Science.gov

Sample records for face processing erps

  1. An ERP Study of Emotional Face Processing in the Adult and Infant Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Jukka M.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the ontogeny of emotional face processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults and 7-month-old infants while viewing pictures of fearful, happy, and neutral faces. Face-sensitive ERPs at occipital-temporal scalp regions differentiated between fearful and neutral/happy faces in both adults (N170 was larger for fear)…

  2. Investigation of Effects of Face Rotation on Race Processing: An ERPs Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montalan, Benoit; Veujoz, Mathieu; Boitout, Alexis; Leleu, Arnaud; Camus, Odile; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Recent ERP research has indicated that the processing of faces of other races (OR) and same race (SR) as the perceiver differs at the perceptual level, more precisely for the N170 component. The purpose of the present study was to continue the investigation of the race-of-face processing across multiple orientations. Event-related brain potentials…

  3. A novel BCI based on ERP components sensitive to configural processing of human faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Qibin; Jing, Jin; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2012-04-01

    This study introduces a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) based on an oddball paradigm using stimuli of facial images with loss of configural face information (e.g., inversion of face). To the best of our knowledge, till now the configural processing of human faces has not been applied to BCI but widely studied in cognitive neuroscience research. Our experiments confirm that the face-sensitive event-related potential (ERP) components N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) have reflected early structural encoding of faces and can be modulated by the configural processing of faces. With the proposed novel paradigm, we investigate the effects of ERP components N170, VPP and P300 on target detection for BCI. An eight-class BCI platform is developed to analyze ERPs and evaluate the target detection performance using linear discriminant analysis without complicated feature extraction processing. The online classification accuracy of 88.7% and information transfer rate of 38.7 bits min-1 using stimuli of inverted faces with only single trial suggest that the proposed paradigm based on the configural processing of faces is very promising for visual stimuli-driven BCI applications.

  4. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qiu L.; Wang, Han L.; Dzhelyova, Milena; Huang, Ping; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which there are the neural correlates of the affective personality influence on face processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (expression neutral or faint smile) paired with either negative, neutral or positive sentences describing previous typical behavior of the target. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical analyses were conducted on measures of neural activity during the gender judgment task. Repeated measures ANOVA of ERP data showed that faces described as having a negative personality elicited larger N170 than did those with a neutral or positive description. The early posterior negativity (EPN) showed the same result pattern, with larger amplitudes for faces paired with negative personality than for others. The size of the late positive potential was larger for faces paired with positive personality than for those with neutral and negative personality. The current study indicates that affective personality information is associated with an automatic, top–down modulation on face processing. PMID:27303359

  5. ERP comparison study of face gender and expression processing in unattended condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Li, Wenhui; Lv, Bo; Chen, Xiaoyu; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Zhongqing

    2016-04-01

    This paper explores the differences within the underlying brain mechanism for facial expression and gender information processing. The study recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) of participants while they were performing a cross-change detection task, in which the cross was peripherally surrounded by four facial stimuli. For investigating facial expression processing, either four faces with positive expressions from two females and two males were presented infrequently among four faces with negative expressions, or four faces with negative expressions from two females and two males were presented infrequently among four faces with positive expressions. For gender information processing, four female faces were presented infrequently among four male faces, or vice versa. The findings showed that the latency of facial emotion-related visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) was shorter than that of facial gender-related vMMN, and that their related brain regions presented some differences. The results can be viewed as evidence of the difference by which the human brain processes facial emotion and gender information. PMID:26930625

  6. Following the time course of face gender and expression processing: a task-dependent ERP study.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Conroy, Berenice; Aguado, Luis; Fernández-Cahill, María; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa

    2014-05-01

    The effects of task demands and the interaction between gender and expression in face perception were studied using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed three different tasks with male and female faces that were emotionally inexpressive or that showed happy or angry expressions. In two of the tasks (gender and expression categorization) facial properties were task-relevant while in a third task (symbol discrimination) facial information was irrelevant. Effects of expression were observed on the visual P100 component under all task conditions, suggesting the operation of an automatic process that is not influenced by task demands. The earliest interaction between expression and gender was observed later in the face-sensitive N170 component. This component showed differential modulations by specific combinations of gender and expression (e.g., angry male vs. angry female faces). Main effects of expression and task were observed in a later occipito-temporal component peaking around 230 ms post-stimulus onset (EPN or early posterior negativity). Less positive amplitudes in the presence of angry faces and during performance of the gender and expression tasks were observed. Finally, task demands also modulated a positive component peaking around 400 ms (LPC, or late positive complex) that showed enhanced amplitude for the gender task. The pattern of results obtained here adds new evidence about the sequence of operations involved in face processing and the interaction of facial properties (gender and expression) in response to different task demands. PMID:24594443

  7. Repetition effects in human ERPs to faces.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we review research conducted over the past 25 years addressing the effects of repeating various kinds of information in faces (e.g., pictorial, spatial configural, identity, semantic) on different components in human event-related brain potentials (ERPs). This body of evidence suggests that several ERP components are systematically linked to different functional components of face identity processing. Specifically, we argue (1) that repetition of the category of faces (categorical adaptation) strongly affects the occipitotemporal N170 amplitude, which is systematically suppressed when a face is preceded by another face, irrespective of its identity, whereas (2) the prototypicality of a face's second order spatial configuration has a prominent effect on the subsequent occipitotemporal P200. Longer-latency repetition effects are related to the processing of individual facial identities. These include (3) an ERP correlate of the transient activation of individual representations of repeated faces in the form of an enhanced occipitotemporal N250r as seen in repetition priming experiments, and (4) a correlate of the acquisition of individual face identity representations during learning as seen in a topographically similar long-lasting N250 effect. Finally, (5) the repetition of semantic information in familiar person recognition elicits a central-parietal N400 ERP effect. We hope that this overview will encourage researchers to further exploit the potential of ERPs to provide a continuous time window to neuronal correlates of multiple processes in face perception under comparatively natural viewing conditions. PMID:26672902

  8. The role of featural processing in other-race face classification advantage: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yan; Du, Yifeng; Dong, Wei; Zhao, Lun

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigated the time course of the other-race advantage (ORCA) in the subordinate classification of faces and isolated eyes by race. A significant ORCA was found on RTs to both full faces and isolated eyes and faces were classified faster and more accurate than eyes. The ERP data showed that for both stimuli the categorization processes follow basic level classification of physiognomic stimuli, which is not influenced by the stimulus race. The most conspicuous difference between own-race and other-race stimuli as well as between faces and isolated eyes was found in the modulation of the P3 component. The overall pattern of these modulations suggests that the classification of own-race faces is delayed. Since the amplitude of the P3 is sensitive primarily to the perceptual demands of a task, these data suggest that the delay of the own-race classification is caused by an own-race specific process that precedes or interferes with the subordinate classification. PMID:25164358

  9. Genetic Mapping of Brain Plasticity Across Development in Williams Syndrome: ERP Markers of Face and Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Mills, D. L.; Dai, L.; Fishman, I.; Yam, A.; Appelbaum, L. G.; Galaburda, A.; Bellugi, U.; Korenberg, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    In Williams Syndrome (WS), a known genetic deletion results in atypical brain function with strengths in face and language processing. We examined how genetic influences on brain activity change with development. In three studies, ERPs from large samples of children, adolescents, and adults with the full genetic deletion for WS were compared to typically developing controls, and two adults with partial deletions for WS. Studies 1 and 2 identified ERP markers of brain plasticity in WS across development. Study 3 suggested that in adults with partial deletions for WS, specific genes may be differentially implicated in face and language processing. PMID:24219698

  10. The Role of Configural Processing in Face Classification by Race: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jing; Yan, Tianyi; Tao, Luyang; Zhao, Lun

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the time course of the other-race classification advantage (ORCA) in the subordinate classification of normally configured faces and distorted faces by race. Slightly distorting the face configuration delayed the categorization of own-race faces and had no conspicuous effects on other-race faces. The N170 was sensitive neither to configural distortions nor to faces' races. The P3 was enhanced for other-race than own-race faces and reduced by configural manipulation only for own-race faces. We suggest that the source of ORCA is the configural analysis applied by default while processing own-race faces. PMID:26733850

  11. Age-related changes in processing faces from detection to identification: ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Sharon; Bentin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of people 70 to 90 years old to apply global, configural and featural face-processing strategies. In addition we investigated age-related changes in the ability to categorize faces at basic, subordinate and individual levels. Using the N170 potential as index of early face processing and the P300 component as index of categorical decision making and effort, we found significant age-related perceptual changes which slowed and somewhat impaired face processing. Specifically, older participants had problems integrating face features into global structures, demonstrating enhanced dependence on distal global information. They did not apply configural computations by default while processing faces which suggests that, unless identification is required, they process faces only at a basic level. These perceptual changes could be the cause for slower and less accurate subordinate categorization, particularly when it is based on details. At the neural levels face processing was not right-lateralized, reflecting excessive involvement of the left hemisphere in perception leading to a more general reduction of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. In addition we found excessive but nonselective activation of frontal regions adding support to the view that executive control and particularly inhibition of irrelevant input are reduced in the elderly. PMID:20961658

  12. Dissociations of subliminal and supraliminal self-face from other-face processing: behavioral and ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Geng, Haiyan; Zhang, Shen; Li, Qi; Tao, Ran; Xu, Shan

    2012-10-01

    Self-related information has been found to be processed more quickly and accurately in studies with supraliminal self-stimuli and traditional paradigms such as masked priming. We conducted two experiments to investigate whether subliminal self-face processing enjoys this advantage and the neural correlates of processing self-faces at both subliminal and supraliminal levels. We found that self-faces were quicker than famous-other faces to gain dominance against dynamic noise patterns during prolonged interocular suppression to enter awareness (Experiment 1). Meanwhile, subliminal contrast of self- and famous-other face processing was reflected in a reduced early vertex positive potential (VPP) component, whereas supraliminal self-other face differentiation was reflected in an enhanced N170, as well as a more positive late component (300-580ms, Experiment 2) to the self-face. The clear dissociations of self- and other-face processing found across our two experiments validate the self advantage. Our findings also contribute to understandings of the mechanisms underlying self-face processing at different levels of awareness. PMID:22898645

  13. ERP Evidence of Atypical Face Processing in Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Sara J.; Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael; Panagiotides, Heracles

    2010-01-01

    Autism involves a basic impairment in social cognition. This study investigated early stage face processing in young children with autism by examining the face-sensitive early negative event-related brain potential component in 3–4 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), typical development, and developmental delay. Results indicated that children with ASD showed a slower electrical brain response to faces and a larger amplitude response to objects compared to children with typical development and developmental delay. These findings indicate that children with ASD have a disordered pattern of brain responses to faces and objects at an early age. PMID:16897400

  14. Working memory load reduces facilitated processing of threatening faces: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Van Dillen, Lotte F; Derks, Belle

    2012-12-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that facilitated processing of threatening faces depends on working memory load. Participants judged the gender of angry versus happy faces while event-related brain potentials were recorded. Working memory load was manipulated within subjects by the mental rehearsal of one- versus eight-digit numbers. Behavioral results showed that the relative slow-down to angry compared to happy faces in the gender-naming task (i.e., the negativity bias) was eliminated under high working memory load. Under low (but not high) load, N2 amplitudes were smaller to angry compared to happy faces. Moreover, high load reduced LPP amplitude and eliminated the enhanced LPP to angry compared to happy faces that were present under low load. These results suggest that working memory load improves attentional control, and reduces sustained attention for distracting negative expressions. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that facilitated processing of threatening cues may be contingent on cognitive resources. PMID:22642340

  15. Face the Hierarchy: ERP and Oscillatory Brain Responses in Social Rank Processing

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Audrey; Jerbi, Karim; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Cheylus, Anne; Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Schmitz, Christina; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of social hierarchy is a key feature that helps us navigate through our complex social environment. Neuroimaging studies have identified brain structures involved in the processing of hierarchical stimuli but the precise temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with such processing remains largely unknown. Here, we used electroencephalography to examine the effect of social hierarchy on neural responses elicited by faces. In contrast to previous studies, the key manipulation was that a hierarchical context was constructed, not by varying facial expressions, but by presenting neutral-expression faces in a game setting. Once the performance-based hierarchy was established, participants were presented with high-rank, middle-rank and low-rank player faces and had to evaluate the rank of each face with respect to their own position. Both event-related potentials and task-related oscillatory activity were investigated. Three main findings emerge from the study. First, the experimental manipulation had no effect on the early N170 component, which may suggest that hierarchy did not modulate the structural encoding of neutral-expression faces. Second, hierarchy significantly modulated the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) within a 400–700 ms time-window, with more a prominent LPP occurring when the participants processed the face of the highest-rank player. Third, high-rank faces were associated with the highest reduction of alpha power. Taken together these findings provide novel electrophysiological evidence for enhanced allocation of attentional resource in the presence of high-rank faces. At a broader level, this study brings new insights into the neural processing underlying social categorization. PMID:24622288

  16. Mood effects on the ERP processing of emotional intensity in faces: a P3 investigation with depressed students.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James; Geisler, Mark W

    2006-04-01

    This study examined mood-relevant emotion processing in depression using event-related potentials (ERPs). Cognition in depression has been characterized as having attention and memory biases for negative (or mood relevant) information and away from positive (or mood incongruent) information, however, the time course and specificity of this processing during the perception of emotional expressions is not well known. In order to index specific information processing stages a visual oddball task with facial stimuli was utilized, with neutral expressions as the standard and targets varying on valence (happy and fear) and intensity (40%, 70% or 100% emotive) dimensions. Participants were 36 university students grouped according to their BDI-II scores; 18 non-depressed controls (BDI-IIor=15, M=25.5), age- and sex-matched between groups. Mixed model ANOVAs revealed interactions between control and depressed participants with happy and fearful stimuli showing significantly reduced P3 amplitudes and P3 latencies for happy faces as well as significantly delayed P3 latencies specifically for 40% happy faces in depressed participants. These findings are interpreted as evidence for a diminished cognitive processing ability during emotion discrimination for low-intensity mood incongruous (happy) faces in depression. PMID:15963586

  17. Modeling Single-Trial ERP Reveals Modulation of Bottom-Up Face Visual Processing by Top-Down Task Constraints (in Some Subjects)

    PubMed Central

    Rousselet, Guillaume A.; Gaspar, Carl M.; Wieczorek, Kacper P.; Pernet, Cyril R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied how task constraints modulate the relationship between single-trial event-related potentials (ERPs) and image noise. Thirteen subjects performed two interleaved tasks: on different blocks, they saw the same stimuli, but they discriminated either between two faces or between two colors. Stimuli were two pictures of red or green faces that contained from 10 to 80% of phase noise, with 10% increments. Behavioral accuracy followed a noise dependent sigmoid in the identity task but was high and independent of noise level in the color task. EEG data recorded concurrently were analyzed using a single-trial ANCOVA: we assessed how changes in task constraints modulated ERP noise sensitivity while regressing out the main ERP differences due to identity, color, and task. Single-trial ERP sensitivity to image phase noise started at about 95–110 ms post-stimulus onset. Group analyses showed a significant reduction in noise sensitivity in the color task compared to the identity task from about 140 ms to 300 ms post-stimulus onset. However, statistical analyses in every subject revealed different results: significant task modulation occurred in 8/13 subjects, one showing an increase and seven showing a decrease in noise sensitivity in the color task. Onsets and durations of effects also differed between group and single-trial analyses: at any time point only a maximum of four subjects (31%) showed results consistent with group analyses. We provide detailed results for all 13 subjects, including a shift function analysis that revealed asymmetric task modulations of single-trial ERP distributions. We conclude that, during face processing, bottom-up sensitivity to phase noise can be modulated by top-down task constraints, in a broad window around the P2, at least in some subjects. PMID:21886627

  18. Early ERPs to faces: aging, luminance, and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Magdalena M.; Frei, Luisa S.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Rousselet et al. reported a 1 ms/year delay in visual processing speed in a sample of healthy aged 62 subjects (Frontiers in Psychology 2010, 1:19). Here, we replicate this finding in an independent sample of 59 subjects and investigate the contribution of optical factors (pupil size and luminance) to the age-related slowdown and to individual differences in visual processing speed. We conducted two experiments. In experiment 1 we recorded EEG from subjects aged 18–79. Subjects viewed images of faces and phase scrambled noise textures under nine luminance conditions, ranging from 0.59 to 60.8 cd/m2. We manipulated luminance using neutral density filters. In experiment 2, 10 young subjects (age < 35) viewed similar stimuli through pinholes ranging from 1 to 5 mm. In both experiments, subjects were tested twice. We found a 1 ms/year slowdown in visual processing that was independent of luminance. Aging effects became visible around 125 ms post-stimulus and did not affect the onsets of the face-texture ERP differences. Furthermore, luminance modulated the entire ERP time-course from 60 to 500 ms. Luminance effects peaked in the N170 time window and were independent of age. Importantly, senile miosis and individual differences in pupil size did not account for aging differences and inter-subject variability in processing speed. The pinhole manipulation also failed to match the ERPs of old subjects to those of young subjects. Overall, our results strongly suggest that early ERPs to faces (<200 ms) are delayed by aging and that these delays are of cortical, rather than optical origin. Our results also demonstrate that even late ERPs to faces are modulated by low-level factors. PMID:23717297

  19. From upright to upside-down presentation: A spatio-temporal ERP study of the parametric effect of rotation on face and house processing

    PubMed Central

    Jemel, Boutheina; Coutya, Julie; Langer, Caroline; Roy, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    Background While there is a general agreement that picture-plane inversion is more detrimental to face processing than to other seemingly complex visual objects, the origin of this effect is still largely debatable. Here, we address the question of whether face inversion reflects a quantitative or a qualitative change in processing mode by investigating the pattern of event-related potential (ERP) response changes with picture plane rotation of face and house pictures. Thorough analyses of topographical (Scalp Current Density maps, SCD) and dipole source modeling were also conducted. Results We find that whilst stimulus orientation affected in a similar fashion participants' response latencies to make face and house decisions, only the ERPs in the N170 latency range were modulated by picture plane rotation of faces. The pattern of N170 amplitude and latency enhancement to misrotated faces displayed a curvilinear shape with an almost linear increase for rotations from 0° to 90° and a dip at 112.5° up to 180° rotations. A similar discontinuity function was also described for SCD occipito-temporal and temporal current foci with no topographic distribution changes, suggesting that upright and misrotated faces activated similar brain sources. This was confirmed by dipole source analyses showing the involvement of bilateral sources in the fusiform and middle occipital gyri, the activity of which was differentially affected by face rotation. Conclusion Our N170 findings provide support for both the quantitative and qualitative accounts for face rotation effects. Although the qualitative explanation predicted the curvilinear shape of N170 modulations by face misrotations, topographical and source modeling findings suggest that the same brain regions, and thus the same mechanisms, are probably at work when processing upright and rotated faces. Taken collectively, our results indicate that the same processing mechanisms may be involved across the whole range of face

  20. The role of the eyes in processing an intact face and its scrambled image: a dense array ERP and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) study.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Marco; Aceto, Paola; Altavilla, Daniela; Palumbo, Letizia; Lai, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the eyes of an intact face produced a specific brain response compared to the mouth, nose, or hair and whether their specificity was also maintained in a scrambled face. Fifteen subjects were asked to focus visual attention on global and single elements in intact faces and in their scrambled image. EEG data were recorded from 256-Hydrocel Geodesic Sensor-Net200. Event-related potentials (ERPs) analyses showed a difference between the intact face and the scrambled face from N170 component until 600 ms on the occipito-temporal montage and at 400-600 ms on the frontal montage. Only the eyes showed a difference between conditions (intact/scrambled face) at 500 ms. The most activated source detected by sLORETA was the right middle temporal gyrus (BA21) for both conditions and for all elements. Left BA21 resulted in significantly more activation in response to eyes in the intact face compared to the eyes in the scrambled face at 500 ms. The left BA21 has a central role in high-level visual processing and in understanding others' intentions. These findings suggest a specificity of the eyes and indicate that the eyes play the social and communicative role of comprehending the nonverbal intentions of others only when inserted in an intact face. PMID:23706064

  1. Impact of intention on the ERP correlates of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Tiberghien, Guy

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated the impact of study-test similarity on face recognition by manipulating, in the same experiment, the expression change (same vs. different) and the task-processing context (inclusion vs. exclusion instructions) as within-subject variables. Consistent with the dual-process framework, the present results showed that participants performed better on the inclusion task than on the exclusion task, with no response bias. A mid-frontal FN400 old/new effect and a parietal old/new effect were found in both tasks. However, modulations of the ERP old/new effects generated by the expression change on recognized faces differed across tasks. The modulations of the ERP old/new effects were proportional to the degree of matching between the study face and the recognition face in the inclusion task, but not in the exclusion task. The observed modulation of the FN400 old/new effect by the task instructions when familiarity and conceptual priming were kept constant indicates that these early ERP correlates of recognition depend on voluntary task-related control. The present results question the idea that FN400 reflects implicit memory processes such as conceptual priming and show that the extent to which the FN400 discriminates between conditions depends on the retrieval orientation at test. They are discussed in relation to recent controversies about the ERP correlates of familiarity in face recognition. This study suggests that while both conceptual and perceptual information can contribute to the familiarity signal reflected by the FN400 effect, their relative contributions vary with the task demands. PMID:23174431

  2. The time course of individual face recognition: A pattern analysis of ERP signals.

    PubMed

    Nemrodov, Dan; Niemeier, Matthias; Mok, Jenkin Ngo Yin; Nestor, Adrian

    2016-05-15

    An extensive body of work documents the time course of neural face processing in the human visual cortex. However, the majority of this work has focused on specific temporal landmarks, such as N170 and N250 components, derived through univariate analyses of EEG data. Here, we take on a broader evaluation of ERP signals related to individual face recognition as we attempt to move beyond the leading theoretical and methodological framework through the application of pattern analysis to ERP data. Specifically, we investigate the spatiotemporal profile of identity recognition across variation in emotional expression. To this end, we apply pattern classification to ERP signals both in time, for any single electrode, and in space, across multiple electrodes. Our results confirm the significance of traditional ERP components in face processing. At the same time though, they support the idea that the temporal profile of face recognition is incompletely described by such components. First, we show that signals associated with different facial identities can be discriminated from each other outside the scope of these components, as early as 70ms following stimulus presentation. Next, electrodes associated with traditional ERP components as well as, critically, those not associated with such components are shown to contribute information to stimulus discriminability. And last, the levels of ERP-based pattern discrimination are found to correlate with recognition accuracy across subjects confirming the relevance of these methods for bridging brain and behavior data. Altogether, the current results shed new light on the fine-grained time course of neural face processing and showcase the value of novel methods for pattern analysis to investigating fundamental aspects of visual recognition. PMID:26973169

  3. Unseen fearful faces influence face encoding: evidence from ERPs in hemianopic patients.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Bertini, Caterina; Maier, Martin E; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2014-11-01

    Visual threat-related signals are not only processed via a cortical geniculo-striatal pathway to the amygdala but also via a subcortical colliculo-pulvinar-amygdala pathway, which presumably mediates implicit processing of fearful stimuli. Indeed, hemianopic patients with unilateral damage to the geniculo-striatal pathway have been shown to respond faster to seen happy faces in their intact visual field when unseen fearful faces were concurrently presented in their blind field [Bertini, C., Cecere, R., & Làdavas, E. I am blind, but I "see" fear. Cortex, 49, 985-993, 2013]. This behavioral facilitation in the presence of unseen fear might reflect enhanced processing of consciously perceived faces because of early activation of the subcortical pathway for implicit fear perception, which possibly leads to a modulation of cortical activity. To test this hypothesis, we examined ERPs elicited by fearful and happy faces presented to the intact visual field of right and left hemianopic patients, whereas fearful, happy, or neutral faces were concurrently presented in their blind field. Results showed that the amplitude of the N170 elicited by seen happy faces was selectively increased when an unseen fearful face was concurrently presented in the blind field of right hemianopic patients. These results suggest that when the geniculo-striate visual pathway is lesioned, the rapid and implicit processing of threat signals can enhance facial encoding. Notably, the N170 modulation was only observed in left-lesioned patients, favoring the hypothesis that implicit subcortical processing of fearful signals can influence face encoding only when the right hemisphere is intact. PMID:24893734

  4. Event-Related Brain Potential Correlates of Emotional Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Holmes, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Results from recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies investigating brain processes involved in the detection and analysis of emotional facial expression are reviewed. In all experiments, emotional faces were found to trigger an increased ERP positivity relative to neutral faces. The onset of this emotional expression effect was…

  5. Audiovisual non-verbal dynamic faces elicit converging fMRI and ERP responses.

    PubMed

    Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie; Lowitszch, Svenja; Parsons, Michael; Lemieux, Susan; Puce, Aina

    2009-05-01

    In an everyday social interaction we automatically integrate another's facial movements and vocalizations, be they linguistic or otherwise. This requires audiovisual integration of a continual barrage of sensory input-a phenomenon previously well-studied with human audiovisual speech, but not with non-verbal vocalizations. Using both fMRI and ERPs, we assessed neural activity to viewing and listening to an animated female face producing non-verbal, human vocalizations (i.e. coughing, sneezing) under audio-only (AUD), visual-only (VIS) and audiovisual (AV) stimulus conditions, alternating with Rest (R). Underadditive effects occurred in regions dominant for sensory processing, which showed AV activation greater than the dominant modality alone. Right posterior temporal and parietal regions showed an AV maximum in which AV activation was greater than either modality alone, but not greater than the sum of the unisensory conditions. Other frontal and parietal regions showed Common-activation in which AV activation was the same as one or both unisensory conditions. ERP data showed an early superadditive effect (AV > AUD + VIS, no rest), mid-range underadditive effects for auditory N140 and face-sensitive N170, and late AV maximum and common-activation effects. Based on convergence between fMRI and ERP data, we propose a mechanism where a multisensory stimulus may be signaled or facilitated as early as 60 ms and facilitated in sensory-specific regions by increasing processing speed (at N170) and efficiency (decreasing amplitude in auditory and face-sensitive cortical activation and ERPs). Finally, higher-order processes are also altered, but in a more complex fashion. PMID:19384602

  6. Social identity modifies face perception: an ERP study of social categorization

    PubMed Central

    Stedehouder, Jeffrey; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of Muslims and non-Muslims in an evaluative priming task while ERPs were measured and implicit evaluative bias was assessed. Study 1 revealed that non-Muslims showed stronger differentiation between ingroup and outgroup faces in both early (N200) and later processing stages (implicit evaluations) when they identified more strongly with their ethnic group. Moreover, identification effects on implicit bias were mediated by intergroup differentiation in the N200. In Study 2, social identity threat (vs control) was manipulated among Muslims. Results revealed that high social identity threat resulted in stronger differentiation of Muslims from non-Muslims in early (N200) and late (implicit evaluations) processing stages, with N200 effects again predicting implicit bias. Combined, these studies reveal how seemingly bottom-up early social categorization processes are affected by individual and contextual variables that affect the meaning of social identity. Implications of these results for the social identity perspective as well as social cognitive theories of person perception are discussed. PMID:25140049

  7. Social identity modifies face perception: an ERP study of social categorization.

    PubMed

    Derks, Belle; Stedehouder, Jeffrey; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-05-01

    Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of Muslims and non-Muslims in an evaluative priming task while ERPs were measured and implicit evaluative bias was assessed. Study 1 revealed that non-Muslims showed stronger differentiation between ingroup and outgroup faces in both early (N200) and later processing stages (implicit evaluations) when they identified more strongly with their ethnic group. Moreover, identification effects on implicit bias were mediated by intergroup differentiation in the N200. In Study 2, social identity threat (vs control) was manipulated among Muslims. Results revealed that high social identity threat resulted in stronger differentiation of Muslims from non-Muslims in early (N200) and late (implicit evaluations) processing stages, with N200 effects again predicting implicit bias. Combined, these studies reveal how seemingly bottom-up early social categorization processes are affected by individual and contextual variables that affect the meaning of social identity. Implications of these results for the social identity perspective as well as social cognitive theories of person perception are discussed. PMID:25140049

  8. Gender Differences in Memory Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials to Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillem, F.; Mograss, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on memory processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral data and ERPs were recorded in 16 males and 10 females during a recognition memory task for faces. The behavioral data results showed that females performed better than males. Gender differences on ERPs were evidenced over anterior…

  9. An ERP investigation of the co-development of hemispheric lateralization of face and word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Dundas, Eva M.; Plaut, David C.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    The adult human brain would appear to have specialized and independent neural systems for the visual processing of words and faces. Extensive evidence has demonstrated greater selectivity for written words in the left over right hemisphere, and, conversely, greater selectivity for faces in the right over left hemisphere. This study examines the emergence of these complementary neural profiles, as well as the possible relationship between them. Using behavioral and neurophysiological measures, in adults, we observed the standard finding of greater accuracy and a larger N170 ERP component in the left over right hemisphere for words, and conversely, greater accuracy and a larger N170 in the right over the left hemisphere for faces. We also found that, although children aged 7-12 years revealed the adult hemispheric pattern for words, they showed neither a behavioral nor a neural hemispheric superiority for faces. Of particular interest, the magnitude of their N170 for faces in the right hemisphere was related to that of the N170 for words in their left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face recognition and of word recognition do not develop independently, and that word lateralization may precede and drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account for the findings, in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development, is discussed. PMID:24933662

  10. Face and object encoding under perceptual load: ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Markus F; Mohamed, Tarik N; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2011-02-14

    According to the perceptual load theory, processing of a task-irrelevant distractor is abolished when attentional resources are fully consumed by task-relevant material. As an exception, however, famous faces have been shown to elicit repetition modulations in event-related potentials - an N250r - despite high load at initial presentation, suggesting preserved face-encoding. Here, we recorded N250r repetition modulations by unfamiliar faces, hands, and houses, and tested face specificity of preserved encoding under high load. In an immediate (S1-S2) repetition priming paradigm, participants performed a letter identification task on S1 by indicating whether an "X" vs. "N" was among 6 different (high load condition) or 6 identical (low load condition) letters. Letter strings were superimposed on distractor faces, hands, or houses. Subsequent S2 probes were either identical repetitions of S1 distractors, non-repeated exemplars from the same category, or infrequent butterflies, to which participants responded. Independent of attentional load at S1, an occipito-temporal N250r was found for unfamiliar faces. In contrast, no repetition-related neural modulation emerged for houses or hands. This strongly suggests that a putative face-selective attention module supports encoding under high load, and that similar mechanisms are unavailable for other natural or artificial objects. PMID:21044688

  11. Impact of Intention on the ERP Correlates of Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Tiberghien, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of study-test similarity on face recognition by manipulating, in the same experiment, the expression change (same vs. different) and the task-processing context (inclusion vs. exclusion instructions) as within-subject variables. Consistent with the dual-process framework, the present results showed that…

  12. N250r and N400 ERP correlates of immediate famous face repetition are independent of perceptual load.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Markus F; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2008-11-01

    It is a matter of considerable debate whether attention to initial stimulus presentations is required for repetition-related neural modulations to occur. Recently, it has been assumed that faces are particularly hard to ignore, and can capture attention in a reflexive manner. In line with this idea, electrophysiological evidence for long-term repetition effects of unattended famous faces has been reported. The present study investigated influences of attention to prime faces on short-term repetition effects in event-related potentials (ERPs). We manipulated attention to short (200 ms) prime presentations (S1) of task-irrelevant famous faces according to Lavie's Perceptual Load Theory. Participants attended to letter strings superimposed on face images, and identified target letters "X" vs. "N" embedded in strings of either 6 different (high load) or 6 identical (low load) letters. Letter identification was followed by probe presentations (S2), which were either repetitions of S1 faces, new famous faces, or infrequent butterflies, to which participants responded. Our ERP data revealed repetition effects in terms of an N250r at occipito-temporal regions, suggesting priming of face identification processes, and in terms of an N400 at the vertex, suggesting semantic priming. Crucially, the magnitude of these effects was unaffected by perceptual load at S1 presentation. This indicates that task-irrelevant face processing is remarkably preserved even in a demanding letter detection task, supporting recent notions of face-specific attentional resources. PMID:18793621

  13. What drives social in-group biases in face recognition memory? ERP evidence from the own-gender bias.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nicole; Kemter, Kathleen; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Wiese, Holger

    2014-05-01

    It is well established that memory is more accurate for own-relative to other-race faces (own-race bias), which has been suggested to result from larger perceptual expertise for own-race faces. Previous studies also demonstrated better memory for own-relative to other-gender faces, which is less likely to result from differences in perceptual expertise, and rather may be related to social in-group vs out-group categorization. We examined neural correlates of the own-gender bias using event-related potentials (ERP). In a recognition memory experiment, both female and male participants remembered faces of their respective own gender more accurately compared with other-gender faces. ERPs during learning yielded significant differences between the subsequent memory effects (subsequently remembered - subsequently forgotten) for own-gender compared with other-gender faces in the occipito-temporal P2 and the central N200, whereas neither later subsequent memory effects nor ERP old/new effects at test reflected a neural correlate of the own-gender bias. We conclude that the own-gender bias is mainly related to study phase processes, which is in line with sociocognitive accounts. PMID:23474824

  14. Flashing characters with famous faces improves ERP-based brain-computer interface performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, T.; Schulz, S. M.; Grünzinger, C.; Kübler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Currently, the event-related potential (ERP)-based spelling device, often referred to as P300-Speller, is the most commonly used brain-computer interface (BCI) for enhancing communication of patients with impaired speech or motor function. Among numerous improvements, a most central feature has received little attention, namely optimizing the stimulus used for eliciting ERPs. Therefore we compared P300-Speller performance with the standard stimulus (flashing characters) against performance with stimuli known for eliciting particularly strong ERPs due to their psychological salience, i.e. flashing familiar faces transparently superimposed on characters. Our results not only indicate remarkably increased ERPs in response to familiar faces but also improved P300-Speller performance due to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences needed for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-Speller.

  15. Flashing characters with famous faces improves ERP-based brain-computer interface performance.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, T; Schulz, S M; Grünzinger, C; Kübler, A

    2011-10-01

    Currently, the event-related potential (ERP)-based spelling device, often referred to as P300-Speller, is the most commonly used brain-computer interface (BCI) for enhancing communication of patients with impaired speech or motor function. Among numerous improvements, a most central feature has received little attention, namely optimizing the stimulus used for eliciting ERPs. Therefore we compared P300-Speller performance with the standard stimulus (flashing characters) against performance with stimuli known for eliciting particularly strong ERPs due to their psychological salience, i.e. flashing familiar faces transparently superimposed on characters. Our results not only indicate remarkably increased ERPs in response to familiar faces but also improved P300-Speller performance due to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences needed for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-Speller. PMID:21934188

  16. Your emotion or mine: labeling feelings alters emotional face perception—an ERP study on automatic and intentional affect labeling

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Cornelia; Sfärlea, Anca; Blumenthal, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that words are powerful regulators of emotion processing. Although a number of studies have used words as contextual cues for emotion processing, the role of what is being labeled by the words (i.e., one's own emotion as compared to the emotion expressed by the sender) is poorly understood. The present study reports results from two experiments which used ERP methodology to evaluate the impact of emotional faces and self- vs. sender-related emotional pronoun-noun pairs (e.g., my fear vs. his fear) as cues for emotional face processing. The influence of self- and sender-related cues on the processing of fearful, angry and happy faces was investigated in two contexts: an automatic (experiment 1) and intentional affect labeling task (experiment 2), along with control conditions of passive face processing. ERP patterns varied as a function of the label's reference (self vs. sender) and the intentionality of the labeling task (experiment 1 vs. experiment 2). In experiment 1, self-related labels increased the motivational relevance of the emotional faces in the time-window of the EPN component. Processing of sender-related labels improved emotion recognition specifically for fearful faces in the N170 time-window. Spontaneous processing of affective labels modulated later stages of face processing as well. Amplitudes of the late positive potential (LPP) were reduced for fearful, happy, and angry faces relative to the control condition of passive viewing. During intentional regulation (experiment 2) amplitudes of the LPP were enhanced for emotional faces when subjects used the self-related emotion labels to label their own emotion during face processing, and they rated the faces as higher in arousal than the emotional faces that had been presented in the “label sender's emotion” condition or the passive viewing condition. The present results argue in favor of a differentiated view of language-as-context for emotion processing. PMID:23888134

  17. Your emotion or mine: labeling feelings alters emotional face perception-an ERP study on automatic and intentional affect labeling.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Cornelia; Sfärlea, Anca; Blumenthal, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that words are powerful regulators of emotion processing. Although a number of studies have used words as contextual cues for emotion processing, the role of what is being labeled by the words (i.e., one's own emotion as compared to the emotion expressed by the sender) is poorly understood. The present study reports results from two experiments which used ERP methodology to evaluate the impact of emotional faces and self- vs. sender-related emotional pronoun-noun pairs (e.g., my fear vs. his fear) as cues for emotional face processing. The influence of self- and sender-related cues on the processing of fearful, angry and happy faces was investigated in two contexts: an automatic (experiment 1) and intentional affect labeling task (experiment 2), along with control conditions of passive face processing. ERP patterns varied as a function of the label's reference (self vs. sender) and the intentionality of the labeling task (experiment 1 vs. experiment 2). In experiment 1, self-related labels increased the motivational relevance of the emotional faces in the time-window of the EPN component. Processing of sender-related labels improved emotion recognition specifically for fearful faces in the N170 time-window. Spontaneous processing of affective labels modulated later stages of face processing as well. Amplitudes of the late positive potential (LPP) were reduced for fearful, happy, and angry faces relative to the control condition of passive viewing. During intentional regulation (experiment 2) amplitudes of the LPP were enhanced for emotional faces when subjects used the self-related emotion labels to label their own emotion during face processing, and they rated the faces as higher in arousal than the emotional faces that had been presented in the "label sender's emotion" condition or the passive viewing condition. The present results argue in favor of a differentiated view of language-as-context for emotion processing. PMID:23888134

  18. Fusiform gyrus responses to neutral and emotional faces in children with autism spectrum disorders: a high density ERP study.

    PubMed

    Apicella, Fabio; Sicca, Federico; Federico, Rosario R; Campatelli, Giulia; Muratori, Filippo

    2013-08-15

    Face processing is a neural mechanism that allows understanding social information and cues conveyed by faces, whose dysfunction has been postulated to underlie some of the behavioral impairments characterizing autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A special region of the cortex, the fusiform gyrus (FG), is believed to be the specific area for processing face features and emotions. However, behavioral, fMRI and ERP studies addressed to investigate the role of FG dysfunction in ASD have led to conflicting results. Using a high-density EEG system, we recorded the face-sensitive ERP to neutral and emotional (happiness and fearful) faces, as a measure of early activity of the FG, in children with high functioning ASD. By controlling a number of experimental and clinical variables that could have biased previous research--such as gaze direction, attention to tasks, stimulus appearance and clinical profiles--we aimed to assess the effective role of the FG in the face emotion processing deficit hypothesized in ASD. No significant differences in early face-sensitive ERP components were found between ASD and neurotypical children. However, a systematic latency delay and amplitude reduction of all early potentials were observed in the ASD group, regardless of the stimulus, although more evident for emotions. Therefore, we can assume a diffuse dysfunction of neural mechanisms and networks in driving and integrating social information conveyed by faces, in particular when emotions are involved, rather than a specific impairment of the FG-related face processing circuit. Nevertheless, there is need of further investigation. PMID:23124137

  19. Emotional contexts modulate intentional memory suppression of neutral faces: Insights from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Pierguidi, Lapo; Righi, Stefania; Gronchi, Giorgio; Marzi, Tessa; Caharel, Stephanie; Giovannelli, Fabio; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2016-08-01

    The main goal of present work is to gain new insight into the temporal dynamics underlying the voluntary memory control for neutral faces associated with neutral, positive and negative contexts. A directed forgetting (DF) procedure was used during the recording of EEG to answer the question whether is it possible to forget a face that has been encoded within a particular emotional context. A face-scene phase in which a neutral face was showed in a neutral or emotional scene (positive, negative) was followed by the voluntary memory cue (cue phase) indicating whether the face had to-be remember or to-be-forgotten (TBR and TBF). Memory for faces was then assessed with an old/new recognition task. Behaviorally, we found that it is harder to suppress faces-in-positive-scenes compared to faces-in-negative and neutral-scenes. The temporal information obtained by the ERPs showed: 1) during the face-scene phase, the Late Positive Potential (LPP), which indexes motivated emotional attention, was larger for faces-in-negative-scenes compared to faces-in-neutral-scenes. 2) Remarkably, during the cue phase, ERPs were significantly modulated by the emotional contexts. Faces-in-neutral scenes showed an ERP pattern that has been typically associated to DF effect whereas faces-in-positive-scenes elicited the reverse ERP pattern. Faces-in-negative scenes did not show differences in the DF-related neural activities but larger N1 amplitude for TBF vs. TBR faces may index early attentional deployment. These results support the hypothesis that the pleasantness or unpleasantness of the contexts (through attentional broadening and narrowing mechanisms, respectively) may modulate the effectiveness of intentional memory suppression for neutral information. PMID:27234617

  20. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun

    2015-05-22

    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime. PMID:25765156

  1. Spatiotemporal analysis of ERP data in emotional processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Tian, Jie; Yang, Lei; Pan, Xiaohong; Liu, Jianggang

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of Event-related potential (ERP) in emotional processing by using fuzzy k-means clustering method to segment ERP data into microstates.108 pictures (categorized as positive, negative and neutral) were presented to 24 healthy, right-handed subjects while 128-channel EEG data were recorded. For each subject, 3 artifact-free ERPs were computed under each condition. A modified fuzzy k-mean clustering method based on shape similarity is applied to the grand mean ERPs and the statistical analysis is performed to define the significance of each segmentation map. In the results, positive and negative conditions showed different spatiotemporal patterns of ERP. The results were in accord with other emotional study by fMRI or PET.

  2. Spatial attention modulates early face processing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenfeng; Martinez, Antigona; Pitts, Michael; Luo, Yue-Jia; Hillyard, Steven A

    2012-12-01

    It is widely reported that inverting a face dramatically affects its recognition. Previous studies have shown that face inversion increases the amplitude and delays the latency of the face-specific N170 component of the event-related potential (ERP) and also enhances the amplitude of the occipital P1 component (latency 100-132 ms). The present study investigates whether these effects of face inversion can be modulated by visual spatial attention. Participants viewed two streams of visual stimuli, one to the left and one to the right of fixation. One stream consisted of a sequence of alphanumeric characters at 6.67 Hz, and the other stream consisted of a series of upright and inverted images of faces and houses presented in randomized order. The participants' task was to attend selectively to one or the other of the streams (during different blocks) in order to detect infrequent target stimuli. ERPs elicited by inverted faces showed larger P1 amplitudes compared to upright faces, but only when the faces were attended. In contrast, the N170 amplitude was larger to inverted than to upright faces only when the faces were not attended. The N170 peak latency was delayed to inverted faces regardless of attention condition. These inversion effects were face specific, as similar effects were absent for houses. These results suggest that early stages of face-specific processing can be enhanced by attention, but when faces are not attended the onset of face-specific processing is delayed until the latency range of the N170. PMID:23017595

  3. Innate face processing.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yoichi

    2009-02-01

    Recent monkey studies provide intriguing information for an open question whether face processing is a special perceptual process and is organized as such at birth, or has its origin in a more general system that becomes specialized with experience. Before seeing any faces or face-like objects, macaque monkeys showed a preference for faces rather than nonface objects. Furthermore, they showed remarkable face processing abilities both for human and monkey faces. It was also shown that macaque newborns are able to imitate human facial gestures, indicating the ability to match their own facial movements to observed facial gestures. Taken together, it seems very likely that newborns can acquire the knowledge about the basic structure of their own face, presumably through proprioception, so that facial structure would become a familiar and attractive visual object without the experience of the face itself. PMID:19339171

  4. Early visual ERP sensitivity to the species and animacy of faces.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Koldewyn, Kami

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the agency of potential actors in the visual world is a critically important aspect of social cognition. Adult observers are generally capable of distinguishing real faces from artificial faces (even allowing for recent advances in graphics technology and motion capture); even small deviations from real facial appearance can lead to profound effects on face recognition. Presently, we examined how early components of visual event-related potentials (ERPs) are affected by the "life" in human faces and animal faces. We presented participants with real and artificial faces of humans and dogs, and analyzed the response properties of the P100 and the N170 as a function of stimulus appearance and task (species categorization vs. animacy categorization). The P100 exhibited sensitivity to face species and animacy. We found that the N170's differential responses to human faces vs. dog faces depended on the task participants' performed. Also, the effect of species was only evident for real faces of humans and dogs, failing to obtain with artificial faces. These results suggest that face animacy does modulate early components of visual ERPs-the N170 is not merely a crude face detector, but reflects the tuning of the visual system to natural face appearance. PMID:24041668

  5. Affective picture processing: An integrative review of ERP findings

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Jonas K.; Nordin, Steven; Sequeira, Henrique; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    The review summarizes and integrates findings from 40 years of event-related potential (ERP) studies using pictures that differ in valence (unpleasant-to-pleasant) and arousal (low-to-high) and that are used to elicit emotional processing. Affective stimulus factors primarily modulate ERP component amplitude, with little change in peak latency observed. Arousal effects are consistently obtained, and generally occur at longer latencies. Valence effects are inconsistently reported at several latency ranges, including very early components. Some affective ERP modulations vary with recording methodology, stimulus factors, as well as task-relevance and emotional state. Affective ERPs have been linked theoretically to attention orientation for unpleasant pictures at earlier components (< 300 ms). Enhanced stimulus processing has been associated with memory encoding for arousing pictures of assumed intrinsic motivational relevance, with task-induced differences contributing to emotional reactivity at later components (> 300 ms). Theoretical issues, stimulus factors, task demands, and individual differences are discussed. PMID:18164800

  6. Fearful contextual expression impairs the encoding and recognition of target faces: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that the N170 to faces is modulated by the emotion of the face and its context. However, it is unclear how the encoding of emotional target faces as reflected in the N170 is modulated by the preceding contextual facial expression when temporal onset and identity of target faces are unpredictable. In addition, no study as yet has investigated whether contextual facial expression modulates later recognition of target faces. To address these issues, participants in the present study were asked to identify target faces (fearful or neutral) that were presented after a sequence of fearful or neutral contextual faces. The number of sequential contextual faces was random and contextual and target faces were of different identities so that temporal onset and identity of target faces were unpredictable. Electroencephalography (EEG) data was recorded during the encoding phase. Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which target face identities were presented in either the encoded or the non-encoded expression. ERP data showed a reduced N170 to target faces in fearful as compared to neutral context regardless of target facial expression. In the later recognition phase, recognition rates were reduced for target faces in the encoded expression when they had been encountered in fearful as compared to neutral context. The present findings suggest that fearful compared to neutral contextual faces reduce the allocation of attentional resources towards target faces, which results in limited encoding and recognition of target faces. PMID:26388751

  7. Early differential processing of material images: Evidence from ERP classification.

    PubMed

    Wiebel, Christiane B; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the temporal dynamics of natural image processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) has a long tradition in object recognition research. In a classical Go-NoGo task two characteristic effects have been emphasized: an early task independent category effect and a later task-dependent target effect. Here, we set out to use this well-established Go-NoGo paradigm to study the time course of material categorization. Material perception has gained more and more interest over the years as its importance in natural viewing conditions has been ignored for a long time. In addition to analyzing standard ERPs, we conducted a single trial ERP pattern analysis. To validate this procedure, we also measured ERPs in two object categories (people and animals). Our linear classification procedure was able to largely capture the overall pattern of results from the canonical analysis of the ERPs and even extend it. We replicate the known target effect (differential Go-NoGo potential at frontal sites) for the material images. Furthermore, we observe task-independent differential activity between the two material categories as early as 140 ms after stimulus onset. Using our linear classification approach, we show that material categories can be differentiated consistently based on the ERP pattern in single trials around 100 ms after stimulus onset, independent of the target-related status. This strengthens the idea of early differential visual processing of material categories independent of the task, probably due to differences in low-level image properties and suggests pattern classification of ERP topographies as a strong instrument for investigating electrophysiological brain activity. PMID:24961247

  8. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Repetition Suppression to Unfamiliar Faces: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Lafontaine, Marc Philippe; Théoret, Hugo; Gosselin, Frédéric; Lippé, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Repeated visual processing of an unfamiliar face suppresses neural activity in face-specific areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. This "repetition suppression" (RS) is a primitive mechanism involved in learning of unfamiliar faces, which can be detected through amplitude reduction of the N170 event-related potential (ERP). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) exerts top-down influence on early visual processing. However, its contribution to N170 RS and learning of unfamiliar faces remains unclear. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) transiently increases or decreases cortical excitability, as a function of polarity. We hypothesized that DLPFC excitability modulation by tDCS would cause polarity-dependent modulations of N170 RS during encoding of unfamiliar faces. tDCS-induced N170 RS enhancement would improve long-term recognition reaction time (RT) and/or accuracy rates, whereas N170 RS impairment would compromise recognition ability. Participants underwent three tDCS conditions in random order at ∼72 hour intervals: right anodal/left cathodal, right cathodal/left anodal and sham. Immediately following tDCS conditions, an EEG was recorded during encoding of unfamiliar faces for assessment of P100 and N170 visual ERPs. The P3a component was analyzed to detect prefrontal function modulation. Recognition tasks were administered ∼72 hours following encoding. Results indicate the right anodal/left cathodal condition facilitated N170 RS and induced larger P3a amplitudes, leading to faster recognition RT. Conversely, the right cathodal/left anodal condition caused N170 amplitude and RTs to increase, and a delay in P3a latency. These data demonstrate that DLPFC excitability modulation can influence early visual encoding of unfamiliar faces, highlighting the importance of DLPFC in basic learning mechanisms. PMID:24324721

  9. Online processing of moral transgressions: ERP evidence for spontaneous evaluation.

    PubMed

    Leuthold, Hartmut; Kunkel, Angelika; Mackenzie, Ian G; Filik, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies using fictional moral dilemmas indicate that both automatic emotional processes and controlled cognitive processes contribute to moral judgments. However, not much is known about how people process socio-normative violations that are more common to their everyday life nor the time-course of these processes. Thus, we recorded participants' electrical brain activity while they were reading vignettes that either contained morally acceptable vs unacceptable information or text materials that contained information which was either consistent or inconsistent with their general world knowledge. A first event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity peaking at ∼200 ms after critical word onset (P200) was larger when this word involved a socio-normative or knowledge-based violation. Subsequently, knowledge-inconsistent words triggered a larger centroparietal ERP negativity at ∼320 ms (N400), indicating an influence on meaning construction. In contrast, a larger ERP positivity (larger late positivity), which also started at ∼320 ms after critical word onset, was elicited by morally unacceptable compared with acceptable words. We take this ERP positivity to reflect an implicit evaluative (good-bad) categorization process that is engaged during the online processing of moral transgressions. PMID:25556210

  10. An ERP Investigation of Regional and Foreign Accent Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Jeremy; Duffy, Hester; Floccia, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether we employ the same normalisation mechanisms when processing words spoken with a regional accent or foreign accent. Our results showed that the Phonological Mapping Negativity (PMN) following the onset of the final word of sentences spoken with an unfamiliar regional accent was…

  11. Mapping the time course of other-race face classification advantage: a cross-race ERP study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Zhang, Guoping; Yang, Yanjie; Bentin, Shlomo; Zhao, Lun

    2014-09-01

    The current study investigated the time course of the other-race advantage (ORA) in the subordinate classification of faces by race. A significant ORA was found on RTs for both races. The ERP data showed that the categorization processes follow basic level classification of physiognomic stimuli, which is not influenced by the stimulus race. The most conspicuous difference between own-race and other-race faces was found in the modulation of the amplitude of the P3. Since the amplitude of the P3 is sensitive primarily to the perceptual demands of a task, these data suggest that the delay of the own-race classification is caused by an own-race specific process that precedes or interferes with the subordinate classification. PMID:24375283

  12. The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure. PMID:21461985

  13. Neurophysiological correlates of face gender processing in humans.

    PubMed

    Mouchetant-Rostaing, Y; Giard, M H; Bentin, S; Aguera, P E; Pernier, J

    2000-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects were involved in three gender-processing tasks based on human faces and on human hands. In one condition all stimuli were only of one gender, preventing any gender discrimination. In a second condition, faces (or hands) of men and women were intermixed but the gender was irrelevant for the subject's task; hence gender discrimination was assumed to be incidental. In the third condition, the task required explicit gender discrimination; gender processing was therefore assumed to be intentional. Gender processing had no effect on the occipito-temporal negative potential at approximately 170 ms after stimulation (N170 component of the ERP), suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in the structural encoding of faces are different from those involved in the extraction of gender-related facial features. In contrast, incidental and intentional processing of face (but not hand) gender affected the ERPs between 145 and 185 ms from stimulus onset at more anterior scalp locations. This effect was interpreted as evidence for the direct visual processing of faces as described in Bruce and Young's model [Bruce, V. & Young, A. (1986) Br. J. Psychol., 77, 305-327]. Additional gender discrimination effects were observed for both faces and hands at mid-parietal sites around 45-85 ms latency, in the incidental task only. This difference was tentatively assumed to reflect an early mechanism of coarse visual categorization. Finally, intentional (but not incidental) gender processing affected the ERPs during a later epoch starting from approximately 200 ms and ending at approximately 250 ms for faces, and approximately 350 ms for hands. This later effect might be related to attention-based gender categorization or to a more general categorization activity. PMID:10651885

  14. ERP Correlates of Target-Distracter Differentiation in Repeated Runs of a Continuous Recognition Task with Emotional and Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treese, Anne-Cecile; Johansson, Mikael; Lindgren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The emotional salience of faces has previously been shown to induce memory distortions in recognition memory tasks. This event-related potential (ERP) study used repeated runs of a continuous recognition task with emotional and neutral faces to investigate emotion-induced memory distortions. In the second and third runs, participants made more…

