter) 20 kg/m2 areal density (PM 1000 kg mass) Such mirror technology had never been demonstrated - and did not exist

  2. Silicon solar cell process. Development, fabrication and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Tanner, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    Solar cells were fabricated from unconventional silicon sheets, and the performances were characterized with an emphasis on statistical evaluation. A number of solar cell fabrication processes were used and conversion efficiency was measured under AMO condition at 25 C. Silso solar cells using standard processing showed an average efficiency of about 9.6%. Solar cells with back surface field process showed about the same efficiency as the cells from standard process. Solar cells from grain boundary passivation process did not show any improvements in solar cell performance.

  3. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minahan, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cells from several unconventional silicon materials is described, and cell performance measured and analyzed. Unconventional materials evaluated are edge defined film fed grown (EFG), heat exchanger method (HEM), dendritic web grown, and continuous CZ silicons. Resistivity, current voltage, and spectral sensitivity of the cells were measured. Current voltage was measured under AM0 and AM1 conditions. Maximum conversion efficiencies of cells fabricated from these and other unconventional silicons were compared and test results analyzed. The HEM and continuous CZ silicon were found to be superior to silicon materials considered previously.

  4. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  5. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  6. Design, development, fabrication, and safety-of-flight testing of a panoramic night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Timothy W.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    1999-07-01

    A novel approach to significantly increasing the field of view (FOV) of night vision goggles (NVGs) has been developed. This approach uses four image intensifier tubes instead of the usual two to produce a 100 degree wide FOV. A conceptual demonstrator device was fabricated in November 1995 and limited flight evaluations were performed. Further development of this approach continues with eleven advanced technology demonstrators delivered in March 1999 that feature five different design configurations. Some of the units will be earmarked for ejection seat equipped aircraft due to their low profile design allowing the goggle to be retained safely during and after ejection. Other deliverables will be more traditional in design approach and lends itself to transport and helicopter aircraft as well as ground personnel. Extensive safety-of-flight testing has been accomplished as a precursor to the F-15C operational utility evaluation flight testing at Nellis AFB that began in March 1999.

  7. Space Station engineering and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Historical background, costs, organizational assignments, technology development, user requirements, mission evolution, systems analyses and design, systems engineering and integration, contracting, and policies of the space station are discussed.

  8. Pipe Leak Detection Technology Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that one of the nation’s biggest infrastructural needs is the replacement or rehabilitation of the water distribution and transmission systems. The institution of more effective pipe leak detection technology will im...

  9. Videodisc Technology: Developments 1980-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddick, John

    1983-01-01

    This 14-item annotated literature review summarizes and analyzes scientific developments in and applications of optical and videodisc technology. Implications for information storage and retrieval, prospects for the optical disc in the office, preservation and the new technology, electronic document delivery, and the impact of technology on…

  10. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AS DEVELOPMENT FACTORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENGYEL, PETER

    PROCEEDINGS FROM A MEETING OF UNESCO'S ADVISORY COUNCIL TO ITS OFFICE OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND ITS DIVISION OF SCIENCE POLICY ARE REPORTED. THE CENTRAL THEME OF THE CONFERENCE IS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. AN INTRODUCTORY PAPER DEALS WITH RESOURCES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, THE INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ON…

  11. Vocational Education's Role in Developing Technological Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Lemons, Dale

    1982-01-01

    The authors discuss the role industrial arts and vocational education must play in developing the technological literacy of our youth. This literacy includes understanding technology (production, energy and power, and communication), consumer knowledge of technological products, ability to use microcomputers, and increased comfort with…

  12. Critical stages of a biodetection platform development from sensor chip fabrication to surface chemistry and assay development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uludag, Yildiz

    2014-06-01

    Once viewed solely as a tool to analyse biomolecular interactions, biosensors are gaining widespread interest for diagnostics, biological defense, environmental and quality assurance in agriculture/food industries. Advanced micro fabrication techniques have facilitated integration of microfluidics with sensing functionalities on the same chip making system automation more convenient1. Biosensor devices relying on lab-on-a-chip technologies and nanotechnology has attracted much of attention in recent years for biological defense research and development. However, compared with the numerous publications and patents available, the commercialization of biosensors technology has significantly lagged behind the research output. This paper reviews the reasons behind the slow commercialisation of biosensors with an insight to the critical stages of a biosensor development from the sensor chip fabrication to surface chemistry applications and nanotechnology applications in sensing with case studies. In addition, the paper includes the description of a new biodetection platform based on Real-time Electrochemical ProfilingTM (REPTM) that comprises novel electrode arrays and nanoparticle based sensing. The performance of the REPTM platform has been tested for the detection of Planktothrix agardhii, one of the toxic bloom-forming cyanobacteria, usually found in shallow fresh water sources that can be used for human consumption. The optimised REPTM assay allowed the detection of P. agardhii DNA down to 6 pM. This study, showed the potential of REPTM as a new biodetection platform for toxic bacteria and hence further studies will involve the development of a portable multi-analyte biosensor based on REPTM technology for on-site testing.

  13. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  14. The Developing Science and Technology List

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, R.

    The Militarily Critical Technologies Program (MCTP), a DoD responsibility directed by Congress, provides a systematic, ongoing assessment and analysis of goods and technologies to determine those technologies that would permit significant advances in the development, production and use of military capabilities of potential adversaries and those that are being developed worldwide that have the potential to significantly enhance or degrade US military capabilities in the future. The program's objective is to characterize the technologies, including quantitative values and parameters, and assess worldwide technology capabilities. The MCTP is composed of two documents, the well known Militarily Critical Technology List (MCTL), and one called the Developing Science and Technologies List (DSTL). Both are products of the MCTP process. However, the DSTL is a compendium of scientific & technological capabilities being developed worldwide which have the potential to significantly enhance or degrade U.S. military capabilities starting five years into the future. The DSTL is sponsored by DDR&E and is used by other government organizations and agencies as well to aid in the prioritization and understanding of new technologies being developed worldwide. Working within an informal structure, TWG members are composed of government, industry and academia subject matter experts, who strive to produce objective analyses across each technology areas. This process and details of the current MCTP/DSTL are outlined in this poster paper. This poster paper focuses on Space Optics technology to provide a sample of the DSTL content.

  15. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  16. Innovative Technology Development Program. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, J.

    1995-08-01

    Through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a national applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program, whose goal has been to resolve the major technical issues and rapidly advance technologies for environmental restoration and waste management. The Innovative Technology Development (ITD) Program was established as a part of the DOE, Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) Program. The plan is part of the DOE`s program to restore sites impacted by weapons production and to upgrade future waste management operations. On July 10, 1990, DOE issued a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) through the Idaho Operations Office to solicit private sector help in developing innovative technologies to support DOE`s clean-up goals. This report presents summaries of each of the seven projects, which developed and tested the technologies proposed by the seven private contractors selected through the PRDA process.

  17. Welding technology. [technology transfer of NASA developments to commercial organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Welding processes which have been developed during NASA space program activities are discussed. The subjects considered are: (1) welding with an electron gun, (2) technology of welding special alloys, and (3) welding shop techniques and equipment. The material presented is part of the combined efforts of NASA and the Small Business Administration to provide technology transfer of space-related developments to the benefit of commercial organizations.

  18. Technology Development Roadmaps - a Systematic Approach to Maturing Needed Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Colllins; Layne Pincock

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. Planning and decision making represent important challenges for all projects. This paper presents the steps needed to assess technical readiness and determine the path forward to mature the technologies required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. A Technology Readiness Assessment is used to evaluate the required systems, subsystems, and components (SSC) comprising the desired plant architecture and assess the SSCs against established Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). A validated TRL baseline is then established for the proposed physical design. Technology Development Roadmaps are generated to define the path forward and focus project research and development and engineering tasks on advancing the technologies to increasing levels of maturity. Tasks include modeling, testing, bench-scale demonstrations, pilot-scale demonstrations, and fully integrated prototype demonstrations. The roadmaps identify precise project objectives and requirements; create a consensus vision of project needs; provide a structured, defensible, decision-based project plan; and, minimize project costs and schedules.

  19. Technology transfer to a developing nation, Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, C. A.; Uccetta, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental project is reported which was undertaken. to determine if selected types of technology developed for the aerospace program during the past decade are relevant to specific industrial problems of a developing nation and to test whether a structured program could facilitate the transfer of relevant technologies. The Korea Institute of Science and Technology and the IIT Research Institute were selected as the active transfer agents to participate in the program. The pilot project was based upon the approach to the transfer of domestic technology developed by the NASA Technology Utilization Division and utilized the extensive data and technical resources available through the Space Agency and its contractors. This pilot project has helped to clarify some aspects of the international technology transfer process and to upgrade Korean technological capabilities.

  20. Oil heat technology research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Kweller, E.R.; McDonald, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this United States Department of Energy (DOE)/Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) program is to develop a technology base for advancing the state-of-the-art related to oilfired combustion equipment. The major thrust is through technology based research that will seek new knowledge leading to improved designs and equipment optimization. The Combustion Equipment space Conditioning Technology program currently deals exclusively with residential and small commercial building oil heat technology.

  1. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    In an effort to increase the U.S. energy reserves and lower costs for finding and retrieving oil, the USDOE created a solicitation to encourage industry to focus on means to operate in small diameter well-Microhole. Partially in response to this solicitation and because Western Well Tool's (WWT) corporate objective to develop small diameter coiled tubing drilling tractor, WWT responded to and was awarded a contract to design, prototype, shop test, and field demonstrate a Microhole Drilling Tractor (MDT). The benefit to the oil industry and the US consumer from the project is that with the MDT's ability to facilitate Coiled Tubing drilled wells to be 1000-3000 feet longer horizontally, US brown fields can be more efficiently exploited resulting in fewer wells, less environmental impact, greater and faster oil recovery, and lower drilling costs. Shortly after award of the contract, WWT was approached by a major oil company that strongly indicated that the specified size of a tractor of 3.0 inches diameter was inappropriate and that immediate applications for a 3.38-inch diameter tractor would substantially increase the usefulness of the tool to the oil industry. Based on this along with an understanding with the oil company to use the tractor in multiple field applications, WWT applied for and was granted a no-cost change-of-scope contract amendment to design, manufacture, assemble, shop test and field demonstrate a prototype a 3.38 inch diameter MDT. Utilizing existing WWT tractor technology and conforming to an industry developed specification for the tool, the Microhole Drilling Tractor was designed. Specific features of the MDT that increase it usefulness are: (1) Operation on differential pressure of the drilling fluid, (2) On-Off Capability, (3) Patented unique gripping elements (4) High strength and flexibility, (5) Compatibility to existing Coiled Tubing drilling equipment and operations. The ability to power the MDT with drilling fluid results in a highly

  2. Managing Space Technology Development at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Christopher L.

    2007-01-01

    NASA uses a structured process for managing projects that develop advanced space technologies and transition them into the designs of flight systems. The four-part process consists of formulation, approval, implementation, and transition. In the formulation phase, technology needs are derived from mission concept studies, various technical approaches for meeting the technology needs are identified, technical performance goals called Key Performance Parameters (KPPs) are established, and a project plan is developed. Prior to project approval, an Independent Formulation Review is conducted to ensure that the project objectives are aligned with the mission needs, and that the project is well planned to meet the objectives. In the implementation phase, the technology development project matures the technology, and progress towards the KPPs is evaluated in periodic status reviews. Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) are used throughout the project lifecycle to assess the progress of technology maturation. In the transition phase, technologies that are successful in achieving the required level of maturity are transitioned to a customer for further development, are used in system designs, or are thoroughly documented for resumption of development at a later date. The customer or end-user of the technology is involved in all phases of the technology development process.

  3. Fabrication of interdigitated electrodes by inkjet printing technology for apllication in ammonia sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam Le, Duy; Nhien Nguyen, Thi Ngoc; Chanh Tin Doan, Duc; Dung Dang, Thi My; Chien Dang, Mau

    2016-06-01

    In this paper interdigitated electrodes for gas sensors were fabricated by inkjet printing technology. Silver electrodes were inkjet printed on Si/SiO2 substrates instead of traditional photolithography method. The inkjet printing parameters to obtain desired dimensions, thickness of the electrodes and distance between the interdigitated electrodes were optimized in this study. The fabricated interdigitated silver electrodes were tested for application in ammonia gas sensors. Conductive polyaniline (PANI) layer was coated on the silver interdigitated electrodes by drop-coating. Ammonia detection of the PANI-coated chips was characterized with a gas measurement system in which humidity and ammonia concentrations were well-controlled. The electrical conductivity of the PANI films coated on the electrodes was measured when the PANI films were exposed to nitrogen and ammonia. The conductivity of the PANI films decreased significantly due to the deprotonation process of PANI upon ammonia expodure. The recovery time was about 15 min by heating up the polymer chip at 60 °C. The results showed that the silver electrodes fabricated by inkjet printing technique could be used as a sensor platform for ammonia detection.

  4. Fabrication of fiber-optic broadband ultrasound emitters by micro-opto-mechanical technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belsito, L.; Vannacci, E.; Mancarella, F.; Ferri, M.; Veronese, G. P.; Biagi, E.; Roncaglia, A.

    2014-08-01

    A micro-opto-mechanical system (MOMS) technology for the fabrication of fiber-optic optoacoustic emitters is presented. The described devices are based on the thermoelastic generation of ultrasonic waves from patterned carbon films obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of photoresist layers and fabricated on miniaturized single-crystal silicon frames used to mount the emitters on the tip of an optical fiber. Thanks to the micromachining process adopted, high miniaturization levels are reached in the fabrication of the emitters, and self-standing devices on optical fiber with diameter around 350 µm are demonstrated, potentially suited to minimally invasive medical applications. The functional testing of fiber-optic emitter prototypes in water performed by using a 1064 nm Q-switched Nd-YAG excitation laser source is also presented, yielding broadband emission spectra extended from low frequencies up to more than 40 MHz, and focused emission fields with a maximum peak-to-peak pressure level of about 1.2 MPa at a distance of 1 mm from the devices.

  5. PREFACE: Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization Atomically controlled fabrication technology: new physics and functional device realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yuji; Kasai, Hideaki

    2011-10-01

    To realize next generation functional devices, atomic level controllability of the application and fabrication techniques is necessary. The conventional route to advance solid state devices, which involves improvement of 'instrumental accuracy', is now facing a major paradigm shift towards 'phenomenal accuracy'. Therefore, to keep up with this critical turn in the development of devices, pioneering research (both theoretical and experimental) on relevant materials, focusing on new physics at the atomic scale, is inevitable. This special section contains articles on the advancements in fabrication of functional devices with an emphasis on the exploration, clarification and understanding of atomistic phenomena. Research articles reporting theoretical and experimental findings on various materials such as semiconductors, metals, magnetic and organic systems, collectively present and 'capture' the appropriate processes and mechanisms of this rapidly developing field. The theoretical investigations employ first-principles quantum-mechanical simulations to clarify and bring about design principles and guidelines, or to develop more reliable computational methods. Experimental studies, on the other hand, introduce novel capabilities to build, view and manipulate materials at the atomic scale by employing pioneering techniques. Thus, the section pays significant attention to novel structures and properties and the accompanying fabrication techniques and design arising from the understanding of properties and structures at the atomic scale. We hope that researchers in the area of physics, materials science and engineering, interested in the development of functional devices via atomic level control, will find valuable information in this collaborative work. We are grateful to all of the authors for their contributions. Atomically controlled fabrication contents On the mechanism of carbon nanotube formation: the role of the catalyst G N Ayre, T Uchino, B Mazumder, A L Hector

  6. Miniature-MCA technology developments

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Stephens, M.M.; Biddle, R.S.

    1991-12-31

    We have recently reduced the size of multichannel analyzers (MCAs) and have implemented more features in hardware to relieve software requirements. We built and tested a spectroscopy grade, 4096-channel MCA. Exclusive of amplifier and power supply, it fits on two boards each approximately 7 by 15 cm. This paper discusses the features and performance of the analyzer and some reasonable applications of these technologies.

  7. KSC Education Technology Research and Development Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, Michael R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Educational technology is facilitating new approaches to teaching and learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Cognitive research is beginning to inform educators about how students learn providing a basis for design of more effective learning environments incorporating technology. At the same time, access to computers, the Internet and other technology tools are becoming common features in K-20 classrooms. Encouraged by these developments, STEM educators are transforming traditional STEM education into active learning environments that hold the promise of enhancing learning. This document illustrates the use of technology in STEM education today, identifies possible areas of development, links this development to the NASA Strategic Plan, and makes recommendations for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Education Office for consideration in the research, development, and design of new educational technologies and applications.

  8. The Human Response to Technological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Luellen

    Technological development and our human potential are two of the greatest challenges facing humankind today. The appropriate response to technological development seems to be to shape it for positive and productive human uses. Just as America once shifted from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy, we are now shifting from an industrial…

  9. Advances in Technology, Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouwenhoven, Wim, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    From 3rd to 5th March 2008 the International Association of Technology, Education and Development organised its International Technology, Education and Development Conference in Valencia, Spain. Over a hundred papers were presented by participants from a great variety of countries. Summarising, this book provides a kaleidoscopic view of work that…

  10. Aligning Technology Education Teaching with Brain Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to determine if there is a level of alignment between technology education curriculum and theories of intellectual development. The researcher compared Epstein's Brain Growth Theory and Piaget's Status of Intellectual Development with technology education curriculum from Australia, England, and the United…

  11. A precision hot embossing mold fabricated by high-resolution powder blasting with polydimethylsiloxane and SU-8 masking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomas, T.; Wisitsoraat, A.; Chevasuvit, F.; Tuantranont, A.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we applied a three-dimensional micromold by using micropowder and micropattern masking technology. High-resolution powder blasting with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and SU-8 masking is developed for the fabrication of a precision microfluidic mold for hot embossing fabrication. The PDMS is a suitable masking material for powder blasting due to its high erosion resistance. First, a 100 µm SU-8 negative pattern was developed on a stainless steel substrate by standard photolithography. A PDMS solution was then applied to the substrate, mainly filling recessed regions. Excess of PDMS was then physically removed by a blade. The PDMS/SU-8 structure was then cured. Next, silicon carbine (SiC) powder with an average diameter of 50 µm was blasted on a PDMS/SU-8 coated stainless sheet at a constant pressure between 4 and 6 bar and a PDMS mask was removed by ultrasonic cleaning in isopropanol. The three-dimensional structure was examined by an optical microscope, optical white light interferometer and scanning electron microscope. The PDMS pattern is found to be 50 µm wide, and the maximum etched depth at this thickness is around 150 µm at a blasting pressure of 6.2 bar; thus, an aspect ratio of 3 is easily obtained. In principle, the low-cost micromachining hot embossing mold developed can be improved to yield submicrometer- and nanometer-scale resolution.

  12. Development of explosive welding procedures to fabricate channeled nozzle structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattee, H. E.; Linse, V. D.

