Sample records for face-to-face interaction networks

  1. Effectiveness of Link Prediction for Face-to-Face Behavioral Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tsugawa, Sho; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Research on link prediction for social networks has been actively pursued. In link prediction for a given social network obtained from time-windowed observation, new link formation in the network is predicted from the topology of the obtained network. In contrast, recent advances in sensing technology have made it possible to obtain face-to-face behavioral networks, which are social networks representing face-to-face interactions among people. However, the effectiveness of link prediction techniques for face-to-face behavioral networks has not yet been explored in depth. To clarify this point, here we investigate the accuracy of conventional link prediction techniques for networks obtained from the history of face-to-face interactions among participants at an academic conference. Our findings were (1) that conventional link prediction techniques predict new link formation with a precision of 0.30–0.45 and a recall of 0.10–0.20, (2) that prolonged observation of social networks often degrades the prediction accuracy, (3) that the proposed decaying weight method leads to higher prediction accuracy than can be achieved by observing all records of communication and simply using them unmodified, and (4) that the prediction accuracy for face-to-face behavioral networks is relatively high compared to that for non-social networks, but not as high as for other types of social networks. PMID:24339956

  2. What's in a crowd? Analysis of face-to-face behavioral networks Lorenzo Isella a

    E-print Network

    Barrat, Alain

    et al., 2004; Balcan et al., 2009). Mobile devices such as cell phones make it possible-world interactions by means of mobile devices and wearable sensors, opening up new avenues for gathering data networks Face-to-face proximity Information spreading Behavioral social networks Complex networks a b s t r

  3. Pervasive Sensing to Model Political Opinions in Face-to-Face Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anmol Madan; Katayoun Farrahi; Daniel Gatica-Perez

    2011-01-01

    Exposure and adoption of opinions in social networks are important questions in education, business, and government. We de- scribe a novel application of pervasive computing based on using mobile phone sensors to measure and model the face-to-face interactions and subsequent opinion changes amongst undergraduates, during the 2008 US presidential election campaign. We nd that self-reported political discussants have characteristic interaction

  4. Computational modeling of face-to-face social interaction using nonverbal behavioral cues

    E-print Network

    of the nonverbal phenomenon in social psychology and nonverbal communication. How- ever, the problem has onlyComputational modeling of face-to-face social interaction using nonverbal behavioral cues TH of face-to-face interactions using nonverbal behavioral cues is an emerging and relevant problem in social

  5. Social sensing: obesity, unhealthy eating and exercise in face-to-face networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anmol Madan; Sai T. Moturu; David Lazer

    2010-01-01

    What is the role of face-to-face interactions in the diffusion of health-related behaviors- diet choices, exercise habits, and long-term weight changes? We use co-location and communication sensors in mass-market mobile phones to model the diffusion of health-related behaviors via face-to-face interactions amongst the residents of an undergraduate residence hall during the academic year of 2008--09. The dataset used in this

  6. Learning Opportunities in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication and Face-to-Face Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hye Yeong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) and face-to-face (F2F) oral interaction influence the way in which learners collaborate in language learning and how they solve their communicative problems. The findings suggest that output modality may affect how learners produce language, attend to linguistic forms,…

  7. Co-Constructing Mother-Infant Distress in Face-to-Face Interactions: Contributions of Microanalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the use of microanalysis of videotapes to look at nonverbal elements (such as smiles, facial expressions, eye gaze, touch, and head and body movements toward and away from the other) to determine the caregiver-infant interactive (regulatory) experience. Video microanalysis of face-to-face play by infants and parents…

  8. Early Face-to-Face Interaction and Its Relation to Later Infant-Mother Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blehar, Mary C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction between 26 infants and their mothers and a relatively unfamiliar figure was observed longitudinally in the home environment when the infants were between 6 and 15 weeks of age. Normative findings indicated that infants became more responsive over this time period, whereas maternal behavior did not change. (Author/JMB)

  9. Exploring Relationship between Face-to-Face Interaction and Team Performance Using Wearable Sensor Badges

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Ishibashi, Nozomu; Yano, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of human-generated data collected in various fields have uncovered many patterns of complex human behaviors. However, thus far the quantitative evaluation of the relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance has been inadequate. Here, we present findings demonstrating the significant relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance via experiments we conducted in inbound call centers while the employees wore sensor badges. There were two main findings. First, we found that face-to-face interaction among telecommunicators and the frequency of their bodily movements caused by the face-to-face interaction had a significant correlation with the entire call center performance, which we measured as “Calls per Hour.” Second, our trial to activate face-to-face interaction on the basis of data collected by the wearable sensor badges the employees wore significantly increased their performance. These results demonstrate quantitatively that human-human interaction in the physical world plays an important role in team performance. PMID:25501748

  10. Link Prediction and the Role of Stronger Ties in Networks of Face-to-Face Proximity

    E-print Network

    Scholz, Christoph; Stumme, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the structures why links are formed is an important and prominent research topic. In this paper, we therefore consider the link prediction problem in face-to-face contact networks, and analyze the predictability of new and recurring links. Furthermore, we study additional influence factors, and the role of stronger ties in these networks. Specifically, we compare neighborhood-based and path-based network proximity measures in a threshold-based analysis for capturing temporal dynamics. The results and insights of the analysis are a first step onto predictability applications for human contact networks, for example, for improving recommendations.

  11. An automated approach for measuring infant head orientation in a face-to-face interaction.

    PubMed

    Væver, Mette; Beebe, Beatrice; Kirk, Otto; Snidmann, Nancy; Harder, Susanne; Tronick, Ed

    2015-06-01

    Head orientation in face-to-face interactions between mothers and infants is an important component of their communicative processes. Manual coding, however, is laborious. Obtaining inter-observer reliability is difficult, with disagreements mostly being related to the on- and offsets of a limited number of orientation categories. We used a motion capture system and developed an automated method for the quantitative measurement of infant head orientation in mother--infant face-to-face-interactions. Automated motion capture systems have the potential to objectively document not only the on- and offset of behaviors, but also continuous changes. Infants wore a cap with three reflecting markers, and eight infrared cameras captured the positions of the markers. Analytic algorithms generated continuous three-dimensional descriptions of the infants' head movements. We report here on an initial feasibility study of four infants. To evaluate the effectiveness of the automated approach, we compared it to standard manual categorical coding of six infant head orientations. We found that the central reliability issue was disagreement at the boundaries of the coding categories identified by continuous automated coding versus manual coding. The automated method was both more feasible and more precise in capturing continuous small changes. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of automated measurement of infant head orientation when infants interact in relational space. PMID:24903694

  12. Interactional Dynamics in On-Line and Face-to-Face Peer-Tutoring Sessions for Second Language Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rodney H.; Garralda, Angel; Li, David C. S.; Lock, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study comparing the interactional dynamics of face-to-face and on-line peer-tutoring in writing by university students in Hong Kong. Transcripts of face-to-face tutoring sessions, as well as logs of on-line sessions conducted by the same peer-tutors, were coded for speech functions using a system based on…

  13. Engaging Students: Interactive Teaching Strategies for Face-to-Face and Online Classes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis Gimbel; Deborah Sheehy

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever experienced a lull in your classroom, virtual or face-to-face? What is it that teachers and learners bring to the face-to-face classroom that is difficult to replicate or support in an online environment and keep students engaged? \\

  14. Investigating Face-to-Face Peer Interaction Patterns in a Collaborative Web Discovery Task: The Bene?ts of a Shared Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, C-W.; Lee, C-C.; Liu, C-C.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computers are now increasingly applied to facilitate face-to-face collaborative learning. However, the factors affecting face-to-face peer interactions are complex as they involve rich communication media. In particular, non-verbal interactions are necessary to convey critical communication messages in face-to-face communication. Through…

  15. Tactile Contact by Deaf and Hearing Mothers During Face-to-Face Interactions With Their Infants.

    PubMed

    Koester, L S; Brooks, L; Traci, M A

    2000-01-01

    Tactile contact with an infant plays an important role (though one largely overlooked by researchers until recently) in the development of synchronous interactive dialogues between caregiver and child. Dyads in which one or both partners are deaf present a unique opportunity to examine the use of touch as a means of optimizing or enhancing communication when the number of available sensory channels is restricted. Touch in these dyads may play an important role in eliciting visual attention, in alerting the infant that signed communication is forthcoming, in assisting the infant to achieve emotional regulation, or in simply maintaining contact even when the deaf child has looked away from the partner. The data presented here represent one attempt to investigate the role of touch in relation to deaf infants and deaf parents, for whom it may play a particularly salient role. Both deaf and hearing mothers were observed in videotaped face-to-face interactions with their infants (also either deaf or hearing); maternal behavior was coded for each event during which mothers initiated tactile contact with the infant and was classified according to intensity, location on the infant's body, and type of touch (e.g., active vs. passive). Results of this study indicate that deaf mothers may be especially responsive to the tactile needs of their deaf infants, as shown by qualitative differences in their behavioral interactions with 6- and 9-month-olds. However, hearing mothers with deaf infants also appear to be incorporating more active forms of touch in their interactions, although they tend to rely on longer durations of tactile contact than do the deaf mothers. PMID:15454508

  16. Analyzing Interactions by an IIS-Map-Based Method in Face-to-Face Collaborative Learning: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Lanqin; Yang, Kaicheng; Huang, Ronghuai

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a new method named the IIS-map-based method for analyzing interactions in face-to-face collaborative learning settings. This analysis method is conducted in three steps: firstly, drawing an initial IIS-map according to collaborative tasks; secondly, coding and segmenting information flows into information items of IIS; thirdly,…

  17. Emmanuel Levinas & Paulo Freire: The Ethics of Responsibility for the Face-to-Face Interaction in the Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Margarita Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is a reflection on the ethics of education on the net as a contribution to the face-to-face interaction in the virtual world. We think the ethics is a result of a process of responsible interchange with others. Two important thinkers of the last few decades, Emmanuel Levinas e Paulo Freire contribute each one with one's…

  18. Mobilizing Homeless Youth for HIV Prevention: A Social Network Analysis of the Acceptability of a Face-to-Face and Online Social Networking Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Adhikari, Anamika Barman; Milburn, Norweeta G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth. Seven peer leaders (PLs) engaged face-to-face homeless youth (F2F) in the creation of digital media projects (e.g. You Tube videos). PL and F2F…

  19. Source and destination memory in face-to-face interaction: A multinomial modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nele M; Schult, Janette C; Steffens, Melanie C

    2015-06-01

    Arguing that people are often in doubt concerning to whom they have presented what information, Gopie and MacLeod (2009) introduced a new memory component, destination memory: remembering the destination of output information (i.e., "Who did you tell this to?"). They investigated source (i.e., "Who told you that?") versus destination memory in computer-based imagined interactions. The present study investigated destination memory in real interaction situations. In 2 experiments with mixed-gender (N = 53) versus same-gender (N = 89) groups, source and destination memory were manipulated by creating a setup similar to speed dating. In dyads, participants completed phrase fragments with personal information, taking turns. At recognition, participants decided whether fragments were new or old and, if old, whether they were listened to or spoken and which depicted person was the source or the destination of the information. A multinomial model was used for analyses. Source memory significantly exceeded destination memory, whereas information itself was better remembered in the destination than in the source condition. These findings corroborate the trade-off hypothesis: Context is better remembered in input than in output events, but information itself is better remembered in output than in input events. We discuss the implications of these findings for real-world conversation situations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25893444

  20. A truly human interface: interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program.

    PubMed

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents ("echoborgs") capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people's experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot's chance of passing but did increase interrogators' ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg did not sense a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human-computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence. PMID:26042066

  1. A truly human interface: interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    PubMed Central

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents (“echoborgs”) capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot’s chance of passing but did increase interrogators’ ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg did not sense a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human–computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence. PMID:26042066

  2. Prosodic Modification and Vocal Adjustments in Mothers' Speech during Face-to-Face Interaction with Their Two- to Four-Month-Old Infants: A Double Video Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine 32 mothers' sensitivity to social contingency during face-to-face interaction with their two- to four-month-old infants in a closed circuit TV set-up. Prosodic qualities and vocal sounds in mother's infant-directed (ID) speech during sequences of live interaction were compared to sequences where expressive…

  3. Interpersonal Similarity between Body Movements in Face-To-Face Communication in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Higo, Naoki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Minemura, Juichi; Xu, Bujie; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ogata, Taiki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results confirm an interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals in face-to-face communication, for all the organizations studied, and suggest that some body interaction is behind this similarity. PMID:25014021

  4. Interpersonal similarity between body movements in face-to-face communication in daily life.

    PubMed

    Higo, Naoki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Minemura, Juichi; Xu, Bujie; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ogata, Taiki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results confirm an interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals in face-to-face communication, for all the organizations studied, and suggest that some body interaction is behind this similarity. PMID:25014021

  5. Face-to-Face Interactions in Unacquainted Female-Male Dyads: How Do Girls and Boys Behave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolaric, Giselle C.; Galambos, Nancy L.

    1995-01-01

    Examined adolescents' verbal and nonverbal behavior in 30 female-male dyads. All behaviors were coded. Analysis of videotaped interactions revealed more similarities between girls and boys than differences, although gender distinctions were evident in speaking time and in smiling. Results focus on developmental and contextual accounts of…

  6. The Impact of Cognitive Complexity on Feedback Efficacy during Online Versus Face-to-Face Interactive Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baralt, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Informed by the cognition hypothesis (Robinson, 2011), recent studies indicate that more cognitively complex tasks can result in better incorporation of feedback during interaction and, as a consequence, more learning. It is not known, however, how task complexity and feedback work together in computerized environments. The present study addressed…

  7. Between Michel Foucault and Erving Goffman: between discourse in the abstract and face-to-face interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Hacking

    2004-01-01

    Michel Foucault's ‘archaeology’ and Erving Goffman's interpersonal sociology are complementary. Both are essential for understanding how classifications of people interact with the people classified, and hence for the author's studies of ‘making up people’. The paper begins by explaining how that project is rooted in an ‘existentialist’ conception of the person. It then uses Goffman's Asylums and Foucault's Folie et

  8. Developing Students' Metacognitive Awareness in Asynchronous Learning Networks in Comparison to Face-to-Face Discussion Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalsky, Tova; Zion, Michal; Mevarech, Zemira R.

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of the present study is to investigate empirically the effects of Asynchronic Learning Network (ALN) embedded within metacognitive instruction (META) on two components of metacognitive awareness: Knowledge about Cognition (KC) and Regulation of Cognition (RC). Participants were 202 tenth grade students: 102 students who studied under…

  9. Virtual talking heads and ambiant face-to-face communication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of verbal and non-verbal communication and the biometrical issue, A. Esposito, E. Keller, M. Marinaro and M] where a non interactive ECA was evaluated. Features of situated face-to-face communication includingVirtual talking heads and ambiant face-to- face communication Gérard BAILLY, Frédéric ELISEI

  10. Interactive Explanations: The Functional Role of Gestural and Bodily Action for Explaining and Learning Scientific Concepts in Face-to-Face Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopelitis, Stephanie A.

    As human beings, we live in, live with, and live through our bodies. And because of this it is no wonder that our hands and bodies are in motion as we interact with others in our world. Hands and body move as we give directions to another, anticipate which way to turn the screwdriver, and direct our friend to come sit next to us. Gestures, indeed, fill our everyday lives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the functional role of the body in the parts of our lives where we teach and learn with another. This project is an investigation into, what I call, "interactive explanations". I explore how the hands and body work toward the joint achievement of explanation and learning in face-to-face arrangements. The study aims to uncover how the body participates in teaching and learning in and across events as it slides between the multiple, interdependent roles of (1) a communicative entity, (2) a tool for thinking, and (3) a resource to shape interaction. Understanding gestures functional roles as flexible and diverse better explains how the body participates in teaching and learning interactions. The study further aims to show that these roles and functions are dynamic and changeable based on the interests, goals and contingencies of participants' changing roles and aims in interactions, and within and across events. I employed the methodology of comparative microanalysis of pairs of videotaped conversations in which, first, experts in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) explained concepts to non-experts, and second, these non-experts re-explained the concept to other non-experts. The principle finding is that people strategically, creatively and collaboratively employ the hands and body as vital and flexible resources for the joint achievement of explanation and understanding. Findings further show that gestures used to explain complex STEM concepts travel across time with the non-expert into re-explanations of the concept. My analysis demonstrates that gestures and the body are complex, multi-functional resources that work toward cognitive, communicative, and interactional achievement and, as such, are viable resources for teaching and learning in face-to-face interaction.

  11. An Evaluation of Graduate Class Interaction in Face-to-Face and Asynchronous Computer Groupware Experiences: A Collective Case Study. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Norma J.H.

    Two graduate-level educational administration courses, one delivered by computer-mediated (distributed) means and one held face-to-face, were evaluated based upon the needs of adult learners and active learning precepts. The same course was delivered to both classes by the same group of professors, using identical course requirements. The…

  12. Face to Face Communications in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  13. Evaluation of the fidelity of an interactive face-to-face educational intervention to improve general practitioner management of back pain

    PubMed Central

    French, Simon D; Green, Sally E; Francis, Jill J; Buchbinder, Rachelle; O'Connor, Denise A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Implementation intervention effects can only be fully realised and understood if they are faithfully delivered. However the evaluation of implementation intervention fidelity is not commonly undertaken. The IMPLEMENT intervention was designed to improve the management of low back pain by general medical practitioners. It consisted of a two-session interactive workshop, including didactic presentations and small group discussions by trained facilitators. This study aimed to evaluate the fidelity of the IMPLEMENT intervention by assessing: (1) observed facilitator adherence to planned behaviour change techniques (BCTs); (2) comparison of observed and self-reported adherence to planned BCTs and (3) variation across different facilitators and different BCTs. Design The study compared planned and actual, and observed versus self-assessed delivery of BCTs during the IMPLEMENT workshops. Method Workshop sessions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Observed adherence of facilitators to the planned intervention was assessed by analysing the workshop transcripts in terms of BCTs delivered. Self-reported adherence was measured using a checklist completed at the end of each workshop session and was compared with the ‘gold standard’ of observed adherence using sensitivity and specificity analyses. Results The overall observed adherence to planned BCTs was 79%, representing moderate-to-high intervention fidelity. There was no significant difference in adherence to BCTs between the facilitators. Sensitivity of self-reported adherence was 95% (95% CI 88 to 98) and specificity was 30% (95% CI 11 to 60). Conclusions The findings suggest that the IMPLEMENT intervention was delivered with high levels of adherence to the planned intervention protocol. Trial registration number The IMPLEMENT trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN012606000098538 (http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=1162). PMID:26155819

  14. Comparison of face-to-face and telephone consultations in primary care: qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Heather; Gafaranga, Joseph; McKinstry, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence that telephone consultations in general practice are typically shorter than face-to-face consultations and that fewer problems are presented in them. Aim To compare the communicative practices of doctors and patients in face-to-face and telephone consultations, in order to understand the contrasts between the two consulting modes. Design of study Conversation analysis. Setting Eight NHS GP surgeries in Scotland. Method Transcription and conversation analysis of 32 face-to-face and 33 telephone consultations. Participants Eighteen GPs and 65 patients. Results There are no underlying contrasts between the communicative practices used in face-to-face and telephone consultations. Telephone consultations are typically used by patients to deal with a limited range of single-issue concerns, whereas a wide range of different problem types is dealt with in face-to-face consultations. Most telephone consultations for new problems lead to a face-to-face meeting rather than a diagnosis, making them shorter than equivalent face-to-face consultations. Interaction in telephone consultations is continuous and orderly, but in face-to-face consultations there are periods of silence that facilitate the introduction of additional topics, including social speech and rapport building. Doctors on the telephone are less likely to elicit additional concerns than in face-to-face consultations, and ask fewer questions when patients present self-diagnosed problems or describe problems with treatment. Conclusion Doctors in general practice do not substantially change their communicative behaviour on the telephone. Telephone consultations are shorter and include less problem disclosure than face-to-face meetings, partly because they are typically mono-topical and partly because of intrinsic differences between the two channels. PMID:20423575

  15. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamat, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  16. The multimedia case as a tool for professional development: an analysis of online and face-to-face interaction among mathematics pre-service teachers, in-service teachers, mathematicians, and mathematics teacher educators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca McGraw; Kathleen Lynch; Yusuf Koc; Ayfer Budak; Catherine A. Brown

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we consider the potential of multimedia cases as tools for teacher professional development. Specifically,\\u000a we examined online and face-to-face discussions that occurred within groups composed of pre-service mathematics teachers,\\u000a in-service mathematics teachers, mathematicians, and mathematics teacher educators. Discussions within these heterogeneous\\u000a groups tended to focus on issues of classroom implementation of the tasks shown in the multimedia

  17. Impact of the Placement and Quality of Face-to-Face Meetings in a Hybrid Distance Learning Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colucci, William; Koppel, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    As online and hybrid courses are becoming a wide-spread option for higher education, researchers are exploring various delivery methods. Hybrid courses involve blending two modes of interaction--both face-to-face as well as online. The exact distribution and timing of face-to-face meetings verse online delivery is a question that instructors have…

  18. Non-Egalitarian Allocations among Preschool Peers in a Face-to-Face Bargaining Task

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Alicia P.; Floedl, Anja; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In face-to-face bargaining tasks human adults almost always agree on an equal split of resources. This is due to mutually recognized fairness and equality norms. Early developmental studies on sharing and equality norms found that egalitarian allocations of resources are not common before children are 5 or 6 years old. However, recent studies have shown that in some face-to face collaborative situations, or when recipients express their desires, children at much younger ages choose equal allocations. We investigated the ability of 3.5 and 5-year-olds to negotiate face-to-face, whether to collaborate to obtain an equal or an unequal distribution of rewards. We hypothesized that the face-to-face interaction and interdependency between partners would facilitate egalitarian outcomes at both ages. In the first experiment we found that 5-year-olds were more egalitarian than 3.5-year-olds, but neither of the age classes shared equally. In the second experiment, in which we increased the magnitude of the inequality, we found that children at both ages mostly agreed on the unequal distribution. These results show that communication and face-to-face interactions are not sufficient to guarantee equal allocations at 3–5 years of age. These results add to previous findings suggesting that in the context of non-collaboratively produced resources it is only after 5 years of age that children use equality norms to allocate resources. PMID:25786250

  19. Non-egalitarian allocations among preschool peers in a face-to-face bargaining task.

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Floedl, Anja; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In face-to-face bargaining tasks human adults almost always agree on an equal split of resources. This is due to mutually recognized fairness and equality norms. Early developmental studies on sharing and equality norms found that egalitarian allocations of resources are not common before children are 5 or 6 years old. However, recent studies have shown that in some face-to face collaborative situations, or when recipients express their desires, children at much younger ages choose equal allocations. We investigated the ability of 3.5 and 5-year-olds to negotiate face-to-face, whether to collaborate to obtain an equal or an unequal distribution of rewards. We hypothesized that the face-to-face interaction and interdependency between partners would facilitate egalitarian outcomes at both ages. In the first experiment we found that 5-year-olds were more egalitarian than 3.5-year-olds, but neither of the age classes shared equally. In the second experiment, in which we increased the magnitude of the inequality, we found that children at both ages mostly agreed on the unequal distribution. These results show that communication and face-to-face interactions are not sufficient to guarantee equal allocations at 3-5 years of age. These results add to previous findings suggesting that in the context of non-collaboratively produced resources it is only after 5 years of age that children use equality norms to allocate resources. PMID:25786250

  20. Buzz: Face-To-Face Contact and the Urban Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Storper; Anthony J. Venables

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features: it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and

  1. Buzz: face-to-face contact and the urban economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Storper; Anthony J. Venables

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features: it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and

  2. Comparison of focus groups on cancer and employment conducted face to face or by telephone.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Linda M; Miller, Virginia A; Horbelt, Douglas V; Delmore, James E; Miller, Brigitte E; Paschal, Angelia M

    2010-05-01

    Findings from telephone focus groups have not been compared previously to findings from face-to-face focus groups. We conducted four telephone focus groups and five face-to-face focus groups in which a single moderator used the same open-ended questions and discussion facilitation techniques. This comparison was part of a larger study to gain a better understanding of employment experiences after diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. Offering the telephone option made it easier to recruit women from rural areas and geographically distant cities. Interaction between participants occurred in both types of focus group. Content analysis revealed that similar elements of the employment experience after cancer diagnosis were described by telephone and face-to-face participants. Participants disclosed certain emotionally sensitive experiences only in the telephone focus groups. Telephone focus groups provide useful data and can reduce logistical barriers to research participation. Visual anonymity might help some participants feel more comfortable discussing certain personal issues. PMID:20142606

  3. Face-to-Face blog - Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery (NPG)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Online for less than a year, Face-to-Face is written by a team of National Portrait Gallery staff members with diverse responsibilities, from web design to curatorial. The blog is "dedicated to art, history, and the telling of American lives." There are four categories on Face-to-Face: Biography, Events, Exhibitions and News. "Biography" currently features an article series on presidential trivia, just in time for the election and "Exhibitions" provides coverage of current and recent exhibits, including "RECOGNIZE! Hip Hop and Contemporary Portraiture", "KATE" - celebrating Katherine Hepburn's 100th birthday, and the saga of the reinstallation of the painting Grant and His Generals by Ole Peter Hansen Balling, oil on canvas, 1865, when NPG re-opened in 2006 after 6 years of renovation. And of course, since it's a blog, interested readers can sign up for the RSS feed of Face-to-Face, so as not to miss a thing.

  4. IGlasses: an automatic wearable speech supplementin face-to-face communication and classroom situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic W. Massaro; Miguel Á. Carreira-perpiñán; David J. Merrill; Cass Sterling; Stephanie Bigler; Elise Piazza; Marcus Perlman

    2008-01-01

    The need for language aids is pervasive in today's world. There are millions of individuals who have language and speech challenges, and these individuals require additional support for communication and language learning. We demonstrate technology to supplement common face-to-face language interaction to enhance intelligibility, understanding, and communication, particularly for those with hearing impairments. Our research is investigating how to automatically

  5. An Exploration of Online Environments Supporting Follow-Up to Face-to-Face Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Marybeth; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of online follow-up and online peer interaction following a face-to face professional development workshop on attitudes towards that professional development and completion of a professional development task. School librarians were invited to work online on a three page plan outlining interventions a library…

  6. Comparing face-to-face, synchronous, and asynchronous learning: postgraduate dental resident preferences.

    PubMed

    Kunin, Marc; Julliard, Kell N; Rodriguez, Tobias E

    2014-06-01

    The Department of Dental Medicine of Lutheran Medical Center has developed an asynchronous online curriculum consisting of prerecorded PowerPoint presentations with audio explanations. The focus of this study was to evaluate if the new asynchronous format satisfied the educational needs of the residents compared to traditional lecture (face-to-face) and synchronous (distance learning) formats. Lectures were delivered to 219 dental residents employing face-to-face and synchronous formats, as well as the new asynchronous format; 169 (77 percent) participated in the study. Outcomes were assessed with pretests, posttests, and individual lecture surveys. Results found the residents preferred face-to-face and asynchronous formats to the synchronous format in terms of effectiveness and clarity of presentations. This preference was directly related to the residents' perception of how well the technology worked in each format. The residents also rated the quality of student-instructor and student-student interactions in the synchronous and asynchronous formats significantly higher after taking the lecture series than they did before taking it. However, they rated the face-to-face format as significantly more conducive to student-instructor and student-student interaction. While the study found technology had a major impact on the efficacy of this curricular model, the results suggest that the asynchronous format can be an effective way to teach a postgraduate course. PMID:24882771

  7. Personality Differences between Online and Face-to-Face Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia J.

    2002-01-01

    Online (n=40) and face-to-face (n=60) adult learners completed the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and a survey of class experience. Online students rated themselves as more introverted, serious, and shy; less independent; and more tough minded. Results showed how personality characteristics may be a factor in predicting attrition from online…

  8. Future Schools: Blending Face-to-Face and Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Jonathan; McGriff, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "Hybrid schools" are schools that combine "face-to-face" education in a specific place with online instruction. In this article, the authors describe school models which offer a vision for what deeply integrated technology can mean for children's education, for the way schools are structured, and for the promise of greater efficiency amid a…

  9. SPACE: Vision and Reality: Face to Face. Proceedings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 11th National Space Symposium entitled 'Vision and Reality: Face to Face' is presented. Technological areas discussed include the following sections: Vision for the future; Positioning for the future; Remote sensing, the emerging era; space opportunities, Competitive vision with acquisition reality; National security requirements in space; The world is into space; and The outlook for space. An appendice is also attached.

  10. Encouraging Face-to-Face Collaborative Learning through the Use of Handheld Computers in the Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Zurita; Miguel Nussbaum; Mike Shaples

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a To achieve the maximum benefit, a collaborative learning activity in the classroom requires effective coordination, synchronization,\\u000a face-to-face communication, negotiation, interactivity, and participant mobility conditions. In this paper, we perform a usability\\u000a analysis on a specific collaborative learning activity and identify several problems with fulfilling these conditions. A second\\u000a usability analysis shows how these problems can be solved with a Mobile

  11. A Comparison between the Occurrence of Pauses, Repetitions and Recasts under Conditions of Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Communication: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabaroglu, Nese; Basaran, Suleyman; Roberts, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This study compares pauses, repetitions and recasts in matched task interactions under face-to-face and computer-mediated conditions. Six first-year English undergraduates at a Turkish University took part in Skype-based voice chat with a native speaker and face-to-face with their instructor. Preliminary quantitative analysis of transcripts showed…

  12. 78 FR 52996 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Face to Face: Flanders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ...Determinations: ``Face to Face: Flanders, Florence, and Renaissance Painting'' Exhibition SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...the exhibition ``Face to Face: Flanders, Florence, and Renaissance Painting,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  13. Incorporating Online Discussion in Face to Face Classroom Learning: A New Blended Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative blended learning strategy which incorporates online discussion in both in-class face to face, and off-classroom settings. Online discussion in a face to face class is compared with its two counterparts, off-class online discussion as well as in-class, face to face oral discussion, to examine the advantages and…

  14. Developmental Changes in Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Birth to 3 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated development of face-to-face communication in infants between 1 and 14 weeks old and their mothers. Found a curvilinear development of early face-to-face communication, with increases occurring between weeks 4 and 9. When placed on a sofa, infants' face-to-face communication was longer than when they were held. Girls spent a longer…

  15. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

  16. The Effects of Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Peer Review on EFL Writers' Comments and Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the use of face-to-face and computer-mediated peer review in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing course to examine how different interaction modes affect comment categories, students' revisions, and their perceptions of peer feedback. The participants were an intact class of 13 students at a Taiwanese university.…

  17. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (? 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories “physical activity”, “media” and “older adults”. The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n?=?11), compared to internet (n?=?3) and other media (n?=?2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n?=?10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n?=?6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One study reported that 98% of the sample read the respective intervention newsletters, whereas another study found that only 4% of its participants visited the intervention website more than once. From this review, non-face-to-face physical activity interventions effectively promote physical activity in older adults. Future research should target diverse older adult populations in multiple regions while also exploring the potential of emerging technologies. PMID:24612748

  18. Face-to-face or not-to-face: A technology preference for communication.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-11-01

    This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication. PMID:25405782

  19. Researcher and Researched: The Phenomenology of Change from Face-to-Face to Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Frank E.; Fewell, Martha D.; Sugar, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Online instruction, courses, and degree programs are rising in popularity in higher education and corporations. Novice and experienced instructors face increased demands from administrators and students to teach online, in a higher education environment long noted for face-to-face, residence-based instruction. Viewing the shift from face-to-face

  20. A model for production, perception, and acquisition of actions in face-to-face communication

    E-print Network

    Kopp, Stefan

    behavior has been used primarily for private or non-communicative actions like walking, reaching of face-to-face communication like speech, co-verbal facial expression, and co- verbal gesturing. Three. In the context of face-to-face communication two basic types of communicative actions can be separated, verbal

  1. Choosing between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Community College Student Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith

    2014-01-01

    In this study, community college students discussed their experiences with online and face-to-face learning as well as their reasons for selecting online (rather than face-to-face) sections of specific courses. Students reported lower levels of instructor presence in online courses and that they needed to "teach themselves." Accordingly,…

  2. The Impact of Face-to-Face Orientation on Online Retention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Radwan; Leeds, Elke M.

    2009-01-01

    Student retention in online education is a concern for students, faculty and administration. Retention rates are 20% lower in online courses than in traditional face-to-face courses. As part of an integration and engagement strategy, a face-to-face orientation was added to an online undergraduate business information systems course to examine its…

  3. Online or Face to Face? A Comparison of Two Methods of Training Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Kristin; Dworkin, Jodi; Gengler, Colleen; Olson, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Online courses offer benefits over face-to-face courses such as accessibility, affordability, and flexibility. Literature assessing the effectiveness of face-to-face and online courses is growing, but findings remain inconclusive. This study compared evaluations completed by professionals who had taken a research update short course either face to…

  4. Examining the Roles of the Facilitator in Online and Face-to-Face PD Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gina; Johnson, Heather; Vath, Richard; Kubitskey, Beth; Fishman, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Online teacher professional development has become an alternative to face-to-face professional development. Such a shift from face-to-face to online professional development, however, brings new challenges for professional development facilitators, whose roles are crucial in orchestrating teacher learning. This paper is motivated by the need to…

  5. Highlights from a Literature Review Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Between March 2009 and March 2011, Talk To Your Baby has been engaged in a research project, under the title of Face to Face, to identify key messages for parents and carers in relation to communicating with babies and young children, and has examined the most effective ways to promote these messages to parents and carers. The Face to Face project…

  6. Exploring face-to-face and Web-based pedagogy in undergraduate natural resource sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbabaliye, Theogene

    Little has been published about Internet instruction compared to traditional classroom teaching in undergraduate natural resource science (NRS) education. This study hypothesized associations between teaching environments (face-to-face only (FF), Web only (WE), mixed mode (MI)); and teaching philosophy, practices, and perceived course outcomes. A questionnaire was sent to 142 faculty members with experience teaching in these environments in Western US. Sixty percent responded. Data were analyzed using factor analysis and multivariate statistics. Only statistically significant differences are presented. Most respondents were male (68%) 50-59 years old (80%) and tenured (74%). Overall, Web-based instruction was not seen as equivalent to face to face instruction. Adoption of the Internet for teaching was beyond critical mass. Most faculty members ranked their ability to use the Internet as average (27%) or expert (22%). Faculty rarely perceived students' learning experience in a WE course as "better" than FF. Web-based courses were not usually required of majors in the offering department. Faculty age, gender and experience are significant variables in use of some teaching practices. Faculty members who used the Internet favored a constructivist teaching philosophy, while FF and MI instruction tended towards a behaviorist philosophy. Respondents' most frequent teaching practices addressed connections, collaboration, meaning making, and learner autonomy. Collaborative teaching strategies were seldom used in Web-based instruction relative to FF. Learning assessments focused on learner interactions, efforts (individual or groups), and recall. The latter assessment was used less on the Web. Respondents viewed effective teaching in all teaching environments as achieving competency and application of knowledge. Personal experience, resource availability, and feedback were the most important influences on teaching. Resource availability constrained Internet instruction most. Instructional goals emphasized broad understanding of natural resources, information technology competence and effective communication in all learning environments. There was doubt that Web instruction adequately achieved critical thinking objectives. Key results should be verified independent of self reports. Overall, Web-based instruction was not seen as equivalent to face to face instruction, indicating a need to assure that Web-based instruction is used optimally.