  15. Searching for face-specific long latency ERPs: a topographic study of effects associated with mismatching features.

    PubMed

    Olivares, E I; Iglesias, J; Antonieta Bobes, M

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study [E. Olivares, M.A. Bobes, E. Aubert, M. Valdés-Sosa, Associative ERPs effects with memories of artificial faces, Cogn. Brain Res. 2 (1994) 39-48] we reported the presence of a negativity associated with mismatching features when subjects carried out a face-feature matching task whilst their evoked potentials were recorded. Since the stimuli used were learned faces (realistic drawings), for which the subjects possessed no semantic information or associated verbal labels, the mismatch negativity obtained was considered a face-specific N400. In this work we present a new experiment to study the topographic distribution of these mismatch effects. As in the above-mentioned study, in each trial the subjects observed previously an incomplete (without the eyes/eyebrows fragment) familiar face, which served as a structural context for the face recognition. The face was then completed by grafting either matching (learned) features or mismatching features (from another face). In line with neuropsychological studies on prosopagnosia and electrophysiological findings in humans and non-human primates, we found as one of the most relevant items of data that the most-posterior (principally, left occipital) cortices appear to be a region in which are located the possible neural generators of the negativity associated with the detection of incongruencies in the structure of familiar faces. We also reported a late positivity, distributed in more anterior regions, which follows the mismatch negativity. This complex N-P is interpreted as reflecting a dual process of retrieval and integration of information in memory. PMID:9838186

  16. ERP Evidence for Ultra-Fast Semantic Processing in the Picture-Word Interference Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dell'acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Peressotti, Francesca; Mulatti, Claudio; Navarrete, Eduardo; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    We used the event-related potential (ERP) approach combined with a subtraction technique to explore the timecourse of activation of semantic and phonological representations in the picture-word interference paradigm. Subjects were exposed to to-be-named pictures superimposed on to-be-ignored semantically related, phonologically related, or unrelated words, and distinct ERP waveforms were generated time-locked to these different classes of stimuli. Difference ERP waveforms were generated in the semantic condition and in the phonological condition by subtracting ERP activity associated with unrelated picture-word stimuli from ERP activity associated with related picture-word stimuli. We measured both latency and amplitude of these difference ERP waveforms in a pre-articulatory time-window. The behavioral results showed standard interference effects in the semantic condition, and facilitatory effects in the phonological condition. The ERP results indicated a bimodal distribution of semantic effects, characterized by the extremely rapid onset (at about 100 ms) of a primary component followed by a later, distinct, component. Phonological effects in ERPs were characterized by components with later onsets and distinct scalp topography of ERP sources relative to semantic ERP components. Regression analyses revealed a covariation between semantic and phonological behavioral effect sizes and ERP component amplitudes, and no covariation between the behavioral effects and ERP component latency. The early effect of semantic distractors is thought to reflect very fast access to semantic representations from picture stimuli modulating on-going orthographic processing of distractor words. PMID:21833238

  17. Neural substrates of species-dependent visual processing of faces: use of morphed faces

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Emi; Ogata, Katsuya; Kishimoto, Junji; Tanaka, Mutsuhide; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamasaki, Takao; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Face identification and categorization are essential for social communication. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) is considered to be a biomarker of face perception. To elucidate the neural basis of species-dependent face processing, we recorded 128-ch high-density ERPs in 14 healthy adults while they viewed the images of morphed faces. The morphed stimuli contained different proportions of human and monkey faces, and the species boundary was shifted away from the center of the morph continuum. Three experiments were performed to determine how task requirement, facial orientation, and spatial frequency (SF) of visual stimuli affected ERPs. In an equal SF condition, the latency, and amplitude of the occipital P100 for upright faces were modulated in a monotonic-like fashion by the level of morphing. In contrast, the N170 latency for upright faces was modulated in a step-like fashion, showing a flexion point that may reflect species discrimination. Although N170 amplitudes for upright faces were not modulated by morph level, they were modulated in a monotonic-like fashion by inverted faces. The late positive (LP) component (350–550 msec) in the parietal region was modulated in a U-shaped function by morph level during a categorization task, but not in a simple reaction task. These results suggest that P100 reflects changes in the physical properties of faces and that N170 is involved in own-species selectivity. The LP component seems to represent species categorization that occurs 350 msec after stimulus onset. PMID:25975645

  18. Neural substrates of species-dependent visual processing of faces: use of morphed faces.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Emi; Ogata, Katsuya; Kishimoto, Junji; Tanaka, Mutsuhide; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamasaki, Takao; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2015-05-01

    Face identification and categorization are essential for social communication. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) is considered to be a biomarker of face perception. To elucidate the neural basis of species-dependent face processing, we recorded 128-ch high-density ERPs in 14 healthy adults while they viewed the images of morphed faces. The morphed stimuli contained different proportions of human and monkey faces, and the species boundary was shifted away from the center of the morph continuum. Three experiments were performed to determine how task requirement, facial orientation, and spatial frequency (SF) of visual stimuli affected ERPs. In an equal SF condition, the latency, and amplitude of the occipital P100 for upright faces were modulated in a monotonic-like fashion by the level of morphing. In contrast, the N170 latency for upright faces was modulated in a step-like fashion, showing a flexion point that may reflect species discrimination. Although N170 amplitudes for upright faces were not modulated by morph level, they were modulated in a monotonic-like fashion by inverted faces. The late positive (LP) component (350-550 msec) in the parietal region was modulated in a U-shaped function by morph level during a categorization task, but not in a simple reaction task. These results suggest that P100 reflects changes in the physical properties of faces and that N170 is involved in own-species selectivity. The LP component seems to represent species categorization that occurs 350 msec after stimulus onset. PMID:25975645

  19. Passing faces: sequence-dependent variations in the perceptual processing of emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Karl, Christian; Hewig, Johannes; Osinsky, Roman

    2016-10-01

    There is broad evidence that contextual factors influence the processing of emotional facial expressions. Yet temporal-dynamic aspects, inter alia how face processing is influenced by the specific order of neutral and emotional facial expressions, have been largely neglected. To shed light on this topic, we recorded electroencephalogram from 168 healthy participants while they performed a gender-discrimination task with angry and neutral faces. Our event-related potential (ERP) analyses revealed a strong emotional modulation of the N170 component, indicating that the basic visual encoding and emotional analysis of a facial stimulus happen, at least partially, in parallel. While the N170 and the late positive potential (LPP; 400-600 ms) were only modestly affected by the sequence of preceding faces, we observed a strong influence of face sequences on the early posterior negativity (EPN; 200-300 ms). Finally, the differing response patterns of the EPN and LPP indicate that these two ERPs represent distinct processes during face analysis: while the former seems to represent the integration of contextual information in the perception of a current face, the latter appears to represent the net emotional interpretation of a current face. PMID:26599470

  20. Face-Sensitive Processes One Hundred Milliseconds after Picture Onset

    PubMed Central

    Dering, Benjamin; Martin, Clara D.; Moro, Sancho; Pegna, Alan J.; Thierry, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The human face is the most studied object category in visual neuroscience. In a quest for markers of face processing, event-related potential (ERP) studies have debated whether two peaks of activity – P1 and N170 – are category-selective. Whilst most studies have used photographs of unaltered images of faces, others have used cropped faces in an attempt to reduce the influence of features surrounding the “face–object” sensu stricto. However, results from studies comparing cropped faces with unaltered objects from other categories are inconsistent with results from studies comparing whole faces and objects. Here, we recorded ERPs elicited by full front views of faces and cars, either unaltered or cropped. We found that cropping artificially enhanced the N170 whereas it did not significantly modulate P1. In a second experiment, we compared faces and butterflies, either unaltered or cropped, matched for size and luminance across conditions, and within a narrow contrast bracket. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the main findings of Experiment 1. We then used face–car morphs in a third experiment to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli (100% face, 70% face and 30% car, 30% face and 70% car, or 100% car) and the N170 failed to differentiate between faces and cars. Critically, in all three experiments, P1 amplitude was modulated in a face-sensitive fashion independent of cropping or morphing. Therefore, P1 is a reliable event sensitive to face processing as early as 100 ms after picture onset. PMID:21954382

  1. Emotions in Word and Face Processing: Early and Late Cortical Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotion effects in word processing resemble those in other stimulus domains such as pictures or faces. The present study aims to provide more direct evidence for this notion by comparing emotion effects in word and face processing in a within-subject design. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded as…

  2. Semantic processing during morphological priming: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Iakimova, Galina; Ziegler, Johannes C; Colé, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has yielded conflicting results regarding the onset of semantic processing during morphological priming. The present study was designed to further explore the time-course of morphological processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). We conducted a primed lexical decision study comparing a morphological (LAVAGE - laver [washing - wash]), a semantic (LINGE - laver [laundry - wash]), an orthographic (LAVANDE - laver [lavender - wash]), and an unrelated control condition (HOSPICE - laver [nursing home - wash]), using the same targets across the four priming conditions. The behavioral data showed significant effects of morphological and semantic priming, with the magnitude of morphological priming being significantly larger than the magnitude of semantic priming. The ERP data revealed significant morphological but no semantic priming at 100-250 ms. Furthermore, a reduction of the N400 amplitude in the morphological condition compared to the semantic and orthographic condition demonstrates that the morphological priming effect was not entirely due to the semantic or orthographic overlap between the prime and the target. The present data reflect an early process of semantically blind morphological decomposition, and a later process of morpho-semantic decomposition, which we discuss in the context of recent morphological processing theories. PMID:25020124

  3. Perceptual face processing in developmental prosopagnosia is not sensitive to the canonical location of face parts.

    PubMed

    Towler, John; Parketny, Joanna; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but it is controversial whether this deficit is linked to atypical visual-perceptual face processing mechanisms. Previous behavioural studies have suggested that face perception in DP might be less sensitive to the canonical spatial configuration of face parts in upright faces. To test this prediction, we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to intact upright faces and to faces with spatially scrambled parts (eyes, nose, and mouth) in a group of ten participants with DP and a group of ten age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. The face-sensitive N170 component and the vertex positive potential (VPP) were both enhanced and delayed for scrambled as compared to intact faces in the control group. In contrast, N170 and VPP amplitude enhancements to scrambled faces were absent in the DP group. For control participants, the N170 to scrambled faces was also sensitive to feature locations, with larger and delayed N170 components contralateral to the side where all features appeared in a non-canonical position. No such differences were present in the DP group. These findings suggest that spatial templates of the prototypical feature locations within an upright face are selectively impaired in DP. PMID:26649913

  4. The Neural Correlates of Processing Newborn and Adult Faces in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and…

  5. Responsibility modulates neural mechanisms of outcome processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Han, Chunhui; Lei, Yi; Holroyd, Clay B; Li, Hong

    2011-08-01

    The role of personal responsibility in decision-making and its influence on the outcome evaluation process have been investigated relatively rarely in cognitive neuroscience. The present event-related brain potential (ERP) study manipulated the subjective sense of responsibility by modifying outcome controllability in a gambling task. Participants reported a higher sense of responsibility and produced a larger fERN when they were told that the game was 'controllable' compared with when they were told that the game was 'uncontrollable.' In addition, fERN amplitude was correlated with individual self-reports of personal responsibility over the outcomes. These results indicate that self-attribution of responsibility associated with different degrees of controllability affects the outcome evaluation process and fERN amplitude. PMID:21729102

  6. Personal familiarity influences the processing of upright and inverted faces in infants.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin J; Nelson, Charles A; Westerlund, Alissa; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Riggins, Tracy; Kuefner, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Infant face processing becomes more selective during the first year of life as a function of varying experience with distinct face categories defined by species, race, and age. Given that any individual face belongs to many such categories (e.g. A young Caucasian man's face) we asked how the neural selectivity for one aspect of facial appearance was affected by category membership along another dimension of variability. 6-month-old infants were shown upright and inverted pictures of either their own mother or a stranger while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We found that the amplitude of the P400 (a face-sensitive ERP component) was only sensitive to the orientation of the mother's face, suggesting that "tuning" of the neural response to faces is realized jointly across multiple dimensions of face appearance. PMID:20204154

  7. Does ERP Hands-On Experience Help Students Learning Business Process Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzo, Thomas; Han, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, more and more business schools are attempting to teach business processes (BPs) by using enterprise resource planning (ERP) software in their curricula. Currently, most studies involving ERP software in the academy have concentrated on learning and teaching via self-assessment surveys or curriculum integration. This research…

  8. A Critical Review of ERP and fMRI Evidence on L2 Syntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotz, Sonja A.

    2009-01-01

    The current review focuses on recent event-related brain potential (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in L2 syntactic processing data. To this end, critical factors influencing both the dynamics of neural mechanisms (ERPs) and critical functional brain correlates (fMRI) are discussed. These entail the critical period…

  9. Configural Processing and Face Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor

    2008-01-01

    Configural/holistic processing, a key property of face recognition, has previously been examined only for front views of faces. Here, 6 experiments tested front (0 degree), three-quarter (45 degree), and profile views (90 degree), using composite and peripheral inversion tasks. Results showed an overall disadvantage in identifying profiles. This…

  10. Unfolding the spatial and temporal neural processing of lying about face familiarity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Delin; Lee, Tatia M C; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2015-04-01

    To understand the neural processing underpinnings of deception, this study employed both neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and neurophysiological (event-related potential, ERP) methodologies to examine the temporal and spatial coupling of the neural correlates and processes that occur when one lies about face familiarity. This was performed using simple directed lying tasks. According to cues provided by the researchers, the 17 participants were required to respond truthfully or with lies to a series of faces. The findings confirmed that lie and truth conditions are associated with different fMRI activations in the ventrolateral, dorsolateral, and dorsal medial-frontal cortices; premotor cortex, and inferior parietal gyrus. They are also associated with different amplitudes within the time interval between 300 and 1000 ms post face stimulus, after the initiation (270 ms) of face familiarity processing. These results support the cognitive model that suggests representations of truthful information are first aroused and then manipulated during deception. Stronger fMRI activations at the left inferior frontal gyrus and more positive-going ERP amplitudes within [1765, 1800] ms were observed in the contrast between lie and truth for familiar than for unfamiliar faces. The fMRI and ERP findings, together with ERP source reconstruction, clearly delineate the neural processing of face familiarity deception. PMID:24186897

  11. Re-examination of Chinese semantic processing and syntactic processing: evidence from conventional ERPs and reconstructed ERPs by residue iteration decomposition (RIDE).

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Ouyang, Guang; Zhou, Changsong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the time course of Chinese semantic and syntactic processing. However, whether syntactic processing occurs earlier than semantics during Chinese sentence reading is still under debate. To further explore this issue, an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment was conducted on 21 native Chinese speakers who read individually-presented Chinese simple sentences (NP1+VP+NP2) word-by-word for comprehension and made semantic plausibility judgments. The transitivity of the verbs was manipulated to form three types of stimuli: congruent sentences (CON), sentences with a semantically violated NP2 following a transitive verb (semantic violation, SEM), and sentences with a semantically violated NP2 following an intransitive verb (combined semantic and syntactic violation, SEM+SYN). The ERPs evoked from the target NP2 were analyzed by using the Residue Iteration Decomposition (RIDE) method to reconstruct the ERP waveform blurred by trial-to-trial variability, as well as by using the conventional ERP method based on stimulus-locked averaging. The conventional ERP analysis showed that, compared with the critical words in CON, those in SEM and SEM+SYN elicited an N400-P600 biphasic pattern. The N400 effects in both violation conditions were of similar size and distribution, but the P600 in SEM+SYN was bigger than that in SEM. Compared with the conventional ERP analysis, RIDE analysis revealed a larger N400 effect and an earlier P600 effect (in the time window of 500-800 ms instead of 570-810ms). Overall, the combination of conventional ERP analysis and the RIDE method for compensating for trial-to-trial variability confirmed the non-significant difference between SEM and SEM+SYN in the earlier N400 time window. Converging with previous findings on other Chinese structures, the current study provides further precise evidence that syntactic processing in Chinese does not occur earlier than semantic processing. PMID:25615600

  12. Trust at first sight: evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Righi, Stefania; Ottonello, Sara; Cincotta, Massimo; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to tap the temporal dynamics of first impressions based on face appearance. Participants were asked to evaluate briefly presented faces for trustworthiness and political choice. Behaviorally, participants were better at discriminating faces that were pre-rated as untrustworthy. The ERP results showed that the P100 component was enhanced for untrustworthy faces, consistently with the view that signals of potential threat are given precedence in neural processing. The enhanced ERP responses to untrustworthy faces persisted throughout the processing sequence and the amplitude of early posterior negativity (EPN), and subsequent late positive potential (LPP) was increased with respect to trustworthy faces which, in contrast, elicited an enhanced positivity around 150 ms on frontal sites. These ERP patterns were found specifically for the trustworthiness evaluation and not for the political decision task. Political decision yielded an increase in the N170 amplitude, reflecting a more demanding and taxing structural encoding. Similar ERP responses, as previously reported in the literature for facial expressions processing, were found throughout the entire time course specifically elicited by faces explicitly judged as untrustworthy. One possibility might be that evolution has provided the brain with a ‘special toolkit’ for trust evaluation that is fast and triggers ERPs related to emotional processing. PMID:22956674

  13. Time course of facial emotion processing in women with borderline personality disorder: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Izurieta Hidalgo, Natalie A.; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Nagy, Krisztina; Mancke, Falk; Bohus, Martin; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bertsch, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a negative perception of others. Previous studies have revealed deficits and biases in facial emotion recognition. This study investigates the behavioural and electrophysiological correlates underlying facial emotion processing in individuals with BPD. Methods The present study was conducted between July 2012 and May 2014. In an emotion classification task, unmedicated female patients with BPD as well as healthy women had to classify faces displaying blends of anger and happiness while the electroencephalogram was recorded. We analyzed visual event-related potentials (ERPs) reflecting early (P100), structural (N170) and categorical (P300) facial processing in addition to behavioural responses. Results We included 36 women with BPD and 29 controls in our analysis. Patients with BPD were more likely than controls to classify predominantly happy faces as angry. Independent of facial emotion, women with BPD showed enhanced early occipital P100 amplitudes. Additionally, temporo-occipital N170 amplitudes were reduced at right hemispherical electrode sites. Centroparietal P300 amplitudes were reduced particularly for predominantly happy faces and increased for highly angry faces in women with BPD, whereas in healthy volunteers this component was modulated by both angry and happy facial affect. Limitations Our sample included only women, and no clinical control group was investigated. Conclusion Our findings suggest reduced thresholds for facial anger and deficits in the discrimination of facial happiness in individuals with BPD. This biased perception is associated with alterations in very early visual as well as deficient structural and categorical processing of faces. The current data could help to explain the negative perception of others that may be related to the patients’ impairments in interpersonal functioning. PMID:26269211

  14. Combination of PCA and LORETA for sources analysis of ERP data: an emotional processing study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Tian, Jie; Yang, Lei; Pan, Xiaohong; Liu, Jiangang

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity in emotional processing by analysis of ERP data. 108 pictures (categorized as positive, negative and neutral) were presented to 24 healthy, right-handed subjects while 128-channel EEG data were recorded. An analysis of two steps was applied to the ERP data. First, principal component analysis was performed to obtain significant ERP components. Then LORETA was applied to each component to localize their brain sources. The first six principal components were extracted, each of which showed different spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity. The results agree with other emotional study by fMRI or PET. The combination of PCA and LORETA can be used to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of ERP data in emotional processing.

  15. Neural Correlates of Human and Monkey Face Processing in 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lisa S.; Shannon, Robert W.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence suggests a gradual, experience-dependent specialization of cortical face processing systems that takes place largely in the 1st year of life. To further investigate these findings, event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected from typically developing 9-month-old infants presented with pictures of…

  16. Comprehending how visual context influences incremental sentence processing: insights from ERPs and picture-sentence verification

    PubMed Central

    Knoeferle, Pia; Urbach, Thomas P.; Kutas, Marta

    2010-01-01

    To re-establish picture-sentence verification – discredited possibly for its over-reliance on post-sentence response time (RT) measures - as a task for situated comprehension, we collected event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as participants read a subject-verb-object sentence, and RTs indicating whether or not the verb matched a previously depicted action. For mismatches (vs matches), speeded RTs were longer, verb N400s over centro-parietal scalp larger, and ERPs to the object noun more negative. RTs (congruence effect) correlated inversely with the centro-parietal verb N400s, and positively with the object ERP congruence effects. Verb N400s, object ERPs, and verbal working memory scores predicted more variance in RT effects (50%) than N400s alone. Thus, (1) verification processing is not all post-sentence; (2) simple priming cannot account for these results; and (3) verification tasks can inform studies of situated comprehension. PMID:20701712

  17. ERP evidence for the speed of face categorization in the human brain: Disentangling the contribution of low-level visual cues from face perception.

    PubMed

    Rossion, Bruno; Caharel, Stéphanie

    2011-06-21

    How fast are visual stimuli categorized as faces by the human brain? Because of their high temporal resolution and the possibility to record simultaneously from the whole brain, electromagnetic scalp measurements should be the ideal method to clarify this issue. However, this question remains debated, with studies reporting face-sensitive responses varying from 50 ms to 200 ms following stimulus onset. Here we disentangle the contribution of the information associated with the phenomenological experience of a face (phase) from low-level visual cues (amplitude spectrum, color) in accounting for early face-sensitivity in the human brain. Pictures of faces and of a category of familiar objects (cars), as well as their phase-scrambled versions, were presented to fifteen human participants tested with high-density (128 channels) EEG. We replicated an early face-sensitivity - larger response to pictures of faces than cars - at the level of the occipital event-related potential (ERP) P1 (80- ). However, a similar larger P1 to phase-scrambled faces than phase-scrambled cars was also found. In contrast, the occipito-temporal N170 was much larger in amplitude for pictures of intact faces than cars, especially in the right hemisphere, while the small N170 elicited by phase-scrambled stimuli did not differ for faces and cars. These findings show that sensitivity to faces on the visual evoked potentials P1 and N1 (N170) is functionally dissociated: the P1 face-sensitivity is driven by low-level visual cues while the N1 (or N170) face-sensitivity reflects the perception of a face. Altogether, these observations indicate that the earliest access to a high-level face representation, that is, a face percept, does not precede the N170 onset in the human brain. Furthermore, they allow resolving apparent discrepancies between the timing of rapid human saccades towards faces and the early activation of high-level facial representations as shown by electrophysiological studies in the

  18. Too bad: Bias for angry faces in social anxiety interferes with identity processing.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Julian; Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The recognition of faces across incidences is a complex function of the human brain and a crucial ability for communication and daily interactions. This first study on ERP correlates of emotional face learning in social anxiety disorder (SAD) investigates whether the known attentional bias for threatening faces leads to a corresponding memory bias. Therefore, 21 patients with SAD and 21 healthy controls (HCs) learned faces with emotional facial expressions (neutral, happy, and angry) and were later asked to recognize these out of novel identities all presented with a neutral facial expression. EEG was recorded throughout. Behaviorally, the faces' emotional expression modulated later recognition in terms of accuracy, response times, signal detection parameters and ratings of valence, but with better performance for happy than angry faces in HC as well as in SAD. In the learning phase, attention- and memory-associated event-related potentials (ERPs) P100, N170, P200, N250/EPN, and LPP indicated enhanced processing of angry faces, which was restricted to patients with SAD in N250/EPN and LPP. In the test phase, familiarity effects emerged in N250, FN400 and LPP. While N250 was affected by learned-angry faces, FN400 and LPP reflected image learning of neutral faces, which was restricted to SAD in LPP. We replicated the attentional bias to threatening faces, which was not restricted to early ERP components, but was prolonged to later stages of conscious processing, especially in SAD. In contrast to what had been expected, sustained hypervigilance to the emotional content seems to have impaired the processing of the facial identity, resulting in a happy face advantage at the behavioral level. This could be explained by prominent models assuming separate processing of facial emotion and identity. Hypervigilance in SAD might be a disadvantage in those studies focusing on other aspects of face processing than emotion. PMID:26878979

  19. Attention to Faces Modulates Early Face Processing during Low but not High Face Discriminability

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Kartik K.; Goldstein, Jonathan M.; Lustig, Audrey G.; Rivas, Luis R.; Jha, Amishi P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated if attention to faces results in sensory gain modulation. Participants were cued to attend to faces or scenes in superimposed face-scene images while face discriminability was parametrically manipulated across images. The face-sensitive N170 event-related potential component was used as a measure of early face processing. Attention to faces modulated N170 amplitude, but only when faces were not highly discriminable. Additionally, directing attention to faces modulated later processing (~230–300 msec) for all discriminability levels. These results demonstrate that attention to faces can modulate perceptual processing of faces at multiple stages of processing, including early sensory levels. Critically, the early attentional benefit is present only when the “face signal” (i.e., the perceptual quality of the face) in the environment is suboptimal. PMID:19429962

  20. The time course of social-emotional processing in early childhood: ERP responses to facial affect and personal familiarity in a Go-Nogo task.

    PubMed

    Todd, Rebecca M; Lewis, Marc D; Meusel, Liesel-Ann; Zelazo, Philip David

    2008-01-31

    To date, little is known about the neural underpinnings of social-emotional processes in young children. The present study investigated the time course of children's ERP responses to facial expression and personal familiarity, and the effect of these variables on ERP measures of effortful attention in a Go-Nogo task. Dense-array EEG was collected from 48 4-6-year-old children who were presented with pictures of their mothers' and strangers' happy and angry faces. ERPs were scored following face presentation and following a subsequent cue signaling a Go or Nogo response. Responses to face presentation showed early perceptual components that were larger following strangers' faces, suggesting facilitated rapid processing of personally important faces. A mid-latency frontocentral negativity was greatest following angry mothers' faces, indicating increased attentional monitoring and/or recognition memory evoked by an angry parent. Finally a right-lateralized late positive component was largest following angry faces, suggesting extended processing of negatively valenced social stimuli in general. Following the Go-Nogo response cue, a right-lateralized mid-latency negativity thought to measure effortful attention was larger in Nogo than Go trials, and following angry than happy faces, possibly reflecting increased effortful control required in those conditions. The present study suggests that overlapping but differentiated networks for both rapid and elaborative processing of important socio-affective information are established by 4-6 years. Moreover, the extended spatial and temporal distribution of components suggests a pattern of response to social stimuli in which more rapid processes may index personal familiarity, whereas temporally extended processes are sensitive to affective valence on both familiar and unfamiliar faces. PMID:18061633

  1. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  2. Self-face enhances processing of immediately preceding invisible faces.