    1976-01-01

    Research was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating a large contoured structure with complex internal channeling by explosive welding procedures. Structures or nozzles of this nature for wind tunnel applications were designed. Such nozzles vary widely in their complexity. However, in their simplest form, they consist of a grooved base section to which a cover sheet is attached to form a series of internal cooling passages. The cover sheet attachment can be accomplished in various ways: fusion welding, brazing, and diffusion welding. The cover sheet has also been electroformed in place. Of these fabrication methods, brazing has proved most successful in producing nozzles with complex contoured surfaces and a multiplicity of internal channels.

  13. Seeker multispectral atmospheric reentry technology (SMART) window development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, G.; Herman, B.; Morrow, H.; Anderson, W.; Hsu, I.; Stubbs, D.

    1992-05-01

    Seeker Multispectral Atmospheric Reentry Technology (SMART) window development is concerned with the application of innovative technologies to develop an internally cooled window with minimum aperture size for a large field-of-regard (FOR) multispectral seeker installed in an endoatmospheric hypersonic kill vehicle. The window should be very small and lightweight and have a built-in scanner to cover the FOR. The design of such a window requires input from several critical areas, including system requirements, optical design, fabrication of micro-optical components, cooling, optomechanical design, mechanical stress analysis, and flow-field analysis. This paper describes our approach to the development of a SMART window and the current state of our design.

  14. Progress in Technology Research and Development for NCSX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, G.; Chrzanowski, J.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Raftopoulos, S.; Reiersen, W.; Viola, M.; Goranson, P.; Lyon, J.; Nelson, B.; Williamson, D.

    2003-10-01

    The physics mission of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment imposes demanding requirements on the manufacturing technologies for the modular coils and vacuum vessel. These components must satisfy complex three-dimensional shape specifications to high accuracy while meeting their performance requirements. A research and development program is being carried out by PPPL, ORNL, and industry to demonstrate the necessary technologies. Advanced numerical modeling, metrology, and manufacturing methods are being developed to optimize the fabrication of the modular coil winding forms (by casting and machining) and vacuum vessel (by forming and welding). Coil winding developments include flexible cable design, epoxy impregnation of complex-shaped windings, metrology, composite materials properties, and dimensional control during the winding process.

  15. Advanced Refrigerator/Freezer Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, James E.; Geng, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Refrigerator/Freezer (R/F) Technology Development Project was initiated in 1994, on the basis of recommendations of a team of NASA Scientists and engineers, who assessed the need for advanced technology to support future life and biomedical sciences space flight missions. The project, which was cofunded by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology and Life and Biomedical Sciences & Applications Division, has two phases. In the Phase I Advanced R/F Technology Assessment, candidate technologies were identified and ranked, on the basis of a combination of their effect on system performance and their risk of developmental success. In Phase II Technology Development, the advanced technologies with the highest combined ranking, which could be accomplished within the budgetary constraints, were pursued. The effort has been mainly by contract, with a modest in-house effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) of Houston, Texas, was selected as the prime contractor for both contract phases.

  16. SRS environmental technology development field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1995-09-01

    A critical and difficult step in the development and implementation of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is successfully transferring these technologies to industry and government users for routine assessment and compliance activities. The Environmental Sciences Section of the DOE Savannah River Technology Center provides a forum for developers, potential users, and regulatory organizations to evaluate new technologies in comparison with baseline technologies in a well characterized field test bed. The principal objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive, objective field tests of monitoring and characterization technologies that are not currently used in EPA standard methods and evaluate their performance during actual operating conditions against baseline methods. This paper provides an overview of the field test site and a description of some of the technologies demonstrated at the site including their field applications.

  17. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication, and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Leung, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Solar cells from HEM, Dendritic Webs, and EFG ribbons were fabricated and characterized. The HEM solar cells showed only slight enhancement in cell performance after gettering steps (diffusion glass) were added. Dendritic webs from various growth runs indicated that performance of solar cells made from the webs was not as good as that of the conventional CZ cells. The EFG ribbons grown in CO ambient showed significant improvement in silicon quality.

  18. Technology Development: From Idea to Implementation - 12131

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, Renee H.

    2012-07-01

    There are good ideas and new technologies proposed every day to solve problems within the DOE complex. A process to transition a new technology from inception to the decision to launch a project with baselines is described. Examples from active technology development projects within Savannah River Remediation (SRR) will be used to illustrate the points. The process includes decision points at key junctures leading to preliminary design. At that point, normal project management tools can be employed. The technology development steps include proof-of-principle testing, scaled testing and analysis, and conceptual design. Tools are used that define the scope necessary for each step of technology development. The tools include use of the DOE technology readiness guide, Consolidated Hazards Analysis (CHA) and internal checklists developed by Savannah River Remediation. Integration with operating or planned facilities is also included. The result is a roadmap and spreadsheet that identifies each open question and how it may be answered. Performance criteria are developed that enable simple decisions to be made after the completion of each step. Conceptual design tasks should begin as the technology development continues. The most important conceptual design tasks at this point in the process include process flow diagrams (PFDs), high level Process and Instrumentation Drawings (P and IDs), and general layout drawings. These should influence the design of the scaled simulant testing. Mechanical and electrical drawings that support cost and schedule development should also be developed. An early safety control strategy developed from the CHA will also influence the cost. The combination of test results, calculations and early design output with rough order of magnitude cost and schedule information provide input into the decisions to proceed with a project and data to establish the baseline. This process can be used to mature any new technology, especially those that must be

  19. Advanced Reactor Technology -- Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP)

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Wayne Leland

    2015-05-01

    This DOE-NE Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) regulatory technology development plan (RTDP) will link critical DOE nuclear reactor technology development programs to important regulatory and policy-related issues likely to impact a “critical path” for establishing a viable commercial AdvSMR presence in the domestic energy market. Accordingly, the regulatory considerations that are set forth in the AdvSMR RTDP will not be limited to any one particular type or subset of advanced reactor technology(s) but rather broadly consider potential regulatory approaches and the licensing implications that accompany all DOE-sponsored research and technology development activity that deal with commercial non-light water reactors. However, it is also important to remember that certain “minimum” levels of design and safety approach knowledge concerning these technology(s) must be defined and available to an extent that supports appropriate pre-licensing regulatory analysis within the RTDP. Final resolution to advanced reactor licensing issues is most often predicated on the detailed design information and specific safety approach as documented in a facility license application and submitted for licensing review. Because the AdvSMR RTDP is focused on identifying and assessing the potential regulatory implications of DOE-sponsored reactor technology research very early in the pre-license application development phase, the information necessary to support a comprehensive regulatory analysis of a new reactor technology, and the resolution of resulting issues, will generally not be available. As such, the regulatory considerations documented in the RTDP should be considered an initial “first step” in the licensing process which will continue until a license is issued to build and operate the said nuclear facility. Because a facility license application relies heavily on the data and information generated by technology development studies, the anticipated regulatory

  20. Developments on Bearingless Drive Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrhein, Wolfgang; Silber, Siegfried; Nenninger, Klaus; Trauner, Gernot; Reisinger, Martin; Schoeb, Reto

    Meanwhile the bearingless motor technology offers a lot of mechanical and electrical design variants for various kinds of applications. A comparison of switched reluctance motor, asynchronous motor and permanent magnet motor technology shows advantages and disadvantages with regard to different technical requirements. Especially for small motor applications with large air gaps the permanent magnet motor is of great importance. This is confirmed by a comparison of electromagnetic and permanent-magnetic pole designs. Based on bearingless permanent magnet motors with integrated winding systems for levitation as well as torque generation reliability and fault-tolerant design studies are carried out. It is shown that with an appropriate motor design a failure of an arbitrary phase can be compensated by the motor itself. In such a case there is no need for failure detection in order to switch over to special auxiliary control algorithms. A further advantage of the integrated winding system is the high grade of copper utilization independent of the ratio of radial force and torque loads.

  1. Process development and fabrication for sphere-pac fuel rods. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, R.K.; Campbell, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium fuel rods containing sphere-pac fuel have been fabricated for in-reactor tests and demonstrations. A process for the development, qualification, and fabrication of acceptable sphere-pac fuel rods is described. Special equipment to control fuel contamination with moisture or air and the equipment layout needed for rod fabrication is described and tests for assuring the uniformity of the fuel column are discussed. Fuel retainers required for sphere-pac fuel column stability and instrumentation to measure fuel column smear density are described. Results of sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication campaigns are reviewed and recommended improvements for high throughput production are noted.

  2. Plasma Modeling Enabled Technology Development Empowered by Fundamental Scattering Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Technology development increasingly relies on modeling to speed the innovation cycle. This is particularly true for systems using low temperature plasmas (LTPs) and their role in enabling energy efficient processes with minimal environmental impact. In the innovation cycle, LTP modeling supports investigation of fundamental processes that seed the cycle, optimization of newly developed technologies, and prediction of performance of unbuilt systems for new applications. Although proof-of-principle modeling may be performed for idealized systems in simple gases, technology development must address physically complex systems that use complex gas mixtures that now may be multi-phase (e.g., in contact with liquids). The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering, and radiation transport data (FSRD) required for this modeling increases as the innovation cycle progresses, while the accuracy required of that data depends on the intended outcome. In all cases, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSRD. Modeling and technology development are, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSRD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSRD in the innovation cycle enabled by plasma modeling will be discussed using results from multidimensional and global models. Examples of fundamental studies and technology optimization will focus on microelectronics fabrication and on optically pumped lasers. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  3. Technology development and applications at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, P.J.; Skriba, M.C.; Warner, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    At the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio, the U.S. Department of Energy and contractor Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) are aggressively pursuing both the development and the application of improved, innovative technology to the environmental restoration task. Application of emerging technologies is particularly challenging in a regulatory environment that places pressure on operational managers to develop and meet tight schedules. The regulatory and operational needs make close communication essential between technology developers and technology users (CERCLA/RCRA Unit managers). At Fernald this cooperation and communication has led, not only to the development and demonstration of new technologies with applications at other sites, but also to application of new technologies directly to the Fernald clean up. New technologies have been applied to improve environmental safety and health, improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts, and to cut restoration costs. The paper will describe successful efforts to develop and apply new technologies at the FEMP and will emphasize those technologies that have been applied and are planned for use in the clean up of this former uranium production facility.

  4. Space Technology Mission Directorate: Game Changing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace community have deep roots in manufacturing technology and innovation. Through it's Game Changing Development Program and the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Project NASA develops and matures innovative, low-cost manufacturing processes and products. Launch vehicle propulsion systems are a particular area of interest since they typically comprise a large percentage of the total vehicle cost and development schedule. NASA is currently working to develop and utilize emerging technologies such as additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing) and computational materials and processing tools that could dramatically improve affordability, capability, and reduce schedule for rocket propulsion hardware.

  5. Titan probe technology assessment and technology development plan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The need for technology advances to accomplish the Titan probe mission was determined by defining mission conditions and requirements and evaluating the technology impact on the baseline probe configuration. Mission characteristics found to be technology drivers include (1) ten years dormant life in space vacuum; (2) unknown surface conditions, various sample materials, and a surface temperature; and (3) mission constraints of the Saturn Orbiter Dual Probe mission regarding weight allocation. The following areas were identified for further development: surface sample acquisition system; battery powered system; nonmetallic materials; magnetic bubble memory devices, and the landing system. Preentry science, reliability, and weight reduction and redundancy must also be considered.

  6. Fabrication development of full-sized components for GCFR core assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, J.R.; Flynn, P.W.; Foster, L.C.

    1980-05-01

    This paper presents the status of the development of full-sized components for gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core assemblies. Methods for ribbing of the fuel rod cladding, fabrication of grid spacers of two different designs, drawing of assembly flow ducts, and fabrication of fission gas collection manifolds by several methods are discussed.

  7. Development of Inflatable Entry Systems Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Player, Charles J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Corliss, James

    2005-01-01

    Achieving the objectives of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration will require the development of new technologies, which will in turn require higher fidelity modeling and analysis techniques, and innovative testing capabilities. Development of entry systems technologies can be especially difficult due to the lack of facilities and resources available to test these new technologies in mission relevant environments. This paper discusses the technology development process to bring inflatable aeroshell technology from Technology Readiness Level 2 (TRL-2) to TRL-7. This paper focuses mainly on two projects: Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE), and Inflatable Aeroshell and Thermal Protection System Development (IATD). The objectives of IRVE are to conduct an inflatable aeroshell flight test that demonstrates exoatmospheric deployment and inflation, reentry survivability and stability, and predictable drag performance. IATD will continue the development of the technology by conducting exploration specific trade studies and feeding forward those results into three more flight tests. Through an examination of these projects, and other potential projects, this paper discusses some of the risks, issues, and unexpected benefits associated with the development of inflatable entry systems technology.

  8. FY03 Engineering Technology Reports Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Minichino, C

    2004-03-05

    This report summarizes the science and technology research and development efforts in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2003, and exemplifies Engineering's 50-year history of researching and developing the engineering technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence, and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and the technical resources developed through venues like the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD). This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow.'' Engineering's investment in technologies is carried out through two programs, the LDRD program and the ''Tech Base'' program. LDRD is the vehicle for creating those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge, or that require a significant level of research, or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply those technologies, or adapt them to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice.'' Therefore, the LDRD report covered here has a strong research emphasis. Areas that are presented all fall into those needed to accomplish our mission. For FY2003, Engineering's LDRD projects were focused on mesoscale target fabrication and characterization, development of engineering computational capability, material studies and modeling, remote sensing and communications, and microtechnology and nanotechnology for national security applications. Engineering's five Centers, in partnership with the Division Leaders and Department Heads, are responsible for guiding the science and technology investments for the Directorate. The Centers represent technology areas that have been identified as critical for the present and future work of the Laboratory, and are

  9. Space Station Freedom advanced photovoltaics and battery technology development planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brender, Karen D.; Cox, Spruce M.; Gates, Mark T.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1993-05-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) usable electrical power is planned to be built up incrementally during assembly phase to a peak of 75 kW end-of-life (EOL) shortly after Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) is achieved in 1999. This power will be provided by planar silicon (Si) arrays and nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries. The need for power is expected to grow from 75 kW to as much as 150 kW EOL during the evolutionary phase of SSF, with initial increases beginning as early as 2002. Providing this additional power with current technology may not be as cost effective as using advanced technology arrays and batteries expected to develop prior to this evolutionary phase. A six-month study sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and conducted by Boeing Defense and Space Group was initiated in Aug. 1991. The purpose of the study was to prepare technology development plans for cost effective advanced photovoltaic (PV) and battery technologies with application to SSF growth, SSF upgrade after its arrays and batteries reach the end of their design lives, and other low Earth orbit (LEO) platforms. Study scope was limited to information available in the literature, informal industry contacts, and key representatives from NASA and Boeing involved in PV and battery research and development. Ten battery and 32 PV technologies were examined and their performance estimated for SSF application. Promising technologies were identified based on performance and development risk. Rough order of magnitude cost estimates were prepared for development, fabrication, launch, and operation. Roadmaps were generated describing key issues and development paths for maturing these technologies with focus on SSF application.

  10. Space Station Freedom advanced photovoltaics and battery technology development planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brender, Karen D.; Cox, Spruce M.; Gates, Mark T.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) usable electrical power is planned to be built up incrementally during assembly phase to a peak of 75 kW end-of-life (EOL) shortly after Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) is achieved in 1999. This power will be provided by planar silicon (Si) arrays and nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries. The need for power is expected to grow from 75 kW to as much as 150 kW EOL during the evolutionary phase of SSF, with initial increases beginning as early as 2002. Providing this additional power with current technology may not be as cost effective as using advanced technology arrays and batteries expected to develop prior to this evolutionary phase. A six-month study sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and conducted by Boeing Defense and Space Group was initiated in Aug. 1991. The purpose of the study was to prepare technology development plans for cost effective advanced photovoltaic (PV) and battery technologies with application to SSF growth, SSF upgrade after its arrays and batteries reach the end of their design lives, and other low Earth orbit (LEO) platforms. Study scope was limited to information available in the literature, informal industry contacts, and key representatives from NASA and Boeing involved in PV and battery research and development. Ten battery and 32 PV technologies were examined and their performance estimated for SSF application. Promising technologies were identified based on performance and development risk. Rough order of magnitude cost estimates were prepared for development, fabrication, launch, and operation. Roadmaps were generated describing key issues and development paths for maturing these technologies with focus on SSF application.

  11. Recent Developments in NASA Piezocomposite Actuator Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, William K.; Inman, Daniel J.; High, James W.; Williams, R. Brett

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of recent progress in the development of the NASA Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) piezocomposite actuator device. This will include a brief history of the development of the MFC, a description of the standard manufacturing process used to fabricate MFC actuators, and a summary of ongoing MFC electromechanical characterization testing. In addition, we describe the development of a prototype single-crystal piezoelectric MFC device, and compare its performance with MFC actuator specimens utilizing conventional piezoceramic materials.

  12. Development of novel piezoelectric composites by solid freeform fabrication techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Rajesh Kumar

    Piezoelectric ceramic/polymer composites have been widely used for ultrasonic transducers because of their superior properties as compared to bulk piezoceramics or polymers. The electromechanical Properties of the composites can be tailored for various applications by changing the design and connectivity of the piezoceramic skeleton. The goal of this project was to utilize the design flexibility provided by solid freeform fabrication (SFF) techniques to manufacture complex PZT composite transducers for ultrasonic medical imaging applications. The ceramic element shape, size and spatial arrangement could be varied easily; by changing the parameters in the input computer aided design file. Many SFF techniques, including fused deposition modeling (FDM), fused deposition of ceramics (FDC), and Sanders prototyping (SP) were used to fabricate a variety of novel PZT structures. The composites were processed either by a direct, indirect or multiple mold route. In the direct route (FDC), green ceramic preforms were produced from 52 vol.% PZT-5H ceramic loaded polymer filaments. A lost mold technique was used for the indirect and multiple mold routes (SP, FDM). After heat treatment, the sintered PZT skeletons were backfilled with epoxy, polished, electroded and corona poled. A variety of novel and complex designs such as 3-D Honeycomb, 3-D Mesh, ladder, oriented fibers, 1-3 regular and staggered rods, and other composites including concentric polygon, hexagonal patterns, and 2-2 sheets with and without volume fraction gradient (VFG) were fabricated. The 3-D Honeycomb structures with a 3-3 connectivity showed d33 coefficients as high as 340 pC/N. The ladder structure exhibited distinctly different properties when poled along different directions. One of them, i.e. the oriented 3-3 fiber structure was believed to utilize the d33, d31 and d15 coefficients to show an effective d33 of 510 pC/N. VFG composites were fabricated to achieve a reduction the side and grating lobe

  13. Fabrication of blended polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate thin membrane using solid freeform fabrication technology for guided bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Huh, Jung-Bo; Park, Ju Young; Jeon, Young-Chan; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Jong Young; Rhie, Jong-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2013-02-01

    This study developed a bioabsorbable-guided bone regeneration membrane made of blended polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) using solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technology. The chemical and physical properties of the membrane were evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and a tensile test. In vitro cell activity assays revealed that the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of seeded adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were significantly promoted by the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes compared with PCL/PLGA membranes. When the PCL/PLGA and PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes were implanted on rabbit calvaria bone defects without ADSCs, microcomputed tomography and histological analyses confirmed that the SFF-based PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes greatly increased bone formation without the need for bone substitute materials. Moreover, tight integration, which helps to prevent exposure of the membrane, between both membranes and the soft tissues was clearly observed histologically. The SFF-based PCL/PLGA and PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes retained their mechanical stability for up to 8 weeks without significant collapse. Furthermore, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP underwent adequate degradation without a significant immune response at 8 weeks. PMID:22934667

  14. Design, development, fabrication and delivery of register and multiplexer units. [CMOS monolithic chip development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, A.; Lombardi, T.