  7. Food consumer science post-graduate courses: comparison of face-to-face versus online delivery systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Pinto de Moura; Luís Miguel Cunha; Ulisses Miranda Azeiteiro; Luísa Aires; Pedro Graça; Maria Daniel Vaz de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare face-to-face versus online course delivery systems in the area of food consumption and to analyse the students' expectations and experiences. It aims to analyse the following dimensions: general expectations, learning organization and interactions in students' discourses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology adopted is of interpretative nature using semi-structured qualitative interviews. An

  8. The Realization of Interaction in Cognitive Science Network Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Tuovi; Ruokamo, Heli

    This paper deals with the research of the realization interaction in the Finnish Virtual University's network-based studies of cognitive science in the autumn 2001. This research examines the independent study of cognitive science which occurs through a network and the face-to-face study that takes place in cooperation in a group and the study…

  9. Technology in the Face-to-Face Classroom: Evidence from Four Decades of Research

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    of using computer technology in classrooms, as compared to no technology, to support Technology in the Face-to-Face Classroom: Evidence from Four Decades Technology (http://www.oit.umn.edu/research- evaluation/). The Accumulating Data about TEL

  10. Face to Face or E-Learning in Turkish EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to understand e-learners and face to face learners' views towards learning English through e-learning in vocational higher school context and to determine the role of academic achievement and gender in e-learning and face to face learning. This study was conducted at a state-run university in 2012-2013 academic…

  11. Male Restrictive Emotionality and Evaluations of Online Versus Face-to-Face Counseling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron B. Rochlen; Lee N. Land; Y. Joel Wong

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated men's perceptions of online versus face-to-face counseling. One hundred ninety-one men with a range of restrictive emotionality and online counseling attitudes reviewed face-to-face or online counseling vignettes using a cognition- or emotion-based therapeutic approach. Overall, participants' evaluations of counseling approaches were similar across modality and theoretical approach. However, men with low as opposed to high levels

  12. Face-to-face interference in typical and atypical development

    PubMed Central

    Riby, Deborah M; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze it interferes with task completion. In this novel study we quantify face interference for the first time in Williams syndrome (WS) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These disorders of development impact on cognition and social attention, but how do faces interfere with cognitive processing? Individuals developing typically as well as those with ASD (n = 19) and WS (n = 16) were recorded during a question and answer session that involved mathematics questions. In phase 1 gaze behaviour was not manipulated, but in phase 2 participants were required to maintain eye contact with the experimenter at all times. Looking at faces decreased task accuracy for individuals who were developing typically. Critically, the same pattern was seen in WS and ASD, whereby task performance decreased when participants were required to hold face gaze. The results show that looking at faces interferes with task performance in all groups. This finding requires the caveat that individuals with WS and ASD found it harder than individuals who were developing typically to maintain eye contact throughout the interaction. Individuals with ASD struggled to hold eye contact at all points of the interaction while those with WS found it especially difficult when thinking. PMID:22356183

  13. Synthesis and photophysical properties of a "face-to-face" stacked tetracene dimer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heyuan; Nichols, Valerie M; Shen, Li; Jahansouz, Setarah; Chen, Yuhan; Hanson, Kerry M; Bardeen, Christopher J; Li, Xiyou

    2015-03-01

    A covalently linked tetracene dimer has been prepared and its molecular structure is characterized by (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The minimized molecular structure reveals that the tetracene subunits in a dimer adopt a "face-to-face" stacked configuration. Its absorption spectrum differs significantly from that of the monomeric counterpart in solution, suggesting the presence of strong interactions between the two tetracene subunits. In solution, the fluorescence spectrum is dominated by a band at around 535 nm, due to an oxidative impurity. In the longer wavelength range, a short-lived lower energy emission can be identified as the intrinsic emission of the dimer. In a polystyrene matrix or at low temperatures, the lifetime of the lower energy emission lengthens and it becomes more prominent. We suggest that the interactions between the two tetracene subunits produce a short-lived, lower energy "excimer-like" state. The fluorescence decays show no observable dependence on an applied magnetic field, and no obvious evidence of significant singlet fission is found in this dimer. This research suggests that even though there are strong electronic interactions between the tetracene subunits in the dimer, singlet fission cannot be achieved efficiently, probably because the formation of "excimer-like" states competes effectively with singlet fission. PMID:25656462

  14. Improving Students' Summary Writing Ability through Collaboration: A Comparison between Online Wiki Group and Conventional Face-To-Face Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa

    2013-01-01

    Wikis, as one of the Web 2.0 social networking tools, have been increasingly integrated into second language (L2) instruction to promote collaborative writing. The current study examined and compared summary writing abilities between students learning by wiki-based collaboration and students learning by traditional face-to-face collaboration.…

  15. An Experimental Study of Cyber Face-to-Face vs. Cyber Text-Based English Tutorial Programs for Low-Achieving University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ejean; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yang, Shu Ching

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two types of e-tutoring interventions (text-based vs. face-to-face videoconferencing, TB vs. F2F) on the grammar performance and motivation of low-achieving students. The study investigates the patterns of interaction between tutors and students in both platforms, including the manner in which tutors and students…

  16. Comparing Discourse in Face-to-Face and Synchronous Online Mathematics Teacher Education: Effects on Prospective Teachers' Development of Knowledge for Teaching Statistics with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Tina T.

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study examined discourse and opportunities for interaction in two mathematics education methods classes, one face-to-face and one synchronous, online. Due to the content taught in the course, this study also sought to determine prospective mathematics teachers' understanding of variability and the role of discourse in each…

  17. Grade Performance of Face-to-Face versus Online Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina A.; Makus, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Online course offerings have been growing at a rapid pace in post-secondary education. An ordered probit model is estimated to analyze the effects of online vs. face-to-face course format in achieving specific letter grades. An upper-division agricultural economics course taught over 9 years using both formats is used for the analysis. For a…

  18. Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Standard Setting Using the Angoff Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Irvin R.; Tannenbaum, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Web-based standard setting holds promise for reducing the travel and logistical inconveniences of traditional, face-to-face standard setting meetings. However, because there are few published reports of setting standards via remote meeting technology, little is known about the practical potential of the approach, including technical feasibility of…

  19. One Professor's Face-to-Face Teaching Strategies while Becoming an Online Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William; Martindale, Trey; Crawley, Frank E.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing number of online courses within many higher education institutions, experienced instructors are facing the possibility of teaching online. These faculty members may face the task of converting their well-established face-to-face teaching strategies into an online environment. To better understand this transition, we analyzed…

  20. Faculty Best Practices Using Blended Learning in E-Learning and Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortera-Gutierrez, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Presenting a higher education case study from Mexico: "Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey" (ITESM-CCM) College, Mexico city campus, describing faculty best and worst practices using a blended learning approach in e-learning and face-to-face instruction. The article comments on conceptual definitions of blended learning,…

  1. Overcoming Student Resistance to Group Work: Online Versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Sorensen, Chris; Gump, Andrew; Heindel, Allen J.; Caris, Mieke; Martinez, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared student group work experiences in online (OL) versus face-to-face (f2f) sections of the same graduate course, over three years, to determine what factors influence student group work experiences and how do these factors play out in f2f versus OL environments. Surveys and student journals suggest that communication issues,…

  2. A Comparative Study of an Online and a Face-to-Face Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Damkaci, Fehmi; Bowman, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    While online and face-to-face (F2F) courses have been compared in numerous studies, there has been a lack of focus on online chemistry courses. This study was conducted to compare the success of students instructed in an online or F2F general chemistry course for non-majors. One hundred forty six exam questions were categorized according to…

  3. Comparing Student Performance in Online and Face-to-Face Delivery Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare student performance in an online or face-to-face (F2F) required Psychology course on three distinct sets of variables (i.e., pre-course, course, and post-course variables). Analyses revealed mixed significant and nonsignificant results. Students did not differ in terms of such variables as hours…

  4. Presentation Anxiety Analysis: Comparing Face-to-Face Presentations and Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This study is an exploration in the changing landscape of how people deliver presentations in an attempt to determine the advantages and disadvantages of both forms. The study focused on key differences of student expectations and experiences delivering a presentation to an audience in the same location (face-to-face) compared to a presentation…

  5. Comparing the Psychometric Characteristics of Ratings of Face-to-Face and Videotaped Structured Interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad H. Van Iddekinge; Patrick H. Raymark; Philip L. Roth; Holly S. Payne

    2006-01-01

    Videotaped interviews are used for both research and for making selection decisions in organizations. However, little research has examined the extent to which the psychometric characteristics of ratings of videotaped interviews are comparable with those of ratings made on the basis of face-to-face (FTF) interviews. Within a simulated selection setting, we compared ratings of interviewers who conducted FTF structured interviews

  6. Distance and Face-to-Face Learning Culture and Values: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejeda-Delgado, Carmen; Millan, Brett J.; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    With distance learning increasing in popularity across the country and the world, a review of the extant literature as it relates to distance learning and face-to-face learning is warranted. In particular, this paper examined distance learning, including a historical overview, prevailing themes in past research, and studies relating the importance…

  7. Satisfaction of Supervisory Working Alliance: Distance versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Angelia Dawn Holland

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the differences between the perceptions of distance and face-to-face faculty supervision, this research surveyed 190 master's-level counseling students regarding their supervisory working alliance and supervision satisfaction. It also explored the differences between the perceptions of practicum- and internship-level…

  8. Predicting Outcome of Face-to-Face and Telephone Counselling for Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatzias, Thanos; Chouliara, Zoe; Power, Kevin; Kilfedder, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of outcome of counselling, using mean change scores of three outcome measures, at treatment completion and at 4-months follow-up, in a randomised trial of face-to-face (n = 30) versus telephone counselling (n = 30) for occupational stress. Factors associated with treatment outcome were…

  9. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face

  10. A Comparison of Student Views on Web-Based and Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sad, Suleyman Nihat; Goktas, Ozlem; Bayrak, Ilhami

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe and compare the perceptions of web-based distance education students and campus-based face-to-face students about the quality of education provided in their programs with regard to variables including gender, marital status, and employment status. A baseline descriptive survey design and complementary "ex post…

  11. Face-to-Face versus Online Tutoring Support in Humanities Courses in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2009-01-01

    The experiences of students taking the same courses in the humanities by distance learning were compared when tutorial support was provided conventionally (using limited face-to-face sessions with some contact by telephone and email) or online (using a combination of computer-mediated conferencing and email). The Course Experience Questionnaire…

  12. Comparing Face to Face, Tutor Led Discussion and Online Discussion in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Connie S. L.; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relative effectiveness of in class online discussion and face to face, tutor led discussion in preservice teachers' recall of concepts. Two groups of preservice teachers, who engaged in different discussion modes, were tested two weeks later on how many concepts they could recall. No significant difference in the recall…

  13. Enhancing Teacher Collaboration Effectiveness of Collaboration in Online and Face-to-Face Learning Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the district program evaluation, a follow up on teacher perceptions of an online collaboration versus face to face collaboration approach was deemed necessary. The interviews were conducted with eight teachers from a suburban southwest K-8 public school district. After all teachers had participated in a 10 week program evaluation…

  14. Teaching Time Investment: Does Online Really Take More Time than Face-to-Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Vord, Rebecca; Pogue, Korolyn

    2012-01-01

    Enrollments in online programs are growing, increasing demand for online courses. The perception that teaching online takes more time than teaching face-to-face creates concerns related to faculty workload. To date, the research on teaching time does not provide a clear answer as to the accuracy of this perception. This study was designed to…

  15. Academic Help-Seeking in Online and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Randa A.; Sowan, Azizeh K.; Nassar, Yahya H.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares actual help-seeking frequencies across online and face-to-face learning environments. It also examines strategies enacted by nursing students when they faced academic difficulties, reasons for help-seeking avoidance, and the relationship between the frequency of asking questions and achievement. Participants were nursing…

  16. Effects of Synchronicity and Belongingness on Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Constructive Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Andy J.; Roseth, Cary J.

    2014-01-01

    Adapting face-to-face (FTF) pedagogies to online settings raises boundary questions about the contextual conditions in which the same instructional method stimulates different outcomes. We address this issue by examining FTF and computer-mediated communication (CMC) versions of constructive controversy, a cooperative learning procedure involving…

  17. Post-Adoption Face-to-Face Contact with Birth Parents: Prospective Adopters' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkington, Selina; Taylor, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    The trend in adoption since the 1960s has been away from secrecy and towards greater openness; contact through an intermediary, and direct contact by letter, is now widely accepted. More controversial is the challenge of face-to-face contact with birth parents, and social workers involved in the decision-making process find themselves having to…

  18. Affinities, Seeing and Feeling Like Family: Exploring Why Children Value Face-to-Face Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Hayley

    2012-01-01

    This article examines face-to-face contact as a way in which children practise, imagine and constitute their closest relationships. Based on the findings of a qualitative school-based study, the article shows that children regard "seeing" as a family and relational practice that enables them to feel connected to and develop affinities with others.…

  19. A Comparison of Student Evaluations of Teaching between Online and Face-to-Face Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Henry F.; Ponton, Michael K.; Rovai, Alfred P.

    2007-01-01

    The literature contains indications of a bias in student evaluations of teaching (SET) against online instruction compared to face-to-face instruction. The present case study consists of content analysis of anonymous student responses to open-ended SET questions submitted by 534 students enrolled in 82 class sections taught by 41 instructors, one…

  20. Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Peer Review in EFL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Mei-ching; Savignon, Sandra J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the use of face-to-face peer review (FFPR) and computer-mediated peer review (CMPR) in an Asian English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) academic writing context. The participants were 33 English majors from a university of science and technology in Taiwan, a new type of school offering 2-year associate degree programs in foreign…

  1. Group Speech Therapy in Individuals With Parkinson Disease: Face-to-Face Versus Telemedicine

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Kristel Renee

    2008-07-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of group speech therapy for individuals with Parkinson Disease (IWPD) in general and to compare outcomes of group treatment delivered face-to-face (FtF) versus delivery via telemedicine (TM...

  2. The University Student Experience of Face-to-Face and Online Discussions: Coherence, Reflection and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; O'Hara, Agi; Prosser, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into learning through discussions by undergraduate social work students. Second-year students studying psychology for social work experienced discussions began with face-to-face tutorials, and then continued for some time after online. This study used closed-ended questionnaires to investigate what students…

  3. Analysis of the Questions Asked through Digital and Face-to-Face Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Keita; Arai, Shunsuke; Suga, Reina; Ikeuchi, Atsushi; Yoshikane, Fuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, only a few public libraries provide e-mail reference services. To help public libraries start e-mail reference services, the authors investigated reference questions received by libraries via e-mail and traditional face-to-face services. The authors found that research questions are more frequently observed among e-mail questions and…

  4. Degrees of freedom of facial movements in face-to-face conversational speech

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Degrees of freedom of facial movements in face-to-face conversational speech Gérard Bailly,frederic.elisei,pierre.badin,christophe.savariaux}@icp.inpg.fr ABSTRACT In this paper we analyze the degrees of freedom (DoF) of facial movements in face-grained motion capture corpus that best complement an initial shape model built using neutral speech. Using

  5. Online and Face-to-Face Activities of Non-Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carmen Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine non-native English speaking students' activity in face-to-face versus online learning environments. The amount of foreign students in the United States increased by 3% in the academic year 2009-2010 (Open Doors, 2010). Adding close to $20 billion to the USA economy, "higher education is among the…

  6. Constructivist Education and Epistemological Development in Online and Face-to-Face Higher Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study examined two sections of a course in child development, one online and one face-to-face, to determine similarities and differences between the two related to constructivist education and constructivist processes. Course documents, instructor reflections, online discussion forum text, student-instructor…

  7. Face to Face Legal Services and Their Alternatives: Global Lessons from the Digital Revolution

    E-print Network

    Strathclyde, University of

    Face to Face Legal Services and Their Alternatives: Global Lessons from the Digital Revolution 1 The Shock of the New 5 Chapter 2 The Digital Revolution: Opportunities, Threats, Understanding and Divides 10 Chapter 3 Telephone Hotlines: `Front End or Dead End'? 23 Chapter 4 Digital Provision

  8. A Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Functional Measurement Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Theuns, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information Integration Theory (IIT) is concerned with how people combine information into an overall judgment. A method is hereby presented to perform Functional Measurement (FM) experiments, the methodological counterpart of IIT, on the Web. In a comparison of Web-based FM experiments, face-to-face experiments, and computer-based experiments in…

  9. Online versus face-to-face biology: A comparison of student transactional distance, approach to learning, and knowledge outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggins, Mary Erin

    Community colleges are among many other institutions increasing course offerings online, but there is still some concern about the quality of online learning. Educator concerns, a lack of empirical evidence on biology courses offered online, and the need for an equal opportunity for education support the need for clarification of the quality of distance education in biology, especially in the community college setting. Student attitudes, approaches to learning, and performance should all be studied in order to formulate a better evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of online courses (Svirko & Mellanby, 2008). The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in student perceptions of transactional distance, approaches to learning, and student learning outcomes in online versus face-to-face community college introductory biology courses. The results of this investigation indicate that some aspects of transactional distance did affect the participants' desires for deep learning approaches. Also, except for perceptions of student interaction and collaboration, the online and face-to-face course experiences and outcomes seemed similar.

  10. Face-to-face handoff: improving transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Vergales, Jeffrey; Addison, Nancy; Vendittelli, Analise; Nicholson, Evelyn; Carver, D Jeannean; Stemland, Christopher; Hoke, Tracey; Gangemi, James

    2015-01-01

    The goal was to develop and implement a comprehensive, primarily face-to-face handoff process that begins in the operating room and concludes at the bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU) for pediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery. Involving all stakeholders in the planning phase, the framework of the handoff system encompassed a combination of a formalized handoff tool, focused process steps that occurred prior to patient arrival in the ICU, and an emphasis on face-to-face communication at the conclusion of the handoff. The final process was evaluated by the use of observer checklists to examine quality metrics and timing for all patients admitted to the ICU following cardiac surgery. The process was found to improve how various providers view the efficiency of handoff, the ease of asking questions at each step, and the overall capability to improve patient care regardless of overall surgical complexity. PMID:24443318

  11. Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships Through Face-to-Face Negotiations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy G. Harwood

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the findings of research into information exchange in real-life negotiations in business-to-business (B2B) relationships. Despite the recognition by both practitioners and academics of face-to-face negotiation as a core competence essential to the longevity of business relationships, there has been little research into verbal negotiator behaviour in this context. Based on observation of 12 substantive negotiations, wherein the

  12. Development of a Research Instrument for Evaluating the Visitor Outcomes of Face-to-Face Interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betty Weiler; Sam H. Ham

    2010-01-01

    This article details the development, testing, and refinement of a set of indicators and a data collection instrument designed to be used to evaluate the outcomes of face-to-face interpretation across a range of heritage-based visitor settings and experiences. One of a suite of data collection instruments, the self-completing visitor questionnaire incorporates a set of indicators that (a) reflects the types

  13. Knowing Your Place: Self-Perceptions of Status in Face-to-Face Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron Anderson; Sanjay Srivastava; Jennifer S. Beer; Sandra E. Spataro; Jennifer A. Chatman

    2006-01-01

    Status is the prominence, respect, and influence individuals enjoy in the eyes of others. Theories of positive illusions suggest that individuals form overly positive perceptions of their status in face-to-face groups. In contrast, the authors argue that individuals' perceptions of their status are highly accurate—that is, they closely match the group's perception of their status—because forming overly positive status self-perceptions

  14. Adapting a Face-to-Face Role-Playing Simulation for Online Play

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Bos; N. Sadat Shami

    2006-01-01

    The rapid acceleration of online course offerings presents a design challenge for instructors who want to take materials developed\\u000a for face-to-face settings and adapt them for asynchronous online usage. Broadcast lectures are relatively easy to transfer,\\u000a but adapting content is harder when classes use small-group discussions, as in role-playing or negotiation games. To be successful,\\u000a such environments should address three

  15. TURNING A REGULAR (FACE-TO-FACE) COURSE INTO A MORE ENGAGING BLENDED (HYBRID) COURSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian R. Sun

    This session provides some discussions on blended course design, hands-on practices and offer practical tips for faculty who wish to explore the types of benefits from turning a face-to-face course into a more engaging blended (hybrid) course. Through this discussion, the participants will learn how to evaluate various factors in determining how to develop such a blended course, consider the

  16. Non-face-to face international business negotiation: how is national culture reflected in this medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN M. ULIJN; ANDREAS LINCKE; YUNUS KARAKAYA

    2001-01-01

    With the globalization of the world economy, it is imperative that managers, both present and future, be sensitive to differences in intercultural business communication. In particular, the context of global electronic commerce leads to an increasing use of email in negotiating deals, which to this point has been carried out almost exclusively via face-to-face (FTF) or other high-feedback media (e.g.,

  17. An Advanced Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy Course Blending Online and Face-to-Face Instruction

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of online instruction in a cardiology pharmacotherapy elective. Design Eight drug-focused lectures and 6 introductory presentations were added to a cardiology pharmacotherapy course. Students completed an online quiz after each online drug-focused lecture and scores were compared to quizzes taken at the beginning and end of the course, as well as on a cardiology advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). For online introductory presentations, students completed a quiz at the beginning of the next face-to-face session. A survey was conducted at the end of the course to obtain student feedback. Assessment Compared to baseline scores, student learning was demonstrated after online drug-focused lectures by higher quiz scores attained immediately after completing the lecture, at the end of the course, and at the beginning of the APPE. Furthermore, students performed better on quizzes at the beginning of face-to-face sessions if they first completed an online introductory presentation. Students expressed strong support for the online components of the course. Conclusions A blended learning environment with online and face-to-face instruction is an effective way to teach a cardiology pharmacotherapy elective. The online component of this course was well received by students, improved student preparation before attending class, and appeared to enhance long-term cardiovascular drug knowledge. PMID:19564994

  18. Postdeployment behavioral health screening: face-to-face versus virtual behavioral health interviews.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Maurice L; Foran, Heather M; Crane, Maria L; Wood, Michael D; Wright, Kathleen M

    2012-05-01

    Virtual behavioral health (VBH) services are used frequently to address the high demand for behavioral health (BH) services in the military. Few studies have investigated the relationship between the use of VBH services and BH outcomes or preferences for the use of VBH technologies. In this article, we evaluated BH interviews conducted via video teleconferencing (VTC) or face-to-face in terms of BH symptoms, satisfaction rates, stigma, barriers to care, and preferences for future use of BH care. Soldiers (n = 307) from the headquarters element of an operational unit were surveyed 4 months following a 12-month deployment to Iraq. There were no significant differences in satisfaction rates based on interview modality, but significantly more soldiers preferred face-to-face interviews over VTC interviews in the future. Soldiers who preferred face-to-face interviews also reported higher levels of anxiety and depression symptoms than those who preferred VTC interviews. No significant age differences were found in terms of interview modality satisfaction or preference. Soldiers with greater deployment experience were more likely to report that they would not like using VTC if seeking BH care in the future than soldiers with less deployment experience. These findings highlight the importance of promoting choice in type of BH interview modality. PMID:22645878

  19. Close Encounters in a Pediatric Ward: Measuring Face-to-Face Proximity and Mixing Patterns with Wearable

    E-print Network

    Barrat, Alain

    Close Encounters in a Pediatric Ward: Measuring Face-to- Face Proximity and Mixing Patterns.5 meters, and a time resolution of 20 seconds. The study was conducted in a general pediatrics hospital, Cattuto C, Colizza V, et al. (2011) Close Encounters in a Pediatric Ward: Measuring Face-to-Face Proximity

  20. Engineering Students' Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning through Discussions in Face-to-Face and Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Calvo, Rafael A.; Prosser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on students' conceptions of and approaches to learning through face-to-face and online discussions. The study setting was a course in which students (N = 110) worked in small teams and in which team discussions took place both face-to-face and online. The design of the study involved a combination of in-depth interviews and…

  1. Computers, Networks and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Lee; Kiesler, Sara

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are how computer networks can affect the nature of work and the relationships between managers and employees. The differences between face-to-face exchanges and electronic interactions are described. (KR)

  2. Meeting the Needs of Rural Special Education in the Information Age: Using TI-IN Network's Interactive Satellite Based Educational Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Pamela S.; Kitchen, Lillian

    The TI-IN Network is an interactive, satellite-based educational system offering a technological alternative to face-to-face classroom instruction. Developed through a cooperative venture between private enterprise and public education agencies, the TI-IN Network offers a total systems approach by providing the entire programming and hardware…

  3. Spatial layout and face-to-face interaction in offices – A study of the mechanisms of spatial effects on face-to-face interaction

    E-print Network

    Rashid, Mahbub; Kampschroer, Kevin; Wineman, Jean; Zimring, Craig

    2006-01-01

    . 2 JAN. CL. WIRE SHAFT MEN WOMEN JAN. CL. ELEC. CL. ELEC. CL. E LEC. CL. E LEC. CL. MECH . RM. ELEC. CL. ELEV. 4 ELEC. CL. OPEN TO FLOOR BELOW ELEV. LOBBY ELEV. LOBBY STAIR 1 DN UP D N U P BBF BBF BBF BBF 4 4 4 44 4 44 4 44 F L F L 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4... 4 4 4 3 BBF 42 42 4242 ELEC. ELEV. ELEV. STAIR MENS WOMENS ELEC. CL. JANITOR TELE. MECHANICAL ELEV. ELEC. SHAFT ELEV. STAIR LOBBY ELEV. DN UP D N U P 5 (a) 5 (b) 5 (c) 5 (d) Figure 5: The floor layouts of the four offices: (a) Setting A. (b) Setting...

  4. On the Cutting Edge: Face-to-Face and Virtual Professional Development for Current and Future Geoscience Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Iverson, E. A.; Kirk, K. B.; Beane, R. J.; McConnell, D.; Wiese, K.; Wysession, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    On the Cutting Edge, a comprehensive, discipline-wide professional development program for current and future geoscience faculty, aims to develop a geoscience professoriate committed to high-quality instruction based on currency in scientific knowledge, good pedagogic practice, and research on learning. Our program provides an integrated workshop series and online teaching resources. Since 2002, we have offered more than 80 face-to-face workshops, virtual workshops and webinars, and hybrid events. Participants come from two-year colleges and four-year colleges and universities. The workshop series is designed to address the needs of faculty in all career stages at the full spectrum of institutions and covering the breadth of the geoscience curriculum. We select timely and compelling topics and create opportunities of interest to faculty. We offer workshops on course design, new geoscience research and pedagogical topics, core geoscience curriculum topics, and introductory courses as well as workshops for early career faculty and for future faculty. Our workshops are designed to model good teaching practice. We set workshop goals that guide workshop planning and evaluation. Workshops are interactive, emphasize participant learning, provide opportunities for participants to interact and share experience/knowledge, provide good resources, give participants time to reflect and to develop action plans, and help transform their ideas about teaching. We emphasize the importance of adaptation in the context of their specific situations. For virtual workshops and webinars we use icebreakers and other structured interactions to build a comfortable workshop community; promote interaction through features on webinar software, chat-aided question and answer, small-group synchronous interactions, and/or discussion boards; plan detailed schedules for workshop events; use asynchronous discussions and recordings of synchronous events given that participants are busy with their daily commitments; and provide sufficient technical support for participants and leaders. The importance of making the workshop useful and immediately applicable does not diminish with virtual events. One key lesson is the need to be purposeful with virtual communication strategies; the discussion boards, chat-aided discussion, and small group interactions need a specific focus, purpose, or product. Both face-to-face and virtual workshops that appear to flow spontaneously reflect extensive planning, a clear understanding of the program and its objectives by everyone involved, and realistic estimates for how long activities will really take. The workshop content and structures that we have developed result in high rates of satisfaction by participants.

  5. 76 FR 41032 - Medicaid Program; Face-to-Face Requirements for Home Health Services; Policy Changes and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare...Face-to-Face Requirements for Home Health Services; Policy Changes and Clarifications Related to Home Health AGENCY: Centers for Medicare &...

  6. 77 FR 8328 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  7. 77 FR 2611 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  8. 77 FR 61053 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  9. 77 FR 30591 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments, ideas, and suggestions on improving customer service at the Internal Revenue...

  10. New Product Development Decision-Making Effectiveness: Comparing Individuals, Face-To-Face Teams, and Virtual Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey B. Schmidt; Mitzi M. Montoya-Weiss; Anne P. Massey

    2001-01-01

    A total of 411 subjects participated in two decision-making experiments in order to examine the effectiveness of new product development project continuation decisions. In Study 1, individual versus face-to-face team decision-making effectiveness was com- pared. Study 2, an extension of Study 1, compared the new product development deci- sion-making effectiveness of individuals, face-to-face teams, and virtual teams. A virtual team

  11. A randomised controlled trial of face to face versus pure online self-help cognitive behavioural treatment for perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Egan, Sarah J; van Noort, Emily; Chee, Abby; Kane, Robert T; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey D

    2014-09-30

    Previous research has shown cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) to be effective in reducing perfectionism. The present study investigated the efficacy of two formats of CBT for perfectionism (CBT-P), face-to-face and pure online self-help, in reducing perfectionism and associated psychological symptoms. Participants were randomly allocated to face-to-face CBT-P (n = 18), pure online self-help CBT-P (n = 16), or a waitlist control period (n = 18). There was no significant change for the waitlist group on any of the outcome measures at the end of treatment. Both the face-to-face and pure online self-help groups reported significant reductions at the end of treatment for the perfectionism variables which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. The face-to-face group also reported significant reductions over this time in depression, anxiety, and stress, and a significant pre-post increase in self-esteem, all of which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. In contrast, the pure online self-help group showed no significant changes on these outcomes. The face-to-face group was statistically superior to the pure online self-help group at follow-up on the perfectionism measures, concern over mistakes and personal standards. The results show promising evidence for CBT for perfectionism, especially when offered face to face, where sustained benefit across a broad range of outcomes can be expected. PMID:25461785

  12. A Comparison of Face to Face and Video-Based Self Care Education on Quality of Life of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati Maslakpak, Masumeh; Shams, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Background End stage renal disease negatively affects the patients’ quality of life. There are different educational methods to help these patients. This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of self-care education in two methods, face to face and video educational, on the quality of life in patients under treatment by hemodialysis in education-medical centers in Urmia. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 120 hemodialysis patients were selected randomly; they were then randomly allocated to three groups: the control, face to face education and video education. For face to face group, education was given individually in two sessions of 35 to 45 minutes. For video educational group, CD was shown. Kidney Disease Quality Of Life- Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire was filled out before and two months after the intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS software by using one-way ANOVA. Results ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference in the quality of life scores among the three groups after the intervention (P=0.024). After the intervention, Tukey’s post-hoc test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups of video and face to face education regarding the quality of life (P>0.05). Conclusion Implementation of the face to face and video education methods improves the quality of life in hemodialysis patients. So, it is suggested that video educational should be used along with face to face education. PMID:26171412

  13. Adherence to Internet-Based and Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Depression: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Karyotaki, Eirini; Andersson, Gerhard; Smit, Jan H.; Riper, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is an effective and acceptable treatment for depression, especially when it includes guidance, but its treatment adherence has not yet been systematically studied. We conducted a meta-analysis, comparing the adherence to guided iCBT with the adherence to individual face-to-face CBT. Methods Studies were selected from a database of trials that investigate treatment for adult depression (see www.evidencebasedpsychotherapies.org), updated to January 2013. We identified 24 studies describing 26 treatment conditions (14 face-to-face CBT, 12 guided iCBT), by means of these inclusion criteria: targeting depressed adults, no comorbid somatic disorder or substance abuse, community recruitment, published in the year 2000 or later. The main outcome measure was the percentage of completed sessions. We also coded the percentage of treatment completers (separately coding for 100% or at least 80% of treatment completed). Results We did not find studies that compared guided iCBT and face-to-face CBT in a single trial that met our inclusion criteria. Face-to-face CBT treatments ranged from 12 to 28 sessions, guided iCBT interventions consisted of 5 to 9 sessions. Participants in face-to-face CBT completed on average 83.9% of their treatment, which did not differ significantly from participants in guided iCBT (80.8%, P ?=? .59). The percentage of completers (total intervention) was significantly higher in face-to-face CBT (84.7%) than in guided iCBT (65.1%, P < .001), as was the percentage of completers of 80% or more of the intervention (face-to-face CBT: 85.2%, guided iCBT: 67.5%, P ?=? .003). Non-completers of face-to-face CBT completed on average 24.5% of their treatment, while non-completers of guided iCBT completed on average 42.1% of their treatment. Conclusion We did not find studies that compared guided iCBT and face-to-face CBT in a single trial. Adherence to guided iCBT appears to be adequate and could be equal to adherence to face-to-face CBT. PMID:25029507

  14. Comparing Online and Face-to-Face Instruction at a Large Virtual University: Data and Issues in the Measurement of Quality. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisan, Gail; Nazma, Shirin; Pscherer, Charles P., Jr.

    The fiscal year 2000 Alumni Survey at a large, substantially online university was used to assess undergraduate students' satisfaction with both online and face-to-face academic quality and student services. Students who had taken online classes evaluated both their online and face-to-face classes. In addition, students who took only face-to-face

  15. Closed-loop dialog model of face-to-face communication with a photo-real virtual human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Bernadette; Benedek, Balázs; Szijárto, Gábor; Takács, Barnabás

    2004-01-01

    We describe an advanced Human Computer Interaction (HCI) model that employs photo-realistic virtual humans to provide digital media users with information, learning services and entertainment in a highly personalized and adaptive manner. The system can be used as a computer interface or as a tool to deliver content to end-users. We model the interaction process between the user and the system as part of a closed loop dialog taking place between the participants. This dialog, exploits the most important characteristics of a face-to-face communication process, including the use of non-verbal gestures and meta communication signals to control the flow of information. Our solution is based on a Virtual Human Interface (VHI) technology that was specifically designed to be able to create emotional engagement between the virtual agent and the user, thus increasing the efficiency of learning and/or absorbing any information broadcasted through this device. The paper reviews the basic building blocks and technologies needed to create such a system and discusses its advantages over other existing methods.

