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Sample records for face higher risk

  1. Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer But study found just 30 minutes of exercise ... who are sedentary appear more likely to develop cervical cancer, but just 30 minutes of exercise each week ...

  2. Radiologists Don't Face Higher Risk of Radiation-Related Death: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Don't Face Higher Risk of Radiation-Related Death: Study Efforts to improve monitoring and protective equipment ... after 1940 are not at greater risk of death from chronic exposure to low levels of radiation, ...

  3. Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the department of cancer prevention and control at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, N.Y. "Our ... reduce cervical cancer risk," Moysich said in a Roswell release. According to study author Dr. J. Brian ...

  4. Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157758.html Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare ... suggests. Dutch researchers found that obese women on birth control pills were nearly 30 times more likely ...

  5. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  6. Emotional expression and heart rate in high-risk infants during the face-to-face/still-face.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Whitney I; Ekas, Naomi V; Lambert, Brittany; Tronick, Ed; Lester, Barry M; Messinger, Daniel S

    2013-12-01

    In infants, eye constriction-the Duchenne marker-and mouth opening appear to index the intensity of both positive and negative facial expressions. We combined eye constriction and mouth opening that co-occurred with smiles and cry-faces (respectively, the prototypic expressions of infant joy and distress) to measure emotional expression intensity. Expression intensity and heart rate were measured throughout the face-to-face/still-face (FFSF) in a sample of infants with prenatal cocaine exposure who were at risk for developmental difficulties. Smiles declined and cry-faces increased in the still-face episode, but the distribution of eye constriction and mouth opening in smiles and cry-faces did not differ across episodes of the FFSF. As time elapsed in the still face episode potential indices of intensity increased, cry-faces were more likely to be accompanied by eye constriction and mouth opening. During cry-faces there were also moderately stable individual differences in the quantity of eye constriction and mouth opening. Infant heart rate was higher during cry-faces and lower during smiles, but did not vary with intensity of expression or by episode. In sum, infants express more intense negative affect as the still-face progresses, but do not show clear differences in expressive intensity between episodes of the FFSF. PMID:24095807

  7. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart ... 30, 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men are significantly more likely to have their heart ...

  8. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart disease tends to develop earlier than ... About one in nine men will suffer a cardiac arrest before the age of 70, compared to about ...

  9. Women with Migraine May Face Higher Threat of Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159112.html Women With Migraine May Face Higher Threat of Heart Disease, Stroke ... 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who suffer from migraine headaches may have a slightly increased risk of ...

  10. Women with Migraine May Face Higher Threat of Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women With Migraine May Face Higher Threat of Heart Disease, Stroke Researchers say it should be considered an ... headaches may have a slightly increased risk of heart disease or stroke, a new study suggests. "Migraine should ...

  11. The timecourse of higher-level face aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Clifford, Colin W G; Leopold, David A

    2007-08-01

    Perceptual aftereffects for simple visual attributes processed early in the cortical hierarchy increase logarithmically with adapting duration and decay exponentially with test duration. This classic timecourse has been reported recently for a face identity aftereffect [Leopold, D. A., Rhodes, G., Müller, K.-M., & Jeffery, L. (2005). The dynamics of visual adaptation to faces. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 272, 897-904], suggesting that the dynamics of visual adaptation may be similar throughout the visual system. An alternative interpretation, however, is that the classic timecourse is a flow-on effect of adaptation of a low-level, retinotopic component of the face identity aftereffect. Here, we examined the timecourse of the higher-level (size-invariant) components of two face aftereffects, the face identity aftereffect and the figural face aftereffect. Both showed the classic pattern of logarithmic build-up and exponential decay. These results indicate that the classic timecourse of face aftereffects is not a flow-on effect of low-level retinotopic adaptation, and support the hypothesis that dynamics of visual adaptation are similar at higher and lower levels of the cortical visual hierarchy. They also reinforce the perceptual nature of face aftereffects, ruling out demand characteristics and other post-perceptual factors as plausible accounts. PMID:17619045

  12. Challenges Facing Higher Educational Administrators Down Under in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seagren, Alan T.; Doyle, Ken J.

    The changing perspectives of higher educational administration in Australia are traced from the growth of the 1960s and early 1970s to the period of contraction, since 1975. Three major challenges facing administrators in the period ahead are identified: problems of continuing institutional viability with the threat of government intervention;…

  13. Strategies for the Challenges Facing Women in Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehnke, Mary Ann

    Women administrators in higher education must deal not only with the usual challenges facing administrators (decision-making, resolving conflict, and advancing professionally), but also with the effects of sex stereotyping. Women are not seen as decision-makers, nor as conflict-resolvers, and are often viewed as supporting personnel rather than…

  14. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  15. Exploring Presentation Styles in Higher Education Teaching and Research Situations: Distance and Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Knightbridge, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Universities are increasingly using advanced video-conferencing environments to interact for teaching and research purposes at a distance and in situations that combine distant participants with those face-to-face. Those who use these technologies expect professional development support to do so but we do not yet have a comprehensive research…

  16. Constructivist Education and Epistemological Development in Online and Face-to-Face Higher Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study examined two sections of a course in child development, one online and one face-to-face, to determine similarities and differences between the two related to constructivist education and constructivist processes. Course documents, instructor reflections, online discussion forum text, student-instructor…

  17. A Comparison of Student Views on Web-Based and Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sad, Suleyman Nihat; Goktas, Ozlem; Bayrak, Ilhami

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe and compare the perceptions of web-based distance education students and campus-based face-to-face students about the quality of education provided in their programs with regard to variables including gender, marital status, and employment status. A baseline descriptive survey design and complementary "ex post…

  18. The Hierarchical Face: Higher Rankings Lead to Less Cooperative Looks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Patricia; Myers, Christopher G.; Kopelman, Shirli; Garcia, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 studies, we tested the hypothesis that the higher ranked an individual's group is, the less cooperative the facial expression of that person is judged to be. Study 1 established this effect among business school deans, with observers rating individuals from higher ranked schools as appearing less cooperative, despite lacking prior knowledge…

  19. Sexual Harassment: A Liability Higher Education Must Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Cynthia S.; Green, Vicki A.

    1983-01-01

    Some institutions of higher education have adopted policies prohibiting sexual harassment and set out procedures for resolving complaints and grievances. Until it is eliminated and becomes a taboo practice, there must exist some legal protection for both victims and unintended accomplices. (MLW)

  20. Understanding the Many Faces of the Culture of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, James J., Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays focuses on the philosophy, organization, goals, and administration of higher education institutions. The essays include: (1) "Reframing Leadership: The Study of Educational Philosophy as Preparation for Administrative Practice" (James Wagener); (2) "Community, Collegiality, & Diversity: Professors, Priorities, and…

  1. The Crisis in Higher Education: Facing Reduction and Financial Exigency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard A.

    The development of policy to respond to reduction and financial exigency in higher education was studied, based on a survey of presidents of 19 public and 35 private colleges and universities. In addition to assessing policy development, the survey was directed to efforts to increase enrollments and revenue and to reduce expenditures and criteria…

  2. Considering the changing face of social media in higher education.

    PubMed

    Legaree, Blaine A

    2015-08-01

    There is currently much ongoing consideration as to how educators can make use of new technologies to engage students. The prevalence of social media use within both private and professional circles has made these technologies increasingly important for educators. This commentary briefly outlines some of the ways social media has been used in higher education and also some of the primary concerns. Current and future trends are also addressed. PMID:26260155

  3. AIDS and behavioural risk factors in women in inner city Baltimore: a comparison of telephone and face to face surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Nebot, M; Celentano, D D; Burwell, L; Davis, A; Davis, M; Polacsek, M; Santelli, J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to investigate the influence the mode of administration of a questionnaire (telephone or face to face) on reports of sexual behaviour and attitudes of HIV risk among woman of reproductive age. DESIGN--Two cross sectional surveys--one, a modified random digit dialing telephone survey, the second, a face to face street sample--were carried out by the same interviewers using similar questionnaires in the same neighbourhoods. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Two socially deprived, inner city neighbourhoods of Baltimore City were assessed in early 1990 before a community health intervention was carried out in one of them. Women between 17 and 35 years were surveyed. MAIN RESULTS--Altogether 775 and 416 women in the target age group were interviewed by telephone and face to face methods: the response rates were 66.4% and 77% respectively. Telephone respondents tended to be older, had more education, were more often married, were less likely to live in subsidised housing, and were more likely to report HIV testing. The proportions of respondents who reported a previous abortion and had had a surgical sterilisation were higher among the telephone respondents (34.7% v 24.1% and 26.4% v 20.6%, respectively). With regard to sexual risk behaviour, the only statistically significant differences were found in the proportion who reported having used drugs (10.6% of the face to face v 2.4% of the telephone sample) or alcohol (30.5% v 16.3%) at last sexual intercourse. The observed method effect on these variables remained unchanged after adjusting for age, education, employment, and marital status. This effect was even stronger for a subgroup of face to face respondents who reported not having a telephone at home. The adjusted odds ratios for reporting alcohol consumption and use of drugs at the last sexual encounter in this group compared with the telephone respondents were 3.7 (2.1, 6.6) and 14.1 (5.7, 34.5) respectively. CONCLUSIONS--Despite the

  4. Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

    This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting…

  5. Higher cancer risk continues after Chernobyl

    Cancer.gov

    Nearly 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, exposure to radioactive iodine-131(I-131, a radioactive isotope) from fallout may be responsible for thyroid cancers that are still occurring among people who lived in the Chernobyl area and were children or adolescents at the time of the accident, researchers say. An international team of researchers led by the NCI found a clear dose-response relationship, in which higher absorption of radiation from I-131 led to an increased risk for thyroid cancer that has not seemed to diminish over time.

  6. The Challenges Faced by Chinese Higher Education as It Expands in Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaohao, Ding

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the challenges faced by Chinese higher education as it expands in scale. The scale of China's higher education has seen unprecedented expansion in recent years. This article explores the new opportunities and challenges that such expansion brings to China's higher education. The author states that, aside from the many…

  7. Obesity Linked to Higher Asthma Risk in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157808.html Obesity Linked to Higher Asthma Risk in Women Experts ... have a higher risk." It is clear that "obesity is the risk for asthma, not the other ...

  8. Facing Price Risks in Internet-of-Services Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matros, Raimund; Streitberger, Werner; Koenig, Stefan; Eymann, Torsten

    Internet-of-Services markets allow companies to procure computational resources and application services externally and thus to save both internal capital expenditures and operational costs. Despite the advantages of this new paradigm only few work has been done in the field of risk management concerning Internet-of-Services markets. We simulate such a market using a Grid simulator. The results show that market participants are exposed to price risk. Based on our results we identify and assess technical failures which could lead to loss on service consumer's side. We also show that technical failures influence service prices which lead to volatile prices. Both, service provider and service consumer are exposed to this uncertainty and need a way to face it. Therefore we apply a financial option model to overcome price risk.

  9. Challenges Faced by Institutions of Higher Education in Migrating to Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broskoske, Stephen L.; Harvey, Francis A.

    This paper presents the results of a research study conducted in fall 1999 to examine the challenges facing higher educational institutions in migrating to distance learning. The study consisted of five case studies conducted at higher educational institutions in Pennsylvania. At each institution the researchers interviewed the president and other…

  10. Risk for Bipolar Disorder is Associated with Face-Processing Deficits across Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Skup, Martha; Rich, Brendan A.; Blair, Karina S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James R.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the risks for face-emotion labeling deficits and bipolar disorder (BD) among youths is examined. Findings show that youths at risk for BD did not show specific face-emotion recognition deficits. The need to provide more intense emotional information for face-emotion labeling of patients and at-risk youths is also discussed.

  11. Children with Cushing Syndrome May Have Higher Suicide Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Children with Cushing syndrome may have higher suicide risk NIH study finds that depression, anxiety and ... Cushing syndrome may be at higher risk for suicide as well as for depression, anxiety and other ...

  12. Are People with Rosacea At Higher Risk for Alzheimer'S?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are People With Rosacea at Higher Risk for Alzheimer's? Danish study finds a correlation, but patients shouldn' ... linked to a higher risk for dementia and Alzheimer's disease, new research suggests. However, the study authors ...

  13. Oxytocin enhances attentional bias for neutral and positive expression faces in individuals with higher autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Xiaole; Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Yao, Shuxia; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential therapeutic role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in altering attentional bias towards emotional social stimuli in psychiatric disorders. However, it is still unclear whether oxytocin primarily influences attention towards positive or negative valence social stimuli. Here in a double-blind, placebo controlled, between subject design experiment in 60 healthy male subjects we have used the highly sensitive dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to investigate whether intranasal oxytocin (40IU) treatment alters attentional bias for emotional faces. Results show that oxytocin improved recognition accuracy of neutral and happy expression faces presented in the second target position (T2) during the period of reduced attentional capacity following prior presentation of a first neutral face target (T1), but had no effect on recognition of negative expression faces (angry, fearful, sad). Oxytocin also had no effect on recognition of non-social stimuli (digits) in this task. Recognition accuracy for neutral faces at T2 was negatively associated with autism spectrum quotient (ASQ) scores in the placebo group, and oxytocin's facilitatory effects were restricted to a sub-group of subjects with higher ASQ scores. Our results therefore indicate that oxytocin primarily enhances the allocation of attentional resources towards faces expressing neutral or positive emotion and does not influence that towards negative emotion ones or non-social stimuli. This effect of oxytocin is strongest in healthy individuals with higher autistic trait scores, thereby providing further support for its potential therapeutic use in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:26372768

  14. The Risks of Privatisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation looks at the latest statistics on participation in Higher Education, to question whether privatisation of systems has significant effects on participation, affordability and equity of Higher Education. It further looks into questions of autonomy and governance of Higher Education systems in private and public systems, and finally…

  15. Gallstones Linked to Higher Heart Disease Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... convincing" case that gallstones, themselves, are a risk factor for heart disease. Stein, who wasn't involved in the research, is director of the urban community cardiology program at New York University School of Medicine. He said that people with ...

  16. Higher potato intake associated with hypertension risk.

    PubMed

    2016-06-29

    The aim of three US prospective longitudinal cohort studies was to determine whether a higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries or chips and mashed potatoes was associated with incidence of hypertension. PMID:27353785

  17. Short Gap Between Pregnancies Tied to Higher Autism Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Short Gap Between Pregnancies Tied to Higher Autism Risk? Data review can't prove cause-and- ... in close succession may increase the risk of autism in children, a large new research review suggests. ...

  18. Risk Communication about AIDS in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of education as the primary response of higher education to the epidemic associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Focuses on the personal, social and institutional issues that bear on AIDS education on college campuses and the important features of AIDS education programs. (TW)

  19. Graduate Student Attitudes toward Different Instructional Approaches within Face-to-Face, Online, and Blended Learning Environments in a Public Four-Year Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotich, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This study compared graduate student attitudes toward different instructional approaches within online, blended, and face-to-face courses in a public institution of higher learning. The participants completed an online survey questionnaire that was designed by the researcher using 4 learning theories in education: behavioral, cognitive,…

  20. Blending Face-to-Face Higher Education with Web-Based Lectures: Comparing Different Didactical Application Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrieux, Hannelore; Vangestel, Sandra; Raes, Annelies; Matthys, Paul; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning as an instructional approach is getting more attention in the educational landscape and has been researched thoroughly. Yet, this study reports the results of an innovation project aiming to gain insight into three different scenarios of applying web-based lectures: as preparation for face-to-face practical exercises, as a…

  1. Self-esteem, interpersonal risk, and preference for e-mail to face-to-face communication.

    PubMed

    Joinson, Adam N

    2004-08-01

    The media choices made by high and low self-esteem Internet users were studied using web-based methodology (n = 265). Participants were asked to rank four media (face-to-face, e-mail, letter, and telephone) in order of preference across four different communication scenarios designed to pose an interpersonal risk. The level of interpersonal risk posed by two of the scenarios (asking for a pay rise and asking for a date) were also experimentally manipulated by randomly allocating participants to a 25%, 50%, or 75% chance of rejection. Low self-esteem users (LSE) showed a significant preference toward e-mail communication compared to high self-esteem users (HSE). This pattern was reversed for face-to-face preferences. Similarly, a greater chance of rejection in a scenario led to e-mail being preferred to face-to-face communication. The results are discussed in light of both the strategic use of different media and the motivated Internet user. PMID:15331035

  2. Health Risks Faced by Public School Band Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolery, Danielle N.; Woolery, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Public school band directors face many work-related hazards in their grueling, yet rewarding job. As a school year progresses, directors are expected to work long hours, while trying to balance professional and personal responsibilities. A band director whose career spans multiple decades can potentially face a number of serious medical problems.…

  3. Children at Risk: Global Views on Challenges Facing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Members of the World Forum community were invited to respond to the question: "What is the most urgent challenge facing young children in your country?" Here are some of their responses. Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh mentions that in Cameroon, young children face lots of insecurity, both from health hazards and poor parenting practices. There…

  4. The Role of Higher Level Adaptive Coding Mechanisms in the Development of Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimperton, Hannah; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Jeffery, Linda; Rhodes, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    DevDevelopmental improvements in face identity recognition ability are widely documented, but the source of children's immaturity in face recognition remains unclear. Differences in the way in which children and adults visually represent faces might underlie immaturities in face recognition. Recent evidence of a face identity aftereffect (FIAE),…

  5. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    PubMed

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas. PMID:26726839

  6. Smoking Linked to Higher Relapse Risk After Surgery for Crohn's

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Smoking Linked to Higher Relapse Risk After Surgery for Crohn's Research supports immediate drug treatment after bowel surgery for ... Crohn's disease patients will have relapses after bowel surgery, new research suggests. The study included 240 Crohn's disease patients ...

  7. Are People with Rosacea At Higher Risk for Alzheimer'S?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158559.html Are People With Rosacea at Higher Risk for Alzheimer's? Danish ... the study authors were quick to stress that people with rosacea should not be overly worried about ...

  8. Early Puberty Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Early Puberty Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk Alexandria, Virginia October 10, 2013 Early puberty ... 08-book-sabores-de-cuba.html More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ...

  9. Emergency preparedness for higher risk populations: psychosocial considerations.

    PubMed

    Lemyre, Louise; Gibson, Stacey; Zlepnig, Jennifer; Meyer-Macleod, Robin; Boutette, Paul

    2009-06-01

    This paper was meant to be on 'vulnerable populations', as some population sub-groups do require special care, special planning and special integration of needs. However, the issue should be reframed in terms of groups at higher risks. The text explains how (1) there are contextual vulnerabilities, in (a) higher susceptibility, i.e. higher exposure to risk, (b) higher sensitivity, i.e. higher damage or higher brittleness, and (c) weaknesses and gaps in the emergency system; (2) that these higher susceptibility, sensitivity and system weaknesses involve important psychosocial considerations, which may stem from socio-demographic status or ripple effects in the community; and finally, (3) that addressing those 'soft spots' using the phrase 'vulnerable populations' can be misleading and disserving because it disempowers, stigmatises and deters one from a more thorough analysis. PMID:19447815

  10. Higher Education IT Compliance through the Prism of Risk Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feehan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, compliance issues march, unceasingly, through every aspect of higher education. Yet the intricacies of privacy, information security, data governance, and IT policy as compliance and risk areas within the IT organization can reverberate and impact every other department within the higher education institution. The primary focus is always…

  11. One to One and Face to Face: A Community Based Higher Education Support Strategy Retaining Indigenous Australian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Peta; Lockyer, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Literature relating to Indigenous Australian students in higher education highlights the need for improving the retention rates of Indigenous students in Australian universities. A cause for concern has been the increasing numbers of Indigenous Australian people experiencing lower progress and completion rates in comparison to non-Indigenous…

  12. Perceptual information for the age level of faces as a higher order invariant of growth.

    PubMed

    Pittenger, J B; Shaw, R E; Mark, L S

    1979-08-01

    Previous work supports the hypothesis that cardioidal strain, a nonlinear topological transformation, offers a plausible mathematical model for the perceived global changes in human craniofacial morphology due to growth. Experiment 1 examined the generality of the effect of this growth transformation on relative age judgments by applying it to profiles of a dog, bird, and monkey. Experiment 2 investigated the abstractness of this transformation by looking at its effect on perceived age level of a Volkswagen "Beetle." In both experiments, cardioidal strain resulted in changes in the perceived age of the nonhuman profiles that were similar to those produced on human faces in earlier work. A second transformation, affine shear, failed to produce as significant an effect on perceived age as cardioidal strain when applied to the same structures. Because cardioidal strain produces changes in structures that do not share an isomorphism of rigid (Euclidian) local features or rigid feature configurations, this transformation seems both sufficiently general and abstract to specify what J.J. Gibson has called a "higher-order invariant of perceptual information. PMID:528953

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction. The Problems Facing Our Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Donald C.; Winston, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Continued and expanded efforts to educate people as to what factors contribute to coronary heart disease will help to decrease its occurrence. Risk factors include: cholesterol, smoking, hypertension, obesity, heredity, psychological influences, and the taking of oral contraceptives or alcohol. (CJ)

  14. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with AGB Prez Richard Legon on Challenges Facing Higher Ed Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In April, the "New England Journal of Higher Education ("NEJHE") launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, Philip DiSalvio interviews Richard Legon, president of the…

  15. Individual Choice and Risk: The Case of Higher Education

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of higher education raises the risk environment for school-leavers as more occupations become partially graduate with the result that occupational signals are fuzzy. This makes the educational decision more difficult and more risky, especially with more of the cost of higher education being transferred to the individual. After a discussion of the nature of risk, derived from Beck, and of the role of government policy and of economics in obscuring this, the analysis uses simple quantitative techniques, based on British Labour Force Survey data, to demonstrate the increased fuzziness of graduate work. It is also shown that a rising proportion of graduates receive only average pay, thus raising the risks associated with educational investments even further. PMID:25419008

  16. Silent katydid females are at higher risk of bat predation than acoustically signalling katydid males.

    PubMed

    Raghuram, Hanumanthan; Deb, Rittik; Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    Males that produce conspicuous mate attraction signals are often at high risk of predation from eavesdropping predators. Females of such species typically search for signalling males and their higher motility may also place them at risk. The relative predation risk faced by males and females in the context of mate-finding using long-distance signals has rarely been investigated. In this study, we show, using a combination of diet analysis and behavioural experiments, that katydid females, who do not produce acoustic signals, are at higher risk of predation from a major bat predator, Megaderma spasma, than calling males. Female katydids were represented in much higher numbers than males in the culled remains beneath roosts of M. spasma. Playback experiments using katydid calls revealed that male calls were approached in only about one-third of the trials overall, whereas tethered, flying katydids were always approached and attacked. Our results question the idea that necessary costs of mate-finding, including risk of predation, are higher in signalling males than in searching females. PMID:25429019