    1978-01-01

    Several approaches for implementing the register and multiplexer unit into two CMOS monolithic chip types were evaluated. The CMOS standard cell array technique was selected and implemented. Using this design automation technology, two LSI CMOS arrays were designed, fabricated, packaged, and tested for proper static, functional, and dynamic operation. One of the chip types, multiplexer register type 1, is fabricated on a 0.143 x 0.123 inch chip. It uses nine standard cell types for a total of 54 standard cells. This involves more than 350 transistors and has the functional equivalent of 111 gates. The second chip, multiplexer register type 2, is housed on a 0.12 x 0.12 inch die. It uses 13 standard cell types, for a total of 42 standard cells. It contains more than 300 transistors, the functional equivalent of 112 gates. All of the hermetically sealed units were initially screened for proper functional operation. The static leakage and the dynamic leakage were measured. Dynamic measurements were made and recorded. At 10 V, 14 megabit shifting rates were measured on multiplexer register type 1. At 5 V these units shifted data at a 6.6 MHz rate. The units were designed to operate over the 3 to 15 V operating range and over a temperature range of -55 to 125 C.

  15. Development and fabrication of large vented nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnel, C. P., III

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary cell design for a 300AH vented nickel-zinc cell was established based on volume requirements and cell component materials selected by NASA Lewis Research Center. A 100AH cell configuration was derived from the 300AH cell design utilizing the same size electrodes, separators, and cell terminal hardware. The first cells fabricated were four groups of three cells each in the 100AH size. These 100AH experimental nickel-zinc cells had as common components the nickel positive electrodes (GFM), flexible inorganic separator (GFM) bags on the negative electrodes, pressed powder zinc oxide electrodes, and cell containers with hardware. The variations introduced were four differing electrolyte absorber (interseparator) systems used to encase the nickel positive electrodes of each cell group. The four groups of 100AH experimental vented nickel-zinc cells were tested to determine, based on cell performance, the best two interseparator systems. Using the two interseparator systems, two groups of experimental 300AH cells were fabricated. Each group of three cells differed only in the interseparator material used. The six cells were filled, formed and tested to evaluate the interseparator materials and investigate the performance characteristics of the 300AH cell configuration and its components.

  16. Development and fabrication of a solar cell junction processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giesling, R.

    1981-01-01

    Modifications to the ground plane, to insure a good electrical return path during the pulse discharge, were made using a ring of beryllium copper finger stock attached to the underside of the aluminum ground plate. Experiments on annealing of wafers with ion implantation damage continued. The entire surface of 100 mm diameter wafers were annealed by one pulse for the standard implant (10 keV, phosphorus, 2x10 to the 15th power ions/sq cm). While samples are being fabricated into solar cells for electrical characterization, work is continuing on improvement of the electron beam uniformity and the optimization of the diode parameters. The engineering design was completed and the manufacturing detail drawings were released for fabrication. Assembly of the subcomponents for the exit and entrance locks is almost complete. These components include the cassettes, the indexing mechanisms, main doors, and wafer carrier transfer modules. The 'Y' track and three phase transition track sections are under final assembly and test.

  17. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Leung, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Solar cells were fabricated from EFG ribbons dendritic webs, cast ingots by heat exchanger method, and cast ingots by ubiquitous crystallization process. Baseline and other process variations were applied to fabricate solar cells. EFG ribbons grown in a carbon-containing gas atmosphere showed significant improvement in silicon quality. Baseline solar cells from dendritic webs of various runs indicated that the quality of the webs under investigation was not as good as the conventional CZ silicon, showing an average minority carrier diffusion length of about 60 um versus 120 um of CZ wafers. Detail evaluation of large cast ingots by HEM showed ingot reproducibility problems from run to run and uniformity problems of sheet quality within an ingot. Initial evaluation of the wafers prepared from the cast polycrystalline ingots by UCP suggested that the quality of the wafers from this process is considerably lower than the conventional CZ wafers. Overall performance was relatively uniform, except for a few cells which showed shunting problems caused by inclusions.

  18. Water Processor Assembly Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert; Parker, Dave; OConnor, Ed

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable quality water from humidity condensate, carbon dioxide reduction water, water obtained from fuel cells, reclaimed urine distillate, shower, handwash and oral hygiene waste waters. This paper describes the WPA integration into the ISS Node 3. It details the substantial development history supporting the design and describes the WPA System characteristics and its physical layout.

  19. Fabrication technology of heterojunctions in the lattice of a 2D photonic crystal based on macroporous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zharova, Yu. A. Fedulova, G. V.; Astrova, E. V.; Baldycheva, A. V.; Tolmachev, V. A.; Perova, T. S.

    2011-08-15

    Design and fabrication technology of a microcavity structure based on a double heterojunction in macroporous silicon is suggested. The fabrication process of a strip of a 2D photonic crystal constituted by a finite number of lattice periods and the technique for defect formation by local opening of macropores on the substrate side, followed by filling of these macropores with a nematic liquid crystal, are considered.

  20. Interleaved array antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is the third phase of a program to establish an antenna concept for shuttle and free flying spacecraft earth resources experiments using Synthetic Aperture Radar. The feasibility of a plated graphite epoxy waveguide for a space antenna was evaluated. A quantity of flat panels and waveguides were developed, procured, and tested for electrical and mechanical properties. In addition, processes for the assembly of a unique waveguide array were investigated. Finally, trades between various configurations that would allow elevation (range) electronic scanning and that would minimize feed complexity for various RF bandwidths were made.

  1. Development Status of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Pearson, Jon Boise; Godfoy, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress that has been made in the development of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The reactor simulator core and Annular Linear Induction Pump have been fabricated and assembled into a test loop at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A 12 kWe Power Conversion Unit (PCU) is being developed consisting of two 6 kWe free-piston Stirling engines. The two 6 kWe engines have been fabricated by Sunpower Inc. and are currently being tested separately prior to integration into the PCU. The Facility Cooling System (FCS) used to reject convertor waste heat has been assembled and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The structural elements, including a Buildup Assembly Platform (BAP) and Upper Truss Structure (UTS) have been fabricated, and will be used to test cold-end components in thermal vacuum prior to TDU testing. Once all components have been fully tested at the subsystem level, they will be assembled into an end-to-end system and tested in thermal vacuum at GRC.

  2. Development Status of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M; Pearson, Jon Boise; Godfroy, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress that has been made in the development of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The reactor simulator core and Annular Linear Induction Pump have been fabricated and assembled into a test loop at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A 12 kWe Power Conversion Unit (PCU) is being developed consisting of two 6 kWe free-piston Stirling engines. The two 6 kWe engines have been fabricated by Sunpower Inc. and are currently being tested separately prior to integration into the PCU. The Facility Cooling System (FCS) used to reject convertor waste heat has been assembled and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The structural elements, including a Buildup Assembly Platform (BAP) and Upper Truss Structure (UTS) have been fabricated, and will be used to test cold-end components in thermal vacuum prior to TDU testing. Once all components have been fully tested at the subsystem level, they will be assembled into an end-to-end system and tested in thermal vacuum at NASA GRC.

  3. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, D.J.; Luckhardt, R.; Moyer, S.; Armentrout, C.J.; Downs, R.L.; Moncur, K.

    1990-02-28

    This report discusses: Cryogenic technology; polymer shell fabrication; glass shell fabrication and characterization; coating technology; development of characterization techniques; laser technology; and plasma research and instrumentation.

  4. Development of 3D in Vitro Technology for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, biomaterials technologies together with significant efforts on developing biology have revolutionized the process of engineered materials. Three dimensional (3D) in vitro technology aims to develop set of tools that are simple, inexpensive, portable and robust that could be commercialized and used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as drug discovery, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine. The proliferation of cells in the 3D scaffold needs an oxygen and nutrition supply. 3D scaffold materials should provide such an environment for cells living in close proximity. 3D scaffolds that are able to regenerate or restore tissue and/or organs have begun to revolutionize medicine and biomedical science. Scaffolds have been used to support and promote the regeneration of tissues. Different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering implants. Throughout the chapters we discuss in this review, we inform the reader about the potential applications of different 3D in vitro systems that can be applied for fabricating a wider range of novel biomaterials for use in tissue engineering. PMID:25299693

  5. Development of 3D in vitro technology for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, biomaterials technologies together with significant efforts on developing biology have revolutionized the process of engineered materials. Three dimensional (3D) in vitro technology aims to develop set of tools that are simple, inexpensive, portable and robust that could be commercialized and used in various fields of biomedical sciences such as drug discovery, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine. The proliferation of cells in the 3D scaffold needs an oxygen and nutrition supply. 3D scaffold materials should provide such an environment for cells living in close proximity. 3D scaffolds that are able to regenerate or restore tissue and/or organs have begun to revolutionize medicine and biomedical science. Scaffolds have been used to support and promote the regeneration of tissues. Different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering implants. Throughout the chapters we discuss in this review, we inform the reader about the potential applications of different 3D in vitro systems that can be applied for fabricating a wider range of novel biomaterials for use in tissue engineering. PMID:25299693

  6. Space power development impact on technology requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Fitzgerald, T. J.; Gilje, R. I.; Gordon, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the selection of a specific spacecraft power technology and the identification of technology development to meet system requirements. Requirements which influence the selection of a given technology include the power level required, whether the load is constant or transient in nature, and in the case of transient loads, the time required to recover the power, and overall system safety. Various power technologies, such as solar voltaic power, solar dynamic power, nuclear power systems, and electrochemical energy storage, are briefly described.

  7. Geo energy research and development: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

  8. Long-term follow-up of conical crown-retained dentures fabricated using different technologies.

    PubMed

    Pietruski, Jan K; Pietruska, Malgorzata D; Sajewicz, Eugeniusz

    2012-08-01

    This study presents the results of a long-term clinical evaluation of conical crown-retained dentures fabricated using different technologies. Four different material connections between the outer and inner crowns were used: cast gold/cast gold, cast gold/electroforming, nonprecious alloy/electroforming, and titanium abutment/electroforming. Technical failures and retention values were assessed. The best clinical outcome was found with dentures in which both crowns were cast from gold alloy. The most frequent technical failures were observed in restorations with electroformed outer crowns. Better clinical outcomes were noted when the electroformed outer crowns were used in dentures retained by implants as compared to dentures on natural dentition. PMID:22577653

  9. Control technology for integrated circuit fabrication at Micro-Circuit Engineering, Incorporated, West Palm Beach, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihlan, G. I.; Mitchell, R. I.; Smith, R. K.

    1984-07-01

    A survey to assess control technology for integrated circuit fabrication was conducted. Engineering controls included local and general exhaust ventilation, shielding, and personal protective equipment. Devices or work stations that contained toxic materials that were potentially dangerous were controlled by local exhaust ventilation. Less hazardous areas were controlled by general exhaust ventilation. Process isolation was used in the plasma etching, low pressure chemical vapor deposition, and metallization operations. Shielding was used in ion implantation units to control X-ray emissions, in contact mask alignes to limit ultraviolet (UV) emissions, and in plasma etching units to control radiofrequency and UV emissions. Most operations were automated. Use of personal protective equipment varied by job function.

  10. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication, and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Leung, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work has progressed in fabrication and characterization of solar cells from ubiquitous crystallization process (UCP) wafers and LASS ribbons. Gettering tests applied to UCP wafers made little change on their performance compared with corresponding baseline data. Advanced processes such as shallow junction (SJ), back surface field (BSF), and multilayer antireflection (MLAR) were also applied. While BSF by Al paste had shunting problems, cells with SJ and BSF by evaporated Al, and MLAR did achieve 14.1% AMI on UCP silicon. The study of LASS material was very preliminary. Only a few cells with SJ, BSR, (no BSF) and MLAR were completed due to mechanical yield problems after lapping the material. Average efficiency was 10.7% AMI with 13.4% AMI for CZ controls. Relatively high minority carrier diffusion lengths were obtained. The lower than expected Jsc could be partially explained by low active area due to irregular sizes.

  11. Silicon Solar Cell Process Development, Fabrication and Analysis, Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Tanner, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Solar cells from RTR ribbons, EFG (RF and RH) ribbons, dendritic webs, Silso wafers, cast silicon by HEM, silicon on ceramic, and continuous Czochralski ingots were fabricated using a standard process typical of those used currently in the silicon solar cell industry. Back surface field (BSF) processing and other process modifications were included to give preliminary indications of possible improved performance. The parameters measured included open circuit voltage, short circuit current, curve fill factor, and conversion efficiency (all taken under AM0 illumination). Also measured for typical cells were spectral response, dark I-V characteristics, minority carrier diffusion length, and photoresponse by fine light spot scanning. the results were compared to the properties of cells made from conventional single crystalline Czochralski silicon with an emphasis on statistical evaluation. Limited efforts were made to identify growth defects which will influence solar cell performance.

  12. Controlling Complex Systems and Developing Dynamic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avizienis, Audrius Victor

    In complex systems, control and understanding become intertwined. Following Ilya Prigogine, we define complex systems as having control parameters which mediate transitions between distinct modes of dynamical behavior. From this perspective, determining the nature of control parameters and demonstrating the associated dynamical phase transitions are practically equivalent and fundamental to engaging with complexity. In the first part of this work, a control parameter is determined for a non-equilibrium electrochemical system by studying a transition in the morphology of structures produced by an electroless deposition reaction. Specifically, changing the size of copper posts used as the substrate for growing metallic silver structures by the reduction of Ag+ from solution under diffusion-limited reaction conditions causes a dynamical phase transition in the crystal growth process. For Cu posts with edge lengths on the order of one micron, local forces promoting anisotropic growth predominate, and the reaction produces interconnected networks of Ag nanowires. As the post size is increased above 10 microns, the local interfacial growth reaction dynamics couple with the macroscopic diffusion field, leading to spatially propagating instabilities in the electrochemical potential which induce periodic branching during crystal growth, producing dendritic deposits. This result is interesting both as an example of control and understanding in a complex system, and as a useful combination of top-down lithography with bottom-up electrochemical self-assembly. The second part of this work focuses on the technological development of devices fabricated using this non-equilibrium electrochemical process, towards a goal of integrating a complex network as a dynamic functional component in a neuromorphic computing device. Self-assembled networks of silver nanowires were reacted with sulfur to produce interfacial "atomic switches": silver-silver sulfide junctions, which exhibit

  13. Aerospace Flywheel Technology Development for IPACS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLallin, Kerry L.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Fausz, Jerry; Bauer, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) are cooperating under a space act agreement to sponsor the research and development of aerospace flywheel technologies to address mutual future mission needs. Flywheel technology offers significantly enhanced capability or is an enabling technology. Generally these missions are for energy storage and/or integrated power and attitude control systems (IPACS) for mid-to-large satellites in low earth orbit. These missions require significant energy storage as well as a CMG or reaction wheel function for attitude control. A summary description of the NASA and AFRL flywheel technology development programs is provided, followed by specific descriptions of the development plans for integrated flywheel system tests for IPACS applications utilizing both fixed and actuated flywheel units. These flywheel system development tests will be conducted at facilities at AFRL and NASA Glenn Research Center and include participation by industry participants Honeywell and Lockheed Martin.

  14. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh W. Rimmer

    2004-05-12

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the seventeen subprojects awarded in the first year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices. Due to the time taken up by the solicitation/selection process, these cover the initial 6-month period of project activity only. The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 1999, U.S. mining operations produced $66.7 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $533 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, this endeavor has been expanded into a seven-university consortium--Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah, Montana Tech, New Mexico Tech and University of Nevada, Reno--that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation (2) Solid-liquid separation (3) Chemical/Biological Extraction (4) Modeling and Control, and (5) Environmental Control.

  15. Advances in space technology: the NSBRI Technology Development Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Charles, H. K. Jr; Pisacane, V. L.

    2002-01-01

    As evidenced from Mir and other long-duration space missions, the space environment can cause significant alterations in the human physiology that could prove dangerous for astronauts. The NASA programme to develop countermeasures for these deleterious human health effects is being carried out by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The NSBRI has 12 research teams, ten of which are primarily physiology based, one addresses on-board medical care, and the twelfth focuses on technology development in support of the other research teams. This Technology Development (TD) Team initially supported four instrumentation developments: (1) an advanced, multiple projection, dual energy X ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanning system: (2) a portable neutron spectrometer; (3) a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer: and (4) a cardiovascular identification system. Technical highlights of the original projects are presented along with an introduction to the five new TD Team projects being funded by the NSBRI.

  16. Advances in space technology: the NSBRI Technology Development Team.

    PubMed

    Maurer, R H; Charles, H K; Pisacane, V L

    2002-01-01

    As evidenced from Mir and other long-duration space missions, the space environment can cause significant alterations in the human physiology that could prove dangerous for astronauts. The NASA programme to develop countermeasures for these deleterious human health effects is being carried out by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The NSBRI has 12 research teams, ten of which are primarily physiology based, one addresses on-board medical care, and the twelfth focuses on technology development in support of the other research teams. This Technology Development (TD) Team initially supported four instrumentation developments: (1) an advanced, multiple projection, dual energy X ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanning system: (2) a portable neutron spectrometer; (3) a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer: and (4) a cardiovascular identification system. Technical highlights of the original projects are presented along with an introduction to the five new TD Team projects being funded by the NSBRI. PMID:12382926

  17. X-43 Hypersonic Vehicle Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voland, Randall T.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McClinton, Charles R.