  16. Infant non-distress vocalization during mother-infant face-to-face interaction: Factors associated with quantitative and qualitative differences? 7 7 ? This research was supported by faculty research grants to Hui-Chin Hsu from the College of Family and Consumer Science, the University of Georgia, and the University of Georgia Research Foundation, and by grants to Alan Fogel from the National Institutes of Health (R01 HD21036), the National Institute of Mental Health (R01 MH48680 and MH57669), and the National Science Foundation (BN9006756). Portions of the data were presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, April 1998, and the Human Development Conference, April 2000. The authors thank the mothers and infants who participated in the study, and the research assistants who helped with the project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Chin Hsu; Alan Fogel; Daniel S. Messinger

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the associations of the quantity and quality of infant nondistress vocalization with maternal and infant social actions (smiling and gazing) during dyadic interaction. Thirteen infants and their mothers were observed weekly in a face-to-face interaction situation from 4 to 24 weeks. Results showed that the quantity (rate per minute) and quality (speech-likeness) of infant nondistress vocalization changed

  17. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  18. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  19. Face-to-face transfer of wafer-scale graphene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Libo; Ni, Guang-Xin; Liu, Yanpeng; Liu, Bo; Castro Neto, Antonio H.; Loh, Kian Ping

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted worldwide interest since its experimental discovery, but the preparation of large-area, continuous graphene film on SiO2/Si wafers, free from growth-related morphological defects or transfer-induced cracks and folds, remains a formidable challenge. Growth of graphene by chemical vapour deposition on Cu foils has emerged as a powerful technique owing to its compatibility with industrial-scale roll-to-roll technology. However, the polycrystalline nature and microscopic roughness of Cu foils means that such roll-to-roll transferred films are not devoid of cracks and folds. High-fidelity transfer or direct growth of high-quality graphene films on arbitrary substrates is needed to enable wide-ranging applications in photonics or electronics, which include devices such as optoelectronic modulators, transistors, on-chip biosensors and tunnelling barriers. The direct growth of graphene film on an insulating substrate, such as a SiO2/Si wafer, would be useful for this purpose, but current research efforts remain grounded at the proof-of-concept stage, where only discontinuous, nanometre-sized islands can be obtained. Here we develop a face-to-face transfer method for wafer-scale graphene films that is so far the only known way to accomplish both the growth and transfer steps on one wafer. This spontaneous transfer method relies on nascent gas bubbles and capillary bridges between the graphene film and the underlying substrate during etching of the metal catalyst, which is analogous to the method used by tree frogs to remain attached to submerged leaves. In contrast to the previous wet or dry transfer results, the face-to-face transfer does not have to be done by hand and is compatible with any size and shape of substrate; this approach also enjoys the benefit of a much reduced density of transfer defects compared with the conventional transfer method. Most importantly, the direct growth and spontaneous attachment of graphene on the underlying substrate is amenable to batch processing in a semiconductor production line, and thus will speed up the technological application of graphene.

  20. Comparison of traditional face-to-face teaching with synchronous e-learning in otolaryngology emergencies teaching to medical undergraduates: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alnabelsi, Talal; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Owens, David

    2015-03-01

    Undergraduate otolaryngology teaching in the UK is generally limited primarily due to curriculum time constraints with traditional face-to-face (FtF) teaching being restrained by the limitations of time and location. Advances in network technology have opened up new doors for the delivery of teaching in the form of online learning. This study compares a traditional instructor-led lecture with synchronous e-learning (SeL) using otolaryngological emergencies teaching as an educational intervention. A randomised controlled trial was designed involving two groups of medical students attending an otolaryngology emergencies management lecture: one present FtF and the other viewing the streamed lecture online. The primary outcome measure was improvement between pre-and post-lecture test scores. Secondary outcomes comprised the students' ratings of the lecture on a Likert-type scale. Students in both groups had improved test scores following the lecture (p < 0.001 for both groups) and there was no difference in magnitude of improvement in test scores between the two groups (p = 0.168). There was no difference in student ratings between the two groups for the usefulness of the lecture (p = 0.484), interactivity (p = 0.834) and meeting educational needs (p = 0.968). The FtF group, however, was more satisfied overall (p = 0.034). This study demonstrates that SeL may be as effective as FtF teaching in improving students' knowledge on the management of otolaryngological emergencies, and that it is generally positively perceived by medical undergraduates. This highlights the potential utility of e-learning technology in undergraduate otolaryngology training. PMID:25308244

  1. Data on face-to-face contacts in an office building suggests a low-cost vaccination strategy based on community linkers

    E-print Network

    Génois, Mathieu; Fournet, Julie; Panisson, André; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Barrat, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Empirical data on contacts between individuals in social contexts play an important role in the information of models describing human behavior and how epidemics spread in populations. Here, we analyze data on face-to-face contacts collected in an office building. The statistical properties of contacts are similar to other social situations, but important differences are observed in the contact network structure. In particular, the contact network is strongly shaped by the organization of the offices in departments, which has consequences in the design of accurate agent-based models of epidemic spread. We then consider the contact network as a potential substrate for infectious disease spread and show that its sparsity tends to prevent outbreaks of fast-spreading epidemics. Moreover, we define three typical behaviors according to the fraction $f$ of links each individual shares outside its own department: residents, wanderers and linkers. Linkers ($f\\sim 50%$) act as bridges in the network and have large betw...

  2. Atypical brain activation patterns during a face-to-face joint attention game in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Dodell-Feder, David; Mavros, Penelope L; Kleiner, Mario; Pearrow, Mark J; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D; Saxe, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Joint attention behaviors include initiating one's own and responding to another's bid for joint attention to an object, person, or topic. Joint attention abilities in autism are pervasively atypical, correlate with development of language and social abilities, and discriminate children with autism from other developmental disorders. Despite the importance of these behaviors, the neural correlates of joint attention in individuals with autism remain unclear. This paucity of data is likely due to the inherent challenge of acquiring data during a real-time social interaction. We used a novel experimental set-up in which participants engaged with an experimenter in an interactive face-to-face joint attention game during fMRI data acquisition. Both initiating and responding to joint attention behaviors were examined as well as a solo attention (SA) control condition. Participants included adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 13), a mean age- and sex-matched neurotypical group (n = 14), and a separate group of neurotypical adults (n = 22). Significant differences were found between groups within social-cognitive brain regions, including dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), during the RJA as compared to SA conditions. Region-of-interest analyses revealed a lack of signal differentiation between joint attention and control conditions within left pSTS and dMPFC in individuals with ASD. Within the pSTS, this lack of differentiation was characterized by reduced activation during joint attention and relative hyper-activation during SA. These findings suggest a possible failure of developmental neural specialization within the STS and dMPFC to joint attention in ASD. PMID:22505330

  3. A Large Sample Comparison of Grade Based Student Learning Outcomes in Online vs. Face-to-Face Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Joseph K.; Jacquemin, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of grade based learning outcomes between online and face-to-face course formats have become essential because the number of online courses, online programs and institutional student enrollments have seen rapid growth in recent years. Overall, online education is largely viewed by education professionals as being equivalent to…

  4. The Effects of Age and Gender on Student Achievement in Face-To-Face and Online College Algebra Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amro, Hanan Jamal; Mundy, Marie-Anne; Kupczynski, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Demand for online learning has increased in recent years due to the convenience of course delivery. However, some students appear to have difficulties with online education resulting in lack of completion. The study utilized a quantitative approach with archival data. The factors of achievement and demographics were compared for face-to-face and…

  5. Underpinning Principles of Adult Learning in Face to Face (f2f) Meetings Employed by Distance-Teaching Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.; Karagiorgi, Yiasemina

    2014-01-01

    The study presented in this article explores the application of the principles of adult learning in the face to face (f2f) meetings organised within the context of blended learning courses. The study adopts a case study approach, employing qualitative data collection through semi-structured interviews with participants in four thematic units in…

  6. Analysis of Critical Excavation Depth for a Jointed Rock Slope Using a Face-to-Face Discrete Element Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Li; J. G. Wang; B. S. Liu; D. P. Dong

    2007-01-01

    The critical excavation depth of a jointed rock slope is an important problem in rock engineering. This paper studies the critical excavation depth for two idealized jointed rock slopes by employing a face-to-face discrete element method (DEM). The DEM is based on the discontinuity analysis which can consider anisotropic and discontinuous deformations due to joints and their orientations. It uses

  7. Seeing through the Screen: Is Evaluative Feedback Communicated More Effectively in Face-to-Face or Computer-Mediated Exchanges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Brenda G.; Vorauer, Jacquie D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that examined how the use of computer mediated communication affected the transmission of performance and interpersonal appraisal information. Examined whether interpersonal judgments obtained through face-to-face communication resulted in greater positivity, but compromised accuracy, relative to…

  8. Integrating Blog and Face-to-Face Instruction into an ESP Course: English for Hospitality and Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ru-Chu

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid growth of international trade and globalization, English language has been emphasized in Asia countries, thus professionals with a good command of English has become essential and important. This study aimed to establish a blended model combining face-to-face (F2F) instruction for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course: English…

  9. Connectivity: A Framework for Understanding Effective Language Teaching in Face-to-Face and Online Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Rose

    2010-01-01

    This is an exploratory paper that uses the construct of connectivity to examine the nature of effective language teaching and learning in both face-to-face and online learning environments. Broader in scope than Siemens' notion of connectivism, the term connectivity accommodates both transmission approaches to teaching and learning and social…

  10. Interdyad Differences in Early Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Real-Time Dynamics and Developmental Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A microgenetic research design with a multiple case study method and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses was used to investigate interdyad differences in real-time dynamics and developmental change processes in mother-infant face-to-face communication over the first 3 months of life. Weekly observations of 24 mother-infant dyads…

  11. Translating Knowledge through Blended Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Face-to-Face and Blended Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Thomas P.; Karpur, Arun

    2012-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the impact of traditional face-to-face training contrasted with a blended learning approach, as it relates to improving skills, knowledge and attitudes for enhancing practices for achieving improved employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities. The study included two intervention groups: one…

  12. Speech and Face to Face Communication Workshop in memory of Christian Benot Session 3: Non-Verbal Communication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Speech and Face to Face Communication Workshop in memory of Christian Benoît Session 3: Non-Verbal between speech and hand related to the gesture produced (communicative vs. non communicative)? (2) Is coordination between speech and hand dependent on the type of communicative gesture (deictic vs. non deictic

  13. 20 CFR 266.6 - Information to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    Before the Board selects a representative payee, the Board may request the payee-applicant to provide information concerning the factors listed in § 266.4 of this part. An employee of the Board may also conduct a face-to-face interview with the...

  14. Assessing Student Perceptions of the Community of Inquiry Model through Group Collaboration via Online and Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hui-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to assess student perceptions of teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence, measured by the Community of Inquiry Scale (Arbaugh et al., 2008), through group collaboration via online and face-to-face instruction. Thirty-seven teacher education students participated in this…

  15. A Comparison of Online and Face-to-face Learning in Undergraduate Finance and Economic Policy Courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JACQUES RAYNAULD; HEC Montréal

    SUMMARY This paper addresses some of the questions about the effects of technology on student learning. Using data from students enrolled in a Canadian business school during the 2005 summer term, we compare the performance of online and face-to-face students in two different undergraduate courses: Economic Problems and Policy Analysis and Basic Corporate Finance. When controlling for a potential selection

  16. A comparison of online versus face-to-face teaching delivery in statistics instruction for undergraduate health science students.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fletcher; Lemonde, Manon

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess if online teaching delivery produces comparable student test performance as the traditional face-to-face approach irrespective of academic aptitude. This study involves a quasi-experimental comparison of student performance in an undergraduate health science statistics course partitioned in two ways. The first partition involves one group of students taught with a traditional face-to-face classroom approach and the other through a completely online instructional approach. The second partition of the subjects categorized the academic aptitude of the students into groups of higher and lower academically performing based on their assignment grades during the course. Controls that were placed on the study to reduce the possibility of confounding variables were: the same instructor taught both groups covering the same subject information, using the same assessment methods and delivered over the same period of time. The results of this study indicate that online teaching delivery is as effective as a traditional face-to-face approach in terms of producing comparable student test performance but only if the student is academically higher performing. For academically lower performing students, the online delivery method produced significantly poorer student test results compared to those lower performing students taught in a traditional face-to-face environment. PMID:23238874

  17. Ariadne's Thread: Using Social Presence Indices to Distinguish Learning Events in Face-to-Face and ICT-Rich Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Colin; Henderson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on ancient Greek mythology, this article traces the learning experiences of 164 pre-service education students as they make the transition from a conventional face-to-face (f-2-f) learning environment to an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) rich setting. Influenced by Social Presence Theory (Short, Williams & Christie, 1976)…

  18. Hybrid Structures: Faculty Use and Perception of Web-Based Courseware as a Supplement to Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Robert; Baker, Jason D.; Hopper, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The researchers examined responses from 862 faculty members at 38 institutions nationwide using the blackboard Learning Management System (LMS) to supplement their face-to-face instruction. The four research questions addressed the primary uses that faculty make of blackboard, perceptions that faculty have of how certain blackboard features…

  19. Hybrid structures: Faculty use and perception of web-based courseware as a supplement to face-to-face instruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Woods; Jason D. Baker; Dave Hopper

    2004-01-01

    The researchers examined responses from 862 faculty members at 38 institutions nationwide using the blackboard Learning Management System (LMS) to supplement their face-to-face instruction. The four research questions addressed the primary uses that faculty make of blackboard, perceptions that faculty have of how certain blackboard features enhance or elevate (or might enhance or elevate) their assessment of student work and

  20. Examination of a Physical Education Personal Health Science Course: Face-to-Face Classroom Compared to Online Hybrid Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimming, Renee Elizabeth; Bower, Glenna G.; Choi, Chulhwan

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have compared traditional face-to-face courses to online or distance education courses. The purpose of this study was to examine academic performance, perceptions, and experiences of participants enrolled in different academic learning environments. Pre and Post Content Knowledge Tests and a student evaluation were used to measure…

  1. A Meta-Analytic and Qualitative Review of Online versus Face-to-Face Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurewitsch, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional strategy that is poised for widespread application in the current, growing, on-line digital learning environment. While enjoying a track record as a defensible strategy in face-to-face learning settings, the research evidence is not clear regarding PBL in on-line environments. A review of the…

  2. MBTI Personality Type and Other Factors that Relate to Preference for Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Online college classes are being offered at a rate that far exceeds the growth of overall higher education classes. However, much can still be learned about how to create a better online classroom environment by determining why a large percentage of students continue to prefer face-to-face classes. One factor among many that may have an influence…

  3. Blending Face-to-Face Higher Education with Web-Based Lectures: Comparing Different Didactical Application Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrieux, Hannelore; Vangestel, Sandra; Raes, Annelies; Matthys, Paul; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning as an instructional approach is getting more attention in the educational landscape and has been researched thoroughly. Yet, this study reports the results of an innovation project aiming to gain insight into three different scenarios of applying web-based lectures: as preparation for face-to-face practical exercises, as a…

  4. Comparing Online and Face-to-Face Presentation of Course Content in an Introductory Special Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James R.; Klass, Patricia H.; Fulk, Barbara M.

    2012-01-01

    Instructional content was presented differently in two introductory special education course sections. In a face-to-face (f2f) section, the instructor met with students on regularly scheduled days and times and presented content in person. In the other section, content was presented using enhanced podcasts, consisting of the instructor narrating…

  5. How and What University Students Learn through Online and Face-to-Face Discussion: Conceptions, Intentions and Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, P.; Prosser, M.; O'Hara, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a phenomenographic investigation into students' experiences of learning through discussion--both online and face to face (F2F). The study context was a second-year undergraduate course in psychology for social work in which the teacher had designed discussion tasks to begin in F2F mode and to continue online. A combination of…

  6. Learning through Face-to-Face and Online Discussions: Associations between Students' Conceptions, Approaches and Academic Performance in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert; Goodyear, Peter; Piggott, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on research investigating student experiences of learning through face-to-face and online discussions in a political science course in a large Australian university. Using methodologies from relational research into university student learning, the study investigates associations between key aspects of student learning focusing…

  7. Accuracy of Answers Provided by Digital/Face-to-Face Reference Services in Japanese Public Libraries and Q & A Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Keita; To, Haruna; Hara, Atsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We asked the same 60 questions using DRS (digital reference services) in Japanese public libraries, face-to-face reference services and Q & A (question and answer) sites. It was found that: (1) The correct answer ratio of DRS is higher than that of Q & A sites; (2) DRS takes longer to provide answers as compared to Q & A sites; and (3) The correct…

  8. Comparing the Impact of Online and Face-to-Face Professional Development in the Context of Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Barry; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Kubitskey, Beth W.; Vath, Richard; Park, Gina; Johnson, Heather; Edelson, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a randomized experiment to examine differences in teacher and student learning from professional development (PD) in two modalities: online and face-to-face. The study explores whether there are differences in teacher knowledge and beliefs, teacher classroom practice, and student learning outcomes related to PD modality.…

  9. Study Shows No Difference in Impact between Online and Face-to-Face Professional Learning. Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2014-01-01

    Adopting new curricula presents both a need and an opportunity for professional development to advance teacher content knowledge and instructional practices for achieving curriculum-specific student outcomes. This study examines two modalities of professional development: face-to-face in a summer workshop and online that included two days of…

  10. Blending Synchronous Face-to-Face and Computer-Supported Cooperative Learning in a Hybrid Doctoral Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary; Akcaoglu, Mete; Zellner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Online education is often assumed to be synonymous with asynchronous instruction, existing apart from or supplementary to face-to-face instruction in traditional bricks-and-mortar classrooms. However, expanding access to computer-mediated communication technologies now make new models possible, including distance learners synchronous online…

  11. Factorial Invariance of an Integrated Measure of Classroom Sense of Community in Face-to-Face and Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, YoonJung; Hathcoat, John D.; Bridges, Stacey L.; Mathew, Susan; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a more integrated measure of classroom sense of community (SOC) while testing factorial invariance of the measurement structure across face-to-face and online courses. We incorporated two existing SOC measures to capture both context-specific and context-general characteristics of SOC and developed an…

  12. Students' Feelings of and Desire for Sense of Community in Face-to-Face and Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drouin, Michelle; Vartanian, Lesa Rae

    2010-01-01

    In this study, face-to-face (FTF) and online students' (N = 198) feelings of and desire for sense of community (SOC) in their courses were compared. In support of previous research, FTF students felt more SOC than online students. However, overall, relatively few students (FTF or online) expressed desire for SOC. Additionally, regression analyses…

  13. Instructional Strategies for Face-to-Face, Internet-Based, and Hybrid Education: An Action Oriented Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naffziger, Loren Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet and the rapid growth of educational software, high schools are applying new instructional strategies with their students, including online and hybrid education. Hybrid education combines face-to-face encounters with online methods; students attend classroom sessions with their teachers and peers, and they engage…

  14. Is the Medium Really the Message? A Comparison of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Focus Group Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori

    2013-01-01

    With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…

  15. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  16. Fostering Face to Face Oral Interaction through Webquests: A Case Study in ESP for Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Webquests have been used for some time to research a variety of topics. According to Lacina (2007), a webquest is an inquiry-based technology activity designed by Bernie Dodge and Tom March in which information is usually drawn from the Internet, and is a powerful instructional exercise both for teachers and students.Webquests enhance personal and…

  17. Hospital design and face-to-face interaction among clinicians: a theoretical model

    E-print Network

    Rashid, Mahbub

    2009-07-01

    actions in an attempt to classify hospitalized patients. The vertical axis of the figure shows patient condition from being non-critical to critical, and the horizontal axis shows the amount of time available for taking any medical actions from being... very little to sufficient. Consequently, the diagram helps define four groups of patients: 1. Non-critical patients requiring no immediate medical actions – Include the patients who are at minimal risk. The needs of these patients can often be met...

  18. Pervasive Sensing to Model Political Opinions in Face-to-Face Networks

    E-print Network

    Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    application of pervasive computing based on using mobile phone sensors to measure and model the face phone sensors at an undergraduate community to measure and model physical proximity (via bluetooth be predicted from sensor data. Mobile features can be used to estimate unique individ- ual exposure

  19. Analysis of Critical Excavation Depth for a Jointed Rock Slope Using a Face-to-Face Discrete Element Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Li; J. G. Wang; B. S. Liu; D. P. Dong

    2007-01-01

    Summary  The critical excavation depth of a jointed rock slope is an important problem in rock engineering. This paper studies the\\u000a critical excavation depth for two idealized jointed rock slopes by employing a face-to-face discrete element method (DEM).\\u000a The DEM is based on the discontinuity analysis which can consider anisotropic and discontinuous deformations due to joints\\u000a and their orientations. It uses

  20. Asynchronous Computer-mediated Communication versus Face-to-face Collaboration: Results on Student Learning, Quality and Satisfaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalie J. Ocker; Gayle J. Yaverbaum

    1999-01-01

    Although there has been more than a decade of literature on computer-mediated communication in education, the research has been unclear as to whether it is an effective replacement for face-to-face (FtF) collaboration. This study sought to add to this body of research by exploring the effects of two modes of collaboration on student groups. Following a repeated-measures experimental design, each

  1. The Effects of Health Education through Face To Face Teaching and Educational Movies, on Suburban Women in Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Vameghi, R; Mohammad, K; Karimloo, M; Soleimani, F; Sajedi, F

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ‘face-to-face education’ and ‘educational movies’ on ‘knowledge’ and ‘practice’ of women of child-bearing-age, in terms of health-care during pregnancy and during infancy in a suburban region near Tehran City, Iran. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, the sample included 873 married women. Questionnaires for knowledge and practice assessment were designed. The women were assigned to three groups: control (group I), face-to-face education (group II), and educational movie (group III). Knowledge questionnaires were completed before and immediately after intervention. Practice questionnaires were completed before and three months after intervention. Both questionnaires consisted of two types of questions: type A (concerning infant care issues) and type B (concerning prenatal health care). Results: There was a significant difference in post-test knowledge between groups I and II and between groups I and III, but not between groups II and III. In terms of post-test practice, the changes were determined for every individual question, and significantly, better results were seen in group II, especially concerning type B questions. Conclusion: Face to face education lead to better practice than educational movies. In addition, significantly better practice occurred regarding child health care issues rather than prenatal issues in both groups. Realistic and tangible issues, those easy to practice, and with little or no economical burden imposed on the family, progressed from the knowledge state to the practice state more successfully in both groups. PMID:23113010

  2. Instruments to Explore Blended Learning: Modifying a Method to Analyse Online Communication for the Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leng, Bas A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Donkers, H. H. L. M.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the complex practice of today's blended learning, educators need to be able to evaluate both online and face-to-face communication in order to get the full picture of what is going on in blended learning scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of a practical instrument for analysing face-to-face

  3. A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Foreign Policy: Student Experiences of Learning through Face-to-Face and Online Discussion and Their Relationship to Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Piggott, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents research on students' experiences of learning through a blend of face-to-face and online discussion. The participants in our study were students enrolled in a foreign policy course at a major Australian university. Students' conceptions of learning through discussion, and their approaches to both face-to-face and online…

  4. The Effects of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Discussion on Computer Engineering Majors' Performance on the Karnaugh Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Yen-Chu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the different effects of web-based and face-to-face discussion on computer engineering majors' performance using the Karnaugh map in digital logic design. Pretest and posttest scores for two treatment groups (web-based discussion and face-to-face discussion) and a control group were compared and subjected to covariance…

  5. The Role of Focus Group Venue: A Comparative Study of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Video-Based Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the equivalence or non-inferiority for comparisons of telephone focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, Internet video-based focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, and Internet video-based focus group venue to telephone focus group venue. Research questions examined the…

  6. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  7. AIDS and behavioural risk factors in women in inner city Baltimore: a comparison of telephone and face to face surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Nebot, M; Celentano, D D; Burwell, L; Davis, A; Davis, M; Polacsek, M; Santelli, J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to investigate the influence the mode of administration of a questionnaire (telephone or face to face) on reports of sexual behaviour and attitudes of HIV risk among woman of reproductive age. DESIGN--Two cross sectional surveys--one, a modified random digit dialing telephone survey, the second, a face to face street sample--were carried out by the same interviewers using similar questionnaires in the same neighbourhoods. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Two socially deprived, inner city neighbourhoods of Baltimore City were assessed in early 1990 before a community health intervention was carried out in one of them. Women between 17 and 35 years were surveyed. MAIN RESULTS--Altogether 775 and 416 women in the target age group were interviewed by telephone and face to face methods: the response rates were 66.4% and 77% respectively. Telephone respondents tended to be older, had more education, were more often married, were less likely to live in subsidised housing, and were more likely to report HIV testing. The proportions of respondents who reported a previous abortion and had had a surgical sterilisation were higher among the telephone respondents (34.7% v 24.1% and 26.4% v 20.6%, respectively). With regard to sexual risk behaviour, the only statistically significant differences were found in the proportion who reported having used drugs (10.6% of the face to face v 2.4% of the telephone sample) or alcohol (30.5% v 16.3%) at last sexual intercourse. The observed method effect on these variables remained unchanged after adjusting for age, education, employment, and marital status. This effect was even stronger for a subgroup of face to face respondents who reported not having a telephone at home. The adjusted odds ratios for reporting alcohol consumption and use of drugs at the last sexual encounter in this group compared with the telephone respondents were 3.7 (2.1, 6.6) and 14.1 (5.7, 34.5) respectively. CONCLUSIONS--Despite the socioeconomic bias associated with the mode of data collection, there are only a few differences between the telephone and personal survey methods in reports of sexual behaviour. These differences are mostly concentrated in young women (under 20 years), and in a particularly socioeconomically deprived subgroup identified through telephone ownership. PMID:7964343

  8. Design and Methods for a Comparative Effectiveness Pilot Study: Virtual World vs. Face-to-Face Diabetes Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Heyden, Robin; Mejilla, Roanne; Rizzo DePaoli, Maria; Veerappa, Chetty; Wiecha, John M

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (diabetes) is a serious threat to public health in the United States and disproportionally affects many racial/ethnic minority groups, including African Americans. Limited access to treatment and high attrition rates further contribute to health disparities in diabetes-related morbidity and mortality among minorities. Greater opportunities for increasing access and decreasing barriers to treatment are needed. Technology-based interventions have potential for accomplishing this goal but evidence of feasibility and potential effectiveness is lacking, especially for populations that traditionally have limited educational attainment and low computer literacy. Objective This paper describes the design and methods of a pilot randomized clinical trial that will compare the feasibility and potential efficacy of delivering a diabetes self-management intervention via a virtual world vs. a face-to-face format. Methods Study participants (n=100) will be African American women with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes recruited from primary care practices and affiliated health centers at a large safety net hospital in Massachusetts. Participants will be randomized into a virtual world-based (VW) intervention condition or a face-to-face control condition. Both conditions provide the same theory-based curriculum and equivalent exposure to the self-management program (eight group sessions), and both will be delivered by a single intervention team (a dietitian and a diabetes educator). Assessments will be conducted at baseline and 4 months. Feasibility will be determined by evaluating the degree to which participants engage in the VW-based intervention compared to face to face (number of sessions completed). Potential efficacy will be determined by comparing change in physiological (glycemic control) and behavioral (self-reported dietary intake, physical activity, blood glucose self-monitoring, and medication adherence) outcomes between the experimental and control groups. Results The primary outcomes of interest are feasibility of the VW intervention and its potential efficacy on glucose control and diabetes self-management behaviors, compared to the face-to-face condition. Analysis will use a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for changes in variable distribution. P values will be calculated using binomial tests for proportions and t tests for continuous variables. Conclusions If the intervention is found to be feasible and promising, it will be tested in a larger RCT. PMID:23612567

  9. Modeling Information Flow in Face-to-Face Meetings while Protecting Privacy

    E-print Network

    Rudolph, Larry

    Social networks have been used to understand how information flows through an organization as well as identifying individuals that appear to have control over this information flow. Such individuals are identified as being ...

  10. Task Analysis Based Methodology for the Design of Face to Face Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Francisca Capponi; Miguel Nussbaum; María Ester Lagos

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a This paper shows how Task Analysis can be a powerful tool for the design of collaborative applications supported by wirelessly\\u000a interconnected handhelds. We define a methodology for the design of such activities. It basically consists in performing a\\u000a Task Analysis on an Interaction Model to obtain the set of all possible interactions between actors. Then a class of activities\\u000a is

  11. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or Reading between the Lines? Theory of Mind Predicts Collective Intelligence Equally Well Online and Face-To-Face

    E-print Network

    Engel, David

    Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called “collective intelligence”) predicted a group’s performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also ...

  12. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice. PMID:23184436

  13. The Impact of an Online Component in a Face-to-Face Community College Mathematics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    A recent trend in the traditional mathematics classroom is the use of online homework systems. Where traditional homework problems are retrieved from a textbook, online homework systems provide problems online and permit students to interact with the system in order to complete homework assignments. Mathematics instructors who use or who wish to…

  14. Comparison of Internet and Face-to-Face Delivery of a Group Body Image and Disordered Eating Intervention for Women: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma K. Gollings; Susan J. Paxton

    2006-01-01

    Increased access to therapy for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating is required. This pilot study compared a group intervention delivered face-to-face or synchronously over the Internet. Women with body dissatisfaction and disordered eating were randomly assigned to a face-to-face (N = 19) or Internet (N = 21) group. Body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and psychological variables were assessed at baseline, post-intervention,

  15. More breast cancer patients prefer BRCA-mutation testing without prior face-to-face genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Sie, Aisha S; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Brunner, Han G; Prins, Judith B; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2014-06-01

    Currently, most breast cancer (BC) patients receive face-to-face genetic counseling (DNA-intake) prior to BRCA-mutation testing, with generic information regarding hereditary BC and BRCA-mutation testing. This prospective study evaluated a novel format: replacing the intake consultation with telephone, written and digital information sent home, and face-to-face contact following BRCA-mutation testing (DNA-direct). From August 2011 to February 2012, 161 of 233 eligible BC patients referred to our Human Genetics department chose between DNA-direct (intervention) or DNA-intake (control). Exclusion criteria were psychological problems (n = 33), difficulty with Dutch text (n = 5), known BRCA-family (n = 3), non-BRCA-referral (n = 1). 30 declined genetic counseling or study participation. Participants received questionnaires including satisfaction and psychological distress. 59 % chose DNA-direct (p = 0.03), of whom 90 % were satisfied and would choose DNA-direct again (including 6/8 BRCA-mutation carriers); although 27 % hesitated to recommend DNA-direct to other patients. General distress (GHQ-12, p = 0.001) and heredity-specific distress (IES, p = 0.02) scored lower in DNA-direct than DNA-intake, both at baseline and follow-up 2 weeks after BRCA-result disclosure; all scores remained below clinical relevance. DNA-direct participants reported higher website use (53 vs. 32 %, p = 0.01), more referrer information about personal consequences (41 vs. 20 %, p = 0.004) and lower decisional conflict (median 20 [0-88] vs. 25 [0-50], p = 0.01). Processing time in DNA-direct was reduced by 1 month. Mutation detection rate was 8 % in both groups. All BRCA-mutation carriers fulfilled current testing criteria. In conclusion, more BC patients preferred DNA-direct over intake consultation prior to BRCA-mutation testing, the majority being strongly to moderately satisfied with the procedure followed, without increased distress. PMID:24068317

  16. Guided Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim; Carlbring, Per; Riper, Heleen; Hedman, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials, but to a lesser extent directly compared to face-to-face delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared to face-to-face CBT. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all criteria and were included in the review. There were three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, two on depressive symptoms, two on body dissatisfaction, one on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, and one on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size (Hedges' g) at post-treatment of ?0.01 (95% CI: ?0.13 to 0.12), indicating that guided ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many conditions for which guided ICBT has not been compared to face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats. PMID:25273302

  17. Guided Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim; Carlbring, Per; Riper, Heleen; Hedman, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials, but to a lesser extent directly compared to face-to-face delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared to face-to-face CBT. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all criteria and were included in the review. There were three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, two on depressive symptoms, two on body dissatisfaction, one on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, and one on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size (Hedges' g) at post-treatment of -0.01 (95% CI: -0.13 to 0.12), indicating that guided ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many conditions for which guided ICBT has not been compared to face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats. PMID:25273302

  18. A Randomized Comparison Simulating Face to Face Endotracheal Intubation of Pentax Airway Scope, C-MAC Video Laryngoscope, Glidescope Video Laryngoscope, and Macintosh Laryngoscope

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Young; Oh, Young Min; Kang, Gu Hyun; Kang, Hyunggoo; Jang, Yong Soo; Kim, Wonhee; Kim, Euichung; Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Hyukjoong; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Gyoung Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Early airway management is very important for severely ill patients. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of face to face intubation in four different types of laryngoscopes (Macintosh laryngoscope, Pentax airway scope (AWS), Glidescope video laryngoscope (GVL), and C-MAC video laryngoscope (C-MAC)). Method. Ninety-five nurses and emergency medical technicians were trained to use the AWS, C-MAC, GVL and Macintosh laryngoscope with standard airway trainer manikin and face to face intubation. We compared VCET (vocal cord exposure time), tube pass time, 1st ventilation time, VCET to tube pass time, tube pass time to 1st ventilation time, and POGO (percentage of glottis opening) score. In addition, we compared success rate according to the number of attempts and complications. Result. VCET was similar among all laryngoscopes and POGO score was higher in AWS. AWS and Macintosh blade were faster than GVL and C-MAC in total intubation time. Face to face intubation success rate was lower in GVL than other laryngoscopes. Conclusion. AWS and Macintosh were favorable laryngoscopes in face to face intubation. GVL had disadvantage performing face to face intubation. PMID:26161424

  19. A comparison of face to face and video-based education on attitude related to diet and fluids: Adherence in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Hasanzadeh, Farzaneh; Shamsoddini, Somayyeh; Emamimoghadam, Zahra; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Adherence to diet and fluids is the cornerstone of patients undergoing hemodialysis. By informing hemodialysis patients we can help them have a proper diet and reduce mortality and complications of toxins. Face to face education is one of the most common methods of training in health care system. But advantages of video- based education are being simple and cost-effective, although this method is virtual. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five hemodialysis patients were divided randomly into face to face and video-based education groups. A training manual was designed based on Orem’s self-care model. Content of training manual was same in both the groups. In the face to face group, 2 educational sessions were accomplished during dialysis with a 1-week time interval. In the video-based education group, a produced film, separated to 2 episodes was presented during dialysis with a 1-week time interval. An Attitude questionnaire was completed as a pretest and at the end of weeks 2 and 4. SPSS software version 11.5 was used for analysis. Results: Attitudes about fluid and diet adherence at the end of weeks 2 and 4 are not significantly different in face to face or video-based education groups. The patients’ attitude had a significant difference in face to face group between the 3 study phases (pre-, 2, and 4 weeks postintervention). The same results were obtained in 3 phases of video-based education group. Conclusion: Our findings showed that video-based education could be as effective as face to face method. It is recommended that more investment be devoted to video-based education. PMID:23853648

  20. Assessing knowledge of human papillomavirus and collecting data on sexual behavior: computer assisted telephone versus face to face interviews

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Education campaigns seeking to raise awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) and promoting HPV vaccination depend on accurate surveys of public awareness and knowledge of HPV and related sexual behavior. However, the most recent population-based studies have relied largely on computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) as opposed to face to face interviews (FTFI). It is currently unknown how these survey modes differ, and in particular whether they attract similar demographics and therefore lead to similar overall findings. Methods A comprehensive survey of HPV awareness and knowledge, including sexual behavior, was conducted among 3,045 Singaporean men and women, half of whom participated via CATI, the other half via FTFI. Results Overall levels of awareness and knowledge of HPV differed between CATI and FTFI, attributable in part to demographic variations between these survey modes. Although disclosure of sexual behavior was greater when using CATI, few differences between survey modes were found in the actual information disclosed. Conclusion Although CATI is a cheaper, faster alternative to FTFI and people appear more willing to provide information about sexual behavior when surveyed using CATI, thorough assessments of HPV awareness and knowledge depend on multiple survey modes. PMID:19930668

  1. Close encounters in a pediatric ward: measuring face-to-face proximity and mixing patterns with wearable sensors

    E-print Network

    Isella, L; Barrat, A; Cattuto, C; Colizza, V; Broeck, W Van den; Gesualdo, F; Pandolfi, E; Ravà, L; Rizzo, C; Tozzi, A E; 10.1371/journal.pone.0017144

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections place a substantial burden on health care systems and represent a major issue in current public health, requiring notable efforts for its prevention. Understanding the dynamics of infection transmission in a hospital setting is essential for tailoring interventions and predicting the spread among individuals. Mathematical models need to be informed with accurate data on contacts among individuals. We used wearable active Radio-Frequency Identification Devices to detect face-to-face contacts among individuals with a spatial resolution of about 1.5 meters, and a time resolution of 20 seconds. The study was conducted in a general pediatrics hospital ward, during a one-week period, and included 119 participants. Nearly 16,000 contacts were recorded during the study, with a median of approximately 20 contacts per participants per day. Overall, 25% of the contacts involved a ward assistant, 23% a nurse, 22% a patient, 22% a caregiver, and 8% a physician. The majority of contacts were of brief ...