    PubMed

    Pannese, Alessia; Hirsch, Joy

    2011-02-01

    The self-face is thought to be an especially salient stimulus. Behavioral evidence suggests that self-face processing advantage is associated with enhanced processing of temporally adjacent subliminal stimuli. However, the neural basis of this self-related processing modulation has not been investigated. We studied self-face induced signal amplification through masked priming and repetition suppression (fMRI adaptation). Subjects performed a gender-categorization task on self- and non-self target faces preceded by subliminal (17 ms) prime faces. The relationship between prime and target was varied between task-incongruent (when prime and target belonged to a different gender) and task-congruent (when prime and target belonged to the same gender) pairs. We found that, in the presence of the visible self-face (but not of other non-self faces), a bilateral fronto-parietal network exhibited repetition suppression to subliminal prime faces belonging to the same gender (task-congruent) as the target, consistent with the notion that, in the presence of the self-face, subliminal stimuli access high-level processing systems. These results are in agreement with the notion of self-specific top-down amplification of subliminal task-relevant information, and suggest that the self-face, through its high salience, is particularly efficacious in focusing attention. PMID:21168427

  3. Processing Biological Gender and Number Information during Chinese Pronoun Resolution: ERP Evidence for Functional Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaodong; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of behavioral and neural studies on the processing of syntactic gender and number agreement information, marked by different morpho-syntactic features during sentence comprehension. By using the event-related potential (ERP) technique, the present study investigated whether the processing of semantic gender information and…

  4. Cognitive mechanisms of face processing.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A W

    1992-01-29

    Evidence from natural and induced errors of face recognition, from the effects of different cues on resolving errors, and from the latencies to make different decisions about seen faces, all suggest that familiar face recognition involves a fixed, invariant sequence of stages. To recognize a familiar face, a perceptual description of a seen face must first activate a long-standing representation of the appearance of the face of the familiar person. 'Semantic' knowledge about such things as the person's occupation and personality are accessed next, followed, in the final stage, by the name. Certain factors affect the ease of familiar face recognition. Faces seen in the recent past are recognized more readily (repetition priming), as are distinctive faces, and faces preceded by those of related individuals (associative priming). Our knowledge of these phenomena is reviewed for the light it can shed upon the mechanisms of face recognition. Four aspects of face recognition--graded similarity effects and part-to-whole completion in repetition priming, prototype extraction with simultaneous retention of information about individual exemplars, and distinctiveness effects in classification and identification--are proposed as being compatible with distributed memory accounts of cognitive representations. PMID:1348131

  5. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits. PMID:24691394

  6. Brain–Behavior Correlations: Relationships Between Mother–Stranger Face Processing and Infants’ Behavioral Responses to a Separation From Mother

    PubMed Central

    Swingler, Margaret M.; Sweet, Monica A.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 6-month-olds (N = 30) as they looked at pictures of their mother’s face and a stranger’s face. Negative component (Nc) and P400 component responses from the ERP portion of the study were correlated with behavioral responses of the infants during a separation from their mothers. We measured the mother-directed infant behaviors of distress and visual search for mother during separation in order to determine if they were predictive of infants’ brain responses to pictures of the mother’s face versus a stranger’s face. These behavioral measures are important because they likely reflect the functioning of the emerging mother–child relationship and inform debates about interactions between social experience and face processing. Infant distress and visual search for mother during separation were predictive of face processing ERPs, and this relationship differed across mother and stranger face presentations. In particular, distress was associated with larger amplitude P400 and Nc responses to the mother’s face, and visual search for mother was associated with longer P400 and Nc latencies to the stranger’s face. Implications for the developing mother–child relationship and face processing system are discussed. PMID:20438178

  7. The influence of emotion on face processing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    According to the broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions broaden one's thought-action repertoire, which may manifest as a widened attentional scope in cognitive processing. The present study directly tests this hypothesis by examining the influences of induced emotions (positive, neutral and negative) on holistic processing of face (Experiment 1) and face discrimination (Experiment 2). In both experiments, emotions induced with images from the International Affective Picture System significantly interacted with face processing. That is, positive emotions engendered greater holistic face encoding in a composite-face task in Experiment 1 and more accurate face discrimination in Experiment 2, relative to the neutral condition. In contrast, negative emotions impaired holistic face encoding in the composite-face task and reduced face discrimination accuracy. Taken together, these results provide further support for the attentional broadening effect of positive affect by demonstrating that induced positive emotions facilitate holistic/configural processing. PMID:25621898

  8. Subliminal presentation of other faces (but not own face) primes behavioral and evoked cortical processing of empathy for pain.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Hurtado, Esteban; Lobos, Alejandro; Escobar, Josefina; Trujillo, Natalia; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Manes, Facundo; Decety, Jean

    2011-06-29

    Current research on empathy for pain emphasizes the overlap in the neural response between the first-hand experience of pain and its perception in others. However, recent studies suggest that the perception of the pain of others may reflect the processing of a threat or negative arousal rather than an automatic pro-social response. It can thus be suggested that pain processing of other-related, but not self-related, information could imply danger rather than empathy, due to the possible threat represented in the expressions of others (especially if associated with pain stimuli). To test this hypothesis, two experiments considering subliminal stimuli were designed. In Experiment 1, neutral and semantic pain expressions previously primed with own or other faces were presented to participants. When other-face priming was used, only the detection of semantic pain expressions was facilitated. In Experiment 2, pictures with pain and neutral scenarios previously used in ERP and fMRI research were used in a categorization task. Those pictures were primed with own or other faces following the same procedure as in Experiment 1 while ERPs were recorded. Early (N1) and late (P3) cortical responses between pain and no-pain were modulated only in the other-face priming condition. These results support the threat value of pain hypothesis and suggest the necessity for the inclusion of own- versus other-related information in future empathy for pain research. PMID:21624566

  9. Alterations in neural processing of emotional faces in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients - an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Sfärlea, Anca; Greimel, Ellen; Platt, Belinda; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Dieler, Alica C

    2016-09-01

    The present study explored the neurophysiological correlates of perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) patients using event-related potentials (ERPs). We included 20 adolescent girls with AN and 24 healthy girls and recorded ERPs during a passive viewing task and three active tasks requiring processing of emotional faces in varying processing depths; one of the tasks also assessed emotion recognition abilities behaviourally. Despite the absence of behavioural differences, we found that across all tasks AN patients exhibited a less pronounced early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to all facial expressions compared to controls. The EPN is an ERP component reflecting an automatic, perceptual processing stage which is modulated by the intrinsic salience of a stimulus. Hence, the less pronounced EPN in anorexic girls suggests that they might perceive other people's faces as less intrinsically relevant, i.e. as less "important" than do healthy girls. PMID:27345597

  10. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  11. ERP Study of Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing in Treatment-Refractory Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milovan, Denise L.; Baribeau, Jacinthe; Roth, Robert M.; Stip, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have demonstrated impaired auditory sensory processing in patients with schizophrenia, as reflected in abnormal mismatch negativity (MMN). We sought to extend this finding by evaluating MMN in 13 treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia, and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Subjects…

  12. Deduction Electrified: ERPs Elicited by the Processing of Words in Conditional Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the ERP components associated with the processing of words that are critical to generating and rejecting deductive conditional Modus Ponens arguments ("If P then Q; P//"Therefore, "Q"). The generation of a logical inference is investigated by placing a verb in the minor premise that matches the one used in the antecedent of…

  13. Semantic Integration Processes at Different Levels of Syntactic Hierarchy during Sentence Comprehension: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Jiang, Xiaoming; Ye, Zheng; Zhang, Yaxu; Lou, Kaiyang; Zhan, Weidong

    2010-01-01

    An event-related potential (ERP) study was conducted to investigate the temporal neural dynamics of semantic integration processes at different levels of syntactic hierarchy during Chinese sentence reading. In a hierarchical structure, "subject noun" + "verb" + "numeral" + "classifier" + "object noun," the object noun is constrained by selectional…

  14. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  15. An ERP Study of the Processing of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Mieko; Garnsey, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Using reading times and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated the processing of Japanese subject and object relative clauses (SRs/ORs). Previous research on English relative clauses shows that ORs take longer to read (King & Just, 1991) and elicit anterior negativity between fillers and gaps (King & Kutas, 1995), which is…

  16. Concreteness in Word Processing: ERP and Behavioral Effects in a Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Horacio A.; Otten, Leun J.; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Relative to abstract words, concrete words typically elicit faster response times and larger N400 and N700 event-related potential (ERP) brain responses. These effects have been interpreted as reflecting the denser links to associated semantic information of concrete words and their recruitment of visual imagery processes. Here, we examined…

  17. Sentence Integration Processes: An ERP Study of Chinese Sentence Comprehension with Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chin Lung; Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to sentence constituent relations, it allows a test of…

  18. Self-referential processing in adolescents: Stability of behavioral and ERP markers.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Randy P; Bondy, Erin; Stanton, Colin H; Webb, Christian A; Shankman, Stewart A; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2016-09-01

    The self-referential encoding task (SRET)-an implicit measure of self-schema-has been used widely to probe cognitive biases associated with depression, including among adolescents. However, research testing the stability of behavioral and electrocortical effects is sparse. Therefore, the current study sought to evaluate the stability of behavioral markers and ERPs elicited from the SRET over time in healthy, female adolescents (n = 31). At baseline, participants were administered a diagnostic interview and a self-report measure of depression severity. In addition, they completed the SRET while 128-channel ERP data were recorded to examine early (P1) and late (late positive potential [LPP]) ERPs. Three months later, participants were readministered the depression self-report measure and the SRET in conjunction with ERPs. Results revealed that healthy adolescents endorsed, recalled, and recognized more positive and fewer negative words at each assessment, and these effects were stable over time (rs = .44-.83). Similarly, they reported a faster reaction time when endorsing self-relevant positive words, as opposed to negative words, at both the initial and follow-up assessment (r = .82). Second, ERP responses, specifically potentiated P1 and late LPP positivity to positive versus negative words, were consistent over time (rs = .56-.83), and the internal reliability of ERPs were robust at each time point (rs = .52-.80). As a whole, these medium-to-large effects suggest that the SRET is a reliable behavioral and neural probe of self-referential processing. PMID:27302282

  19. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  20. Emotional cues during simultaneous face and voice processing: electrophysiological insights.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A

    2012-01-01

    Both facial expression and tone of voice represent key signals of emotional communication but their brain processing correlates remain unclear. Accordingly, we constructed a novel implicit emotion recognition task consisting of simultaneously presented human faces and voices with neutral, happy, and angry valence, within the context of recognizing monkey faces and voices task. To investigate the temporal unfolding of the processing of affective information from human face-voice pairings, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to these audiovisual test stimuli in 18 normal healthy subjects; N100, P200, N250, P300 components were observed at electrodes in the frontal-central region, while P100, N170, P270 were observed at electrodes in the parietal-occipital region. Results indicated a significant audiovisual stimulus effect on the amplitudes and latencies of components in frontal-central (P200, P300, and N250) but not the parietal occipital region (P100, N170 and P270). Specifically, P200 and P300 amplitudes were more positive for emotional relative to neutral audiovisual stimuli, irrespective of valence, whereas N250 amplitude was more negative for neutral relative to emotional stimuli. No differentiation was observed between angry and happy conditions. The results suggest that the general effect of emotion on audiovisual processing can emerge as early as 200 msec (P200 peak latency) post stimulus onset, in spite of implicit affective processing task demands, and that such effect is mainly distributed in the frontal-central region. PMID:22383987

  1. N170 ERPs could represent a logographic processing strategy in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gregory; Petit, Laurent; Bernard, Christian; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Background Occipito-temporal N170 component represents the first step where face, object and word processing are discriminated along the ventral stream of the brain. N170 leftward asymmetry observed during reading has been often associated to prelexical orthographic visual word form activation. However, some studies reported a lexical frequency effect for this component particularly during word repetition that appears in contradiction with this prelexical orthographic step. Here, we tested the hypothesis that under word repetition condition, discrimination between words would be operated on visual rather than orthographic basis. In this case, N170 activity may correspond to a logographic processing where a word is processed as a whole. Methods To test such an assumption, frequent words, infrequent words and pseudowords were presented to the subjects that had to complete a visual lexical decision task. Different repetition conditions were defined 1 – weak repetition, 2 – massive repetition and 3 – massive repetition with font alternation. This last condition was designed to change visual word shape during repetition and therefore to interfere with a possible visual strategy during word recognition. Results Behavioral data showed an important frequency effect for the weak repetition condition, a lower but significant frequency effect for massive repetition, and no frequency effect for the changing font repetition. Moreover alternating font repetitions slowed subject's responses in comparison to "simple" massive repetition. ERPs results evidenced larger N170 amplitude in the left hemisphere for frequent than both infrequent words and pseudowords during massive repetition. Moreover, when words were repeated with different fonts this N170 effect was not present, suggesting a visual locus for such a N170 frequency effect. Conclusion N170 represents an important step in visual word recognition, consisting probably in a prelexical orthographic processing. But during

  2. The Effect of Affective Context on Visuocortical Processing of Neutral Faces in Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Matthias J.; Moscovitch, David A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that verbal context information alters the neural processing of ambiguous faces such as faces with no apparent facial expression. In social anxiety, neutral faces may be implicitly threatening for socially anxious individuals due to their ambiguous nature, but even more so if these neutral faces are put in self-referential negative contexts. Therefore, we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to neutral faces which were preceded by affective verbal information (negative, neutral, positive). Participants with low social anxiety (LSA; n = 23) and high social anxiety (HSA; n = 21) were asked to watch and rate valence and arousal of the respective faces while continuous EEG was recorded. ERP analysis revealed that HSA showed elevated P100 amplitudes in response to faces, but reduced structural encoding of faces as indexed by reduced N170 amplitudes. In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN) for negative compared to neutral facial expressions. Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP) to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts. Also, HSA rated faces in negative contexts as more negative compared to LSA. These results point at enhanced vigilance for neutral faces regardless of context in HSA, while structural encoding seems to be diminished (avoidance). Interestingly, later components of sustained processing (LPP) indicate that LSA show enhanced visuocortical processing for faces in positive contexts (happy bias), whereas this seems to be the case for negatively contextualized faces in HSA (threat bias). Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception. PMID:26648889

  3. Age-related differences in event-related potentials for early visual processing of emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    With advancing age, processing resources are shifted away from negative emotional stimuli and toward positive ones. Here, we explored this 'positivity effect' using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants identified the presence or absence of a visual probe that appeared over photographs of emotional faces. The ERPs elicited by the onsets of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces were recorded. We examined the frontocentral emotional positivity (FcEP), which is defined as a positive deflection in the waveforms elicited by emotional expressions relative to neutral faces early on in the time course of the ERP. The FcEP is thought to reflect enhanced early processing of emotional expressions. The results show that within the first 130 ms young adults show an FcEP to negative emotional expressions, whereas older adults show an FcEP to positive emotional expressions. These findings provide additional evidence that the age-related positivity effect in emotion processing can be traced to automatic processes that are evident very early in the processing of emotional facial expressions. PMID:23677489

  4. Age-related changes in emotional face processing across childhood and into young adulthood: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Vergés, Alvaro; Kujawa, Autumn; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Monk, Christopher S; Phan, K Luan

    2016-01-01

    Socio-emotional processing is an essential part of development, and age-related changes in its neural correlates can be observed. The late positive potential (LPP) is a measure of motivated attention that can be used to assess emotional processing; however, changes in the LPP elicited by emotional faces have not been assessed across a wide age range in childhood and young adulthood. We used an emotional face matching task to examine behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 33 youth aged 7-19 years old. Younger children were slower when performing the matching task. The LPP elicited by emotional faces but not control stimuli (geometric shapes) decreased with age; by contrast, an earlier ERP (the P1) decreased with age for both faces and shapes, suggesting increased efficiency of early visual processing. Results indicate age-related attenuation in emotional processing that may stem from greater efficiency and regulatory control when performing a socio-emotional task. PMID:26220144

  5. Eye-Tracking, Autonomic, and Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Face Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Hirsch, Suzanna B.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Redcay, Elizabeth; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty with social-emotional cues. This study examined the neural, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD) using eye-tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) across two different paradigms. Scanning of…

  6. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  7. Cognitive inefficiency in depressive undergraduates: stroop processing and ERPs.

    PubMed

    Krompinger, Jason W; Simons, Robert F

    2011-03-01

    Evidence from neuroimaging studies indicates that depressive symptomatology is associated with inefficient recruitment of prefrontal brain regions while performing tasks that tax executive function. In the current study, we investigated the time-course and ERP signature of inefficient executive functioning using a verbal Stroop color-naming task. Twenty (20) undergraduates with moderate to severe BDI-II depression scores and 20 low-scoring controls completed the task. Performance measures did not differ between the two groups. Overt reaction and P300 latencies indicated that all participants showed prominent Stroop effects, such that incongruent responses were delayed compared to congruent. Effects of task condition on the frontal N450 indicated that depressive participants differentiated congruent and incongruent trials earlier than did controls, and that the size of the congruency effect on the N450 was related to self-reported trait rumination among depressive participants. Following this effect, depressive participants showed larger P300s, suggesting an over-commitment of cognitive control resources in the depressive participants. These data lend further evidence to the cortical inefficiency hypothesis and extend the literature by indicating possible improper timing of neural activations during an executive task in depressive undergraduates. PMID:21185350

  8. Response to own name in children: ERP study of auditory social information processing.

    PubMed

    Key, Alexandra P; Jones, Dorita; Peters, Sarika U

    2016-09-01

    Auditory processing is an important component of cognitive development, and names are among the most frequently occurring receptive language stimuli. Although own name processing has been examined in infants and adults, surprisingly little data exist on responses to own name in children. The present ERP study examined spoken name processing in 32 children (M=7.85years) using a passive listening paradigm. Our results demonstrated that children differentiate own and close other's names from unknown names, as reflected by the enhanced parietal P300 response. The responses to own and close other names did not differ between each other. Repeated presentations of an unknown name did not result in the same familiarity as the known names. These results suggest that auditory ERPs to known/unknown names are a feasible means to evaluate complex auditory processing without the need for overt behavioral responses. PMID:27456543

  9. Wavelet networks for face processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, V.; Sommer, G.

    2002-06-01

    Wavelet networks (WNs) were introduced in 1992 as a combination of artificial neural radial basis function (RBF) networks and wavelet decomposition. Since then, however, WNs have received only a little attention. We believe that the potential of WNs has been generally underestimated. WNs have the advantage that the wavelet coefficients are directly related to the image data through the wavelet transform. In addition, the parameters of the wavelets in the WNs are subject to optimization, which results in a direct relation between the represented function and the optimized wavelets, leading to considerable data reduction (thus making subsequent algorithms much more efficient) as well as to wavelets that can be used as an optimized filter bank. In our study we analyze some WN properties and highlight their advantages for object representation purposes. We then present a series of results of experiments in which we used WNs for face tracking. We exploit the efficiency that is due to data reduction for face recognition and face-pose estimation by applying the optimized-filter-bank principle of the WNs.

  10. Self-Referential Processing in Depressed Adolescents: A High-Density ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Stanton, Colin H.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the alarming increase in the prevalence of depression during adolescence, particularly among female adolescents, the pathophysiology of depression in adolescents remains largely unknown. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide an ideal approach to investigate cognitive-affective processes associated with depression in adolescents, especially in the context of negative self-referential processing biases. In this study, healthy (n = 30) and depressed (n = 22) female adolescents completed a self-referential encoding task while ERP data were recorded. To examine cognitive-affective processes associated with self-referential processing, P1, P2, and late positive potential (LPP) responses to negative and positive words were investigated, and intracortical sources of scalp effects were probed using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Additionally, we tested whether key cognitive processes (e.g., maladaptive self-view, self-criticism) previously implicated in depression related to ERP components. Relative to healthy female subjects, depressed females endorsed more negative and fewer positive words, and free recalled and recognized fewer positive words. With respect to ERPs, compared to healthy female adolescents, depressed adolescents exhibited greater P1 amplitudes following negative words, which was associated with a more maladaptive self-view and self-criticism. In both early and late LPP responses, depressed females showed greater activity following negative versus positive words, whereas healthy females demonstrated the opposite pattern. For both P1 and LPP, LORETA revealed reduced inferior frontal gyrus activity in response to negative words in depressed versus healthy female adolescents. Collectively, these findings suggest that the P1 and LPP reflect biased self-referential processing in female adolescents with depression. Potential treatment implications are discussed. PMID:25643205

  11. Cortisol-induced enhancement of emotional face processing in social phobia depends on symptom severity and motivational context.

    PubMed

    van Peer, Jacobien M; Spinhoven, Philip; van Dijk, J Gert; Roelofs, Karin

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of cortisol administration on approach and avoidance tendencies in 20 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which patients evaluated the emotional expression of photographs of happy and angry faces by making an approaching (flexion) or avoiding (extension) arm movement. Patients showed significant avoidance tendencies for angry but not for happy faces, both in the placebo and cortisol condition. Moreover, ERP analyses showed a significant interaction of condition by severity of social anxiety on early positive (P150) amplitudes during avoidance compared to approach, indicating that cortisol increases early processing of social stimuli (in particular angry faces) during avoidance. This result replicates previous findings from a non-clinical sample of high anxious individuals and demonstrates their relevance for clinical SAD. Apparently the cortisol-induced increase in processing of angry faces in SAD depends on symptom severity and motivational context. PMID:19428977

  12. Immediate Auditory Repetition of Words and Nonwords: An ERP Study of Lexical and Sublexical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Riddell, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    ERPs were elicited to (1) words, (2) pseudowords derived from these words, and (3) nonwords with no lexical neighbors, in a task involving listening to immediately repeated auditory stimuli. There was a significant early (P200) effect of phonotactic probability in the first auditory presentation, which discriminated words and pseudowords from nonwords; and a significant somewhat later (N400) effect of lexicality, which discriminated words from pseudowords and nonwords. There was no reliable effect of lexicality in the ERPs to the second auditory presentation. We conclude that early sublexical phonological processing differed according to phonotactic probability of the stimuli, and that lexically-based redintegration occurred for words but did not occur for pseudowords or nonwords. Thus, in online word recognition and immediate retrieval, phonological and/or sublexical processing plays a more important role than lexical level redintegration. PMID:24642662

  13. Long-term academic stress increases the late component of error processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhui; Yuan, Yiran; Duan, Hongxia; Qin, Shaozheng; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to long-term stress has a variety of consequences on the brain and cognition. Few studies have examined the influence of long-term stress on event related potential (ERP) indices of error processing. The current study investigated how long-term academic stress modulates the error related negativity (Ne or ERN) and the error positivity (Pe) components of error processing. Forty-one male participants undergoing preparation for a major academic examination and 20 non-exam participants completed a Go-NoGo task while ERP measures were collected. The exam group reported higher perceived stress levels and showed increased Pe amplitude compared with the non-exam group. Participants' rating of the importance of the exam was positively associated with the amplitude of Pe, but these effects were not found for the Ne/ERN. These results suggest that long-term academic stress leads to greater motivational assessment of and higher emotional response to errors. PMID:24657630

  14. Developmental Changes in Face Processing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Geldart, Sybil; Maurer, Daphne; Le Grand, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of slow development of processing differences among faces in the spacing among facial features (second-order relations). Computerized tasks involving various face-processing skills were used. Results of experiment with 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds and with adults indicated that slow development of sensitivity to…

  15. Processing pitch and duration in music reading: a RT-ERP study.

    PubMed

    Schön, Daniele; Besson, Mireille

    2002-01-01

    The originality of this study is to examine the processing of pitch and duration in music reading, using both electrophysiological and behavioral methods. Specifically, it was of interest to determine whether pitch and duration in music reading are processed independently or jointly. A probe, comprising a key and time signature was presented, and participants were required to compute the tonic and/or the best fitting duration. A target note followed the probe and participants made a match/mismatch judgment on the dimension they were required to analyze (i.e. pitch or duration). We hypothesized that, if pitch and duration are processed independently results should show no interference of the irrelevant dimension on the relevant. Results showed that early differences emerged in the ERPs as a function of the task to be performed on the target in block 1. Moreover, RTs were shorter in the pitch than in the duration task and for congruous than incongruous targets. In the ERPs, this congruity effect was reflected by a negative component, to incongruous targets. Most importantly, the congruency of the target note on the irrelevant dimension did not have any effect on the ERPs, suggesting that pitch and duration are processed independently. PMID:11900738

  16. The effect of a brief mindfulness induction on processing of emotional images: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Marianna D.; Brunyé, Tad T.; Tower-Richardi, Sarah; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to effectively direct one’s attention is an important aspect of regulating emotions and a component of mindfulness. Mindfulness practices have been established as effective interventions for mental and physical illness; however, the underlying neural mechanisms of mindfulness and how they relate to emotional processing have not been explored in depth. The current study used a within-subjects repeated measures design to examine if focused breathing, a brief mindfulness induction, could modulate event-related potentials (ERPs) during emotional image processing relative to a control condition. We related ERP measures of processing positive, negative, and neutral images (the P300 and late positive potential – LPP) to state and trait mindfulness measures. Overall, the brief mindfulness induction condition did not influence ERPs reflecting emotional processing; however, in the brief mindfulness induction condition, those participants who reported feeling more decentered (a subscale of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale) after viewing the images had reduced P300 responses to negative versus neutral images. PMID:26441766

  17. Two sides of gender: ERP evidence for the presence of two routes during gender agreement processing.

    PubMed

    Caffarra, Sendy; Janssen, Niels; Barber, Horacio A

    2014-10-01

    The present ERP study aimed at providing evidence for the existence of two routes in the brain for the processing of morphosyntactic features during language comprehension; a lexical route which retrieves grammatical properties stored in the lexicon without reliance on formal cues, and a form-based route that takes advantage of sub-lexical units strongly related to a specific grammatical class. In the experiment, we investigated grammatical gender agreement processing in Spanish article-noun word pairs using a grammaticality judgment task. Article-noun pairs either agreed or did not agree in gender. Noun transparency was manipulated such that the ending could be strongly associated with a specific gender class (i.e., transparent nouns) or not (i.e., opaque nouns). A visual half-field method was employed and ERPs were recorded in response to the target nouns in order to disentangle the initial hemisphere-specific computations of gender processing. ERP results showed that, while both hemispheres compute agreement dependencies, the left hemisphere is sensitive to the presence of formal gender cues at an early stage (i.e., 350-500 ms) indicating the presence of a form-based route. The right hemisphere showed an ERP effect of transparency, but later than the left hemisphere (i.e., 500-750 ms). These findings confirm the presence of two routes to gender, which can be differently used depending on the availability of transparent endings. In addition, the results showed hemispheric differences in the time course of the form-based route. PMID:25173710

  18. On the incrementality of pragmatic processing: An ERP investigation of informativeness and pragmatic abilities

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwland, Mante S.; Ditman, Tali; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2010-01-01

    In two event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we determined to what extent Grice’s maxim of informativeness as well as pragmatic ability contributes to the incremental build-up of sentence meaning, by examining the impact of underinformative versus informative scalar statements (e.g. “Some people have lungs/pets, and…”) on the N400 event-related potential (ERP), an electrophysiological index of semantic processing. In Experiment 1, only pragmatically skilled participants (as indexed by the Autism Quotient Communication subscale) showed a larger N400 to underinformative statements. In Experiment 2, this effect disappeared when the critical words were unfocused so that the local underinformativeness went unnoticed (e.g., “Some people have lungs that…”). Our results suggest that, while pragmatic scalar meaning can incrementally contribute to sentence comprehension, this contribution is dependent on contextual factors, whether these are derived from individual pragmatic abilities or the overall experimental context. PMID:20936088

  19. Normative Topographic ERP Analyses of Speed of Speech Processing and Grammar Before and After Grammatical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Paul J.; Molfese, Dennis; Murray, Micah M.; Key, Alexandra P. F.