    2005-01-01

    NASA recently completed two major programs in Hypersonics: Hyper-X, with the record-breaking flights of the X-43A, and the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program. The X-43A flights, the culmination of the Hyper-X Program, were the first-ever examples of a scramjet engine propelling a hypersonic vehicle and provided unique, convincing, detailed flight data required to validate the design tools needed for design and development of future operational hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Concurrent with Hyper-X, NASA's NGLT Program focused on technologies needed for future revolutionary launch vehicles. The NGLT was "competed" by NASA in response to the President s redirection of the agency to space exploration, after making significant progress towards maturing technologies required to enable airbreathing hypersonic launch vehicles. NGLT quantified the benefits, identified technology needs, developed airframe and propulsion technology, chartered a broad University base, and developed detailed plans to mature and validate hypersonic airbreathing technology for space access. NASA is currently in the process of defining plans for a new Hypersonic Technology Program. Details of that plan are not currently available. This paper highlights results from the successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the X-43A, and the current state of hypersonic technology.

  18. Developments at the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    2003-01-01

    A report presents background and historical information, as of August 1998, on the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) at Ames Research Center. The ADTT is characterized as an activity initiated to facilitate improvements in aerospace design processes; provide a proving ground for product-development methods and computational software and hardware; develop bridging methods, software, and hardware that can facilitate integrated solutions to design problems; and disseminate lessons learned to the aerospace and information technology communities.

  19. Technology Challenges in Small UAV Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Shams, Qamar; Pollock, Dion S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of highly capable small UAVs present unique challenges for technology protagonists. Size constraints, the desire for ultra low cost and/or disposable platforms, lack of capable design and analysis tools, and unique mission requirements all add to the level of difficulty in creating state-of-the-art small UAVs. This paper presents the results of several small UAV developments, the difficulties encountered, and proposes a list of technology shortfalls that need to be addressed.

  20. Developing technologies for lunar-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Prospects for lunar-based astronomy and the development of the required technologies are briefly reviewed. A systematic approach to lunar-based astronomy includes a progression in capability from small automated telescopes to the 16-meter reflector on the moon. A next step beyond the 16-meter reflector will be a Lunar Optical/Ultraviolet/Infrared Synthesis Array. Intermediate steps are represented by the Lunar Transit Telescope and the Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment. Priorities for the required technology development are identified.

  1. Banking, Technology Workers and Their Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Lesley; West, Jim

    2001-01-01

    An Australian bank developed a four-stage career development strategy for information technology workers: (1) career coaching sessions with executives; (2) career coaching seminars for line managers and team leaders; (3) staff career planning workshops; and (4) online career development support. The program resulted in increased satisfaction,…

  2. Capitalizing on App Development Tools and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional developers and others creating apps must choose from a wide variety of app development tools and technologies. Some app development tools have incorporated visual programming features, which enable some drag and drop coding and contextual programming. While those features help novices begin programming with greater ease, questions…

  3. Assistive Technology Developments in Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizama, Mauricio A.; Mendez, Hector L.

    Recent efforts to develop Spanish-based adaptations for alternate computer input devices are considered, as are their implications for Hispanics with disabilities and for the development of language sensitive devices worldwide. Emphasis is placed on the particular need to develop low-cost high technology devices for Puerto Rico and Latin America…

  4. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Hill

    2007-07-01

    This plan describes the GNEP Technology Demonstration Program (GNEP-TDP). It has been prepared to guide the development of integrated plans and budgets for realizing the domestic portion of the GNEP vision as well as providing the basis for developing international cooperation. Beginning with the GNEP overall goals, it describes the basic technical objectives for each element of the program, summarizes the technology status and identifies the areas of greatest technical risk. On this basis a proposed technology demonstration program is described that can deliver the required information for a Secretarial decision in the summer of 2008 and support construction of facilities.

  5. Role of research aircraft in technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The United States's aeronautical research program has been rich in the use of research aircraft to explore new flight regimes, develop individual aeronautical concepts, and investigate new vehicle classes and configurations. This paper reviews the NASA supercritical wing, digital fly-by-wire, HiMAT, and AD-1 oblique-wing flight research programs, and draws from these examples general conclusions regarding the role and impact of research aircraft in technology development. The impact of a flight program on spinoff technology is also addressed. The secondary, serendipitous results are often highly significant. Finally, future research aircraft programs are examined for technology trends and expected results.

  6. Development and fabrication of improved Schottky power diodes, phases I and II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, L. F.; Garfinkle, M.; Taft, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Reproducible methods for the fabrication of silicon Schottky diodes were developed for the metals tungsten, aluminum, conventional platinum silicide and low temperature platinum silicide. Barrier heights and barrier lowering were measured permitting the accurate prediction of ideal forward and reverse diode performance. Processing procedures were developed which permit the fabrication of large area (approximately 1 sqcm) mesa-geometry power Schottky diodes with forward and reverse characteristics that approach theoretical values.

  7. Technology development strategy and the relationship between technology import and domestic research and development (R D)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    In industrializing as well as industrialized countries, a controversial and complex policy issue concerns the nature and proper balance of the interaction between foreign and indigenous technologies. It is not possible to formulate an effective and timely technological policy without knowing the nature of interaction between foreign and indigenous technologies. The major purpose of this study is to develop a means of understanding the relationship between technology import and domestic research and development. The relationship was expected to be influenced by stage of development and by technology development strategy. A strong complementary relationship was expected for lower stages of development and imitative strategy. A weaker complementary or substitutive relationship was expected for the more advanced countries and aggressive strategy. Although much of the discussion is focused on Japanese and Korean experience in technology development after the Second World War, the statistical analysis of the relationship between technology import and domestic R D encompasses other countries for which relevant data were available. Complementary relationships were found between technology import and domestic R D for Japan, Korea, and France. On the other hand, the relationship between industrial R D and technology import was substitutive for the United States. (The findings were controlled for GNP per capita and number of scientists and engineers). The relationship between technology import and both domestic and industrial R D was independent for West Germany. The statistical findings suggest that the relationship between a country's technology import and its domestic and industrial R D is strongly correlated with its technology development strategy.

  8. Technology development program for an advanced microsheet glass concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Dynamic Space Power Systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components in a solar dynamic power system is the concentrator which collects the sun's energy and focuses it into a receiver. In 1985, the NASA Lewis Research Center initiated the Advanced Solar Dynamic Concentrator Program with funding from NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST). The objectives of the Advanced Concentrator Program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived (7 to 10 years) space solar dynamic concentrators. The Advanced Concentrator Program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. The Advanced Microsheet Glass Concentrator Program, a reflector concept, that is currently being investigated both in-house and under contract is discussed.

  9. Enhancing literacy development through AAC technologies.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Janet M; Erickson, Karen; Yoder, David E

    2002-01-01

    There is a critical need to understand teaching and technology supports that enable students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems to engage in meaningful literacy experiences and foster conventional literacy skills. To thrive in classroom environments, they must have access to tools that can support them in active and independent literacy learning. These students need technology that allows them to move seamlessly between reading, writing, and communicating. They require technology that takes into account access needs, individual learning needs, the learning demands of technology, and literacy development across grades. Families and school teams need information that will assist them in providing the best tools and the most appropriate content within these tools throughout the school day. Teachers need information that supports them in providing exemplary literacy instruction to students who use AAC systems. This article explores and summarizes factors impacting literacy learning, including literacy capabilities of school-age students who use AAC, communication in literacy learning and use, reading and writing instruction in general education classrooms, and technology to support literacy learning. It is important that future technology tools provide a platform for levels of literacy learning: The power of technology will be reflected in its ability to provide access to and display the right content at the right time for students who use AAC. This article summarizes current factors thought to influence literacy learning and discusses priorities for future research and technology development. PMID:12739851

  10. Development of the AP Technology Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmier, F.; Martin, O.; Gariepy, R.

    2015-02-01

    This article presents the historical development of the AP Technology (Aluval, Voreppe, France) pot series starting with the AP13 in the 1960s, followed by the AP18 and the AP30 in the 1980s and 1990s. For most of the modern-era technology, from the late 1970s on, development has been based on a three-stage pattern, the first one being the pot modeling, followed by the pot prototype stage, and then the industrial stage, which fully validated the technology. This development pattern has proven to be successful since it has led to the very robust AP Technology pot design generation and a large number of greenfield smelters built in the 1990-2010 selected the AP Technology design. AP60 is the latest of this series: The development at the prototype level was initiated in the 1990s and is presented in the article. It is now followed by the first industrial realization at Jonquière with the startup in late 2013 and the full validation of the technology in mid-2014. The development of APXe, which aims at very low energy consumption, uses many common elements pertaining to the AP60 design and is presented in the article. AP Technology has also addressed the need for continuous and fast improvement of pot performances adapted to each existing client or site specifics; for this purpose, a new development methodology has recently emerged thanks to the very high modeling capabilities. This methodology, based on the validation of "technology bricks" and their integration in the final design following a strict process, is presented in the last section of this article.

  11. Three-dimensional integration of vertically coupled microring resonator filters: fabrication and wavelength trimming technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Yasuo

    2003-04-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a vertically coupled microring resonator filter as an Add/Drop wavelength filter. The ultra-compact ring resonantor can be realized by the ultra-high index contrast waveguide (=34%) consisting of glass core (n=1.80) and air cladding and the vertically coupled configuration, where a microring resonator with a few tens micron radius is stacked on the crossing point of cross-grid bus waveguides. The cross-grid topology of busline waveguides and very small ring radius enables a dense integration of filter circuit. To achieve the 3D integration, we developed a novel fabrication process of flat-top waveguide using a so-called lift-off process and the SOG (Spin-On-Glass), and successfully obtained a very smooth and flat surface of lower waveguide with a step height less than 0.01μm. In addition, to manipulate the center wavelength after fabrication, we developed two trimming methods; one is the use of UV-sensitive polymer for the over-cladding, and the other is the direct UV irradiation to the ring ocre made of Ta2O5-SiO2 compound glass. Utilizing the former method, the channel spacing of filter array was precisely controlled within 0.5nm, which can not be achieved by the control of ring radius.

  12. Compliant membranes for the development of MEMS dual-backplate capacitive microphone using the SUMMiT V fabrication process.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, David

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this project is the investigation of compliant membranes for the development of a MicroElectrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) microphone using the Sandia Ultraplanar, Multilevel MEMS Technology (SUMMiT V) fabrication process. The microphone is a dual-backplate capacitive microphone utilizing electrostatic force feedback. The microphone consists of a diaphragm and two porous backplates, one on either side of the diaphragm. This forms a capacitor between the diaphragm and each backplate. As the incident pressure deflects the diaphragm, the value of each capacitor will change, thus resulting in an electrical output. Feedback may be used in this device by applying a voltage between the diaphragm and the backplates to balance the incident pressure keeping the diaphragm stationary. The SUMMiT V fabrication process is unique in that it can meet the fabrication requirements of this project. All five layers of polysilicon are used in the fabrication of this device. The SUMMiT V process has been optimized to provide low-stress mechanical layers that are ideal for the construction of the microphone's diaphragm. The use of chemical mechanical polishing in the SUMMiT V process results in extremely flat structural layers and uniform spacing between the layers, both of which are critical to the successful fabrication of the MEMS microphone. The MEMS capacitive microphone was fabricated at Sandia National Laboratories and post-processed, packaged, and tested at the University of Florida. The microphone demonstrates a flat frequency response, a linear response up to the designed limit, and a sensitivity that is close to the designed value. Future work will focus on characterization of additional devices, extending the frequency response measurements, and investigating the use of other types of interface circuitry.

  13. Technology certification and technology acceptance: Promoting interstate cooperation and market development for innovative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-03-01

    In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES WITHIN THE SITE PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Program is formed by five research programs: the Demonstration Program, the Emerging Technology Program, the Measurement and Monitoring Technology Development Program, the Innovative Technology Program, and the Technology Transfer Program. The Emerging Technology (ET) P...

  15. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  16. GSFC IVS Technology Development Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himwich, Ed; Vandenberg, Nancy; Clark, Tom

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) International Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) Service (IVS)Technology Development Center from the establishment of IVS to the end of 2000. The report forecasts activities planned for the year 2001. The GSFC IVS Technology Development Center (TDC) develops station software including the Field System (FS), scheduling software (SKED), hardware including tools for station timing and meteorology, scheduling algorithms, operational procedures, and provides a pool of individuals to assist with station implementation, check-out, upgrades, and training.

  17. Development of airframe design technology for crashworthiness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruszewski, E. T.; Thomson, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes the NASA portion of a joint FAA-NASA General Aviation Crashworthiness Program leading to the development of improved crashworthiness design technology. The objectives of the program are to develop analytical technology for predicting crashworthiness of structures, provide design improvements, and perform full-scale crash tests. The analytical techniques which are being developed both in-house and under contract are described, and typical results from these analytical programs are shown. In addition, the full-scale testing facility and test program are discussed.

  18. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited in availability or intensity. NASA is maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for an affordable fission surface power system. Because affordability drove the determination of the system concept that this technology will make possible, low development and recurring costs result, while required safety standards are maintained. However, an affordable approach to fission surface power also provides the benefits of simplicity, robustness, and conservatism in design. This paper will illuminate the multiplicity of benefits to an affordable approach to fission surface power, and will describe how the foundation for these benefits is being developed and demonstrated in the Exploration Technology Development Program s Fission Surface Power Project.

  19. Engineering and Fabrication Considerations for Cost-Effective Space Reactor Shield Development

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Thomas A.; Disney, Richard K.

    2004-02-04

    Investment in developing nuclear power for space missions cannot be made on the basis of a single mission. Current efforts in the design and fabrication of the reactor module, including the reactor shield, must be cost-effective and take into account scalability and fabricability for planned and future missions. Engineering considerations for the shield need to accommodate passive thermal management, varying radiation levels and effects, and structural/mechanical issues. Considering these challenges, design principles and cost drivers specific to the engineering and fabrication of the reactor shield are presented that contribute to lower recurring mission costs.

  20. Engineering and Fabrication Considerations for Cost-Effective Space Reactor Shield Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Thomas A.; Disney, Richard K.

    2004-02-01

    Investment in developing nuclear power for space missions cannot be made on the basis of a single mission. Current efforts in the design and fabrication of the reactor module, including the reactor shield, must be cost-effective and take into account scalability and fabricability for planned and future missions. Engineering considerations for the shield need to accommodate passive thermal management, varying radiation levels and effects, and structural/mechanical issues. Considering these challenges, design principles and cost drivers specific to the engineering and fabrication of the reactor shield are presented that contribute to lower recurring mission costs.

  1. Cyrogenic Life Support Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, David R.

    2015-01-01

    KSC has used cryogenic life support (liquid air based) technology successfully for many years to support spaceflight operations. This technology has many benefits unique to cryogenics when compared to traditional compressed gas systems: passive cooling, lighter, longer duration, and lower operating pressure. However, there are also several limiting factors that have prevented the technology from being commercialized. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (NIOSH-OMSHR) has partnered with NASA to develop a complete liquid air based life support solution for emergency mine escape and rescue. The project will develop and demonstrate various prototype devices and incorporate new technological innovations that have to date prevented commercialization.

  2. Advances in Robotic Servicing Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gefke, Gardell G.; Janas, Alex; Pellegrino, Joseph; Sammons, Matthew; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) has matured robotic and automation technologies applicable to in-space robotic servicing and robotic exploration over the last six years. This paper presents the progress of technology development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center Servicing Technology Center and on the ISS, with an emphasis on those occurring in the past year. Highlighted advancements are design reference mission analysis for servicing in low Earth orbit (LEO) and near Earth asteroid boulder retrieval; delivery of the engineering development unit of the NASA Servicing Arm; an update on International Space Station Robotic Refueling Mission; and status of a comprehensive ground-based space robot technology demonstration expanding in-space robotic servicing capabilities beginning fall 2015.

  3. Advances in Robotic Servicing Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gefke, Gardell G.; Janas, Alex; Pellegrino, Joseph; Sammons, Matthew; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) has matured robotic and automation technologies applicable to in-space robotic servicing and robotic exploration over the last six years. This paper presents the progress of technology development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center Servicing Technology Center and on the ISS, with an emphasis on those occurring in the past year. Highlighted advancements are design reference mission analysis for servicing in low Earth orbit (LEO) and asteroid redirection; delivery of the engineering development unit of the NASA Servicing Arm; an update on International Space Station Robotic Refueling Mission; and status of a comprehensive ground-based space robot technology demonstration expanding in-space robotic servicing capabilities beginning fall 2015.

  4. Aviation technology applicable to developing regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, John; Alton, Larry R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of aviation technologies useful for formulation of development plans to the year 2000 for emerging nations. The Caribbean Basin was used as a specific application. This development promises to be so explosive over the next 15 years as to be virtually unpredictable.

  5. New Achievements in Technology Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Safeeullah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Since many decades Education Science and Technology has an achieved tremendous recognition and has been applied to variety of disciplines, mainly Curriculum development, methodology to develop e-learning systems and education management. Many efforts have been taken to improve knowledge of students, researchers, educationists in the field of…

  6. Human Capital and Technology Development in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang, Halimah

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its relation to the development of human capital in Malaysia as a country undergoing transformation into an ICT-driven and knowledge-based society. Education and training, being the key variable of human capital, is examined in terms of the government…

  7. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher E. Hull

    2005-01-20

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2003, U.S. mining operations produced $57 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $564 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation; (2) Solid-liquid separation; (3) Chemical/Biological Extraction; (4) Modeling and Control; and (5) Environmental Control.

  8. Mobile display technologies: Past developments, present technologies, and future opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    It has been thirty years since the first active matrix (AM) flat panel display (FPD) was industrialized for portable televisions (TVs) in 1984. The AM FPD has become a dominant electronic display technology widely used from mobile displays to large TVs. The development of AM FPDs for mobile displays has significantly changed our lives by enabling new applications, such as notebook personal computers (PCs), smartphones and tablet PCs. In the future, the role of mobile displays will become even more important, since mobile displays are the live interface for the world of mobile communications in the era of ubiquitous networks. Various developments are being conducted to improve visual performance, reduce power consumption and add new functionality. At the same time, innovative display concepts and novel manufacturing technologies are being investigated to create new values.

  9. MICROHOLE TECHNOLOGY PROGRESS ON BOREHOLE INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J. ALBRIGHT

    2000-09-01

    Microhole technology development is based on the premise that with advances in electronics and sensors, large conventional-diameter wells are no longer necessary for obtaining subsurface information. Furthermore, microholes offer an environment for improved substance measurement. The combination of deep microholes having diameters of 1-3/8 in. at their terminal depth and 7/8-in. diameter logging tools will comprise a very low cost alternative to currently available technology for deep subsurface characterization and monitoring.

  10. AFCI Safeguards Enhancement Study: Technology Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Dougan, A.; Tobin, Stephen; Cipiti, B.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Bakel, A. J.; Bean, Robert; Grate, Jay W.; Santi, P.; Bryan, Steven; Kinlaw, M. T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Burr, Tom; Lehn, Scott A.; Tolk, K.; Chichester, David; Menlove, H.; Vo, D.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Merkle, P.; Wang, T. F.; Duran, F.; Nakae, L.; Warren, Glen A.; Friedrich, S.; Rabin, M.