  17. Silent katydid females are at higher risk of bat predation than acoustically signalling katydid males

    PubMed Central

    Raghuram, Hanumanthan; Deb, Rittik; Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    Males that produce conspicuous mate attraction signals are often at high risk of predation from eavesdropping predators. Females of such species typically search for signalling males and their higher motility may also place them at risk. The relative predation risk faced by males and females in the context of mate-finding using long-distance signals has rarely been investigated. In this study, we show, using a combination of diet analysis and behavioural experiments, that katydid females, who do not produce acoustic signals, are at higher risk of predation from a major bat predator, Megaderma spasma, than calling males. Female katydids were represented in much higher numbers than males in the culled remains beneath roosts of M. spasma. Playback experiments using katydid calls revealed that male calls were approached in only about one-third of the trials overall, whereas tethered, flying katydids were always approached and attacked. Our results question the idea that necessary costs of mate-finding, including risk of predation, are higher in signalling males than in searching females. PMID:25429019

  18. Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

  19. Children at Risk of Neglect: Challenges Faced by Child Protection Practitioners in Guatemala City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.…

  20. Hyperhomocysteinemia in preeclampsia is associated to higher risk pressure profiles.

    PubMed

    Noto, R; Neri, S; Noto, Z; Cilio, D; Abate, G; Noto, P; Pepi, F; Leanza, A; Molino, G

    2003-01-01

    Homocysteine levels have been determined with Chromatography on HPLC column, between the 20th and the 24th week of pregnancy, in women with analogous characteristics (a) normotensive, (b) with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), low (LR), medium (MR), high risk (HR). The group they belonged to was confirmed after natural or caesarean delivery. All the patients were submitted to 24 hour blood pressure monitoring for the evaluation of further pressure risk parameters: mean arterial pressure (MAP), non dippers, percentages of pressure peaks. Homocysteine levels in normotensive pregnant women (5.8 +/- 1.7 microM) were low. Significant high levels of homocysteine were present proportionally to the risk degree of PIH. Higher levels of homocysteine statistically significant were present in non dippers of all groups (MR p < 0.05; HR p < 0.01). A direct correlation between plasmatic homocisteine levels and pressure profiles was found out in non dippers (r = 0.56, r = 0.55, r = 0.50 respectively) and in dippers (r = 0.7, r = 0.75, r = 0.60 respectively), and also between levels of homocysteine, MAP value, and pathological percentages of systolic and diastolic nocturnal peaks. In pregnant women presenting preeclampsia afterwards, high levels of homocysteine were not different from mean values present in high risk PIH pregnant women (13.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 16.4 +/- 1.7 microM). High levels of homocysteine early determined in the second trimester of PIH pregnancies seem to be associated to a pregnancy higher risk, coexisting with dangerous pressure profiles. High levels confirm a pregnant woman to belong to a higher or lower risk degree of vascular damage, but in the same group context high levels of homocisteine do not allow to identify those pregnant women who will develop eclampsia. PMID:14650644

  1. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer: links, risks, and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, Mary Ellen; Lyttle, Brianna M

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecological condition characterized by specific histological, molecular, and clinical findings. It affects 5%–10% of premenopausal women, is a cause of infertility, and has been implicated as a precursor for certain types of ovarian cancer. Advances in technology, primarily the ability for whole genome sequencing, have led to the discovery of new mutations and a better understanding of the function of previously identified genes and pathways associated with endometriosis associated ovarian cancers (EAOCs) that include PTEN, CTNNB1 (β-catenin), KRAS, microsatellite instability, ARID1A, and the unique role of inflammation in the development of EAOC. Clinically, EAOCs are associated with a younger age at diagnosis, lower stage and grade of tumor, and are more likely to occur in premenopausal women when compared with other ovarian cancers. A shift from screening strategies adopted to prevent EAOCs has resulted in new recommendations for clinical practice by national and international governing bodies. In this paper, we review the common histologic and molecular characteristics of endometriosis and ovarian cancer, risks associated with EAOCs, clinical challenges and give recommendations for providers. PMID:26170722

  2. College Students with Children Are Common and Face Many Challenges in Completing Higher Education. Briefing Paper #C404

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Bethany; Froehner, Megan; Gault, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges college students with children face, as well as the steps colleges, universities, and the surrounding communities must take to help students succeed in their work as both students and parents. The role of parenthood in postsecondary settings needs greater focus from the higher education reform community. Unless…

  3. DACA-Lamented? Spared Deportation, Immigrant Students Still Face Higher Ed Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lauren A.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief article, immigration lawyer and executive director of Atlas: DIY Lauren Burke describes the challenges faced by "DACA-mented" students--those who have received deportation reprieve through President Obama's 2012 memorandum. Atlas: DIY (www.atlasdiy.org) is a cooperative center for undocumented youth and their allies in…

  4. Perceptual Information for the Age Level of Faces as a Higher Order Invariant of Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittenger, John B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Previous work supports the hypothesis that cardioidal strain offers a plausible mathematical model for the perceived changes in human craniofacial morphology due to growth. In two experiments, cardioidal strain caused changes in the perceived age of nonhuman profiles similar to those produced on human faces in earlier work. (Author/MH)

  5. Do Asian American Faculty Face a Glass Ceiling in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)

  6. Athletics' Little Sisters. Women's Colleges Face Pressure To Score Higher, but Fear Compromising Their Ideals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Women's colleges, which have generally considered sports an integral part of academic life, now face pressures to compete with coed institutions at which sports have taken on a more competitive attitude. Many fear compromising their ideals if they endeavor to match the athletic programs of other institutions. (SLD)

  7. School House Hype: School Shootings and the Real Risks Kids Face in America. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Elizabeth; Schiraldi, Vincent; Ziedenberg, Jason

    This report examines risks that children and youth face in America's schools to determine whether there is a trend toward increasing violent school deaths in America and noting the overall incidence of crime, particularly homicides, inside versus outside of the schools. Data come from the Department of Education, Department of Justice, FBI,…

  8. Non-Abelian {SU}{(3)}_{k} anyons: inversion identities for higher rank face models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, Holger; Karaiskos, Nikos

    2015-12-01

    The spectral problem for an integrable system of particles satisfying the fusion rules of {SU}{(3)}k is expressed in terms of exact inversion identities satisfied by the commuting transfer matrices of the integrable fused {A}2(1) interaction round a face model of Jimbo, Miwa and Okado. The identities are proven using local properties of the Boltzmann weights, in particular the Yang-Baxter equation and unitarity. They are closely related to the consistency conditions for the construction of eigenvalues obtained in the separation of variables approach to integrable vertex models.

  9. "Faces" and Complexities of Continuing Higher Education Units: A Postmodern Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Sandria S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of continuing higher education units within the sociopolitical context of higher education institutions. A qualitative approach to data collection and analysis was the study's design, while the theoretical frame was a postmodern, symbolic, theoretical approach to organizational studies. Results show that continuing…

  10. Who's on the Line? Gauging the Most Pressing Issues Facing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Change, 2005

    2005-01-01

    d the Knight Collaborative. Drawing on the experience garnered by those organizations over the last two decades, The Learning Alliance is becoming higher education's decisionmaking hot line for higher education executives--a number they can call to work through their most pressing problems. This issue of The Landscape draws upon the substance of…

  11. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  12. A family at risk: congenital prosopagnosia, poor face recognition and visuoperceptual deficits within one family.

    PubMed

    Johnen, Andreas; Schmukle, Stefan C; Hüttenbrink, Judith; Kischka, Claudia; Kennerknecht, Ingo; Dobel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) describes a severe face processing impairment despite intact early vision and in the absence of overt brain damage. CP is assumed to be present from birth and often transmitted within families. Previous studies reported conflicting findings regarding associated deficits in nonface visuoperceptual tasks. However, diagnostic criteria for CP significantly differed between studies, impeding conclusions on the heterogeneity of the impairment. Following current suggestions for clinical diagnoses of CP, we administered standardized tests for face processing, a self-report questionnaire and general visual processing tests to an extended family (N=28), in which many members reported difficulties with face recognition. This allowed us to assess the degree of heterogeneity of the deficit within a large sample of suspected CPs of similar genetic and environmental background. (a) We found evidence for a severe face processing deficit but intact nonface visuoperceptual skills in three family members - a father and his two sons - who fulfilled conservative criteria for a CP diagnosis on standardized tests and a self-report questionnaire, thus corroborating findings of familial transmissions of CP. (b) Face processing performance of the remaining family members was also significantly below the mean of the general population, suggesting that face processing impairments are transmitted as a continuous trait rather than in a dichotomous all-or-nothing fashion. (c) Self-rating scores of face recognition showed acceptable correlations with standardized tests, suggesting this method as a viable screening procedure for CP diagnoses. (d) Finally, some family members revealed severe impairments in general visual processing and nonface visual memory tasks either in conjunction with face perception deficits or as an isolated impairment. This finding may indicate an elevated risk for more general visuoperceptual deficits in families with prosopagnosic members

  13. Cancer in schizophrenia: is the risk higher or lower?

    PubMed

    Grinshpoon, Alexander; Barchana, Micha; Ponizovsky, Alexander; Lipshitz, Irena; Nahon, Daniella; Tal, Orna; Weizman, Abraham; Levav, Itzhak

    2005-03-01

    Studies exploring the relationship between schizophrenia and cancer have shown conflicting results. Our study explores this association in three Jewish-Israeli population groups defined by their continent/place of birth (Israel, Europe-America, and Africa-Asia). The identification of the patients was made through the linkage of the nationwide psychiatric and cancer registries. The incidence of cancer in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia was compared with the incidence in the general population. The results showed that the cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for all sites were significantly lower among men and women with schizophrenia, 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.93] and 0.91 (95% CI 0.85-0.97), respectively. This reduced overall risk was clearest for those born in Europe-America, both men (SIR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97) and women (SIR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.94). Among women diagnosed with schizophrenia, the SIR was statistically higher for cancer in the breast among those born in Asia-Africa (1.37, 95% CI 1.12-1.63) and in the corpus uteri among the Israel-born (2.75, 95% CI 1.69-3.81) than among their counterparts in the general population. Lung cancer was significantly higher in men born in Asia-Africa diagnosed with schizophrenia than in the respective comparison population group (1.58, 95% CI 1.13-2.2). Our findings, and those of the literature, justify conducting a multinational study that includes identification of cancer-related risk factors among patients with schizophrenia and their families, and information on the use of psychotropic medications. This effort may clarify an epidemiological puzzle that remains outstanding. PMID:15653279

  14. Atypical Faces vs. Object Processing and Hemispheric Asymmetries in 10-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Joseph P.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Dobkins, Karen R.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically-mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old “High-Risk” infants, who carry some of the genes associated with ASD because they have an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder. Methods We employed event related potentials (ERPs) to measure cortical responses to pictures of faces and objects, the objects being pictures of toys. Latencies and amplitudes of four ERP components (P100, N290, P400 and Nc) were compared between 20 High-Risk infants and 20 Low-Risk controls (infants with no family history of ASD). Results Responses to faces vs. objects differed between High- and Low-Risk infants, for the latencies of the N290 and P400. Differences were driven by faster responses to faces than objects in Low-Risk, but not High-Risk, infants (P400), and conversely, faster responses to objects than faces in High-Risk, but not Low-Risk, infants (N290). And, object responses were faster in High-Risk than Low-Risk infants (both N290 and P400). Left vs. right hemisphere responses also differed between High- and Low-Risk infants, for the amplitudes of the P100, N290 and P400; collapsed across faces/objects, Low-Risk, but not High-Risk, infants exhibited hemisphere asymmetries. Conclusions Genetic risk for ASD is associated with atypical face vs. object processing, and an atypical lack of hemispheric asymmetry, early in life. These atypicalities might contribute to development of the disorder. PMID:19765688

  15. The "Virtual Face" of Planning: How to Use Higher Education Web Sites to Assess Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Wilson, Jeffery L.

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this article demonstrates how to investigate the competitive position of an institution's academic programs or services through an analysis of the Web sites of other higher education institutions. By using information from research/doctoral, master's, baccalaureate, and community colleges across 40 states, this study…

  16. Then and Now: Technology and the Changing Face of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seemann, Eric A.; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Wilkinson, Lamar

    This project examines the impact of technology on the process of higher education and the impact of these advances on both students and faculty. Student demographics and academic achievement from 30 years ago are compared to those of modern students as reported by veteran and new faculty members. The impact of technology on the modern student is…

  17. Moving beyond Face Value: Re-Envisioning Higher Education Evaluation as a Generator of Professional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darwin, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Conventional student-led evaluation is now an orthodox feature of the North American, UK and Australian higher education landscape. Increasingly, it is guiding major institutional decisions around educational quality, academic promotion and more recently institutional funding by government. Yet significant research around student-led evaluation…

  18. Facing the Giant: Higher Education Access and Financial Assistance for Undocumented Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the experiences of a Hispanic undocumented high school graduate in Texas (USA) that did not attend a higher education institution in spite of her desire to do. Using qualitative research and narrative analysis, the researcher conducted three interview levels with the participant and developed an emplotted…

  19. The "Virtual Face" of Institutions: What Do Home Pages Reveal about Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated the use of home pages by 40 higher education institutions, of which ten each were Doctoral/Research, Master's, Baccalaureate, and Community Colleges. The institutions were also grouped by region and were drawn from 40 different states. Using an instrument based on criteria for evaluating web sites (Gurak 2001), the…

  20. The Changing Face of Higher Education: Why More Administrators Are Wearing Lipstick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Barbara R.; Credille, Ronda O.

    2004-01-01

    During the 150 years women have participated in higher education, they have made tremendous strides. At many postsecondary institutions, women were not accepted as students until the second half of the 20th century. In 2004, women serve in the upper echelons of power at some of the nation's oldest and most prestigious universities. This inquiry…

  1. Reconstructing Careers, Shifting Realities: Understanding the Difficulties Facing Trailing Spouses in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Careless, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Faculty members in higher education who move to new cities or provinces often bring their families with them, and this can have both a positive and negative effect on the retention and job satisfaction of faculty. Educational policy makers can play a role in supporting faculty by supporting their trailing spouses, through policies informing…

  2. American Higher Education: A Special Tradition Faces a Special Challenge. Occasional Paper Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Harold T.

    Traditions that have affected the evolution of U.S. higher education, along with a challenge for the future, are considered by the president of the University of Michigan. Attention is directed to ideas that over time have produced the original colonial colleges, followed by the land-grant universities, the great polytechnic schools, the…

  3. E-Learning Challenges Faced by Academics in Higher Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Nurul; Beer, Martin; Slack, Frances

    2015-01-01

    E-learning has become a necessity in higher education institutions and is being deployed in educational establishments throughout the world. Researchers have made much emphasis on its benefits but not much is discussed on the disadvantages of e-learning technology. This paper references some of the research work on the limitations of e-learning…

  4. College 101: Introducing At-Risk Students to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Before graduate school, before his undergraduate degree, before community college, all throughout K-12, this author was considered an "at-risk" student--at risk of dropping out of school. During those early years, he took note of the things that seemed unjust and now he directs his academic work toward engaging at-risk students and providing them…

  5. 'Can you look me in the face?' Short-term SSRI administration reverts avoidant ocular face exploration in subjects at risk for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Di Simplicio, Martina; Doallo, Sonia; Costoloni, Giulia; Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Nobre, Anna C; Harmer, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety and depression are associated with altered ocular exploration of facial stimuli, which could have a role in the misinterpretation of ambiguous emotional stimuli. However, it is unknown whether a similar pattern is seen in individuals at risk for psychopathology and whether this can be modified by pharmacological interventions used in these disorders. In Study 1, eye gaze movement during face discrimination was compared in volunteers with high vs low neuroticism scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Facial stimuli either displayed a neutral, happy, or fearful expression. In Study 2, volunteers with high neuroticism were randomized in a double-blind design to receive the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (20 mg) or placebo for 7 days. On the last day of treatment, eye gaze movement during face presentation and the recognition of different emotional expressions was assessed. In Study 1, highly neurotic volunteers showed reduced eye gaze towards the eyes vs mouth region of the face compared with low neurotic volunteers. In Study 2, citalopram increased gaze maintenance over the face stimuli compared with placebo and enhanced recognition of positive vs negative facial expressions. Longer ocular exploration of happy faces correlated positively with recognition of positive emotions. Individuals at risk for psychopathology presented an avoidant pattern of ocular exploration of faces. Short-term SSRI administration reversed this bias before any mood or anxiety changes. This treatment effect may improve the capacity to scan social stimuli and contribute to the remediation of clinical symptoms related to interpersonal difficulties. PMID:25035080

  6. ‘Can you look me in the face?' Short-term SSRI Administration Reverts Avoidant Ocular Face Exploration in Subjects at Risk for Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Di Simplicio, Martina; Doallo, Sonia; Costoloni, Giulia; Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Nobre, Anna C; Harmer, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are associated with altered ocular exploration of facial stimuli, which could have a role in the misinterpretation of ambiguous emotional stimuli. However, it is unknown whether a similar pattern is seen in individuals at risk for psychopathology and whether this can be modified by pharmacological interventions used in these disorders. In Study 1, eye gaze movement during face discrimination was compared in volunteers with high vs low neuroticism scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Facial stimuli either displayed a neutral, happy, or fearful expression. In Study 2, volunteers with high neuroticism were randomized in a double-blind design to receive the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (20 mg) or placebo for 7 days. On the last day of treatment, eye gaze movement during face presentation and the recognition of different emotional expressions was assessed. In Study 1, highly neurotic volunteers showed reduced eye gaze towards the eyes vs mouth region of the face compared with low neurotic volunteers. In Study 2, citalopram increased gaze maintenance over the face stimuli compared with placebo and enhanced recognition of positive vs negative facial expressions. Longer ocular exploration of happy faces correlated positively with recognition of positive emotions. Individuals at risk for psychopathology presented an avoidant pattern of ocular exploration of faces. Short-term SSRI administration reversed this bias before any mood or anxiety changes. This treatment effect may improve the capacity to scan social stimuli and contribute to the remediation of clinical symptoms related to interpersonal difficulties. PMID:25035080

  7. Atypical Hemispheric Specialization for Faces in Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Keehn, Brandon; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroimaging findings from typically developing infants and children have demonstrated that the right hemisphere becomes specialized for processing faces. Face processing impairments and atypical hemispheric specialization have previously been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of this study was to examine the emergence of the right-lateralized face processing network in infants at high-risk for autism (HRA; defined as having an older sibling with ASD) and low-risk comparison (LRC) infants, defined as having no family history of ASD. To investigate the earliest appearance of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence (a measure of intra-hemispheric connectivity) to faces during the first year of life. Forty-nine HRA and 46 LRC infants contributed a total of 127 data sets at 6- and/or 12-months. EEG was recorded while infants viewed pictures of either their mother or a stranger. Event-related gamma-band (30-50Hz) phase coherence between anterior-posterior regions for left and right hemispheres was computed. HRA infants showed an aberrant pattern of leftward lateralization of intra-hemispheric coherence by the end of the first year of life, suggesting that the network specialized for face processing may develop atypically in these infants. Further, infants with the greatest leftward asymmetry at 12-months were those that later met diagnostic criteria for ASD, providing support to the growing body of evidence that atypical hemispheric specialization may be an early neurobiological marker for ASD. Among the many experimental findings that tend to distinguish those with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are face processing deficits, reduced hemispheric specialization, and atypical neurostructural and functional connectivity. To investigate the earliest manifestations of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence to faces during the first

  8. Long-Term Multifunctional Outcome and Risks of Face Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Roche, Nathalie A; Blondeel, Phillip N; Vermeersch, Hubert F; Peeters, Patrick C; Lemmens, Gilbert M D; De Cubber, Jan; De Letter, Miet; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2015-10-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) to reconstruct complex centrally located facial defects and to restore vital functions in a 1-staged procedure has worldwide gained acceptance. Continuous long-term multidisciplinary follow-up of face transplant patients is mandatory for surveillance of the complications associated with the immunosuppressive regime and for functional assessment of the graft. In December 2011, our multidisciplinary team performed a digitally planned face transplant at the Ghent University Hospital, Belgium on a 55-year-old man with a large central facial defect after a high-energy ballistic injury. The patient was closely followed to assess functional recovery, immunosuppressive complications, overall well-being, and quality of life. Three years postoperatively, the patient and his family are very satisfied with the overall outcome, and social reintegration in the community is successful. Motor and sensory functions have recovered near normal. Infectious and medical complications have been serious but successfully managed. Immunosuppressive maintenance therapy consists of corticoids, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil in minimal doses. Epithetic reconstruction of both eyes gave a tremendous improvement on the overall aesthetic outcome. Despite serious complications during the first 12 months, multifunctional outcome in the first face transplant in Belgium (#19 worldwide) is successful. This should be attributed to the continuous and long-term multidisciplinary team approach. As only few reports of other face transplant patients on long-term follow-up are available, more data need to be collected and reported to further outweigh the risk benefit ratio of this life changing surgery. PMID:26468783

  9. The Evidence for a Risk-Based Approach to Australian Higher Education Regulation and Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Fleur

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the nascent field of risk management in higher education, which is of particular relevance in Australia currently, as the Commonwealth Government implements its plans for a risk-based approach to higher education regulation and quality assurance. The literature outlines the concept of risk management and risk-based approaches…

  10. Heterogeneous and vulnerable: the health risks facing transnational female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Susanne Y P

    2011-01-01

    Representations of transnational sex workers have been dominated by the trafficked victim discourse that often overlooks the heterogeneity of this population and variations in the health risks that different sub-groups face. This paper addresses this deficiency by examining differences in the socio-economic backgrounds, working conditions, HIV/AIDS knowledge, and vulnerability to health risks of female sex workers from Russia, Vietnam, Thailand, and Mainland China currently working in the Chinese city of Macau. It also examines the correlates of three health risks: client-perpetrated violence, non-condom use and condom failure. The results show major differences in the socio-economic profiles, working conditions and exposure to health risks of the four groups of workers studied. They also suggest that age, ethnicity, education, economic pressure, AIDS and STI knowledge, and workplace condom-use norm are significant correlates of the three health risks examined. The findings shed light on the importance of locating the social and cultural contexts that constrain the response of different groups of transnational sex workers to health risks, and the need to tailor intervention measures to meet the specific conditions of individual groups. They also point out the urgency of tackling the interpersonal and structural obstacles to safe sex practices among marginalised populations. PMID:20942821

  11. Atypical hemispheric specialization for faces in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Keehn, Brandon; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-04-01

    Among the many experimental findings that tend to distinguish those with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are face processing deficits, reduced hemispheric specialization, and atypical neurostructural and functional connectivity. To investigate the earliest manifestations of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence to faces during the first year of life in infants at high risk for autism (HRA; defined as having an older sibling with ASD) who were compared with low-risk comparison (LRC) infants, defined as having no family history of ASD. Participants included 49 HRA and 46 LRC infants who contributed a total of 127 data sets at 6 and 12 months. Electroencephalography was recorded while infants viewed images of familiar/unfamiliar faces. Event-related gamma-band (30-50 Hz) phase coherence between anterior-posterior electrode pairs for left and right hemispheres was computed. Developmental trajectories for lateralization of intra-hemispheric coherence were significantly different in HRA and LRC infants: by 12 months, HRA infants showed significantly greater leftward lateralization compared with LRC infants who showed rightward lateralization. Preliminary results indicate that infants who later met criteria for ASD were those that showed the greatest leftward lateralization. HRA infants demonstrate an aberrant pattern of leftward lateralization of intra-hemispheric coherence by the end of the first year of life, suggesting that the network specialized for face processing may develop atypically. Further, infants with the greatest leftward asymmetry at 12 months where those that later met criteria for ASD, providing support to the growing body of evidence that atypical hemispheric specialization may be an early neurobiological marker for ASD. PMID:25808162

  12. Risk Management and Insurance. Guidelines for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.

    Insurance companies, following the campus unrest of the late 1960's and early 1970's, became rather wary of insuring college and university campuses because of the great amount of risk involved. As a study committee found, however, the risk of insuring educational facilities had been overestimated due to widespread newspaper and television…

  13. Transracial Mothering and Maltreatment: Are Black/White Biracial Children at Higher Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusco, Rachel A.; Rautkis, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of people identifying as biracial is rapidly growing, though little is known about the experiences of interracial families. Previous work indicates that biracial children may be at elevated risk of entering the child welfare system. This could underscore additional risks faced by these families. This document includes data from the…

  14. Casualization of Academics in the Australian Higher Education: Is Teaching Quality at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lama, Tek; Joullié, Jean-Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the issues casual academics face in Australia and whether these pose risks to teaching quality. The logic of the rampant casualisation in Australian universities is exposed first (i.e., mainly flexibility and cost saving to offset drops in government funding), followed by a discussion on the theoretical risks casualisation…

  15. Linking Infant-Directed Speech and Face Preferences to Language Outcomes in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droucker, Danielle; Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership.…

  16. Risk in the Clouds?: Security Issues Facing Government Use of Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyld, David C.