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) preschoolers and age-matched preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) received event-related potentials (ERPs) to four monosyllabic speech sounds prior to treatment and, in the SLI group, after 6 months of grammatical treatment. Before treatment, the TD group processed speech sounds faster than the SLI group. The SLI group increased the speed of their speech processing after treatment. Post-treatment speed of speech processing predicted later impairment in comprehending phrase elaboration in the SLI group. During the treatment phase, change in speed of speech processing predicted growth rate of grammar in the SLI group. PMID:24219693

  20. Attention to individual identities modulates face processing.

    PubMed

    Ruz, María; Aranda, Clara; Sarmiento, Beatriz R; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The ability of attention to apply in a flexible manner to several types of information at various stages of processing has been studied extensively. However, the susceptibility of these effects to the nature of the idiosyncratic items being attended is less understood. In the current study, we used symbolic cues to orient the attention of participants to the subsequent appearance of the face of a famous person (the former king of Spain) or an unfamiliar face. These were matched in perceptual characteristics. Behavioral effects showed that face-specific attention optimized response speed in an orthogonal task when the target matched the cue (valid trials) compared to when it did not (invalid trials). According to topographical analyses of the electrophysiological data, the famous and unfamiliar faces engaged dissociable brain circuits in two different temporal windows, from 144 to 300 ms after target processing, and at a later 456-492 ms epoch. In addition, orienting attention to specific faces modulated the perceptual stages reflected in the P1 and N170 potentials but with a different laterality pattern that depended on the familiarity of the faces. Whereas only attention to the famous face enhanced the P1 potential at left posterior electrodes, with no corresponding effect for the unfamiliar face at this stage, the N170 was modulated at left posterior sites for the famous item and at right homologous electrodes for the unfamiliar face. Intermediate processing stages, previously linked to facial identity processing indexed by the P2 and N2 potentials, reflected item familiarity but were not affected by the cueing manipulation. At the P3 level, attention influenced again item processing but did so in an equivalent manner for the famous and unfamiliar face. Our results, showing that identity-specific attention modulates perceptual stages of facial processing at different locations depending on idiosyncratic stimulus familiarity, may inform comparison of studies

  1. ERP correlates of error processing during performance on the Halstead Category Test.

    PubMed

    Santos, I M; Teixeira, A R; Tomé, A M; Pereira, A T; Rodrigues, P; Vagos, P; Costa, J; Carrito, M L; Oliveira, B; DeFilippis, N A; Silva, C F

    2016-08-01

    The Halstead Category Test (HCT) is a neuropsychological test that measures a person's ability to formulate and apply abstract principles. Performance must be adjusted based on feedback after each trial and errors are common until the underlying rules are discovered. Event-related potential (ERP) studies associated with the HCT are lacking. This paper demonstrates the use of a methodology inspired on Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) applied to EEG signals, to remove high amplitude ocular and movement artifacts during performance on the test. This filtering technique introduces no phase or latency distortions, with minimum loss of relevant EEG information. Importantly, the test was applied in its original clinical format, without introducing adaptations to ERP recordings. After signal treatment, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) wave, which is related to error-processing, was identified. This component peaked around 250ms, after feedback, in fronto-central electrodes. As expected, errors elicited more negative amplitudes than correct responses. Results are discussed in terms of the increased clinical potential that coupling ERP information with behavioral performance data can bring to the specificity of the HCT in diagnosing different types of impairment in frontal brain function. PMID:27335272

  2. ERP Correlates of Verbal and Numerical Probabilities in Risky Choices: A Two-Stage Probability Processing View

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu; Du, Xue-Lei; Li, Qi; Xuan, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yun; Rao, Li-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Two kinds of probability expressions, verbal and numerical, have been used to characterize the uncertainty that people face. However, the question of whether verbal and numerical probabilities are cognitively processed in a similar manner remains unresolved. From a levels-of-processing perspective, verbal and numerical probabilities may be processed differently during early sensory processing but similarly in later semantic-associated operations. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the neural processing of verbal and numerical probabilities in risky choices. The results showed that verbal probability and numerical probability elicited different N1 amplitudes but that verbal and numerical probabilities elicited similar N2 and P3 waveforms in response to different levels of probability (high to low). These results were consistent with a levels-of-processing framework and suggest some internal consistency between the cognitive processing of verbal and numerical probabilities in risky choices. Our findings shed light on possible mechanism underlying probability expression and may provide the neural evidence to support the translation of verbal to numerical probabilities (or vice versa). PMID:26834612

  3. Inverted Face Processing in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Feusner, Jamie D.; Moller, Hayley; Altstein, Lily; Sugar, Catherine; Bookheimer, Susan; Yoon, Joanne; Hembacher, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are preoccupied with perceived defects in appearance. Preliminary evidence suggests abnormalities in global and local visual information processing. The objective of this study was to compare global and local processing in BDD subjects and healthy controls by testing the face inversion effect, in which inverted (upside-down) faces are recognized more slowly and less accurately relative to upright faces. Eighteen medication-free subjects with BDD and 17 matched, healthy controls performed a recognition task with sets of upright and inverted faces on a computer screen that were either presented for short duration (500 msec) or long duration (5000 msec). Response time and accuracy rates were analyzed using linear and logistic mixed effects models, respectively. Results indicated that the inversion effect for response time was smaller in BDD subjects than controls during the long duration stimuli, but was not significantly different during the short duration stimuli. Inversion effect on accuracy rates did not differ significantly between groups during either of the two durations. Lesser inversion effect in BDD subjects may be due to greater detail-oriented and piecemeal processing for long duration stimuli. Similar results between groups for short duration stimuli suggest that they may be normally engaging configural and holistic processing for brief presentations. Abnormal visual information processing in BDD may contribute to distorted perception of appearance; this may not be limited to their own faces, but to others’ faces as well. PMID:20434170

  4. ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

  5. Developing Cultural Differences in Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Rodger, Helen; Miellet, Sebastien; Ge, Liezhong; Caldara, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Perception and eye movements are affected by culture. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g. China) display a disposition to process information "holistically," whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g. Britain) process information "analytically." Recently, this pattern of cultural differences has been extended to face processing. Adults from…

  6. Emotional picture processing in children: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Beylul; DeCicco, Jennifer M; Dennis, Tracy A

    2012-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) reflects increased attention to emotional versus neutral stimuli in adults. To date, very few studies have examined the LPP in children, and whether it can be used to measure patterns of emotional processing that are related to dispositional mood characteristics, such as temperamental fear and anxiety. To examine this question,39 typically developing 5–7 year olds (M age in months = 75.27, SD = 5.83) passively viewed complex emotional and neutral pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System.Maternal report of temperamental fear and anxiety was obtained and fearful behavior during an emotional challenge was observed. As documented in adults, LPP amplitudes to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli were larger than to neutral stimuli, although some gender differences emerged. Larger LPP amplitude differences between unpleasant and neutral stimuli were associated with greater observed fear. The LPP as a measure of individual differences in emotional processing is discussed. PMID:22163263

  7. The ANK3 gene and facial affect processing: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wan; Zhang, Qiumei; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Zhifang; Chen, Xiongying; Gu, Huang; Zhai, Jinguo; Chen, Min; Du, Boqi; Deng, Xiaoxiang; Ji, Feng; Wang, Chuanyue; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Li, Dawei; Wu, Hongjie; Dong, Qi; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Jun; Chen, Chuansheng

    2016-09-01

    ANK3 is one of the most promising candidate genes for bipolar disorder (BD). A polymorphism (rs10994336) within the ANK3 gene has been associated with BD in at least three genome-wide association studies of BD [McGuffin et al., 2003; Kieseppä, 2004; Edvardsen et al., 2008]. Because facial affect processing is disrupted in patients with BD, the current study aimed to explore whether the BD risk alleles are associated with the N170, an early event-related potential (ERP) component related to facial affect processing. We collected data from two independent samples of healthy individuals (Ns = 83 and 82, respectively) to test the association between rs10994336 and an early event-related potential (ERP) component (N170) that is sensitive to facial affect processing. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance in both samples consistently revealed significant main effects of rs10994336 genotype (Sample I: F (1, 72) = 7.24, P = 0.009; Sample II: F (1, 69) = 11.81, P = 0.001), but no significant interaction of genotype × electrodes (Ps > 0.05) or genotype × emotional conditions (Ps > 0.05). These results suggested that rs10994336 was linked to early ERP component reflecting facial structural encoding during facial affect processing. These results shed new light on the brain mechanism of this risk SNP and associated disorders such as BD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27177275

  8. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L

    2015-02-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency. PMID:25243992

  9. Processing temporal agreement in a tenseless language: an ERP study of Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yinchen; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2012-03-29

    Human languages are equipped with an impressive repertoire of time-encoding devices which vary significantly across different cultures. Previous research on temporal processing has focused on morphosyntactic processes in Indo-European languages. This study investigated the neural correlates of temporal processing in Mandarin Chinese, a language that is not morphologically marked for tense. In a sentence acceptability judgment task, we manipulated the agreement between semantically enriched temporal adverbs or a highly grammaticalized aspectual particle (-guo) and temporal noun phrases. Disagreement of both the temporal adverbs and the aspectual particle elicited a centro-parietal P600 effect in event-related potentials (ERPs) whereas only disagreeing temporal adverbs evoked an additional broadly distributed N400 effect. Moreover, a sustained negativity effect was observed on both the words following the critical ones and the last words in sentences with temporal disagreement. These results reveal both commonalities and differences between Chinese and Indo-European languages in temporal agreement processing. In particular, we demonstrate that temporal reference in Chinese relies on both lexical semantics and morphosyntactic processes and that the level of grammaticalization of linguistic devices representing similar temporal information is reflected in differential ERP responses. PMID:22341872

  10. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses

    PubMed Central

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French–German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role. PMID:26124740

  11. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses.

    PubMed

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French-German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role. PMID:26124740

  12. Brain Signals of Face Processing as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Ela I.; Iglesias, Jaime; Saavedra, Cristina; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the functional significance of different event-related potentials (ERPs) as electrophysiological indices of face perception and face recognition, according to cognitive and neurofunctional models of face processing. Initially, the processing of faces seems to be supported by early extrastriate occipital cortices and revealed by modulations of the occipital P1. This early response is thought to reflect the detection of certain primary structural aspects indicating the presence grosso modo of a face within the visual field. The posterior-temporal N170 is more sensitive to the detection of faces as complex-structured stimuli and, therefore, to the presence of its distinctive organizational characteristics prior to within-category identification. In turn, the relatively late and probably more rostrally generated N250r and N400-like responses might respectively indicate processes of access and retrieval of face-related information, which is stored in long-term memory (LTM). New methods of analysis of electrophysiological and neuroanatomical data, namely, dynamic causal modeling, single-trial and time-frequency analyses, are highly recommended to advance in the knowledge of those brain mechanisms concerning face processing. PMID:26160999

  13. Anticipatory processes under academic stress: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Yang, Can; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that preparing for and taking high-stakes exams has a significant influence on the emotional and physiological wellbeing of exam-takers, but few studies have investigated the resulting cognitive changes. The current study examined the effect of examination-induced academic stress on anticipation in information processing. Anticipation was indexed using the contingent negative variation (CNV). Electroencephalograms (EEG) were collected from 42 participants using the classic S1-S2 paradigm. These participants were preparing for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE). EEGs were also collected from 21 age-matched, non-exam comparison participants. The levels of perceived stress and state anxiety were higher and both the initial CNV (iCNV) and the late CNV (lCNV) were more negative in the exam group than in the non-exam group. These results suggest that participants under academic stress experienced greater anticipation of upcoming events. More important, for the non-exam group, state anxiety was positively related to both the iCNV and lCNV amplitude, and this correlation existed when trait anxiety was controlled; however, there was no such relationship in the exam group. These results suggested that the cortical anticipatory activity in the high-stressed exam group reached the maximum ceiling, leaving little room for transient increases in state anxiety. PMID:25659936

  14. Probing ERP correlates of verbal semantic processing in patients with impaired consciousness.

    PubMed

    Rohaut, Benjamin; Faugeras, Frédéric; Chausson, Nicolas; King, Jean-Rémi; Karoui, Imen El; Cohen, Laurent; Naccache, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to identify covert cognitive abilities in non-communicating patients is of prime importance to improve diagnosis, to guide therapeutic decisions and to better predict their cognitive outcome. In the present study, we used a basic and rigorous paradigm contrasting pairs of words orthogonally. This paradigm enables the probing of semantic processing by comparing neural activity elicited by similar words delivered in various combinations. We describe the respective timing, topography and estimated cortical sources of two successive event-related potentials (ERP) components (N400 and late positive component (LPC)) using high-density EEG in conscious controls (N=20) and in minimally conscious (MCS; N=15) and vegetative states (VS; N=15) patients recorded at bedside. Whereas N400-like ERP components could be observed in the VS, MCS and conscious groups, only MCS and conscious groups showed a LPC response, suggesting that this late effect could be a potential specific marker of conscious semantic processing. This result is coherent with recent findings disentangling early and local non-conscious responses (e.g.: MMN in odd-ball paradigms, N400 in semantic violation paradigms) from late, distributed and conscious responses (e.g.: P3b to auditory rule violation) in controls and in patients with disorders of consciousness. However, N400 and LPC responses were not easily observed at the individual level, - even in conscious controls - , with standard ERP analyses, which is a limiting factor for its clinical use. Of potential interest, the only 3 patients presenting both significant N400 and LPC effects were MCS, and 2 of them regained consciousness and functional language abilities. PMID:25447058

  15. Processing focus structure and implicit prosody during reading: differential ERP effects.

    PubMed

    Stolterfoht, Britta; Friederici, Angela D; Alter, Kai; Steube, Anita

    2007-09-01

    Several recent studies have shown that focus structural representations influence syntactic processing during reading, while other studies have shown that implicit prosody plays an important role in the understanding of written language. Up until now, the relationship between these two processes has been mostly disregarded. The present study disentangles the roles of focus structure and accent placement in reading by reporting event-related brain potential (ERP) data on the processing of contrastive ellipses. The results reveal a positive-going waveform (350-1300 ms) that correlates with focus structural processing and a negativity (450-650 ms) interpreted as the correlate of implicit prosodic processing. The results suggest that the assignment of focus as well as accent placement are obligatory processes during reading. PMID:16989798

  16. Are Happy Faces Attractive? The Roles of Early vs. Late Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Delin; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Fan, Jintu; Wu, Yi; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Facial attractiveness is closely related to romantic love. To understand if the neural underpinnings of perceived facial attractiveness and facial expression are similar constructs, we recorded neural signals using an event-related potential (ERP) methodology for 20 participants who were viewing faces with varied attractiveness and expressions. We found that attractiveness and expression were reflected by two early components, P2-lateral (P2l) and P2-medial (P2m), respectively; their interaction effect was reflected by LPP, a late component. The findings suggested that facial attractiveness and expression are first processed in parallel for discrimination between stimuli. After the initial processing, more attentional resources are allocated to the faces with the most positive or most negative valence in both the attractiveness and expression dimensions. The findings contribute to the theoretical model of face perception. PMID:26648885

  17. Are Happy Faces Attractive? The Roles of Early vs. Late Processing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Delin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Fan, Jintu; Wu, Yi; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    Facial attractiveness is closely related to romantic love. To understand if the neural underpinnings of perceived facial attractiveness and facial expression are similar constructs, we recorded neural signals using an event-related potential (ERP) methodology for 20 participants who were viewing faces with varied attractiveness and expressions. We found that attractiveness and expression were reflected by two early components, P2-lateral (P2l) and P2-medial (P2m), respectively; their interaction effect was reflected by LPP, a late component. The findings suggested that facial attractiveness and expression are first processed in parallel for discrimination between stimuli. After the initial processing, more attentional resources are allocated to the faces with the most positive or most negative valence in both the attractiveness and expression dimensions. The findings contribute to the theoretical model of face perception. PMID:26648885

  18. Beat Processing Is Pre-Attentive for Metrically Simple Rhythms with Clear Accents: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Bouwer, Fleur L.; Van Zuijen, Titia L.; Honing, Henkjan

    2014-01-01

    The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespective of whether subjects are attending to the stimuli. Both musicians and non-musicians were presented with a varying rhythm with a clear accent structure in which occasionally a sound was omitted. We compared the MMN response to the omission of identical sounds in different metrical positions. Most importantly, we found that omissions in strong metrical positions, on the beat, elicited higher amplitude MMN responses than omissions in weak metrical positions, not on the beat. This suggests that the detection of a beat is pre-attentive when highly beat inducing stimuli are used. No effects of musical expertise were found. Our results suggest that for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents beat processing does not require attention or musical expertise. In addition, we discuss how the use of acoustically varying stimuli may influence ERP results when studying beat processing. PMID:24870123

  19. Beat processing is pre-attentive for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Bouwer, Fleur L; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Honing, Henkjan

    2014-01-01

    The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespective of whether subjects are attending to the stimuli. Both musicians and non-musicians were presented with a varying rhythm with a clear accent structure in which occasionally a sound was omitted. We compared the MMN response to the omission of identical sounds in different metrical positions. Most importantly, we found that omissions in strong metrical positions, on the beat, elicited higher amplitude MMN responses than omissions in weak metrical positions, not on the beat. This suggests that the detection of a beat is pre-attentive when highly beat inducing stimuli are used. No effects of musical expertise were found. Our results suggest that for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents beat processing does not require attention or musical expertise. In addition, we discuss how the use of acoustically varying stimuli may influence ERP results when studying beat processing. PMID:24870123

  20. Trait inferences in goal-directed behavior: ERP timing and localization under spontaneous and intentional processing

    PubMed Central

    Van den Eede, Sofie; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during multiple goal and trait inferences, under spontaneous or intentional instructions. Participants read sentences describing several goal-implying behaviors of a target person from which also a strong trait could be inferred or not. The last word of each sentence determined the consistency with the inference induced during preceding sentences. In comparison with behaviors that implied only a goal, stronger waveforms beginning at ∼150 ms were obtained when the behaviors additionally implied a trait. These ERPs showed considerable parallels between spontaneous and intentional inferences. This suggests that traits embedded in a stream of goal-directed behaviors were detected more rapidly and automatically than mere goals, irrespective of the participants’ spontaneous or intentional instructions. In line with this, source localization (LORETA) of the ERPs show predominantly activation in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during 150–200 ms, suggesting that goals were detected at that time interval. During 200–300 ms, activation was stronger at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for multiple goals and traits as opposed to goals only, suggesting that traits were inferred during this time window. A cued recall measure taken after the presentation of the stimulus material support the occurrence of goal and trait inferences and shows significant correlations with the neural components, indicating that these components are valid neural indices of spontaneous and intentional social inferences. The early detection of multiple goal and trait inferences is explained in terms of their greater social relevance, leading to privileged attention allocation and processing in the brain. PMID:19270041

  1. Developing cultural differences in face processing.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David J; Liu, Shaoying; Rodger, Helen; Miellet, Sébastien; Ge, Liezhong; Caldara, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Perception and eye movements are affected by culture. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g. China) display a disposition to process information holistically, whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g. Britain) process information analytically. Recently, this pattern of cultural differences has been extended to face processing. Adults from Eastern cultures fixate centrally towards the nose when learning and recognizing faces, whereas adults from Western societies spread fixations across the eye and mouth regions. Although light has been shed on how adults can fixate different areas yet achieve comparable recognition accuracy, the reason why such divergent strategies exist is less certain. Although some argue that culture shapes strategies across development, little direct evidence exists to support this claim. Additionally, it has long been claimed that face recognition in early childhood is largely reliant upon external rather than internal face features, yet recent studies have challenged this theory. To address these issues, we tested children aged 7-12 years of age from the UK and China with an old/new face recognition paradigm while simultaneously recording their eye movements. Both populations displayed patterns of fixations that were consistent with adults from their respective cultural groups, which 'strengthened' across development as qualified by a pattern classifier analysis. Altogether, these observations suggest that cultural forces may indeed be responsible for shaping eye movements from early childhood. Furthermore, fixations made by both cultural groups almost exclusively landed on internal face regions, suggesting that these features, and not external features, are universally used to achieve face recognition in childhood. PMID:21884332

  2. The relevance of rhythmical alternation in language processing: an ERP study on English compounds.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Karen; Alter, Kai; Wiese, Richard; Domahs, Ulrike

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of rhythmic expectancies on language processing. It is assumed that language rhythm involves an alternation of strong and weak beats within a linguistic domain. Hence, in some contexts rhythmically induced stress shifts occur in order to comply with the Rhythm Rule. In English, this rule operates to prevent clashes of stressed adjacent syllables or lapses of adjacent unstressed syllables. While previous studies investigated effects on speech production and perception, this study focuses on brain responses to structures either obeying or deviating from this rule. Event-related potentials show that rhythmic regularity is relevant for language processing: rhythmic deviations evoked different ERP components reflecting the deviance from rhythmic expectancies. An N400 effect found for shifted items reflects higher costs in lexical processing due to stress deviation. The overall results disentangle lexical and rhythmical influences on language processing and complement the findings of previous studies on rhythmical processing. PMID:25113242

  3. Differential ERP Signatures Elicited by Semantic and Syntactic Processing in Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Võ, Melissa L.-H.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In sentence processing, semantic and syntactic violations elicit differential brain responses in ERP recordings: An N400 signals semantic violations, while a P600 marks inconsistent syntactic structure. Does the brain register similar distinctions in scene perception? Participants viewed “semantic inconsistencies” created by presenting objects that were incongruent with a scene's meaning and “syntactic inconsistencies” in which an object violated structural rules. We found a clear dissociation between semantic and syntactic processing: Semantic inconsistencies produced negative deflections in the N300/N400 time window, while syntactic inconsistencies elicited a late positivity resembling the P600 found for syntax manipulations in sentence processing. Interestingly, extreme syntax violations such as a floating toast, showed an initial increase in attentional deployment, but failed to produce a P600 effect. We therefore conclude that different neural populations are active during semantic and syntactic processing in scenes and that impossible object placements may be processed categorically different from syntactically inconsistent placements. PMID:23842954

  4. Selective attention modulates high-frequency activity in the face-processing network.

    PubMed

    Müsch, Kathrin; Hamamé, Carlos M; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Engel, Andreas K; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Schneider, Till R

    2014-11-01

    Face processing depends on the orchestrated activity of a large-scale neuronal network. Its activity can be modulated by attention as a function of task demands. However, it remains largely unknown whether voluntary, endogenous attention and reflexive, exogenous attention to facial expressions equally affect all regions of the face-processing network, and whether such effects primarily modify the strength of the neuronal response, the latency, the duration, or the spectral characteristics. We exploited the good temporal and spatial resolution of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) and recorded from depth electrodes to uncover the fast dynamics of emotional face processing. We investigated frequency-specific responses and event-related potentials (ERP) in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC), ventral temporal cortex (VTC), anterior insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and amygdala when facial expressions were task-relevant or task-irrelevant. All investigated regions of interest (ROI) were clearly modulated by task demands and exhibited stronger changes in stimulus-induced gamma band activity (50-150 Hz) when facial expressions were task-relevant. Observed latencies demonstrate that the activation is temporally coordinated across the network, rather than serially proceeding along a processing hierarchy. Early and sustained responses to task-relevant faces in VOTC and VTC corroborate their role for the core system of face processing, but they also occurred in the anterior insula. Strong attentional modulation in the OFC and amygdala (300 msec) suggests that the extended system of the face-processing network is only recruited if the task demands active face processing. Contrary to our expectation, we rarely observed differences between fearful and neutral faces. Our results demonstrate that activity in the face-processing network is susceptible to the deployment of selective attention. Moreover, we show that endogenous attention operates along the whole

  5. Gender differences in the processing of standard emotional visual stimuli: integrating ERP and fMRI results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Tian, Jie; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Jin

    2005-04-01

    The comprehensive understanding of human emotion processing needs consideration both in the spatial distribution and the temporal sequencing of neural activity. The aim of our work is to identify brain regions involved in emotional recognition as well as to follow the time sequence in the millisecond-range resolution. The effect of activation upon visual stimuli in different gender by International Affective Picture System (IAPS) has been examined. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological responses were measured in the same subjects. Both fMRI and ERP study were employed in an event-related study. fMRI have been obtained with 3.0 T Siemens Magnetom whole-body MRI scanner. 128-channel ERP data were recorded using an EGI system. ERP is sensitive to millisecond changes in mental activity, but the source localization and timing is limited by the ill-posed 'inversed' problem. We try to investigate the ERP source reconstruction problem in this study using fMRI constraint. We chose ICA as a pre-processing step of ERP source reconstruction to exclude the artifacts and provide a prior estimate of the number of dipoles. The results indicate that male and female show differences in neural mechanism during emotion visual stimuli.

  6. Effects of facial color on the subliminal processing of fearful faces.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Minami, T; Nakauchi, S

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that both configural information, such as face shape, and surface information is important for face perception. In particular, facial color is sufficiently suggestive of emotional states, as in the phrases: "flushed with anger" and "pale with fear." However, few studies have examined the relationship between facial color and emotional expression. On the other hand, event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that emotional expressions, such as fear, are processed unconsciously. In this study, we examined how facial color modulated the supraliminal and subliminal processing of fearful faces. We recorded electroencephalograms while participants performed a facial emotion identification task involving masked target faces exhibiting facial expressions (fearful or neutral) and colors (natural or bluish). The results indicated that there was a significant interaction between facial expression and color for the latency of the N170 component. Subsequent analyses revealed that the bluish-colored faces increased the latency effect of facial expressions compared to the natural-colored faces, indicating that the bluish color modulated the processing of fearful expressions. We conclude that the unconscious processing of fearful faces is affected by facial color. PMID:26424379

  7. Affective ERP Processing in a Visual Oddball Task: Arousal, Valence, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Rozenkrants, Bella; Polich, John

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess affective event-related brain potentials (ERPs) using visual pictures that were highly distinct on arousal level/valence category ratings and a response task. Methods Images from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) were selected to obtain distinct affective arousal (low, high) and valence (negative, positive) rating levels. The pictures were used as target stimuli in an oddball paradigm, with a visual pattern as the standard stimulus. Participants were instructed to press a button whenever a picture occurred and to ignore the standard. Task performance and response time did not differ across conditions. Results High-arousal compared to low-arousal stimuli produced larger amplitudes for the N2, P3, early slow wave, and late slow wave components. Valence amplitude effects were weak overall and originated primarily from the later waveform components and interactions with electrode position. Gender differences were negligible. Conclusion The findings suggest that arousal level is the primary determinant of affective oddball processing, and valence minimally influences ERP amplitude. Significance Affective processing engages selective attentional mechanisms that are primarily sensitive to the arousal properties of emotional stimuli. The application and nature of task demands are important considerations for interpreting these effects. PMID:18783987

  8. Subject/object processing asymmetries in Korean relative clauses: Evidence from ERP data

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Nayoung; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Subject relative (SR) clauses have a reliable processing advantage in VO languages like English in which relative clauses (RCs) follow the head noun. The question is whether this is also routinely true of OV languages like Japanese and Korean, in which RCs precede the head noun. We conducted an event-related brain potential (ERP) study of Korean RCs to test whether the SR advantage manifests in brain responses as well, and to tease apart the typological factors that might contribute to them. Our results suggest that brain responses to RCs are remarkably similar in VO and OV languages, but that ordering of the RC and its head noun localizes the response to different sentence positions. Our results also suggest that marking the right edge of the RC in Chinese (Yang et al. 2010) and Korean and the absence of it in Japanese (Ueno & Garnsey 2008) affect the response to the following head noun. The consistent SR advantage found in ERP studies lends further support to a universal subject preference in the processing of relative clauses.* PMID:25400303

  9. ERPs reveal comparable syntactic sentence processing in native and non-native readers of English

    PubMed Central

    Kotz, Sonja A.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Osterhout, Lee

    2009-01-01

    L2 syntactic processing has been primarily investigated in the context of syntactic anomaly detection, but only sparsely with syntactic ambiguity. In the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) syntactic anomaly detection and syntactic ambiguity resolution is linked to the P600. The current ERP experiment examined L2 syntactic processing in highly proficient L1 Spanish-L2 English readers who had acquired English informally around the age of 5 years. Temporary syntactic ambiguity (induced by verb subcategorization information) was tested as a language-specific phenomenon of L2, while syntactic anomaly resulted from phrase structure constraints that are similar in L1 and L2. Participants judged whether a sentence was syntactically acceptable or not. Native readers of English showed a P600 in the temporary syntactically ambiguous and syntactically anomalous sentences. A comparable picture emerged in the non-native readers of English. Both critical syntactic conditions elicited a P600, however, the distribution and latency of the P600 varied in the syntactic anomaly condition. The results clearly show that early acquisition of L2 syntactic knowledge leads to comparable online sensitivity towards temporal syntactic ambiguity and syntactic anomaly in early and highly proficient non-native readers of English and native readers of English. PMID:18061129

  10. ERP and Adaptive Autoregressive identification with spectral power decomposition to study rapid auditory processing in infants.