  2. Discrimination against facially stigmatized applicants in interviews: an eye-tracking and face-to-face investigation.

    PubMed

    Madera, Juan M; Hebl, Michelle R

    2012-03-01

    Drawing from theory and research on perceived stigma (Pryor, Reeder, Yeadon, & Hesson-McInnis, 2004), attentional processes (Rinck & Becker, 2006), working memory (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), and regulatory resources (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000), the authors examined discrimination against facially stigmatized applicants and the processes involved. In Study 1, 171 participants viewed a computer-mediated interview of an applicant who was facially stigmatized or not and who either did or did not acknowledge the stigma. The authors recorded participants' (a) time spent looking at the stigma (using eye tracker technology), (b) ratings of the applicant, (c) memory recall about the applicant, and (d) self-regulatory depletion. Results revealed that the participants with facially stigmatized applicants attended more to the cheek (i.e., where the stigma was placed), which led participants to recall fewer interview facts, which in turn led to lower applicant ratings. In addition, the participants with the stigmatized (vs. nonstigmatized) applicant depleted more regulatory resources. In Study 2, 38 managers conducted face-to-face interviews with either a facially stigmatized or nonstigmatized applicant, and then rated the applicant. Results revealed that managers who interviewed a facially stigmatized applicant (vs. a nonstigmatized applicant) rated the applicant lower, recalled less information about the interview, and depleted more self-regulatory resources. PMID:22004221

  3. Therapeutic Factors Affecting the Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa via Telemedicine versus Face-to-Face Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ertelt, Troy W.; Crosby, Ross D.; Marino, Joanna M.; Mitchell, James E.; Lancaster, Kathy; Crow, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recently, Mitchell and colleagues (2008) conducted a randomized controlled trial of an empirically supported treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN) delivered face-to-face (FTF-CBT) or via telemedicine (TV-CBT). Results suggested that the TV-CBT and FTF-CBT were generally equivalent in effectiveness. The objective of the current study was to examine ratings of therapeutic alliance factors in TV-CBT and FTF-CBT. Methods Data obtained from 116 adults who met criteria for BN or eating disorder—not otherwise specified (EDNOS) with binge eating or purging weekly and 6 doctoral-level psychologists who delivered the therapy were used in the analyses. Results Therapists generally endorsed greater differences between the treatment delivery methods than patients. Patients tended to make significantly higher ratings of therapeutic factors than therapists. Discussion TV-CBT is an acceptable method for the delivery of BN treatment compared to FTF-CBT, and TV-CBT is more easily accepted as a treatment delivery method by patients than therapists. PMID:22072405

  4. Comparing Biology Grades Based on Instructional Delivery and Instructor at a Community College: Face-to-Face Course Versus Online Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, Amanda H.

    Through distance learning, the community college system has been able to serve more students by providing educational opportunities to students who would otherwise be unable to attend college. The community college of focus in the study increased its online enrollments and online course offerings due to the growth of overall enrollment. The need and purpose of the study is to address if there is a difference in students' grades between face-to-face and online biology related courses and if there are differences in grades between face-to-face and online biology courses taught by different instructors and the same instructor. The study also addresses if online course delivery is a viable method to educate students in biology-related fields. The study spanned 14 semesters between spring 2006 and summer 2011. Data were collected for 6,619 students. For each student, demographic information, cumulative grade point average, ACT, and data on course performance were gathered. Student data were gathered from General Biology I, Microbiology of Human Pathogens, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, and Human Anatomy and Physiology II courses. Univariate analysis of variance, linear regression, and descriptive analysis were used to analyze the data and determine which variables significantly impacted grade achievement for face-to-face and online students in biology classes. The findings from the study showed that course type, face-to-face or online, was significant for Microbiology of Human Pathogens and Human Anatomy and Physiology I, both upper level courses. Teachers were significant for General Biology I, a lower level course, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, and Human Anatomy and Physiology II. However, in every class, there were teachers who had significant differences within their courses between their face-to-face and online courses. This study will allow information to be concluded about the relationship between the students' final grades and class type, face-to-face or online, and instructor. Administrators, faculty and students can use this information to understand what needs to be done to successfully teach and enroll in biology courses, face-to-face or online. biology courses, online courses, face-to-face courses, class type, teacher influence, grades, CGPA, community college

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of COMPASS Web-Based and Face-to-Face Teacher Coaching in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John H.; Toland, Michael D.; Dalrymple, Nancy J.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objective Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success (COMPASS; Ruble, Dalrymple, & McGrew, 2010; Ruble, Dalrymple, & McGrew, 2012) was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. Method Forty-nine teacher–child dyads were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: (1) a placebo control (PBO) group, (2) COMPASS followed by face-to-face (FF) coaching sessions, and (3) COMPASS followed by web-based (WEB) coaching sessions. Three individualized goals (social, communication, and independence skills) were selected for intervention for each child. The primary outcome of independent ratings of child goal attainment and several process measures (e.g., consultant and teacher fidelity) were evaluated. Results Using an intent-to-treat approach, findings replicated earlier results with a very large effect size (d = 1.41) for the FF group and a large effect size (d = 1.12) for the WEB group relative to the PBO group. There were no differences in overall change across goal domains between the FF and WEB groups, suggesting the efficacy of videoconferencing technology. Conclusions COMPASS is effective and results in improved educational outcomes for young children with autism. Videoconferencing technology, as a scalable tool, has promise for facilitating access to autism specialists and bridging the research-to-practice gap. PMID:23438314

  6. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or Reading between the Lines? Theory of Mind Predicts Collective Intelligence Equally Well Online and Face-To-Face

    PubMed Central

    Engel, David; Woolley, Anita Williams; Jing, Lisa X.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Malone, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called “collective intelligence”) predicted a group’s performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members’ ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called “Theory of Mind” or “ToM”). Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to “read” the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test), it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1) a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2) surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states. PMID:25514387

  7. Graduate Student Attitudes toward Different Instructional Approaches within Face-to-Face, Online, and Blended Learning Environments in a Public Four-Year Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotich, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This study compared graduate student attitudes toward different instructional approaches within online, blended, and face-to-face courses in a public institution of higher learning. The participants completed an online survey questionnaire that was designed by the researcher using 4 learning theories in education: behavioral, cognitive,…

  8. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  9. Why Do Rape Survivors Volunteer for Face-to-Face Interviews? A Meta-Study of Victims' Reasons for and Concerns about Research Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Adams, Adrienne E.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how different research methods are perceived by victims of violence and what survivors will reveal to researchers (termed "meta-research" or "meta-studies"). The purpose of this project was to conduct a qualitative meta-study on why rape survivors chose to participate in community-based, face-to-face

  10. Attitudes toward Face-to-Face and Online Counseling: Roles of Self-Concealment, Openness to Experience, Loss of Face, Stigma, and Disclosure Expectations among Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathje, Geoff J.; Kim, Eunha; Rau, Ellen; Bassiouny, Muhammad Adam; Kim, Taehoon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined attitudes toward face-to-face (f2f) and online counseling among 228 Korean college students. In addition, it tested a hypothesized model proposing that general propensities (i.e., self-concealment, openness to experience, and loss of face) would influence counseling-specific expectations (i.e., self-stigma and disclosure…

  11. Comparing Learning Outcomes of Video-Based E-Learning with Face-to-Face Lectures of Agricultural Engineering Courses in Korean Agricultural High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung Youl; Kim, Soo-Wook; Cha, Seung-Bong; Nam, Min-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of e-learning by comparing the learning outcomes in conventional face-to-face lectures and e-learning methods. Two video-based e-learning contents were developed based on the rapid prototyping model and loaded onto the learning management system (LMS), which was available at http://www.greenehrd.com.…

  12. Beyond the Therapeutic Hour: An Exploratory Pilot Study of Using Technology to Enhance Alliance and Engagement within Face-to-Face Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Penelope; Simpson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and investigate the capacity for a novel, technologically advanced system (goACT) to enhance face-to-face psychotherapy. Specifically, we explore the capacity for goACT to enhance therapeutic alliance (TA) and engagement, and reduce distress. Using a mixed-methods, multiple-baseline design we present the first study to…

  13. Effects of an Online Learning Community on Active and Reflective Learners' Learning Performance and Attitudes in a Face-to-Face Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Zehui; Xu, Fuyin; Ye, Huiwen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an Online Learning Community (OLC) on active and reflective learners' learning performance and attitude in a face-to-face undergraduate digital design course. 814 freshmen in an introductory digital design course were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: one offered students an OLC,…

  14. Effectiveness of Online Instruction: Differences in Measured Student Outcomes Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenhorst, Don G.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth in online courses offered at the high school level but little evidence as to whether they are as effective as face-to-face courses. It has become critical to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of online education in order to reap the benefits and reduce the drawbacks of contrasting learning modes. The…

  15. Integrating Cloud-Based Strategies and Tools in Face-to-Face Training Sessions to Increase the Impact of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradel, Kathleen; Edson, Alden J.

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on the premise that face-to-face training can be augmented with cloud-based technology tools, to potentially extend viable training supports as higher education staff and faculty implement new content/skills in their jobs and classrooms. There are significant benefits to harnessing cloud-based tools that can facilitate both…

  16. Does the use of telemental health alter the treatment experience? Inmates' perceptions of telemental health versus face-to-face treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Robert D; Patrick, Amber R; Magaletta, Philip R

    2008-02-01

    In corrections, where staffing limitations tax an overburdened mental health system, telemental health is an increasingly common mode of mental health service delivery. Although telemental health presents an efficient treatment modality for a spectrum of mental health services, it is imperative to study how this modality influences key elements of the treatment experience. In this study, the authors compared inmates' perceptions of the working alliance, postsession mood, and satisfaction with psychiatric and psychological mental health services delivered through 2 different modalities: telemental health and face-to-face. Participants consisted of 186 inmates who received mental health services (36 via telepsychology, 50 via face-to-face psychology, 50 via telepsychiatry, and 50 via face-to-face psychiatry). Results indicate no significant differences in inmates' perceptions of the work alliance with the mental health professional, postsession mood, or overall satisfaction with services when telemental health and face-to-face modalities were compared within each type of mental health service. Implications of these findings are presented. PMID:18229993

  17. Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Using Computer-Based and Face-to-Face Personal Hygiene Training Methods in Food Processing Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…

  18. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1 % prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5 % made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs. PMID:25312868

  19. Face-to-Face and Synchronous Interactive Videoconferencing Instruction: Learning Experiences of Educators Enrolled in an Autism Certificate Program

    E-print Network

    Swanson, Terri Cooper

    2013-05-31

    , Larry Joy, and Ron Hart for providing nightly support to make sure the IVC course ran smoothly. I would like to thank Dr. Amy Finch and Lee Stickle for your support and guidance of the Autism Certificate Program. Next, I would like to thank my friends...

  20. Mixing Face-to-Face and Online Interactions in a Leadership Development Programme: A Blended Action Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Kate; Yoong, Pak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the use of ICT to support leadership learning within an education context. Leadership development opportunities that encourage reflection, the development of self-awareness, the sharing of practice, and that support the transfer of learning back to the workplace are challenging to fit into the life of…

  1. Open Sound Control: an enabling technology for musical networking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW WRIGHT

    2005-01-01

    Since telecommunication can never equal the richness of face-to-face interaction on its own terms, the most interesting examples of networked music go beyond the paradigm of musicians playing together in a virtual room. The Open Sound Control protocol has facilitated dozens of such innovative networked music projects. First the protocol itself is described, followed by some theoretical limits on communication

  2. Networked Interactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafaeli, Sheizaf; Sudweeks, Fay

    1997-01-01

    Proposes that a useful perspective for studying group computer-mediated communication is the theoretical construct of interactivity. Examines a representative snapshot of communication among the very large groups populating the networks. Finds that conversations are less confrontational than popularly believed: conversations are more helpful and…

  3. Comparative investigation of the effectiveness of face-to-face verbal training and educational pamphlets on readiness of patients before undergoing non-emergency surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Noorian, Cobra; Aein, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The thought of having a surgery can be stressful for everyone. Providing the necessary information to the patient can help both the patient and the treatment team. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of face-to-face verbal training and educational pamphlets on the readiness of patients for undergoing non-emergency surgeries. Materials and Methods: The study was a before–after randomized clinical trial. 90 patients scheduled to undergo non-emergency surgery who referred to Shahrekord Ayatollah Kashani Hospital in 2013 were distributed randomly and gradually into two experimental groups (group of face-to-face verbal training and group of educational pamphlet) and one control group. Dependent variable of the study was pre-surgery readiness. Data analysis was carried out by using SPSS statistical software. Statistical analysis were analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation test. Results: Results showed that the mean scores of pre-surgery readiness in both interventional groups were significantly higher than that in the control group after the intervention (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Each of the methods of face-to-face verbal education and using the pamphlet could be equally effective in improving the readiness of the patients undergoing surgery. Therefore, in environments where the health care providers are facing with the pressure of work and lack of sufficient time for face-to-face verbal training, suitable educational pamphlets can be used to provide the necessary information to patients and prepare them for surgery.

  4. Self-Report of Tobacco Use Status: Comparison of Paper-Based Questionnaire, Online Questionnaire, and Direct Face-to-Face Interview—Implications for Meaningful Use

    PubMed Central

    Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Hays, J. Taylor; Newcomb, Richard D.; Molella, Robin G.; Cha, Stephen S.; Hagen, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Identifying tobacco use status is essential to address use and provide resources to help patients quit. Being able to collect this information in an electronic format will become increasingly important, as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has included the assessment of tobacco use as part of its Stage 1 Meaningful Use criteria. The objective was to compare the accuracy of online vs. paper assessment methods to ascertain cigarette smoking status using a face-to-face structured interview as the gold standard. This was a retrospective analysis of a stratified opportunity sample of consecutive patients, reporting in 2010 for a periodic health evaluation, who completed either a scannable paper-based form or an online questionnaire and underwent a standardized rooming interview. Compared with face-to-face structured interview, the overall observed agreement and kappa coefficient for both methods combined (paper and online) were 97.7% and 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–0.86) . For the online form they were 97.4% and 0.61 (95% CI 0.33–0.90), and for the paper form they were 97.9% and 0.75 (95% CI 0.54–0.96). There was no statistically significant difference in agreement between the online and paper-based methods (P=0.76) compared with a face-to-face structured interview. Online assessment of tobacco use status is as accurate as a paper questionnaire, and both methods have greater than 97% observed agreement with a face-to-face structured interview. The use of online assessment of tobacco use status has several advantages and more widespread use should be explored. (Population Health Management 2014;17:185–189) PMID:24476559

  5. The comparison of learning strategies, computer anxiety and success states of students taking web-based and face-to-face instruction in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adile AGkim Kurt; AyGen Gürcan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to put forward the relationship of students’ success with learning strategies and computer anxiety of students taking Web-based and face-to-face instruction higher education. In the equalized control group in the present study, the semi-experimental model was used. There were 31 students in one group taking Web-based instruction and 22 students in the other group

  6. Telephone Follow-Up by a Midlevel Provider After Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair Instead of Face-to-Face Clinic Visit

    PubMed Central

    Hwa, Kimberly; Wren, Sherry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The need for more cost- and time-efficient provision of medical care has prompted an interest in remote or telehealth approaches to delivery of health care. We present a study examining the feasibility and outcomes of implementation of a telephone follow-up program for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of consecutive patients who prospectively agreed to undergo telephone follow-up after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair instead of standard face-to-face clinic visits. Patients received a telephone call from a dedicated physician assistant 2 to 3 weeks after surgery and answered a predetermined questionnaire. A face-to-face clinic visit was scheduled based on the results of the call or on patient request. Results: Of 62 patients who underwent surgery, all agreed to telephone follow-up instead of face-to-face clinic visits. Their mean round-trip distance to the hospital was 122 miles. Fifty-five patients (88.7%) successfully completed planned telephone follow-up. Three patients (4.8%) were lost to follow-up, and 4 (6.5%) were erroneously scheduled for a clinic appointment. Of the 55 patients who were reached by telephone, 50 (90.9%) were satisfied and declined an in-person clinic visit. Five patients (9.1%) returned for a clinic appointment based on concerns raised during the telephone call. Of these, 1 was found to have an early hernia recurrence and 1 had a seroma. Conclusion: Telephone follow-up by a midlevel provider after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is feasible and effective and is well received by patients. PMID:25848178

  7. Front-Stage and Back-Stage in Hybrid E-Learning Face-to-Face Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Kurthen, Hermann

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed online interactions in hybrid and blended courses to: (a) investigate if constructs from micro-sociology, such as self-talk, norms, and front-back-stage performance, provide a theoretical context for online interaction, and (b) compare courses with more versus fewer online components in terms of online interaction patterns.…

  8. Facilitating Speech Understanding for Hearing-Challenged Perceivers in Face-to-Face Conversation and Spoken Presentations

    E-print Network

    Massaro, Dominic

    neural networks (ANNs) and Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to learn these acoustic/phonetic properties. The three cues were presented as illuminations on three LEDs placed in the periphery of a lens on eyeglasses-time acoustic analysis of an interlocutor's speech tracks several speech-relevant acoustic features: voicing

  9. Mother-Infant Vagal Regulation in the Face-to-Face Still-Face Paradigm is Moderated by Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ginger A.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.; Propper, Cathi B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger.; Cox, Martha J.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' physiological regulation may support infants' regulation. Mothers (N=152) and 6-month-old male and female infants were observed in normal and disrupted social interaction. Affect was coded at 1-s intervals and vagal tone measured as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Maternal sensitivity was assessed in free play. Mothers and infants…

  10. Electronic [Re]Constitution of Groups: Group Dynamics from Face-to-Face to an Online Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouder, Lynn; Dalley, Jayne; Hargreaves, Julian; Parkes, Sally; Sellars, Julie; Toms, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The authors work as online tutors for a BSc (Hons) physiotherapy programme at Coventry University in the United Kingdom. This paper represents a stage in our developing understanding, over a 3 year period, of the impact of group dynamics on online interaction among physiotherapy students engaged in sharing with their peers their first experiences…

  11. Attitude and Communication in the Electronic Classroom: A Closer Look at the Interactive Television System of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Nancy I.

    A study investigated the effects of Interactive Television (ITV--a two-way television system of instruction which is a near replication of face-to-face classroom instruction) on learning. Sixty-seven rural, midwestern high school students who were taking classes via ITV were asked to complete a network analysis survey to identify the frequency of…

  12. Factors Associated With Non-participation in a Face-to-Face Second Survey Conducted 5 Years After the Baseline Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Megumi; Shimanoe, Chisato; Otsuka, Yasuko; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nanri, Hinako; Horita, Mikako; Yasukata, Jun; Miyoshi, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-participation in second surveys is reported to be associated with certain baseline characteristics; however, such data are unavailable for Japanese populations. Although disease incidence during follow-up might influence participation, few reports have addressed this possibility. This study sought to identify factors associated with non-participation in a second survey of a population-based cohort, and to evaluate the influence of self-reported disease incidence on non-participation. Methods After excluding participants who left the area (n = 423), died (n = 163), and withdrew from the study (n = 9) among 12 078 participants in a baseline survey for the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in the Saga region between 2005 and 2007, 11 483 people were invited by mail to participate in a face-to-face second survey between 2010 and 2012. The 5-year clinical health history of non-participants was assessed by mail or telephone. Baseline characteristics and self-reported clinical outcomes of non-participants were compared with those of participants. Results Among 11 483 people, 8454 (73.6%) participated in the second survey, and 2608 out of 3029 non-participants answered mail or telephone health surveys. Female sex, youngest and oldest ages, lower education, lower occupational class, current smoking, lower physical activity level, shorter sleep time, obesity, and constipation were associated with non-participation. Light drinking (0.1–22.9 g ethanol/day) was associated with participation. Non-participants reported a significantly higher incidence of cancer and a significantly lower proportion of hypertension compared with participants. Conclusions Both baseline characteristics and disease incidence during the follow-up period had significant associations with non-participation in the face-to-face second survey. PMID:25400077

  13. Dynamics of Person-to-Person Interactions from Distributed RFID Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cattuto, Ciro; Van den Broeck, Wouter; Barrat, Alain; Colizza, Vittoria; Pinton, Jean-François; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Background Digital networks, mobile devices, and the possibility of mining the ever-increasing amount of digital traces that we leave behind in our daily activities are changing the way we can approach the study of human and social interactions. Large-scale datasets, however, are mostly available for collective and statistical behaviors, at coarse granularities, while high-resolution data on person-to-person interactions are generally limited to relatively small groups of individuals. Here we present a scalable experimental framework for gathering real-time data resolving face-to-face social interactions with tunable spatial and temporal granularities. Methods and Findings We use active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices that assess mutual proximity in a distributed fashion by exchanging low-power radio packets. We analyze the dynamics of person-to-person interaction networks obtained in three high-resolution experiments carried out at different orders of magnitude in community size. The data sets exhibit common statistical properties and lack of a characteristic time scale from 20 seconds to several hours. The association between the number of connections and their duration shows an interesting super-linear behavior, which indicates the possibility of defining super-connectors both in the number and intensity of connections. Conclusions Taking advantage of scalability and resolution, this experimental framework allows the monitoring of social interactions, uncovering similarities in the way individuals interact in different contexts, and identifying patterns of super-connector behavior in the community. These results could impact our understanding of all phenomena driven by face-to-face interactions, such as the spreading of transmissible infectious diseases and information. PMID:20657651

  14. 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and 3rd Annual Earth System Grid Federation and Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools Face-to-Face Meeting Report December 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-02-21

    The climate and weather data science community gathered December 3–5, 2013, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in Livermore, California, for the third annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Face-to-Face (F2F) Meeting, which was hosted by the Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the European Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling, and the Australian Department of Education. Both ESGF and UV-CDAT are global collaborations designed to develop a new generation of open-source software infrastructure that provides distributed access and analysis to observed and simulated data from the climate and weather communities. The tools and infrastructure developed under these international multi-agency collaborations are critical to understanding extreme weather conditions and long-term climate change, while the F2F meetings help to build a stronger climate and weather data science community and stronger federated software infrastructure. The 2013 F2F meeting determined requirements for existing and impending national and international community projects; enhancements needed for data distribution, analysis, and visualization infrastructure; and standards and resources needed for better collaborations.

  15. Obtaining sensitive information from a wary population: a comparison of telephone and face-to-face surveys of welfare recipients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Damphousse, Kelly R; Moore, Rebecca K

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies reveal the benefits of technological developments such as audio computer assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) in interview methodology, especially for surveys of sensitive behavior and information. However, we believe that the selection of mode of administration depends not only on the technology available and the behavior of interest, but also on the specific population under study. We therefore assess survey mode effects on reported rates of alcohol and drug use among welfare recipients, an especially important group for scholars and public health agencies. The sample consisted of adult recipients of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) in Oklahoma, January 2001. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, employment, and education, we employ odds ratios to compare 30-day, 1 year, and lifetime prevalence estimates from telephone and face-to-face surveys. Telephone methodology yields similar or higher estimates for lifetime prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use and abuse, though lower estimates of recent use. We discuss our findings in relation to underfunded public health agencies that must efficiently assess and respond to local levels of drug abuse and we conclude that mode selection may depend upon the population under study. PMID:15955399

  16. Weight management by phone conference call: A comparison with a traditional face-to-face clinic. Rationale and design for a randomized equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Lambourne, Kate; Washburn, Richard A.; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Goetz, Jeannine; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art treatment for weight management consists of a behavioral intervention to facilitate decreased energy intake and increased physical activity. These interventions are typically delivered face-to-face (FTF) by a health educator to a small group of participants. There are numerous barriers to participation in FTF clinics including availability, scheduling, the expense and time required to travel to the clinic site, and possible need for dependent care. Weight management clinics delivered by conference call have the potential to diminish or eliminate these barriers. The conference call approach may also reduce burden on providers, who could conduct clinic groups from almost any location without the expenses associated with maintaining FTF clinic space. A randomized trial will be conducted in 395 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25–39.9 kg/m2) to determine if weight loss (6 months) and weight maintenance (12 months) are equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies and pre-packaged meals delivered by either a conference call or the traditional FTF approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity and will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and extensive process evaluation will be completed. PMID:22664647

  17. A dynamic system analysis of dyadic flexibility and stability across the Face-to-Face Still-Face procedure: application of the State Space Grid.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Borgatti, Renato; Menozzi, Giorgia; Montirosso, Rosario

    2015-02-01

    The Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm allows to study the mother-infant dyad as a dynamic system coping with social stress perturbations. The State Space Grid (SSG) method is thought to depict both flexibility and stability of the dyad across perturbations, but previous SSG evidence for the FFSF is limited. The main aims were: (1) to investigate mother-infant dyadic flexibility and stability across the FFSF using the SSG; (2) to evaluate the influence of dyadic functioning during Play on infant Still-Face response and of infant stress response in affecting dyadic functioning during Reunion. Forty 4-month-old infants and their mothers were micro-analytically coded during a FFSF and eight SSG dyadic states were obtained. Dyadic flexibility and attractor states were assessed during Play and Reunion. Infants' stress response was coded as negative engagement during the Still-Face episode. Two dyadic states, "maternal hetero-regulation" and "affective mismatch", showed significant changes in the number of visits from Play to Reunion. During Play "maternal positive support to infant play" emerged as attractor state, whereas during Reunion a second attractor emerged, namely "affective mismatch". Dyadic affective mismatch during Play correlated with infants' negative engagement during Still-Face, whereas infants' response to Still-Face resulted in minor social matching during Reunion. Findings provide new insights into the flexible, yet stable, functioning of the mother-infant dyad as a dynamic system. Evidence of a reciprocal influence between dyadic functioning and infant social stress response are discussed. PMID:25463152

  18. Human resource development of Hispanic students in a large Hispanic-majority community college in south Texas: student entry characteristics as predictors of successful course completion and retention in face-to-face and distance education 

    E-print Network

    Cole, Brenda S.

    2009-06-02

    characteristics of 2,523 Hispanic entering freshmen enrolled anytime between Fall 2000 and Fall 2005 who attempted History, English Composition, or College Algebra for the first time in either face-to-face or distance education courses at South Texas College...

  19. As the number of online courses and programs at PSU expands, so must our attention to giving online students the same vibrant community-based learning (CBL) opportunities as their face-to-face counterparts. This

    E-print Network

    Daescu, Dacian N.

    mezzanine* Kicking off our workshop series focused on community-based learning in fully online coursesAs the number of online courses and programs at PSU expands, so must our attention to giving online students the same vibrant community-based learning (CBL) opportunities as their face-to-face counterparts

  20. DE CÓMO LAS TICS PODRÍAN COLABORAR EN LA INNOVACIÓN SOCIO-TECNOLÓGICO-EDUCATIVA EN LA FORMACIÓN SUPERIOR Y UNIVERSITARIA PRESENCIAL (HOW ICT COULD COOPERATE TOWARD THE SOCIO- TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN FACE TO FACE UNIVERSITY EDUCATION)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Fainholc

    The ICT high pressure in daily days of the socio- economic and politic- cultural of the information and knowledge society penetrates at every formative area of people and groups, specially at face to face university education level, not without presenting reluctances and dilemas.

  1. Modeling and Control Interactive Networks

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Modeling and Control of Complex Interactive Networks By Massoud Amin E nergy, telecommunications complex networks, geographi- cally dispersed, nonlinear, and interacting both among themselves, distributed, highly interactive networks, nor does any such entity have the ability to evaluate, monitor

  2. Real-Time Computer Network Collaboration: Case Studies of Business Writing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrito, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Compares the language of business writing students communicating face to face and on a real-time computer network. Finds that during network meetings, participation was more equal, responses more substantive and text specific, and students more willing to offer direction than during face-to-face meetings. Notes more positive evaluations by…

  3. Interactive Weather Information Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Offered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interactive Weather Information Network (IWIN) is a collection of interactive weather maps and satellite images that is updated every five seconds. Visitors can see cloud cover animation loops, NEXRAD Radar images of precipitation, a map of all current weather fronts, and an interactive national map to see information about any particular state. Other information on the site includes a listing of any active weather warnings, a link for world weather data, and more, making this a must-see site for all those users interested in the most current weather happenings anywhere.

  4. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  5. Differences in Learning Styles and Satisfaction between Traditional Face-to-Face and Online Web-Based Sport Management Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Ellen Jo

    2010-01-01

    Each student has a unique learning style or individual way of perceiving, interacting, and responding to a learning environment. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the prevalence of learning styles among undergraduate Sport Management Studies (SMS) students at California University of Pennsylvania (Cal U). Learning style…

  6. Comparing differences in teacher learning and involvement in water quality activities with the use of a Web tutorial and with face-to-face instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, April Jones

    The integration of technology into the K--12 classroom has become a key focus in the last several years. However, teachers are often left out of this integration process, and subsequently training in the use of the technologies in a classroom setting is often minimal in nature. Teachers are left on their own as they struggle to integrate technology into their curriculum. Web-based professional development has the potential to alleviate both time and place constraints teachers often confront when trying to attend traditional professional programs to upgrade their technology skills. This study focuses on 70 upper elementary, middle, and high school teachers who volunteered to take part in this study in which a web-based tutorial was used as a tool for professional development and data collection. A comparison of settings allowed these teachers to participate in one of three ways: (1) in a workshop-type setting with an instructional leader; (2) in a workshop-type setting with a facilitator; and (3) on the web without an instructional leader or informal peer interaction. All the groups used the same web-based tutorial on water quality monitoring for instructional purposes. Research data included pretest and post-test measurement from all three groups as well as their analysis of a known water sample. The Microcomputer Utilization in Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MUTEBI) was administered to all the participants as a measurement of self-efficacy beliefs as they relate to the use of computers in science teaching. In addition to the quantitative data collected, qualitative data was also compiled. The results of the study indicate that all the participants were equal in terms of knowledge acquisition, but may have derived "unanticipated benefits" from interaction with their peers in the workshop-type settings. The results also indicate that as teachers' self-rating of computer expertise increased, their scores on the Microcomputer Utilization in Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MUTEBI) increased as well.