    Cloud computing is poised to become one of the most important and fundamental shifts in how computing is consumed and used. Forecasts show that government will play a lead role in adopting cloud computing - for data storage, applications, and processing power, as IT executives seek to maximize their returns on limited procurement budgets in these challenging economic times. After an overview of the cloud computing concept, this article explores the security issues facing public sector use of cloud computing and looks to the risk and benefits of shifting to cloud-based models. It concludes with an analysis of the challenges that lie ahead for government use of cloud resources.

  17. Women Smokers at Higher Risk for Brain Bleed

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of stroke usually results from a bleeding aneurysm in the brain. An aneurysm is a small weak spot in a blood ... factors likely increase the risk of developing an aneurysm that eventually ruptures and causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage, ...

  18. The varying value of a friendly face: Experimentally induced stress is associated with higher preferences for friendship with people possessing feminine versus masculine face traits.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Harcus, Kerry

    2016-08-01

    Social support can provide a buffer to the negative consequences of stress. Previous research suggests that stress can promote affiliative and cooperative behaviours in those who are stressed. Here we examined how stress might influence who we choose to affiliate with. We measured preferences for friendships with friendly appearing feminized faces versus less friendly appearing masculinized faces after individuals undertook a stressful laboratory task. Stressed individuals had increased preferences for friendships with people with feminine faces. These data demonstrate that individuals prefer more friendly appearing feminine faced people as friends when stressed than when not stressed. This preference is likely adaptive in directing individuals towards others who are most likely to provide social support when it is needed and so reflect strategic friendship preferences. PMID:26340687

  19. Education Innovation: Case Studies in e-Learning and Face-to-Face Teaching in Higher Education: What is the Best?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, J. A.

    Education innovation is here to stay. This chapter gives the results of a study of the application of information and communication technology to advanced teaching and learning activities. It is strategically important that the technology opens up new ways of teaching and learning. The purpose of this chapter is firstly to identify the typical advanced teaching and learning activities/functions that can be applied in e-Learning and face-to-face teaching and learning. Case studies were selected from a group of teachers who have already been involved in both teaching modes for some years and thus have experience in blended teaching and learning. A number of teaching activities/functions were seen as positive in their application in the e-Learning situation. Those that stand out are peer review and collaboration, promotion of reflection and stimulation of critical and creative thinking, team teaching, promotion of discovery/extension of knowledge, and problematization of the curriculum. In face-to-face teaching and learning, inviting engagement, how to come to know, involving metaphors and analogies, teaching that connects to learning, inspire change, promote understanding, and others stand out. As seen by the teachers in the case studies, both e-Learning and face-to-face teaching and learning are seen as complementary to each other. We define this view as blended teaching and learning.

  20. Future risk of bovine tuberculosis recurrence among higher risk herds in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Clegg, T A; Good, M; More, S J

    2015-01-01

    Within the Irish national bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme, controls are tighter on higher risk herds, known as H-herds. These H-herds are defined as herds that have previously had a bTB restriction (also known as a bTB episode), with at least 2 animals positive to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT) or with a bTB lesion detected at slaughter. Such herds are considered at higher risk of recurrence following the end of the bTB episode. In this study, we examined if, and when, the future bTB risk of H-herds returned to a similar level comparable to herds with no history of bTB. In addition, the proportion of bTB episodes in 2012 that could be attributed to the recent introduction of an infected animal was also estimated, providing an update of earlier work. The study population consisted of all Irish herds that were not bTB restricted at the start of 2012 and with at least one whole-herd SICTT in 2012, with the herd being the unit of interest. The outcome measure was a bTB restriction, defined as any herd where at least 1 standard SICTT reactor or an animal with a bTB lesion at slaughter in 2012 was identified. A logistic regression model was used to model the probability of a herd being restricted in 2012. Herds that were previously restricted had significantly higher odds of being restricted in 2012 compared to herds that had not. Similarly, the odds of being restricted in 2012 decreased as the time since the previous restriction increased, but increased as the severity of the previous restriction increased. Odds of being restricted also increased with an increase (although not linear) in herd size, the number of animals greater than 1 year of age purchased in 2011, the county incidence rate and the proportion of cows in the herd. The recent introduction of an infected animal accounted for 7.4% (6.7-8.2) of herd restrictions. This study confirms the key role of past bTB history in determining the future risk of Irish herds

  1. Meeting the Challenges of Enterprise Risk Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattie, John

    2007-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) and the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) held a summit on enterprise risk management (ERM) in Washington DC with senior officers and trustees from several leading colleges and universities. Approximately 40…

  2. Underweight or Obese Women Who Drink and Smoke May Have Higher Asthma Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women Who Drink and Smoke May Have Higher Asthma Risk Link was less pronounced in men, research ... say they have pinpointed several factors that increase asthma risk in women and -- to a lesser extent -- ...

  3. Moral Values and Higher Education: A Notion at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis L., Ed.

    This volume offers ten essays by a diverse group of thinkers and scholars on the university's role in teaching moral behavior and performing moral duty. An introduction by the volume's editor, Dennis L. Thompson, opens the book by noting the period of moral confusion society is in and calling for higher education institutions to take a clearer…

  4. Quantification, Risk, and the Rhetoric of Higher Education Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a contribution to the literature of critique of higher education policy and management. It offers a general discussion of problems arising from the proliferation of mechanisms of audit and quality assurance within the context of concerns about dependence on quantitative measures of values. It argues that uncritical dependence on…

  5. The Internet at Risk: The Need for Higher Education Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, James X.

    2007-01-01

    The higher education community has long appreciated the potential of the Internet to expand access to information, facilitate communication, and promote human development. From the inception of the Internet, colleges and universities have worked to advance the realization of that potential. Today, advocacy in support of the open, innovative, and…

  6. Eveningness is associated with higher risk-taking, independent of sex and personality.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Davide; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2014-12-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that eveningness is associated with higher risk-taking propensities across different domains of risk and that this association is not the result of sex differences or confounding covariation with particular personality traits. Study participants were 172 men and women between 20 and 40 years of age. Surveys assessed chronotype, domain-specific risk-taking and risk-perception, and Big Five personality dimensions. Eveningness was associated with greater general risk-taking in the specific domains of financial, ethical, and recreational decision making. Although risk-taking was associated with both risk perception and some personality dimensions, eveningness predicted risk-taking independent of these factors. Higher risk-taking propensities among evening types may be causally or functionally linked to their propensities for sensation- and novelty-seeking, impulsivity, and sexual promiscuity. PMID:25457099

  7. The Governing Board's Role in Risk Management and Insurance for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.

    1973-01-01

    This document addresses questions recognized as of great importance in the realm of college and university administration, questions of the governing boards responsibilities, and liabilities with respect to the management of risk within its educational community. Emphasis is placed on insurance and risk management, higher education and risk,…

  8. High prevalence of suicide risk in people living with HIV: who is at higher risk?

    PubMed

    Passos, Susane Müller Klug; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Spessato, Bárbara Coiro

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was developed to evaluate suicide risk and associated factors in HIV/AIDS patients at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. We assessed 211 patients in regard to suicide risk, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression, and anxiety. Suicide risk was assessed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Module C. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression. Of the total sample, 34.1% were at risk of suicide. In the multivariate analysis, the following variables were independently associated with suicide risk: female gender; age up to 47 years; unemployment; indicative of anxiety; indicative of depression; and abuse or addiction on psychoactive substances. Suicide risk is high in this population. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation, given their strong association with suicide risk. PMID:24797027

  9. Distinguishing between Higher and Lower Risk Youth Offenders: Applications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Stewart, Roger A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the development of an assessment process for distinguishing between higher and lower risk youth offenders through the use of 3 measures. Preliminary results and applications for practice are included. (Contains 2 tables.)

  10. Mom's Smoking May Put Kids At Higher Risk of COPD in Adulthood

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157712.html Mom's Smoking May Put Kids at Higher Risk of COPD ... 400 adults, and it suggests that heavy maternal smoking -- more than 20 cigarettes per day -- increases a ...

  11. Young Gay, Bisexual Men May Be At Higher Risk for Suicide, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158504.html Young Gay, Bisexual Men May Be at Higher Risk for Suicide, Study ... 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Young gay and bisexual men may be much more likely to attempt suicide ...

  12. Young Gay, Bisexual Men May Be At Higher Risk for Suicide, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158504.html Young Gay, Bisexual Men May Be at Higher Risk for ... 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Young gay and bisexual men may be much more likely ...

  13. Six Increasingly Higher Levels of Wellness Based on Holistic Principles and Risk Factor Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes program for achievement of higher wellness levels based on holistic principles and risk factor science. Levels focus on (1) heart disease risk factors and how to reverse them; (2) unconscious needs at conflict with one's conscious goals; (3) identity status, meaning to love and to be loved; (4) autogenics; and (5) full ego development…

  14. Technical and Pedagogical Challenges Faced by Faculty and Students in Computer-Based Distance Education in Higher Education in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhinney, James H.; Nasseh, Bizhan

    1999-01-01

    This study reports faculty members' and students' responses to the technological and pedagogical challenges they faced in completing computer-based distance education. Topics include the need for adequate faculty training, the need for adequate student training, and the need for technical support available 24 hours a day. (Author/LRW)

  15. Face engagement during infancy predicts later face recognition ability in younger siblings of children with autism.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Carina C J M; Gliga, Teodora; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2014-07-01

    Face recognition difficulties are frequently documented in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that these difficulties result from a reduced interest in faces early in life, leading to decreased cortical specialization and atypical development of the neural circuitry for face processing. However, a recent study by our lab demonstrated that infants at increased familial risk for ASD, irrespective of their diagnostic status at 3 years, exhibit a clear orienting response to faces. The present study was conducted as a follow-up on the same cohort to investigate how measures of early engagement with faces relate to face-processing abilities later in life. We also investigated whether face recognition difficulties are specifically related to an ASD diagnosis, or whether they are present at a higher rate in all those at familial risk. At 3 years we found a reduced ability to recognize unfamiliar faces in the high-risk group that was not specific to those children who received an ASD diagnosis, consistent with face recognition difficulties being an endophenotype of the disorder. Furthermore, we found that longer looking at faces at 7 months was associated with poorer performance on the face recognition task at 3 years in the high-risk group. These findings suggest that longer looking at faces in infants at risk for ASD might reflect early face-processing difficulties and predicts difficulties with recognizing faces later in life. PMID:24314028

  16. A Risk and Standards Based Approach to Quality Assurance in Australia's Diverse Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency's (TEQSA's) role is to assure that quality standards are being met by all registered higher education providers. This paper explains how TEQSA's risk-based approach to assuring higher education standards is applied in broad terms to a diverse sector. This explanation is…

  17. Do Parents of Girls Have a Higher Risk of Divorce an Eighteen-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diekmann, Andreas; Schmidheiny, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the June 1980 Current Population Survey, Morgan, Lye, and Condran 1988 reported that families with a daughter have a higher divorce risk than families with a son. They attribute this finding to the higher involvement of fathers in raising a son, which in turn promotes marital stability. We investigate the relation between gender…

  18. Current State of the Art: Management of Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Komrokji, Rami S

    2016-08-01

    The higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, defined by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) as intermediate-2 or high-risk groups, compromise a third of MDS patients who have an expected survival of less than 1.5 years. Our ability to better define higher risk MDS improved with the proposal of new clinical risk models such as the revised IPSS and by integration of molecular data, including somatic gene mutations. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) remains the only curative option. In higher risk MDS patients, proceeding early with AHSCT is associated with maximum survival gain. The decision to pursue AHSCT is individualized according to disease risk, comorbidities, and functional status. The role of therapy before AHSCT remains controversial, and the role of post-AHSCT maintenance is evolving. Hypomethylating agents are the only medications that alter the natural history of the disease. Azacitidine is the only drug reported to improve overall survival in higher risk MDS patients. Appropriate use and assessment of response is key for assuring patients benefit of such limited options. Treatment after failure of hypomethylating agents is an unmet need. The role of detectable somatic gene mutations in prognosis and tailoring therapy continue to emerge. PMID:27521322

  19. The Long Road--How Evolving Institutional Governance Mechanisms Are Changing the Face of Quality in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarrico, Cláudia S.; Veiga, Amélia; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    While a lot has been written regarding the changing management and governance arrangements in higher education, less is known about how this progression relates to quality in higher education. The purpose of this article is to describe the context of governance in Portuguese higher education institutions and how institutional governance…

  20. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Richard Ekman on Challenges, Misconceptions Facing Independent Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education series" to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Richard Ekman, president of the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), an association of…

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced.

    PubMed

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities. PMID:27042070

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities. PMID:27042070

  3. Patterns, aetiology and risk factors of intimate partner violence-related injuries to head, neck and face in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) related injuries have been recognized among health care professionals. However, few studies have provided detailed information on injuries to the head, neck and face regions in Chinese women. As abused Chinese women are generally unwilling to disclose IPV and there are differences in socio-demographic characteristics, societal norms and behaviours, the women may exhibit different patterns, aetiology and risk factors of IPV-related HNF injuries. This study aims to examine the patterns of head, neck and face injuries presenting to Accident and Emergency departments, including the anatomical regions, types, severity, aetiology and demographic and non-demographic risk factors of injuries inflicted by intimate partners in Chinese context. Methods Medical charts of 223 women presented to the Accident and Emergency departments of two regional hospitals in Hong Kong between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Results Head, neck and face injuries remained the most common injuries found in abused Chinese women (77.6%), and punching with a fist was the most common aetiology (60.2%). In particular, punching with a fist was significantly associated on the upper third of the maxillofacial region (p = .01) and the back part of the head (p = .03). Moreover, cohabiting and separated women were more likely to have multiple injuries than those who were married (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4, 7.8; OR = 2.1, 95% CI = .4, 11.9). Conclusions The findings enhance the understanding of head, neck and face injuries and inform clinicians about the linkage among injuries and risks in abused Chinese women. PMID:24410868

  4. Through the Eyes of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating the Waters of Legal Issues and Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Carol L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Legal and risk management issues substantially impact the operations of colleges and universities, which face escalating compliance requirements in an increasingly litigious environment. Failing to assess legal liability issues and to constructively address them with risk management processes create vulnerability to claims and litigation,…

  5. Altered Brain Activation during Emotional Face Processing in Relation to Both Diagnosis and Polygenic Risk of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tesli, Martin; Kauppi, Karolina; Bettella, Francesco; Brandt, Christine Lycke; Kaufmann, Tobias; Espeseth, Thomas; Mattingsdal, Morten; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid; Djurovic, Srdjan; Westlye, Lars T.; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable disorder with polygenic inheritance. Among the most consistent findings from functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies are limbic hyperactivation and dorsal hypoactivation. However, the relation between reported brain functional abnormalities and underlying genetic risk remains elusive. This is the first cross-sectional study applying a whole-brain explorative approach to investigate potential influence of BD case-control status and polygenic risk on brain activation. Methods A BD polygenic risk score (PGRS) was estimated from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium BD case-control study, and assigned to each individual in our independent sample (N=85 BD cases and 121 healthy controls (HC)), all of whom participated in an fMRI emotional faces matching paradigm. Potential differences in BOLD response across diagnostic groups were explored at whole-brain level in addition to amygdala as a region of interest. Putative effects of BD PGRS on brain activation were also investigated. Results At whole-brain level, BD cases presented with significantly lower cuneus/precuneus activation than HC during negative face processing (Z-threshold=2.3 as cluster-level correction). The PGRS was associated positively with increased right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) activation during negative face processing. For amygdala activation, there were no correlations with diagnostic status or PGRS. Conclusions These findings are in line with previous reports of reduced precuneus and altered rIFG activation in BD. While these results demonstrate the ability of PGRS to reveal underlying genetic risk of altered brain activation in BD, the lack of convergence of effects at diagnostic and PGRS level suggests that this relation is a complex one. PMID:26222050

  6. Committed, Face-Value, Hybrid or Mutual Adaptation? The Experiences of International Students in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Ly Thi

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the adaptation patterns of international Chinese and Vietnamese students in relation to academic writing practices in a higher education context. The study utilises a trans-disciplinary framework for interpreting students' and lecturers' practices within institutional structures. This framework has been developed by infusing a…

  7. Leading at the Coal-Face: The World as Experienced by Subject Coordinators in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dale; Cohen, Lynne; Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Chang, Paul; Macdonald, Ian; McDonald, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on nationally funded research into the role, capabilities, challenges and professional development needs of subject coordinators in Australian higher education. The second of three data collection phases involved a multi-institutional survey of staff in the role of subject coordinator with the aim of understanding the role…

  8. Less Developed Countries (LDCs) Facing Higher Education Curricula Reform Challenges in a "New World (Dis)Order"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In a previous article for "EJHE," I detailed Curricula Reform (CR) efforts in Higher Education (HE) in four (relatively) well developed regional and national settings (The EU, the USA, Hong Kong SAR China, and Singapore). I detailed the backdrop motivating the moves by policymakers to reform the curricula in such "world class"…

  9. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer

    Cancer.gov

    NCI headed study finds people who are highly addicted to nicotine -- those who smoke their first cigarette within five minutes after awakening -- are at higher risk of developing lung cancer than those who wait for an hour or more to smoke.