    PubMed

    Piazza, C; Cantiani, C; Tacchino, G; Molteni, M; Reni, G; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process rapidly-occurring auditory stimuli plays an important role in the mechanisms of language acquisition. For this reason, the research community has begun to investigate infant auditory processing, particularly using the Event Related Potentials (ERP) technique. In this paper we approach this issue by means of time domain and time-frequency domain analysis. For the latter, we propose the use of Adaptive Autoregressive (AAR) identification with spectral power decomposition. Results show EEG delta-theta oscillation enhancement related to the processing of acoustic frequency and duration changes, suggesting that, as expected, power modulation encodes rapid auditory processing (RAP) in infants and that the time-frequency analysis method proposed is able to identify this modulation. PMID:25571014

  11. The Development of Face Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Noah J.

    2006-01-01

    Both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that individuals with autism demonstrate marked abnormalities in the processing of faces. These abnormalities are often explained as either the result of an innate impairment to specialized neural systems or as a secondary consequence of reduced levels of social interest. A review of the…

  12. The Evolution of Holistic Processing of Faces

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Darren; Sulikowski, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the holistic processing of faces from an evolutionary perspective, clarifying what such an approach entails, and evaluating the extent to which the evidence currently available permits any strong conclusions. While it seems clear that the holistic processing of faces depends on mechanisms evolved to perform that task, our review of the comparative literature reveals that there is currently insufficient evidence (or sometimes insufficiently compelling evidence) to decide when in our evolutionary past such processing may have arisen. It is also difficult to assess what kinds of selection pressures may have led to evolution of such a mechanism, or even what kinds of information holistic processing may have originally evolved to extract, given that many sources of socially relevant face-based information other than identity depend on integrating information across different regions of the face – judgments of expression, behavioral intent, attractiveness, sex, age, etc. We suggest some directions for future research that would help to answer these important questions. PMID:23382721

  13. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    PubMed Central

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

  14. Selective Emotional Processing Deficits to Social Vignettes in Schizophrenia: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuperberg, Gina R.; Kreher, Donna A.; Swain, Abigail; Goff, Donald C.; Holt, Daphne J.

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in emotional processing and social cognition. However, it remains unclear whether patients show abnormal neurophysiological responses during fast, online appraisals of the emotional meaning of social information. To examine this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected while 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 demographically matched controls evaluated 2-sentence vignettes describing negative, positive, or neutral social situations. ERPs were time locked to a critical word (CW) in the second sentence that conferred emotional valence. A late positivity effect to emotional (vs neutral) CWs was seen in both groups (in controls, to negative and positive CWs; in patients, to negative CWs only). However, the controls showed a greater late positivity effect to the negative and positive (vs neutral) CWs than the schizophrenia patients at mid-posterior (negative vs neutral) and at right posterior peripheral (positive vs neutral) sites. These between-group differences arose from reduced amplitudes of the late positivity to the negative and positive CWs in the patients relative to the controls; there was no difference between the 2 groups in the amplitude of the late positivity to the neutral CWs. These findings suggest that schizophrenia is associated with a specific neural deficit during the online evaluation of emotionally valent, socially relevant information. PMID:19564165

  15. ERP correlates of German Sign Language processing in deaf native signers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the neural correlates of sign language processing of Deaf people who had learned German Sign Language (Deutsche Gebärdensprache, DGS) from their Deaf parents as their first language. Correct and incorrect signed sentences were presented sign by sign on a computer screen. At the end of each sentence the participants had to judge whether or not the sentence was an appropriate DGS sentence. Two types of violations were introduced: (1) semantically incorrect sentences containing a selectional restriction violation (implausible object); (2) morphosyntactically incorrect sentences containing a verb that was incorrectly inflected (i.e., incorrect direction of movement). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 74 scalp electrodes. Results Semantic violations (implausible signs) elicited an N400 effect followed by a positivity. Sentences with a morphosyntactic violation (verb agreement violation) elicited a negativity followed by a broad centro-parietal positivity. Conclusions ERP correlates of semantic and morphosyntactic aspects of DGS clearly differed from each other and showed a number of similarities with those observed in other signed and oral languages. These data suggest a similar functional organization of signed and oral languages despite the visual-spacial modality of sign language. PMID:24884527

  16. The time course of reading processes in children with and without dyslexia: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Hasko, Sandra; Groth, Katarina; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The main diagnostic criterion for developmental dyslexia (DD) in transparent orthographies is a remarkable reading speed deficit, which is often accompanied by spelling difficulties. These deficits have been traced back to both deficits in orthographic and phonological processing. For a better understanding of the reading speed deficit in DD it is necessary to clarify which processing steps are degraded in children with DD during reading. In order to address this question the present study used EEG to investigate three reading related ERPs: the N170, N400 and LPC. Twenty-nine children without DD and 52 children with DD performed a phonological lexical decision (PLD)—task, which tapped both orthographic and phonological processing. Children were presented with words, pseudohomophones, pseudowords and false fonts and had to decide whether the presented stimulus sounded like an existing German word or not. Compared to control children, children with DD showed deficits in all the investigated ERPs. Firstly, a diminished mean area under the curve for the word material-false font contrasts in the time window of the N170 was observed, indicating a reduced degree of print sensitivity; secondly, N400 amplitudes, as suggested to reflect the access to the orthographic lexicon and grapheme-phoneme conversion, were attenuated; and lastly, phonological access as indexed by the LPC was degraded in children with DD. Processing differences dependent on the linguistic material in children without DD were observed only in the LPC, suggesting that similar reading processes were adopted independent of orthographic familiarity. The results of this study suggest that effective treatment should include both orthographic and phonological training. Furthermore, more longitudinal studies utilizing the same task and stimuli are needed to clarify how these processing steps and their time course change during reading development. PMID:24109444

  17. Social interest and the development of cortical face specialization: what autism teaches us about face processing.

    PubMed

    Grelotti, David J; Gauthier, Isabel; Schultz, Robert T

    2002-04-01

    Investigations of face processing in persons with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) inform upon theories of the development of "normal" face processing, and the story that emerges challenges some models of the nature and origin of cortical face specialization. Individuals with an ASD possess deficits in face processing and a lack of a fusiform face area (FFA). Evidence from studies of ASD can be conceptualized best using an expertise framework of face processing rather than models that postulate a face module in the fusiform gyrus. Because persons with an ASD have reduced social interest, they may fail to develop cortical face specialization. Face specialization may develop in normal individuals because they are socially motivated to regard the face, and such motivation promotes expertise for faces. The amygdala is likely the key node in the system that marks objects as emotionally salient and could be crucial to the development of cortical face specialization. PMID:11891634

  18. Brain-Behavior Correlations: Relationships between Mother-Stranger Face Processing and Infants' Behavioral Responses to a Separation from Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swingler, Margaret M.; Sweet, Monica A.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2010-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 6-month-olds (N = 30) as they looked at pictures of their mother's face and a stranger's face. Negative component (Nc) and P400 component responses from the ERP portion of the study were correlated with behavioral responses of the infants during a separation from their mothers. We measured the…

  19. Impaired context processing during irony comprehension in schizotypy: An ERPs study.

    PubMed

    Del Goleto, Sarah; Kostova, Milena; Blanchet, Alain

    2016-07-01

    Mentalizing deficits are a core manifestation of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. They contribute to the social handicap associated with the pathology, leading to disruption in autonomy, professional achievement, and interpersonal relationships. However, the underlying mechanisms of these deficits remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that context processing deficits would be responsible for mentalizing difficulties in schizotypy (personality traits considered as attenuated manifestations of schizophrenic symptoms) by using an irony comprehension task. Irony processing is a mentalizing exercise that requires the ability to take into account the semantic context to understand the literal meaning of the utterance, and to integrate the pragmatic context to infer the speaker's intention. These two steps of processing can be indexed by the N400 and P600 components, respectively, of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Forty participants were assigned to high or low schizotypy groups according to their Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) score, and ERPs were recorded while they read short stories ending with a literal, ironic, or incompatible statement. In the low-SPQ group, there was a significant N400 semantic context effect (literal targets elicited less negative N400 amplitudes compared to incompatible targets) followed by a P600 pragmatic context effect (ironic targets evoked greater positive P600 amplitudes than literal targets). In contrast, there was neither a N400 nor P600 effect in the high-SPQ group. These abnormalities were associated with high interpersonal SPQ factor scores. These results show a strong association between context processing, mentalizing abilities, and interpersonal functioning in schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:27117136

  20. The Interplay of Discourse Congruence and Lexical Association during Sentence Processing: Evidence from ERPs and Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camblin, C. Christine; Gordon, Peter C.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2007-01-01

    Five experiments used ERPs and eye tracking to determine the interplay of word-level and discourse-level information during sentence processing. Subjects read sentences that were locally congruent but whose congruence with discourse context was manipulated. Furthermore, critical words in the local sentence were preceded by a prime word that was…

  1. The Effect of Gaze Direction on the Processing of Facial Expressions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the neural basis of the effect of gaze direction on facial expression processing in children with and without ASD, using event-related potential (ERP). Children with ASD (10-17-year olds) and typically developing (TD) children (9-16-year olds) were asked to determine the emotional expressions (anger or fearful) of a facial…

  2. An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Investigation of Filler-Gap Processing in Native and Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Andrea; DeDe, Gayle; Nicol, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The current study employed a neuro-imaging technique, Event-Related Potentials (ERP), to investigate real-time processing of sentences containing filler-gap dependencies by late-learning speakers of English as a second language (L2) with a Chinese native language background. An individual differences approach was also taken to examine the role of…

  3. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience. PMID:11776369

  4. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children. PMID:26042012

  5. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children. PMID:26042012

  6. ERP evidence of adaptive changes in error processing and attentional control during rhythm synchronization learning.

    PubMed

    Padrão, Gonçalo; Penhune, Virginia; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-10-15

    The ability to detect and use information from errors is essential during the acquisition of new skills. There is now a wealth of evidence about the brain mechanisms involved in error processing. However, the extent to which those mechanisms are engaged during the acquisition of new motor skills remains elusive. Here we examined rhythm synchronization learning across 12 blocks of practice in musically naïve individuals and tracked changes in ERP signals associated with error-monitoring and error-awareness across distinct learning stages. Synchronization performance improved with practice, and performance improvements were accompanied by dynamic changes in ERP components related to error-monitoring and error-awareness. Early in learning, when performance was poor and the internal representations of the rhythms were weaker we observed a larger error-related negativity (ERN) following errors compared to later learning. The larger ERN during early learning likely results from greater conflict between competing motor responses, leading to greater engagement of medial-frontal conflict monitoring processes and attentional control. Later in learning, when performance had improved, we observed a smaller ERN accompanied by an enhancement of a centroparietal positive component resembling the P3. This centroparietal positive component was predictive of participant's performance accuracy, suggesting a relation between error saliency, error awareness and the consolidation of internal templates of the practiced rhythms. Moreover, we showed that during rhythm learning errors led to larger auditory evoked responses related to attention orientation which were triggered automatically and which were independent of the learning stage. The present study provides crucial new information about how the electrophysiological signatures related to error-monitoring and error-awareness change during the acquisition of new skills, extending previous work on error processing and cognitive

  7. Age Effects in L2 Grammar Processing as Revealed by ERPs and How (Not) to Study Them.

    PubMed

    Meulman, Nienke; Wieling, Martijn; Sprenger, Simone A; Stowe, Laurie A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of age of acquisition (AoA) on grammatical processing in second language learners as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We compare a traditional analysis involving the calculation of averages across a certain time window of the ERP waveform, analyzed with categorical groups (early vs. late), with a generalized additive modeling analysis, which allows us to take into account the full range of variability in both AoA and time. Sixty-six Slavic advanced learners of German listened to German sentences with correct and incorrect use of non-finite verbs and grammatical gender agreement. We show that the ERP signal depends on the AoA of the learner, as well as on the regularity of the structure under investigation. For gender agreement, a gradual change in processing strategies can be shown that varies by AoA, with younger learners showing a P600 and older learners showing a posterior negativity. For verb agreement, all learners show a P600 effect, irrespective of AoA. Based on their behavioral responses in an offline grammaticality judgment task, we argue that the late learners resort to computationally less efficient processing strategies when confronted with (lexically determined) syntactic constructions different from the L1. In addition, this study highlights the insights the explicit focus on the time course of the ERP signal in our analysis framework can offer compared to the traditional analysis. PMID:26683335

  8. Age Effects in L2 Grammar Processing as Revealed by ERPs and How (Not) to Study Them

    PubMed Central

    Meulman, Nienke; Wieling, Martijn; Sprenger, Simone A.; Schmid, Monika S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of age of acquisition (AoA) on grammatical processing in second language learners as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We compare a traditional analysis involving the calculation of averages across a certain time window of the ERP waveform, analyzed with categorical groups (early vs. late), with a generalized additive modeling analysis, which allows us to take into account the full range of variability in both AoA and time. Sixty-six Slavic advanced learners of German listened to German sentences with correct and incorrect use of non-finite verbs and grammatical gender agreement. We show that the ERP signal depends on the AoA of the learner, as well as on the regularity of the structure under investigation. For gender agreement, a gradual change in processing strategies can be shown that varies by AoA, with younger learners showing a P600 and older learners showing a posterior negativity. For verb agreement, all learners show a P600 effect, irrespective of AoA. Based on their behavioral responses in an offline grammaticality judgment task, we argue that the late learners resort to computationally less efficient processing strategies when confronted with (lexically determined) syntactic constructions different from the L1. In addition, this study highlights the insights the explicit focus on the time course of the ERP signal in our analysis framework can offer compared to the traditional analysis. PMID:26683335

  9. Neural signatures of conscious and unconscious emotional face processing in human infants.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Sarah; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Human adults can process emotional information both with and without conscious awareness, and it has been suggested that the two processes rely on partly distinct brain mechanisms. However, the developmental origins of these brain processes are unknown. In the present event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we examined the brain responses of 7-month-old infants in response to subliminally (50 and 100 msec) and supraliminally (500 msec) presented happy and fearful facial expressions. Our results revealed that infants' brain responses (Pb and Nc) over central electrodes distinguished between emotions irrespective of stimulus duration, whereas the discrimination between emotions at occipital electrodes (N290 and P400) only occurred when faces were presented supraliminally (above threshold). This suggests that early in development the human brain not only discriminates between happy and fearful facial expressions irrespective of conscious perception, but also that, similar to adults, supraliminal and subliminal emotion processing relies on distinct neural processes. Our data further suggest that the processing of emotional facial expressions differs across infants depending on their behaviorally shown perceptual sensitivity. The current ERP findings suggest that distinct brain processes underpinning conscious and unconscious emotion perception emerge early in ontogeny and can therefore be seen as a key feature of human social functioning. PMID:25528130

  10. Early sensitivity for eyes within faces: a new neuronal account of holistic and featural processing.

    PubMed

    Nemrodov, Dan; Anderson, Thomas; Preston, Frank F; Itier, Roxane J

    2014-08-15

    Eyes are central to face processing however their role in early face encoding as reflected by the N170 ERP component is unclear. Using eye tracking to enforce fixation on specific facial features, we found that the N170 was larger for fixation on the eyes compared to fixation on the forehead, nasion, nose or mouth, which all yielded similar amplitudes. This eye sensitivity was seen in both upright and inverted faces and was lost in eyeless faces, demonstrating it was due to the presence of eyes at fovea. Upright eyeless faces elicited largest N170 at nose fixation. Importantly, the N170 face inversion effect (FIE) was strongly attenuated in eyeless faces when fixation was on the eyes but was less attenuated for nose fixation and was normal when fixation was on the mouth. These results suggest the impact of eye removal on the N170 FIE is a function of the angular distance between the fixated feature and the eye location. We propose the Lateral Inhibition, Face Template and Eye Detector based (LIFTED) model which accounts for all the present N170 results including the FIE and its interaction with eye removal. Although eyes elicit the largest N170 response, reflecting the activity of an eye detector, the processing of upright faces is holistic and entails an inhibitory mechanism from neurons coding parafoveal information onto neurons coding foveal information. The LIFTED model provides a neuronal account of holistic and featural processing involved in upright and inverted faces and offers precise predictions for further testing. PMID:24768932

  11. Not so harmless anymore: how context impacts the perception and electrocortical processing of neutral faces.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Matthias J; Gerdes, Antje B M; Büngel, Inga; Schwarz, Katharina A; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul

    2014-05-15

    Our first impression of others is highly influenced by their facial appearance. However, the perception and evaluation of faces is not only guided by internal features such as facial expressions, but also highly dependent on contextual information such as secondhand information (verbal descriptions) about the target person. To investigate the time course of contextual influences on cortical face processing, event-related brain potentials were investigated in response to neutral faces, which were preceded by brief verbal descriptions containing cues of affective valence (negative, neutral, positive) and self-reference (self-related vs. other-related). ERP analysis demonstrated that early and late stages of face processing are enhanced by negative and positive as well as self-relevant descriptions, although faces per se did not differ perceptually. Affective ratings of the faces confirmed these findings. Altogether, these results demonstrate for the first time both on an electrocortical and behavioral level how contextual information modifies early visual perception in a top-down manner. PMID:24462933

  12. Sequential Processing and the Matching-Stimulus Interval Effect in ERP Components: An Exploration of the Mechanism Using Multiple Regression

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Barry, Robert J.; Gonsalvez, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    In oddball tasks, increasing the time between stimuli within a particular condition (target-to-target interval, TTI; nontarget-to-nontarget interval, NNI) systematically enhances N1, P2, and P300 event-related potential (ERP) component amplitudes. This study examined the mechanism underpinning these effects in ERP components recorded from 28 adults who completed a conventional three-tone oddball task. Bivariate correlations, partial correlations and multiple regression explored component changes due to preceding ERP component amplitudes and intervals found within the stimulus series, rather than constraining the task with experimentally constructed intervals, which has been adequately explored in prior studies. Multiple regression showed that for targets, N1 and TTI predicted N2, TTI predicted P3a and P3b, and Processing Negativity (PN), P3b, and TTI predicted reaction time. For rare nontargets, P1 predicted N1, NNI predicted N2, and N1 predicted Slow Wave (SW). Findings show that the mechanism is operating on separate stages of stimulus-processing, suggestive of either increased activation within a number of stimulus-specific pathways, or very long component generator recovery cycles. These results demonstrate the extent to which matching-stimulus intervals influence ERP component amplitudes and behavior in a three-tone oddball task, and should be taken into account when designing similar studies. PMID:27445774

  13. Individual differences in holistic processing predict face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruosi; Li, Jingguang; Fang, Huizhen; Tian, Moqian; Liu, Jia

    2012-02-01

    Why do some people recognize faces easily and others frequently make mistakes in recognizing faces? Classic behavioral work has shown that faces are processed in a distinctive holistic manner that is unlike the processing of objects. In the study reported here, we investigated whether individual differences in holistic face processing have a significant influence on face recognition. We found that the magnitude of face-specific recognition accuracy correlated with the extent to which participants processed faces holistically, as indexed by the composite-face effect and the whole-part effect. This association is due to face-specific processing in particular, not to a more general aspect of cognitive processing, such as general intelligence or global attention. This finding provides constraints on computational models of face recognition and may elucidate mechanisms underlying cognitive disorders, such as prosopagnosia and autism, that are associated with deficits in face recognition. PMID:22222218

  14. A Shape-Based Account for Holistic Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Faces are processed holistically, so selective attention to 1 face part without any influence of the others often fails. In this study, 3 experiments investigated what type of facial information (shape or surface) underlies holistic face processing and whether generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires extensive…

  15. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R; Chen, Yvonne Y; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  16. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.; Chen, Yvonne Y.; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  17. The influence of visual information on auditory processing in individuals with congenital amusia: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao T; Sun, Yanan; Johnson, Blake W; Thompson, William F

    2016-07-15

    While most normal hearing individuals can readily use prosodic information in spoken language to interpret the moods and feelings of conversational partners, people with congenital amusia report that they often rely more on facial expressions and gestures, a strategy that may compensate for deficits in auditory processing. In this investigation, we used EEG to examine the extent to which individuals with congenital amusia draw upon visual information when making auditory or audio-visual judgments. Event-related potentials (ERP) were elicited by a change in pitch (up or down) between two sequential tones paired with a change in spatial position (up or down) between two visually presented dots. The change in dot position was either congruent or incongruent with the change in pitch. Participants were asked to judge (1) the direction of pitch change while ignoring the visual information (AV implicit task), and (2) whether the auditory and visual changes were congruent (AV explicit task). In the AV implicit task, amusic participants performed significantly worse in the incongruent condition than control participants. ERPs showed an enhanced N2-P3 response to incongruent AV pairings for control participants, but not for amusic participants. However when participants were explicitly directed to detect AV congruency, both groups exhibited enhanced N2-P3 responses to incongruent AV pairings. These findings indicate that amusics are capable of extracting information from both modalities in an AV task, but are biased to rely on visual information when it is available, presumably because they have learned that auditory information is unreliable. We conclude that amusic individuals implicitly draw upon visual information when judging auditory information, even though they have the capacity to explicitly recognize conflicts between these two sensory channels. PMID:27132045

  18. Holistic Processing of Faces: Perceptual and Decisional Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel; Wenger, Michael J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have used several composite face paradigms to assess holistic processing of faces. In the selective attention paradigm, participants decide whether one face part (e.g., top) is the same as a previously seen face part. Their judgment is affected by whether the irrelevant part of the test face is the same as or different than the…

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics during processing of abstract and concrete verbs: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Gentilucci, Maurizio; Avanzini, Pietro

    2014-08-01

    Different accounts have been proposed to explain the nature of concept representations. Embodied accounts claim a key involvement of sensory-motor systems during semantic processing while more traditional accounts posit that concepts are abstract mental entities independent of perceptual and motor brain systems. While the involvement of sensory-motor areas in concrete language processing is supported by a large number of studies, this involvement is far from being established when considering abstract language. The present study addressed abstract and concrete verb processing, by investigating the spatiotemporal dynamics of evoked responses by means of high density EEG while participants performed a semantic decision task. In addition, RTs to the same set of stimuli were collected. In both early and late time intervals, ERP scalp topography significantly differed according to word categories. Concrete verbs showed involvement of parieto-frontal networks for action, according to the implied body effector. In contrast, abstract verbs recruited mostly frontal regions outside the motor system, suggesting a non-motor semantic processing for this category. In addition, differently from what has been reported during action observation, the parietal recruitment related to concrete verbs presentation followed the frontal one. The present findings suggest that action word semantic is grounded in sensory-motor systems, provided a bodily effector is specified, while abstract concepts׳ representation cannot be easily explained by a motor embodiment. PMID:24956569

  20. On the processing of Japanese wh-questions: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Mieko; Kluender, Robert

    2009-09-22

    The processing of Japanese wh-questions was investigated using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Unlike in English or German, a wh-element in Japanese need not be displaced from its canonical position, but instead needs a corresponding Q(uestion)-particle to indicate its interrogative scope. We tested to see if there were any processing correlates specific to these features of Japanese wh-questions. Both mono-clausal and bi-clausal Japanese wh-questions elicited right-lateralized anterior negativity (RAN) between wh-words and corresponding Q-particles, relative to structurally-equivalent yes/no-question control conditions. These results suggest a reliable neural processing correlate of the dependency between wh-elements and Q-particles in Japanese, similar to effects of (left) anterior negativity between wh-fillers and gaps in English and German, but with a right- rather than left-lateralized distribution. It is suggested that wh-in-situ questions in Japanese are processed by the incremental formation of a long-distance dependency between wh-elements and their Q-particles, resulting in a working memory load for keeping track of scopeless wh-elements. PMID:19501576

  1. Semantic Processing Persists despite Anomalous Syntactic Category: ERP Evidence from Chinese Passive Sentences.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wu, Fuyun; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    The syntax-first model and the parallel/interactive models make different predictions regarding whether syntactic category processing has a temporal and functional primacy over semantic processing. To further resolve this issue, an event-related potential experiment was conducted on 24 Chinese speakers reading Chinese passive sentences with the passive marker BEI (NP1 + BEI + NP2 + Verb). This construction was selected because it is the most-commonly used Chinese passive and very much resembles German passives, upon which the syntax-first hypothesis was primarily based. We manipulated semantic consistency (consistent vs. inconsistent) and syntactic category (noun vs. verb) of the critical verb, yielding four conditions: CORRECT (correct sentences), SEMANTIC (semantic anomaly), SYNTACTIC (syntactic category anomaly), and COMBINED (combined anomalies). Results showed both N400 and P600 effects for sentences with semantic anomaly, with syntactic category anomaly, or with combined anomalies. Converging with recent findings of Chinese ERP studies on various constructions, our study provides further evidence that syntactic category processing does not precede semantic processing in reading Chinese. PMID:26125621

  2. Semantic Processing Persists despite Anomalous Syntactic Category: ERP Evidence from Chinese Passive Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Wu, Fuyun; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    The syntax-first model and the parallel/interactive models make different predictions regarding whether syntactic category processing has a temporal and functional primacy over semantic processing. To further resolve this issue, an event-related potential experiment was conducted on 24 Chinese speakers reading Chinese passive sentences with the passive marker BEI (NP1 + BEI + NP2 + Verb). This construction was selected because it is the most-commonly used Chinese passive and very much resembles German passives, upon which the syntax-first hypothesis was primarily based. We manipulated semantic consistency (consistent vs. inconsistent) and syntactic category (noun vs. verb) of the critical verb, yielding four conditions: CORRECT (correct sentences), SEMANTIC (semantic anomaly), SYNTACTIC (syntactic category anomaly), and COMBINED (combined anomalies). Results showed both N400 and P600 effects for sentences with semantic anomaly, with syntactic category anomaly, or with combined anomalies. Converging with recent findings of Chinese ERP studies on various constructions, our study provides further evidence that syntactic category processing does not precede semantic processing in reading Chinese. PMID:26125621

  3. An ERP Implementation and Business Process Reengineering at a Small University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakovlev, Ilya V.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the reengineering of business practices that took place at the University of Wisconsin-Superior when they implemented an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, PeopleSoft Student Administration (SA). Discusses lessons learned. (EV)