  7. I Reach Faster When I See You Look: Gaze Effects in Human–Human and Human–Robot Face-to-Face Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Jean-David; Pattacini, Ugo; Lelong, Amelie; Bailly, Gerard; Elisei, Frederic; Fagel, Sascha; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Human–human interaction in natural environments relies on a variety of perceptual cues. Humanoid robots are becoming increasingly refined in their sensorimotor capabilities, and thus should now be able to manipulate and exploit these social cues in cooperation with their human partners. Previous studies have demonstrated that people follow human and robot gaze, and that it can help them to cope with spatially ambiguous language. Our goal is to extend these findings into the domain of action, to determine how human and robot gaze can influence the speed and accuracy of human action. We report on results from a human–human cooperation experiment demonstrating that an agent’s vision of her/his partner’s gaze can significantly improve that agent’s performance in a cooperative task. We then implement a heuristic capability to generate such gaze cues by a humanoid robot that engages in the same cooperative interaction. The subsequent human–robot experiments demonstrate that a human agent can indeed exploit the predictive gaze of their robot partner in a cooperative task. This allows us to render the humanoid robot more human-like in its ability to communicate with humans. The long term objectives of the work are thus to identify social cooperation cues, and to validate their pertinence through implementation in a cooperative robot. The current research provides the robot with the capability to produce appropriate speech and gaze cues in the context of human–robot cooperation tasks. Gaze is manipulated in three conditions: Full gaze (coordinated eye and head), eyes hidden with sunglasses, and head fixed. We demonstrate the pertinence of these cues in terms of statistical measures of action times for humans in the context of a cooperative task, as gaze significantly facilitates cooperation as measured by human response times. PMID:22563315

  8. Sociolegal change in consumer fraud: From victim-offender interactions to global networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristy Holtfreter; Shanna Van Slyke; THOMAS G. BLOMBERG

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology have transformed fraud against consumers from face-to-face, victim-offender interactions to a crime\\u000a that now transcends international boundaries. Although consumer protection issues have been of interest to investigative journalists\\u000a and literary scholars for centuries, the topic has only recently been subject to serious criminological inquiry. Employing\\u000a the American consumer protection movement as an historical framework, we examine the

  9. Explaining Student Interaction and Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation of Delivery Mode Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Zachary S.; Cascio, Robert; Massiah, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    How interpersonal interactions within a course affect student satisfaction differently between face-to-face and online modes is an important research question to answer with confidence. Using students from a marketing course delivered face-to-face and online concurrently, our first study demonstrates that student-to-professor and…

  10. Face-to-Face With a Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows comet Tempel 1 sixty seconds before it ran over NASA's Deep Impact probe at 10:52 p.m. Pacific time, July 3 (1:52 a.m. Eastern time, July 4). The picture was taken by the probe's impactor targeting sensor.

  11. Interaction Patterns of Nurturant Support Exchanged in Online Health Social Networking

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Background Expressing emotion in online support communities is an important aspect of enabling e-patients to connect with each other and expand their social resources. Indirectly it increases the amount of support for coping with health issues. Exploring the supportive interaction patterns in online health social networking would help us better understand how technology features impacts user behavior in this context. Objective To build on previous research that identified different types of social support in online support communities by delving into patterns of supportive behavior across multiple computer-mediated communication formats. Each format combines different architectural elements, affecting the resulting social spaces. Our research question compared communication across different formats of text-based computer-mediated communication provided on the MedHelp.org health social networking environment. Methods We identified messages with nurturant support (emotional, esteem, and network) across three different computer-mediated communication formats (forums, journals, and notes) of an online support community for alcoholism using content analysis. Our sample consisted of 493 forum messages, 423 journal messages, and 1180 notes. Results Nurturant support types occurred frequently among messages offering support (forum comments: 276/412 messages, 67.0%; journal posts: 65/88 messages, 74%; journal comments: 275/335 messages, 82.1%; and notes: 1002/1180 messages, 84.92%), but less often among messages requesting support. Of all the nurturing supports, emotional (ie, encouragement) appeared most frequently, with network and esteem support appearing in patterns of varying combinations. Members of the Alcoholism Community appeared to adapt some traditional face-to-face forms of support to their needs in becoming sober, such as provision of encouragement, understanding, and empathy to one another. Conclusions The computer-mediated communication format may have the greatest influence on the supportive interactions because of characteristics such as audience reach and access. Other factors include perception of community versus personal space or purpose of communication. These results lead to a need for further research. PMID:22555303

  12. A three-group study, internet-based, face-to-face based and standard- management after acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD) – choosing the most efficient and cost-effective treatment: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, Anne; Bring, Annika; Åsenlöf, Pernilla

    2009-01-01

    Background The management of Whiplash Associated Disorders is one of the most complicated challenges with high expenses for the health care system and society. There are still no general guidelines or scientific documentation to unequivocally support any single treatment for acute care following whiplash injury. The main purpose of this study is to try a new behavioural medicine intervention strategy at acute phase aimed to reduce the number of patients who have persistent problems after the whiplash injury. The goal is also to identify which of three different interventions that is most cost-effective for patients with Whiplash Associated Disorders. In this study we are controlling for two factors. First, the effect of behavioural medicine approach is compared with standard care. Second, the manner in which the behavioural medicine treatment is administered, Internet or face-to-face, is evaluated in it's effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is a randomized, prospective, experimental three-group study with analyses of cost-effectiveness up to two-years follow-up. Internet – based programme and face-to-face group treatment programme are compared to standard-treatment only. Patient follow-ups take place three, six, twelve and 24 months, that is, short-term as well as long-term effects are evaluated. Patients will be enrolled via the emergency ward during the first week after the accident. Discussion This new self-help management will concentrate to those psychosocial factors that are shown to be predictive in long-term problems in Whiplash Associated Disorders, i.e. the importance of self-efficacy, fear of movement, and the significance of catastrophizing as a coping strategy for restoring and sustaining activities of daily life. Within the framework of this project, we will develop, broaden and evaluate current physical therapy treatment methods for acute Whiplash Associated Disorders. The project will contribute to the creation of a cost-effective behavioural medicine approach to management of acute Whiplash Associated Disorders. The results of this study will answer an important question; on what extent and how should these patients be treated at acute stage and how much does the best management cost. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN61531337 PMID:19624833

  13. Topology of molecular interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions are often represented as network models which have become the common language of many areas of biology. Graphs serve as convenient mathematical representations of network models and have themselves become objects of study. Their topology has been intensively researched over the last decade after evidence was found that they share underlying design principles with many other types of networks. Initial studies suggested that molecular interaction network topology is related to biological function and evolution. However, further whole-network analyses did not lead to a unified view on what this relation may look like, with conclusions highly dependent on the type of molecular interactions considered and the metrics used to study them. It is unclear whether global network topology drives function, as suggested by some researchers, or whether it is simply a byproduct of evolution or even an artefact of representing complex molecular interaction networks as graphs. Nevertheless, network biology has progressed significantly over the last years. We review the literature, focusing on two major developments. First, realizing that molecular interaction networks can be naturally decomposed into subsystems (such as modules and pathways), topology is increasingly studied locally rather than globally. Second, there is a move from a descriptive approach to a predictive one: rather than correlating biological network topology to generic properties such as robustness, it is used to predict specific functions or phenotypes. Taken together, this change in focus from globally descriptive to locally predictive points to new avenues of research. In particular, multi-scale approaches are developments promising to drive the study of molecular interaction networks further. PMID:24041013

  14. Knowledge Negotiation in Asynchronous Learning Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerry Stahl

    2003-01-01

    The negotiation of what is to count as mutually acceptable collaborative knowledge is difficult to conduct when participants cannot interact face-to-face. We review certain related work on negotiation support and develop a concept of \\

  15. Motivation Conditions in a Foreign Language Reading Comprehension Course Offering Both a Web-Based Modality and a Face-to-Face Modality (Las condiciones de motivación en un curso de comprensión de lectura en lengua extranjera (LE) ofrecido tanto en la modalidad presencial como en la modalidad a distancia en la web)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopera Medina, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Motivation plays an important in role in education. Based on the ten macro-strategies proposed by Dörnyei and Csizér (1998), this article analyzes the motivation conditions in a foreign language reading comprehension course using both a web-based modality and a face-to-face modality. A case study was implemented as the primary research method, and…

  16. Multimodal Transformed Social Interaction Matthew Turk*, Jeremy Bailenson

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    and natural multimodal interfaces. Nonverbal communication, including body posture, gesture, facial expression multimodal and nonverbal communication in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) called Transformed Social) messages at once. In face to face interaction, visual nonverbal communication is quite meaningful

  17. SocialCircuits : a platform for measuring social interaction using smartphones

    E-print Network

    Chronis, lolanthe (lolanthe K.)

    2010-01-01

    SocialCircuits is a platform capable of measuring the face-to-face and phone-based communication network of a real-world community. This platform uses commodity mobile phones to measure social ties between individuals, and ...

  18. Comparison of Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview and Face-To-Face Interview Methods in Eliciting HIV-Related Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Men Who Inject Drugs in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebajo, Sylvia; Obianwu, Otibho; Eluwa, George; Vu, Lung; Oginni, Ayo; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Bashorun, Adebobola; Idogho, Omokhudu; Karlyn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. Methods This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. Results MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p?=?0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p?=?0.05) and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p?0.001) than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4–4.6) and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6–166.0). MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2–8.9) and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2–3.9) in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02–2.5). Conclusion The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies that reduce HIV transmission. PMID:24416134

  19. Dynamic and interacting complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickison, Mark E.

    This thesis employs methods of statistical mechanics and numerical simulations to study some aspects of dynamic and interacting complex networks. The mapping of various social and physical phenomena to complex networks has been a rich field in the past few decades. Subjects as broad as petroleum engineering, scientific collaborations, and the structure of the internet have all been analyzed in a network physics context, with useful and universal results. In the first chapter we introduce basic concepts in networks, including the two types of network configurations that are studied and the statistical physics and epidemiological models that form the framework of the network research, as well as covering various previously-derived results in network theory that are used in the work in the following chapters. In the second chapter we introduce a model for dynamic networks, where the links or the strengths of the links change over time. We solve the model by mapping dynamic networks to the problem of directed percolation, where the direction corresponds to the time evolution of the network. We show that the dynamic network undergoes a percolation phase transition at a critical concentration pc, that decreases with the rate r at which the network links are changed. The behavior near criticality is universal and independent of r. We find that for dynamic random networks fundamental laws are changed: i) The size of the giant component at criticality scales with the network size N for all values of r, rather than as N2/3 in static network, ii) In the presence of a broad distribution of disorder, the optimal path length between two nodes in a dynamic network scales as N1/2, compared to N1/3 in a static network. The third chapter consists of a study of the effect of quarantine on the propagation of epidemics on an adaptive network of social contacts. For this purpose, we analyze the susceptible-infected-recovered model in the presence of quarantine, where susceptible individuals protect themselves by disconnecting their links to infected neighbors with probability w and reconnecting them to other susceptible individuals chosen at random. Starting from a single infected individual, we show by an analytical approach and simulations that there is a phase transition at a critical rewiring (quarantine) threshold wc separating a phase (w < wc) where the disease reaches a large fraction of the population from a phase (w > wc) where the disease does not spread out. We find that in our model the topology of the network strongly affects the size of the propagation and that wc increases with the mean degree and heterogeneity of the network. We also find that wc is reduced if we perform a preferential rewiring, in which the rewiring probability is proportional to the degree of infected nodes. In the fourth chapter, we study epidemic processes on interconnected network systems, and find two distinct regimes. In strongly-coupled network systems, epidemics occur simultaneously across the entire system at a critical value betac. In contrast, in weakly-coupled network systems, a mixed phase exists below betac where an epidemic occurs in one network but does not spread to the coupled network. We derive an expression for the network and disease parameters that allow this mixed phase and verify it numerically. Public health implications of communities comprising these two classes of network systems are also mentioned.

  20. Dynamic interactions in neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arbib, M.A. (Univ. of Southern California (US)); Amari, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    The study of neural networks is enjoying a great renaissance, both in computational neuroscience, the development of information processing models of living brains, and in neural computing, the use of neurally inspired concepts in the construction of intelligent machines. This volume presents models and data on the dynamic interactions occurring in the brain, and exhibits the dynamic interactions between research in computational neuroscience and in neural computing. The authors present current research, future trends and open problems.

  1. Longitudinal Changes in Friendship Networks: An Approach from Exponential Random Graph Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tasuku Igarashi; Garry Robins; Pip Pattison

    2006-01-01

    This research examined longitudinal changes in friendship network structures using exponential random graph models (ERGM). Seventy first year undergraduates identified friends whom they had greeted and\\/or with whom they had discussed personal matters face-to-face and\\/or via mobile phone text messages at four points in time during their school year. Longitudinal ERGM showed that, in face-to-face networks, 'reassessments' of dyadic friendships

  2. Networked Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.; Sayers, Pamela K.; Gardner, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    Distance learning networks make training and advanced education possible when time and budgetary constraints make face-to-face training difficult. To make distance learning work, instructors and providers must harness the potential of synchronous and asynchronous communication technologies to create powerful, learner-centered networks. Support…

  3. Discovering functional interaction patterns in protein-protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Turanalp, Mehmet E; Can, Tolga

    2008-01-01

    Background In recent years, a considerable amount of research effort has been directed to the analysis of biological networks with the availability of genome-scale networks of genes and/or proteins of an increasing number of organisms. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network is a particular biological network which represents physical interactions between pairs of proteins of an organism. Major research on PPI networks has focused on understanding the topological organization of PPI networks, evolution of PPI networks and identification of conserved subnetworks across different species, discovery of modules of interaction, use of PPI networks for functional annotation of uncharacterized proteins, and improvement of the accuracy of currently available networks. Results In this article, we map known functional annotations of proteins onto a PPI network in order to identify frequently occurring interaction patterns in the functional space. We propose a new frequent pattern identification technique, PPISpan, adapted specifically for PPI networks from a well-known frequent subgraph identification method, gSpan. Existing module discovery techniques either look for specific clique-like highly interacting protein clusters or linear paths of interaction. However, our goal is different; instead of single clusters or pathways, we look for recurring functional interaction patterns in arbitrary topologies. We have applied PPISpan on PPI networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified a number of frequently occurring functional interaction patterns. Conclusion With the help of PPISpan, recurring functional interaction patterns in an organism's PPI network can be identified. Such an analysis offers a new perspective on the modular organization of PPI networks. The complete list of identified functional interaction patterns is available at . PMID:18547430

  4. Lethality and Entropy of Protein Interaction Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Manke; Lloyd Demetrius; Martin Vingron

    Abstract We characterize protein interaction networks in terms of network entropy. This approach sug- gests a ranking principle, which strongly correlates with elements of functional importance, such as lethal proteins. Our combined analysis of protein interaction networks and functional proflles in single cellular yeast and mulit-cellular worm shows that proteins with large contribution to net- work entropy are preferentially lethal.

  5. Dynamically organised modularity in protein interaction networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumeet Agarwal

    A key question in modern biology is how the apparent complexity of protein interaction networks relates to bi- ological functionality. One way of understanding the set of proteins and their interactions (known as the interac- tome) is to look at them as a network of nodes connected by links. By studying the structure of this network, we may hope to

  6. Interactive Video Networks: Experiences, Issues and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Bil

    1993-01-01

    Discusses multipoint interactive video networks and describes experiences with two networks in North Carolina, the MCNC CONCERT (COmmunications network of North Carolina for Education, Research, and Technology) and the Vision Carolina network. Digital video is explained, and issues concerning various components of the telecommunications industry…

  7. Professional and social support networks of rural general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Catherine; Veitch, Craig; Crossland, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This study explored the nature of rural general practitioners' (GPs) professional and personal support networks. A qualitative design was employed, using in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of GPs in rural Queensland. The support network of the rural GPs in this study incorporated the domains of clinical, workforce and social support, with clinical support as the most important domain. There was a preference for face-to-face contact wherever possible. Such contact was particularly important in the process of developing the network and for personal support. Despite this, many network contacts were by telephone out of necessity. There were few notable differences between male and female rural GPs on the issues explored in the present study. General Practitioners' satisfaction with their professional interactions was varied across the sample. The findings suggest that level of satisfaction may be associated with intentions to leave or stay for this group. PMID:12603440

  8. Explorers of the Universe: Interactive Electronic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.; Burks, Geoffrey; Busby, Michael R.; Cannon, Tiffani; Sotoohi, Goli; Wade, Montanez

    2000-01-01

    This paper details how the Interactive Electronic Network is being utilized by secondary and postsecondary students, and their teachers and professors, to facilitate learning and understanding. The Interactive Electronic Network is couched within the Explorers of the Universe web site in a restricted portion entitled Gateway.

  9. Designing Networked Adaptive Interactive Hybrid Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon J. H. M. Kester; Oude Waalsdorperweg

    2008-01-01

    Advances in network technologies enable distributed systems, operating in complex physical environments, to coordinate their activities over larger areas within shorter time intervals. In these systems humans and intelligent machines will, in close interaction, be able to reach their goals under changing situations. To moderate the design of such systems a model for networked adaptive interactive hybrid systems (NAIHS) was

  10. Mining protein networks for synthetic genetic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Paladugu, Sri R; Zhao, Shan; Ray, Animesh; Raval, Alpan

    2008-01-01

    Background The local connectivity and global position of a protein in a protein interaction network are known to correlate with some of its functional properties, including its essentiality or dispensability. It is therefore of interest to extend this observation and examine whether network properties of two proteins considered simultaneously can determine their joint dispensability, i.e., their propensity for synthetic sick/lethal interaction. Accordingly, we examine the predictive power of protein interaction networks for synthetic genetic interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organism in which high confidence protein interaction networks are available and synthetic sick/lethal gene pairs have been extensively identified. Results We design a support vector machine system that uses graph-theoretic properties of two proteins in a protein interaction network as input features for prediction of synthetic sick/lethal interactions. The system is trained on interacting and non-interacting gene pairs culled from large scale genetic screens as well as literature-curated data. We find that the method is capable of predicting synthetic genetic interactions with sensitivity and specificity both exceeding 85%. We further find that the prediction performance is reasonably robust with respect to errors in the protein interaction network and with respect to changes in the features of test datasets. Using the prediction system, we carried out novel predictions of synthetic sick/lethal gene pairs at a genome-wide scale. These pairs appear to have functional properties that are similar to those that characterize the known synthetic lethal gene pairs. Conclusion Our analysis shows that protein interaction networks can be used to predict synthetic lethal interactions with accuracies on par with or exceeding that of other computational methods that use a variety of input features, including functional annotations. This indicates that protein interaction networks could plausibly be rich sources of information about epistatic effects among genes. PMID:18844977

  11. Measuring specialization in species interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Blüthgen, Nico; Menzel, Florian; Blüthgen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    Background Network analyses of plant-animal interactions hold valuable biological information. They are often used to quantify the degree of specialization between partners, but usually based on qualitative indices such as 'connectance' or number of links. These measures ignore interaction frequencies or sampling intensity, and strongly depend on network size. Results Here we introduce two quantitative indices using interaction frequencies to describe the degree of specialization, based on information theory. The first measure (d') describes the degree of interaction specialization at the species level, while the second measure (H2') characterizes the degree of specialization or partitioning among two parties in the entire network. Both indices are mathematically related and derived from Shannon entropy. The species-level index d' can be used to analyze variation within networks, while H2' as a network-level index is useful for comparisons across different interaction webs. Analyses of two published pollinator networks identified differences and features that have not been detected with previous approaches. For instance, plants and pollinators within a network differed in their average degree of specialization (weighted mean d'), and the correlation between specialization of pollinators and their relative abundance also differed between the webs. Rarefied sampling effort in both networks and null model simulations suggest that H2' is not affected by network size or sampling intensity. Conclusion Quantitative analyses reflect properties of interaction networks more appropriately than previous qualitative attempts, and are robust against variation in sampling intensity, network size and symmetry. These measures will improve our understanding of patterns of specialization within and across networks from a broad spectrum of biological interactions. PMID:16907983

  12. Modeling Service Interactions Using Kahn Process Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weishi Zhang; Xiuguo Zhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposed a Kahn process network(KPN) based service interaction model which can dynamically establish links between computational service nodes. Three advantages of KPN make it adequate to model service interactions: (1) parallelism and communication mechanism in KPNs, which enable distributed service interaction on Internet; (2) KPNs are compositional, which corresponds to the possibility to build bigger behaviors from small

  13. Interactivity vs. fairness in networked linux systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenji; Crawford, Matt; /Fermilab; ,

    2007-01-01

    In general, the Linux 2.6 scheduler can ensure fairness and provide excellent interactive performance at the same time. However, our experiments and mathematical analysis have shown that the current Linux interactivity mechanism tends to incorrectly categorize non-interactive network applications as interactive, which can lead to serious fairness or starvation issues. In the extreme, a single process can unjustifiably obtain up to 95% of the CPU! The root cause is due to the facts that: (1) network packets arrive at the receiver independently and discretely, and the 'relatively fast' non-interactive network process might frequently sleep to wait for packet arrival. Though each sleep lasts for a very short period of time, the wait-for-packet sleeps occur so frequently that they lead to interactive status for the process. (2) The current Linux interactivity mechanism provides the possibility that a non-interactive network process could receive a high CPU share, and at the same time be incorrectly categorized as 'interactive.' In this paper, we propose and test a possible solution to address the interactivity vs. fairness problems. Experiment results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  14. POLYSACCHARIDES: MOLECULES, CLUSTERS, NETWORKS AND INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the structural organization of polysaccharides with respect to molecules, clusters (aggregates), networks and interactions. As for proteins, different levels of structural organization exist for polysaccharides. The primary structure describes the covalent sequence of monosaccha...

  15. Pairwise Alignment of Protein Interaction Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Koyutürk; Yohan Kim; Umut Topkara; Shankar Subramaniam; Wojciech Szpankowski; Ananth Grama

    2006-01-01

    With an ever-increasing amount of available data on protein-protein interaction (PPI) net- works and research revealing that these networks evolve at a modular level, discovery of conserved patterns in these networks becomes an important problem. Although available data on protein-protein interactions is currently limited, recently developed algorithms have been shown to convey novel biological insights through employment of elegant mathemat-

  16. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule, DME face-to-face encounters, elimination of the requirement for termination of non-random prepayment complex medical review and other revisions to Part B for CY 2013. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2012-11-16

    This major final rule with comment period addresses changes to the physician fee schedule, payments for Part B drugs, and other Medicare Part B payment policies to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. It also implements provisions of the Affordable Care Act by establishing a face-to-face encounter as a condition of payment for certain durable medical equipment (DME) items. In addition, it implements statutory changes regarding the termination of non-random prepayment review. This final rule with comment period also includes a discussion in the Supplementary Information regarding various programs . (See the Table of Contents for a listing of the specific issues addressed in this final rule with comment period.) PMID:23155552

  17. The Networked Teacher: How New Teachers Build Social Networks for Professional Support. Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2011-01-01

    New teachers need support from their peers and mentors to locate resources, information, new ideas, emotional support, and inspiration. This timely book explains the research and theory behind social networks (face-to-face and online), describes what effective social networking for educators looks like, reveals common obstacles that new teachers…

  18. Discrete, qualitative models of interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Ballerstein, Kathrin; Haus, Utz-Uwe; Lindquist, Jonathan Axel; Beyer, Tilo; Schraven, Burkhart; Weismantel, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Logical models for cellular signaling networks are recently attracting wide interest: Their ability to integrate qualitative information at different biological levels, from receptor-ligand interactions to gene-regulatory networks, is becoming essential for understanding complex signaling behavior. We present an overview of Boolean modeling paradigms and discuss in detail an approach based on causal logical interactions that yields descriptive and predictive signaling network models. Our approach offers a mathematically well-defined concept, improving the efficiency of analytical tools to meet the demand of large-scale data sets, and can be extended into various directions to include timing information as well as multiple discrete values for components. PMID:23277042

  19. The dissimilarity of species interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Poisot, Timothée; Canard, Elsa; Mouillot, David; Mouquet, Nicolas; Gravel, Dominique; Jordan, Ferenc

    2012-12-01

    In a context of global changes, and amidst the perpetual modification of community structure undergone by most natural ecosystems, it is more important than ever to understand how species interactions vary through space and time. The integration of biogeography and network theory will yield important results and further our understanding of species interactions. It has, however, been hampered so far by the difficulty to quantify variation among interaction networks. Here, we propose a general framework to study the dissimilarity of species interaction networks over time, space or environments, allowing both the use of quantitative and qualitative data. We decompose network dissimilarity into interactions and species turnover components, so that it is immediately comparable to common measures of ?-diversity. We emphasise that scaling up ?-diversity of community composition to the ?-diversity of interactions requires only a small methodological step, which we foresee will help empiricists adopt this method. We illustrate the framework with a large dataset of hosts and parasites interactions and highlight other possible usages. We discuss a research agenda towards a biogeographical theory of species interactions. PMID:22994257

  20. Querying Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Blin; Florian Sikora; Stéphane Vialette

    2009-01-01

    Recent techniques increase the amount of our knowledge of interactions between proteins. To lter, interpret and organize this data, many authors have provided tools for querying patterns in the shape of paths or trees in Protein-Protein Interaction networks. In this paper, we propose an exact algorithm for querying graphs pattern based on dynamic programming and color-coding. We provide an implementation

  1. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  2. Capturing and Analyzing Verbal and Physical Collaborative Learning Interactions at an Enriched Interactive Tabletop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Maldonado, Roberto; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Martinez-Monés, Alejandra; Kay, Judy; Yacef, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    Interactive tabletops can be used to provide new ways to support face-to-face collaborative learning. A little explored and somewhat hidden potential of these devices is that they can be used to enhance teachers' awareness of students' progress by exploiting captured traces of interaction. These data can make key aspects of collaboration…

  3. BIND - The Biomolecular Interaction Network Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Bader; Ian Donaldson; Cheryl Wolting; B. F. Francis Ouellette; Tony Pawson; Christopher W. V. Hogue

    2001-01-01

    The Biomolecular Interaction Network Database (BIND; http:\\/\\/binddb.org) is a database designed to store full descriptions of interactions, molecular complexes and pathways. Development of the BIND 2.0 data model has led to the incorporation of virtually all components of molecular mechanisms including interactions between any two molecules composed of proteins, nucleic acids and small molecules. Chemical reactions, photochemical activation and conformational

  4. "When Two Strong Men [or Women] Stand Face to Face..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    The speech given at the awards ceremony of the Midwest Talent Search Project, addresses gifted and talented students about issues in their education. The speaker urges students to be assertive in fighting curricular inflexibility and to understand the complementary functions of acceleration enrichment. He discusses the benefits of summer courses…

  5. Handbook for face-to-face moves of longwall equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. J. Adam; R. A. Pimentel; W. E. Shoff

    1982-01-01

    The problem of moving the equipment of a longwall face from one (the finished) panel to the next has always been an issue critical to any longwall operation. In the United States, moving longwall equipment from panel to panel takes an average of 20 days, and moves as long as 30 days are no exception. With $8 million invested and

  6. ET Toxic Metals Replacement Review SEA Spring Face to Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratz, Earl

    2007-01-01

    The information contained in the presentation covers development work carried out under SDS projects. The intent of the effort is to find chrome(VI) free alternates to our current chromated processing solutions. The information presented reports progress in work aimed to replace our alkaline cleaner (Turco 4215), conversion coat (Iridite 14-2) and chrome (VI) compounds used in LOx tank hydrostatic proof test solution. To date we have found candidates for use in the proof test solution and alkaline cleaner. These candidates are in the final stages of testing. Lab data is reported in the presentation.

  7. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  8. Online or Face-to-Face? Which Class to Take

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Susan; Cramer, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Online classes are a viable option in today's educational landscape, but are they right for your school and students? This article reviews the status of online education, 21st century skills, best practices in online education, and online classes as experienced by a middle school student and parent. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. A Program in Community Relations: Face-to-Face Confrontations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Philip G.; O'Connell, Walter E.

    One of the sources of conflict in our urban centers today is the distrust that exists between the community and the police. In an effort to improve relations between community members and the police, so that both groups might work together more effectively in solving community problems, the Houston Cooperative Crime Prevention Program was…

  10. Face to Face: Stories from the Aftermath of Infamy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the wake of 9/11, many Muslims around the United States faced a backlash of resentment and anger. This groundswell of emotion was not without parallel, as Japanese and Japanese-Americans faced a similar reaction after the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941. The Independent Television Service has developed this Web site to bring a human face to the experiences of Muslims and Japanese people in the United States by collecting these powerful interviews from members of both groups. On the site, visitors can listen to stories from older Japanese-Americans talk about their experiences on the West Coast after Pearl Harbor, and the experiences of Muslims, both young and old. The interviews are divided into thematic sections, such as "Fear," "Internment," "Identity," and "Being American." At another section of the site, visitors can respond to the stories, and a glossary of terms is also provided as background material. Overall, this site serves as a fine educational tool, and for those looking for a number of perspectives on the experience of living in America.

  11. The interaction networks of structured RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lescoute, A.; Westhof, E.

    2006-01-01

    All pairwise interactions occurring between bases which could be detected in three-dimensional structures of crystallized RNA molecules are annotated on new planar diagrams. The diagrams attempt to map the underlying complex networks of base–base interactions and, especially, they aim at conveying key relationships between helical domains: co-axial stacking, bending and all Watson–Crick as well as non-Watson–Crick base pairs. Although such wiring diagrams cannot replace full stereographic images for correct spatial understanding and representation, they reveal structural similarities as well as the conserved patterns and distances between motifs which are present within the interaction networks of folded RNAs of similar or unrelated functions. Finally, the diagrams could help devising methods for meaningfully transforming RNA structures into graphs amenable to network analysis. PMID:17135184

  12. Spinning Multiple Social Networks for Semantic Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Matsuo; Masahiro Hamasaki; Yoshiyuki Nakamura; Takuichi Nishimura; Kôiti Hasida; Hideaki Takeda; Junichiro Mori; Danushka Bollegala; Mitsuru Ishizuka

    2006-01-01

    Social networks are important for the Semantic Web. Several means can be used to obtain social networks: using social networking services, aggregating Friend- of-a-Friend (FOAF) documents, mining text informa- tion on the Web or in e-mail messages, and observing face-to-face communication using sensors. Integrating multiple social networks is a key issue for further uti- lization of social networks in the

  13. Broadband networks for interactive telemedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graschew, Georgi; Roelofs, Theo A.; Rakowsky, Stefan; Schlag, Peter M.

    2002-08-01

    Using off-the-shelf hardware components and a specially developed high-end software communication system (WinVicos) satellite networks for interactive telemedicine have been designed and developed. These networks allow for various telemedical applications, like intraoperative teleconsultation, second opinioning, teleteaching, telementoring, etc.. Based on the successful GALENOS network, several projects are currently being realized: MEDASHIP (Medical Assistance for Ships); DELTASS (Disaster Emergency Logistic Telemedicine Advanced Satellites Systems) and EMISPHER (Euro-Mediterranean Internet-Satellite Platform for Health, medical Education and Research).