  10. Getting Your Ducks in a Row: IT Governance, Risk, and Compliance Programs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; Feehan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Higher education IT governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) programs are in the development stage. Few institutions have all three programs in place, and many institutions are unclear where they should start when instituting or maturing their IT GRC programs. In addition, they are often uncertain as to whether GRC programs should be developed in…

  11. To Take Risk is to Face Loss: A Tonic Pupillometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Yechiam, Eldad; Telpaz, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    The construct of risk taking is studied through the prism of the relation between tonic arousal and risk taking behavior. Several theories have proposed that high aroused individuals tend to exhibit risk aversion. We posit that this arousal–behavior association is activated much more strongly in risks with losses, as losses increase arousal and trigger relevant traits associated with the sensitivity to risk. In three studies we examined risk taking in experience-based decision tasks, with either token losses or relative-losses (in the gain domain). In Study 1 we found a negative correlation between pre-task pupil diameter and risk taking in the loss domain but not in the gain domain. In Study 2 we re-analyzed a previous pupillometry dataset involving symmetric mixed gains and losses. We found that the negative correlation in this mixed condition emerged even while the participants did not show loss aversion. This finding was replicated in Study 3. Thus, the effect of losses on arousal provides sufficient conditions for the moderation of the tonic arousal–behavior association. The findings suggest an important role for losses in the psychological and physiological experience of risk. PMID:22125546

  12. The influence of risk perception on biosafety level-2 laboratory workers' hand-to-face contact behaviors.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Eggett, Dennis; Johnson, Michele J; Reading, James C

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen transmission in the laboratory is thought to occur primarily through inhalation of infectious aerosols or by direct contact with mucous membranes on the face. While significant research has focused on controlling inhalation exposures, little has been written about hand contamination and subsequent hand-to-face contact (HFC) transmission. HFC may present a significant risk to workers in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories where there is typically no barrier between the workers' hands and face. The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and location of HFC among BSL-2 workers, and to identify psychosocial factors that influence the behavior. Research workers (N = 93) from 21 BSL-2 laboratories consented to participate in the study. Two study personnel measured workers' HFC behaviors by direct observation during activities related to cell culture maintenance, cell infection, virus harvesting, reagent and media preparation, and tissue processing. Following observations, a survey measuring 11 psychosocial predictors of HFC was administered to participants. Study personnel recorded 396 touches to the face over the course of the study (mean = 2.6 HFCs/hr). Of the 93 subjects, 67 (72%) touched their face at least once, ranging from 0.2-16.0 HFCs/hr. Among those who touched their face, contact with the nose was most common (44.9%), followed by contact with the forehead (36.9%), cheek/chin (12.5%), mouth (4.0%), and eye (1.7%). HFC rates were significantly different across laboratories F(20, 72) = 1.85, p = 0.03. Perceived severity of infection predicted lower rates of HFC (p = 0.03). For every one-point increase in the severity scale, workers had 0.41 fewer HFCs/hr (r = -.27, P < 0.05). This study suggests HFC is common among BSL-2 laboratory workers, but largely overlooked as a major route of exposure. Workers' risk perceptions had a modest impact on their HFC behaviors, but other factors not considered in this study, including social modeling and

  13. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-06-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into <7 h, 7∼<8 h (reference), 8∼<9 h, 9∼<10 h, and ≥ 10 h. Afternoon napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼<8 h and napping 0 min (all above p < 0.05). Conclusions Both long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26969344

  14. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    PubMed

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap. PMID:24457324

  15. Psoriasis strikes back! Epicardial adipose tissue: another contributor to the higher cardiovascular risk in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Inês; Torres, Tiago

    2015-10-01

    For many years psoriasis was considered an inflammatory condition restricted to the skin. However, nowadays it is considered an immune-mediated, systemic inflammatory condition associated with numerous medical comorbidities, particularly cardiometabolic diseases, and overall cardiovascular mortality. Several studies have suggested that psoriasis may be an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis, indicating that psoriasis itself poses an intrinsic risk for cardiovascular disease, probably due to the disease's inflammatory burden. However, other causes beyond systemic inflammation and traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be implicated in cardiovascular disease in psoriasis. Recently, epicardial adipose tissue, an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, has been shown to be increased in psoriasis patients and to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, providing another possible link between psoriasis and atherosclerosis. The reason for the increase in epicardial adipose tissue in patients with psoriasis is unknown, but it is probably multifactorial, with genetic, immune-mediated and behavioral factors having a role. Thus, along with the increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and systemic inflammation in psoriasis, epicardial adipose tissue is probably another important contributor to the higher cardiovascular risk observed in psoriasis. PMID:26417656

  16. Risk assessment in the face of a changing environment: gypsy moth and climate change in Utah.

    PubMed

    Logan, J A; Régnière, J; Gray, D R; Munson, A S

    2007-01-01

    The importance of efficaciously assessing the risk for introduction and establishment of pest species is an increasingly important ecological and economic issue. Evaluation of climate is fundamental to determining the potential success of an introduced or invasive insect pest. However, evaluating climatic suitability poses substantial difficulties; climate can be measured and assessed in a bewildering array of ways. Some physiological filter, in essence a lens that focuses climate through the requirements and constraints of a potential pest introduction, is required. Difficulties in assessing climate suitability are further exacerbated by the effects of climate change. Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is an exotic, tree-defoliating insect that is frequently introduced into the western United States. In spite of an abundance of potential host species, these introductions have yet to result in established populations. The success of eradication efforts and the unsuccessful establishment of many detected and undetected introductions may be related to an inhospitable climate. Climatic suitability for gypsy moth in the western United States, however, is potentially improving, perhaps rapidly, due to a general warming trend that began in the mid 1970s and continues today. In this work, we describe the application of a physiologically based climate suitability model for evaluating risk of gypsy moth establishment on a landscape level. Development of this risk assessment system first required amassing databases that integrated the gypsy moth climatic assessment model, with host species distributions, and climate (historical, present, and future). This integrated system was then used to evaluate climate change scenarios for native host species in Utah, with the result that risk of establishment will dramatically increase during the remainder of the 21st century under reasonable climate change scenarios. We then applied the risk assessment system to several case histories of

  17. Tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) calling and risk-sensitive foraging in the face of threat.

    PubMed

    Freeberg, Todd M; Krama, Tatjana; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Krams, Indriķis; Kullberg, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. Little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. We tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, a songbird that uses chick-a-dee calls in a variety of social contexts. In two studies, a human observer wore an animal mask that either faced or faced away from the focal bird(s). In Study 1, focal birds were individual titmice captured in a walk-in trap, and the observer stood near the trapped bird. In Study 2, focal birds were titmouse flocks utilizing a feeding station and the observer stood near the station. In both studies, calling behavior was affected by mask orientation. In Study 2, foraging and agonistic behavior were also affected. Titmice can therefore perceive the facial orientation of a potential threat, and this perception affects different behavioral systems, including calling. Our results indicate sensitivity of titmice to the facial orientation of a potential predator in two quite different motivational contexts. This work suggests the possibility of strategic signaling by prey species depending upon the perceptual space of a detected predator. PMID:24929843

  18. Hazards Faced by Young Designated Drivers: In-Car Risks of Driving Drunken Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Peter J.; Carroll, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the risk in the practice of young designated drivers transporting drunken peers. Young drivers 18–29 years old in Alberta, Canada participated in 12 focus groups (N = 146). Interviews were semi-structured. A key finding is that when highly intoxicated youth are driven by a designated driver who is a peer, they are likely to behave in ways that are unsafe. Unsafe actions of drunken passengers in the vehicle include physical “rough-housing” with the driver, creating stress for the driver that leads to high risk driving situations and disrupting safe driving through nausea and in-car vomiting. PMID:19578459

  19. Higher Risk of Acute Cellular Rejection in Lung Transplant Recipients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Fiorella; Lunardi, Francesca; Nannini, Nazarena; Balestro, Elisabetta; Loy, Monica; Marulli, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Francesca; Vuljan, Stefania Edith; Schiavon, Marco; Perissinotto, Egle; Rea, Federico

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute cellular rejection (ACR) affects up to 40% of recipients within the first year after lung transplant (LTx). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of ACR and associated major risk factors in cystic fibrosis (CF) recipients. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and 1-year/long-term survival were also evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS ACR was reviewed in 643 scheduled biopsies from 44 CF (Group 1) versus 89 other recipients (Group 2). We performed univariate/multivariate analyses of risk factors for ACR and BOS, and survival analysis. RESULTS Group 1 showed higher ACR frequency, especially for ACR ≥ A2. Multivariable generalized linear models considering both native lung disease and age showed that higher values of ACR index were significantly related to the pretransplant diagnosis of CF. BOS and long-term survival were not influenced by the increased incidence of ACR. Poorer long-term survival was observed in Group 2. CONCLUSIONS CF recipients have a higher ACR risk, which may be due to enhanced immune activation related to a genetic disorder, and younger age. PMID:26718747

  20. How family members manage risk around functional decline: The autonomy management process in households facing dementia

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-01-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of retrospective interviewing in 2012–2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual’s natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual’s deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual’s ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual’s autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder’s functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements. PMID:25697634

  1. Women exposed to DES in the womb face increased cancer risk

    Cancer.gov

    A large study of the daughters of women who had been given DES, the first synthetic form of estrogen, during pregnancy has found that exposure to the drug while in the womb (in utero) is associated with many reproductive problems and an increased risk of

  2. Job Loss at Mid-Life: Managers and Executives Face the "New Risk Economy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Ruby; Kalil, Ariel; Spindel, Laurel J.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2008-01-01

    We use a life course framework to examine how the "new risk economy" has left middle-age professionals, managers and executives more vulnerable to job loss and unemployment despite high levels of human capital. Using in-depth qualitative data from 77 recently-unemployed white-collar workers, we examine perceptions of macro-economic forces and…

  3. Facing Up to the Risks in Commercially Focused University-Industry R&D Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulop, Liz; Couchman, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The number of university-industry R&D partnerships (UIPs) has increased significantly over the past decade, in most OECD countries and in Australia, yet the study of risk in such commercially focused collaborative ventures is still a developing area. This review paper seeks to contribute to debate on this increasingly important phenomenon by…

  4. How family members manage risk around functional decline: the autonomy management process in households facing dementia.

    PubMed

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-04-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of in-depth interviewing in 2012-2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual's natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual's deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual's ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual's autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder's functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements. PMID:25697634

  5. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. “rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March),” “deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June),” “20-mSv exposure,” and “100-mSv exposure.” The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d—much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  6. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. "rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March)," "deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June)," "20-mSv exposure," and "100-mSv exposure." The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d-much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  7. Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Christine N; Kajiura, Stephen M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-12-01

    Cephalopods, and in particular the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are common models for studies of camouflage and predator avoidance behaviour. Preventing detection by predators is especially important to this group of animals, most of which are soft-bodied, lack physical defences, and are subject to both visually and non-visually mediated detection. Here, we report a novel cryptic mechanism in S. officinalis in which bioelectric cues are reduced via a behavioural freeze response to a predator stimulus. The reduction of bioelectric fields created by the freeze-simulating stimulus resulted in a possible decrease in shark predation risk by reducing detectability. The freeze response may also facilitate other non-visual cryptic mechanisms to lower predation risk from a wide range of predator types. PMID:26631562

  8. An unexpected finding: younger fathers have a higher risk for offspring with chromosomal aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Bernhard; Masood, Rahim; Rufibach, Kaspar; Niedrist, Dunja; Kundert, Oliver; Riegel, Mariluce; Schinzel, Albert

    2015-04-01

    The past decades have seen a remarkable shift in the demographics of childbearing in Western countries. The risk for offspring with chromosomal aneuploidies with advancing maternal age is well known, but most studies failed to demonstrate a paternal age effect. Retrospectively, we analyzed two case data sets containing parental ages from pre- and postnatal cases with trisomies 21, 13 and 18. The reference data set contains the parental ages of the general Swiss population. We dichotomized all couples into two distinct groups. In the first group, the mothers' integral age was as least as the father's age or older. We compared the frequency of cases in nine 5-year intervals of maternal age. In addition, we computed logistic regression models for the binary endpoint aneuploidy yes/no where paternal ages were incorporated as linear or quadratic, as well as smooth functions within a generalized additive model framework. We demonstrated that the proportion of younger fathers is uniformly different between cases and controls of live-born trisomy 21 as well, although not reaching significance, for fetuses over all mother's ages. Logistic regression models with different strategies to incorporate paternal ages confirmed our findings. The negative paternal age effect was also found in pre- and postnatal cases taken together with trisomies 13 and 18. The couples with younger fathers face almost twofold odds for a child with Down syndrome (DS). We estimated odds curves for parental ages. If confirmation of these findings can be achieved, the management of couples at risk needs a major correction of the risk stratification. PMID:25005732

  9. South Africa youths' higher-risk sexual behaviour: an eco-developmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Makiwane, Monde; Mokomane, Zitha

    2010-04-01

    Despite their high levels of knowledge about HIV and AIDS, young people ages 15-24 years in South Africa remain disproportionately affected by the epidemic. Young people's continued susceptibility to HIV infection has been consistently linked to intractable higher-risk sexual behaviours. This paper uses multivariate techniques and secondary data from two nationally representative surveys to illuminate individual and socio-structural factors that play a significant role in youths' continued engagement in higher-risk behaviour, despite their high awareness about HIV and AIDS. The findings show that notwithstanding progress in terms of increased condom use and reduced incidence of other sexually transmitted infections, the average age of sexual debut remains low, multiple sexual partnerships are prevalent, and inconsistent condom use is widespread among young people. Factors significantly associated with these risk behaviours occur at the individual and structural levels and include issues of race, gender, poverty and susceptibility to peer pressure. The paper concludes by recommending that future HIV-prevention interventions in South Africa should aim at building resilience among youths by promoting affirmative, supportive interventions that emphasize the potentials of young people. PMID:25860409

  10. Oral Clofarabine in the Treatment of Patients With Higher-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faderl, Stefan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Estrov, Zeev; Ravandi, Farhad; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge E.; O'Brien, Susan; Gandhi, Varsha; Plunkett, William; Byrd, Anna; Kwari, Monica; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Efficacy and toxicity profile of orally administered clofarabine were evaluated in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patients and Methods Thirty-two patients were treated, of whom 22 had intermediate-2 or high-risk disease (International Prognostic Scoring System). Median age was 70 years (range, 53 to 86), nine patients had secondary MDS, and 20 patients experienced prior therapy failure with hypomethylating agents. Three doses of clofarabine were evaluated: 40 mg/m2, 30 mg/m2, and 20 mg/m2 daily for 5 days. Courses were repeated every 4 to 8 weeks. Results Eight patients (25%) achieved complete remission (CR), three had (9%) hematologic improvement (HI), and three had (9%) clinical benefit (CB; overall response rate, 43%). Responses in patients who experience treatment failure with hypomethylating agents included CR in two (10%), HI in two (10%), and CB in two patients (10%). No patients died within 6 weeks of induction. Renal failure occurred in four patients in the context of myelosuppresssion-associated infectious complications. Common adverse events were gastrointestinal and hepatic. Myelosuppression was common, but prolonged myelosuppression (> 42 days) was rare. The toxicity profile was better with lower doses of clofarabine, whereas response rates did not differ significantly. Conclusion Oral clofarabine has achieved a response rate of 43% in patients with higher-risk MDS. The optimal dose and schedule and the appropriate patient population for such therapy remain to be further defined. PMID:20421540

  11. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    PubMed

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. PMID:22981469

  12. Predicting high-risk versus higher-risk substance use during late adolescence from early adolescent risk factors using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Andrea E.; Woodlief, Darren; Malone, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the existing risk factor literature focuses on identifying predictors of low-levels of substance use versus higher-levels of substance use. In this paper, we explore more nuanced patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use during late adolescence. Our aims were to: 1) identify subgroups of youth with qualitatively different patterns of ATOD use; and 2) explore whether membership among qualitatively distinct, high-risk classes could be predicted based on early adolescent risk factors. Data came from a selected subsample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 1,689). Predictors were measured when youth were about 12 years old; ATOD use was assessed when youth were aged 17 years. Results showed that adolescent ATOD use is not a homogenous behavior. Four distinct classes of adolescent ATOD users were derived. Each class had a qualitatively distinct and discriminable pattern of ATOD use. Ecological predictors were shown to differentiate between latent classes, with peer factors playing a particularly important role in differentiating between high-risk and higher-risk users. Implications for prevention and limitations are discussed. PMID:24511308

  13. Plastic proteans: reduced predictability in the face of predation risk in hermit crabs

    PubMed Central

    Briffa, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Variation in behaviour occurs at multiple levels, including between individuals (personality) and between situations (plasticity). Behaviour also varies within individuals, and intra-individual variation (IIV) in behaviour describes within-individual residual variance in behaviour that remains after the effects of obvious external and internal influences on behaviour have been accounted for. IIV thus describes how predictable an individual's behaviour is. Differences in predictability, between individuals and between situations, might be biologically significant. For example, behaving unpredictably under predation threat might reduce the chance of capture. Here, we investigated the duration of startle responses in hermit crabs, in the presence and absence of a predator cue. Individuals differed in startle response duration (personality) and while individuals also varied in their sensitivity to risk, mean response time was greater in the presence of a predator (plasticity). Moreover, IIV was greater in the presence of a predator, providing some of the first evidence that the facultative injection of unpredictability into behaviour might represent a strategy for dealing with risk. PMID:23985348

  14. IDH mutation is associated with higher risk of malignant transformation in low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Leu, Severina; von Felten, Stefanie; Frank, Stephan; Boulay, Jean-Louis; Mariani, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Acquisition of IDH1 or IDH2 mutation (IDHmut) is among the earliest genetic events that take place in the development of most low-grade glioma (LGG). IDHmut has been associated with longer overall patient survival. However, its impact on malignant transformation (MT) remains to be defined. A collection of 210 archived adult LGG previously stratified by IDHmut, MGMT methylation (MGMTmet), 1p/19q combined loss of heterozygosity (1p19qloh) and TP53 immunopositivity (TP53pos) status was analyzed. We used multistate models to assess MT-free survival, considering one initial, one transient (MT), and one absorbing state (death). Missing explanatory variables were multiply imputed. Overall, although associated with a lower risk of death (HR(DEATH) = 0.35, P = 0.0023), IDHmut had a non-significantly higher risk of MT (HR(MT) = 1.84; P = 0.1683) compared to IDH wild type (IDHwt). The double combination of IDHmut and MGMTmet and the triple combination of IDHmut, MGMTmet and 1p/19qloh, despite significantly lower hazards for death (HR(DEATH) versus IDHwt: 0.35, P = 0.0194 and 0.15, P = 0.0008, respectively), had non-significantly different hazards for MT. Conversely, the triple combination of IDHmut/MGMTmet/TP53pos, with a non-significantly different hazard for death, had a significantly higher hazard for MT than IDHwt (HR(MT) versus IDHwt: 2.83; P = 0.0452). Although IDHmut status is associated with longer overall patient survival, all IDHmut/MGMTmet subsets consistently showed higher risks of MT than of death, compared to IDHwt LGG. This supports the findings that molecular events relevant to IDH mutations impact early glioma development prior to malignant transformation. PMID:26780338

  15. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is associated with higher risk of adverse events compared to laparoscopic radical nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bastiampillai, Ravin; Lavallée, Luke T.; Cnossen, Sonya; Witiuk, Kelsey; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Fergusson, Dean; Schramm, David; Morash, Christopher; Cagiannos, Ilias; Breau, Rodney H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) are similar procedures and some surgeons may believe the perioperative risks are the same. The purpose of this study is to characterize and compare complications following LRN and LNU. Methods: A historical cohort of patients who received either LRN or LNU between 2006 and 2012 was reviewed from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Patient characteristics, surgical characteristics, and perioperative outcomes up to 30 days postoperatively were abstracted. Unadjusted and adjusted associations between procedure (LRN or LNU) and any adverse event were determined. Results: During the study period, 4904 patients met study inclusion criteria; 4159 (84.8%) received a LRN while 745 (15.2%) received a LNU. Overall, 651 (13.3%) patients experienced at least one postoperative complication. LNU was associated with more complications than LRN (21% and 12%, respectively, p value <0.01). The most common complications were: bleeding requiring blood transfusion (9.0% LNU vs. 6.0% LRN), urinary tract infection (4.6% LNU vs. 1.5% LRN), wound infection (1.3% LNU vs. 1.8% LRN), and unplanned intubation (2.3% LNU vs. 0.9% LRN). After adjusting for potential confounders, LNU was associated with higher risk of any complication compared to LRN (relative risk [RR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–1.72). Other variables independently associated with an increased risk of complications included: increasing patient age (RR 1.01, 95% CI 1.01–1.02), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification ≥3 (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10–1.63), higher preoperative creatinine (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17), >4 units of blood transfused within 72 hours before surgery (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.29–2.86), and operative time >6 hours (RR 2.17, 95% CI 1.71–2.75). Conclusions: Postoperative complications within 30 days of surgery are common after LNU and LRN. Despite having

  16. Infant arousal in an en-face exchange with a new partner: effects of prematurity and perinatal biological risk.

    PubMed

    Eckerman, C O; Hsu, H C; Molitor, A; Leung, E H; Goldstein, R F

    1999-01-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants of higher (n = 18) and lower (n = 29) perinatal biological risk were contrasted at 4 months adjusted age with healthy full-term infants (n = 32) in their arousal during a standardized peekaboo game with an examiner. VLBW infants showed less positive arousal, more negative arousal, and 3 mixtures of behavioral cues across the peekaboo game seldom seen for full-term infants-strong cues of both positive and negative arousal, strong cues of negative arousal alone, and no strong cues of either positive or negative arousal. Contrary to expectations, perinatal biological risk did not strongly predict variations in arousal within the VLBW group. Possible changes in how internal and external sources of arousal are integrated provide one explanation for the presence of strong relationships between perinatal biological risk and social responsiveness near term age and their disappearance by 4 months of age. PMID:9923482

  17. Increased risk of phosphorus limitation at higher temperatures for Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Persson, Jonas; Wojewodzic, Marcin Włodzimierz; Hessen, Dag Olav; Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Invertebrate herbivores frequently face growth rate constraints due to their high demands for phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Temperature is a key modulator of growth rate, yet the interaction between temperature and P limitation on somatic growth rate is scarcely known. To investigate this interaction, we conducted a study on the somatic growth rate (SGR) of the cladoceran Daphnia magna, known to be susceptible to P-limitation. We determined the SGR across a broad range of dietary P content of algae (carbon (C):P ratios (125-790), and at different temperatures (10-25°C). There was a strong impact of both temperature and C:P ratio on the SGR of D. magna, and also a significant interaction between both factors was revealed. The negative effect of dietary C:P on growth rate was reduced with decreased temperature. We found no evidence of P limitation at lowest temperature, suggesting that enzyme kinetics or other measures of food quality overrides the demands for P to RNA and protein synthesis at low temperatures. These findings also indicate an increased risk of P limitation and thus reduced growth efficiency at high temperatures. PMID:20803219

  18. Comparison of risk stratification tools in predicting outcomes of patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes treated with azanucleosides

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, AM; Sekeres, MA; Garcia-Manero, G; Steensma, DP; Zell, K; Barnard, J; Ali, NA; Zimmerman, C; Roboz, G; DeZern, A; Nazha, A; Jabbour, E; Kantarjian, H; Gore, SD; Maciejewski, JP; List, A; Komrokji, R

    2016-01-01

    Established prognostic tools in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were largely derived from untreated patient cohorts. Although azanucleosides are standard therapies for higher-risk (HR)-MDS, the relative prognostic performance of existing prognostic tools among patients with HR-MDS receiving azanucleoside therapy is unknown. In the MDS Clinical Research Consortium database, we compared the prognostic utility of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), revised IPSS (IPSS-R), MD Anderson Prognostic Scoring System (MDAPSS), World Health Organization-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) and the French Prognostic Scoring System (FPSS) among 632 patients who presented with HR-MDS and were treated with azanucleosides as the first-line therapy. Median follow-up from diagnosis was 15.7 months. No prognostic tool predicted the probability of achieving an objective response. Nonetheless, all five tools were associated with overall survival (OS, P = 0.025 for the IPSS, P = 0.011 for WPSS and P < 0.001 for the other three tools). The corrected Akaike Information Criteria, which were used to compare OS with the different prognostic scoring systems as covariates (lower is better) were 4138 (MDAPSS), 4156 (FPSS), 4196 (IPSS-R), 4186 (WPSS) and 4196 (IPSS). Patients in the highest-risk groups of the prognostic tools had a median OS from diagnosis of 11 – 16 months and should be considered for up-front transplantation or experimental approaches. PMID:26464171

  19. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) face protracted health risks associated with lifetime exposure to PCBs.