  4. A shape-based account for holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Faces are processed holistically, so selective attention to 1 face part without any influence of the others often fails. In this study, 3 experiments investigated what type of facial information (shape or surface) underlies holistic face processing and whether generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires extensive discrimination experience. Results show that facial shape information alone is sufficient to elicit the composite face effect (CFE), 1 of the most convincing demonstrations of holistic processing, whereas facial surface information is unnecessary (Experiment 1). The CFE is eliminated when faces differ only in surface but not shape information, suggesting that variation of facial shape information is necessary to observe holistic face processing (Experiment 2). Removing 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape information also eliminates the CFE, indicating the necessity of 3D shape information for holistic face processing (Experiment 3). Moreover, participants show similar holistic processing for faces with and without extensive discrimination experience (i.e., own- and other-race faces), suggesting that generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires facial shape information, but does not necessarily require further individuation experience. These results provide compelling evidence that facial shape information underlies holistic face processing. This shape-based account not only offers a consistent explanation for previous studies of holistic face processing, but also suggests a new ground-in addition to expertise-for the generalization of holistic processing to different types of faces and to nonface objects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26371495

  5. An ERP study on L2 syntax processing: When do learners fail?

    PubMed

    Meulman, Nienke; Stowe, Laurie A; Sprenger, Simone A; Bresser, Moniek; Schmid, Monika S

    2014-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) can reveal online processing differences between native speakers and second language (L2) learners during language comprehension. Using the P600 as a measure of native-likeness, we investigated processing of grammatical gender agreement in highly proficient immersed Romance L2 learners of Dutch. We demonstrate that these late learners consistently fail to show native-like sensitivity to gender violations. This appears to be due to a combination of differences from the gender marking in their L1 and the relatively opaque Dutch gender system. We find that L2 use predicts the effect magnitude of non-finite verb violations, a relatively regular and transparent construction, but not that of gender agreement violations. There were no effects of age of acquisition, length of residence, proficiency or offline gender knowledge. Additionally, a within-subject comparison of stimulus modalities (written vs. auditory) shows that immersed learners may show some of the effects only in the auditory modality; in non-finite verb violations, an early native-like N400 was only present for auditory stimuli. However, modality failed to influence the response to gender. Taken together, the results confirm the persistent problems of Romance learners of Dutch with online gender processing and show that they cannot be overcome by reducing task demands related to the modality of stimulus presentation. PMID:25309492

  6. The emotional homunculus: ERP evidence for independent somatosensory responses during facial emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Sel, Alejandra; Forster, Bettina; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2014-02-26

    Current models of face perception propose that initial visual processing is followed by activation of nonvisual somatosensory areas that contributes to emotion recognition. To test whether there is a pure and independent involvement of somatosensory cortex (SCx) during face processing over and above visual responses, we directly measured participants' somatosensory-evoked activity by tactually probing (105 ms postvisual facial stimuli) the state of SCx during an emotion discrimination task while controlling for visual effects. Discrimination of emotional versus neutral expressions enhanced early somatosensory-evoked activity between 40 and 80 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting visual emotion processing in SCx. This effect was source localized within primary, secondary, and associative somatosensory cortex. Emotional face processing influenced somatosensory responses to both face (congruent body part) and finger (control site) tactile stimulation, suggesting a general process that includes nonfacial cortical representations. Gender discrimination of the same facial expressions did not modulate somatosensory-evoked activity. We provide novel evidence that SCx activation is not a byproduct of visual processing but is independently shaped by face emotion processing. PMID:24573285

  7. From Sensory Perception to Lexical-Semantic Processing: An ERP Study in Non-Verbal Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Cantiani, Chiara; Choudhury, Naseem A.; Yu, Yan H.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Benasich, April A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall was similar in amplitude to typically-developing children. However, significant differences between groups were found at the lexical-semantic level, suggesting more atypical higher-order processes. The results suggest that although basic perception is relatively preserved in NV/MV children with ASD, higher levels of processing, including lexical- semantic functions, are impaired. The use of passive ERP paradigms that do not require active participant response shows significant potential for assessment of non-compliant populations such as NV/MV children with ASD. PMID:27560378

  8. From Sensory Perception to Lexical-Semantic Processing: An ERP Study in Non-Verbal Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Cantiani, Chiara; Choudhury, Naseem A; Yu, Yan H; Shafer, Valerie L; Schwartz, Richard G; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall was similar in amplitude to typically-developing children. However, significant differences between groups were found at the lexical-semantic level, suggesting more atypical higher-order processes. The results suggest that although basic perception is relatively preserved in NV/MV children with ASD, higher levels of processing, including lexical- semantic functions, are impaired. The use of passive ERP paradigms that do not require active participant response shows significant potential for assessment of non-compliant populations such as NV/MV children with ASD. PMID:27560378

  9. Controlled categorisation processing in brand extension evaluation by Indo-European language speakers. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fudali-Czyż, Agnieszka; Ratomska, Marta; Cudo, Andrzej; Francuz, Piotr; Kopiś, Natalia; Tużnik, Przemysław

    2016-08-15

    The purpose of our experiment was to test event-related potentials (ERP) accompanying the process of brand extension evaluation in people speaking Indo-European languages. The experimental procedure consisted of sequential presentations of pairs of stimuli; namely, a beverage brand name and a product name. The products fell into the category of beverages (congruent trials) or clothes (incongruent trials). In the response condition (RC), the participants decided whether they accepted the product as an extension of the brand. In the no-response condition (NRC), the participants' task was to attend the stimuli and try to remember them. In the response condition, the amplitudes of the N270, P300 and N400 components were sensitive to incongruence between the product category and the previously presented brand. However, in the no-response condition, differences emerged only at the level of early P1 and P2 components. Our results suggest that, in people speaking one of the Indo-European languages, the process of categorisation in brand extension evaluation is not automatic. PMID:27289044

  10. Real-time processing in picture naming in adults who stutter: ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Nathan D.; Morris, Kalie; Frisch, Stefan A.; Morphew, Kathryn; Constantine, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to compare real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically-fluent adults (TFA). Methods Participants named pictures preceded by masked prime words. Primes and target picture labels were Identical or mismatched. Priming effects on naming and picture-elicited ERP activity were analyzed. Vocabulary knowledge correlations with these measures were assessed. Results Priming improved naming RTs and accuracy in both groups. RTs were longer for AWS, and correlated positively with receptive vocabulary in TFA. Electrophysiologically, posterior-P1 amplitude negatively correlated with expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Frontal/temporal-P1 amplitude correlated positively with expressive vocabulary in AWS. Identity priming enhanced frontal/posterior-N2 amplitude in both groups, and attenuated P280 amplitude in AWS. N400 priming was topographically-restricted in AWS. Conclusions Results suggest that conceptual knowledge was perceptually-grounded in expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Poorer expressive vocabulary in AWS was potentially associated with greater suppression of irrelevant conceptual information. Priming enhanced N2-indexed cognitive control and visual attention in both groups. P280-indexed focal attention attenuated with priming in AWS only. Topographically-restricted N400 priming suggests that lemma/word form connections were weaker in AWS. Significance Real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming operates differently in AWS. PMID:24910149

  11. RP and N400 ERP components reflect semantic violations in visual processing of human actions.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica

    2009-08-14

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the visual processing of actions belonging to the typical human repertoire. Two hundred and sixty coloured pictures representing persons differing in number, age and gender, engaged in simple actions, were presented to 23 right-handed students. Perception of meaningful actions (e.g., young woman trying shoes in shop) was contrasted with perception of actions lacking an understandable goal (e.g., businesswoman balancing on one foot in desert). The results indicated early recognition of comprehensible behaviour in the form of an enhanced posterior "recognition potential" (RP) (N250), which was followed by a larger negativity (N400) in response to incongruent actions. The results suggest that incoming visual information regarding human gestures is processed similarly to linguistic inputs from a conceptual point of view, thus eliciting a posterior RP when the action code is visually recognized and comprehended, and a later N400 when the action is not recognized or is difficult to integrate with previous knowledge. PMID:19427368

  12. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages—An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types

    PubMed Central

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials. PMID:27014059

  13. Faces in Motion: Selectivity of Macaque and Human Face Processing Areas for Dynamic Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Polosecki, Pablo; Moeller, Sebastian; Schweers, Nicole; Romanski, Lizabeth M.; Tsao, Doris Y.

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition mechanisms need to extract information from static and dynamic faces. It has been hypothesized that the analysis of dynamic face attributes is performed by different face areas than the analysis of static facial attributes. To date, there is no evidence for such a division of labor in macaque monkeys. We used fMRI to determine specializations of macaque face areas for motion. Face areas in the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus responded to general object motion; face areas outside of the superior temporal sulcus fundus responded more to facial motion than general object motion. Thus, the macaque face-processing system exhibits regional specialization for facial motion. Human face areas, processing the same stimuli, exhibited specializations for facial motion as well. Yet the spatial patterns of facial motion selectivity differed across species, suggesting that facial dynamics are analyzed differently in humans and macaques. PMID:23864665

  14. Atypical Faces vs. Object Processing and Hemispheric Asymmetries in 10-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Joseph P.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Dobkins, Karen R.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically-mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old “High-Risk” infants, who carry some of the genes associated with ASD because they have an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder. Methods We employed event related potentials (ERPs) to measure cortical responses to pictures of faces and objects, the objects being pictures of toys. Latencies and amplitudes of four ERP components (P100, N290, P400 and Nc) were compared between 20 High-Risk infants and 20 Low-Risk controls (infants with no family history of ASD). Results Responses to faces vs. objects differed between High- and Low-Risk infants, for the latencies of the N290 and P400. Differences were driven by faster responses to faces than objects in Low-Risk, but not High-Risk, infants (P400), and conversely, faster responses to objects than faces in High-Risk, but not Low-Risk, infants (N290). And, object responses were faster in High-Risk than Low-Risk infants (both N290 and P400). Left vs. right hemisphere responses also differed between High- and Low-Risk infants, for the amplitudes of the P100, N290 and P400; collapsed across faces/objects, Low-Risk, but not High-Risk, infants exhibited hemisphere asymmetries. Conclusions Genetic risk for ASD is associated with atypical face vs. object processing, and an atypical lack of hemispheric asymmetry, early in life. These atypicalities might contribute to development of the disorder. PMID:19765688

  15. The Time-Course of Processing of Grammatical Class and Semantic Attributes of Words: Dissociation by Means of ERP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Domínguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the time-course of word processing by grammatical class (verbs vs. nouns) and meaning (action vs. non-action) by means of an ERP experiment. The morphology of Spanish words allows for a noun (e.g., "bail"-e [a dance]) or a verb (e.g., "bail"-ar [to dance]) to be formed by simply changing the suffix attached…

  16. Cross-modal reorganization in cochlear implant users: Auditory cortex contributes to visual face processing.

    PubMed

    Stropahl, Maren; Plotz, Karsten; Schönfeld, Rüdiger; Lenarz, Thomas; Sandmann, Pascale; Yovel, Galit; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    There is converging evidence that the auditory cortex takes over visual functions during a period of auditory deprivation. A residual pattern of cross-modal take-over may prevent the auditory cortex to adapt to restored sensory input as delivered by a cochlear implant (CI) and limit speech intelligibility with a CI. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether visual face processing in CI users activates auditory cortex and whether this has adaptive or maladaptive consequences. High-density electroencephalogram data were recorded from CI users (n=21) and age-matched normal hearing controls (n=21) performing a face versus house discrimination task. Lip reading and face recognition abilities were measured as well as speech intelligibility. Evaluation of event-related potential (ERP) topographies revealed significant group differences over occipito-temporal scalp regions. Distributed source analysis identified significantly higher activation in the right auditory cortex for CI users compared to NH controls, confirming visual take-over. Lip reading skills were significantly enhanced in the CI group and appeared to be particularly better after a longer duration of deafness, while face recognition was not significantly different between groups. However, auditory cortex activation in CI users was positively related to face recognition abilities. Our results confirm a cross-modal reorganization for ecologically valid visual stimuli in CI users. Furthermore, they suggest that residual takeover, which can persist even after adaptation to a CI is not necessarily maladaptive. PMID:26220741

  17. What Do Infants See in Faces? ERP Evidence of Different Roles of Eyes and Mouth for Face Perception in 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Alexandra P. F.; Stone, Wendy; Williams, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether face-specific perceptual brain mechanisms in 9-month-old infants are differentially sensitive to changes in individual facial features (eyes versus mouth) and whether sensitivity to such changes is related to infants' social and communicative skills. Infants viewed photographs of a smiling unfamiliar female face. On 30%…

  18. Investigating the influence of proficiency on semantic processing in bilinguals: an ERP and ERD/S analysis.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Verena; Ischebeck, Anja; Brunner, Clemens; Grabner, Roland H; Stamenov, Maxim; Neuper, Christa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we presented sentences either ending with high or low probability cloze words or semantically incongruent words to investigate the influence of L2 proficiency on electrophysiological correlates of semantic processing in bilinguals. Event-related potentials (ERPs) as well as the oscillatory dynamics of the EEG signal, specifically, frequency power changes expressed as event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/S), were analyzed. Replicating earlier results, we found an N400 on semantically incongruent words, as well as on low cloze probability words. For the bilinguals investigated in the present study, N400 latency in the low cloze probability condition was found to be modulated by L2 proficiency, indicating that L2 proficiency in our sample might have influenced the speed of semantic integration. Relative Theta power increased for all three word conditions, but no influence of proficiency was observed. Different from the ERP results, we found a stronger increase in theta power for low cloze probability words than for incongruent and high cloze probability words, especially over temporo-parietal brain areas. The spatial distribution of the theta ERD/S results also differed from the N400 topography. Whereas the N400 showed a typical topography with a maximum over temporo-posterior electrode positions, the theta ERD/S topography was maximal for high and low cloze probability words over left central-posterior electrode positions. These findings show that the ERP and ERD/S results are sensitive to semantic processing. The different pattern of the ERD/S results compared to the ERP results, functionally and with regard to topography, suggests that the ERD/S reflects a different aspect or stage of semantic processing, possibly the successful conceptualization of a sentence. PMID:23377272

  19. Nobody Is Perfect: ERP Effects Prior to Performance Errors in Musicians Indicate Fast Monitoring Processes

    PubMed Central

    Maidhof, Clemens; Rieger, Martina; Prinz, Wolfgang; Koelsch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Background One central question in the context of motor control and action monitoring is at what point in time errors can be detected. Previous electrophysiological studies investigating this issue focused on brain potentials elicited after erroneous responses, mainly in simple speeded response tasks. In the present study, we investigated brain potentials before the commission of errors in a natural and complex situation. Methodology/Principal Findings Expert pianists bimanually played scales and patterns while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were computed for correct and incorrect performances. Results revealed differences already 100 ms prior to the onset of a note (i.e., prior to auditory feedback). We further observed that erroneous keystrokes were delayed in time and pressed more slowly. Conclusions Our data reveal neural mechanisms in musicians that are able to detect errors prior to the execution of erroneous movements. The underlying mechanism probably relies on predictive control processes that compare the predicted outcome of an action with the action goal. PMID:19337379

  20. The Syntactic and Semantic Processing of Mass and Count Nouns: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Valentina; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Mondini, Sara; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Semenza, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The present study addressed the question of whether count and mass nouns are differentially processed in the brain. In two different ERP (Event-Related Potentials) tasks we explored the semantic and syntactic levels of such distinction. Mass and count nouns typically differ in concreteness, hence the effect of this important variable was factorially examined in each task. Thus the stimuli presented were: count concrete, count abstract, mass concrete or mass abstract. The first experiment (concrete/abstract semantic judgment task) involved the interaction between the N400 concreteness effect and the Mass/Count condition, revealing a substantial effect between mass and count nouns at the semantic level. The second experiment (sentence syntactic violation task) showed a Mass/Count distinction on left anterior negativity (LAN) and on P600 components, confirming the difference at the syntactic level. This study suggests that the brain differentiates between count and mass nouns not only at the syntactic level but also at the semantic level. Implications for our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying the Mass/Count distinction are discussed. PMID:21998715

  1. Audio-visuomotor processing in the musician's brain: an ERP study on professional violinists and clarinetists.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Calbi, Marta; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of brain activation during visual and auditory perception of congruent vs. incongruent musical video clips was investigated in 12 musicians from the Milan Conservatory of music and 12 controls. 368 videos of a clarinetist and a violinist playing the same score with their instruments were presented. The sounds were similar in pitch, intensity, rhythm and duration. To produce an audiovisual discrepancy, in half of the trials, the visual information was incongruent with the soundtrack in pitch. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. Only in musicians for their own instruments was a N400-like negative deflection elicited due to the incongruent audiovisual information. SwLORETA applied to the N400 response identified the areas mediating multimodal motor processing: the prefrontal cortex, the right superior and middle temporal gyrus, the premotor cortex, the inferior frontal and inferior parietal areas, the EBA, somatosensory cortex, cerebellum and SMA. The data indicate the existence of audiomotor mirror neurons responding to incongruent visual and auditory information, thus suggesting that they may encode multimodal representations of musical gestures and sounds. These systems may underlie the ability to learn how to play a musical instrument. PMID:25070060

  2. Conscious awareness is required for holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Vadim; Rees, Geraint

    2014-07-01

    Investigating the limits of unconscious processing is essential to understand the function of consciousness. Here, we explored whether holistic face processing, a mechanism believed to be important for face processing in general, can be accomplished unconsciously. Using a novel "eyes-face" stimulus we tested whether discrimination of pairs of eyes was influenced by the surrounding face context. While the eyes were fully visible, the faces that provided context could be rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. Two experiments with three different sets of face stimuli and a subliminal learning procedure converged to show that invisible faces did not influence perception of visible eyes. In contrast, surrounding faces, when they were clearly visible, strongly influenced perception of the eyes. Thus, we conclude that conscious awareness might be a prerequisite for holistic face processing. PMID:24950500

  3. Morphological processing in early bilinguals: an ERP study of regular and irregular verb processing.

    PubMed

    De Diego Balaguer, R; Sebastián-Gallés, N; Díaz, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2005-09-01

    Although the age of acquisition of a language has an effect when learning a second language, the similarity between languages may also have a crucial role. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of this latter factor in the acquisition of morphosyntactic information. With this purpose, two groups of highly proficient early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were presented with a repetition-priming paradigm with regular and irregular verbs of Spanish. Catalan and Spanish have a similar suffix (-o) for regular verbs and completely different alternations for irregular verbs. Two types of irregular verbs were studied (semi-regular verbs with a systematic diphthong alternation, sentir-siento, and verbs with idiosyncratic changes, venir-vengo). Regular verbs showed the same centro-parietal N400 priming effect in the second-language speakers (L2) as in primary-language (L1) speakers. However, differences between groups, in the ERP pattern and the topography of the N400 effect, were observed for irregular morphology. In L1 speakers, the N400 effect was attenuated only for semi-regular verbs. In contrast, L2 speakers showed a reduced N400 priming effect in both irregular contrasts. This pattern of results suggests that the similarity between languages may help for similar structures but may interfere for dissimilar structures, at least when the two languages have very similar morphological systems. PMID:16023332

  4. Effects of unconscious processing on implicit memory for fearful faces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiongjiong; Xu, Xiaohong; Du, Xiaoya; Shi, Cuntong; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Emotional stimuli can be processed even when participants perceive them without conscious awareness, but the extent to which unconsciously processed emotional stimuli influence implicit memory after short and long delays is not fully understood. We addressed this issue by measuring a subliminal affective priming effect in Experiment 1 and a long-term priming effect in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, a flashed fearful or neutral face masked by a scrambled face was presented three times, then a target face (either fearful or neutral) was presented and participants were asked to make a fearful/neutral judgment. We found that, relative to a neutral prime face (neutral-fear face), a fearful prime face speeded up participants' reaction to a fearful target (fear-fear face), when they were not aware of the masked prime face. But this response pattern did not apply to the neutral target. In Experiment 2, participants were first presented with a masked faces six times during encoding. Three minutes later, they were asked to make a fearful/neutral judgment for the same face with congruent expression, the same face with incongruent expression or a new face. Participants showed a significant priming effect for the fearful faces but not for the neutral faces, regardless of their awareness of the masked faces during encoding. These results provided evidence that unconsciously processed stimuli could enhance emotional memory after both short and long delays. It indicates that emotion can enhance memory processing whether the stimuli are encoded consciously or unconsciously. PMID:21408105

  5. Referential processing in the human brain: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) study.

    PubMed

    Barkley, C; Kluender, R; Kutas, M

    2015-12-10

    A substantial body of ERP research investigating the processing of syntactic long-distance dependencies has shown that, across languages and construction types, the second element in such configurations typically elicits phasic left anterior negativity (LAN). We hypothesized that these effects are not specific to syntactic dependencies, but rather index a more general cognitive operation in which the second (dependent) element in sentence-level linguistic long-distance relationships triggers a process of association with the first element. We tested this hypothesis with straightforward referential dependencies, comparing pronouns with proper name antecedents to those without, and proper names with and without preceding co-referring pronouns. We predicted phasic LAN effects in response to the second referential element in both comparisons, but observed them only in response to pronouns with antecedents; no differences were observed between responses to proper names with and without preceding co-referring pronouns. We argue that LAN effects observed at the pronoun index the cognitive operations necessary for the association of a pronoun with its antecedent, on which it depends for its reference. Similar but non-identical responses were elicited by the main clause verb following the gap position in object relative clause constructions compared to coordinate clause controls in an orthogonal manipulation. LAN effects were thus elicited by the second dependent element in both construction types, suggesting that long-distance syntactic and referential dependencies pose similar processing challenges. These findings help to clarify the cognitive processes indexed by anterior negative responses to associated dependent elements in a variety of language contexts. PMID:26456801

  6. Neural correlates of emotional intelligence in a visual emotional oddball task: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Zysberg, Leehu

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of Emotional Intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based ability test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by using a visual-emotional oddball paradigm, in which subjects were confronted with one frequent standard stimulus (a neutral face) and two deviant stimuli (a happy and an angry face). The effects of these faces were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP components in response to emotional and neutral faces, at frontal, posterior-parietal and occipital scalp locations. P1, P2 and N2 are considered indexes of attention-related processes and have been associated with early attention to emotional stimuli. The later P3 component has been thought to reflect more elaborative, top-down, emotional information processing including emotional evaluation and memory encoding and formation. These results may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional faces at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI. PMID:25265320

  7. When less is more: Impact of face processing ability on recognition of visually degraded faces.

    PubMed

    Royer, Jessica; Blais, Caroline; Gosselin, Frédéric; Duncan, Justin; Fiset, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    It is generally thought that faces are perceived as indissociable wholes. As a result, many assume that hiding large portions of the face by the addition of noise or by masking limits or qualitatively alters natural "expert" face processing by forcing observers to use atypical processing mechanisms. We addressed this question by measuring face processing abilities with whole faces and with Bubbles (Gosselin & Schyns, 2001), an extreme masking method thought by some to bias the observers toward the use of atypical processing mechanisms by limiting the use of whole-face strategies. We obtained a strong and negative correlation between individual face processing ability and the number of bubbles (r = -.79), and this correlation remained strong even after controlling for general visual/cognitive processing ability (rpartial = -.72). In other words, the better someone is at processing faces, the fewer facial parts they need to accurately carry out this task. Thus, contrary to what many researchers assume, face processing mechanisms appear to be quite insensitive to the visual impoverishment of the face stimulus. PMID:26168140

  8. ERP evidence for the online processing of rhythmic pattern during Chinese sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingyi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2010-02-01

    Prosodic information has been found to have immediate impact upon spoken sentence comprehension. However, it is not clear to what extent such information could constrain neuro-cognitive processes in silent reading. In this event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigate whether a particular prosodic constraint in Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-noun combination, affects sentence reading and whether neural markers of rhythmic pattern processing are similar to those of prosodic processing in the spoken domain. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different lengths, with some combinations (e.g., the [2+1] pattern; numbers in brackets stand for the number of syllables of the verb and of the noun respectively) disallowed and some combinations (e.g., [1+1] or [2+2]) preferred. We manipulated the well-formedness of rhythmic pattern as well as the semantic congruency between the verb and the noun and we visually presented sentences, segment by segment, to readers who were required to make acceptability judgment to each sentence. In two experiments in which the verb and the noun were presented either separately or as one segment, we found that the abnormal rhythmic pattern evoked an N400-like effect in the 400- to 600-ms time window and a late positivity effect in semantically congruent sentences; however, the abnormal rhythmic pattern elicited a posterior positivity effect in the 300- to 600-ms time window in semantically incongruent sentences. These findings suggest that information concerning rhythmic pattern is used rapidly and interactively to constrain semantic access/integration during Chinese sentence reading. PMID:19833211

  9. How information structure influences the processing of rhythmic irregularities: ERP evidence from German phrases.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Karen; Wiese, Richard; Domahs, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the influence of focus and givenness on the cognitive processing of rhythmic irregularities occurring in natural speech. Previous ERP studies showed that even subtle rhythmic deviations are detected by the brain if attention is directed towards the rhythmic structure. By using question-answer pairs, it was investigated whether subtle rhythmic irregularities in form of stress clashes (two adjacent stressed syllables) and stress lapses (two adjacent unstressed syllables) are still perceived when presented in post-focus position in an answer sentence and attention is directed away from them, towards the meaning of the element in narrow focus position by the preceding wh-question. Moreover, by visually presenting the lexical-semantic input of the deviating structure in the question, the influence of rhythmical and lexical properties in these two forms of rhythmic deviations are disentangled. While words in the present stress clash condition do not deviate from lexical stress, stress lapses contain deviations from metrical and lexical stress. The data reveal an early negativity effect for stress clashes but not for stress lapses, supporting the assumption that they are processed differently. The absence of a negative component for stress lapses indicates that the metrical deviation alone is not salient enough to be registered in non-focus position. Moreover, the lack of a late positive component suggests that subtle rhythmic deviations are less perceivable and hence more acceptable when presented in non-focus position. Thus, these results show that attentional shift induced by information structure influences the degree of the processing of rhythm. PMID:26119922

  10. The Impact of Perceptual Load on the Non-Conscious Processing of Fearful Faces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Feng, Chunliang; Mai, Xiaoqin; Jia, Lina; Zhu, Xiangru; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stimuli can be processed without consciousness. In the current study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess whether perceptual load influences non-conscious processing of fearful facial expressions. Perceptual load was manipulated using a letter search task with the target letter presented at the fixation point, while facial expressions were presented peripherally and masked to prevent conscious awareness. The letter string comprised six letters (X or N) that were identical (low load) or different (high load). Participants were instructed to discriminate the letters at fixation or the facial expression (fearful or neutral) in the periphery. Participants were faster and more accurate at detecting letters in the low load condition than in the high load condition. Fearful faces elicited a sustained positivity from 250 ms to 700 ms post-stimulus over fronto-central areas during the face discrimination and low-load letter discrimination conditions, but this effect was completely eliminated during high-load letter discrimination. Our findings imply that non-conscious processing of fearful faces depends on perceptual load, and attentional resources are necessary for non-conscious processing. PMID:27149273

  11. Can Holistic Processing Be Learned for Inverted Faces?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rachel; McKone, Elinor

    2003-01-01

    The origin of "special" processing for upright faces has been a matter of ongoing debate. If it is due to generic expertise, as opposed to having some innate component, holistic processing should be learnable for stimuli other than upright faces. Here we assess inverted faces. We trained subjects to discriminate identical twins using up to 1100…

  12. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker's face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals' face processing abilities differ from monolinguals'. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation. PMID:27486422

  13. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker’s face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals’ face processing abilities differ from monolinguals’. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation. PMID:27486422

  14. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants.