  14. Enhancing Interactional Synchrony with an Ambient Madeline Balaam

    E-print Network

    Balaam, Madeline

    @sussex.ac.uk ABSTRACT Nonverbal communication is an essential part of face-to- face social interaction, conveying of nonverbal communication in social interactions. In this paper we present a study using an ambient technology that supports nonverbal communication, and specifically nonverbal behaviours associated with rapport. We show

  15. The Effect of Online Interactive Visuals on Undergraduate Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Just, Glen A.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a trend towards increased use of online instruction for undergraduate instruction, online delivery lacks the student-teacher interactivity and the easy exchange of visuals that is available during face-to-face environments. Interactivity and visualization are valuable for mathematics instruction as a way of reducing cognitive…

  16. Mediated Interaction Through Television: With Self and Other.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, James R.; And Others

    While the traditional role of television has been to transmit messages to mass audiences, more recent uses of television which allow face-to-face interaction may lead to new kinds of behavior by the parties involved. In an interactive situation, an individual's two types of tasks are presentational (presenting his own "line" or image) and…

  17. Comparative Interaction Networks: Bridging Genotype to Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Beltrao, Pedro; Ryan, Colm

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, biomedical research has witnessed an exponential increase in the throughput of the characterization of biological systems. Here we review the recent progress in large-scale methods to determine protein–protein, genetic and chemical–genetic interaction networks. We discuss some of the limitations and advantages of the different methods and give examples of how these networks are being used to study the evolutionary process. Comparative studies have revealed that different types of protein–protein interactions diverge at different rates with high conservation of co-complex membership but rapid divergence of more promiscuous interactions like those that mediate post-translational modifications. These evolutionary trends have consistent genetic consequences with highly conserved epistatic interactions within complex subunits but faster divergence of epistatic interactions across complexes or pathways. Finally, we discuss how these evolutionary observations are being used to interpret cross-species chemical-genetic studies and how they might shape therapeutic strategies. Together, these interaction networks offer us an unprecedented level of detail into how genotypes are translated to phenotypes, and we envision that they will be increasingly useful in the interpretation of genetic and phenotypic variation occurring within populations as well as the rational design of combinatorial therapeutics. PMID:22821457

  18. Dynamic modularity in protein interaction networks predicts breast cancer outcome

    E-print Network

    Morris, Quaid

    the dynamic structure of the human protein interaction network (interactome) to determine whether changesDynamic modularity in protein interaction networks predicts breast cancer outcome Ian W Taylor1 identified proteins that have many interacting partners (so called `hubs') in a network of protein-protein

  19. The Computational Power of Interactive Recur-rent Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Siegelmann , Hava T

    1 The Computational Power of Interactive Recur- rent Neural Networks J´er´emie Cabessa1 and Hava T, interactive computation, analog computation, re- current neural networks, interactive Turing machines-weighted recurrent neural networks were shown to be respectively equivalent to and strictly more powerful than

  20. Exploring drug combinations in genetic interaction network

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug combination that consists of distinctive agents is an attractive strategy to combat complex diseases and has been widely used clinically with improved therapeutic effects. However, the identification of efficacious drug combinations remains a non-trivial and challenging task due to the huge number of possible combinations among the candidate drugs. As an important factor, the molecular context in which drugs exert their functions can provide crucial insights into the mechanism underlying drug combinations. Results In this work, we present a network biology approach to investigate drug combinations and their target proteins in the context of genetic interaction networks and the related human pathways, in order to better understand the underlying rules of effective drug combinations. Our results indicate that combinatorial drugs tend to have a smaller effect radius in the genetic interaction networks, which is an important parameter to describe the therapeutic effect of a drug combination from the network perspective. We also find that drug combinations are more likely to modulate functionally related pathways. Conclusions This study confirms that the molecular networks where drug combinations exert their functions can indeed provide important insights into the underlying rules of effective drug combinations. We hope that our findings can help shortcut the expedition of the future discovery of novel drug combinations. PMID:22595004

  1. Evolutionarily Conserved Herpesviral Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Even; Friedel, Caroline C.; Rajagopala, Seesandra V.; Titz, Björn; Baiker, Armin; Schmidt, Tina; Kraus, Theo; Stellberger, Thorsten; Rutenberg, Christiane; Suthram, Silpa; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Rose, Dietlind; von Brunn, Albrecht; Uhlmann, Mareike; Zeretzke, Christine; Dong, Yu-An; Boulet, Hélène; Koegl, Manfred; Bailer, Susanne M.; Koszinowski, Ulrich; Ideker, Trey; Uetz, Peter; Zimmer, Ralf; Haas, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Herpesviruses constitute a family of large DNA viruses widely spread in vertebrates and causing a variety of different diseases. They possess dsDNA genomes ranging from 120 to 240 kbp encoding between 70 to 170 open reading frames. We previously reported the protein interaction networks of two herpesviruses, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). In this study, we systematically tested three additional herpesvirus species, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), murine cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus, for protein interactions in order to be able to perform a comparative analysis of all three herpesvirus subfamilies. We identified 735 interactions by genome-wide yeast-two-hybrid screens (Y2H), and, together with the interactomes of VZV and KSHV, included a total of 1,007 intraviral protein interactions in the analysis. Whereas a large number of interactions have not been reported previously, we were able to identify a core set of highly conserved protein interactions, like the interaction between HSV-1 UL33 with the nuclear egress proteins UL31/UL34. Interactions were conserved between orthologous proteins despite generally low sequence similarity, suggesting that function may be more conserved than sequence. By combining interactomes of different species we were able to systematically address the low coverage of the Y2H system and to extract biologically relevant interactions which were not evident from single species. PMID:19730696

  2. Analyzing protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gavin C K W; Porras, Pablo; Aranda, Bruno; Hermjakob, Henning; Orchard, Sandra E

    2012-04-01

    The advent of the "omics" era in biology research has brought new challenges and requires the development of novel strategies to answer previously intractable questions. Molecular interaction networks provide a framework to visualize cellular processes, but their complexity often makes their interpretation an overwhelming task. The inherently artificial nature of interaction detection methods and the incompleteness of currently available interaction maps call for a careful and well-informed utilization of this valuable data. In this tutorial, we aim to give an overview of the key aspects that any researcher needs to consider when working with molecular interaction data sets and we outline an example for interactome analysis. Using the molecular interaction database IntAct, the software platform Cytoscape, and its plugins BiNGO and clusterMaker, and taking as a starting point a list of proteins identified in a mass spectrometry-based proteomics experiment, we show how to build, visualize, and analyze a protein-protein interaction network. PMID:22385417

  3. Network Compression as a Quality Measure for Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Loic; Reimann, Matthias; Stewart, A. Francis; Schroeder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale protein interaction studies, there is much debate about data quality. Can different noise levels in the measurements be assessed by analyzing network structure? Because proteomic regulation is inherently co-operative, modular and redundant, it is inherently compressible when represented as a network. Here we propose that network compression can be used to compare false positive and false negative noise levels in protein interaction networks. We validate this hypothesis by first confirming the detrimental effect of false positives and false negatives. Second, we show that gold standard networks are more compressible. Third, we show that compressibility correlates with co-expression, co-localization, and shared function. Fourth, we also observe correlation with better protein tagging methods, physiological expression in contrast to over-expression of tagged proteins, and smart pooling approaches for yeast two-hybrid screens. Overall, this new measure is a proxy for both sensitivity and specificity and gives complementary information to standard measures such as average degree and clustering coefficients. PMID:22719828

  4. Global Mapping of the Yeast Genetic Interaction Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Hin Yan Tong; Guillaume Lesage; Gary D. Bader; Huiming Ding; Hong Xu; Xiaofeng Xin; James Young; Gabriel F. Berriz; Renee L. Brost; Michael Chang; YiQun Chen; Xin Cheng; Gordon Chua; Helena Friesen; Debra S. Goldberg; Jennifer Haynes; Christine Humphries; Grace He; Shamiza Hussein; Lizhu Ke; Nevan Krogan; Zhijian Li; Joshua N. Levinson; Hong Lu; Patrice Ménard; Christella Munyana; Ainslie B. Parsons; Owen Ryan; Raffi Tonikian; Tania Roberts; Anne-Marie Sdicu; Jesse Shapiro; Bilal Sheikh; Bernhard Suter; Sharyl L. Wong; Lan V. Zhang; Hongwei Zhu; Christopher G. Burd; Sean Munro; Chris Sander; Jasper Rine; Jack Greenblatt; Matthias Peter; Anthony Bretscher; Graham Bell; Frederick P. Roth; Grant W. Brown; Brenda Andrews; Howard Bussey; Charles Boone

    2004-01-01

    A genetic interaction network containing ~1000 genes and ~4000 interactions was mapped by crossing mutations in 132 different query genes into a set of ~4700 viable gene yeast deletion mutants and scoring the double mutant progeny for fitness defects. Network connectivity was predictive of function because interactions often occurred among functionally related genes, and similar patterns of interactions tended to

  5. Error-Resilient Perceptual Coding for Networked Haptic Interaction

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Eckehard

    Error-Resilient Perceptual Coding for Networked Haptic Interaction Fernanda Brandi, Julius Kammerl, Reliability Keywords haptic technology and interaction, haptic communication, perceptual coding, telepresence.brandi, kammerl, eckehard.steinbach}@tum.de ABSTRACT The performance of haptic interaction across communication

  6. Teachers' Support with Ad-Hoc Collaborative Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, C.; Nussbaum, M.; Lpez, X.; Rodrguez, P.; Santelices, R.; Rosas, R.; Marianov, V.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to improve the educational process must focus on those most responsible for implementing it: the teachers. It is with them in mind that we propose a face-to-face computer-supported collaborative learning system that uses wirelessly networked hand-held computers to create an environment for helping students assimilate and transfer…

  7. Discussion Tool Effects on Collaborative Learning and Social Network Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomsic, Astrid; Suthers, Daniel D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the social network structure of booking officers at the Honolulu Police Department and how the introduction of an online discussion tool affected knowledge about operation of a booking module. Baseline data provided evidence for collaboration among officers in the same district using e-mail, telephone and face-to-face media…

  8. Understanding international networks through relationships: A cultural perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akmal S. Hyder

    Purpose - The aim of this research is to extend the network theory by integrating relationship with cultural differences and trust. Methodology - A thorough literature review has been conducted to propose a culturally based relationship framework. Further data has been colle cted through face-to-face interviews to exemplify the proposed relationship model in a Swedish-Egyptian context. Findings - Four types

  9. A Framework for Analyzing Interactional Processes in Online Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Suthers; Nathan Dwyer; Richard Medina; Ravi Vatrapu

    This work is based on the premise that the interactional construction of meaning is as important in online settings as it is face-to-face, especially in collaborative learning. Most studies of online learning use quantitative methods that assign meaning to contributions in isolation and aggregate over many sessions, obscuring the situated procedures by which participants accomplish learning through the affordances of

  10. Designing Dynamic Interactive Visualisations to Support Collaboration and Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne Rogers; Harry Brignull; Michael Scaife

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic interactive visualisations (DIVs) are intended to help coordination and collaboration, through augmenting existing forms of synchronous communication (i.e. phones, face to face, walkie-talkie). A central feature of a DIV is active user involvement: users are required to create, annotate and change the information visualisation to represent the changes in the activity space they are concerned with. A main benefit

  11. Modulatory interactions between the default mode network and task positive networks in resting-state

    PubMed Central

    Di, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The two major brain networks, i.e., the default mode network (DMN) and the task positive network, typically reveal negative and variable connectivity in resting-state. In the present study, we examined whether the connectivity between the DMN and different components of the task positive network were modulated by other brain regions by using physiophysiological interaction (PPI) on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Spatial independent component analysis was first conducted to identify components that represented networks of interest, including the anterior and posterior DMNs, salience, dorsal attention, left and right executive networks. PPI analysis was conducted between pairs of these networks to identify networks or regions that showed modulatory interactions with the two networks. Both network-wise and voxel-wise analyses revealed reciprocal positive modulatory interactions between the DMN, salience, and executive networks. Together with the anatomical properties of the salience network regions, the results suggest that the salience network may modulate the relationship between the DMN and executive networks. In addition, voxel-wise analysis demonstrated that the basal ganglia and thalamus positively interacted with the salience network and the dorsal attention network, and negatively interacted with the salience network and the DMN. The results demonstrated complex modulatory interactions among the DMNs and task positive networks in resting-state, and suggested that communications between these networks may be modulated by some critical brain structures such as the salience network, basal ganglia, and thalamus. PMID:24860698

  12. Implicit Corrective Feedback in Computer-Guided Interaction: Does Mode Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Interaction research on recasts has been largely confined to examining the effects of recasts delivered in an oral, face-to-face modality. The challenge of creating task conditions in a written interactive mode, in which the dynamism and immediacy of recasts can be brought to bear on L2 development, has been a formidable obstacle to advancing the…

  13. Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction in Infants with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Delays in development of early social behaviors in babies with Down syndrome are likely to affect patterns of interaction with their caregivers. We videotaped 23 babies in face-to-face interaction with their mothers at 8 and 20 weeks of age and compared them to 23 typically developing infants and their mothers. Social behaviors, mothers'…

  14. Effectiveness of Strategies to Enhance Interaction in Courses Employing Different Blend Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pensabene, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Given the value of participant interaction to enhance learning, and the growth of blended (face-to-face and online) delivery, the purpose of this study was to examine the way instructor-designers approach interactions in blended learning environments, and the effectiveness of these approaches in terms of student satisfaction and expectations.…

  15. The Interaction between Knowledge Codiflcation and Knowledge Sharing Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De Liu; Gautam Ray; Andrew B. Whinston

    Current knowledge management (KM) technologies and strategies advocate two difier- ent approaches: knowledge codiflcation and knowledge sharing networks. However, the extant literature has paid limited attention to the interaction between them. This research draws upon the literature on formal modeling of networks to examine the interaction be- tween knowledge codiflcation and knowledge sharing networks. The analysis suggests that an increase

  16. Prediction of proteinprotein interaction sites in heterocomplexes with neural networks

    E-print Network

    Pazos, Florencio

    Prediction of protein­protein interaction sites in heterocomplexes with neural networks Piero on information about evolutionary con- servation and surface disposition. We implement a neural network based protein sur- face. However neural networks trained with a reduced representation of the interacting patch

  17. Prediction protein--protein interaction sites heterocomplexes with neural networks

    E-print Network

    Pazos, Florencio

    Prediction protein--protein interaction sites heterocomplexes with neural networks Piero Fariselli neural network based system, which a cross validation proce­ dure and allows correct detection 73 face. However neural networks trained a reduced representation of interacting patch sequence profile su

  18. Interactive Wormhole Detection in Large Scale Wireless Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weichao Wang; Aidong Lu

    2006-01-01

    Wormhole attacks in wireless networks can severely deteriorate the network performance and compromise the security through spoil- ing the routing protocols and weakening the security enhance- ments. This paper develops an approach, Interactive Visualiza- tion of Wormholes (IVoW), to monitor and detect such attacks in large scale wireless networks in real time. We characterize the topology features of a network

  19. A Multi-User 3-D Virtual Environment with Interactive Collaboration and Shared Whiteboard Technologies

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    environment allows remote participants to have a transparent communication as if they are communicating face-to-face. The sense of presence in such an environment can be established by representing each participant environment called NetICE, Networked Intelligent Collaborative System, and the description of our prior work

  20. Percolation on networks with antagonistic and dependent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotnis, Bhushan; Kuri, Joy

    2015-03-01

    Drawing inspiration from real world interacting systems, we study a system consisting of two networks that exhibit antagonistic and dependent interactions. By antagonistic and dependent interactions we mean that a proportion of functional nodes in a network cause failure of nodes in the other, while failure of nodes in the other results in failure of links in the first. In contrast to interdependent networks, which can exhibit first-order phase transitions, we find that the phase transitions in such networks are continuous. Our analysis shows that, compared to an isolated network, the system is more robust against random attacks. Surprisingly, we observe a region in the parameter space where the giant connected components of both networks start oscillating. Furthermore, we find that for Erd?s-Rényi and scale-free networks the system oscillates only when the dependence and antagonism between the two networks are very high. We believe that this study can further our understanding of real world interacting systems.

  1. How the global structure of protein interaction networks evolves.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Two processes can influence the evolution of protein interaction networks: addition and elimination of interactions between proteins, and gene duplications increasing the number of proteins and interactions. The rates of these processes can be estimated from available Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome data and are sufficiently high to affect network structure on short time-scales. For instance, more than 100 interactions may be added to the yeast network every million years, a fraction of which adds previously unconnected proteins to the network. Highly connected proteins show a greater rate of interaction turnover than proteins with few interactions. From these observations one can explain (without natural selection on global network structure) the evolutionary sustenance of the most prominent network feature, the distribution of the frequency P(d) of proteins with d neighbours, which is broad-tailed and consistent with a power law, that is: P(d) proportional, variant d (-gamma). PMID:12641899

  2. Dual Logic and Cerebral Coordinates for Reciprocal Interaction in Eye Contact

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to scientifically study the human brain’s response to face-to-face social interaction, the scientific method itself needs to be reconsidered so that both quantitative observation and symbolic reasoning can be adapted to the situation where the observer is also observed. In light of the recent development of dyadic fMRI which can directly observe dyadic brain interacting in one MRI scanner, this paper aims to establish a new form of logic, dual logic, which provides a theoretical platform for deductive reasoning in a complementary dual system with emergence mechanism. Applying the dual logic in the dfMRI experimental design and data analysis, the exogenous and endogenous dual systems in the BOLD responses can be identified; the non-reciprocal responses in the dual system can be suppressed; a cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction can be generated. Elucidated by dual logic deductions, the cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction suggests: the exogenous and endogenous systems consist of the empathy network and the mentalization network respectively; the default-mode network emerges from the resting state to activation in the endogenous system during reciprocal interaction; the cingulate plays an essential role in the emergence from the exogenous system to the endogenous system. Overall, the dual logic deductions are supported by the dfMRI experimental results and are consistent with current literature. Both the theoretical framework and experimental method set the stage to formally apply the scientific method in studying complex social interaction. PMID:25885446

  3. Dual logic and cerebral coordinates for reciprocal interaction in eye contact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ray F

    2015-01-01

    In order to scientifically study the human brain's response to face-to-face social interaction, the scientific method itself needs to be reconsidered so that both quantitative observation and symbolic reasoning can be adapted to the situation where the observer is also observed. In light of the recent development of dyadic fMRI which can directly observe dyadic brain interacting in one MRI scanner, this paper aims to establish a new form of logic, dual logic, which provides a theoretical platform for deductive reasoning in a complementary dual system with emergence mechanism. Applying the dual logic in the dfMRI experimental design and data analysis, the exogenous and endogenous dual systems in the BOLD responses can be identified; the non-reciprocal responses in the dual system can be suppressed; a cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction can be generated. Elucidated by dual logic deductions, the cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction suggests: the exogenous and endogenous systems consist of the empathy network and the mentalization network respectively; the default-mode network emerges from the resting state to activation in the endogenous system during reciprocal interaction; the cingulate plays an essential role in the emergence from the exogenous system to the endogenous system. Overall, the dual logic deductions are supported by the dfMRI experimental results and are consistent with current literature. Both the theoretical framework and experimental method set the stage to formally apply the scientific method in studying complex social interaction. PMID:25885446

  4. "I'll See You on IM, Text, or Call You": A Social Network Approach of Adolescents' Use of Communication Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cleemput, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    This study explores some possibilities of social network analysis for studying adolescents' communication patterns. A full network analysis was conducted on third-grade high school students (15 year olds, 137 students) in Belgium. The results pointed out that face-to-face communication was still the most prominent way for information to flow…

  5. Eye Tracking for Avatar Eye Gaze Control During Object-Focused Multiparty Interaction in Immersive Collaborative Virtual Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Steptoe; Oyewole Oyekoya; Alessio Murgia; Robin Wolff; John Rae; Estefania Guimaraes; David J. Roberts; Anthony Steed

    2009-01-01

    In face-to-face collaboration, eye gaze is used both as a bidirectional signal to monitor and indicate focus of attention and action, as well as a resource to manage the interaction. In remote interaction supported by immersive collaborative virtual environments (ICVEs), embodied avatars representing and controlled by each participant share a virtual space. We report on a study designed to evaluate

  6. Nature of Teacher-Students' Interaction in Electronic Learning and Traditional Courses of Higher Education--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Khurshed, Fauzia

    2011-01-01

    Present paper explores differential teacher-student interaction in electronic learning (el) and in face to face traditional learning (tl) courses at higher education. After thorough study literature available and getting information from university teachers teaching el and tl courses about the nature of teacher-students interaction in both modes…

  7. Two-Month-Old Infants' Sensitivity to Social Contingency in Mother-Infant and Stranger-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Rochat, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Two-month-old infants (N = 29) participated in face-to-face interactions with their mothers and with strangers. The contingent responsiveness for smiles and vocalizations, while attending to the partner, was assessed for each partner in both interactions. For smiles and for vocalizations, infants were less responsive to the stranger relative to…

  8. Six-Week Postpartum Maternal Self-Criticism and Dependency and 4-Month Mother-Infant Self- and Interactive Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were…

  9. Stumbl: Using Facebook to Collect Rich Datasets for Opportunistic Networking Research

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    Stumbl: Using Facebook to Collect Rich Datasets for Opportunistic Networking Research Theus, mobility and communication ties. Stumbl is a Facebook application that provides participating users with a user-friendly interface to report their daily face-to-face meetings with other Facebook friends

  10. Automatic nonverbal analysis of social interaction in small groups: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Gatica-perez

    2009-01-01

    An increasing awareness of the scientific and technological value of the automatic understanding of face- to-face social interaction has motivated in the past few years a surge of interest in the devising of com- putational techniques for conversational analysis. As an alternative to existing linguistic approaches for the automatic analysis of conversations, a relatively recent domain is using findings in

  11. Real time face detection and facial expression recognition: Development and application to human-computer interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bartlett; G. Littlewort; I. Fasel; J. Movellan

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: to human computer interaction and force us to think innew ways about how computers could be used in daily life.Face to face communication is a real-time process operatingat a a time scale in the order of 40 milliseconds. Thelevel of uncertainty at this time scale is considerable, makingit necessary for humans and machines to rely on sensoryrich perceptual primitives

  12. Perceptive animated interfaces: first steps toward a new paradigm for human-computer interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RONALD COLE; SAREL VAN VUUREN; BRYAN PELLOM; KADRI HACIOGLU; Jiyong Ma; JAVIER MOVELLAN; SCOTT SCHWARTZ; DAVID WADE-STEIN; WAYNE WARD; Jie Yan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a vision of the near future in which computer interaction is characterized by natural face-to-face conversations with lifelike characters that speak, emote, and gesture. These animated agents will converse with people much like people converse effectively with assistants in a variety of focused applications. Despite the research advances required to realize this vision, and the lack of

  13. Real Time Face Detection and Facial Expression Recognition: Development and Applications to Human Computer Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Stewart Bartlett; Gwen Littlewort; Ian Fasel; Javier R. Movellan

    2003-01-01

    Computer animated agents and robots bring a social dimension to human computer interaction and force us to think in new ways about how computers could be used in daily life. Face to face communication is a real-time process operating at a a time scale in the order of 40 milliseconds. The level of uncertainty at this time scale is considerable,

  14. Infant Directed Speech in Natural Interaction--Norwegian Vowel Quantity and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Kjellrun T.; Behne, Dawn M.

    2005-01-01

    An interactive face-to-face setting is used to study natural infant directed speech (IDS) compared to adult directed speech (ADS). With distinctive vowel quantity and vowel quality, Norwegian IDS was used in a natural quasi-experimental design. Six Norwegian mothers were recorded over a period of 6 months alone with their infants and in an adult…

  15. An Abstract Transcript Notation for Analyzing Interactional Construction of Meaning in Online Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Suthers; Nathan Dwyer; Ravikiran Vatrapu; Richard Medina

    2007-01-01

    This work is based on the premise that the interactional construction of meaning is as important in online settings as it is face-to-face, especially in collaborative learning. Yet most studies of online learning use quantitative methods that assign meaning to contributions in isolation and aggregate over many sessions, obscuring the situated procedures by which participants accomplish learning through the affordances

  16. Core and periphery structures in protein interaction networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Luo; Bo Li; Xiu-feng Wan; Richard H. Scheuermann

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Characterizing the structural properties of protein interaction networks will help illuminate the organizational and functional relationships among elements in biological systems. RESULTS: In this paper, we present a systematic exploration of the core\\/periphery structures in protein interaction networks (PINs). First, the concepts of cores and peripheries in PINs are defined. Then, computational methods are proposed to identify two types

  17. Plant-Pathogen Interactions: From Genome Sequences to Genetic Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Arredondo; Nathan Bruce; Marcus Chibucos; Daolong Dou; Lee Falin; Adriana Fereirra; Nik Galloway; Regina Hanlon; Rays Jiang; Shiv Kale; Konstantinos Krampis; Robert Presler; Brian Smith; Vignesh Sundararajan; Ken Tian; Trudy Torto-Alalibo; Sucheta Tripathy; Lachelle Waller; Xia Wang; Lecong Zhou

    Interconnected genetic regulatory networks govern the interactions of hosts and pathogens as a result of an ongoing co-evolutionary battle between the organisms. We are building data collections and tool sets for dissecting host-pathogen genetic networks, with a principal focus on oomycete pathogens of plants. To catalog the interacting genes we have sequenced the genomes of the oomycetes Phytophthora sojae, Phytophthora

  18. Mining protein-protein interaction networks: denoising effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta Marras; Enrico Capobianco

    2009-01-01

    A typical instrument to pursue analysis in complex network studies is the analysis of the statistical distributions. They are usually computed for measures which characterize network topology, and are aimed at capturing both structural and dynamics aspects. Protein-protein interaction networks (PPIN) have also been studied through several measures. It is in general observed that a power law is expected to

  19. Characterization and modeling of protein–protein interaction networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittoria Colizza; Alessandro Flammini; Amos Maritan; Alessandro Vespignani

    2005-01-01

    The recent availability of high-throughput gene expression and proteomics techniques has created an unprecedented opportunity for a comprehensive study of the structure and dynamics of many biological networks. Global proteomic interaction data, in particular, are synthetically represented as undirected networks exhibiting features far from the random paradigm which has dominated past effort in network theory. This evidence, along with the

  20. Protein-protein interaction networks (PPI) and complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Safari-Alighiarloo, Nahid; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Goliaei, Bahram; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar

    2014-01-01

    The physical interaction of proteins which lead to compiling them into large densely connected networks is a noticeable subject to investigation. Protein interaction networks are useful because of making basic scientific abstraction and improving biological and biomedical applications. Based on principle roles of proteins in biological function, their interactions determine molecular and cellular mechanisms, which control healthy and diseased states in organisms. Therefore, such networks facilitate the understanding of pathogenic (and physiologic) mechanisms that trigger the onset and progression of diseases. Consequently, this knowledge can be translated into effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, the results of several studies have proved that the structure and dynamics of protein networks are disturbed in complex diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders. Based on such relationship, a novel paradigm is suggested in order to confirm that the protein interaction networks can be the target of therapy for treatment of complex multi-genic diseases rather than individual molecules with disrespect the network. PMID:25436094

  1. Therapeutic networks of pregnancy care: Bengali immigrant women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Ranjana

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the links between place and Bengali immigrant women's use of social networks in their efforts to live a healthy pregnancy. The literature on therapeutic landscapes has mostly emphasized characteristics of local places. I argue that social networks constituted in and beyond the places where people live are equally important. I draw on findings of a qualitative study conducted with Bengali immigrant women in New York City between 2004 and 2006 to understand the place-creating characteristics of social therapeutic networks. In-depth interviews with 40 women in selected neighborhoods in New York City show that such networks operated at multiple scales, ranging from the local to the transnational. A mix of tangible and virtual care and support were received through face-to face interaction and phone conversations. Advice on how to live a healthy pregnancy, cooking and bringing or sending food and therapeutic conversations emerged as important kinds of care and support provided by therapeutic networks. These networks worked in complex ways, reflecting: 1) the situational context of women's lives, shaped by the temporal (e.g. length of residence) and place-based (e.g. residential geographies) aspects of migration, 2) the importance of 'imaginative aspects' in shaping the meanings women formed of therapeutic networks and 3) the diverse ways in which women created and sustained these networks, based on class, country of origin, religion and culture. PMID:20471150

  2. Identification of Modules in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinan Erten; Mehmet Koyutürk

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a In biological systems, most processes are carried out through orchestration of multiple interacting molecules. These interactions\\u000a are often abstracted using network models. A key feature of cellular networks is their modularity, which contributes significantly\\u000a to the robustness, as well as adaptability of biological systems. Therefore, modularization of cellular networks is likely\\u000a to be useful in obtaining insights into the working

  3. Quantum Pattern Retrieval by Qubit Networks with Hebb Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2006-09-01

    Qubit networks with long-range interactions inspired by the Hebb rule can be used as quantum associative memories. Starting from a uniform superposition, the unitary evolution generated by these interactions drives the network through a quantum phase transition at a critical computation time, after which ferromagnetic order guarantees that a measurement retrieves the stored pattern. The maximum memory capacity of these qubit networks is reached at a memory density ?=p/n=1.

  4. Part I. Synthesis and characterization of donor-pi-acceptor compounds with pentadienyl-bridged indoline and tetrahydroquinoline donors and aldehyde and thiobarbituric acid acceptors Part II. Longitudinal study comparing online versus face-to-face course delivery in introductory chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Patrick F.

    Part I. The design and development of organic second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials have attracted much interest due to their applications in optoelectronic devices and modern communications technology. Donor-pi-acceptor compounds, D-(CH=CH)n-A, often exhibit hyperpolarizability that results in laser frequency doubling (second harmonic generation) and spectroscopic solvatochromism. To study the effect of donor amine geometry upon properties associated with second-order NLO behavior in simple donor-pi-acceptor compounds, equilibrium geometries and hyperpolarizabilities (beta) for donor-acceptor polyenes with amine donors were calculated at several levels of computational theory. Two new molecules with donors that only differ by one methylene group were chosen for comparison. Thus, 5-(N-methylindolin-5-yl)-2, 4-pentadienal (1a) and 5-(N-methyl-2, 3, 4-trihydroquinolin-6-yl)-2, 4-pentadienal (2a) were synthesized in two steps from starting materials described in the literature. These aldehydes were converted into stronger acceptors in one step to give diethylthiobarbituric acid derivatives 1c and 2c, as well as tricyanofuran derivatives 1d and 2d. Positive UV solvatochromism was observed in all three derivatives. NMR solvatochromism was most pronounced in 1c, and 2c vs. 1a and 2a as measured by changes in chemical shifts. Additionally, coupling constants showed more conjugation in 1c and 2c, where 1a and 2a showed less conjugation. Finally, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to compare decomposition and melting temperatures of these compounds to determine their stability. Aldehydes, 1a and 2a had distinct melting points, while the 1c, 2c, 1d, and 2d derivatives decomposed at temperatures above 150 °C. Part II. This longitudinal study focused on an introductory chemistry course taught using two different modes of delivery: online and face-to-face (FtF). The sections of the course using the different delivery modes covered the same material at the same level, used the same textbook, and were taught by the same instructor. Student success was tracked over a period of nine consecutive years along with other important dependent variables including the number of developmental courses taken, student age, math and reading placement scores, overall GPA and full time status. Surprisingly, student success correlated negatively to their placement scores. The students who chose the online course had higher overall GPA's and better placement test scores than the FtF students. Despite these advantages, online students were less successful than their FtF counterparts. This result suggests that FtF instruction was more effective, even with better students. These findings have important implications for institutions evaluating the role online instruction will play at their institutions.

  5. Dynamic interactions of proteins in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Appella, E.; Anderson, C.

    2009-10-01

    Recent advances in techniques such as NMR and EPR spectroscopy have enabled the elucidation of how proteins undergo structural changes to act in concert in complex networks. The three minireviews in this series highlight current findings and the capabilities of new methodologies for unraveling the dynamic changes controlling diverse cellular functions. They represent a sampling of the cutting-edge research presented at the 17th Meeting of Methods in Protein Structure Analysis, MPSA2008, in Sapporo, Japan, 26-29 August, 2008 (http://www.iapsap.bnl.gov). The first minireview, by Christensen and Klevit, reports on a structure-based yeast two-hybrid method for identifying E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes that interact with the E3 BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer ligase to generate either mono- or polyubiquitinated products. This method demonstrated for the first time that the BRCA1/BARD1 E3 can interact with 10 different E2 enzymes. Interestingly, the interaction with multiple E2 enzymes displayed unique ubiquitin-transfer properties, a feature expected to be common among other RING and U-box E3s. Further characterization of new E3 ligases and the E2 enzymes that interact with them will greatly enhance our understanding of ubiquitin transfer and facilitate studies of roles of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins in protein processing and trafficking. Stein et al., in the second minireview, describe recent progress in defining the binding specificity of different peptide-binding domains. The authors clearly point out that transient peptide interactions mediated by both post-translational modifications and disordered regions ensure a high level of specificity. They postulate that a regulatory code may dictate the number of combinations of domains and post-translational modifications needed to achieve the required level of interaction specificity. Moreover, recognition alone is not enough to obtain a stable complex, especially in a complex cellular environment. Increasing evidence indicates that disordered domains can acquire structural features that modulate the binding and strength of the signaling cascade. Whereas the first two minireviews describe ways in which protein interactions are modulated, the third, by Tompa, focuses on the importance of protein disorder in a subset of amyloid proteins. It is apparent that within this group, part of the polypeptide chain remains disordered during amyloid formation. Moreover, the disordered segments have different amino acid composition and physicochemical characteristics, which suggests that they may play a role in amyloid stability. The disordered region may serve as a linker to connect the ordered core and a globular domain, maintaining the stability and structure of the globular domain and minimizing protein refolding upon amyloid formation. As techniques in protein chemistry advance, we are learning more and more about the mechanisms that regulate and are regulated by protein interactions. The three minireviews in this series offer a glimpse of the complex dynamics fundamental to protein-protein interactions. In the future, we expect that the knowledge gained will help to augment our ability to control complex pathologies and treat diverse diseases states.

  6. The Effects of Follow-up and Peer Interaction on Quality of Performance and Completion of Online Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Marybeth; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the inclusion of online follow-up and online peer interaction with a face-to face workshop on quality of support plan and completion of a support plan by Texas school librarians. The study used a posttest-only control group experimental design with randomly assigned self-selected participants. Three online…

  7. K-12 Teachers' Perceptions of and Their Satisfaction with Interaction Type in Blended Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Yu-Chun; Belland, Brian R.; Schroder, Kerstin E. E.; Walker, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning is an effective approach to instruction that combines features of face-to-face learning and computer-mediated learning. This study investigated the relationship between student perceptions of three types of interaction and blended learning course satisfaction. The participants included K-12 teachers enrolled in a graduate-level…

  8. Using "You've Got Mail" to Teach Social Information Processing Theory and Hyperpersonal Perspective in Online Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Daria S.