    2008-12-31

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Safeguards Campaign aims to develop safeguards technologies and processes that will significantly reduce the risk of proliferation in the U.S. nuclear fuel cycle of tomorrow. The Safeguards Enhancement Study was chartered with identifying promising research and development (R&D) directions over timescales both near-term and long-term, and under safeguards oversight both domestic and international. This technology development roadmap documents recognized gaps and needs in the safeguarding of nuclear fuel cycles, and outlines corresponding performance targets for each of those needs. Drawing on the collective expertise of technologists and user-representatives, a list of over 30 technologies that have the potential to meet those needs was developed, along with brief summaries of each candidate technology. Each summary describes the potential impact of that technology, key research questions to be addressed, and prospective development milestones that could lead to a definitive viability or performance assessment. Important programmatic linkages between U.S. agencies and offices are also described, reflecting the emergence of several safeguards R&D programs in the U.S. and the reinvigoration of nuclear fuel cycles across the globe.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of reactive nanoscale multilayer systems for low-temperature bonding in microsystem technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettge, Bianca; Braeuer, Joerg; Wiemer, Maik; Petzold, Matthias; Bagdahn, Joerg; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Reactive bonding is a still new low-temperature joining process that is based on reactive nanoscale multilayer systems. The heat required for the bonding process is generated by a self-propagating exothermic reaction within the multilayer system while the adhesive interconnect is supported by solder films. For microsystem applications, the approach is particularly useful if temperature-sensitive components and materials with high differences in coefficient of thermal expansion have to be joined. In this paper, this is successfully demonstrated for bonding a quartz strain gauge onto a stainless steel membrane and an IR-emitter onto a covar socket by using commercially available nickel/aluminum NanoFoils©. The quality of the bond interface of both demonstrators was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and the strength was determined by a tensile test. On the other hand, integrated microsystem applications beyond die attachment require patterned bond structures, e.g. to form bond frames. Thus, alternative materials were additionally considered that can be directly deposited on silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering, such as aluminum/titanium as well as titanium/amorphous silicon (Ti/a-Si) bilayer systems. The properties of these basic multilayer systems and their reaction products were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and high-resolution electron microscopy. It is shown that specifically the Ti/a-Si system has substantial potential for direct microsystem technology integration provided the remaining open technological issues can be addressed during future research. In general, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the high potential of the reactive bonding process as a new advantageous assembly technology for the fabrication of future microsystems.

  12. Low-cost fabrication technologies for nanostructures: state-of-the-art and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Deen, M. J.; Marsal, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies used in several disciplines of nanotechnology have demonstrated promising results in terms of versatility and scalability for producing innovative nanostructures. While conventional nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography are and will be an important part of nanofabrication, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for large-scale production, providing high throughputs with acceptable resolution and broad versatility. Some of these nanotechnological approaches are reviewed in this article, providing information about the fundamentals, limitations and potential future developments towards nanofabrication processes capable of producing a broad range of nanostructures. Furthermore, in many cases, these low-cost nanofabrication approaches can be combined with traditional nanofabrication technologies. This combination is considered a promising way of generating innovative nanostructures suitable for a broad range of applications such as in opto-electronics, nano-electronics, photonics, sensing, biotechnology or medicine.

  13. Low-cost fabrication technologies for nanostructures: state-of-the-art and potential.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Deen, M J; Marsal, L F

    2015-01-30

    In the last decade, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies used in several disciplines of nanotechnology have demonstrated promising results in terms of versatility and scalability for producing innovative nanostructures. While conventional nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography are and will be an important part of nanofabrication, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for large-scale production, providing high throughputs with acceptable resolution and broad versatility. Some of these nanotechnological approaches are reviewed in this article, providing information about the fundamentals, limitations and potential future developments towards nanofabrication processes capable of producing a broad range of nanostructures. Furthermore, in many cases, these low-cost nanofabrication approaches can be combined with traditional nanofabrication technologies. This combination is considered a promising way of generating innovative nanostructures suitable for a broad range of applications such as in opto-electronics, nano-electronics, photonics, sensing, biotechnology or medicine. PMID:25567484

  14. Smart DNA Fabrication Using Sound Waves: Applying Acoustic Dispensing Technologies to Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Kanigowska, Paulina; Shen, Yue; Zheng, Yijing; Rosser, Susan; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-02-01

    Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) technology uses focused acoustic energy to transfer nanoliter-scale liquid droplets with high precision and accuracy. This noncontact, tipless, low-volume dispensing technology minimizes the possibility of cross-contamination and potentially reduces the costs of reagents and consumables. To date, acoustic dispensers have mainly been used in screening libraries of compounds. In this paper, we describe the first application of this powerful technology to the rapidly developing field of synthetic biology, for DNA synthesis and assembly at the nanoliter scale using a Labcyte Echo 550 acoustic dispenser. We were able to successfully downscale PCRs and the popular one-pot DNA assembly methods, Golden Gate and Gibson assemblies, from the microliter to the nanoliter scale with high assembly efficiency, which effectively cut the reagent cost by 20- to 100-fold. We envision that acoustic dispensing will become an instrumental technology in synthetic biology, in particular in the era of DNA foundries. PMID:26163567

  15. Fabrication and nondestructive examination development for advanced components and materials for the SP-100 space reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Peter J.; Dobrzynski, Walter J.

    1993-01-01

    Significant progress has now been made in the development of fabrication and Nondestructive Examination techniques for the SP-100 Space Reactor. All major fabrication challenges have been faced and overcome. Methods are in place for the fabrication and inspection of composite fuel cladding, the reactor honeycomb core, cold forging of the core support nozzle course, and electron beam welding of the auxiliary cooling loop system. Specifications and procedures have been developed and proven on actual hardware for electron beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, heat treatment, solvent cleaning, chemical cleaning, ultrasonic inspection, helium leak testing, dye penetrant and microfocus rod anode radiography. Signicant work remains to be done but no problems have been identified which would prevent fabrication of the high temperature SP-100 Space Reactor.

  16. Developing novel 3D antennas using advanced additive manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, Milad

    In today's world of wireless communication systems, antenna engineering is rapidly advancing as the wireless services continue to expand in support of emerging commercial applications. Antennas play a key role in the performance of advanced transceiver systems where they serve to convert electric power to electromagnetic waves and vice versa. Researchers have held significant interest in developing this crucial component for wireless communication systems by employing a variety of design techniques. In the past few years, demands for electrically small antennas continues to increase, particularly among portable and mobile wireless devices, medical electronics and aerospace systems. This trend toward smaller electronic devices makes the three dimensional (3D) antennas very appealing, since they can be designed in a way to use every available space inside the devise. Additive Manufacturing (AM) method could help to find great solutions for the antennas design for next generation of wireless communication systems. In this thesis, the design and fabrication of 3D printed antennas using AM technology is studied. To demonstrate this application of AM, different types of antennas structures have been designed and fabricated using various manufacturing processes. This thesis studies, for the first time, embedded conductive 3D printed antennas using PolyLactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for substrate parts and high temperature carbon paste for conductive parts which can be a good candidate to overcome the limitations of direct printing on 3D surfaces that is the most popular method to fabricate conductive parts of the antennas. This thesis also studies, for the first time, the fabrication of antennas with 3D printed conductive parts which can contribute to the new generation of 3D printed antennas.

  17. Advanced Packaging Technology Used in Fabricating a High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new aircraft engines requires the measurement of pressures in hot areas such as the combustor and the final stages of the compressor. The needs of the aircraft engine industry are not fully met by commercially available high-temperature pressure sensors, which are fabricated using silicon. Kulite Semiconductor Products and the NASA Glenn Research Center have been working together to develop silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors for use at high temperatures. At temperatures above 850 F, silicon begins to lose its nearly ideal elastic properties, so the output of a silicon pressure sensor will drift. SiC, however, maintains its nearly ideal mechanical properties to extremely high temperatures. Given a suitable sensor material, a key to the development of a practical high-temperature pressure sensor is the package. A SiC pressure sensor capable of operating at 930 F was fabricated using a newly developed package. The durability of this sensor was demonstrated in an on-engine test. The SiC pressure sensor uses a SiC diaphragm, which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. SiC strain gauges on the surface of the diaphragm sense the pressure difference across the diaphragm. Conventionally, the SiC chip is mounted to the package with the strain gauges outward, which exposes the sensitive metal contacts on the chip to the hostile measurement environment. In the new Kulite leadless package, the SiC chip is flipped over so that the metal contacts are protected from oxidation by a hermetic seal around the perimeter of the chip. In the leadless package, a conductive glass provides the electrical connection between the pins of the package and the chip, which eliminates the fragile gold wires used previously. The durability of the leadless SiC pressure sensor was demonstrated when two 930 F sensors were tested in the combustor of a Pratt & Whitney PW4000 series engine. Since the gas temperatures in these locations reach 1200 to 1300 F, the sensors were

  18. Fabricating quench condensed lead thin film circuits using MEMS Fab on a Chip technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imboden, Matthias; Han, Han; Del Corro, Pablo; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian; Bishop, David

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a MEMS Fab on a Chip consisting of micro-sources, mass sensors, heaters/thermometers, shutters and a dynamic stencil. The fab only occupies a volume of a few cubic millimeters and consumes milliwatts of power, and hence can be operated in a cryostat. Thin film patterns of arbitrary shapes using multiple materials can be manufactured, while strongly suppressing thermal annealing effects. We demonstrate deposition of quench condensed lead films with fractions of a monolayer thickness control. Furthermore, using low deposition rates it is estimated that the surface temperature of the target heats by only 1.7 K. We study the effects of growing quench condensed films with different evaporation rates to demonstrate thermal annealing effects which occur during deposition. We measure the minimum conduction thickness (insulator to metal transition) as well as the superconducting transition temperature as a function of film thickness in order to shed light on growth of amorphous films and the transition to nanocluster formations. The Fab on a Chip will allow us to build nanocircuits made of ultra-thin materials. Annealing and doping is controlled and measurements occur in situ, without exposing the fabricated circuits to thermal fluctuations or foreign contaminants. This enables new types of experiments based on quantum circuits which cannot be fabricated using standard lithography techniques.

  19. Microarray sampling-platform fabrication using bubble-jet technology for a biochip system.

    PubMed

    Allain, L R; Askari, M; Stokes, D L; Vo-Dinh, T

    2001-09-01

    The fabrication of microarrays containing PCR-amplified genomic DNA extracts from mice tumors on a Zetaprobe membrane using a modified thermal ink-jet printer is described. A simple and cost-effective procedure for the fabrication of microarrays containing biological samples using a modified bubble-jet printing system is presented. Because of their mass-produced design, ink-jet printers are a much cheaper alternative to conventional spotting techniques. The usefulness of the biochip microarray platform is illustrated by the detection of human fragile histidine triad (FHIT), a tumor suppressor gene. Subcutaneous carcinomas were induced with MKN/FHIT and MKN/E4 cell lines in immunodeficient mice. Several weeks into their development, the tumors from both groups of mice were removed and subjected to DNA extraction by lysis of tissue samples. The extracted DNA samples were amplified by PCR (30 cycles) using the primers corresponding to nucleotides 2 to 18 of the FHIT sequence. The resulting solution was transferred to the individual reservoirs of a three-color cartridge from a conventional thermal ink-jet printer (HP 694C), and arrays were printed on to a Zetaprobe membrane. After spotting, these membranes were used in a hybridization assay, using fluorescent probes, and detected with a biochip. PMID:11678184

  20. A polymeric master replication technology for mass fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Fang; Lin, Jin-Ming; Su, Rong-Guo; Cai, Zong Wei; Uchiyama, Katsumi

    2005-05-01

    A protocol of producing multiple polymeric masters from an original glass master mold has been developed, which enables the production of multiple poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices in a low-cost and efficient manner. Standard wet-etching techniques were used to fabricate an original glass master with negative features, from which more than 50 polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) positive replica masters were rapidly created using the thermal printing technique. The time to replicate each PMMA master was as short as 20 min. The PMMA replica masters have excellent structural features and could be used to cast PDMS devices for many times. An integration geometry designed for laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection, which contains normal deep microfluidic channels and a much deeper optical fiber channel, was successfully transferred into PDMS devices. The positive relief on seven PMMA replica masters is replicated with regard to the negative original glass master, with a depth average variation of 0.89% for 26-microm deep microfluidic channels and 1.16% for the 90 mum deep fiber channel. The imprinted positive relief in PMMA from master-to-master is reproducible with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.06% for the maximum width and 0.46% for depth in terms of the separation channel. The PDMS devices fabricated from the PMMA replica masters were characterized and applied to the separation of a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled epinephrine sample. PMID:15812838

  1. Hybrid fuel formulation and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to develop an improved hybrid fuel with higher regression rate, a regression rate expression exponent close to 0.5, lower cost, and higher density. The approach was to formulate candidate fuels based on promising concepts, perform thermomechanical analyses to select the most promising candidates, develop laboratory processes to fabricate fuel grains as needed, fabricate fuel grains and test in a small lab-scale motor, select the best candidate, and then scale up and validate performance in a 2500 lbf scale, 11-inch diameter motor. The characteristics of a high performance fuel have been verified in 11-inch motor testing. The advanced fuel exhibits a 15% increase in density over an all hydrocarbon formulation accompanied by a 50% increase in regression rate, which when multiplied by the increase in density yields a 70% increase in fuel mass flow rate; has a significantly lower oxidizer-to-fuel (O/F) ratio requirement at 1.5; has a significantly decreased axial regression rate variation making for more uniform propellant flow throughout motor operation; is very clean burning; extinguishes cleanly and quickly; and burns with a high combustion efficiency.

  2. Laboratory study of fabric development in shearing till: The importance of effective pressure and shearing rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, William R.; Hooyer, Thomas S.

    2015-12-01

    Herein we present data on the shearing rate (glacier velocity) and effective pressure (difference between the ice-overburden pressure and pore-water pressure) in the development of magnetic fabric (anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) using a rotary ring-shear device. A Wisconsin-age basal till was used in the experiments and deformed to its critical state at shear strains as high as 93. We also present data from hysteresis and high temperature susceptibility experiments to identify the magnetic carrier in the basal till. Results showed little change in fabric strength when varying the shearing rate in the speed range of 110-860 m year- 1. Moreover, the effective pressure tests also showed an inconsistency in fabric between 30 and 150 kPa; however, a slight strengthening effect was documented. Thus, the k1 magnetic fabric strength is independent of the shearing rate and effective pressure. This suggests that the fabric strength upon these variables cannot be used as a benchmark for estimating shear deformation to the geological record. The k1 fabric strength in this study; however, remained consistent with respect to other till particle fabric methods (e.g., sand and pebble) in which the same conclusion was drawn; all particles align parallel to the direction of shear and plunge mildly up glacier.

  3. Design and technical support for development of a molded fabric space suit joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. Howard

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has under design a new joint or element for use in a space suit. The design concept involves molding a fabric to a geometry developed at Ames. Unusual characteristics of this design include the need to produce a fabric molding draw ratio on the order of thirty percent circumferentially on the surface. Previous work done at NASA on molded fabric joints has shown that standard, NASA qualified polyester fabrics as are currently available in the textile industry for use in suits have a maximum of about fifteen percent draw ratio. NASA has done the fundamental design for a prototype joint and of a mold which would impart the correct shape to the fabric support layer of the joint. NASA also has the capability to test a finished product for suitability and reliability. Responsibilities resting with Georgia Tech in the design effort for this project are textile related, namely fiber selection, fabric design to achieve the properties of the objective design, and determining production means and sources for the fabrics. The project goals are to produce a prototype joint using the NASA design for evaluation of effectiveness by NASA, and to establish the sources and specifications which would allow reliable and repeatable production of the joint.

  4. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. ); Luey, J.K. )

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  5. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A.; Luey, J.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  6. Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Hull

    2009-10-31

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2003, U.S. mining operations produced $57 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $564 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, this endeavor has been expanded into a seven-university consortium -- Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah, Montana Tech, New Mexico Tech and University of Nevada, Reno - that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation; (2) Solid-liquid separation; (3) Chemical/biological extraction; (4) Modeling and control; and (5) Environmental control. Distribution of funds is handled via competitive solicitation of research proposals through Site Coordinators at the seven member universities. These were first reviewed and ranked by a group of technical reviewers (selected primarily from industry). Based on these reviews, and an assessment of overall program requirements, the CAST Technical Committee made an initial selection/ranking of proposals and forwarded these to the DOE/NETL Project Officer for final review and approval. The successful projects are listed by category, along with brief abstracts of their aims and objectives.

  7. Making technological innovation work for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chan, Gabriel; Harley, Alicia G; Matus, Kira; Moon, Suerie; Murthy, Sharmila L; Clark, William C

    2016-08-30

    This paper presents insights and action proposals to better harness technological innovation for sustainable development. We begin with three key insights from scholarship and practice. First, technological innovation processes do not follow a set sequence but rather emerge from complex adaptive systems involving many actors and institutions operating simultaneously from local to global scales. Barriers arise at all stages of innovation, from the invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement. Second, learning from past efforts to mobilize innovation for sustainable development can be greatly improved through structured cross-sectoral comparisons that recognize the socio-technical nature of innovation systems. Third, current institutions (rules, norms, and incentives) shaping technological innovation are often not aligned toward the goals of sustainable development because impoverished, marginalized, and unborn populations too often lack the economic and political power to shape innovation systems to meet their needs. However, these institutions can be reformed, and many actors have the power to do so through research, advocacy, training, convening, policymaking, and financing. We conclude with three practice-oriented recommendations to further realize the potential of innovation for sustainable development: (i) channels for regularized learning across domains of practice should be established; (ii) measures that systematically take into account the interests of underserved populations throughout the innovation process should be developed; and (iii) institutions should be reformed to reorient innovation systems toward sustainable development and ensure that all innovation stages and scales are considered at the outset. PMID:27519800

  8. Technology Developed In Two Space Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Carlton H.

    1988-01-01

    Two projects examined for their influences on commercial products and future space missions. Three-volume report presents study of technological benefits of two spaceflight projects, Galileo, and Hubble space telescope. Study focused on equipment and computer programs developed between initial approval of projects and integration and testing of the systems. Volume 1 presents overview of study, discusses methods of collection and evaluation of data, and offers conclusion and recommendations. Volume 2 describes interview process and summarizes raw data. Volume 3 contains technology-assessment sheets for developments.

  9. Incorporating Geospatial Technology into Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sproles, E. A.; Songer, L.