    PubMed

    Hickie, Brendan E; Ross, Peter S; Macdonald, Robie W; Ford, John K B

    2007-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations declined rapidly in environmental compartments and most biota following implementation of regulations in the 1970s. However, the metabolic recalcitrance of PCBs may delay responses to such declines in large, long-lived species, such as the endangered and highly PCB-contaminated resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. To investigate the influence of life history on PCB-related health risks, we developed models to estimate PCB concentrations in killer whales during the period from 1930 forward to 2030, both within a lifetime (approximately 50 years) and across generations, and then evaluated these in the context of health effects thresholds established for marine mammals. Modeled PCB concentrations in killer whales responded slowly to changes in loadings to the environment as evidenced by slower accumulation and lower magnitude increases in PCB concentrations relative to prey, and a delayed decline that was particularly evident in adult males. Since PCBs attained peak levels well above the effects threshold (17 mg/kg lipid) in approximately 1969, estimated concentrations in both the northern and the more contaminated southern resident populations have declined gradually. Projections suggest that the northern resident population could largely fall below the threshold concentration by 2030 while the endangered southern residents may not do so until at least 2063. Long-lived aquatic mammals are therefore not protected from PCBs by current dietary residue guidelines. PMID:17948816

  20. Pancreatic cancer early detection: Expanding higher-risk group with clinical and metabolomics parameters

    PubMed Central

    Urayama, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth and fifth leading cause of cancer death for each gender in developed countries. With lack of effective treatment and screening scheme available for the general population, the mortality rate is expected to increase over the next several decades in contrast to the other major malignancies such as lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. Endoscopic ultrasound, with its highest level of detection capacity of smaller pancreatic lesions, is the commonly employed and preferred clinical imaging-based PDAC detection method. Various molecular biomarkers have been investigated for characterization of the disease, but none are shown to be useful or validated for clinical utilization for early detection. As seen from studies of a small subset of familial or genetically high-risk PDAC groups, the higher yield and utility of imaging-based screening methods are demonstrated for these groups. Multiple recent studies on the unique cancer metabolism including PDAC, demonstrate the potential for utility of the metabolites as the discriminant markers for this disease. In order to generate an early PDAC detection screening strategy available for a wider population, we propose to expand the population of higher risk PDAC group with combination clinical and metabolomics parameters. PMID:25684935

  1. Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  2. Challenges Faced by People Living with HIV/AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa: Issues for Group Risk Reduction Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Cloete, Allanise; Strebel, Anna; Simbayi, Leickness; van Wyk, Brian; Henda, Nomvo; Nqeketo, Ayanda

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study to investigate the challenges faced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The primary goal of the study was to gather data to inform the adaptation of a group risk reduction intervention to the South African context. Qualitative methods were used to examine the experiences of PLWHA. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 83 HIV-positive participants and 14 key informants (KIs) involved in work with PLWHA were interviewed. Findings revealed that AIDS-related stigma was still pervasive in local communities. This was associated with the difficulty of disclosure of their status for fear of rejection. Also notable was the role of risky behaviours such as lack of condom use and that PLWHA considered their HIV/AIDS status as secondary to daily life stressors like poverty, unemployment, and gender-based violence. These findings have implications for the adaptation or development of behavioural risk reduction interventions for PLWHA. PMID:21490904

  3. Accelerated bone turnover identifies hemiplegic patients at higher risk of demineralization.

    PubMed

    Del Puente, A; Pappone, N; Servodio Iammarrone, C; Esposito, A; Scarpa, R; Costa, L; Caso, F; Bardoscia, A; Del Puente, A

    2016-01-01

    Immobilization osteoporosis represents a severe complication in hemiplegic patients (HPs), causing fragility fractures, which may occur during rehabilitation reducing functional recovery and survival. The aim of the study was to investigate determinants of bone loss, independent from length of immobilization, which may be useful in early identification of HPs at higher risk of demineralization. Forty-eight HPs of both sexes underwent anthropometric measurements, evaluation of scores of spasticity and of lower limb motory capacity. Laboratory tests were performed. On serum: calcium; phosphorus; creatinine; ALP; iPTH; 25(OH) vitamin-D; sex hormones; Δ4-androstenedione; DHEA-S; insulin; IGF-1; FT3; FT4; TSH; c-AMP. On urine: c-AMP and calcium/creatinine ratio. Two bone turnover markers were measured: serum osteocalcin (BGP) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Bone mineral density was determined at both femoral necks, defining a percentage difference in bone loss between paretic and non-paretic limb, thus controlling for the complex cofactors involved. Only bone turnover markers significantly and directly correlated with the entity of demineralization, controlling for age, sex and length of immobilization in the multivariate analysis (BGP coefficient estimate=0.008; SE=0.003; p=0.020; DPD coefficient estimate=0.005; SE=0.002; p=0.036). BGP and DPD are not dependent on anthropometric and endocrine-metabolic parameters, disability patterns and duration of immobilization, thus represent independent determinants of the degree of demineralization. A cutoff was defined for BGP and DPD above which subjects show significantly greater risk of demineralization. The immobilization event generates more severe bone loss when it occurs in subjects with higher bone turnover. BGP and DPD measurements may be of primary importance for early identification of HPs at risk, with relevant preventive implications. PMID:27049105

  4. Lower Zinc Bioavailability May Be Related to Higher Risk of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort), which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES). A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women) aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. Results We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80th percentile value of cIMT (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009), and especially in elderly men (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021). We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. Conclusions Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk. PMID:24223217

  5. Higher risk of progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Geda, Yonas E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate rates of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and of reversion from MCI to being cognitively normal (CN) in a population-based cohort. Methods: Participants (n = 534, aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were evaluated at baseline and every 15 months to identify incident MCI or dementia. Results: Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 153 of 534 participants (28.7%) with prevalent or incident MCI progressed to dementia (71.3 per 1,000 person-years). The cumulative incidence of dementia was 5.4% at 1 year, 16.1% at 2, 23.4% at 3, 31.1% at 4, and 42.5% at 5 years. The risk of dementia was elevated in MCI cases (hazard ratio [HR] 23.2, p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. Thirty-eight percent (n = 201) of MCI participants reverted to CN (175.0/1,000 person-years), but 65% subsequently developed MCI or dementia; the HR was 6.6 (p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. The risk of reversion was reduced in subjects with an APOE ε4 allele (HR 0.53, p < 0.001), higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (HR 0.56, p < 0.001), and poorer cognitive function (HR 0.56, p < 0.001). The risk was also reduced in subjects with amnestic MCI (HR 0.70, p = 0.02) and multidomain MCI (HR 0.61, p = 0.003). Conclusions: MCI cases, including those who revert to CN, have a high risk of progressing to dementia. This suggests that diagnosis of MCI at any time has prognostic value. PMID:24353333

  6. The influence of the digital divide on face preferences in El Salvador: people without internet access prefer more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity.

    PubMed

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries. PMID:25006801

  7. The Influence of the Digital Divide on Face Preferences in El Salvador: People without Internet Access Prefer More Feminine Men, More Masculine Women, and Women with Higher Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18–25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries. PMID:25006801

  8. Maternal Disrupted Communication During Face-to-Face Interaction at 4 months: Relation to Maternal and Infant Cortisol Among at-Risk Families

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Erin E.; Holmes, Bjarne M.; Granger, Douglas A.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the association between maternal disrupted communication and the reactivity and regulation of the psychobiology of the stress response in infancy. Mothers and infants were recruited via the National Health Service from the 20% most economically impoverished data zones in a suburban region of Scotland. Mothers (N = 63; M age = 25.9) and their 4-month-old infants (35 boys, 28 girls) were videotaped interacting for 8 min, including a still-face procedure as a stress inducer and a 5-min coded recovery period. Saliva samples were collected from the dyads prior to, during, and after the still-face procedure and later assayed for cortisol. Level of disruption in maternal communication with the infant was coded from the 5-min videotaped interaction during the recovery period which followed the still-face procedure. Severely disrupted maternal communication was associated with lower levels of maternal cortisol and a greater divergence between mothers’ and infants’ cortisol levels. Results point to low maternal cortisol as a possible mechanism contributing to the mother’s difficulty in sensitively attuning to her infant’s cues, which in turn has implications for the infant’s reactivity to and recovery from a mild stressor in early infancy. PMID:25506272

  9. Association of higher parental and grandparental education and higher school grades with risk of hospitalization for eating disorders in females: the Uppsala birth cohort multigenerational study.

    PubMed

    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie; Silverwood, Richard; Klinteberg, Britt Af; Koupil, Ilona

    2009-09-01

    Eating disorders are a leading cause of disease burden among young women. This study investigated associations of social characteristics of parents and grandparents, sibling position, and school performance with incidence of eating disorders. The authors studied Swedish females born in 1952-1989 (n = 13,376), third-generation descendants of a cohort born in Uppsala in 1915-1929. Data on grandparental and parental social characteristics, sibling position, school grades, hospitalizations, emigrations, and deaths were obtained by register linkages. Associations with incidence of hospitalization for eating disorders were studied with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted for age and study period. Overall incidence of hospitalization for eating disorders was 32.0/100,000 person-years. Women with more highly educated parents and maternal grandparents were at higher risk (hazard ratio for maternal grandmother with higher education relative to elementary education = 6.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.2, 19.3, adjusted for parental education). Independent of family social characteristics, women with the highest school grades had a higher risk of eating disorders (hazard ratio = 7.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.5, 24.1 for high compared with low grades in Swedish, adjusted for parental education). Thus, higher parental and grandparental education and higher school grades may increase risk of hospitalization for eating disorders in female offspring, possibly because of high internal and external demands. PMID:19589840

  10. Analyzing Early At-Risk Factors in Higher Education E-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S.; Lindrum, David; Lindrum, Mary Jane; Perkowski, David

    2015-01-01

    College students enrolled in online courses lack many of the supports available to students in traditional face-to-face classes on a campus such as meeting the instructor, having a set class time, discussing topics in-person during class, meeting peers and having the option to speak with them outside of class, being able to visit faculty during…

  11. Higher-dose uses of zolpidem will increase the subsequent risk of developing benign brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Harnod, Tomor; Li, Yu-Fen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Ni; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    This study identified 37,810 patients with anxiety or sleep disorder (mean age=53.2 years, SD=16.0 years) who had zolpidem prescribed for at least 2 months from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2009. Another non-zolpidem cohort was selected by 1:1 matching with the zolpidem cohort on the estimated probability (propensity score) of being treated. The zolpidem cohort had a higher incidence of benign brain tumors compared with the non-zolpidem cohort, particularly for elderly patients. The matched propensity score analysis showed that the highest risk of benign brain tumors occurred in participants with zolpidem exposure ≥520 mg/year (hazard ratio=1.85, 95% confidence interval=1.21-2.82) compared with those not taking zolpidem. PMID:25923854

  12. Perceptions of mailed HPV self-testing among women at higher risk for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Kayoll V.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Smith, Jennifer S.; Richman, Alice R.; Barclay, Lynn; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Whether human papillomavirus (HPV) self-testing can expand access to cervical cancer screening will depend on making the test accessible and acceptable to higher-risk women. To evaluate a novel delivery mode, we mailed HPV self-test kits to low-income, under-screened women and assessed their perceptions of self-testing and cervical cancer prevention. Materials and Methods We conducted a telephone survey of 199 women in North Carolina. Eligibility criteria included not having had a Pap test in 4 years and reporting 1 or more indicators of economic hardship, such as being uninsured. Results Over half (55%) of women in the diverse sample were non-Hispanic black, and almost three-quarters (74%) reported annual household incomes of $20,000 or less. Trust in HPV self-testing was moderate to high, with almost all women (98%) agreeing the mailed test was safe. A few women (6%) preferred HPV self-testing to Pap testing for protecting health, but most (75%) had no preference. Trust in or preference for mailed self-testing did not vary by race or income. However, compared to white women, black women had lower HPV-related knowledge (OR=0.46, 95% CI, 0.23–0.92) and perceived lower cervical cancer risk in the absence of screening (OR=0.44, 95% CI, 0.22–0.86). We found similar patterns of disparities for women with very low (<$10,000) versus relatively higher incomes. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, across racial and economic subgroups, under-screened women generally trust HPV self-tests delivered by mail. To succeed, programs for HPV self-testing must overcome disparities in knowledge and perceptions related to cervical cancer screening. PMID:25120228

  13. Cost-effectiveness in Canada of azacitidine for the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Levy, A.R.; Zou, D.; Risebrough, N.; Buckstein, R.; Kim, T.; Brereton, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to determine the economic value of azacitidine in Canada compared with conventional care regimens (ccrs), including best supportive care (bsc) and low- or standard-dose chemotherapy plus bsc in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (mdss) and acute myeloid leukemia (aml) with 20%–30% blasts. Methods The cost–utility model is a lifetime probabilistic Markov model with a 35-day cycle length consisting of 3 health states: mds; transformation to aml with more than 30% blasts; and death. A third-party public payer perspective was adopted. Overall survival was extrapolated beyond the time horizon of the aza-001 trial comparing azacitidine with ccr. Resource use was determined through a questionnaire completed by Canadian hematologists. Utility values were obtained from two studies in which EQ-5D health questionnaire values were mapped from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer qlq-C30 survey, and SF-6D scores were mapped from the Short Form 12, elicited from 191 and 43 patients in two different trials. Results In the base case, azacitidine had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (icer) of $86,182 (95% confidence limits: $69,920, $107,157) per quality-adjusted life year (qaly) gained relative to ccr. Comparing azacitidine with bsc, low-dose chemotherapy plus bsc, and standard-dose chemotherapy plus bsc, the icers were, respectively, $86,973, $84,829, and $2,152 per qaly gained. Results were most sensitive to the utility for azacitidine after 6 months of treatment and to overall survival. Conclusions The prolonged 9-month median overall survival with azacitidine relative to ccr fills a gap w hen treating patients with higher-risk mds and aml with 20%–30% blasts. The economic value of azacitidine is within the threshold of willingness-to-pay for third-party public payers for oncology treatments in Canada. PMID:24523619

  14. Risk of abnormal triple screen for Down syndrome is significantly higher in patients with female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; Ghidini, A; Stanley-Christian, H; Meck, J M; Seydel, F D; Pezzullo, J C

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are significantly higher and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels significantly lower in women with male compared with female fetuses. We have evaluated whether triple-screen criteria are more likely to identify women with female fetuses as at risk for Down syndrome. From the Georgetown University genetics database we obtained the absolute values and corresponding multiples of the median (MoM) for AFP, hCG and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in singleton gestations for the period database November 1992 July 1996. A Down syndrome risk of 1/270 or greater at mid-trimester was considered as high risk. A total of 977 patients with triple screen and outcome information were identified, including 502 female and 475 male fetuses. Patients with female fetuses were significantly more likely to have lower serum AFP (p=0.003) and a positive triple screen for Down syndrome (72 (14 per cent) versus 45 (9 per cent), p<0.02) than those with male fetuses. The gestational age at triple screen, maternal serum hCG and uE3, race and diabetes were not significantly different between the two groups. Since Down syndrome is less common in female than male fetuses, and the rates of female and male Down syndrome fetuses detected by triple screen and subsequent amniocentesis are not significantly different, the excess of positive mid-trimester maternal serum triple screen in women with female fetuses is likely due to false-positive results. PMID:10327139

  15. A Stress Management Program for Higher Risk Medical Students: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Julie; McGrady, Angele; Lynch, Denis J; Schaefer, Paul; Whearty, Kary

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 10 % of first year medical students have clinically relevant anxiety or depression which may affect academic success and quality of life. This study tested the effects of a stress management intervention on indicators of anxiety, depression and self-efficacy in self-selected first year medical students. Forty two medical students volunteered to participate and provided informed consent. An eight session intervention was offered and focused on building relaxation skills, adaptive coping, and basic nutrition. Anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy were assessed pre and post intervention. This group of students had significantly higher baseline values of depression and anxiety but lower self-efficacy compared to a previous study of medical students at the same institution (p < 0.03). After the intervention, statistically significant improvements were observed in anxiety (p < 0.05), and self-efficacy (p < 0.05), but not in depression. The entering levels of anxiety and depression in this group suggested that these students were at risk for later clinical syndromes. Intervention directed to decreasing the effects of stress was associated with improvement in indicators of distress and may modify the longer term risk. PMID:26969177

  16. Serum Total Bilirubin Levels Provide Additive Risk Information over the Framingham Risk Score for Identifying Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients at Higher Risk for Coronary Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Jaechan; Koh, Eun Hee; Jang, Jung Eun; Woo, Chang-Yun; Oh, Jin Sun; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is often delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum total bilirubin levels are inversely associated with CAD. However, no studies have examined whether this can be used as a biochemical marker for identifying asymptomatic diabetic patients at higher risk for having obstructive CAD. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 460 consecutive asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography, and their serum total bilirubin levels were measured. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥50% diameter stenosis in at least one coronary artery. Results Serum total bilirubin tertiles showed an inverse association with the prevalence of obstructive CAD. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total bilirubin was 0.227 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.130 to 0.398), and an increment of 1 µmol/L in serum total bilirubin level was associated with a 14.6% decrease in obstructive CAD after adjustment for confounding variables. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) plus serum total bilirubin level was 0.712 (95% CI, 0.668 to 0.753), which is significantly greater than that of the FRS alone (P=0.0028). Conclusion Serum total bilirubin level is inversely associated with obstructive CAD and provides additive risk information over the FRS. Serum total bilirubin may be helpful for identifying asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who are at higher risk for obstructive CAD. PMID:26566499

  17. Humber-in-a-Box : Gamification to Communicate Coastal Flood Risk in the Face of Rising Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. J.; van Rij, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Humber-in-a-Box is an immersive visualisation of the Humber Estuary (on the east coast of the UK), designed to communicate coastal flood risk in the face of rising seas. It is designed for use in a busy festival-like setting. The user views the environment via an Oculus Rift Virtual Reality (VR) headset and is able to explore using an XBOX controller. A live simulation of tidal flows on a modelled version of the estuary can be viewed on a box in the centre of a virtual room. Using the controller, the user is able to raise sea levels and see what happens as the tide levels adjust. Humber-in-a-Box uses a numerical model built with data used for published research. The hydraulic component of the CAESAR-Lisflood model code was incorporated into the UNITY-3D gaming engine, and the model uses recorded tidal stage data, bathymetry and elevations to build the virtual environment and drive the simulation. Present day flood defences are incorporated into the model, and in conjunction with modelling tidal flows, this provides a better representation of future flood risk than simpler linear models. The user is able to raise and lower sea levels between -10 m and 100 m, in 1m increments, and can reset the simulation to present day levels with one button click. Humber-in-a-Box has been showcased at several outreach events and has proven to be very popular and effective in an environment where time with each user is pressured, and information needs to exchange quickly. It has also been used in teaching at Undergraduate level, although the full potential of this is yet to be explored. A non-interactive version of the application is available on YouTube which is designed for use with Google Cardboard and similar kit.

  18. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors. PMID:25569508

  19. Effectiveness of personalized face-to-face and telephone nursing counseling interventions for cardiovascular risk factors: a controlled clinical trial 1

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez Barboza, Vivian; Klijn, Tatiana Paravic; Salazar Molina, Alide; Sáez Carrillo, Katia Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effect and gender differences of an innovative intervention involving in-person and telephone nursing counseling to control cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight), improve health-related quality of life and strengthen self-efficacy and social support in persons using the municipal health centers' cardiovascular health program. Method: a randomized controlled clinical trial involving participants randomized into the intervention group who received traditional consultation plus personalized and telephone nursing counseling for 7 months (n = 53) and the control group (n = 56). The study followed the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement. Results: women in the intervention group presented a significant increase in the physical and mental health components compared to the control group, with decreases in weight, abdominal circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index. The effects attributable to the intervention in the men in the intervention group were increased physical and emotional roles and decreased systolic and diastolic pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiovascular risk factor, and 10-year coronary risk. Conclusion: this intervention is an effective strategy for the control of three cardiovascular risk factors and the improvement of health-related quality of life. PMID:27508917

  20. Do First Generation Immigrant Adolescents Face Higher Rates of Bullying, Violence and Suicidal Behaviours Than Do Third Generation and Native Born?

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin; Dahal, Govinda; Georgiades, Katholiki; Premji, Kamila; Hassan, Ghayda

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared to third generation and native counterparts. Refugee status and advanced parental age were associated with increased parent to child aggression among South East Asians. Family cohesion was associated with lower rates of violence. Suicidal ideation was lower across most immigrant adolescents' ethnicities, with the exception of Turkish and South Asian Surinamese female adolescents in the Netherlands. Bullying and peer aggression of immigrant children and adolescents and potential mitigating factors such as family cohesion warrant research and program attention by policymakers, teachers and parents. PMID:25248622

  1. Significance of Pre-Radiographic MRI Lesions in Persons at Higher Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Leena; Chmiel, Joan S.; Almagor, Orit; Dunlop, Dorothy; Guermazi, Ali; Bathon, Joan; Eaton, Charles; Hochberg, Marc; Jackson, Rebecca; Kwoh, Kent; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Crema, Michel; Roemer, Frank; Nevitt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about early knee osteoarthritis (OA). The significance of MRI lesions in older persons without radiographic OA is unclear. Our objectives were to determine extent of tissue pathology by MRI and evaluate its significance by testing the hypotheses: cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), and meniscal damage are associated with prevalent frequent knee symptoms and incident persistent symptoms; BMLs and meniscal damage are associated with incident tibiofemoral cartilage damage; BMLs are associated with incident patellofemoral cartilage damage. Methods In a cohort study of 849 OAI (Osteoarthritis Initiative) participants who had bilateral K/L 0, we assessed cartilage, BMLs, and meniscal damage using MOAKS, as well as prevalent frequent knee symptoms, incident persistent symptoms, and incident cartilage damage. Multiple logistic regression (one knee/person) was used to evaluate associations between MRI lesions and each of these outcomes. Results 76% had cartilage damage, 61% BMLs, 21% meniscal tears, and 14% meniscal extrusion. Cartilage damage (any; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), BMLs (any; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), meniscal extrusion, and BMI were associated with prevalent frequent symptoms. Cartilage damage (isolated patellofemoral; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), BMLs (any; isolated patellofemoral; tibiofemoral and patellofemoral), meniscal tears, and BMI were associated with incident persistent symptoms. Hand OA but no individual lesion type was associated with incident tibiofemoral cartilage damage, and BMLs (any; any patellofemoral) with incident patellofemoral damage. Having more lesion types was associated with a greater risk of outcomes. Conclusions MRI-detected lesions are not incidental and may represent early disease in persons at higher risk for knee OA. PMID:24974824

  2. Women are at a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Mitra, Amal K; Zainuddin, Laila Ruwaida Mohd; Leng, Soo Kah; Wan Muda, Wan Manan

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults. PMID:23751089

  3. ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients have a higher bleeding risk after antigen-specific immunoadsorption.