    2011-01-01

    With the expansion of online interactions and exponential growth of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC), attention is brought to those theories in communication that address the implications of relationships developed within these contexts. In communication courses students learn about both face-to-face (FtF) and CMC relationships and have the…

  9. The Importance of Interaction for Academic Success in Online Courses with Hearing, Deaf, and Hard-of-Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary L.; Marchetti, Carol; Fasse, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of three studies within a program of research designed to better understand the factors contributing to the academic achievement of students in online courses and the contributions of interaction to online learning. The first study compared the academic achievement of students in the online and face-to-face (F2F)…

  10. Electronic Letters on Computer Vision and Image Analysis 7(4):1-12, 2008 Facial Emotional Classifier For Natural Interaction

    E-print Network

    Baldassarri, Sandra

    points) to extract relevant emotional information (basically five distances, presence of wrinkles forms of natural interaction. Key Words: Face and gesture recognition, emotional classifier, multimodal], human face-to-face communication is an ideal model for designing a multimodal human-computer interface

  11. Virtual Team Interactions in Networked Multimedia Games Case: \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Manninen

    This paper describes the findings of the ethnographical research concentrating on multiplayer games. The overall goal is to study the interaction in these networked multimedia environments. The focus is in finding out how the player teams interact and whether the current games provide enough possibilities for team interaction, either inside the game world or supported by real world communication. The

  12. Specific non-monotonous interactions increase persistence of ecological networks

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chuan; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between stability and biodiversity has long been debated in ecology due to opposing empirical observations and theoretical predictions. Species interaction strength is often assumed to be monotonically related to population density, but the effects on stability of ecological networks of non-monotonous interactions that change signs have not been investigated previously. We demonstrate that for four kinds of non-monotonous interactions, shifting signs to negative or neutral interactions at high population density increases persistence (a measure of stability) of ecological networks, while for the other two kinds of non-monotonous interactions shifting signs to positive interactions at high population density decreases persistence of networks. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of network stabilization caused by specific non-monotonous interaction types through either increasing stable equilibrium points or reducing unstable equilibrium points (or both). These specific non-monotonous interactions may be important in maintaining stable and complex ecological networks, as well as other networks such as genes, neurons, the internet and human societies. PMID:24478300

  13. Specific non-monotonous interactions increase persistence of ecological networks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chuan; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-03-22

    The relationship between stability and biodiversity has long been debated in ecology due to opposing empirical observations and theoretical predictions. Species interaction strength is often assumed to be monotonically related to population density, but the effects on stability of ecological networks of non-monotonous interactions that change signs have not been investigated previously. We demonstrate that for four kinds of non-monotonous interactions, shifting signs to negative or neutral interactions at high population density increases persistence (a measure of stability) of ecological networks, while for the other two kinds of non-monotonous interactions shifting signs to positive interactions at high population density decreases persistence of networks. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of network stabilization caused by specific non-monotonous interaction types through either increasing stable equilibrium points or reducing unstable equilibrium points (or both). These specific non-monotonous interactions may be important in maintaining stable and complex ecological networks, as well as other networks such as genes, neurons, the internet and human societies. PMID:24478300

  14. Communication and cooperation in networked environments: an experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, C; Ignazi, S; Vercesi, P; Riva, G

    2001-02-01

    Interpersonal communication and cooperation do not happen exclusively face to face. In work contexts, as in private life, there are more and more situations of mediated communication and cooperation in which new online tools are used. However, understanding how to use the Internet to support collaborative interaction presents a substantial challenge for the designers and users of this emerging technology. First, collaborative Internet environments are designed to serve a purpose, so must be designed with intended users' tasks and goals explicitly considered. Second, in cooperative activities the key content of communication is the interpretation of the situations in which actors are involved. So, the most effective way of clarifying the meaning of messages is to connect them to a shared context of meaning. However, this is more difficult in the Internet than in other computer-based activities. This paper tries to understand the characteristics of cooperative activities in networked environments--shared 3D virtual worlds--through two different studies. The first used the analysis of conversations to explore the characteristics of the interaction during the cooperative task; the second analyzed whether and how the level of immersion in the networked environments influenced the performance and the interactional process. The results are analyzed to identify the psychosocial roots used to support cooperation in a digital interactive communication. PMID:11709902

  15. Influence of degree correlations on network structure and stability in protein-protein interaction networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline C. Friedel; Ralf Zimmer

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The existence of negative correlations between degrees of interacting proteins is being discussed since such negative degree correlations were found for the large-scale yeast protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of Ito et al. More recent studies observed no such negative correlations for high-confidence interaction sets. In this article, we analyzed a range of experimentally derived interaction networks to understand the

  16. VNP: Interactive Visual Network Pharmacology of Diseases, Targets, and Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Q-N; Deng, Z; Tu, W; Yang, X; Meng, Z-B; Deng, Z-X; Liu, J

    2014-01-01

    In drug discovery, promiscuous targets, multifactorial diseases, and “dirty” drugs construct complex network relationships. Network pharmacology description and analysis not only give a systems-level understanding of drug action and disease complexity but can also help to improve the efficiency of target selection and drug design. Visual network pharmacology (VNP) is developed to visualize network pharmacology of targets, diseases, and drugs with a graph network by using disease, target or drug names, chemical structures, or protein sequence. To our knowledge, VNP is the first free interactive VNP server that should be very helpful for systems pharmacology research. VNP is freely available at http://cadd.whu.edu.cn/ditad/vnpsearch. PMID:24622768

  17. Empirical evaluation of neutral interactions in host-parasite networks.

    PubMed

    Canard, E F; Mouquet, N; Mouillot, D; Stanko, M; Miklisova, D; Gravel, D

    2014-04-01

    While niche-based processes have been invoked extensively to explain the structure of interaction networks, recent studies propose that neutrality could also be of great importance. Under the neutral hypothesis, network structure would simply emerge from random encounters between individuals and thus would be directly linked to species abundance. We investigated the impact of species abundance distributions on qualitative and quantitative metrics of 113 host-parasite networks. We analyzed the concordance between neutral expectations and empirical observations at interaction, species, and network levels. We found that species abundance accurately predicts network metrics at all levels. Despite host-parasite systems being constrained by physiology and immunology, our results suggest that neutrality could also explain, at least partially, their structure. We hypothesize that trait matching would determine potential interactions between species, while abundance would determine their realization. PMID:24642492

  18. VANLO - Interactive visual exploration of aligned biological networks

    PubMed Central

    Brasch, Steffen; Linsen, Lars; Fuellen, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is fundamental to many biological processes. In the course of evolution, biological networks such as protein-protein interaction networks have developed. Biological networks of different species can be aligned by finding instances (e.g. proteins) with the same common ancestor in the evolutionary process, so-called orthologs. For a better understanding of the evolution of biological networks, such aligned networks have to be explored. Visualization can play a key role in making the various relationships transparent. Results We present a novel visualization system for aligned biological networks in 3D space that naturally embeds existing 2D layouts. In addition to displaying the intra-network connectivities, we also provide insight into how the individual networks relate to each other by placing aligned entities on top of each other in separate layers. We optimize the layout of the entire alignment graph in a global fashion that takes into account inter- as well as intra-network relationships. The layout algorithm includes a step of merging aligned networks into one graph, laying out the graph with respect to application-specific requirements, splitting the merged graph again into individual networks, and displaying the network alignment in layers. In addition to representing the data in a static way, we also provide different interaction techniques to explore the data with respect to application-specific tasks. Conclusion Our system provides an intuitive global understanding of aligned PPI networks and it allows the investigation of key biological questions. We evaluate our system by applying it to real-world examples documenting how our system can be used to investigate the data with respect to these key questions. Our tool VANLO (Visualization of Aligned Networks with Layout Optimization) can be accessed at . PMID:19821976

  19. A Topological Description of Hubs in Amino Acid Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gaci, Omar

    2010-01-01

    We represent proteins by amino acid interaction networks. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Once we have compared this type of graphs to the general model of scale-free networks, we analyze the existence of nodes which highly interact, the hubs. We describe these nodes taking into account their position in the primary structure to study their apparition frequency in the folded proteins. Finally, we observe that their interaction level is a consequence of the general rules which govern the folding process. PMID:20585353

  20. Socioeconomic networks with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Rui; Iori, Giulia

    2008-07-01

    We study a modified version of a model previously proposed by Jackson and Wolinsky to account for communication of information and allocation of goods in socioeconomic networks. In the model, the utility function of each node is given by a weighted sum of contributions from all accessible nodes. The weights, parametrized by the variable ? , decrease with distance. We introduce a growth mechanism where new nodes attach to the existing network preferentially by utility. By increasing ? , the network structure evolves from a power-law to an exponential degree distribution, passing through a regime characterized by shorter average path length, lower degree assortativity, and higher central point dominance. In the second part of the paper we compare different network structures in terms of the average utility received by each node. We show that power-law networks provide higher average utility than Poisson random networks. This provides a possible justification for the ubiquitousness of scale-free networks in the real world.

  1. The Biomolecular Interaction Network Database and related tools 2005 update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Alfarano; C. E. Andrade; K. Anthony; N. Bahroos; M. Bajec; K. Bantoft; Doron Betel; B. Bobechko; K. Boutilier; E. Burgess; K. Buzadzija; R. Cavero; C. D'abreo; Ian Donaldson; D. Dorairajoo; M. J. Dumontier; M. R. Dumontier; V. Earles; R. Farrall; Howard J. Feldman; E. Garderman; Y. Gong; R. Gonzaga; V. Grytsan; E. Gryz; V. Gu; E. Haldorsen; A. Halupa; R. Haw; A. Hrvojic; L. Hurrell; Ruth Isserlin; F. Jack; F. Juma; A. Khan; T. Kon; S. Konopinsky; V. Le; E. Lee; S. Ling; M. Magidin; J. Moniakis; J. Montojo; S. Moore; B. Muskat; I. Ng; J. P. Paraiso; B. Parker; Greg Pintilie; R. Pirone; John J. Salama; S. Sgro; T. Shan; Y. Shu; J. Siew; D. Skinner; Kevin A. Snyder; R. Stasiuk; D. Strumpf; Brigitte Tuekam; S. Tao; Z. Wang; M. White; R. Willis; Cheryl Wolting; S. Wong; A. Wrong; C. Xin; R. Yao; B. Yates; S. Zhang; K. Zheng; Tony Pawson; B. F. Francis Ouellette; Christopher W. V. Hogue

    2005-01-01

    The Biomolecular Interaction Network Database (BIND) (http:\\/\\/bind.ca) archives biomolecular interac- tion, reaction, complex and pathway information. Our aim is to curate the details about molecular interac- tionsthatarisefrompublishedexperimentalresearch and to provide this information, as well as tools to

  2. Cross-Species Analysis of Protein-protein Interaction Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nir Yosef; Eytan Ruppin; Roded Sharan

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a Data on protein-protein interactions are increasing exponentially. To date, large scale protein interaction networks are available\\u000a for human and most model species. The arising challenge is to organize these networks into models of cellular machinery. As\\u000a in other biological domains, a comparative approach provides a powerful basis for addressing this challenge. In this chapter\\u000a we review the on-going effort for

  3. Geometric Denoising of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleksii Kuchaiev; Marija Rašajski; Desmond J. Higham; Nataša Pržulj

    2009-01-01

    Understanding complex networks of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is one of the foremost challenges of the post-genomic era. Due to the recent advances in experimental bio-technology, including yeast-2-hybrid (Y2H), tandem affinity purification (TAP) and other high-throughput methods for protein-protein interaction (PPI) detection, huge amounts of PPI network data are becoming available. Of major concern, however, are the levels of noise and

  4. Geometric Denoising of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleksii Kuchaiev; Marija Raÿsajski; Desmond J. Higham; Nataša Pržulj

    2009-01-01

    Understanding complex networks of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is one of the foremost challenges of the post-genomic era. Due to the recent advances in experimental bio-technology including yeast-2- hybrid (Y2H), tandem affinity purification (TAP) and other high-throughput methods for protein-protein interaction (PPI) detection, huge amounts of PPI network data are becoming available. Of major concern, however, are the levels of noise

  5. Protein Interactions and Fluctuations in a Proteomic Network using an Elastic Network Model

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Protein Interactions and Fluctuations in a Proteomic Network using an Elastic Network Model http://www.jbsdonline.com Abstract A set of protein conformations are analyzed by normal mode analysis. An elastic network model different species. Slow modes that are associated with the function of proteins have common features among

  6. Developing an online professional network for veterinary education: the NOVICE project.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Sarah; Kinnison, Tierney; Forrest, Neil; Dale, Vicki H M; Ehlers, Jan P; Koch, Michael; Mándoki, Mira; Ciobotaru, Emilia; de Groot, Esther; Boerboom, Tobias B B; van Beukelen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    An online professional network for veterinarians, veterinary students, veterinary educationalists, and ICT (Information and Communication Technology) educationalists is being developed under the EU (European Union) Lifelong Learning Programme. The network uses Web 2.0, a term used to describe the new, more interactive version of the Internet, and includes tools such as wikis, blogs, and discussion boards. Focus groups conducted with qualified and student veterinarians within the project's five founding countries (The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom, Hungary, Romania) demonstrated that online professional communities can be valuable for accessing information and establishing contacts. Online networks have the potential to overcome common challenges to face-to-face communities-such as distance, cost, and timing-but they have their own drawbacks, such as security and professionalism issues. The Network Of Veterinary ICt in Education (NOVICE) was developed using Elgg, an open-source, free social networking platform, after several software options had been considered. NOVICE aims to promote the understanding of Web 2.0, confidence to use social software tools, and participation in an online community. Therefore, the Web site contains help sections, Frequently Asked Questions, and access to support from ICT experts. Five months after the network's launch (and just over one year into the project) 515 members from 28 countries had registered. Further research will include analysis of a core group's activities, which will inform ongoing support for and development of informal, lifelong learning in a veterinary context. PMID:22130415

  7. Combinatorial Complexity and Compositional Drift in Protein Interaction Networks

    E-print Network

    Fontana, Walter

    Combinatorial Complexity and Compositional Drift in Protein Interaction Networks Eric J. Deeds1 the consequences of these characteristics for the global dynamics of a PPI network based on highly curated yeast types of data, such as genomic sequences and protein structures. However, at increasing rate, proteomic

  8. An ensemble framework for clustering protein-protein interaction networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sitaram Asur; Duygu Ucar; Srinivasan Parthasarathy

    2007-01-01

    Motivation: Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) networks are believed to be important sources of information related to biological processes and complex metabolic functions of the cell. The presence of biologically relevant functional modules in these networks has been theorized by many researchers. However, the application of traditional clustering algorithms for extracting these modules has not been successful, largely due to the presence

  9. Development of Attention Networks and Their Interactions in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozuelos, Joan P.; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.; Castillo, Alejandro; Fuentes, Luis J.; Rueda, M. Rosario

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated developmental trajectories of alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks and their interactions over childhood. Two cross-sectional experiments were conducted with different samples of 6-to 12-year-old children using modified versions of the attention network task (ANT). In Experiment 1 (N = 106),…

  10. Zigbee Wireless Sensor Network for better Interactive Industrial Automation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoj Kollam; S. R. Bhagya Shree Shree

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a Modbus Enabled Zigbee Wireless Sensor Network “WSN” for better Interactive Industrial Automation. The Modbus protocol is embedded into Zigbee stack, providing a friendly interface to observe the information in the wireless network efficiently and to provide the On Demand Response to the requests. It consists of a Coordinator and the sensor nodes.

  11. Linking Classrooms of the Future through Interactive Telecommunications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisco, Ponney G.

    This document describes an interactive television (ITV) distance education network designed to service rural schools. Phase one of the network involved the installation of over 14 miles of fiber optic cable linking two high schools, a career center, and the University of Rio Grande; phase two will bring seven high schools in economically depressed…

  12. The effect of active training in reducing severe drug interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Background: Medication errors are among the most important medical errors. Considering the current trend of poly-pharmacy and a high average number of drugs in prescriptions, drug interactions are of great significance. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of educational interventions including face-to-face, audit feedback and educational notes, among Gorgan physicians. Methods: With an initial estimation of 8% severe drug interactions (95%

  13. Collaboration of Interactive Table System and Event System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuichi Nishimura; Ikuko Yairi; Seiji Igi

    We proposed MultiAudable (Multi-Audio Interactive Table) system, which is an interactive table with individual audio feedback capability in order to enhance face-to-face activities such as collaborative work or competitive game. A user can hear sound individually according to his\\/her finger position on the table using a finger CoBIT (Compact Battery-less Information Terminal) that we previously proposed. We are also developing

  14. Functional and Transcriptional Coherency of Modules in the Human Protein Interaction Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias E. Futschik; Gautam Chaurasia; Anna Tschaut; Jenny Russ; M. Madan Babu; Hanspeter Herzel

    2007-01-01

    Summary Modularity is a major design principle in interaction networks. Various studies have shown that protein interaction networks in prokaryotes and eukaryotes display a modular structure. A majority of the studies have been performed for the yeast interaction network, for which data have become abundant. The systematic examination of the human protein interaction network, however, is still in an early

  15. An Interactive Object Based Multimedia System for IP Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda El Zarki; Liang Cheng; Haining Liu; Xiaoping Wei

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a flexible framework for an IP-based network that will support an interactive multimedia (MM) system. The system will enable end users to: 1) author their own MM presentations, 2) control the delivery of the presentation, and 3) interact with the content (media objects) to make changes to the presentation in real time.

  16. Biodiversity, Species Interactions and Ecological Networks in a

    E-print Network

    de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

    Claro,Sa~o Paulo,Brazil # School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London.4 Antagonistic interactions within food webs 134 5.5 Antagonistic host­parasitoid interactions 135 5.6 Summary 6.6 Antagonistic host­parasitoid networks 160 6.7 General effects of habitat fragmentation

  17. Social Network Extraction and Analysis Based on Multimodal Dyadic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Escalera, Sergio; Baró, Xavier; Vitrià, Jordi; Radeva, Petia; Raducanu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions are a very important component in people’s lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times’ Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links’ weights are a measure of the “influence” a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network. PMID:22438733

  18. Exploring biological interaction networks with tailored weighted quasi-bicliques

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological networks provide fundamental insights into the functional characterization of genes and their products, the characterization of DNA-protein interactions, the identification of regulatory mechanisms, and other biological tasks. Due to the experimental and biological complexity, their computational exploitation faces many algorithmic challenges. Results We introduce novel weighted quasi-biclique problems to identify functional modules in biological networks when represented by bipartite graphs. In difference to previous quasi-biclique problems, we include biological interaction levels by using edge-weighted quasi-bicliques. While we prove that our problems are NP-hard, we also describe IP formulations to compute exact solutions for moderately sized networks. Conclusions We verify the effectiveness of our IP solutions using both simulation and empirical data. The simulation shows high quasi-biclique recall rates, and the empirical data corroborate the abilities of our weighted quasi-bicliques in extracting features and recovering missing interactions from biological networks. PMID:22759421

  19. Evolutionary Pressure on the Topology of Protein Interface Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    The densely connected structure of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks reflects on the functional need of proteins to co-operate in cellular processes. However, PPI networks do not adequately capture the competition in protein binding. By contrast, the interface interaction network (IIN) studied here resolves the modular character of protein-protein binding and distinguishes between simultaneous and exclusive interactions that underlie both co-operation and competition. We show that the topology of the IIN is under evolutionary pressure and we connect topological features of the IIN to specific biological functions. To reveal the forces shaping the network topology, we use a sequence-based computational model of interface binding along with network analysis. We find that the more fragmented structure of IINs, in contrast to the dense PPI networks, arises in large part from the competition between specific and nonspecific binding. The need to minimize nonspecific binding favors specific network motifs, including a minimal number of cliques (i.e., fully connected subgraphs) and many disconnected fragments. Validating the model, we find that these network characteristics are closely mirrored in the IIN of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Features unexpected on the basis of our motif analysis are found to indicate either exceptional binding selectivity or important regulatory functions. PMID:23701316

  20. Interactive microcomputer-aided analysis of tensile network structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenloffel, K.; Adeli, H.

    1994-03-01

    Cable network structures not only provide economical solutions for spanning large-span earth structures but are potentially useful for space applications for three reasons: light structural weight, speed of construction, and reusability. Analysis of cable network systems can be complex because of their geometrically nonlinear behavior. This paper presents interactive microcomputer-aided analysis of tensile network structures. A multi-window graphic-oriented system has been developed for interactive analysis of three different classes of network structures: freely suspended synclastic-surface (dish-shaped) nets, prestressed flat nets, and prestressed anticlastic-surface (saddle-shaped) nets. The program is written in the QuickBASIC programming language for the IBM PS/2 computers. An iterative Newton-Raphson method is employed for the solution of the nonlinear system of equations; incremental loading is used for highly nonlinear network structures. Extensive graphic displays aid the user during preprocessing and postprocessing.

  1. Motifs, themes and thematic maps of an integrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae interaction network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan V Zhang; Oliver D King; Sharyl L Wong; Debra S Goldberg; Amy HY Tong; Guillaume Lesage; Brenda Andrews; Howard Bussey; Charles Boone; Frederick P Roth

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Large-scale studies have revealed networks of various biological interaction types, such as protein-protein interaction, genetic interaction, transcriptional regulation, sequence homology, and expression correlation. Recurring patterns of interconnection, or 'network motifs', have revealed biological insights for networks containing either one or two types of interaction. RESULTS: To study more complex relationships involving multiple biological interaction types, we assembled an

  2. Integrating protein-protein interaction networks with phenotypes reveals signs of interactions

    PubMed Central

    Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Zirin, Jonathan; Roesel, Charles; Hu, Yanhui; Yilmazel, Bahar; Samsonova, Anastasia A.; Neumüller, Ralph A.; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    A major objective of systems biology is to organize molecular interactions as networks and to characterize information-flow within networks. We describe a computational framework to integrate protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and genetic screens to predict the “signs” of interactions (i.e. activation/inhibition relationships). We constructed a Drosophila melanogaster signed PPI network, consisting of 6,125 signed PPIs connecting 3,352 proteins that can be used to identify positive and negative regulators of signaling pathways and protein complexes. We identified an unexpected role for the metabolic enzymes Enolase and Aldo-keto reductase as positive and negative regulators of proteolysis, respectively. Characterization of the activation/inhibition relationships between physically interacting proteins within signaling pathways will impact our understanding of many biological functions, including signal transduction and mechanisms of disease. PMID:24240319

  3. Appropriation of a Representational Tool in a Second-Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Yun; Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    While the affordances of face-to-face and online environments have been studied somewhat extensively, there is relatively less research on how technology-mediated learning takes place across multiple media in the networked classroom environment where face-to-face and online interactions are intertwined, especially in the context of language…

  4. A network of protein–protein interactions in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benno Schwikowski; Peter Uetz

    2000-01-01

    A global analysis of 2,709 published interactions between proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been performed, enabling the establishment of a single large network of 2,358 interactions among 1,548 proteins. Proteins of known function and cellular location tend to cluster together, with 63% of the interactions occurring between proteins with a common functional assignment and 76% occurring between proteins

  5. Network simulation reveals significant contribution of network motifs to the age-dependency of yeast protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cheng; Luo, Jiawei; Song, Dan

    2014-07-29

    Advances in proteomic technologies combined with sophisticated computing and modeling methods have generated an unprecedented amount of high-throughput data for system-scale analysis. As a result, the study of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has garnered much attention in recent years. One of the most fundamental problems in studying PPI networks is to understand how their architecture originated and evolved to their current state. By investigating how proteins of different ages are connected in the yeast PPI networks, one can deduce their expansion procedure in evolution and how the ancient primitive network expanded and evolved. Studies have shown that proteins are often connected to other proteins of a similar age, suggesting a high degree of age preference between interacting proteins. Though several theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, none of them considered protein-clusters as a contributing factor. Here we first investigate the age-dependency of the proteins from the perspective of network motifs. Our analysis confirms that proteins of the same age groups tend to form interacting network motifs; furthermore, those proteins within motifs tend to be within protein complexes and the interactions among them largely contribute to the observed age preference in the yeast PPI networks. In light of these results, we describe a new modeling approach, based on "network motifs", whereby topologically connected protein clusters in the network are treated as single evolutionary units. Instead of modeling single proteins, our approach models the connections and evolutionary relationships of multiple related protein clusters or "network motifs" that are collectively integrated into an existing PPI network. Through simulation studies, we found that the "network motif" modeling approach can capture yeast PPI network properties better than if individual proteins were considered to be the simplest evolutionary units. Our approach provides a fresh perspective on modeling the evolution of yeast PPI networks, specifically that PPI networks may have a much higher age-dependency of interaction density than had been previously envisioned. PMID:24964354

  6. Intimate Strangers and Estranged Intimates: An Investigation of the Impact of Instant Messaging and Short Message Service on the Size and Strength of Social Networks in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sanaa, Bashaiar

    2009-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) have revolutionized how people experience spatial proximity, reality, and connectivity. These technologies provide inexpensive access to anything and anyone in the world. They also replicate face-to-face interaction in cyber-space and allow for participation in numerous modes of social exchange. …

  7. Microbial interaction networks in soil and in silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetsigian, Kalin

    2012-02-01

    Soil harbors a huge number of microbial species interacting through secretion of antibiotics and other chemicals. What patterns of species interactions allow for this astonishing biodiversity to be sustained, and how do these interactions evolve? I used a combined experimental-theoretical approach to tackle these questions. Focusing on bacteria from the genus Steptomyces, known for their diverse secondary metabolism, I isolated 64 natural strains from several individual grains of soil and systematically measured all pairwise interactions among them. Quantitative measurements on such scale were enabled by a novel experimental platform based on robotic handling, a custom scanner array and automatic image analysis. This unique platform allowed the simultaneous capturing of ˜15,000 time-lapse movies of growing colonies of each isolate on media conditioned by each of the other isolates. The data revealed a rich network of strong negative (inhibitory) and positive (stimulating) interactions. Analysis of this network and the phylogeny of the isolates, together with mathematical modeling of microbial communities, revealed that: 1) The network of interactions has three special properties: ``balance'', ``bi- modality'' and ``reciprocity''; 2) The interaction network is fast evolving; 3) Mathematical modeling explains how rapid evolution can give rise to the three special properties through an interplay between ecology and evolution. These properties are not a result of stable co-existence, but rather of continuous evolutionary turnover of strains with different production and resistance capabilities.

  8. Applying Machine Learning to Infant Interaction: The Development is in the Details

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Daniel; Ruvolo, Paul; Ekas, Naomi V; Fogel, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The face-to-face interactions of infants and their parents are a model system in which critical communicative abilities emerge. We apply machine learning methods to explore the predictability of infant and mother behavior during interaction with an eye to understanding the preconditions of infant intentionality. Overall, developmental changes were most evident when the probability of specific behaviors was examined in specific interactive contexts. Mother’s smiled predictably in response to infant smiles, for example, and infant smile initiations become more predictable over developmental time. Analysis of face-to-face interaction—a tractable model system—promise to pave the way for the construction of virtual and physical agents who are able to interact and develop. PMID:20863654

  9. Residue interaction network analysis of Dronpa and a DNA clamp.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang; Yan, Wenying; Zhou, Jianhong; Shen, Bairong

    2014-05-01

    Topology is an essential aspect of protein structure. The network paradigm is increasingly used to describe the topology and dynamics of proteins. In this paper, the effect of topology on residue interaction network was investigated for two different proteins: Dronpa and a DNA clamp, which have cylindrical and toroidal topologies, respectively. Network metrics including characteristic path lengths, clustering coefficients, and diameters were calculated to investigate their global topology parameters such as small-world properties and packing density. Measures of centrality including betweenness, closeness, and residue centrality were computed to predict residues critical to function. Additionally, the detailed topology of the hydrophobic pocket in Dronpa, and communication pathways across the interface in the DNA clamp, were investigated using the network. The results are presented and discussed with regard to existing residue interaction network properties of globular proteins and elastic network models on Dronpa and the DNA clamp. The topological principle underlying residue interaction networks provided insight into the architectural organization of proteins. PMID:24486230

  10. The evolutionary dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein interaction network after duplication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aviva Presser; Michael B. Elowitz; Manolis Kellis; Roy Kishony

    2008-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism in the evolution of protein interaction networks. Duplications are followed by the gain and loss of interactions, rewiring the network at some unknown rate. Because rewiring is likely to change the distribution of network motifs within the duplicated interaction set, it should be possible to study network rewiring by tracking the evolution of these

  11. NetworkView: 3D display and analysis of protein·RNA interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Eargle, John; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2012-01-01

    Summary: NetworkView is an application for the display and analysis of protein·RNA interaction networks derived from structure and/or dynamics. These networks typically model individual protein residues and nucleic acid monomers as nodes and their pairwise contacts as edges with associated weights. NetworkView projects the network onto the underlying 3D molecular structure so that visualization and analysis of the network can be coupled to physical and biological properties. NetworkView is implemented as a plugin to the molecular visualization software VMD. Availability and implementation: NetworkView is included with VMD, which is available at http://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Research/vmd/. Documentation, tutorials and supporting programs are available at http://www.scs.illinois.edu/schulten/software/. Contact: networkview@scs.illinois.edu PMID:22982572

  12. Characterizing interactions in online social networks during exceptional events

    E-print Network

    Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, millions of people interact on a daily basis on online social media like Facebook and Twitter, where they share and discuss information about a wide variety of topics. In this paper, we focus on a specific online social network, Twitter, and we analyze multiple datasets each one consisting of individuals' online activity before, during and after an exceptional event in terms of volume of the communications registered. We consider important events that occurred in different arenas that range from policy to culture or science. For each dataset, the users' online activities are modeled by a multilayer network in which each layer conveys a different kind of interaction, specifically: retweeting, mentioning and replying. This representation allows us to unveil that these distinct types of interaction produce networks with different statistical properties, in particular concerning the degree distribution and the clustering structure. These results suggests that models of online activity cannot discard the...

  13. Topology and static response of interaction networks in molecular biology

    PubMed Central

    Radulescu, Ovidiu; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Siegel, Anne; Veber, Philippe; Le Borgne, Michel

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a mathematical framework describing static response of networks occurring in molecular biology. This formalism has many similarities with the Laplace–Kirchhoff equations for electrical networks. We introduce the concept of graph boundary and we show how the response of the biological networks to external perturbations can be related to the Dirichlet or Neumann problems for the corresponding equations on the interaction graph. Solutions to these two problems are given in terms of path moduli (measuring path rigidity with respect to the propagation of interaction along the graph). Path moduli are related to loop products in the interaction graph via generalized Mason–Coates formulae. We apply our results to two specific biological examples: the lactose operon and the genetic regulation of lipogenesis. Our applications show consistency with experimental results and in the case of lipogenesis check some hypothesis on the behaviour of hepatic fatty acids on fasting. PMID:16849230

  14. Evaluating Australian football league player contributions using interactive network simulation.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Jonathan; Bedford, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL) players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line ". Key pointsA simulated interaction matrix for Australian Rules football players is proposedThe simulations were carried out by fitting unique negative binomial distributions to each player pairing in a sideEigenvector centrality was calculated for each player in a simulated matrix, then for the teamThe team centrality measure adequately predicted the team's winning marginA player's net effect on margin could hence be estimated by replacing him in the simulated side with another player. PMID:24149734

  15. Dynamic interactions of proteins in complex networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ettore Appella; Carl W. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques such as NMR and EPR spectroscopy have enabled the elucidation of how proteins undergo structural changes to act in concert in complex networks. The three minireviews in this series highlight current findings and the capabilities of new methodologies for unraveling the dynamic changes controlling diverse cellular functions. They represent a sampling of the cutting-edge research presented

  16. Alignment of protein interaction networks by integer quadratic programming.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenping; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Shihua; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Chen, Luonan

    2006-01-01

    With more and more data on protein-protein interaction (PPI) network available, the discovery of conserved patterns in these networks becomes an increasingly important problem. In this paper, to find the conserved substructures, we develop an efficient algorithm for aligning PPI networks based on both the protein sequence similarity and the network architecture similarity, by using integer quadratic programming (IQP). Such an IQP can be relaxed into the corresponding quadratic programming (QP) which in the case of biological data sets almost always ensures the integer solution. Therefore, a QP algorithm can be adopted to efficiently solve this IQP with out any approximation, thereby making PPI network alignment tractable. From the viewpoint of graph theory, the proposed method can identify similar subsets between two graphs, which allow gaps for nodes and edges. PMID:17945906

  17. Interface-resolved network of protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Margaret E; Hummer, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    We define an interface-interaction network (IIN) to capture the specificity and competition between protein-protein interactions (PPI). This new type of network represents interactions between individual interfaces used in functional protein binding and thereby contains the detail necessary to describe the competition and cooperation between any pair of binding partners. Here we establish a general framework for the construction of IINs that merges computational structure-based interface assignment with careful curation of available literature. To complement limited structural data, the inclusion of biochemical data is critical for achieving the accuracy and completeness necessary to analyze the specificity and competition between the protein interactions. Firstly, this procedure provides a means to clarify the information content of existing data on purported protein interactions and to remove indirect and spurious interactions. Secondly, the IIN we have constructed here for proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) exhibits distinctive topological properties. In contrast to PPI networks with their global and relatively dense connectivity, the fragmentation of the IIN into distinctive network modules suggests that different functional pressures act on the evolution of its topology. Large modules in the IIN are formed by interfaces sharing specificity for certain domain types, such as SH3 domains distributed across different proteins. The shared and distinct specificity of an interface is necessary for effective negative and positive design of highly selective binding targets. Lastly, the organization of detailed structural data in a network format allows one to identify pathways of specific binding interactions and thereby predict effects of mutations at specific surfaces on a protein and of specific binding inhibitors, as we explore in several examples. Overall, the endocytosis IIN is remarkably complex and rich in features masked in the coarser PPI, and collects relevant detail of protein association in a readily interpretable format. PMID:23696724

  18. Graph spectral analysis of protein interaction network evolution

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Thomas; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of protein interaction network data via the comparison of models of network evolution to the observed data. We take a Bayesian approach and perform posterior density estimation using an approximate Bayesian computation with sequential Monte Carlo method. Our approach allows us to perform model selection over a selection of potential network growth models. The methodology we apply uses a distance defined in terms of graph spectra which captures the network data more naturally than previously used summary statistics such as the degree distribution. Furthermore, we include the effects of sampling into the analysis, to properly correct for the incompleteness of existing datasets, and have analysed the performance of our method under various degrees of sampling. We consider a number of models focusing not only on the biologically relevant class of duplication models, but also including models of scale-free network growth that have previously been claimed to describe such data. We find a preference for a duplication-divergence with linear preferential attachment model in the majority of the interaction datasets considered. We also illustrate how our method can be used to perform multi-model inference of network parameters to estimate properties of the full network from sampled data. PMID:22552917

  19. Graph spectral analysis of protein interaction network evolution.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Thomas; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2012-10-01

    We present an analysis of protein interaction network data via the comparison of models of network evolution to the observed data. We take a bayesian approach and perform posterior density estimation using an approximate bayesian computation with sequential Monte Carlo method. Our approach allows us to perform model selection over a selection of potential network growth models. The methodology we apply uses a distance defined in terms of graph spectra which captures the network data more naturally than previously used summary statistics such as the degree distribution. Furthermore, we include the effects of sampling into the analysis, to properly correct for the incompleteness of existing datasets, and have analysed the performance of our method under various degrees of sampling. We consider a number of models focusing not only on the biologically relevant class of duplication models, but also including models of scale-free network growth that have previously been claimed to describe such data. We find a preference for a duplication-divergence with linear preferential attachment model in the majority of the interaction datasets considered. We also illustrate how our method can be used to perform multi-model inference of network parameters to estimate properties of the full network from sampled data. PMID:22552917

  20. Strong interactions between spinal cord networks for locomotion and scratching.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhao-Zhe; Spardy, Lucy E; Nguyen, Edward B L; Rubin, Jonathan E; Berkowitz, Ari

    2011-10-01

    Distinct rhythmic behaviors involving a common set of motoneurons and muscles can be generated by separate central nervous system (CNS) networks, a single network, or partly overlapping networks in invertebrates. Less is known for vertebrates. Simultaneous activation of two networks can reveal overlap or interactions between them. The turtle spinal cord contains networks that generate locomotion and three forms of scratching (rostral, pocket, and caudal), having different knee-hip synergies. Here, we report that in immobilized spinal turtles, simultaneous delivery of types of stimulation, which individually evoked forward swimming and one form of scratching, could 1) increase the rhythm frequency; 2) evoke switches, hybrids, and intermediate motor patterns; 3) recruit a swim motor pattern even when the swim stimulation was reduced to subthreshold intensity; and 4) disrupt rhythm generation entirely. The strength of swim stimulation could influence the result. Thus even pocket scratching and caudal scratching, which do not share a knee-hip synergy with forward swimming, can interact with swim stimulation to alter both rhythm and pattern generation. Model simulations were used to explore the compatibility of our experimental results with hypothetical network architectures for rhythm generation. Models could reproduce experimental observations only if they included interactions between neurons involved in swim and scratch rhythm generation, with maximal consistency between simulations and experiments attained using a model architecture in which certain neurons participated actively in both swim and scratch rhythmogenesis. Collectively, these findings suggest that the spinal cord networks that generate locomotion and scratching have important shared components or strong interactions between them. PMID:21734103

  1. GINI: From ISH Images to Gene Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Puniyani, Kriti; Xing, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate inference of molecular and functional interactions among genes, especially in multicellular organisms such as Drosophila, often requires statistical analysis of correlations not only between the magnitudes of gene expressions, but also between their temporal-spatial patterns. The ISH (in-situ-hybridization)-based gene expression micro-imaging technology offers an effective approach to perform large-scale spatial-temporal profiling of whole-body mRNA abundance. However, analytical tools for discovering gene interactions from such data remain an open challenge due to various reasons, including difficulties in extracting canonical representations of gene activities from images, and in inference of statistically meaningful networks from such representations. In this paper, we present GINI, a machine learning system for inferring gene interaction networks from Drosophila embryonic ISH images. GINI builds on a computer-vision-inspired vector-space representation of the spatial pattern of gene expression in ISH images, enabled by our recently developed system; and a new multi-instance-kernel algorithm that learns a sparse Markov network model, in which, every gene (i.e., node) in the network is represented by a vector-valued spatial pattern rather than a scalar-valued gene intensity as in conventional approaches such as a Gaussian graphical model. By capturing the notion of spatial similarity of gene expression, and at the same time properly taking into account the presence of multiple images per gene via multi-instance kernels, GINI is well-positioned to infer statistically sound, and biologically meaningful gene interaction networks from image data. Using both synthetic data and a small manually curated data set, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in network building. Furthermore, we report results on a large publicly available collection of Drosophila embryonic ISH images from the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, where GINI makes novel and interesting predictions of gene interactions. Software for GINI is available at http://sailing.cs.cmu.edu/Drosophila_ISH_images/ PMID:24130465

  2. Methods for Mapping of Interaction Networks Involving Membrane Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, Brian S.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Lin, Chiann Tso

    2007-11-23

    Numerous approaches have been taken to study protein interactions, such as tagged protein complex isolation followed by mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid methods, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, surface plasmon resonance, site-directed mutagenesis, and crystallography. Membrane protein interactions pose significant challenges due to the need to solubilize membranes without disrupting protein-protein interactions. Traditionally, analysis of isolated protein complexes by high-resolution 2D gel electrophoresis has been the main method used to obtain an overall picture of proteome constituents and interactions. However, this method is time consuming, labor intensive, detects only abundant proteins and is not suitable for the coverage required to elucidate large interaction networks. In this review, we discuss the application of various methods to elucidate interactions involving membrane proteins. These techniques include methods for the direct isolation of single complexes or interactors as well as methods for characterization of entire subcellular and cellular interactomes.