    2009-12-01

    The need for students to think spatially and use geospatial technologies is becoming more critical as these tools and concepts are increasingly incorporated into a broad range of occupations and academic disciplines. Geospatial Teaching Across the Curriculum (Geo-STAC) is a collaborative program that provides high school teachers with mentored professional development workshops in geospatial thought and technology. The seminars, led by community college faculty, give high school teachers the ability to incorporate geospatial technology into coursework across the curriculum — in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and non-STEM disciplines. Students participating in the hands-on lessons gain experience in web-based and desktop Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The goals of the workshop are for teachers to: (1) understand the importance of geospatial thinking; (2) learn how to employ geospatial thinking in each discipline; (3) learn about geospatial technologies; (4) develop a Web-based GIS lesson; and, (5) implement a Web-based GIS lesson. Additionally, Geo-STAC works with high school students so that they: (1) understand the importance of geospatial technologies and careers in future job markets; (2) learn how to use Web-based GIS to solve problems; and, (3) visit the community college GIS lab and experience using desktop GIS. Geo-STAC actively disseminates this collaborative model to colleges to community colleges and high schools across the country.

  10. Development of fluidized bed cement sintering technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Katsuji

    1994-12-31

    In the new system presented in this paper, the cement clinker is sintered, not in a rotary kiln, but in two different furnaces: a spouted bed kiln and a fluidized bed kiln. The heat generated in the process of cooling the cement clinker is recovered by a fluidized bed cooler and a packed bed cooler, which are more efficient than the conventional coolers. Compared with the rotary kiln system, the new technology significantly reduces NO{sub x} emissions, appreciably cuts energy consumption, and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions as well. Thus, the new system is an efficient cement sintering system that is friendly to the global environment. In this paper, we describe this new technology as one of the applied technologies at an industrial level that is being developed in the Clean Coal Technology Project, and we present the results from test operations at our pilot plant.

  11. Flywheel rotor and containment technology development, FY83

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, P.B.; Walter, C.E.

    1983-09-12

    The Department of Energy decided to terminate the Flywheel Rotor and Containment Technology Development project during FY 1983. Activities this year included fabrication, inspection, and test evaluation of rotor and containment structures. A peak energy of 700 Wh was stored at an energy density of 70 Wh/kg. In cyclic tests, 10,000 cycles from design speed to half speed were logged without failure. The first test of a lightweight containment structure indicates the need for additional development. In complementary studies, production cost estimates were made for three flywheel designs. In a cooperative program with the University of Wisconsin, work began on construction of a flywheel/continuously variable transmission/heat engine car which promises fuel economy improvements of up to 100%. Suggestions are made for the direction of future work when interest in flywheel system reappears.

  12. Advanced on-site power plant development technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A 30-cell, full area short stack containing advanced cell features was tested for 2900 hours. A stack acid addition approach was selected and will be evaluated on the stack at 5000 hours test time. A brassboard inverter was designed and fabrication was initiated. Evaluation of this brassboard inverter will take place in 1984. A Teflon coated commercial heat exchanger was selected as the preferred approach for the acid condenser. A reformer catalyst with significantly less pressure drop and equivalent performance relative to the 40-K baseline catalyst was selected for the development reformer. The early 40-kW field power plant history was reviewed and adjustments were made to the On-Site Technology Development Program to address critical component issues.

  13. Air Force Research Laboratory Cryocooler Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas M.; Smith, D. Adam; Easton, Ryan M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the cryogenic refrigerator and cryogenic integration programs in development and characterization under the Cryogenic Cooling Technology Group, Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The vision statement for the group is to support the space community as the center of excellence for developing and transitioning space cryogenic thermal management technologies. This paper will describe the range of Stirling, pulse tube; reverse Brayton, and Joule-Thomson cycle cryocoolers currently under development to meet current and future Air Force and Department of Defense requirements. Cooling requirements at 10K, 35K, 60K, 95K, and multistage cooling requirements at 35/85K are addressed. In order to meet these various requirements, the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate is pursuing various strategic cryocooler and cryogenic integration options. The Air Force Research Laboratory, working with industry partners, is also developing several advanced cryogenic integration technologies that will result in the reduction in current cryogenic system integration penalties and design time. These technologies include the continued development of gimbaled transport systems, 35K and 10K thermal storage units, heat pipes, cryogenic straps, and thermal switches.

  14. Carbon prices and incentives for technological development.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Tommy; Marklund, Per-Olov; Samakovlis, Eva; Zhou, Wenchao

    2015-03-01

    There is concern that the carbon prices generated through climate policies are too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it was negative. The price of fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, the results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the CO2 tax have been too low. Even though the data for this study is specific for Sweden, the models and results are applicable internationally. When designing policy to mitigate CO2 emissions, it is vital that the policy creates a carbon price that is high enough - otherwise the pressure on technological development will not be sufficiently strong. PMID:25560661

  15. Development of magnetic fabric in sedimentary rocks: insights from early compactional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lasanta, Cristina; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Casas, Antonio M.; Pérez-Lorente, Félix

    2013-07-01

    The timing of development of the magnetic fabric is a major issue in the application of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a strain marker. Analysis of AMS in unconcealed synsedimentary structures can be a sound approximation to this task. In this work, three types of early compactional structures (ECS) were studied by means of AMS, since they can help to understand the timing of development of the magnetic fabric. All three types of ECS are found in fine-grained detrital rocks (to avoid other influences such as palaeocurrents), claystones and marls of the Enciso Group within the Cameros Basin (NE Spain): dinosaur footprints, load structures due to differential compaction and dish-and-flame structures associated with fluid migration related to seismites. In addition, to determine possible influences of lithology on the magnetic fabric, different rock types (siltstones and limestones) were also sampled. In general, the influence of ECS results in scattering of the three magnetic axes, higher at the margins of the structure than at its centre. This fact suggests that ECS occurs during the development of the magnetic fabric, disturbing the incipient magnetic fabric stages, and strongly conditions its later evolution during diagenesis. The later homogeneous compaction process due to sedimentary load and physicochemical processes reorient the susceptibility carriers to some extent (i.e. the magnetic fabric is still under development), but not totally, since AMS still records the previous scattering due to ECS imprint. For the Enciso Group deposits, the magnetic fabric begins to develop at the earliest stages after deposition and it stops when diagenetic processes have finished.

  16. Inflatable mandrel fabrication technology - Advantages for the containment of rocket propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Daniel J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses and compares the attributes of various mandrel types as they pertain to the fabrication of filament-wound composite containment vessels for rocket propellants, solid or liquid. The issues of dimensional conformity, processing parameters, unit costs, vessel performance, and development lead times are raised. The continuous fiber reinforced, reusable inflatable mandrel concept is explained and shown to have unique advantages over more traditional mandrel types. Burst pressure performance is equivalent to, or slightly better than, the results from vessels built on the more conventional net metal mandrel. The co-cured insulator process used in conjunction with the inflatable mandrel is shown to be superior in some respects. Some experimental findings are presented along with description of the processing parameters that must be understood when using inflatable mandrels.

  17. Maximizing the utilization of computer-aided technology for fabrication of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Glenn T.; Rao, Carlo S.

    The introduction of the computer in today's engineering environment presents new opportunities for the optimization of the product definition process. The certification effort on McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company's MD 520N Program is used as a case study to show how the management of digital data can be used as a tool to dramatically reduce the cycle time of producing advanced composite structures. The MD 520N Product Definition Team used MDHC's Unigraphics 3-D CAD/CAM System to develop, design, fabricate, and test a production thruster assembly in just 74 days. This paper documents that effort and discusses the application this process may have in the normal production design environment.

  18. Particle Contamination Control Technology in Electron Beam Mask Writing System for Next-Generation Mask Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeno, Kiminobu; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Ooki, Kenji; Tojo, Toru; Hirano, Ryoichi; Yoshitake, Shusuke; Toriumi, Masaki; Sekine, Akihiko; Takigawa, Tadahiko; Shinoda, Toshiki; Noguchi, Shigeru

    2002-09-01

    An in-situ measurement system for particles in an electron beam (EB) writer is developed to improve mask yield management. The system has satisfied the required installation specifications for a mask blank inspection system for the EB writer, and the results of an experiment using the system prove that particles added from the mask handling system in our EB writer satisfy the total particle count specification (<1.25 counts/cycle for 6 inch mask). The investigation of particle increase after repeated mask movement has been carried out in each segmented mask handling route. It has been clarified that the segmentation test using this system is helpful for investigation of the origin of particle production on a mask. Effective application of information such as particle position and size obtained by this system will be very useful for improving mask yield management in the mask fabrication process in terms of pattern inspection and repair system.

  19. Nonlinear electromagnetic energy harvesters fabricated by rigid-flex printed circuit board technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yi; Hong, Hao-Chiao; Hsu, Wei-Hung

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a wideband electromagnetic energy harvester designed and fabricated by commercial rigid-flex PCB technology is demonstrated. The rigid FR-4 boards are used for mechanical frames and coil winding whereas the flexible polyimide film is used for mechanical springs and mass platforms. The total dimension of the device is 20 × 20 × 2 mm3. The internal coil resistance is 15 Ω. In vibration tests, nonlinearity can be observed even at 0.1 g vibration level due to the spring hardening effect. The peak frequency was increased as the vibration level increased. The effective bandwidth was increased from 6 Hz at 0.1 g to 21 Hz at 0.5 g and 27 Hz at 1 g, respectivel, due to the hysteresis effect. For a matched load and 1 g vibration at 240 Hz, the maximum output power is 24.5 nW, corresponding to a power density of 31 nW/cm3.

  20. Silver nanoparticles ink synthesis for conductive patterns fabrication using inkjet printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien Dang, Mau; Dung Dang, Thi My; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present silver nanoparticles ink synthesis targeting conductive patterns for micro fabricated devices by inkjet printing technology. The well dispersed nanoparticles ink was composed of silver colloid with an average particle diameter less than 10 nm. These nanoparticles were protected by a capping layer of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) even at silver concentration of 20 wt%. Stable aqueous inks were formulated by using a combination of solvent and co-solvents and under vigorous stirring. Various factors affecting the adhesion between the ink and the substrate were investigated, such as solvent and co-solvent content. The ink containing 20 wt% silver has a viscosity of about 9.5 cP and a surface tension of 32 to 36 mN m-1 at room temperature, meeting inkjet printer requirements. The ink stored under ambient conditions was stable against aggregation for more than one month. Silver nanoparticles patterns have been successfully printed on various substrates. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride powder by spray drying and calcining nitriding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaoliang; Wang, Sheng; Yang, Hua; Duan, Xinglong; Dong, Xuebin

    2008-09-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powder was fabricated prepared by the spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The effects of nitrided temperature on the phases, morphology and particle size distribution of hBN powder, were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one obvious band gap (4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm ( λex=230 nm). FESEM image indicated that the particle size of the synthesized hBN was mainly in the range of 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter, and 50-150 nm in thickness. The high-energy ball-milling process following 900 °C calcining process was very helpful to obtain fully crystallized hBN at lower temperature.

  2. Multi-wavelength lasers fabricated by an Al layer controlled quantum well intermixing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J. H.; Chua, S. J.; Huang, Y. H.; Li, G.; Zhang, Z. H.; Helmy, A. Saher; Marsh, J. H.

    2000-09-01

    We report that the shift in the band gap of Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs quantum well structures can be precisely controlled by an Al layer buried between a spin-on silica film and a wet-oxidized GaAs surface. The blueshift in wavelength of the Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs quantum well photoluminescence (PL) depends linearly on the thickness of the buried Al layer. By changing the Al layer thickness, the PL peak wavelength can be tuned from 7870 Å for the as-grown sample to 7300 and 7050 Å after 20 and 45 s rapid thermal annealing at 850 °C, respectively. Applying this technology, Al layers with different thickness, i.e., no Al, 200 and 300 Å thick, were applied to the oxidized GaAs surface in three adjacent regions with 200 μm spacing on a quantum well laser structure sample. Three wavelength lasers were successfully fabricated in a single chip by a one step rapid thermal annealing. All the lasers have similar threshold current and slope efficiency.

  3. Fabrication of isolated gates by negative-tone process and resolution enhancement technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Ryoko; Uchida, Noboru; Watanabe, Minoru; Yabe, Sachiko; Machida, Satoshi; Taguchi, Takashi

    2000-07-01

    Interesting characteristics of a negative-tone process have been reported: enlargement of photolithographic margins of isolated line, reduction of optical proximity effect, greater dry etching selectivity. A possibility of fabrication of isolated gates of 0.13micrometers class logic device by the combination of negative-tone process and resolution enhancement technology (RET), was investigated in the KrF lithography. Photolithographic margins of 0.13micrometers isolated line were evaluated by simulation and experiment as well. Parameters are mask type, the transparency of attenuated PSM, mask-pattern size, and coherence factor. The condition defined by the optimal combination of attenuated PSM, mask-pattern size, and coherence factor. The condition defined by the optimal combination of attenuated PSM and a small coherence factor value at NA equals 0.60 increased the photolithographic margins of 0.13 micrometers isolated line. The margins evaluate under the optimal condition exceeded either of the values obtained in the negative-tone process without RET, and in positive-tone process with attenuated PSM and annular illumination. The effect of residue could be neglected in the isolate line under the optimal condition. The common window of 0.13micrometers isolate line and 0.18micrometers L/S, and that of 0.13micrometers isolated line and 0.20micrometers L/S, both increased under the optimal condition. The margins of 0.13micrometers isolated line further increased when NA was 0.68.

  4. Human Support Technology Research, Development and Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Jitendra; Trinh, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    The Human Support Technology research, development, and demonstration program address es the following areas at TRL: Advanced Power and Propulsion. Cryogenic fluid management. Closed-loop life support and Habitability. Extravehicular activity systems. Scientific data collection and analysis. and Planetary in-situ resource utilization.

  5. Thermoelectric Development at Hi-Z Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kushch, Aleksandr S.; Bass, John C.; Ghamaty, Saeid; Elsner, Norbert B.; Bergstrand, Richard A.; Furrow, David; Melvin, Mike

    2002-08-25

    An improved Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) for the Heavy Duty Class Eight Diesel Trucks is under development at Hi-Z Technology. The current TEG is equipped with the improved HZ-14 Thermoelectric module, which features better mechanical properties as well as higher electric power output. Also, the modules are held in place more securely.

  6. Vaccine development using recombinant DNA technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines induce an immune response in the host that subsequently recognizes infectious agents and helps fight off the disease; vaccines must do this without causing the disease. This paper reviews the development of recombinant DNA technologies as a means of providing new ways for attenuating diseas...

  7. Technology Transfer in Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, J. W., Ed.; Jolly, J. A., Ed.

    If a secondary use of research and development output is possible and feasible, then the original cost of the research can be viewed as providing a substantial contribution over and above its initial purpose and ends. This "technology transfer" from primary to secondary purposes is becoming increasingly important, if for no other reason than that…

  8. Biennial Research and Technology Development Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Elizabeth; Radigan, Jeff; Haas, John; Kelly, Brian; Hall, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Various articles for the Biennial Research and Technology Development Report of the Johnson Space Center include: Automating ISS File Management using Agent-Based Systems Integration; International Space Station Operations; Planning and Monitoring ISS Solar Array Operations; Water Egress and Survival Trainer; Search and Relationship -- Mining of Heterogeneous Flight Control Documents; and Anomaly Monitoring Inductive Software System.

  9. Technology Transfer and Economic Development in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, James

    The status of Arizona's effort to encourage the creation and expansion of high technology based on the discoveries and new knowledge developed at its research universities is discussed. The study of the University of Arizona and Arizona State University was recommended by the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and…

  10. Cryogenic Technology Development for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the status and findings of different cryogenic technology research projects in support of the President s Vision for Space Exploration. The exploration systems architecture study is reviewed for cryogenic fluid management needs. It is shown that the exploration architecture is reliant on the cryogenic propellants of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid methane. Needs identified include: the key technologies of liquid acquisition devices, passive thermal and pressure control, low gravity mass gauging, prototype pressure vessel demonstration, active thermal control; as well as feed system testing, and Cryogenic Fluid Management integrated system demonstration. Then five NASA technology projects are reviewed to show how these needs are being addressed by technology research. Projects reviewed include: In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot; Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology; Cryogenic Propellant Operations Demonstrator; Zero Boil-Off Technology Experiment; and Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development. Advances are found in the areas of liquid acquisition of liquid oxygen, mass gauging of liquid oxygen via radio frequency techniques, computational modeling of thermal and pressure control, broad area cooling thermal control strategies, flight experiments for resolving low gravity issues of cryogenic fluid management. Promising results are also seen for Joule-Thomson pressure control devices in liquid oxygen and liquid methane and liquid acquisition of methane, although these findings are still preliminary.

  11. Cosmic Origins (COR) Technology Development Program Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werneth, Russell; Pham, B.; Clampin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins (COR) Program Office was established in FY11 and resides at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The office serves as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters for COR Program related matters. We present an overview of the Program’s technology management activities and the Program’s technology development portfolio. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology needs and the Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations. This process improves the transparency and relevance of technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and leverages the technology investments of external organizations by defining a need and a customer. Goals for the COR Program envisioned by the National Research Council’s (NRC) “New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics” (NWNH) Decadal Survey report includes a 4m-class UV/optical telescope that would conduct imaging and spectroscopy as a post-Hubble observatory with significantly improved sensitivity and capability, a near-term investigation of NASA participation in the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency/Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (JAXA/ISAS) Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission, and future Explorers.

  12. Fabrication development and usage of vanadium alloys in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Reis, E.E.

    1996-10-01

    GA is procuring material, designing components, and developing fabrication techniques for use of V alloy into the DIII-D divertor as elements of the Radiative Divertor Project modification. This program was developed to assist in the development of low activation alloys for fusion use by demonstrating the fabrication and installation of V alloy components in an operating tokamak. Along with fabrication development, the program includes multiple steps starting with small coupons installed in DIII-D to measure the environmental effects on V. This is being done in collaboration with DOE Fusion Materials Program (particularly at ANL and ORNL). Procurement of the material has been completed; the world`s largest heat of V alloy (1200 kg V-4Cr-4Ti) was produced and converted into various products. Manufacturing process is described and chemistry results presented. Research into potential fabrication methods is being performed. Joining of V alloys was identified as the most critical fabrication issue for its use in the Radiative Divertor program. Successful welding trials were done using resistance, friction, and electron beam methods; metallography and mechanical tests were done to evaluate the welds.

  13. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, D. C.; Iles, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of minority carrier diffusion lengths were made on the small mesa diodes from HEM Si and SILSO Si. The results were consistent with previous Voc and Isc measurements. Only the medium grain SILSO had a distinct advantage for the non grain boundary diodes. Substantial variations were observed for the HEM ingot 4141C. Also a quantitatively scaled light spot scan was being developed for localized diffusion length measurements in polycrystalline silicon solar cells. A change to a more monochromatic input for the light spot scan results in greater sensitivity and in principle, quantitative measurement of local material qualities is now possible.

  14. Extended Temperature Solar Cell Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Rafaelle, Ryne

    2004-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require solar cells to operate both in regimes closer to the sun, and farther from the sun, where the operating temperatures will be higher and lower than standard operational conditions. NASA Glenn is engaged in testing solar cells under extended temperature ranges, developing theoretical models of cell operation as a function of temperature, and in developing technology for improving the performance of solar cells for both high and low temperature operation.