    PubMed

    de Weerd, Annelies E; van Agteren, Madelon; Leebeek, Frank W; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Weimar, Willem; Betjes, Michiel G H

    2015-01-01

    Pretransplant removal of antiblood group ABO antibodies is the cornerstone of all current ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation programmes. In our protocol, plasmapheresis (PP) is performed with a plasmafilter followed by immunoadsorption (IA) of anti-ABO antibodies. The bleeding complications of this technique are not known. We analysed the data of all 65 consecutive ABOi kidney transplantations between March 2006 and October 2013 and compared these with matched 130 ABO-compatible (ABOc) kidney transplantations. Cases differed from controls in the pre-operative regimen, which included IA-PP and rituximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisone and immunoglobulines. Data on platelet count, blood loss and red blood cell (EC) transfusions during 48 h postoperatively were collected. ABOi patients received EC transfusions more frequently than controls (29% vs. 12%, P = 0.005). Intra-operative blood loss was higher (544 vs. 355 ml, P < 0.005) and they experienced more major bleeding (≥3 EC within 24 h, 15% vs. 2%, P < 0.0005). Platelet count decreased by 28% after the pre-operative IA. In a multivariate model, only the number of pre-operative IAs was associated with the number of ECs given (OR per IA 1.9, P < 0.05). ABOi kidney transplant recipients have a high postoperative bleeding risk, correlating with the number of pre-operative IA sessions performed. PMID:25070762

  4. Predictors of HIV risk among Hispanic farm workers in South Florida: women are at higher risk than men.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M Isabel; Collazo, Jose B; Hernández, Nilda; Bowen, G Stephen; Varga, Leah M; Vila, Christie Kibort; Arheart, Kristopher L; Perrino, Tatiana

    2004-06-01

    This study examined factors associated with being at risk of sexually acquiring HIV among a community sample of 244 Hispanic migrant and seasonal farm workers. Bilingual staff interviewed respondents anonymously at worksites, camps, and other public venues in South Florida during the 2002 winter/spring growing season. The following variables were positively associated with being at risk of sexually acquiring HIV in multivariable analyses: being female; being married; having "some" or "a lot" of knowledge about HIV transmission, having ever used marijuana, having two or more sex partners in the last 12 months, and having had a sexually transmitted infection. The findings heighten the importance of recognizing women's elevated risk of HIV infection and conducting further studies to examine the factors associated with this increased risk. The study is an important first step toward developing tailored HIV prevention interventions for this at-risk, understudied population. PMID:15187478

  5. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use. PMID:23970659

  6. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Almanza, Maria Teresa; Cutler, G Christopher; Fischer, David L; Hinarejos, Silvia; Lewis, Gavin; Nigro, Daniel; Olmstead, Allen; Overmyer, Jay; Potter, Daniel A; Raine, Nigel E; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Thompson, Helen; van der Steen, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, diseases, parasites, and pesticides, potentially plays a role in causing these declines, pesticides have received considerable attention and scrutiny. In response, regulatory agencies have introduced more stringent pollinator testing requirements for registration and reregistration of pesticides, to ensure that the risks to pollinators are minimized. In this context, guidelines for testing bumble bees (Bombus spp.) in regulatory studies are not yet available, and a pressing need exists to develop suitable protocols for routine higher-tier studies with these non-Apis sp., social bees. To meet this need, Bayer CropScience LP, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC US, and Valent USA. Corporation organized a workshop bringing together a group of global experts on bumble bee behavior, ecology, and ecotoxicology to discuss and develop draft protocols for both semi-field (Tier II) and field (Tier III) studies. The workshop was held May 8-9, 2014, at the Bayer Bee Care Center, North Carolina, USA. The participants represented academic, consulting, and industry scientists from Europe, Canada, the United States, and Brazil. The workshop identified a clear protection goal and generated proposals for basic experimental designs, relevant measurements, and endpoints for both semifield (tunnel) and field tests. These initial recommendations are intended to form the basis of discussions to help advance the development of appropriate protocol guidelines. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:222-229. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by SETAC. PMID:26108565

  7. Higher order concentration moments collapse in the expected mass fraction (EMF) based risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srzic, Veljko; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Andricevic, Roko

    2014-05-01

    In this work Langrangian framework is used for conservative tracer transport simulations through 2-D extremely heterogeneous porous media. Conducted numerical simulations enable large sets of concentration values in both spatial and temporal domains. In addition to the advection, which acts on all scales, an additional mechanism considered is local scale dispersion (LSD), accounting for both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion. The ratio between these two mechanisms is quantified by the Peclet (Pe) number. In its base, the work gives answers to concentration scalar features when influenced by: i) different log-conductivity variance; ii) log-conductivity structures defined by the same global variogram but with different log conductivity patterns correlated; and iii) for a wide range of Peclet values. Results conducted by Monte Carlo analysis show a complex interplay between the aforementioned parameters, indicating the influence of aquifer properties to temporal LSD evolution. A remarkable collapse of higher order to second-order concentration moments [Yee, 2009] leads to the conclusion that only two concentration moments are required for an accurate description of concentration fluctuations. This explicitly holds for the pure advection case, while in the case of LSD presence the moment deriving function(MDF) is involved to ensure the moment collapse validity. An inspection of the Beta distribution leads to the conclusion that the two-parametric distribution can be used for concentration fluctuation characterization even in cases of high aquifer heterogeneity and/or for different log-conductivity structures, independent of the sampling volume used. Furthermore, the expected mass fraction (EMF) [Heagy & Sullivan, 1996] concept is applied in groundwater transport. In its origin, EMF is function of the concentration but with lower number of realizations needed for its determination, compared to the one point PDF. From practical point of view, EMF excludes

  8. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  9. Higher plain water intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk: a cross-sectional study in humans.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Harriet A; Davis, Mark G; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plain water intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. It was hypothesized that higher plain water intake would be associated with a lower T2D risk score. One hundred thirty-eight adults from Southwest and Southeast England answered a cross-sectional online survey assessing T2D risk (using the Diabetes UK risk assessment); physical activity (using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire); and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and beverages (using an adapted version of the Cambridge European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire). There was a trend for differences in mean plain water intake between those stratified as having low, increased, moderate, or high risk of T2D; but these did not achieve significance (P = .084). However, plain water intake was significantly negatively correlated with T2D risk score (τ = -0°180, P = .005); and for every 240-mL cup of water consumed per day, T2D risk score was reduced by 0.72 point (range, 0-47) (B = -0.03, 95% confidence interval = -0.06 to -0.01, P = .014). The current study has provided preliminary results that are supported by theory; mechanisms need to be explored further to determine the true effect of plain water intake on disease risk. As increasing plain water intake is a simple and cost-effective dietary modification, its impact on T2D risk is important to investigate further in a randomized controlled trial. Overall, this study found that plain water intake had a significant negative correlation with T2D risk score; and regression analysis suggested that water may have a role in reducing T2D risk. PMID:26255759

  10. Why are poorer children at higher risk of obesity and overweight? A UK cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited evidence on which risk factors attenuate income inequalities in child overweight and obesity; whether and why these inequalities widen as children age. Method: Eleven thousand nine hundred and sixty five singletons had complete data at age 5 and 9384 at age 11 from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Overweight (age 5 : 15%; age 11 : 20%) and obesity (age 5 : 5%; age 11 : 6%) were defined using the International Obesity Taskforce body mass index cut-points. To measure socioeconomic inequalities, we used quintiles of family income and as risk factors, we considered markers of maternal health behaviours and of children’s physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet. Binary and multinomial logistic regression models were used. Results: The unadjusted analyses revealed stark income inequalities in the risk of obesity at age 5 and 11. At age 5, children in the bottom income quintile had 2.0 (95% CI: 1.4–2.8) increased relative risk of being obese whilst at age 11 they had 3.0 (95% CI: 2.0–4.5) increased risk compared to children in the top income quintile. Similar income inequalities in the risk of overweight emerged by age 11. Physical activity and diet were particularly important in explaining inequalities. Income inequalities in obesity and overweight widened significantly between age 5 and 11 and a similar set of risk factors protected against upward and promoted downward movements across weight categories. Conclusions: To reduce income inequalities in overweight and obesity and their widening across childhood the results support the need of early interventions which take account of multiple risk factors. PMID:26659411

  11. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    Face pain may be dull and throbbing or an intense, stabbing discomfort in the face or forehead. It can occur in one or ... Pain that starts in the face may be caused by a nerve problem, injury, or infection. Face pain may also begin in other places in the body. ...

  12. Critical Race Ethnography of Higher Education: Racial Risk and Counter-Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The Ethnography of the University Initiative (EUI) joins a long history of critique, challenge and transformation of higher education. EUI courses are an important site for the creation of non-traditional narratives in which students challenge "business-as-usual" in higher education. For under-represented students, this includes inquiry…

  13. Do Asian-American women who were maltreated as children have a higher likelihood for HIV risk behaviors and adverse mental health outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Lee, Yookyong; Jang, Jisun; Ng, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study is the first to systematically investigate whether multiple child maltreatment is associated with HIV risk behaviors and adverse mental health outcomes among Asian-American women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of unmarried Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women (n = 400), aged 18 to 35, who are identified as children of immigrants, using Computer-Assisted Survey Interviews (CASI). Results Approximately seven in ten women reported having been maltreated as a child and 6.8% reported any type of sexual abuse. Only 15% of our sample reported having sex at age 16 or before, yet almost 60% had ever engaged with risky sexual partners. Contrary to the findings from previous studies of White and Black women, sexual abuse plus other maltreatment was not associated with HIV risk behaviors among Asian-American women. However,it was associated with a marked increase in depression, lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A higher education was associated with increased odds of HIV risk behaviors including ever having anal sex and ever having potentially risky sexual partners. Conclusion There was no evidence indicating that multiple child maltreatment was linked to HIV risk behaviors, but it exhibited a robust association with poor mental health outcomes. These empirical patterns of internalizing trauma, suffering alone, and stayingsilent are in accord with Asian-cultural norms of saving face and maintaining family harmony. The prevention of multiple child maltreatment may reduce high levels of depression and suicidal behaviors among this population. It is urgently needed to identify victims of multiple child maltreatment and provide culturally appropriate interventions. PMID:21872488

  14. Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes in Patients with Well-Controlled HIV Infection: Clinical Features, Treatment, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Bradley T.; Leitch, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In advanced HIV prior to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), dysplastic marrow changes occurred and resolved with ART. Few reports of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in well-controlled HIV exist and management is undefined. Methods. Patients with well-controlled HIV and higher risk MDS were identified; characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Of 292 MDS patients since 1996, 1 (0.3%) was HIV-positive. A 56-year-old woman presented with cytopenias. CD4 was 1310 cells/mL and HIV viral load <40 copies/mL. Bone marrow biopsy showed RCMD and karyotype included del(5q) and del(7q); IPSS was intermediate-2 risk. She received azacitidine at 75% dose. Cycle 2, at full dose, was complicated by marrow aplasia and possible AML; she elected palliation. Three additional HIV patients with higher risk MDS, aged 56–64, were identified from the literature. All had deletions involving chromosomes 5 and 7. MDS treatment of 2 was not reported and one received palliation; all died of AML. Conclusion. Four higher risk MDS in well-controlled HIV were below the median age of diagnosis for HIV-negative patients; all had adverse karyotype. This is the first report of an HIV patient receiving MDS treatment with azacitidine. Cytopenias were profound and dosing in HIV patients should be considered with caution. PMID:26904323

  15. Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes in Patients with Well-Controlled HIV Infection: Clinical Features, Treatment, and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Bradley T; Leitch, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In advanced HIV prior to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), dysplastic marrow changes occurred and resolved with ART. Few reports of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in well-controlled HIV exist and management is undefined. Methods. Patients with well-controlled HIV and higher risk MDS were identified; characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Of 292 MDS patients since 1996, 1 (0.3%) was HIV-positive. A 56-year-old woman presented with cytopenias. CD4 was 1310 cells/mL and HIV viral load <40 copies/mL. Bone marrow biopsy showed RCMD and karyotype included del(5q) and del(7q); IPSS was intermediate-2 risk. She received azacitidine at 75% dose. Cycle 2, at full dose, was complicated by marrow aplasia and possible AML; she elected palliation. Three additional HIV patients with higher risk MDS, aged 56-64, were identified from the literature. All had deletions involving chromosomes 5 and 7. MDS treatment of 2 was not reported and one received palliation; all died of AML. Conclusion. Four higher risk MDS in well-controlled HIV were below the median age of diagnosis for HIV-negative patients; all had adverse karyotype. This is the first report of an HIV patient receiving MDS treatment with azacitidine. Cytopenias were profound and dosing in HIV patients should be considered with caution. PMID:26904323

  16. Higher relative risk for multiple sclerosis in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population: analysis from DPV database.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Susanne; Blaschek, Astrid; Raile, Klemens; Dost, Axel; Freiberg, Clemens; Askenas, Meik; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Molz, Esther; Holl, Reinhard W

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis (MS) are typical autoimmune diseases in children and young adults. We assessed the co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes and MS by estimating the relative risk (RR) for MS in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population and looked for possible influencing factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Within the Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV)-Wiss Project, from January 1995 to October 2012, data from 56,653 patients with type 1 diabetes were collected in 248 centers in Germany and Austria. Published data on German and Mid-European MS prevalence were taken for comparison. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify confounders for co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes and MS. RESULTS The RR for MS in patients with type 1 diabetes was estimated at 3.35-4.79 (95% CI 1.56-7.21 and 2.01-11.39, respectively). Immigration status in all patients (P < 0.05) and the presence of thyroid antibodies in male patients only (P = 0.05) were identified as influencing factors on MS incidence within the DPV database. The month-of-birth pattern revealed that risk was higher during the spring and summer months in the population with type 1 diabetes and MS in comparison with the population with type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS The present cohort study demonstrates a higher risk of co-occurrence of MS in a pediatric and adolescent diabetic population. Immigration status and thyroid antibodies in male patients were independent risk indicators for the incidental rate of MS. Diabetic patients born during spring and summer had a higher risk for the development of MS. We suggest that environmental factors modulate the individual's risk for the co-occurrence of both diseases. PMID:23990514

  17. Lack of replication of higher genetic risk load in men than in women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to replicate a recent study which showed higher genetic risk load at 15 loci in men than in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This difference was very significant, and it was interpreted as indicating that men require more genetic susceptibility than women to develop SLE. Methods Nineteen SLE-associated loci (thirteen of which are shared with the previous study) were analyzed in 1,457 SLE patients and 1,728 healthy controls of European ancestry. Genetic risk load was calculated as sex-specific sum genetic risk scores (GRSs). Results Our results did not replicate those of the previous study at either the level of individual loci or the global level of GRSs. GRSs were larger in women than in men (4.20 ± 1.07 in women vs. 3.27 ± 0.98 in men). This very significant difference (P < 10−16) was more dependent on the six new loci not included in the previous study (59% of the difference) than on the thirteen loci that are shared (the remaining 41%). However, the 13 shared loci also showed a higher genetic risk load in women than in men in our study (P = 6.6 × 10−7), suggesting that heterogeneity of participants, in addition to different loci, contributed to the opposite results. Conclusion Our results show the lack of a clear trend toward higher genetic risk in one of the sexes for the analyzed SLE loci. They also highlight several limitations of assessments of genetic risk load, including the possibility of ascertainment bias with loci discovered in studies that have included mainly women. PMID:24946689

  18. Sex workers’ non-commercial male partners who inject drugs report higher risk sexual behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are less likely to use condoms with non-commercial male partners than clients. We compare non-commercial male partners who do and do not inject drugs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Sexual risk behaviors were more prevalent among injectors, who could promote HIV/STI transmission in this region. PMID:24275732

  19. Improving Learning Processes in Institutions of Higher Education by Incorporating High-Risk Web Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinga, Sophia W.; Chen, Linlin Irene

    With the assistance of learning technology consultants in the Technology Teaching and Learning Center (TTLC) at the University of Houston-Downtown (Texas), professors have shifted their paradigms and are taking the leap to use more high-risk World Wide Web technologies in their courses. One that has become a hallmark is delivering exams via the…

  20. The Lie and the Hope. Making Higher Education a Reality for At-Risk Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I.

    1989-01-01

    Important steps for saving America's school system where at-risk students are fast becoming the new student majority are discussed. For example: 45% of all Mexican American and Puerto Rican youth never finish high school; illiteracy among minority students is as high as 40%; and between 1968 and 1986, the number of white children enrolled in…

  1. Child welfare clients have higher risks for teenage childbirths: which are the major confounders?

    PubMed Central

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aiming to support effective social intervention strategies targeting high-risk groups for teenage motherhood, this study examined to what extent the elevated crude risks of teenage childbirth among child welfare groups were attributable to the uneven distribution of adverse individual and family background factors. Methods: Comprehensive longitudinal register data for more than 700 000 Swedish females born 1973–1989 (including around 29 000 child welfare clients) were analysed by means of binary logistic regression. The Karlson/Holm/Breen-method was used to decompose each confounding factor’s relative contribution to the difference between crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Results: Elevated crude risks for teenage childbirth are to a large extent attributable to selection on observables. Girls’ school failure was the most potent confounder, accounting for 28–35% of the difference between crude and adjusted ORs. Conclusion: As in majority populations, girls’ school failure was a strong risk factor for teenage childbirth among former child welfare children. At least among pre-adolescents, promoting school performance among children in the child welfare system seems to be a viable intervention path. PMID:27085195

  2. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  3. Work–Family Trajectories and the Higher Cardiovascular Risk of American Women Relative to Women in 13 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether less-healthy work–family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. Methods. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work–family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2009). Results. Work–family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work–family trajectories as European women. Conclusions. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work–family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women. PMID:27310346

  4. Higher Caffeinated Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jibin; Shen, Biao; Shi, Minxin; Cai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM) risk. Methods Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015). Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model. Results Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls) and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases) were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR) of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI) = 0.68–0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912–0.999) for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326). Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81–1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26816289

  5. Energy efficient face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.

  6. Association of Common Susceptibility Variants of Pancreatic Cancer in Higher-Risk Patients: A PACGENE Study.

    PubMed

    Childs, Erica J; Chaffee, Kari G; Gallinger, Steven; Syngal, Sapna; Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L; Bondy, Melissa L; Hruban, Ralph H; Chanock, Stephen J; Hoover, Robert N; Fuchs, Charles S; Rider, David N; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Wolpin, Brian M; Risch, Harvey A; Goggins, Michael G; Petersen, Gloria M; Klein, Alison P

    2016-07-01

    Individuals from pancreatic cancer families are at increased risk, not only of pancreatic cancer, but also of melanoma, breast, ovarian, and colon cancers. While some of the increased risk may be due to mutations in high-penetrance genes (i.e., BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, p16/CDKN2A or DNA mismatch repair genes), common genetic variants may also be involved. In a high-risk population of cases with either a family history of pancreatic cancer or early-onset pancreatic cancer (diagnosis before the age of 50 years), we examined the role of genetic variants previously associated with risk of pancreatic, breast, ovarian, or prostate cancer. We genotyped 985 cases (79 early-onset cases, 906 cases with a family history of pancreatic cancer) and 877 controls for 215,389 SNPs using the iSelect Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study (iCOGS) array with custom content. Logistic regression was performed using a log-linear additive model. We replicated several previously reported pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci, including recently identified variants on 2p13.3 and 7p13 (2p13.3, rs1486134: OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.63; P = 9.29 × 10(-4); 7p13, rs17688601: OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.93; P = 6.59 × 10(-3)). For the replicated loci, the magnitude of association observed in these high-risk patients was similar to that observed in studies of unselected patients. In addition to the established pancreatic cancer loci, we also found suggestive evidence of association (P < 5 × 10(-5)) to pancreatic cancer for SNPs at HDAC9 (7p21.1) and COL6A2 (21q22.3). Even in high-risk populations, common variants influence pancreatic cancer susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1185-91. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197284

  7. Prostate-specific antigen testing in inner London general practices: are those at higher risk most likely to get tested?