    PubMed

    Rajhans, Purva; Jessen, Sarah; Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy) that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception. PMID:26974742

  15. Face and object processing in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Simon; Coleman, Michael; Bailey, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    The nature and extent of face-processing impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain contentious. The aim of this research study is to assess the face- and object-processing performance of individuals with ASD compared with typically developing controls. Our hypothesis was that individuals with ASD would be significantly impaired on tests of face processing but show intact object processing. More specifically, we tested two competing hypotheses to explain face-processing deficits: holistic hypothesis; second-order configural hypothesis. Twenty-six able adults with ASD and 26 intelligence quotient-matched typically developing controls completed two computerized tests of face and object discrimination. In task 1, the first picture (faces or cars) in a pair was presented as quickly as 40 msec to test holistic processing. In task 2, the decision was whether pairs of faces or houses had been altered in terms of the features or the distance between the features (the second-order configural properties). Individuals with ASD were impaired on all tests of face processing but showed intact object processing and the pattern of findings favored the holistic hypothesis. The heterogeneous pattern of performance in the clinical group showed that some individuals with ASD perform similarly to typically developing individuals in their face-processing skills, whereas others are more accurate in object processing compared with face processing. PMID:19360649

  16. Double dissociation of configural and featural face processing on P1 and P2 components as a function of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailing; Guo, Shichun; Fu, Shimin

    2016-08-01

    Face recognition relies on both configural and featural processing. Previous research has shown that P1 is sensitive to configural face processing, but it is unclear whether any component is sensitive to featural face processing; moreover, if there is such a component, its temporal sequence relative to P1 is unknown. Thus, to avoid confounding physical stimuli differences between configural and featural face processing on ERP components, a spatial attention paradigm was employed by instructing participants to attend an image stream (faces and houses) or an alphanumeric character stream. The interaction between attention and face processing type on P1 and P2 components indicates different mechanisms of configural and featural face processing as a function of spatial attention. The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) results clearly demonstrated that participants could selectively attend to different streams of information. Importantly, configural face processing elicited a larger posterior P1 (approximately 128 ms) than featural face processing, whereas P2 (approximately 248 ms) was greater for featural than for configural face processing under attended condition. The interaction between attention and face processing type (configural vs. featural) on P1 and P2 components indicates that there are different mechanisms of configural and featural face processing operating as functions of spatial attention. While the P1 result confirms previous findings separating configural and featural face processing, the newly observed P2 finding in the present study extends this separation to a double dissociation. Therefore, configural and featural face processing are modulated differently by spatial attention, and configural face processing precedes featural face processing. PMID:27167853

  17. Rigid facial motion influences featural, but not holistic, face processing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Ge, Liezhong; Lee, Kang

    2012-03-15

    We report three experiments in which we investigated the effect of rigid facial motion on face processing. Specifically, we used the face composite effect to examine whether rigid facial motion influences primarily featural or holistic processing of faces. In Experiments 1-3, participants were first familiarized with dynamic displays in which a target face turned from one side to another; then at test, participants judged whether the top half of a composite face (the top half of the target/foil face aligned or misaligned with the bottom half of a foil face) belonged to the target face. We compared performance in the dynamic condition to various static control conditions in Experiments 1-3, which differed from each other in terms of the display order of the multiple static images or the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between the images. We found that the size of the face composite effect in the dynamic condition was significantly smaller than that in the static conditions. In other words, the dynamic face display influenced participants to process the target faces in a part-based manner and consequently their recognition of the upper portion of the composite face at test became less interfered with by the aligned lower part of the foil face. The findings from the present experiments provide the strongest evidence to date to suggest that the rigid facial motion mainly influences facial featural, but not holistic, processing. PMID:22342561

  18. When Does the Brain Distinguish between Genuine and Ambiguous Smiles? An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Marrero, Hipolito; Beltran, David

    2013-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the processing time course of ambiguous facial expressions with a smiling mouth but neutral, fearful, or angry eyes, in comparison with genuinely happy faces (a smile and happy eyes) and non-happy faces (neutral, fearful, or angry mouth and eyes). Participants judged whether the faces…

  19. Conflict and Surrender during Sentence Processing: An ERP Study of Syntax-Semantics Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Albert; Sikos, Les

    2011-01-01

    Recent ERP studies report that implausible verb-argument combinations can elicit a centro-parietal P600 effect (e.g., "The hearty meal was devouring..."; Kim & Osterhout, 2005). Such eliciting conditions do not involve outright syntactic anomaly, deviating from previous reports of P600. Kim and Osterhout (2005) attributed such P600 effects to…

  20. ERP measures of syllable processing in 1 year olds: infant diet- and gender-related differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Language skills are generally better in females than males, but the basis for these differences has not been determined. To investigate whether variations in infant diet contribute to these differences, cortical responses to the syllable /pa/ (ERPs;124 sites) were examined in healthy 12-month-old, f...

  1. Adaptation Duration Dissociates Category-, Image-, and Person-Specific Processes on Face-Evoked Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Márta; Zbanţ, Adriana; Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated that face perception is biased by the prior presentation of another face, a phenomenon termed as face-related after-effect (FAE). FAE is linked to a neural signal-reduction at occipito-temporal areas and it can be observed in the amplitude modulation of the early event-related potential (ERP) components. Recently, macaque single-cell recording studies suggested that manipulating the duration of the adaptor makes the selective adaptation of different visual motion processing steps possible. To date, however, only a few studies tested the effects of adaptor duration on the electrophysiological correlates of human face processing directly. The goal of the current study was to test the effect of adaptor duration on the image-, identity-, and generic category-specific face processing steps. To this end, in a two-alternative forced choice familiarity decision task we used five adaptor durations (ranging from 200–5000 ms) and four adaptor categories: adaptor and test were identical images—Repetition Suppression (RS); adaptor and test were different images of the Same Identity (SameID); adaptor and test images depicted Different Identities (DiffID); the adaptor was a Fourier phase-randomized image (No). Behaviorally, a strong priming effect was observed in both accuracy and response times for RS compared with both DiffID and No. The electrophysiological results suggest that rapid adaptation leads to a category-specific modulation of P100, N170, and N250. In addition, both identity and image-specific processes affected the N250 component during rapid adaptation. On the other hand, prolonged (5000 ms) adaptation enhanced, and extended category-specific adaptation processes over all tested ERP components. Additionally, prolonged adaptation led to the emergence of image-, and identity-specific modulations on the N170 and P2 components as well. In other words, there was a clear dissociation among category, identity-, and image

  2. Face recognition in simulated prosthetic vision: face detection-based image processing strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Xiaobei; Lu, Yanyu; Wu, Hao; Kan, Han; Chai, Xinyu

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Given the limited visual percepts elicited by current prosthetic devices, it is essential to optimize image content in order to assist implant wearers to achieve better performance of visual tasks. This study focuses on recognition of familiar faces using simulated prosthetic vision. Approach. Combined with region-of-interest (ROI) magnification, three face extraction strategies based on a face detection technique were used: the Viola-Jones face region, the statistical face region (SFR) and the matting face region. Main results. These strategies significantly enhanced recognition performance compared to directly lowering resolution (DLR) with Gaussian dots. The inclusion of certain external features, such as hairstyle, was beneficial for face recognition. Given the high recognition accuracy achieved and applicable processing speed, SFR-ROI was the preferred strategy. DLR processing resulted in significant face gender recognition differences (i.e. females were more easily recognized than males), but these differences were not apparent with other strategies. Significance. Face detection-based image processing strategies improved visual perception by highlighting useful information. Their use is advisable for face recognition when using low-resolution prosthetic vision. These results provide information for the continued design of image processing modules for use in visual prosthetics, thus maximizing the benefits for future prosthesis wearers.

  3. Hemisphere-Dependent Holistic Processing of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon, Meike; Rossion, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    In two behavioral experiments involving lateralized stimulus presentation, we tested whether one of the most commonly used measures of holistic face processing--the composite face effect--would be more pronounced for stimuli presented to the right as compared to the left hemisphere. In experiment 1, we investigated the composite face effect in a…

  4. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces. PMID:24374735

  5. Face processing in Williams syndrome is already atypical in infancy.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Dean; Cole, Victoria; Farran, Emily K; Brown, Janice H; Humphreys, Kate; Howard, John; Rodic, Maja; Dekker, Tessa M; D'Souza, Hana; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Face processing is a crucial socio-cognitive ability. Is it acquired progressively or does it constitute an innately-specified, face-processing module? The latter would be supported if some individuals with seriously impaired intelligence nonetheless showed intact face-processing abilities. Some theorists claim that Williams syndrome (WS) provides such evidence since, despite IQs in the 50s, adolescents/adults with WS score in the normal range on standardized face-processing tests. Others argue that atypical neural and cognitive processes underlie WS face-processing proficiencies. But what about infants with WS? Do they start with typical face-processing abilities, with atypicality developing later, or are atypicalities already evident in infancy? We used an infant familiarization/novelty design and compared infants with WS to typically developing controls as well as to a group of infants with Down syndrome matched on both mental and chronological age. Participants were familiarized with a schematic face, after which they saw a novel face in which either the features (eye shape) were changed or just the configuration of the original features. Configural changes were processed successfully by controls, but not by infants with WS who were only sensitive to featural changes and who showed syndrome-specific profiles different from infants with the other neurodevelopmental disorder. Our findings indicate that theorists can no longer use the case of WS to support claims that evolution has endowed the human brain with an independent face-processing module. PMID:26124729

  6. ERPs reveal atypical processing of subject versus object Wh-questions in children with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object (Who did the bear follow?) relative to subject (Who followed the tiger?) wh-questions. Aims To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD), show a more distinct unevenness, or asymmetry, in the comprehension of these questions. In addition, this study examined whether the sustained left-anterior negativity (LAN) in event-related potentials (ERP) could be used as a marker for atypical processing of these questions in children with SLI. The LAN effect signals the greater working memory processes for maintaining in memory the dislocated object in object wh-questions and reflects working memory capacity in adults. It was predicted that the amplitude of the LAN would be greater in children with SLI, reflecting the characteristic low working memory capacity in this population. The concomitance of these behavioural and electrophysiological effects would suggest that the subject–object asymmetry in SLI should be investigated in relation to poor working memory skills. Methods & Procedures Groups including 13 children with SLI, 17 same-age TD children and 18 normal adults completed an auditory sentence comprehension task requiring button responses while continuous electroencephalography (EEG) was collected. Accuracy for subject and object questions was calculated. The mean amplitude values of the ERP data for the wh-questions were examined to identify differential processing of subject and object questions. Outcomes & Results TD children demonstrated asymmetrical comprehension of subject and object wh-questions, whereas children with SLI comprehended both question types poorly and adults did not show subject–object asymmetry. ERP waveforms spanning the wh-dependency revealed a large and widespread sustained anterior positivity for object relative to subject questions in the TD group, indicating

  7. The effects of stimulus complexity on the preattentive processing of self-generated and nonself voices: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Conde, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Pinheiro, Ana P

    2016-02-01

    The ability to differentiate one's own voice from the voice of somebody else plays a critical role in successful verbal self-monitoring processes and in communication. However, most of the existing studies have only focused on the sensory correlates of self-generated voice processing, whereas the effects of attentional demands and stimulus complexity on self-generated voice processing remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of stimulus complexity on the preattentive processing of self and nonself voice stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 17 healthy males who watched a silent movie while ignoring prerecorded self-generated (SGV) and nonself (NSV) voice stimuli, consisting of a vocalization (vocalization category condition: VCC) or of a disyllabic word (word category condition: WCC). All voice stimuli were presented as standard and deviant events in four distinct oddball sequences. The mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP component peaked earlier for NSV than for SGV stimuli. Moreover, when compared with SGV stimuli, the P3a amplitude was increased for NSV stimuli in the VCC only, whereas in the WCC no significant differences were found between the two voice types. These findings suggest differences in the time course of automatic detection of a change in voice identity. In addition, they suggest that stimulus complexity modulates the magnitude of the orienting response to SGV and NSV stimuli, extending previous findings on self-voice processing. PMID:26415897

  8. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Lack Expertise in Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew; Pradhan, Gauri

    2010-01-01

    Faces are salient stimuli for primates that rely predominantly on visual cues for recognizing conspecifics and maintaining social relationships. While previous studies have shown similar face discrimination processes in chimpanzees and humans, data from monkeys are unclear. Therefore, three studies examined face processing in rhesus monkeys using the face inversion effect, a fractured face task, and an individual recognition task. Unlike chimpanzees and humans, the monkeys showed a general face inversion effect reflected by significantly better performance on upright compared to inverted faces (conspecifics, human and chimpanzees faces) regardless of the subjects’ expertise with those categories. Fracturing faces alters first- and second-order configural manipulations whereas previous studies in chimpanzees showed selective deficits for second-order configural manipulations. Finally, when required to individuate conspecific’s faces, i.e., matching two different photographs of the same conspecific, monkeys showed poor discrimination and repeated training. These results support evolutionary differences between rhesus monkeys and Hominoids in the importance of configural cues and their ability to individuate conspecifics’ faces, suggesting a lack of face expertise in rhesus monkeys. PMID:19014263

  9. Processing emotional words in two languages with one brain: ERP and fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiyao; Lin, Jie; Chen, Bingle; Lu, Chunming; Guo, Taomei

    2015-10-01

    Emotional words in a bilingual's second language (L2) seem to have less emotional impact compared to emotional words in the first language (L1). The present study examined the neural mechanisms of emotional word processing in Chinese-English bilinguals' two languages by using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results show a robust positive word processing advantage in L1 such that responses to positive words were faster and more accurate compared to responses to neutral words and negative words. In L2, emotional words only received higher accuracies than neutral words. In ERPs, positive words elicited a larger early posterior negativity and a smaller late positive component than neutral words in L1, while a trend of reduced N400 component was found for positive words compared to neutral words in L2. In fMRI, reduced activation was found for L1 emotional words in both the left middle occipital gyrus and the left cerebellum whereas increased activation in the left cerebellum was found for L2 emotional words. Altogether, these results suggest that emotional word processing advantage in L1 relies on rapid and automatic attention capture while facilitated semantic retrieval might help processing emotional words in L2. PMID:26143622

  10. Spatial attention does not modulate holistic face processing, even when multiple faces are present.

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Tokarev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The perception of faces is often considered to be unique in comparison with that of other objects in the world. The fact that faces are processed not by their constituent components but by the spatial configuration between those components (holistic face processing--HFP) is often used to support this. Despite two decades of research, however, there is no consensus as to whether or not HFP is a process that is subject to attentional modulation. Here, in two experiments, we used a method to direct spatial attention not previously used in studies of HFP--an exogenous spatial cue--as it offers a robust, rapid, and involuntary method of directing attention. In one experiment we demonstrate that the degree of HFP afforded to a face is not reduced when attention is directed away from that face. In a second experiment we replicate this finding even when the face is simultaneously flanked by other faces--a condition under which a face-specific processing module would, hypothetically, be more sensitive to attentional guidance. These results add to the argument that HFP is carried out independently of attention. PMID:25669051

  11. A Unique Look at Face Processing: The Impact of Masked Faces on the Processing of Facial Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mark A.; Moss, Simon A.; Bradshaw, John L.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment utilized a masked priming paradigm to explore the early processes involved in face recognition. The first experiment investigated implicit processing of the eyes and mouth in an upright face, using prime durations of 33 and 50 ms. The results demonstrate implicit processing of both the eyes and mouth, and support the configural…

  12. Looking to the eyes influences the processing of emotion on face-sensitive event-related potentials in 7-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Westerlund, Alissa; Montoya, Lina; McCormick, Sarah A; Miguel, Helga O; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies in infants have shown that face-sensitive components of the ongoing electroencephalogram (the event-related potential, or ERP) are larger in amplitude to negative emotions (e.g., fear, anger) versus positive emotions (e.g., happy). However, it is still unclear whether the negative emotions linked with the face or the negative emotions alone contribute to these amplitude differences. We simultaneously recorded infant looking behaviors (via eye-tracking) and face-sensitive ERPs while 7-month-old infants viewed human faces or animals displaying happy, fear, or angry expressions. We observed that the amplitude of the N290 was greater (i.e., more negative) to angry animals compared to happy or fearful animals; no such differences were obtained for human faces. Eye-tracking data highlighted the importance of the eye region in processing emotional human faces. Infants that spent more time looking to the eye region of human faces showing fearful or angry expressions had greater N290 or P400 amplitudes, respectively. PMID:24962465

  13. Passive and motivated perception of emotional faces: qualitative and quantitative changes in the face processing network.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Laurie R; Decety, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally expressive faces are processed by a distributed network of interacting sub-cortical and cortical brain regions. The components of this network have been identified and described in large part by the stimulus properties to which they are sensitive, but as face processing research matures interest has broadened to also probe dynamic interactions between these regions and top-down influences such as task demand and context. While some research has tested the robustness of affective face processing by restricting available attentional resources, it is not known whether face network processing can be augmented by increased motivation to attend to affective face stimuli. Short videos of people expressing emotions were presented to healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Motivation to attend to the videos was manipulated by providing an incentive for improved recall performance. During the motivated condition, there was greater coherence among nodes of the face processing network, more widespread correlation between signal intensity and performance, and selective signal increases in a task-relevant subset of face processing regions, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus and right amygdala. In addition, an unexpected task-related laterality effect was seen in the amygdala. These findings provide strong evidence that motivation augments co-activity among nodes of the face processing network and the impact of neural activity on performance. These within-subject effects highlight the necessity to consider motivation when interpreting neural function in special populations, and to further explore the effect of task demands on face processing in healthy brains. PMID:22768287

  14. The Implications of Real Options on ERP-Enabled Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankpa, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Current research on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and real options focuses on valuation and justification issues that manager's face prior to project approval with existing literature attempting to demonstrate that ERP systems as technology positioning investments have option-like characteristics thus making such ERP systems…

  15. Combat veterans with comorbid PTSD and mild TBI exhibit a greater inhibitory processing ERP from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Shu, I-Wei; Onton, Julie A; O'Connell, Ryan M; Simmons, Alan N; Matthews, Scott C

    2014-10-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among combat personnel with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While patients with either PTSD or mTBI share abnormal activation of multiple frontal brain areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity during inhibitory processing may be particularly affected by PTSD. To further test this hypothesis, we recorded electroencephalography from 32 combat veterans with mTBI-17 of whom were also comorbid for PTSD (mTBI+PTSD) and 15 without PTSD (mTBI-only). Subjects performed the Stop Task, a validated inhibitory control task requiring inhibition of initiated motor responses. We observed a larger inhibitory processing eventrelated potential (ERP) in veterans with mTBI+PTSD, including greater N200 negativity. Furthermore, greater N200 negativity correlated with greater PTSD severity. This correlation was most dependent on contributions from the dorsal ACC. Support vector machine analysis demonstrated that N200 and P300 amplitudes objectively classified veterans into mTBI-only or mTBI+PTSD groups with 79.4% accuracy. Our results support a model where, in combat veterans with mTBI, larger ERPs from cingulate areas are associated with greater PTSD severity and likely related to difficulty controlling ongoing brain processes, including trauma-related thoughts and feelings. PMID:25150386

  16. Face Processing in Children with ASD: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campatelli, G.; Federico, R. R.; Apicella, F.; Sicca, F.; Muratori, F.

    2013-01-01

    Face processing has been studied and discussed in depth during previous decades in several branches of science, and evidence from research supports the view that this process is a highly specialized brain function. Several authors argue that difficulties in the use and comprehension of the information conveyed by human faces could represent a core…

  17. Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Oberlander, Tim F.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Hertzman, Clyde; Maggi, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) and other electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort) emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc.) and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc.) may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar behavioural performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant) and unattended (irrelevant) tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES) with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive

  18. Functionally integrated neural processing of linguistic and talker information: An event-related fMRI and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caicai; Pugh, Kenneth R; Mencl, W Einar; Molfese, Peter J; Frost, Stephen J; Magnuson, James S; Peng, Gang; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-01-01

    Speech signals contain information of both linguistic content and a talker's voice. Conventionally, linguistic and talker processing are thought to be mediated by distinct neural systems in the left and right hemispheres respectively, but there is growing evidence that linguistic and talker processing interact in many ways. Previous studies suggest that talker-related vocal tract changes are processed integrally with phonetic changes in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS), because the vocal tract parameter influences the perception of phonetic information. It is yet unclear whether the bilateral STG is also activated by the integral processing of another parameter - pitch, which influences the perception of lexical tone information and is related to talker differences in tone languages. In this study, we conducted separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) experiments to examine the spatial and temporal loci of interactions of lexical tone and talker-related pitch processing in Cantonese. We found that the STG was activated bilaterally during the processing of talker changes when listeners attended to lexical tone changes in the stimuli and during the processing of lexical tone changes when listeners attended to talker changes, suggesting that lexical tone and talker processing are functionally integrated in the bilateral STG. It extends the previous study, providing evidence for a general neural mechanism of integral phonetic and talker processing in the bilateral STG. The ERP results show interactions of lexical tone and talker processing 500-800ms after auditory word onset (a simultaneous posterior P3b and a frontal negativity). Moreover, there is some asymmetry in the interaction, such that unattended talker changes affect linguistic processing more than vice versa, which may be related to the ambiguity that talker changes cause in speech perception and/or attention bias

  19. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ponseti, J.; Granert, O.; van Eimeren, T.; Jansen, O.; Wolff, S.; Beier, K.; Deuschl, G.; Bosinski, H.; Siebner, H.

    2014-01-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern. PMID:24850896

  20. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences.

    PubMed

    Ponseti, J; Granert, O; van Eimeren, T; Jansen, O; Wolff, S; Beier, K; Deuschl, G; Bosinski, H; Siebner, H

    2014-05-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern. PMID:24850896

  1. Selective attention modulates early human evoked potentials during emotional face-voice processing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hao Tam; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-04-01

    Recent findings on multisensory integration suggest that selective attention influences cross-sensory interactions from an early processing stage. Yet, in the field of emotional face-voice integration, the hypothesis prevails that facial and vocal emotional information interacts preattentively. Using ERPs, we investigated the influence of selective attention on the perception of congruent versus incongruent combinations of neutral and angry facial and vocal expressions. Attention was manipulated via four tasks that directed participants to (i) the facial expression, (ii) the vocal expression, (iii) the emotional congruence between the face and the voice, and (iv) the synchrony between lip movement and speech onset. Our results revealed early interactions between facial and vocal emotional expressions, manifested as modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 amplitude by incongruent emotional face-voice combinations. Although audiovisual emotional interactions within the N1 time window were affected by the attentional manipulations, interactions within the P2 modulation showed no such attentional influence. Thus, we propose that the N1 and P2 are functionally dissociated in terms of emotional face-voice processing and discuss evidence in support of the notion that the N1 is associated with cross-sensory prediction, whereas the P2 relates to the derivation of an emotional percept. Essentially, our findings put the integration of facial and vocal emotional expressions into a new perspective-one that regards the integration process as a composite of multiple, possibly independent subprocesses, some of which are susceptible to attentional modulation, whereas others may be influenced by additional factors. PMID:25269113

  2. Three studies on configural face processing by chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew; Akamagwuna, Unoma

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of chimpanzees to facial configurations. Three studies further these findings by showing this sensitivity to be specific to second-order relational properties. In humans, this type of configural processing requires prolonged experience and enables subordinate-level discriminations of many individuals. Chimpanzees showed evidence of a composite-like effect for conspecific but not human faces despite extensive experience with humans. Chimpanzee face recognition was impaired only when manipulations targeted second-order properties. Finally, face processing was impaired when individual features were blurred through pixelation. Results confirm that chimpanzee face discrimination, like humans, depends on the integrity of second-order relational properties. PMID:16678323

  3. How and When Accentuation Influences Temporally Selective Attention and Subsequent Semantic Processing during On-Line Spoken Language Comprehension: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin

    2012-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of…

  4. The Processing of Consonants and Vowels during Letter Identity and Letter Position Assignment in Visual-Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Marin, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a processing distinction between consonants and vowels in visual-word recognition. Here we conjointly examine the time course of consonants and vowels in processes of letter identity and letter position assignment. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in…

  5. Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Ortiz, Haydee; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of two event-related potential (ERP) experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between syntactic/phonological conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available. PMID:25165460

  6. What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

  7. Psychophysiological correlates of face processing in social phobia.

    PubMed

    Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2006-11-01

    Social phobia has been associated with abnormal processing of angry faces, which directly signal disapproval--a situation that social phobics fear. This study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of emotional face processing in socially phobic and non-phobic individuals. Subjects identified either the gender (modified emotional Stroop task) or the expression of angry, happy, or neutral faces. Social phobics showed no deviations from controls in reaction times, heart rates, P1, or P2 amplitudes in response to angry faces, although elevated FSS scores were associated with higher P1 amplitudes in social phobic persons. In addition, social phobic persons showed enhanced right temporo-parietal N170 amplitudes in response to angry faces in the emotion identification task. Furthermore, higher scores on the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) were associated as a trend with larger N170 amplitudes in response to angry faces in the emotion identification task. Thus, the present results suggest that social phobics show abnormalities in the early visual processing of angry faces, as reflected by the enhanced right-hemispheric N170 when the emotion of the angry face was the focus of attention, while behavioral responses and heart rates showed no evidence for preferred processing of angry facial expressions. PMID:16970928

  8. From pre-attentive processes to durable representation: an ERP index of visual distraction.

    PubMed

    Sysoeva, Olga V; Lange, Elke B; Sorokin, Alexander B; Campbell, Tom

    2015-03-01

    Visual search and oddball paradigms were combined to investigate memory for to-be-ignored color changes in a group of 12 healthy participants. The onset of unexpected color change of an irrelevant stimulus evoked two reliable ERP effects: a component of the event-related potential (ERP), similar to the visual mismatch negativity response (vMMN), with a latency of 120-160 ms and a posterior distribution over the left hemisphere and Late Fronto-Central Negativity (LFCN) with a latency of 320-400 ms, apparent at fronto-central electrodes and some posterior sites. Color change of that irrelevant stimulus also slowed identification of a visual target, indicating distraction. The amplitude of this color-change vMMN, but not LFCN, indexed this distraction effect. That is, electrophysiological and behavioral measures were correlated. The interval between visual scenes approximated 1s (611-1629 ms), indicating that the brain's sensory memory for the color of the preceding visual scenes must persist for at least 600 ms. Therefore, in the case of the neural code for color, durable memory representations are formed in an obligatory manner. PMID:25523346

  9. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Altenmüller, Eckart; Colonius, Hans; Münte, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin's assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus, extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features. PMID:24065950

  10. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N.; Altenmüller, Eckart; Colonius, Hans; Münte, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin's assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus, extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features. PMID:24065950