  15. Development of segmented thermoelectric multicouple converter technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Kenneth; Sakamoto, Jeff; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Snyder, Jeff; Mondt, Jack; Blair, Richard; Frye, Patrick; Stapfer, Gerhard; Caillat, Thierry; Determan, William; Heshmatpour, Ben; Brooks, Michael; Tuttle, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc., have teamed together under JPL leadership to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric space reactor power conversion systems. The program goals are to develop the technologies needed to achieve a space nuclear power system specific mass goal of less than 30 kg/kW at the 100 kW power level with a greater than 15 year lifetime.

  16. ICPP Waste Management Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, G.W.; Olson, A.L.; Knecht, D.A.; Bonkoski, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of the decision to curtail reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), a Spent fuel and Waste Management Technology Development plan has been implemented to identify acceptable options for disposing of the (1) sodium-bearing liquid radioactive waste, (2) radioactive calcine, and (3) irradiated spent fuel stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan was developed jointly by DOE and WINCO.

  17. NASA Astrophysics Funds Strategic Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seery, Bernard D.; Ganel, Opher; Pham, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The COR and PCOS Program Offices (POs) reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), serving as the NASA Astrophysics Division's implementation arm for matters relating to the two programs. One aspect of the PO's activities is managing the COR and PCOS Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, helping mature technologies to enable and enhance future astrophysics missions. For example, the SAT program is expected to fund key technology developments needed to close gaps identified by Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) planned to study several large mission concept studies in preparation for the 2020 Decadal Survey.The POs are guided by the National Research Council's "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" Decadal Survey report, NASA's Astrophysics Implementation Plan, and the visionary Astrophysics Roadmap, "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions." Strategic goals include dark energy, gravitational waves, and X-ray observatories. Future missions pursuing these goals include, e.g., US participation in ESA's Euclid, Athena, and L3 missions; Inflation probe; and a large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) telescope.To date, 65 COR and 71 PCOS SAT proposals have been received, of which 15 COR and 22 PCOS projects were funded. Notable successes include maturation of a new far-IR detector, later adopted by the SOFIA HAWC instrument; maturation of the H4RG near-IR detector, adopted by WFIRST; development of an antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometer, a technology deployed by BICEP2/BICEP3/Keck to measure polarization in the CMB signal; advanced UV reflective coatings implemented on the optics of GOLD and ICON, two heliophysics Explorers; and finally, the REXIS instrument on OSIRIS-REx is incorporating CCDs with directly deposited optical blocking filters developed by another SAT-funded project.We discuss our technology development process, with community input and strategic prioritization informing calls for SAT proposals and

  18. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  19. Safeguards and security -- Developing transition technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1993-12-31

    Safeguards and Security (SAS) requirements as stipulated in current DOE Orders have provided the envelope for most Integrated Complex (IC) programs. These programs are shifting to meet changing DOE requirements and new budgetary realities. This paper describes exploring existing and developing SAS technologies as its hardware, software, and functions are integrated, transferred, and consolidated. It considers realignment of mission-driven, support, and administrative structures to optimize overall use of assets and personnel and at the same time reduce fixed and variable costs. To assure acceptance and meaningful oversight within the organization and with DOE Headquarters, the functional technologies and linkages need to adopt common fundamental objectives and methodologies. It is also necessary that the uniqueness of each site/facility be carefully factored in to meet changing operations and mission. The importance of connecting functionality with technology is that such disciplines as data/information technologies are vital to management information systems. The technologies serve multiple requirements in such areas as property protection, protective forces, access control, MC and A, operations, and personnel security. Integrated relational databases carefully developed can provide decision-making information for many SAS activities and reflect the movement toward a more industrial security approach to SAS. At the same time, it can support the needs of safety, fire protection, environmental cleansing, etc., and on the international scene arms control, verification, etc.

  20. Low cost fabrication development for oxide dispersion strengthened alloy vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bailey, P. G.

    1978-01-01

    Viable processes were developed for secondary working of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys to near-net shapes (NNS) for aircraft turbine vanes. These processes were shown capable of producing required microstructure and properties for vane applications. Material cost savings of 40 to 50% are projected for the NNS process over the current procedures which involve machining from rectangular bar. Additional machining cost savings are projected. Of three secondary working processes evaluated, directional forging and plate bending were determined to be viable NNS processes for ODS vanes. Directional forging was deemed most applicable to high pressure turbine (HPT) vanes with their large thickness variations while plate bending was determined to be most cost effective for low pressure turbine (LPT) vanes because of their limited thickness variations. Since the F101 LPT vane was selected for study in this program, development of plate bending was carried through to establishment of a preliminary process. Preparation of ODS alloy plate for bending was found to be a straight forward process using currently available bar stock, providing that the capability for reheating between roll passes is available. Advanced ODS-NiCrAl and ODS-FeCrAl alloys were utilized on this program. Workability of all alloys was adequate for directional forging and plate bending, but only the ODS-FeCrAl had adequate workability for shaped preform extrustion.

  1. FY04 Engineering Technology Reports Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, R M

    2005-01-27

    This report summarizes the science and technology research and development efforts in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Engineering Directorate for FY2004, and exemplifies Engineering's more than 50-year history of developing the technologies needed to support the Laboratory's missions. Engineering has been a partner in every major program and project at the Laboratory throughout its existence and has prepared for this role with a skilled workforce and the technical resources developed through venues like the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD). This accomplishment is well summarized by Engineering's mission: ''Enable program success today and ensure the Laboratory's vitality tomorrow''. Engineering's investment in technologies is carried out through two programs, the ''Tech Base'' program and the LDRD program. LDRD is the vehicle for creating those technologies and competencies that are cutting edge. These require a significant level of research or contain some unknown that needs to be fully understood. Tech Base is used to apply technologies to a Laboratory need. The term commonly used for Tech Base projects is ''reduction to practice''. Therefore, the LDRD report covered here has a strong research emphasis. Areas that are presented all fall into those needed to accomplish our mission. For FY2004, Engineering's LDRD projects were focused on mesoscale target fabrication and characterization, development of engineering computational capability, material studies and modeling, remote sensing and communications, and microtechnology and nanotechnology for national security applications. Engineering's five Centers, in partnership with the Division Leaders and Department Heads, are responsible for guiding the long-term science and technology investments for the Directorate. The Centers represent technologies that have been identified as critical for the present and future work of the Laboratory, and are chartered to develop their respective

  2. Development of engineering technology basis for industrialization of pyrometallurgical reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Tadafumi; Hijikata, Takatoshi; Yokoo, Takeshi; Inoue, Tadashi

    2007-07-01

    Development of the engineering technology basis of pyrometallurgical reprocessing is a key issue for industrialization. For development of the transport technologies of molten salt and liquid cadmium at around 500 deg. C, a salt transport test rig and a metal transport test rig were installed in Ar glove box. Function of centrifugal pump and 1/2' declined tubing were confirmed with LiCl- KCl molten salt. The transport behavior of molten salt was found to follow that of water. Function of centrifugal pump, vacuum sucking and 1/2' declined tubing were confirmed with liquid Cd. With employing the transport technologies, industrialization applicable electro-refiner was newly designed and engineering-scale model was fabricated in Ar glove box. The electro-refiner has semi-continuous liquid Cd cathode instead of conventional one used in small-scale tests. With using actinide-simulating elements, demonstration of industrial-scale throughput will be carried out in this electro-refiner for more precise evaluation of industrialization potential of pyrometallurgical reprocessing. (authors)

  3. Development, Fabrication, and Testing of a Liquid/Liquid Microchannel Heat Exchanger for Constellation Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins-Reynolds, Ebony; Le,Hung; Stephans, Ryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Minimizing mass and volume is critically important for space hardware. Microchannel technology can be used to decrease both of these parameters for heat exchangers. Working in concert with NASA, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) has developed a microchannel liquid/liquid heat exchanger that has resulted in significant mass and volume savings. The microchannel heat exchanger delivers these improvements without sacrificing thermal and pressure drop performance. A conventional heat exchanger has been tested and the performance of it recorded to compare it to the microchannel heat exchanger that PNNL has fabricated. The microchannel heat exchanger was designed to meet all of the requirements of the baseline heat exchanger, while reducing the heat exchanger mass and volume. The baseline heat exchanger was designed to have an transfer approximately 3.1 kW for a specific set of inlet conditions. The baseline heat exchanger mass was 2.7 kg while the microchannel mass was only 2.0 kg. More impressive, however, was the volumetric savings associated with the microchannel heat exchanger. The microchannel heat exchanger was an order of magnitude smaller than the baseline heat exchanger (2180cm3 vs. 311 cm3). This paper will describe the test apparatus designed to complete performance tests for both heat exchangers. Also described in this paper will be the performance specifications for the microchannel heat exchanger and how they compare to the baseline heat exchanger.

  4. Development and fabrication of a solar cell junction processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A processing system capable of producing solar cell junctions by ion implantation followed by pulsed electron beam annealing was developed and constructed. The machine was to be capable of processing 4-inch diameter single-crystal wafers at a rate of 10(7) wafers per year. A microcomputer-controlled pulsed electron beam annealer with a vacuum interlocked wafer transport system was designed, built and demonstrated to produce solar cell junctions on 4-inch wafers with an AMI efficiency of 12%. Experiments showed that a non-mass-analyzed (NMA) ion beam could implant 10 keV phosphorous dopant to form solar cell junctions which were equivalent to mass-analyzed implants. A NMA ion implanter, compatible with the pulsed electron beam annealer and wafer transport system was designed in detail but was not built because of program termination.

  5. Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Cast

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    2012-03-31

    This Final Technical Report describes progress made on the sub-projects awarded in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42457: Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST). The final reports for each sub-project are attached in the appendix. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: a) Solid-solid separation b) Solid-liquid separation c) Chemical/Biological Extraction d) Modeling and Control, and e) Environmental Control.

  6. Survey and analysis of federally developed technology

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.E.; Conrad, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    The methodology and results of a test effort to determine whether there exist unexpected opportunities for the direct transfer of technologies from federal laboratories to industry are presented. Specifically, the latest results of six federal laboratories with potential application in the pulp and paper industry, particularly those results applicable to improving energy productivity, were evaluated, cataloged, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. The principal methodological steps in this effort were the development of a taxonomy of the pulp and paper industry, identification of industry needs and laboratory capabilities, laboratory visits, review of technology findings with industry, and evaluation and compilation of industry responses.

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  8. Packaging Technology Developed for High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Microsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature electronics and sensors are necessary for harsh-environment space and aeronautical applications, such as sensors and electronics for space missions to the inner solar system, sensors for in situ combustion and emission monitoring, and electronics for combustion control for aeronautical and automotive engines. However, these devices cannot be used until they can be packaged in appropriate forms for specific applications. Suitable packaging technology for operation temperatures up to 500 C and beyond is not commercially available. Thus, the development of a systematic high-temperature packaging technology for SiC-based microsystems is essential for both in situ testing and commercializing high-temperature SiC sensors and electronics. In response to these needs, researchers at Glenn innovatively designed, fabricated, and assembled a new prototype electronic package for high-temperature electronic microsystems using ceramic substrates (aluminum nitride and aluminum oxide) and gold (Au) thick-film metallization. Packaging components include a ceramic packaging frame, thick-film metallization-based interconnection system, and a low electrical resistance SiC die-attachment scheme. Both the materials and fabrication process of the basic packaging components have been tested with an in-house-fabricated SiC semiconductor test chip in an oxidizing environment at temperatures from room temperature to 500 C for more than 1000 hr. These test results set lifetime records for both high-temperature electronic packaging and high-temperature electronic device testing. As required, the thick-film-based interconnection system demonstrated low (2.5 times of the room-temperature resistance of the Au conductor) and stable (decreased 3 percent in 1500 hr of continuous testing) electrical resistance at 500 C in an oxidizing environment. Also as required, the electrical isolation impedance between printed wires that were not electrically joined by a wire bond remained high

  9. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    This report documents in detail the work performed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Energy Research Corporation during the fourth phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) for electric utility or industrial power plant applications. The results of this effort include (1) development of a baseline rolled electrode technology; (2) advancement of fuel cell technology through innovative improvements in the areas of acid management, catalyst selection, electrode and plate materials and processes, component designs, and quality assurance programs; (3) demonstration of improved fuel cell and stack performance and endurance; (4) successful scaleup of cell and stack design features into full height 100 kW stacks; and (5) demonstration of combining stacks into a 400 kW module that will be the building block for power plants, including the development of testing facilities and operating procedures applicable to plant operations.

  10. Latest Developments in Nuclear Emulsion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Kunihiro

    Nuclear emulsion is high sensitive photographic film used for detection of three-dimensional trajectory of charged particles. These trajectories are recorded as tracks consist of a lot of silver grains. The size of silver grain is about 1 μm, so that nuclear emulsion has submicron three-dimensional spatial resolution, which gives us a few mrad three-dimensional angular resolution. The important technical progress was speed-up of the read-out technique of nuclear emulsions built with optical microscope system. We succeeded in developing a high-speed three-dimensional read-out system named Super Ultra Track Selector (S-UTS) with the operating read-out speed of approximately 50 cm2/h. Nowadays we are developing the nuclear emulsion gel independently in Nagoya University by introducing emulsion gel production machine. Moreover, we are developing nuclear emulsion production technologies (gel production, poring and mass production). In this paper, development of nuclear emulsion technologies for the OPERA experiment, applications by the technologies and current development are described.

  11. Extravehicular Activity Technology Development Status and Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of NASA s current EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be to reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA hardware life and limited availability of the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) will eventually become a critical issue. The current EMU has successfully served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability will be needed and the current architectures and technologies under development offer significant improvements over the current flight systems. In addition to ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for missions to Near Earth Objects (NEO), Phobos, or future surface missions. Surface missions could include either exploration of the Moon or Mars. Providing an

  12. Fundamentals and advances in the development of remote welding fabrication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agapakis, J. E.; Masubuchi, K.; Von Alt, C.

    1986-01-01

    Operational and man-machine issues for welding underwater, in outer space, and at other remote sites are investigated, and recent process developments are described. Probable remote welding missions are classified, and the essential characteristics of fundamental remote welding tasks are analyzed. Various possible operational modes for remote welding fabrication are identified, and appropriate roles for humans and machines are suggested. Human operator performance in remote welding fabrication tasks is discussed, and recent advances in the development of remote welding systems are described, including packaged welding systems, stud welding systems, remotely operated welding systems, and vision-aided remote robotic welding and autonomous welding systems.

  13. NASA GRC Stirling Technology Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin (LM), Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are developing a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for potential NASA Space Science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing spacecraft onboard electric power for NASA deep space missions and power for unmanned Mars rovers. NASA GRC is conducting an in- house supporting technology project to assist in developing the Stirling convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. Preparations are underway for a thermalhacuum system demonstration and unattended operation during endurance testing of the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors. Heater head life assessment efforts continue, including verification of the heater head brazing and heat treatment schedules and evaluation of any potential regenerator oxidation. Long-term magnet aging tests are continuing to characterize any possible aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the permanent magnets used in the linear alternator. Testing of the magnet/lamination epoxy bond for performance and lifetime characteristics is now underway. These efforts are expected to provide key inputs as the system integrator, LM, begins system development of the SRG. GRC is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors. Cleveland State University (CSU) is progressing toward a multi-dimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code, capable of modeling complete convertors. Validation efforts at both CSU and the University of Minnesota are complementing the code development. New efforts have been started this year on a lightweight convertor, advanced controllers, high-temperature materials, and an end-to-end system dynamics model. Performance and mass improvement goals have been established for second- and third-generation Stirling radioisotope power systems.

  14. NASA GRC Stirling Technology Development Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin (LM), Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are developing a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for potential NASA Space Science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing spacecraft onboard electric power for NASA deep space missions and power for unmanned Mars rovers. NASA GRC is conducting an in-house supporting technology project to assist in developing the Stirling convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. Preparations are underway for a thermal/vacuum system demonstration and unattended operation during endurance testing of the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors. Heater head life assessment efforts continue, including verification of the heater head brazing and heat treatment schedules and evaluation of any potential regenerator oxidation. Long-term magnet aging tests are continuing to characterize any possible aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the permanent magnets used in the linear alternator. Testing of the magnet/lamination epoxy bond for performance and lifetime characteristics is now underway. These efforts are expected to provide key inputs as the system integrator, LM, begins system development of the SRG. GRC is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors. Cleveland State University (CSU) is progressing toward a multi-dimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code, capable of modeling complete convertors. Validation efforts at both CSU and the University of Minnesota are complementing the code development. New efforts have been started this year on a lightweight convertor, advanced controllers, high-temperature materials, and an end-to-end system dynamics model. Performance and mass improvement goals have been established for second- and third-generation Stirling radioisotope power systems.

  15. Space solar cell technology development - A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J.

    1982-01-01

    The developmental history of photovoltaics is examined as a basis for predicting further advances to the year 2000. Transistor technology was the precursor of solar cell development. Terrestrial cells were modified for space through changes in geometry and size, as well as the use of Ag-Ti contacts and manufacture of a p-type base. The violet cell was produced for Comsat, and involved shallow junctions, new contacts, and an enhanced antireflection coating for better radiation tolerance. The driving force was the desire by private companies to reduce cost and weight for commercial satellite power supplies. Liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) GaAs cells are the latest advancement, having a 4 sq cm area and increased efficiency. GaAs cells are expected to be flight ready in the 1980s. Testing is still necessary to verify production techniques and the resistance to electron and photon damage. Research will continue in CVD cell technology, new panel technology, and ultrathin Si cells.

  16. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  17. Development of Laser Fabricated Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III

    2006-01-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) depositions with Ti-6Al-4V gas-atomized powder were accomplished at five different temperatures, ranging from 30 to 400 C, imposed on the base plate. These base plate temperatures were employed in an effort to relieve stresses which develop during the deposition. Warpage of the base plate was monitored. Only a slight decline in warpage was observed as the base plate temperature was increased. Results indicate that substrate temperatures closer to the stress relief minimum of 480 C would relieve deposition stresses, though process parameters would likely need to be modified to compensate for the higher base plate temperature. The compositions of the as-received powder and the LENS deposited material were chemically analyzed. The oxygen content of the LENS material was 0.154 wt.% which is less than the maximum impurity limit of 0.2 percent for commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloys, but is over the limit allowed in ELI grade (0.13 percent). The level of oxygen in the commercial base plate used was only 0.0635 percent. Tensile specimens were machined from the LENS deposited material and tested in tension at room temperature. The ultimate and yield tensile stresses of the LENS material were about 1200 and 1150 MPa respectively, which is about 20 percent higher than the strengths of wrought Ti-6Al-4V. The higher strength of the LENS material was due to its fine structure and high oxygen content. The LENS deposits were not fully dense; voids were frequent at the interfaces between deposited layers. These dispersed sheets of voids were parallel to the longitudinal axis of the resulting tensile specimens. Apparently there was sufficient continuous, fully dense material longitudinally to enable the high strengths. Ductility was low in the LENS material. Percent elongation at failure in the LENS material was near 4 percent, which is less than half of what is usually expected from Ti-6Al-4V. The low ductility was caused by high oxygen levels, and the

  18. Technology Transfer and the Product Development Process

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.