    PubMed Central

    Nderitu, Paul; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Ashworth, Mark; Mathur, Rohini; Hull, Sally; Dudek, Alexandra; Chowdhury, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between factors influencing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing prevalence including prostate cancer risk factors (age, ethnicity, obesity) and non-risk factors (social deprivation and comorbidity). Setting A cross-sectional database of 136 inner London general practices from 1 August 2009 to 31 July 2014. Participants Men aged ≥40 years without prostate cancer were included (n=150 481). Primary outcome Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between PSA testing and age, ethnicity, social deprivation, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity while adjusting for age, benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis and tamsulosin or finasteride use. Results PSA testing prevalence was 8.2% (2013–2014), and the mean age was 54 years (SD 11). PSA testing was positively associated with age (OR 70–74 years compared to 40–44 years: 7.34 (95% CI 6.82 to 7.90)), ethnicity (black) (OR compared to white: 1.78 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.85)), increasing BMI and cardiovascular comorbidity. Testing was negatively associated with Chinese ethnicity and with increasing social deprivation. Conclusions PSA testing among black patients was higher compared to that among white patients, which differs from lower testing rates seen in previous studies. PSA testing was positively associated with prostate cancer risk factors and non-risk factors. Association with non-risk factors may increase the risk of unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:27406644

  8. Risk Analysis and Prediction of Floor Failure Mechanisms at Longwall Face in Parvadeh-I Coal Mine using Rock Engineering System (RES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababaei, Sajjad; Saeedi, Gholamreza; Jalalifar, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    The floor failure at longwall face decreases productivity and safety, increases operation costs, and causes other serious problems. In Parvadeh-I coal mine, the timber is used to prevent the puncture of powered support base into the floor. In this paper, a rock engineering system (RES)-based model is presented to evaluate the risk of floor failure mechanisms at the longwall face of E 2 and W 1 panels. The presented model is used to determine the most probable floor failure mechanism, effective factors, damaged regions and remedial actions. From the analyzed results, it is found that soft floor failure is dominant in the floor failure mechanism at Parvadeh-I coal mine. The average of vulnerability index (VI) for soft, buckling and compressive floor failure mechanisms was estimated equal to 52, 43 and 30 for both panels, respectively. By determining the critical VI for soft floor failure mechanism equal to 54, the percentage of regions with VIs beyond the critical VI in E 2 and W 1 panels is equal to 65.5 and 30, respectively. The percentage of damaged regions showed that the excess amount of used timber to prevent the puncture of weak floor below the powered support base is equal to 4,180,739 kg. RES outputs and analyzed results showed that setting and yielding load of powered supports, length of face, existent water at face, geometry of powered supports, changing the cutting pattern at longwall face and limiting the panels to damaged regions with supercritical VIs could be considered to control the soft floor failure in this mine. The results of this research could be used as a useful tool to identify the damaged regions prior to mining operation at longwall panel for the same conditions.

  9. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 2--A Survey of the Issues Facing Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Susan; Brown, Nigel; Payne, Philip; Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is the report on part-time study in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) for Universities UK and GuildHE (previously SCOP) from Nigel Brown Associates. It forms Strand 2 of the wider research into part-time higher education commissioned by Universities UK and GuildHE using quantitative data not available from published sources and…

  10. Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Lower and Higher Frequency Alcohol-Using African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Carolyn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve; Samp, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine differences between lower and higher frequency alcohol users in sexual behaviors and psychosocial correlates of risk for HIV among young African-American females. Methods Data were collected from sexually active African-American females aged 15–20 years, seeking services at a STD clinic in Atlanta, GA, to assess sexual behavior, correlates of risk, and a non-disease biological marker of unprotected vaginal sex. Results Number of drinking occasions was significantly related to three of four psychosocial correlates and with all self-reporting sexual behavior measures. Also, heavier drinking per occasion was associated with the presence of semen in vaginal fluid. Conclusion Non-abuse levels of drinking were related to increased sexual risk-taking in this sample of young African-American females. Incorporating messages about the intersection of alcohol use and sexual decision making into HIV/STD prevention programs would strengthen STD prevention messaging in this vulnerable population. PMID:25053364

  11. Managing Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a wide range of environmental risk. In spite of this, with proper planning, they can avoid emergencies or surprises. Advanced planning, coupled with strategic, technical environmental and legal advice, enable higher-education institutions to keep their environmental budgets under control and predictable. This article…

  12. Scatterhoarding rodents favor higher predation risks for cache sites: The potential for predators to influence the seed dispersal process.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael A; Rompré, Ghislain; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Hongmao; Suchocki, Matthew; Marino, Shealyn

    2015-05-01

    Scatterhoarding rodents often place caches in the open where pilferage rates are reduced, suggesting that they tradeoff higher risks of predation for more secure cache sites. We tested this hypothesis in two study systems by measuring predation risks inferred from measures of giving-up densities (GUDs) at known cache sites and other sites for comparison. Rodent GUDs were measured with small trays containing 3 L of fine sand mixed with sunflower seeds. In the first experiment, we relied on a 2-year seed dispersal study in a natural forest to identify caches of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and then measured GUDs at: (i) these caches; (ii) comparable points along logs and rocks where rodent activity was assumed highest; and (iii) a set of random points. We found that GUDs and, presumably, predation risks, were higher at both cache and random points than those with cover. At the second site, we measured GUDs of eastern gray squirrels in an open park system and found that GUDs were consistently lowest at the base of the tree compared to more open sites, where previous studies show caching by squirrels to be highest and pilferage rates by naïve competitors to be lowest. These results confirm that predation risks can influence scatterhoarding decisions but that they are also highly context dependent, and that the landscape of fear, now so well documented in the literature, could potentially shape the temporal and spatial patterns of seedling establishment and forest regeneration in systems where scatterhoarding is common. PMID:25827710

  13. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants' energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76-228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  14. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  15. Effects of Country and Delivery Mode on Perceived Risk in International Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamal Basha, Norazlyn; Sweeney, Jillian C.; Soutar, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is an increasingly competitive global market. Consequently, it is crucial that universities fully understand students' motivations in university selection. While past research mainly focused on university-level attributes, this study extends the factors used to evaluate different international universities to include both the…

  16. Home and Away: Risk, Familiarity and the Multiple Geographies of the Higher Education Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, John; Crozier, Gill; Reay, Diane

    2009-01-01

    With reference to an ESRC/TLRP project conducted across two academic years with working-class students in higher education (HE), this paper explores the relationship between geographies of home and those of university at two UK HE institutions. It addresses how social relations inflected by class influence the experience of students as they adapt…

  17. Accuracy of physician assessment of treatment preferences and health status in elderly patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Caocci, G; Voso, M T; Angelucci, E; Stauder, R; Cottone, F; Abel, G; Nguyen, K; Platzbecker, U; Beyne-Rauzy, O; Gaidano, G; Invernizzi, R; Molica, S; Criscuolo, M; Breccia, M; Lübbert, M; Sanpaolo, G; Buccisano, F; Ricco, A; Palumbo, G A; Niscola, P; Zhang, H; Fenu, S; La Nasa, G; Mandelli, F; Efficace, F

    2015-08-01

    Higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are rarely curable and have a poor prognosis. We investigated the accuracy of physicians' perception of patients' health status and the patients' preferences for involvement in treatment decisions. We examined 280 newly diagnosed higher-risk elderly MDS patients paired with their physicians. Survey tools included the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Control Preference Scale. Overall concordance was 49% for physician perception of patient preferences for involvement in treatment decisions. In 36.4% of comparisons there were minor differences and in 14.6% there were major differences. In 44.7% of the patients preferring a passive role, physicians perceived them as preferring an active or collaborative role. Absence of the patient's request for prognostic information (P=0.001) and judging the patient as having a poor health status (P=0.036) were factors independently associated with the physicians' attitude toward a lower degree of patient involvement in clinical decisions. Agreement on health status was found in 27.5% of cases. Physicians most frequently tended to overestimate health status of patients who reported low-level health status. The value of decision aid-tools in the challenging setting of higher-risk MDS should be investigated to further promote patient-centered care. PMID:26120100

  18. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  19. Are adolescents who report prior sexual abuse at higher risk for pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Rainey, D Y; Stevens-Simon, C; Kaplan, D W

    1995-10-01

    Adolescents who report prior sexual abuse are at increased risk for adolescent pregnancy. This may result from earlier, more frequent, less well-protected sexual activity or from a greater desire to conceive. To determine the relative contribution of these two possible explanations to the reported association between sexual abuse and adolescent pregnancy, we studied the reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active 13-18 year old females in relation to self-reported sexual abuse. Anonymous questionnaires revealed that 40 (20%) of the 200 subjects reported sexual abuse. Analyses revealed no group differences in the median age of first voluntary intercourse, the frequency of sexual intercourse, or the consistency of birth control use. Compared to their nonabused peers, however, teenagers reporting abuse were more likely to be trying to conceive (35% vs. 14% p < .01), to have boyfriends pressuring them to conceive (76% vs. 44% p < .01), and to have fears about infertility (38% vs. 16% p < .01). Our findings suggest that childhood sexual abuse may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy by fostering the desire to conceive. Further study is needed to determine why a disproportionate number of sexually abused adolescents desire pregnancy. The efficacy of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs may be improved by identifying previously abused adolescents and by designing educational interventions that specifically address their desire to conceive. PMID:8556442

  20. The New Face of the University of California: Undergraduate Admissions in the Aftermath of SP-1. [Background Information on the] Senate Select Committee on Higher Education Admissions and Outreach [and] Senate Select Committee on Higher Education (May 5, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Senate.

    This report provides background materials related to the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education Admissions and Outreach and the California Senate Select Committee on Higher Education hearing on undergraduate admissions at the University of California (UC) and the Board of Regents' Special Proposal 1 (SP-1), which eliminated the use…

  1. Suicidal risk from TADS study was higher than it first appeared.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Göran; Antonuccio, David O; Healy, David

    2015-01-01

    Completed suicides are a major cause of death in adolescents in Sweden. Forensic analysis of completed suicides in children and adolescents shows there is one completed suicide per 1000 children taking a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). In order to elucidate these events we undertook a study of the results and reporting of suicidal events in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). We conclude that a major, albeit underreported, finding in the TADS was the significant increase of suicidal events in the adolescents on antidepressant medication in comparison to the group on placebo medication. The proportions of suicidal events were 11% and 2.7% respectively. This increased risk of suicidal events might be related to the high incidence of medication with an SSRI in the group of completed suicides among Swedish adolescents. PMID:26410011

  2. Higher serum total bilirubin concentration is associated with lower risk of renal insufficiency in an adult population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ang-Tse; Wang, Ya-Yu; Lin, Shih-Yi; Liang, Jiin-Tsae; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Song, Yuh-Min; Chang, Wen-Dau

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammation is proposed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and serum bilirubin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the association between serum total bilirubin (Tb) concentration and renal function in an adult population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and collected anthropometric measurements, fasting blood tests, lifestyle habits and medical history of 3876 subjects attending a health examination. Renal insufficiency was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 calculated by using the CKD-EPI equation. Results: Serum Tb concentrations were higher in subjects without renal insufficiency than in those with renal insufficiency. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that Tb concentration was positively associated with eGFR after adjusting for important CKD risk factors (P=0.04). Multivariable logistic regression analysis also revealed that higher Tb concentration (each increment of 1.71 μmol/L) (0.1 mg/dL) was associated with a reduced risk of renal insufficiency: odds ratios were 0.94 (P=0.005) for men and 0.90 (P=0.015) for women, respectively. When subjects were divided into quartiles of serum Tb, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for renal insufficiency comparing the fourth to the first Tb quartile were 0.49 (P=0.001) for men and 0.35 (P=0.003) for women. A stepwise exclusion of subjects, first those with possible liver disease and second, those with CKD stage 4 and 5, showed consistent results. Conclusion: Higher serum Tb concentration was associated with lower risk of renal insufficiency, regardless of other conventional CKD risk factors. PMID:26770557

  3. Polymorphisms of the ITGAM Gene Confer Higher Risk of Discoid Cutaneous Than of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tiina M.; Hellquist, Anna; Koskenmies, Sari; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Panelius, Jaana; Hasan, Taina; Julkunen, Heikki; Padyukov, Leonid; Kvarnström, Marika; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Nyberg, Filippa; D'Amato, Mauro; Kere, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Background Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE) to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]). Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear. Principal Findings To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM coding variant rs1143679 showed highly significant association to DLE in patients without signs of systemic disease (P-value  = 4.73×10−11, OR  = 3.20, 95% CI  = 2.23–4.57). Significant association was also detected to SLE patients (P-value  = 8.29×10−6, OR  = 2.14, 95% CI  = 1.52–3.00), and even stronger association was found when stratifying SLE patients by presence of discoid rash (P-value  = 3.59×10−8, OR  = 3.76, 95% CI  = 2.29–6.18). Significance We propose ITGAM as a novel susceptibility gene for cutaneous DLE. The risk effect is independent of systemic involvement and has an even stronger genetic influence on the risk of DLE than of SLE. PMID:21151989

  4. Neural correlates of face detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaokun; Biederman, Irving

    2014-06-01

    Although face detection likely played an essential adaptive role in our evolutionary past and in contemporary social interactions, there have been few rigorous studies investigating its neural correlates. MJH, a prosopagnosic with bilateral lesions to the ventral temporal-occipital cortices encompassing the posterior face areas (fusiform and occipital face areas), expresses no subjective difficulty in face detection, suggesting that these posterior face areas do not mediate face detection exclusively. Despite his normal contrast sensitivity and visual acuity in foveal vision, the present study nevertheless revealed significant face detection deficits in MJH. Compared with controls, MJH showed a lower tolerance to noise in the phase spectrum for faces (vs. cars), reflected in his higher detection threshold for faces. MJH's lesions in bilateral occipito-temporal cortices thus appear to have produced a deficit not only in face individuation, but also in face detection. PMID:23365211

  5. Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissists: Who Is at Higher Risk for Social Networking Addiction?

    PubMed

    Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia; Rugai, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Scholars have recently taken an interest in the connection between narcissism and Internet use, especially among users who frequent social networking sites (SNSs). Conversely, the association between narcissism and problematic use of SNSs (i.e., unregulated use that leads to negative outcomes) has been scarcely investigated. This study addresses this gap by comparing the mean levels of problematic use of SNSs among grandiose narcissists, vulnerable narcissists, and non-narcissists. A sample of 535 students completed the 16-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale-2 (GPIUS2). Vulnerable narcissists reported (a) significant higher levels on all GPIUS2 subscales and total scores than non-narcissists and (b) a stronger preference for online social interactions and higher overall levels of problematic use of SNSs than grandiose narcissists. Conversely, no significant differences were found between grandiose narcissists and non-narcissists. This study suggests that vulnerable narcissism may contribute more to problematic use of SNSs than grandiose narcissism. PMID:27362922

  6. Higher Body Mass Index Increases the Risk for Biopsy-Mediated Detection of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Li-Min; Xu, Hua; Na, Rong; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Ding, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk at biopsy in Chinese men. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,807 consecutive men who underwent initial multicore (≥10) prostate biopsy under transrectal ultrasound guidance between Dec 2004 and Feb 2014. BMI was categorised based on the Asian classification of obesity as follows: <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–22.9 (normal weight), 23–24.9 (overweight), 25–29.9 (moderately obese), and ≥30 kg/m2 (severely obese). The odds ratios (OR) of each BMI category for risk of PCa and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa, Gleason score ≥4+3) detection were estimated in crude, age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted models. Prevalence ratios and accuracies of PSA predicted PCa were also estimated across BMI groups. Results In total, PCa was detected by biopsy in 750 (45.4%) men, and HGPCa was detected in 419 (25.4%) men. Compared with men of normal weight, underweight men and obese men were older and had higher prostate specific antigen levels. The risk of overall PCa detection via biopsy presented an obvious U-shaped relationship with BMI in crude analysis. Overall, 50.0%, 37.4%, 45.6% 54.4% and 74.1% of the men in the underweight, normal weight, overweight, moderately obese and severely obese groups, respectively, were diagnosed with PCa via biopsy. In multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly correlated with a higher risk of PCa detection (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.10–1.25, P<0.001). However, higher BMI was not correlated with HGPCa detection (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.97–1.09, P = 0.29). There were no significant differences in the accuracy of using PSA to predict PCa or HGPCa detection across different BMI categories. Conclusion Obesity was associated with higher risk of PCa detection in the present Chinese biopsy population. No significant association was detected between obesity and HGPCa. PMID:25861033

  7. Antibodies to Leptospira among blood donors in higher-risk areas of Australia: possible implications for transfusion safety

    PubMed Central

    Faddy, Helen; Seed, Clive; Lau, Colleen; Racloz, Vanessa; Flower, Robert; Smythe, Lee; Burns, Mary-Anne; Dohnt, Michael; Craig, Scott; Harley, Robert; Weinstein, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most common bacterial zoonoses worldwide, and clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic infection to acute febrile illness, multi-organ failure and death. Asymptomatic, acute bacteraemia in a blood donor provides a potential for transfusion-transmission, although only a single such case from India has been recorded. Human leptospirosis is uncommon in developed countries; however, the state of Queensland in Australia has one of the highest rates among developed countries, especially after increased rainfall. This study examined the prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira spp. in blood donors residing in higher-risk areas of Australia, to evaluate the appropriateness of current blood safety guidelines. Materials and methods Plasma samples collected from blood donors residing in higher-risk areas of Australia during 2009 and 2011 were included in the study. All samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to 22 leptospiral serovars using the microscopic agglutination test. Result No sample had antibody titres suggestive of a current or recent infection, however, seven samples (1.44%, 95% CI: 0.38–2.50%) had titres suggestive of a past infection. Discussion This study provides data that may support the appropriateness of current relevant donor selection policies in Australia. Given that the risk profile for leptospirosis is expanding and that the infection is likely to become more prevalent with climate change, this disease may become more of a concern for transfusion safety in the future. PMID:24960651

  8. Ischemic Stroke and Its Risk Factors in a Registry-Based Large Cross-Sectional Diabetic Cohort in a Country Facing a Diabetes Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Hussain, Fawaz; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Ibrahim, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ischemic stroke among diabetic patients registered in the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) database. A cross-sectional sample of 62,681 diabetic patients aged ≥25 years was used to calculate ischemic stroke prevalence and its risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the roles of different risk factors. The prevalence of ischemic stroke was 4.42% and was higher in the older age group with longer diabetes duration. Poor glycemic control and the presence of chronic diabetes complications were associated with a high risk of ischemic stroke. History of smoking and type 2 diabetes were more frequent among stroke patients. Obesity significantly decreased the risk for ischemic stroke. Regression analysis for ischemic stroke risk factors proved that age ≥45 years, male gender, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes duration ≥10 years, insulin use, and hyperlipidemia were significant independent risk factors for ischemic stroke. We conclude that ischemic stroke is prevalent among diabetic individuals, particularly among those with type 2 diabetes. Good glycemic, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia control, in addition to smoking cessation, are the cornerstones to achieve a significant reduction in ischemic stroke risk. PMID:26989695

  9. Low Phosphorylated AKT Expression in Laryngeal Cancer: Indications for a Higher Metastatic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Nijkamp, Monique M.; Span, Paul N.; Stegeman, Hanneke; Grénman, Reidar; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Bussink, Johan

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To validate the association of phosphorylated (p)AKT with lymph node metastasis in an independent, homogeneous cohort of patients with larynx cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with laryngeal cancer were included. Epidermal growth factor receptor, pAKT, vimentin, E-cadherin, hypoxia, and blood vessels were visualized in biopsy material using immunohistochemistry. Positive tumor areas and spatial relationships between markers were assessed by automated image analysis. In 6 laryngeal cancer cell lines, E-cadherin and vimentin messenger RNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and by immunohistochemistry before and after treatment with the pAKT inhibitor MK-2206. Results: A significant correlation was found between low pAKT in the primary tumor and positive lymph node status (P=.0005). Tumors with lymph node metastases had an approximately 10-fold lower median pAKT value compared with tumors without lymph node metastases, albeit with large intertumor variations, validating our previous results. After inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer cells with MK-2206, up-regulation of vimentin and a downregulation of E-cadherin occurred, consistent with epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Conclusion: Low pAKT expression in larynx tumors is associated with lymph node metastases. Further, inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition, predisposing for an increased metastatic risk.

  10. Higher risk of dural tears and recurrent herniation with lumbar micro-endoscopic discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lovi, Alessio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Zagra, Antonino; Corriero, Andrea; Giudici, Fabrizio; Minoia, Leone

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies on micro-endoscopic lumbar discectomy report similar outcomes to those of open and microdiscectomy and conflicting results on complications. We designed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis of different outcomes and complications obtainable with the three techniques. 240 patients aged 18–65 years affected by posterior lumbar disc herniation and symptoms lasting over 6 weeks of conservative management were randomised to micro-endoscopic (group 1), micro (group 2) or open (group 3) discectomy. Exclusion criteria were less than 6 weeks of pain duration, cauda equina compromise, foraminal or extra-foraminal herniations, spinal stenosis, malignancy, previous spinal surgery, spinal deformity, concurrent infection and rheumatic disease. Surgery and follow-up were made at a single Institution. A biomedical researcher independently collected and reviewed the data. ODI, back and leg VAS and SF-36 were the outcome measures used preoperatively, postoperatively and at 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-up. 212/240 (91%) patients completed the 24-month follow-up period. VAS back and leg, ODI and SF36 scores showed clinically and statistically significant improvements within groups without significant difference among groups throughout follow-up. Dural tears, root injuries and recurrent herniations were significantly more common in group 1. Wound infections were similar in group 2 and 3, but did not affect patients in group 1. Overall costs were significantly higher in group 1 and lower in group 3. In conclusion, outcome measures are equivalent 2 years following lumbar discectomy with micro-endoscopy, microscopy or open technique, but severe complications are more likely and costs higher with micro-endoscopy. PMID:20127495

  11. Detoxification Center-Based Sampling Missed a Subgroup of Higher Risk Drug Users, a Case from Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Qiaoli; Yang, Fang; Zhao, Jinkou

    2012-01-01

    Background Injection drug use remains among the most important HIV transmission risk in China. Representativeness of drug users sampled from detoxification centers is questionable. A respondent driven sampling survey was conducted to compare the results with those from the detoxification center in the same city. Methods In 2008, two independent surveys were conducted in Dongguan, China, one for community-based drug users using respondent driven sampling and the other for drug users in a compulsory detoxification center as routine sentinel surveillance. Demographic and behavioral information were collected using the same structured questionnaire. Intravenous blood samples were collected to measure antibodies to HIV-1, and syphilis. Results Compared to those 400 drug users recruited from the detoxification center, the 303 community-based drug users had higher HIV prevalence (14.7% versus 4.0%, P = 0.04), lower syphilis prevalence (4.7% versus 10.8%, P = 0.07), higher proportion of injection drug use (83.9% versus 60.2%, P = 0.01) and syringe sharing (47.8% versus 36.3%, P = 0.10), more likely to be separated (12.4% versus 3.8%, P = 0.01) and being migrants from Guangxi province (31.4% versus 18.0%, P = 0.09), more engaging in commercial sex (64.4% versus 52.5%, P = 0.04). HIV prevalence and rate of syringe sharing were consistently higher among drug users from Guangxi. Conclusions Detoxification center-based sampling missed a subgroup with higher HIV prevalence and higher rate of injection drug use. While detoxification center-based sampled can be used to monitor the trend of HIV prevalence and risk behaviors over time, periodic community-based sampling is still necessary to avoid possible systematic error in detoxification center-based samples. PMID:22529988

  12. Statement before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) on Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act: Exploring Institutional Risk-Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Andrew Kelly, the director of the Center on Higher Education Reform at the American Enterprise Institute, shares his views on the concept of risk-sharing in higher education. The author presents the question: How would a risk-sharing policy--where colleges bear some financial responsibility for a portion of the federal loans that their students do…

  13. Risk assessment for selected xenobiotics by bioassay methods with higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Petra; Pestemer, Wilfried

    1990-05-01

    Different bioassays with higher plants were approved for use in a bioassay procedure for testing of xenobiotics according to the German Chemicals Act. Selected environmental pollutants (atrazine, cadmium chloride, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, thiourea), all from a list of reference chemicals, were tested with these methods. Dose-response curves for growth of oats and turnips were evaluated in soil and vermiculite (nonsorptive substrate), and availability to plants was calculated by comparing the EC50 values for one chemical in both substrates. The most active chemical was atrazine, followed by 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride, and thiourea. The least available compound to plants was pentachlorophenol, tested with turnips ( Brassica rapa var. rapa). The strongest inhibition of germination, demonstrated in an in vitro assay with garden cress ( Lepidium sativum), was found with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, the lowest with atrazine. The effect of an extended exposure of the plants to the chemicals was evaluated in a long-term bioassay with oats ( Avena sativa) in hydroponic culture. Several dose-response curves during the growing period were derived. It was found that the EC50 values for atrazine and thiourea decreased markedly during the first four weeks; thereafter the changes were much smaller. As an overall conclusion, a bioassay procedure is proposed that can be included in the graduated plan recommended by the German Chemicals Act.