    1989-03-21

    It is my pleasure this morning to address a topic that is much talked about in passing but rarely examined from a first person point of view. That topic is Technology Transfer. Over the next 30 minutes I'd like to approach Technology Transfer within the context of the Product Development Process looking at it from the perspectives of the federal government researcher and the industry manufacturer/user. Fist let us recognize that we are living in an ''Information Age'', where global economic and military competition is determined as much by technology as it is by natural resource assets. It is estimated that technical/scientific information is presently growing at a rate of l3 percent per year; this is expected to increase to 30 percent per year by the turn of the century. In fact, something like 90 percent of all scientific knowledge has been generated in the last 30 years; this pool will double again in the next 10-15 years (Exhibit 1). Of all the scientists and engineers throughout history, 90% live and work in the present time. Successfully managing this technical information/knowledge--i.e., transforming the results of R&D to practical applications--will be an important measure of national strength. A little over a dozen years ago, the United States with only 5 percent of the world's population was generating approximately 75 percent of the world's technology. The US. share is now 50 percent and may decline to 30 percent by the turn of the century. This decline won't be because of downturn in U.S. technological advances but because the other 95 percent of the world's population will be increasing its contribution. Economic and military strength then, will be determined by how quickly and successfully companies, industries, and nations can apply new technological information to practical applications--i.e., how they manage technology transfer within the context of the product development process. Much discussion and pronouncements are ongoing in public forums

  19. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  20. Development of Technology for Effective Removal of Arsenic and Cyanides from Drinking Water and Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Jae

    2008-02-09

    The purpose of the project was to perform a joint research and development effort focused upon the development of methods and the prototype facility for effective removal of arsenic and cyanides from drinking water and wastewater, based on the UPEC patented technology. The goals of this project were to validate UPEC technology, to manufacture a prototype facility meeting the market requirements, and to introduce it to both industry and municipalities which deal with the water quality. The project involved design and fabrication of one experimental unit and one prototypical industrial unit, and tests at industrial and mining sites. The project used sodium ferrate (Na2FeO4) as the media to remove arsenic in drinking water and convert arsenic into non-hazardous form. The work consisted of distinct phases ending with specific deliverables in development, design, fabrication and testing of prototype systems and eventually producing validation data to support commercial introduction of technology and its successful implementation.

  1. Project-Based Technology: Instructional Strategy for Developing Technological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Moti; Barzilai, Abigail

    2006-01-01

    Because we live in a society that increasingly depends upon technology, a growing number of voices are calling for the mandatory study of technology by school-aged children worldwide. Technological literacy is the ability to use, manage, assess, and understand technology, and involves the application of knowledge and abilities to real-world…

  2. Improved microwave shielding behavior of carbon nanotube-coated PET fabric using plasma technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji, Aminoddin; Semnani Rahbar, Ruhollah; Mousavi Shoushtari, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Four different procedures were conducted to load amine functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (NH2-MWCNT) onto poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric surface to obtain a microwave shielding sample. Plasma treated fabric which was subsequently coated with NH2-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid was chosen as the best sample. Surface changes in the PET fabrics were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study the crystalline structure of the PET fabric. The microwave shielding performance of the PET fabrics in term of reflection loss was determined using a network analyzer at X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). The XPS results revealed that the carbon atomic percentage decreased while the oxygen atomic percentage increased when the fabric was plasma treated and coated with NH2-MWCNT. The SEM images showed that the NH2-MWCNTs were homogenously dispersed and individually separated in the surface of fabric. Moreover, the structural studies showed that the crystalline region of the fabrics was not affected by NH2-MWCNT and plasma treatment. The best microwave absorbing properties were obtained from the plasma treated fabric which was then coated with 10% NH2-MWCNT in the presence of acrylic acid. It showed a minimum reflection loss of ∼-18.2 dB about 11 GHz. Proper attachments of NH2-MWCNT on the PET fabric surface was explained in the suggested mechanism in which hydrogen bonding and amide linkage are responsible for the achievement of microwave shielding properties with high durability.

  3. Recent developments in freeform fabrication of dense ceramics from slurry deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cesarano, J. III; Baer, T.A.; Calvert, P.

    1997-11-01

    A freeform fabrication technique for dense ceramics and composites has been developed. The technique requires less than 2 volume percent of organic additives and relies on the principle of layerwise deposition of highly loaded colloidal slurries. Components can be manufactured into complex geometries with thick solid sections as well as with thin-walled sections with high aspect ratios. Process feasibility and quality is dependent on the processing parameters of solids loading, slurry rheology, deposition rate, and drying rate. These interrelated parameters must be controlled so that sintering defects are prevented and shape tolerance is maintained. A review of this freeform fabrication technique, called robocasting, will be discussed for fabrication of aluminum oxide parts. Recent developments for a finite element analysis technique for modeling the drying process will also be presented.

  4. Digital fabrication as an instructional technology for supporting upper elementary and middle school science and mathematics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillman, Daniel

    The purpose of this three-paper manuscript dissertation was to study digital fabrication as an instructional technology for supporting elementary and middle school science and mathematics education. Article one analyzed the effects of digital fabrication activities that were designed to contextualize mathematics education at a summer mathematics enrichment program for upper elementary and middle school students. The primary dependent variables studied were the participants' knowledge of mathematics and science content, attitudes towards STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) and STEM-related careers. Based upon the data collected, three results were presented as having justifiable supporting empirical evidence: (1) The digital fabrication activities, combined with the other mathematics activities at the enrichment program, resulted in non-significant overall gains in students' mathematics test scores and attitudes towards STEM. (2) The digital fabrication activities, combined with the other mathematics activities at the enrichment program, resulted in noteworthy gains on the "Probability & Statistics" questions. (3) Some students who did poorly on the scored paper test on mathematics and science content were nonetheless nominated by their teachers as demonstrating meritorious distinction during the digital fabrication activities (termed "Great Thinkers" by the 5th-grade teachers). Article two focused on how an instructional technology course featuring digital fabrication activities impacted (1) preservice elementary teachers' efficacy beliefs about teaching science, and (2) their attitudes and understanding of how to include instructional technology and digital fabrication activities into teaching science. The research design compared two sections of a teaching with technology course featuring digital fabrication activities to another section of the same course that utilized a media cycle framework (Bull & Bell, 2005) that did not feature digital

  5. The advanced technology development center (ATDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Gregory R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is building the Advanced Technology Development Center (ATDC) to provide a ``national resource'' for the research, development, demonstration, testing, and qualification of Spaceport and Range Technologies. The ATDC will be located at Space Launch Complex 20 (SLC-20) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida. SLC-20 currently provides a processing and launch capability for small-scale rockets: this capability will be augmented with additional ATDC facilities to provide a comprehensive and integrated in situ environment. Examples of Spaceport Technologies that will be supported by ATDC infrastructure include densified cryogenic systems, intelligent automated umbilicals, integrated vehicle health management systems, next-generation safety systems, and advanced range systems. The ATDC can be thought of as a prototype spaceport where industry, government, and academia, in partnership, can work together to improve safety of future space initiatives. The ATDC is being deployed in five separate phases. Major ATDC facilities will include a Liquid Oxygen Area (Phase 1); a Liquid Hydrogen Area, a Liquid Nitrogen Area, and a multipurpose Launch Mount (Phase 2); ``Iron Rocket'' Test Demonstrator (Phase 3); a Processing Facility with a Checkout and Control System (Phase 4); and Future Infrastructure Developments (Phase 5). Initial ATDC development will be completed in 2006. .

  6. The Advanced Technology Development Center (ATDC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, G. R.; Willcoxon, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is building the Advanced Technology Development Center (ATDC) to provide a 'national resource' for the research, development, demonstration, testing, and qualification of Spaceport and Range Technologies. The ATDC will be located at Space Launch Complex 20 (SLC-20) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida. SLC-20 currently provides a processing and launch capability for small-scale rockets; this capability will be augmented with additional ATDC facilities to provide a comprehensive and integrated in situ environment. Examples of Spaceport Technologies that will be supported by ATDC infrastructure include densified cryogenic systems, intelligent automated umbilicals, integrated vehicle health management systems, next-generation safety systems, and advanced range systems. The ATDC can be thought of as a prototype spaceport where industry, government, and academia, in partnership, can work together to improve safety of future space initiatives. The ATDC is being deployed in five separate phases. Major ATDC facilities will include a Liquid Oxygen Area; a Liquid Hydrogen Area, a Liquid Nitrogen Area, and a multipurpose Launch Mount; 'Iron Rocket' Test Demonstrator; a Processing Facility with a Checkout and Control System; and Future Infrastructure Developments. Initial ATDC development will be completed in 2006.

  7. Multiwavelength lasers fabricated by a novel impurity-free quantum-well intermixing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, JingHua; Chua, Soo-Jin; Huang, Y. H.; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, G.; Saher Helmy, A.; Marsh, John H.

    1999-11-01

    Using impurity free vacancy enhanced disordering (IFVD), the shift in the band gap of Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs QW structures can be precisely controlled by an Al layer buried between a spin-on silica film and wet-oxidized GaAs surface. The blue shift in wavelength of Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs QW photoluminescence (PL) depends linearly on the thickness of the buried Al layer. By changing the Al layer thickness, the PL peak wavelength can be tuned from 7870 angstrom for the as-grown sample to 7300 angstrom and 7050 angstrom after 20s and 45s rapid thermal annealing at 850°C respectively. Applying this technology, three wavelength lasers were successfully fabricated in a single chip. The laser is a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As three quantum well GRIN-SCH structure. Al layers with different thickness, i.e., no Al, 200 angstrom and 300 angstrom thick respectively, were buried between the oxidized GaAs surface and the silica film by two step photo-lithography and lift- off in three adjacent regions with 200 μm spacing. After one step rapid thermal annealing, the wafer was processed into 6 μm oxide-strip lasers. At room temperature the intermixed lasers covered with different thickness of Al layer show different lasing wavelengths. All the lasers have similar threshold current and slope efficiency.

  8. Office of Technology Development integrated program for development of in situ remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.

    1992-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development has instituted an integrated program focused on development of in situ remediation technologies. The development of in situ remediation technologies will focus on five problem groups: buried waste, contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, containerized wastes and underground detonation sites. The contaminants that will be included in the development program are volatile and non volatile organics, radionuclides, inorganics and highly explosive materials as well as mixtures of these contaminants. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) has defined the fiscal year 1993 research and development technology areas for focusing activities, and they are described in this paper. These R D topical areas include: nonbiological in situ treatment, in situ bioremediation, electrokinetics, and in situ containment.

  9. Office of Technology Development integrated program for development of in situ remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.

    1992-08-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development has instituted an integrated program focused on development of in situ remediation technologies. The development of in situ remediation technologies will focus on five problem groups: buried waste, contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, containerized wastes and underground detonation sites. The contaminants that will be included in the development program are volatile and non volatile organics, radionuclides, inorganics and highly explosive materials as well as mixtures of these contaminants. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) has defined the fiscal year 1993 research and development technology areas for focusing activities, and they are described in this paper. These R&D topical areas include: nonbiological in situ treatment, in situ bioremediation, electrokinetics, and in situ containment.

  10. Flywheel rotor and containment technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S.V.

    1981-08-11

    The goals of the project are: to develop an economical and practical composite flywheel having an energy density of 88 Wh/kg at failure, an operational energy density of 44 to 55 Wh/kg, and an energy storage capacity of approximately 1 kWh; to determine the suitability of various manufacturing processes for low-cost rotor fabrication; to investigate flywheel and flywheel-systems dynamics; to test and evaluate prototype rotors for use in transportation and stationary applications; and to develop a fail-safe, lightweight, and low-cost flywheel containment. The following tasks have been accomplished: evaluation and selection of 1-kWh, first-generation, advanced flywheel rotor designs for subsequent development towards the DOE-established energy density goal of 88 Wh/kg at burst; completion of an advanced design concept for a flywheel primary containment structure, capable of containing the failure of a 1-kWh flywheel rotor and targeted for vehicular applications; non-destructive inspection and burst testing of approximately twenty (20) prototype rotors, and initiation of cyclic testing; completion of various activities in the areas of rotor manufacturing processes, dynamic analyses and composite materials design data generation; and initiation of an economic feasibility study to establish a rational costing methodology for composite rotors and containment.

  11. WRAP-RIB antenna technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeland, R. E.; Garcia, N. F.; Iwamoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    The wrap-rib deployable antenna concept development is based on a combination of hardware development and testing along with extensive supporting analysis. The proof-of-concept hardware models are large in size so they will address the same basic problems associated with the design fabrication, assembly and test as the full-scale systems which were selected to be 100 meters at the beginning of the program. The hardware evaluation program consists of functional performance tests, design verification tests and analytical model verification tests. Functional testing consists of kinematic deployment, mesh management and verification of mechanical packaging efficiencies. Design verification consists of rib contour precision measurement, rib cross-section variation evaluation, rib materials characterizations and manufacturing imperfections assessment. Analytical model verification and refinement include mesh stiffness measurement, rib static and dynamic testing, mass measurement, and rib cross-section characterization. This concept was considered for a number of potential applications that include mobile communications, VLBI, and aircraft surveillance. In fact, baseline system configurations were developed by JPL, using the appropriate wrap-rib antenna, for all three classes of applications.

  12. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct. PMID:26826637

  13. Heterostructurally integrated III-V semiconductors fabricated by wafer bonding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fang Frank

    mechanism. The kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the annealing-induced interfacial transformation process has been performed based upon the temporal measurements of interface electrical conductivity and micromorphologies. Finally, the feasibility of using the combination of low-temperature grown amorphous alpha-(Ga, As) materials and wafer-bonding technology to fabricate GaSb semiconductor on GaAs substrates to potentially create GaSb-on-insulator structure has been demonstrated.

  14. Thai health technology assessment guideline development.

    PubMed

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2008-06-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a comprehensive form of policy research that provides information on the consequences of the application of health technology. It is used primarily to guide health care resource allocation decisions. In Thailand, there is increasing impetus to use HTA information to allow more explicit and transparent health care priority setting. A previous study indicated that serious attention needed to be given to the quality of reporting and the use of information in the analyses. These problems could be reduced by setting up standard guidelines for conducting HTA to stimulate the provision of standardized, reliable and good quality information for policy makers. Nevertheless, Thailand has not yet set up such guidelines. This may lead to low quality evaluations. Therefore, the objective of this article was to describe the rationale for guideline development, supporting principles, guideline development process, sources of information, and future challenges for HTA. PMID:19253483

  15. Developing mRNA-vaccine technologies

    PubMed Central

    Schlake, Thomas; Thess, Andreas; Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola; Kallen, Karl-Josef

    2012-01-01

    mRNA vaccines combine desirable immunological properties with an outstanding safety profile and the unmet flexibility of genetic vaccines. Based on in situ protein expression, mRNA vaccines are capable of inducing a balanced immune response comprising both cellular and humoral immunity while not subject to MHC haplotype restriction. In addition, mRNA is an intrinsically safe vector as it is a minimal and only transient carrier of information that does not interact with the genome. Because any protein can be expressed from mRNA without the need to adjust the production process, mRNA vaccines also offer maximum flexibility with respect to development. Taken together, mRNA presents a promising vector that may well become the basis of a game-changing vaccine technology platform. Here, we outline the current knowledge regarding different aspects that should be considered when developing an mRNA-based vaccine technology. PMID:23064118

  16. Data on development of new energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    The paper compiles data on the trend of development of new energy technologies into a book. By category, renewable energy is solar energy, wind power generation, geothermal power generation, ocean energy, and biomass. As a category of fuel form conversion, cited are coal liquefaction/gasification, coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and natural gas liquefaction/decarbonization. The other categories are cogeneration by fuel cell and ceramic gas turbine, district heat supply system, power load leveling technology, transportation-use substitution-fuel vehicle, and others (Stirling engine, superconducting power generator, etc.). The data are systematically compiled on essential principles, transition of introduction, objectives of introduction, status of production, cost, development schedule, performance, etc. The paper also deals with the related legislation system, developmental organizations, and a menu for power companies' buying surplus power.

  17. Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.

  18. Wireless Power Transmission Technology Development and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinsiek, F.; Weber, K.-H.; Foth, W.-P.; Foth, H. J.; Schäfer, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technology has been treated to a wide extent in the recent years. A broad variety of applications has been investigated, from earth to orbit, orbit to earth, in-orbit and planetary ones, as for moon and Mars missions. In this course the question to use laser or microwave technology has widely been discussed. Beaming energy to spacecrafts could provide an important space mission-economic potential. It promises significant reduction in the cost of access to space, for scientific and commercial missions, and increases the mission capabilities for in-space systems. For the future enhancement of ISS capabilities and operational efficiency, the use of WPT technology became part of the technology research planning for the ISS. The WPT may have the potential of providing operational benefits, increase of spacecraft systems efficiency for elements like co-orbiting platforms, transfer vehicles or other ISS related in-orbit spacecrafts, and planetary exploration vehicles. The laser technology provides specific technical, operational and economic benefits compared to microwave applications and provides the actual basis for the envisioned wireless power transmission concepts. An outlook in terms of future wireless power perspectives, both for terrestrial as for space-to-space scenarios is given; these applications are part of a technology demonstration roadmap for wireless power transmission key- and supporting technologies, which is characterized by dedicated technology demonstration milestones on ground and in space. The actual technology development philosophy as conceived at EADS-Space Transportation is described and includes main system demonstration missions, as a laboratory test bed employing a small rover system, a scaled airship model demonstration as planned in 2004 and an experiment onboard the International Space Station ISS. These demonstrations represent milestones in terms of technical capability verification on the way to

  19. Technology development for DOE SNF management

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.L.; Einziger, R.E.; Murphy, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the process used to identify technology development needs for the same management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) inventory. Needs were assessed for each of the over 250 fuel types stores at DOE sites around the country for each stage of SNF management--existing storage, transportation, interim storage, and disposal. The needs were then placed into functional groupings to facilitate integration and collaboration among the sites.

  20. Ultrashort pulsed laser technology development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manke, Gerald C.

    2014-10-01

    The Department of Navy has been pursuing a technology development program for advanced, all-fiber, Ultra Short Pulsed Laser (USPL) systems via Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs. Multiple topics have been published to promote and fund research that encompasses every critical component of a standard USPL system and enable the demonstration of mJ/pulse class systems with an all fiber architecture. This presentation will summarize published topics and funded programs.