  14. Elevated Biomarkers of Inflammation and Coagulation in Patients with HIV Are Associated with Higher Framingham and VACS Risk Index Scores

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Sarah; Tracy, Russell; Osler, Turner; Grace, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarkers of inflammation and altered coagulation are of increasing interest as predictors of chronic disease and mortality in HIV patients, as well as the use of risk stratification scores such as the Framingham index and the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) score. Methods Demographic and laboratory data for 252 HIV patients were assessed for their relationship with 5 biomarkers: hsCRP, D-dimer, Cystatin C, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Analysis of variance was used to model the association between the number of elevated biomarkers patients had and their Framingham 10 year cardiovascular risk and VACS scores. Results 87% of patients were male and 75.7% were virally suppressed (HIV RNA <48 copies/ml). The median and interquartile ranges for each biomarker were: hsCRP 1.65 ug/mL (0.73, 3.89), D-dimer 0.17 ug/mL (0.09, 0.31), Cystatin C 0.87 mg/L (0.78, 1.01), IL-6 2.13 pg/mL (1.3, 3.59), TNF-alpha 4.65 pg/mL (3.5, 5.97). 62.6% of patients had more than one biomarker >75th percentile, while 18.6% had three or more elevated biomarkers. Increased age, cigarette smoking, CD4 counts of <200 cells/mm3, Framingham scores and VACS scores were most strongly associated with elevations in biomarkers. When biomarkers were used to predict the Framingham and VACS scores, those with a higher number of elevated biomarkers had higher mean VACS scores, with a similar but less robust finding for Framingham scores. Conclusions Despite viral suppression and immunological stability, biomarkers of inflammation and coagulation remain elevated in a significant number of patients with HIV and are associated with higher scores on risk stratification indices. PMID:26641655

  15. Early sex -- early motherhood: facing the challenge.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the causes and consequences of adolescent sex behavior and adolescent pregnancy and motherhood. The article opens by noting that adolescents give birth to 15 million babies annually despite their increased risk resulting from biological and social vulnerability. Risky sex behavior is seen to result from gender power imbalances and from "clustering" of high-risk behaviors. Lack of contraceptives, particularly condoms, increases risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease or HIV infection as well as the risk of pregnancy. Adolescent sexual activity also doubles the lifetime risk of acquiring cervical cancer. Pregnant adolescents are more likely than mature women to have eclampsia or obstructed labor with its attendant complication of obstetric fistula. Adolescents are also less likely to seek prenatal care and face a higher risk of death during delivery. Adolescents also account for a large proportion of abortion complications because they undergo illegal or late procedures. Babies born to adolescents risk low birth weight, prematurity, and a higher rate of perinatal mortality. Adolescent mother also face social ostracism and reduced ability to acquire a job or education. Research into adolescent sexuality is best undertaken with the input of adolescents themselves (an example is the World Health Organization's narrative research method). Adolescent health can be promoted by creation of a safe and supportive environment and by provision of 1) information, 2) opportunities for adolescents to develop skills to negotiate sexual encounters, 3) counseling, and 4) youth-friendly adolescent health services. PMID:12292434

  16. Disease Risk in Temperate Amphibian Populations Is Higher at Closed-Canopy Sites

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C. Guilherme; Rodriguez, David; Longo, Ana V.; Talaba, Amanda L.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat loss and chytridiomycosis (a disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis - Bd) are major drivers of amphibian declines worldwide. Habitat loss regulates host-pathogen interactions by altering biotic and abiotic factors directly linked to both host and pathogen fitness. Therefore, studies investigating the links between natural vegetation and chytridiomycosis require integrative approaches to control for the multitude of possible interactions of biological and environmental variables in spatial epidemiology. In this study, we quantified Bd infection dynamics across a gradient of natural vegetation and microclimates, looking for causal associations between vegetation cover, multiple microclimatic variables, and pathogen prevalence and infection intensity. To minimize the effects of host diversity in our analyses, we sampled amphibian populations in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, a region with relatively high single-host dominance. We sampled permanent ponds for anurans, focusing on populations of the habitat generalist frog Lithobates clamitans, and recorded various biotic and abiotic factors that potentially affect host-pathogen interactions: natural vegetation, canopy density, water temperature, and host population and community attributes. We screened for important explanatory variables of Bd infections and used path analyses to statistically test for the strength of cascading effects linking vegetation cover, microclimate, and Bd parameters. We found that canopy density, natural vegetation, and daily average water temperature were the best predictors of Bd. High canopy density resulted in lower water temperature, which in turn predicted higher Bd prevalence and infection intensity. Our results confirm that microclimatic shifts arising from changes in natural vegetation play an important role in Bd spatial epidemiology, with areas of closed canopy favoring Bd. Given increasing rates of anthropogenic habitat modification

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Pregnant Women without Vector Exposure Have Higher Parasitemia Levels: Implications for Congenital Transmission Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rendell, Victoria R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Valencia, Edward; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Leny; Acosta, Janet; Sanchez, Gerardo; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; LaFuente, Carlos; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Colanzi, Rony; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital transmission is a major source of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections, and as vector and blood bank control continue to improve, the proportion due to congenital infection will grow. A major unanswered question is why reported transmission rates from T. cruzi-infected mothers vary so widely among study populations. Women with high parasite loads during pregnancy are more likely to transmit to their infants, but the factors that govern maternal parasite load are largely unknown. Better understanding of these factors could enable prioritization of screening programs to target women most at risk of transmission to their infants. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened pregnant women presenting for delivery in a large urban hospital in Bolivia and followed infants of infected women for congenital Chagas disease. Of 596 women screened, 128 (21.5%) had confirmed T. cruzi infection; transmission occurred from 15 (11.7%) infected women to their infants. Parasite loads were significantly higher among women who transmitted compared to those who did not. Congenital transmission occurred from 31.3% (9/29), 15.4% (4/26) and 0% (0/62) of women with high, moderate and low parasite load, respectively (χx2 for trend 18.2; p<0.0001). Twin births were associated with higher transmission risk and higher maternal parasite loads. Infected women without reported vector exposure had significantly higher parasite loads than those who had lived in an infested house (median 26.4 vs 0 parasites/mL; p<0.001) with an inverse relationship between years of living in an infested house and parasite load. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that sustained vector-borne parasite exposure and repeated superinfection by T. cruzi may act as an immune booster, allowing women to maintain effective control of the parasite despite the down-regulation of late pregnancy. PMID:25807498

  18. When the levee breaks - public policy and holistic risk management - lessons from Katrina for coastal cities faced with rising storm surge flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir-Wood, R.

    2009-04-01

    In a period of accelerating sea level rise and increased tropical cyclone intensities, extreme 100 year coastal flood levels are rising rapidly along a number of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Meanwhile, whether from natural megadelta consolidation, post glacial rebound or overpumping of shallow aquifers, many coastal cities are sinking even faster than mean sea level is rising. Without significant investment in continually improved flood defence inevitably this means the risk of catastrophic flooding is rising, for many cities quite steeply. The experience of Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans may become seen as iconic for 21st Century catastrophe risk as more and more coastal cities are subject to similar calamities. The story of New Orleans also highlights many aspects of catastrophe risk management failures before and after extreme events. The city of New Orleans had already been flooded three times by storm surges in the 100 years before Katrina. After each flood, investments were made in improved flood defences but these investments dwindled through time as there appeared to be a reduced imperative to divert money to support abstract risk reduction. Meanwhile land subsidence and rising sea levels and storm surges meant that risk levels continued to rise, until the inevitable time when the city once again was flooded. As the city increasingly sinks below mean sea level the impact of each flood has become increasingly catastrophic, both in terms of areas flooded, property damage and casualties. While a major program of investment in improved flood defences has once again followed the catastrophic 2005 flood, Federal government agencies have given no assurance that levels of flood risk will be maintained below some designated threshold long term. Therefore another cycle of rising flood risk has now started that will inevitably eventually to lead to the city becoming reflooded. This cycle can only end with the eventual abandonment of much of the city area

  19. Youth research. Naked wire and naked truths: a study of reproductive health risks faced by teenage girls in Honiara, Solomon Islands, November 1997.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    A qualitative research project conducted in 1997 in the Solomon Islands used questionnaires, focus groups discussions, and in-depth interviews to gather information on reproductive health risks faced by young, unmarried women in Honiara. In this setting, urbanization and poverty, migration, unemployment, and low levels of education increase the risk for youth of acquiring HIV/AIDS or a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Young women, who must yield to the authority of their male relatives, often have clandestine sexual relationships beginning as early as age 12 and are unable to negotiate safe sex behavior. Commercial sexual exchanges are also on the increase. Sex education is generally confined to secondary schools, although most girls drop-out after primary school. The main source of sex information is the media and friends. While there is concern about adolescent pregnancy rates, contraceptive access is restricted to young, unmarried women. The reaction of a family to an adolescent pregnancy is initial anger and ultimate acceptance. Condom use is low, largely because it is believed that it interferes with sexual pleasure. Because the young women are unable to negotiate safe sex, they are at risk of pregnancy, STDs, and HIV/AIDS. The situation can be improved by creating an enabling environment for young women through policy initiatives, improving knowledge, promoting condom use, providing reproductive health services, and improving communication channels. PMID:12294582

  20. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  1. Treatment of Higher-Risk Patients With an Indication for Revascularization: Evolution Within the Field of Contemporary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kirtane, Ajay J; Doshi, Darshan; Leon, Martin B; Lasala, John M; Ohman, E Magnus; O'Neill, William W; Shroff, Adhir; Cohen, Mauricio G; Palacios, Igor F; Beohar, Nirat; Uriel, Nir; Kapur, Navin K; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Lombardi, William; Dangas, George D; Parikh, Manish A; Stone, Gregg W; Moses, Jeffrey W

    2016-08-01

    Patients with severe coronary artery disease with a clinical indication for revascularization but who are at high procedural risk because of patient comorbidities, complexity of coronary anatomy, and/or poor hemodynamics represent an understudied and potentially underserved patient population. Through advances in percutaneous interventional techniques and technologies and improvements in patient selection, current percutaneous coronary intervention may allow appropriate patients to benefit safely from revascularization procedures that might not have been offered in the past. The burgeoning interest in these procedures in some respects reflects an evolutionary step within the field of percutaneous coronary intervention. However, because of the clinical complexity of many of these patients and procedures, it is critical to develop dedicated specialists within interventional cardiology who are trained with the cognitive and technical skills to select these patients appropriately and to perform these procedures safely. Preprocedural issues such as multidisciplinary risk and treatment assessments are highly relevant to the successful treatment of these patients, and knowledge gaps and future directions to improve outcomes in this emerging area are discussed. Ultimately, an evolution of contemporary interventional cardiology is necessary to treat the increasingly higher-risk patients with whom we are confronted. PMID:27482004

  2. Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico - U.S. border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk

    PubMed Central

    Servin, Argentina E.; Strathdee, Steffanie; Muñoz, Fatima A.; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of female sex workers (FSWs) conducted in the Mexico-US border region have focused on individual HIV risk, centered on sexual behaviors and substance abuse patterns. Little attention has been drawn to the reality that sex workers are often parents whose children potentially face vulnerabilities unique to their family situation. The objective of the present study was to identify the vulnerabilities faced by the children of FSWs in two Mexican-U.S. border cities. From 2008-2010, 628 FSW-IDUs underwent interviewer-administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Approximately 1 in 5 participants (20%) reported having a parent involved in sex work and majority referred it was their mother (88%). Close to one third of participants (31%) reported first injecting drugs <18 years of age and 33% reported they began working regularly as a prostitute <18 years of age. First drinking alcohol <18 years old (AdjOR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.13–3.08), lifetime cocaine use (AOR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.09–2.84), ever being forced or coerced into non–consensual sex as a minor (<18 years of age) (AdjOR =1.54, 95%CI: 1.01-2.35) and injecting drugs with used syringes in the prior month (AOR=1.63, 95%CI:1.07 -2.49) were factors associated with having had a parent involved in sex work. These findings begin to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers. Understanding these potential needs are necessary for creating relevant, evidence based interventions focused on supporting these women. PMID:25117749

  3. Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Servin, Argentina E; Strathdee, Steffanie; Muñoz, Fatima A; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of female sex workers (FSWs) conducted in the Mexico-US border region have focused on individual HIV risk, centered on sexual behaviors and substance abuse patterns. Little attention has been drawn to the reality that sex workers are often parents whose children potentially face vulnerabilities unique to their family situation. The objective of the present study was to identify the vulnerabilities faced by the children of FSWs in two Mexican-US border cities. From 2008 to 2010, 628 FSW-injection drug users underwent interviewer-administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Approximately one in five participants (20%) reported having a parent involved in sex work and majority referred it was their mother (88%). Close to one-third of participants (31%) reported first injecting drugs <18 years of age, and 33% reported they began working regularly as a prostitute <18 years of age. First drinking alcohol <18 years old (AOR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.13-3.08), lifetime cocaine use (AOR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.09-2.84), ever being forced or coerced into non-consensual sex as a minor (<18 years of age; AOR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.01-2.35), and injecting drugs with used syringes in the prior month (AOR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.07-2.49) were the factors associated with having had a parent involved in sex work. These findings begin to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers. Understanding these potential needs is necessary for creating relevant, evidence-based interventions focused on supporting these women. PMID:25117749

  4. Responder Interferon λ Genotypes Are Associated With Higher Risk of Liver Fibrosis in HIV–Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Cooper, Curtis; Gill, John; Hull, Mark; Platt, Robert W.; Klein, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Liver fibrosis progresses faster in individuals coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interferon λ3 (IFN-λ3) has both antiviral and proinflammatory properties. Genotypes at IFNL single-nucleotide proteins (SNPs; rs12979860CC and rs8099917TT) are linked to higher HCV clearance, potentially via rs8103142. We examined the relationship between IFN-λ genotypes and significant liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV coinfection. Methods. From the prospective Canadian Co-infection Cohort (n = 1423), HCV RNA–positive participants in whom IFN-λ genotypes were detected and who were free of fibrosis, end-stage liver disease, and chronic hepatitis B at baseline (n = 485) were included. Time to significant fibrosis (defined as an aspartate transaminase level to platelet count ratio index [APRI] of ≥1.5) by IFN-λ genotypes was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards, with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol use, CD4+ T-cell count, HCV genotype, γ-glutamyl transferase level, and baseline APRI. Haplotype analysis was performed, with adjustment for ethnicity. Results. A total of 125 participants developed fibrosis over 1595 person-years (7.84 cases/100 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.58–9.34 cases/100 person-years). Each genotype was associated with an increased fibrosis risk, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.37 (95% CI, .94–2.02) for rs12979860CC, 1.34 (95% CI, .91–1.97) for rs8103142TT, and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.24–2.57) for rs8099917TT. Haplotype TCT was also linked with a higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, .73–1.77]). Conclusions. IFN-λ SNPs rs12979860, rs8099917, and rs81013142 were individually linked to higher rates of fibrosis in individuals with HIV-HCV coinfection. IFN-λ genotypes may be useful to target HCV treatments to people who are at higher risk of liver disease. PMID:26984148

  5. Weight Patterns in Children With Higher Risk ALL: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961

    PubMed Central

    Withycombe, Janice S.; Post-White, Janice E.; Meza, Jane L.; Hawks, Ria G.; Smith, Lynette M.; Sacks, Nancy; Seibel, Nita L.

    2011-01-01

    Background This retrospective analysis defined and described patterns and predictors of weight change during treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features who received treatment on Children's Cancer Group protocol CCG 1961. Procedure Patients (1,638) were enrolled in CCG 1961 from November 1996 to May 2002. Weight was measured as BMI percent (%), specific for age and gender, and defined as 100 × ln(BMI/median BMI). Results By the end of treatment, 23% of children were obese (BMI ≥ 95%), compared with 14% at diagnosis. Children who received post-induction intensified therapy (arms C, D, SER with Doxorubicin or Idarubicin) had higher gastrointestinal toxicities and lower BMI% from consolidation through interim maintenance 1. BMI% then increased for all arms between delayed intensification and maintenance 1 or 2. Children who were of Black or Hispanic race, obese at diagnosis, or who had grade 3 or 4 pancreatitis/glucose toxicities during induction had higher BMI% throughout treatment. Children were more likely to be obese at the end of the study if they were aged 5–9 years at diagnosis or female gender. Cranial radiation was not a predictor of obesity. Conclusions Successful treatment of higher risk childhood ALL was associated with obesity, independent of cranial irradiation. The beginning of maintenance therapy may be the best time to intervene with nutritional and behavioral interventions, particularly for children who are obese or aged 5–9 years at diagnosis, female, Black or Hispanic, or those with metabolic toxicities during induction. PMID:19688832

  6. Sex dependent risk management in face of perceived danger of socially foraging Bee-eaters (Merops apiaster) during migration.

    PubMed

    Yosef, Reuven; Fehervari, Peter; Yosef-Sukenik, Nufar

    2013-11-01

    The proximal reasons and ultimal consequences of decisions made during foraging by breeding individuals are widely studied in numerous avian systems. However, the effects of these decisions are more pronounced in migratory birds because they spend more time and energy foraging than on the actual journey itself. The peak flowering and pollination period of crops in southern Israel, when large numbers of hives are transported to the region, coincide with the peak migration of Bee-eaters. We hypothesized that Bee-eaters cue on conspecifics while foraging at a stopover site, react to perceived danger at a given foraging patch, and that the degree of risk taken by an individual was a function of body condition and sex. Bee-eaters were caught on 44 different mornings in spring 2004, 2005, and 2009. A sex-dependent trapping was noted and significantly more females were caught in the first bout. The sex ratio remained significantly male biased in bouts 3-8. Birds caught in the first bout were heavier in comparison to those caught in the second bout, and there was a significant interaction between sex and bouts. From the second bout onwards both sexes showed a significant increase in body mass, by 1.05g/bout on average (±0.6 SD), however wing lengths remained similar for both sexes. We conclude that migrant Bee-eaters cue on conspecifics to evaluate predation risks when socially foraging at a localized food patch and males, who we assume to be time-minimizers, are more likely to forage at a novel site and once danger of foraging is perceived only high energy demand individuals will attempt to hunt. PMID:24120356

  7. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination.

    PubMed

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. PMID:26607479

  8. A genome-wide identified risk variant for PTSD is a methylation quantitative trait locus and confers decreased cortical activation to fearful faces.

    PubMed

    Almli, Lynn M; Stevens, Jennifer S; Smith, Alicia K; Kilaru, Varun; Meng, Qian; Flory, Janine; Abu-Amara, Duna; Hammamieh, Rasha; Yang, Ruoting; Mercer, Kristina B; Binder, Elizabeth B; Bradley, Bekh; Hamilton, Steven; Jett, Marti; Yehuda, Rachel; Marmar, Charles R; Ressler, Kerry J

    2015-07-01

    Genetic factors appear to be highly relevant to predicting differential risk for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a discovery sample, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for PTSD using a small military cohort (Systems Biology PTSD Biomarkers Consortium; SBPBC, N = 147) that was designed as a case-controlled sample of highly exposed, recently returning veterans with and without combat-related PTSD. A genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs717947, at chromosome 4p15 (N = 147, β = 31.34, P = 1.28 × 10(-8) ) was found to associate with the gold-standard diagnostic measure for PTSD (the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale). We conducted replication and follow-up studies in an external sample, a larger urban community cohort (Grady Trauma Project, GTP, N = 2006), to determine the robustness and putative functionality of this risk variant. In the GTP replication sample, SNP rs717947 associated with PTSD diagnosis in females (N = 2006, P = 0.005), but not males. SNP rs717947 was also found to be a methylation quantitative trait locus (meQTL) in the GTP replication sample (N = 157, P = 0.002). Further, the risk allele of rs717947 was associated with decreased medial and dorsolateral cortical activation to fearful faces (N = 53, P < 0.05) in the GTP replication sample. These data identify a genome-wide significant polymorphism conferring risk for PTSD, which was associated with differential epigenetic regulation and with differential cortical responses to fear in a replication sample. These results may provide new insight into understanding genetic and epigenetic regulation of PTSD and intermediate phenotypes that contribute to this disorder. PMID:25988933

  9. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gets worse when you bend forward) Tic douloureux Temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome Sometimes the reason for the face pain ... is persistent, unexplained, or accompanied by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider. What to Expect at ...

  10. Contemporary Issues in Higher Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph, Ed.; Dagley, David, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Colleges and universities remain vulnerable to lawsuits and face an increasingly litigious environment. This book is intended to provide board members, administrators, faculty, and students of higher education with a basis for informed decision-making that will reduce the risk of liability through a preventive-law approach. Readers will find this…