  3. Interactions between Distant ceRNAs in Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nitzan, Mor; Steiman-Shimony, Avital; Altuvia, Yael; Biham, Ofer; Margalit, Hanah

    2014-01-01

    Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) were recently introduced as RNA transcripts that affect each other’s expression level through competition for their microRNA (miRNA) coregulators. This stems from the bidirectional effects between miRNAs and their target RNAs, where a change in the expression level of one target affects the level of the miRNA regulator, which in turn affects the level of other targets. By the same logic, miRNAs that share targets compete over binding to their common targets and therefore also exhibit ceRNA-like behavior. Taken together, perturbation effects could propagate in the posttranscriptional regulatory network through a path of coregulated targets and miRNAs that share targets, suggesting the existence of distant ceRNAs. Here we study the prevalence of distant ceRNAs and their effect in cellular networks. Analyzing the network of miRNA-target interactions deciphered experimentally in HEK293 cells, we show that it is a dense, intertwined network, suggesting that many nodes can act as distant ceRNAs of one another. Indeed, using gene expression data from a perturbation experiment, we demonstrate small, yet statistically significant, changes in gene expression caused by distant ceRNAs in that network. We further characterize the magnitude of the propagated perturbation effect and the parameters affecting it by mathematical modeling and simulations. Our results show that the magnitude of the effect depends on the generation and degradation rates of involved miRNAs and targets, their interaction rates, the distance between the ceRNAs and the topology of the network. Although demonstrated for a miRNA-mRNA regulatory network, our results offer what to our knowledge is a new view on various posttranscriptional cellular networks, expanding the concept of ceRNAs and implying possible distant cross talk within the network, with consequences for the interpretation of indirect effects of gene perturbation. PMID:24853754

  4. Stabilization of perturbed Boolean network attractors through compensatory interactions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding and ameliorating the effects of network damage are of significant interest, due in part to the variety of applications in which network damage is relevant. For example, the effects of genetic mutations can cascade through within-cell signaling and regulatory networks and alter the behavior of cells, possibly leading to a wide variety of diseases. The typical approach to mitigating network perturbations is to consider the compensatory activation or deactivation of system components. Here, we propose a complementary approach wherein interactions are instead modified to alter key regulatory functions and prevent the network damage from triggering a deregulatory cascade. Results We implement this approach in a Boolean dynamic framework, which has been shown to effectively model the behavior of biological regulatory and signaling networks. We show that the method can stabilize any single state (e.g., fixed point attractors or time-averaged representations of multi-state attractors) to be an attractor of the repaired network. We show that the approach is minimalistic in that few modifications are required to provide stability to a chosen attractor and specific in that interventions do not have undesired effects on the attractor. We apply the approach to random Boolean networks, and further show that the method can in some cases successfully repair synchronous limit cycles. We also apply the methodology to case studies from drought-induced signaling in plants and T-LGL leukemia and find that it is successful in both stabilizing desired behavior and in eliminating undesired outcomes. Code is made freely available through the software package BooleanNet. Conclusions The methodology introduced in this report offers a complementary way to manipulating node expression levels. A comprehensive approach to evaluating network manipulation should take an "all of the above" perspective; we anticipate that theoretical studies of interaction modification, coupled with empirical advances, will ultimately provide researchers with greater flexibility in influencing system behavior. PMID:24885780

  5. QNet: a tool for querying protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Dost, Banu; Shlomi, Tomer; Gupta, Nitin; Ruppin, Eytan; Bafna, Vineet; Sharan, Roded

    2008-09-01

    Molecular interaction databases can be used to study the evolution of molecular pathways across species. Querying such pathways is a challenging computational problem, and recent efforts have been limited to simple queries (paths), or simple networks (forests). In this paper, we significantly extend the class of pathways that can be efficiently queried to the case of trees, and graphs of bounded treewidth. Our algorithm allows the identification of non-exact (homeomorphic) matches, exploiting the color coding technique of Alon et al. (1995). We implement a tool for tree queries, called QNet, and test its retrieval properties in simulations and on real network data. We show that QNet searches queries with up to nine proteins in seconds on current networks, and outperforms sequence-based searches. We also use QNet to perform the first large-scale cross-species comparison of protein complexes, by querying known yeast complexes against a fly protein interaction network. This comparison points to strong conservation between the two species, and underscores the importance of our tool in mining protein interaction networks. PMID:18707533

  6. Optimizing a global alignment of protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Chindelevitch, Leonid; Ma, Cheng-Yu; Liao, Chung-Shou; Berger, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The global alignment of protein interaction networks is a widely studied problem. It is an important first step in understanding the relationship between the proteins in different species and identifying functional orthologs. Furthermore, it can provide useful insights into the species’ evolution. Results: We propose a novel algorithm, PISwap, for optimizing global pairwise alignments of protein interaction networks, based on a local optimization heuristic that has previously demonstrated its effectiveness for a variety of other intractable problems. PISwap can begin with different types of network alignment approaches and then iteratively adjust the initial alignments by incorporating network topology information, trading it off for sequence information. In practice, our algorithm efficiently refines other well-studied alignment techniques with almost no additional time cost. We also show the robustness of the algorithm to noise in protein interaction data. In addition, the flexible nature of this algorithm makes it suitable for different applications of network alignment. This algorithm can yield interesting insights into the evolutionary dynamics of related species. Availability: Our software is freely available for non-commercial purposes from our Web site, http://piswap.csail.mit.edu/. Contact: bab@csail.mit.edu or csliao@ie.nthu.edu.tw Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24048352

  7. Networked Interactive Video for Group Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eary, John

    2008-01-01

    The National Computing Centre (NCC) has developed an interactive video training system for the Scottish Police College to help train police supervisory officers in crowd control at major spectator events, such as football matches. This approach involves technology-enhanced training in a group-learning environment, and may have significant impact…

  8. A protein interaction network associated with asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sohyun Hwang; Seung-Woo Son; Sang Cheol Kim; Young Joo Kim; Hawoong Jeong; Doheon Lee

    2008-01-01

    Identifying candidate genes related to complex diseases or traits and mapping their relationships require a system-level analysis at a cellular scale. The objective of the present study is to systematically analyze the complex effects of interrelated genes and provide a framework for revealing their relationships in association with a specific disease (asthma in this case). We observed that protein–protein interaction

  9. Dynamic modularity in protein interaction networks predicts breast cancer outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian W Taylor; Rune Linding; David Warde-Farley; Yongmei Liu; Catia Pesquita; Daniel Faria; Shelley Bull; Tony Pawson; Quaid Morris; Jeffrey L Wrana

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the biochemical wiring of oncogenic cells drives phenotypic transformations that directly affect disease outcome. Here we examine the dynamic structure of the human protein interaction network (interactome) to determine whether changes in the organization of the interactome can be used to predict patient outcome. An analysis of hub proteins identified inter- modular hub proteins that are co-expressed with

  10. Dustminer: troubleshooting interactive complexity bugs in sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Maifi Hasan Khan; Hieu Khac Le; Hossein Ahmadi; Tarek F. Abdelzaher; Jiawei Han

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for uncovering bugs due to inter- active complexity in networked sensing applications. Such bugs are not localized to one component that is faulty, but rather result from complex and unexpected interactions be- tween multiple often individually non-faulty components. Moreover, the manifestations of these bugs are often not repeatable, making them particularly hard to find, as

  11. PROTEIN INTERACTION NETWORK INFERENCE TOOL CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT

    E-print Network

    Menczer, Filippo

    PROTEIN INTERACTION NETWORK ­ INFERENCE TOOL CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT BY DIVYA N. RAO ADVISOR: Dr;2 INTRODUCTION Proteins along with carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids form the building blocks of all organisms. Proteins are macromolecules composed of amino acids that are connected by peptide bonds

  12. Error-resilient perceptual coding for networked haptic interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Brandi; Julius Kammerl; Eckehard G. Steinbach

    2010-01-01

    The performance of haptic interaction across communication networks critically depends on the successful reconstruction of the bidirectionally transmitted haptic signals, and hence on the quality of the communication channel. We propose a novel error-resilient data reduction scheme for haptic communication which exploits known limits of human haptic perception. Particularly, we show that missing haptic information due to packet loss may

  13. Cell Stem Cell An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    Cell Stem Cell Resource An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications for Stem Cell Biology.ac.uk (M.P.), jc4@sanger.ac.uk (J.C.) DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.03.004 SUMMARY The transcription factor Oct4 is key in embryonic stem cell identity and reprogramming. Insight into its part- ners should illuminate

  14. Dynamic interaction networks in a hierarchically organized tissue

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Dynamic interaction networks in a hierarchically organized tissue Daniel C Kirouac1,11 , Caryn Ito1 in a stem cell derived, hierarchically organized tissue using experimental and theoretical analyses organisms. These constitute local juxtacrine and paracrine signaling for within-tissue cellular

  15. Disease candidate gene identification and prioritization using protein interaction networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Chen; Bruce J. Aronow; Anil G. Jegga

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although most of the current disease candidate gene identification and prioritization methods depend on functional annotations, the coverage of the gene functional annotations is a limiting factor. In the current study, we describe a candidate gene prioritization method that is entirely based on protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analyses. RESULTS: For the first time, extended versions of the PageRank and

  16. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Network Arts: Defining Emotional Interaction in Media Arts

    E-print Network

    for the degree DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Field of Computer Science By David Ayman Shamma EVANSTON, ILLINOIS December 2005 #12;© Copyright by David Ayman Shamma 2005 All Rights Reserved ii #12;ABSTRACT Network Arts: Defining Emotional Interaction in Media Arts and Information Retrieval David Ayman Shamma

  17. Modelling protein–protein interaction networks via a stickiness index

    PubMed Central

    Pržulj, Nataša; Higham, Desmond J

    2006-01-01

    What type of connectivity structure are we seeing in protein–protein interaction networks? A number of random graph models have been mooted. After fitting model parameters to real data, the models can be judged by their success in reproducing key network properties. Here, we propose a very simple random graph model that inserts a connection according to the degree, or ‘stickiness’, of the two proteins involved. This model can be regarded as a testable distillation of more sophisticated versions that attempt to account for the presence of interaction surfaces or binding domains. By computing a range of network similarity measures, including relative graphlet frequency distance, we find that our model outperforms other random graph classes. In particular, we show that given the underlying degree information, fitting a stickiness model produces better results than simply choosing a degree-matching graph uniformly at random. Therefore, the results lend support to the basic modelling methodology. PMID:16971339

  18. [Characteristics of multimedia counseling: a study of an interactive TV system].

    PubMed

    Kakii, T

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate communication characteristics of multimedia counseling. Eye-contact through an interactive TV system was made possible, within three degrees of angle, with a camera attached on the TV screens. Counseling sessions with 18 clients were conducted to study differences among three conditions: audio only, interactive TV, and conventional face-to-face. The variables examined were information transmission, feeling communication, rapport building, overall evaluation, etc. Eighty-three per cent of the clients positively evaluated the interactive TV system, with all of its indices significantly higher than the audio only condition. However, rapport building with the system was significantly lower than the face-to-face condition. Two common factors found for the conditions were defenseless communication and counselor warmth. A larger TV screen might facilitate rapport building. More work is needed to study applicability of multimedia counseling, as well as to develop new effective counselor styles for the kind of counseling. PMID:9198264

  19. Mining functional subgraphs from cancer protein-protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks carry vital information about proteins' functions. Analysis of PPI networks associated with specific disease systems including cancer helps us in the understanding of the complex biology of diseases. Specifically, identification of similar and frequently occurring patterns (network motifs) across PPI networks will provide useful clues to better understand the biology of the diseases. Results In this study, we developed a novel pattern-mining algorithm that detects cancer associated functional subgraphs occurring in multiple cancer PPI networks. We constructed nine cancer PPI networks using differentially expressed genes from the Oncomine dataset. From these networks we discovered frequent patterns that occur in all networks and at different size levels. Patterns are abstracted subgraphs with their nodes replaced by node cluster IDs. By using effective canonical labeling and adopting weighted adjacency matrices, we are able to perform graph isomorphism test in polynomial running time. We use a bottom-up pattern growth approach to search for patterns, which allows us to effectively reduce the search space as pattern sizes grow. Validation of the frequent common patterns using GO semantic similarity showed that the discovered subgraphs scored consistently higher than the randomly generated subgraphs at each size level. We further investigated the cancer relevance of a select set of subgraphs using literature-based evidences. Conclusion Frequent common patterns exist in cancer PPI networks, which can be found through effective pattern mining algorithms. We believe that this work would allow us to identify functionally relevant and coherent subgraphs in cancer networks, which can be advanced to experimental validation to further our understanding of the complex biology of cancer. PMID:23282132

  20. Restructuring Protein Interaction Networks to Reveal Structural Hubs and Functional Organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-rae Cho; Aidong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Protein interaction networks are significant resources for functional knowledge discovery. However, efficient analysis of the networks has been challenging because of complex connectivity. Protein interaction networks have been characterized by intrinsic features, such as modularity and existence of hubs. The concepts of modules and hubs, extending from specific (local) to general (global), suggest hierarchical structures hidden in the complex networks.

  1. Construction and Functional Analysis of Human Genetic Interaction Networks with Genome-wide Association Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Vipin

    Construction and Functional Analysis of Human Genetic Interaction Networks with Genome Analysis of Human Genetic Interaction Networks with Genome-wide Association Data Gang Fang, Wen Wang, Vanja of Human Genetic Interaction Networks with Genome-wide Association Data Gang Fang1, Wen Wang1, Vanja Paunic

  2. DIP, the Database of Interacting Proteins: a research tool for studying cellular networks of protein interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis Xenarios; Lukasz Salwínski; Xiaoqun Joyce Duan; Patrick Higney; Sul-min Kim; David Eisenberg

    2002-01-01

    The Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP: http:\\/\\/ dip.doe-mbi.ucla.edu) is a database that documents experimentally determined protein-protein inter- actions. It provides the scientific community with an integrated set of tools for browsing and extracting information about protein interaction networks. As of September 2001, the DIP catalogs ?11 000 unique inter- actions among 5900 proteins from >80 organisms; the vast majority from

  3. Digital Ecology: Coexistence and Domination among Interacting Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming success of Web 2.0, within which online social networks are key actors, has induced a paradigm shift in the nature of human interactions. The user-driven character of Web 2.0 services has allowed researchers to quantify large-scale social patterns for the first time. However, the mechanisms that determine the fate of networks at the system level are still poorly understood. For instance, the simultaneous existence of multiple digital services naturally raises questions concerning which conditions these services can coexist under. Analogously to the case of population dynamics, the digital world forms a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. The fitness of each network depends on its capacity to attract and maintain users’ attention, which constitutes a limited resource. In this paper, we introduce an ecological theory of the digital world which exhibits stable coexistence of several networks as well as the dominance of an individual one, in contrast to the competitive exclusion principle. Interestingly, our theory also predicts that the most probable outcome is the coexistence of a moderate number of services, in agreement with empirical observations. PMID:25988318

  4. Information sharing and relationships on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Steijn, Wouter M P; Schouten, Alexander P

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the relationship between sharing personal information and relationship development in the context of social networking sites (SNSs). Information disclosed on these sites could affect relationships in a different manner compared to more traditional interactions, such as instant messaging or face-to-face interaction. Respondents in the age range of 12 to 83 were surveyed about experiences of relationship development as a consequence of contact through Facebook or Hyves-the most popular Dutch SNSs. Results showed a primarily positive effect of information sharing on SNSs on our relationships. Furthermore, relationship development mainly occurs among acquaintances and friends, and public posts are most strongly related to relationship development. These findings suggest that SNSs might affect relationships in a distinct fashion as acquaintances and friends gain access to public self-disclosures that might normally only be reserved for close friends and family. Overall, this study provides an insight into some of the positive aspects of the public nature of SNSs in contrast with the general negative associations. PMID:23659723

  5. Ecological Networks: Structure, Interaction Strength, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Sinha, Somdatta

    The fundamental building blocks of any ecosystem, the food webs, which are assemblages of species through various interconnections, provide a central concept in ecology. The study of a food web allows abstractions of the complexity and interconnectedness of natural communities that transcend the specific details of the underlying systems. For example, Fig. 1 shows a typical food web, where the species are connected through their feeding relationships. The top predator, Heliaster (starfish) feeds on many gastropods like Hexaplex, Morula, Cantharus, etc., some of whom predate on each other [129]. Interactions between species in a food web can be of many types, such as predation, competition, mutualism, commensalism, and ammensalism (see Section 1.1, Fig. 2).

  6. A Challenge for the Developer: Issues of interactivity and linguistic-cognitive appropriateness in English language learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Y. K. Poon

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that language learning ought to be interactive. The traditional language classroom provides a favourable interactive situation for language learners. By contrast, the distance education mode is limited in some ways regarding language learning. Necessarily, distance education involves, primarily, self-learning. Face-to-face learning opportunities are scant compared with traditional classroom-based learning. It is, therefore, a challenge for language professionals

  7. Trading interactions for topology in scale-free networks.

    PubMed

    Giuraniuc, C V; Hatchett, J P L; Indekeu, J O; Leone, M; Pérez Castillo, I; Van Schaeybroeck, B; Vanderzande, C

    2005-08-26

    Scale-free networks with topology-dependent interactions are studied. It is shown that the universality classes of critical behavior, which conventionally depend only on topology, can also be explored by tuning the interactions. A mapping, gamma'=(gamma-mu)/(1-mu), describes how a shift of the standard exponent gamma of the degree distribution P(q) can absorb the effect of degree-dependent pair interactions J(ij)proportional to(q(i)q(j))(-mu). The replica technique, cavity method, and Monte Carlo simulation support the physical picture suggested by Landau theory for the critical exponents and by the Bethe-Peierls approximation for the critical temperature. The equivalence of topology and interaction holds for equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems, and is illustrated with interdisciplinary applications. PMID:16197261

  8. Interaction prediction using conserved network motifs in protein-protein interaction networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reka Albert

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput protein interaction detection methods are strongly affected by false positive and false negative results. Focused experiments are needed to complement the large-scale methods by validating previously detected interactions but it is often difficult to decide which proteins to probe as interaction partners. Developing reliable computational methods assisting this decision process is a pressing need in bioinformatics. This talk will

  9. Discovering pathways by orienting edges in protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Gitter, Anthony; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Gupta, Anupam; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2011-01-01

    Modern experimental technology enables the identification of the sensory proteins that interact with the cells’ environment or various pathogens. Expression and knockdown studies can determine the downstream effects of these interactions. However, when attempting to reconstruct the signaling networks and pathways between these sources and targets, one faces a substantial challenge. Although pathways are directed, high-throughput protein interaction data are undirected. In order to utilize the available data, we need methods that can orient protein interaction edges and discover high-confidence pathways that explain the observed experimental outcomes. We formalize the orientation problem in weighted protein interaction graphs as an optimization problem and present three approximation algorithms based on either weighted Boolean satisfiability solvers or probabilistic assignments. We use these algorithms to identify pathways in yeast. Our approach recovers twice as many known signaling cascades as a recent unoriented signaling pathway prediction technique and over 13 times as many as an existing network orientation algorithm. The discovered paths match several known signaling pathways and suggest new mechanisms that are not currently present in signaling databases. For some pathways, including the pheromone signaling pathway and the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, our method suggests interesting and novel components that extend current annotations. PMID:21109539

  10. Simulated Evolution of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks with Realistic Topology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Jack Peterson; Steve Pressé; Kristin S. Peterson; Ken A. Dill

    2012-01-01

    We model the evolution of eukaryotic protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. In our model, PPI networks evolve by two known biological mechanisms: (1) Gene duplication, which is followed by rapid diversification of duplicate interactions. (2) Neofunctionalization, in which a mutation leads to a new interaction with some other protein. Since many interactions are due to simple surface compatibility, we hypothesize there

  11. Modeling of light-matter interactions with neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Selle, Reimer; Vogt, Gerhard; Brixner, Tobias; Gerber, Gustav [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Physikalisches Institut, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Metzler, Richard [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Tetralog Systems, Nymphenburger Strasse 113, 80636 Munich (Germany); Kinzel, Wolfgang [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    We show that a neural network (NN) can be used for automated generation of computer models of light-matter interaction. Nonlinear input-output maps are created for phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses in the exemplary cases of second-harmonic generation and molecular fluorescence yield. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the NN has the capability of generalizing and extrapolating beyond initial training data, by predicting the response of the investigated systems for arbitrary laser pulse shapes. Applications are envisioned in the area of quantum control, specifically for the interpolation and extrapolation of control maps and possibly as a tool for investigating control mechanisms. In a wider scope, neural networks might generally provide effective computer models for light-matter interactions for cases where ab initio calculations are intractable.

  12. Torque: topology-free querying of protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Sharon; Hüffner, Falk; Karp, Richard M.; Shamir, Ron; Sharan, Roded

    2009-01-01

    Torque is a tool for cross-species querying of protein–protein interaction networks. It aims to answer the following question: given a set of proteins constituting a known complex or a pathway in one species, can a similar complex or pathway be found in the protein network of another species? To this end, Torque seeks a matching set of proteins that are sequence similar to the query proteins and span a connected region of the target network, while allowing for both insertions and deletions. Unlike existing approaches, Torque does not require knowledge of the interconnections among the query proteins. It can handle large queries of up to 25 proteins. The Torque web server is freely available for use at http://www.cs.tau.ac.il/?bnet/torque.html. PMID:19491310

  13. Neural networks and pattern recognition in human-computer interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Finlay; Russell Beale

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the activities of the workshop held on Sunday 28th April at the CHI'91 conference. Participants were there to discuss different ideas, methods and approaches to using pattern recognition in human-computer interaction.The workshop aimed to bring together researchers using novel methodologies, such as neural networks, in HCI applications, as well as practitioners using alternative or more traditional

  14. Can Artificial Life Emerge in a Network of Interacting Agents?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Murthy; E. V. Krishnamurthy

    2006-01-01

    An interacting multi-agent system in a network can behave like a nature-inspired smart system (SS) exhibiting the four salient properties of an artificial life system (ALS): (i) Collective, coordinated and efficient (ii) Self-organization and emergence (iii) Power law scaling or scale invariance under emergence (iv) Adaptive, fault tolerant and resilient against damage. We explain how these basic properties can arise

  15. Topology-free querying of protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Sharon; Hüffner, Falk; Karp, Richard M; Shamir, Ron; Sharan, Roded

    2010-03-01

    In the network querying problem, one is given a protein complex or pathway of species A and a protein-protein interaction network of species B; the goal is to identify subnetworks of B that are similar to the query in terms of sequence, topology, or both. Existing approaches mostly depend on knowledge of the interaction topology of the query in the network of species A; however, in practice, this topology is often not known. To address this problem, we develop a topology-free querying algorithm, which we call Torque. Given a query, represented as a set of proteins, Torque seeks a matching set of proteins that are sequence-similar to the query proteins and span a connected region of the network, while allowing both insertions and deletions. The algorithm uses alternatively dynamic programming and integer linear programming for the search task. We test Torque with queries from yeast, fly, and human, where we compare it to the QNet topology-based approach, and with queries from less studied species, where only topology-free algorithms apply. Torque detects many more matches than QNet, while giving results that are highly functionally coherent. PMID:20377443

  16. Interaction Comparison between Traditional Classroom and Cyber Classroom Using Transactional Distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nian-Shing Chen; Kinshuk; Sheng-Wen Hsieh; S. J. H. Yang

    2006-01-01

    Blended learning (BL) is a hybrid of classroom learning and online learning that includes the conveniences of online courses without the complete loss of face-to-face (F2F) contact. Advancements in communication technologies now allow us to have synchronous distributed interactions that occur in realtime with close to the same levels of fidelity as in the F2F environment. Therefore, it is imperative

  17. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: A Comparison of Standard and Abbreviated Treatments for Oppositional Defiant Preschoolers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reginald D. V. Nixon; Lynne Sweeney; Deborah B. Erickson; Stephen W. Touyz

    2003-01-01

    Families of 54 behaviorally disturbed preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: standard parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT; STD); modified PCIT that used didactic videotapes, telephone consultations, and face-to-face sessions to abbreviate treatment; and a no-treatment waitlist control group (WL). Twenty-one nondisturbed preschoolers were recruited as a social validation comparison condition. Posttreatment assessment

  18. Linear Motif-Mediated Interactions Have Contributed to the Evolution of Modularity in Complex Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Inhae; Lee, Heetak; Han, Seong Kyu; Kim, Sanguk

    2014-01-01

    The modular architecture of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is evident in diverse species with a wide range of complexity. However, the molecular components that lead to the evolution of modularity in PPI networks have not been clearly identified. Here, we show that weak domain-linear motif interactions (DLIs) are more likely to connect different biological modules than strong domain-domain interactions (DDIs). This molecular division of labor is essential for the evolution of modularity in the complex PPI networks of diverse eukaryotic species. In particular, DLIs may compensate for the reduction in module boundaries that originate from increased connections between different modules in complex PPI networks. In addition, we show that the identification of biological modules can be greatly improved by including molecular characteristics of protein interactions. Our findings suggest that transient interactions have played a unique role in shaping the architecture and modularity of biological networks over the course of evolution. PMID:25299147

  19. Flow motifs reveal limitations of the static framework to represent human interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Luis E. C.; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-04-01

    Networks are commonly used to define underlying interaction structures where infections, information, or other quantities may spread. Although the standard approach has been to aggregate all links into a static structure, some studies have shown that the time order in which the links are established may alter the dynamics of spreading. In this paper, we study the impact of the time ordering in the limits of flow on various empirical temporal networks. By using a random walk dynamics, we estimate the flow on links and convert the original undirected network (temporal and static) into a directed flow network. We then introduce the concept of flow motifs and quantify the divergence in the representativity of motifs when using the temporal and static frameworks. We find that the regularity of contacts and persistence of vertices (common in email communication and face-to-face interactions) result on little differences in the limits of flow for both frameworks. On the other hand, in the case of communication within a dating site and of a sexual network, the flow between vertices changes significantly in the temporal framework such that the static approximation poorly represents the structure of contacts. We have also observed that cliques with 3 and 4 vertices containing only low-flow links are more represented than the same cliques with all high-flow links. The representativity of these low-flow cliques is higher in the temporal framework. Our results suggest that the flow between vertices connected in cliques depend on the topological context in which they are placed and in the time sequence in which the links are established. The structure of the clique alone does not completely characterize the potential of flow between the vertices.

  20. Functional clustering of yeast proteins from the protein-protein interaction network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taner Z. Sen; Andrzej Kloczkowski; Robert L. Jernigan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The abundant data available for protein interaction networks have not yet been fully understood. New types of analyses are needed to reveal organizational principles of these networks to investigate the details of functional and regulatory clusters of proteins. RESULTS: In the present work, individual clusters identified by an eigenmode analysis of the connectivity matrix of the protein-protein interaction network

  1. User-Centric Secure Cross-Site Interaction Framework for Online Social Networking Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Moo Nam

    2011-01-01

    Social networking service is one of major technological phenomena on Web 2.0. Hundreds of millions of users are posting message, photos, and videos on their profiles and interacting with other users, but the sharing and interaction are limited within the same social networking site. Although users can share some content on a social networking site…

  2. Damage to the Salience Network and Interactions with the Default Mode Network

    PubMed Central

    Jilka, Sagar R.; Scott, Gregory; Ham, Timothy; Pickering, Alan; Bonnelle, Valerie; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Leech, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between the Salience Network (SN) and the Default Mode Network (DMN) are thought to be important for cognitive control. However, evidence for a causal relationship between the networks is limited. Previously, we have reported that traumatic damage to white matter tracts within the SN predicts abnormal DMN function. Here we investigate the effect of this damage on network interactions that accompany changing motor control. We initially used fMRI of the Stop Signal Task to study response inhibition in humans. In healthy subjects, functional connectivity (FC) between the right anterior insula (rAI), a key node of the SN, and the DMN transiently increased during stopping. This change in FC was not seen in a group of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with impaired cognitive control. Furthermore, the amount of SN tract damage negatively correlated with FC between the networks. We confirmed these findings in a second group of TBI patients. Here, switching rather than inhibiting a motor response: (1) was accompanied by a similar increase in network FC in healthy controls; (2) was not seen in TBI patients; and (3) tract damage after TBI again correlated with FC breakdown. This shows that coupling between the rAI and DMN increases with cognitive control and that damage within the SN impairs this dynamic network interaction. This work provides compelling evidence for a model of cognitive control where the SN is involved in the attentional capture of salient external stimuli and signals the DMN to reduce its activity when attention is externally focused. PMID:25122883

  3. Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit drugs and their targets in order to elucidate their interaction patterns and potential secondary drugs that can aid future research and clinical care. Results In this study, we extracted 188 illicit substances and their related information from the DrugBank database. The data process revealed 86 illicit drugs targeting a total of 73 unique human genes, which forms an illicit drug-target network. Compared to the full drug-target network from DrugBank, illicit drugs and their target genes tend to cluster together and form four subnetworks, corresponding to four major medication categories: depressants, stimulants, analgesics, and steroids. External analysis of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) second sublevel classifications confirmed that the illicit drugs have neurological functions or act via mechanisms of stimulants, opioids, and steroids. To further explore other drugs potentially having associations with illicit drugs, we constructed an illicit-extended drug-target network by adding the drugs that have the same target(s) as illicit drugs to the illicit drug-target network. After analyzing the degree and betweenness of the network, we identified hubs and bridge nodes, which might play important roles in the development and treatment of drug addiction. Among them, 49 non-illicit drugs might have potential to be used to treat addiction or have addictive effects, including some results that are supported by previous studies. Conclusions This study presents the first systematic review of the network characteristics of illicit drugs, their targets, and other drugs that share the targets of these illicit drugs. The results, though preliminary, provide some novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of drug addiction. The observation of illicit-related drugs, with partial verification from previous studies, demonstrated that the network-assisted approach is promising for the identification of drug repositioning. PMID:24268016

  4. Real-time hierarchically distributed processing network interaction simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Wu, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Telerobot Testbed is a hierarchically distributed processing system which is linked together through a standard, commercial Ethernet. Standard Ethernet systems are primarily designed to manage non-real-time information transfer. Therefore, collisions on the net (i.e., two or more sources attempting to send data at the same time) are managed by randomly rescheduling one of the sources to retransmit at a later time interval. Although acceptable for transmitting noncritical data such as mail, this particular feature is unacceptable for real-time hierarchical command and control systems such as the Telerobot. Data transfer and scheduling simulations, such as token ring, offer solutions to collision management, but do not appropriately characterize real-time data transfer/interactions for robotic systems. Therefore, models like these do not provide a viable simulation environment for understanding real-time network loading. A real-time network loading model is being developed which allows processor-to-processor interactions to be simulated, collisions (and respective probabilities) to be logged, collision-prone areas to be identified, and network control variable adjustments to be reentered as a means of examining and reducing collision-prone regimes that occur in the process of simulating a complete task sequence.

  5. Functional centrality: detecting lethality of proteins in protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Tew, Kar Leong; Li, Xiao-Li; Tan, Soon-Heng

    2007-01-01

    Identifying lethal proteins is important for understanding the intricate mechanism governing life. Researchers have shown that the lethality of a protein can be computed based on its topological position in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Performance of current approaches has been less than satisfactory as the lethality of a protein is a functional characteristic that cannot be determined solely by network topology. Furthermore, a significant number of lethal proteins have low connectivity in the interaction networks but are overlooked by most current methods. Our work reveals that a protein's lethality correlates more strongly with its "functional centrality" than pure topological centrality. We define functional centrality as the topological centrality within a subnetwork of proteins with similar functions. Evaluation experiments on four Saccharomyces cerevisiae PPI datasets showed that NFC performed significantly better than all the other existing computational techniques. Our method was able to detect low connectivity lethal proteins that were previously undetected by conventional methods. The results and an online version of NFC is available at http://lethalproteins.i2r.a-star.edu.sg. PMID:18546514

  6. Protozoan HSP90-heterocomplex: molecular interaction network and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Figueras, Maria J; Echeverria, Pablo C; Angel, Sergio O

    2014-05-01

    The HSP90 chaperone is a highly conserved protein from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, this chaperone participates in different large complexes, such as the HSP90 heterocomplex, which has important biological roles in cell homeostasis and differentiation. The HSP90-heterocomplex is also named the HSP90/HSP70 cycle because different co-chaperones (HIP, HSP40, HOP, p23, AHA1, immunophilins, PP5) participate in this complex by assembling sequentially, from the early to the mature complex. In this review, we analyze the conservation and relevance of HSP90 and the HSP90-heterocomplex in several protozoan parasites, with emphasis in Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma spp., Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma spp. In the last years, there has been an outburst of studies based on yeast two-hybrid methodology, co-immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry and bioinformatics, which have generated a most comprehensive protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of HSP90 and its co-chaperones. This review analyzes the existing PPI networks of HSP90 and its co-chaperones of some protozoan parasites and discusses the usefulness of these powerful tools to analyze the biological role of the HSP90-heterocomplex in these parasites. The generation of a T. gondii HSP90 heterocomplex PPI network based on experimental data and a recent Plasmodium HSP90 heterocomplex PPI network are also included and discussed. As an example, the putative implication of nuclear transport and chromatin (histones and Sir2) as HSP90-heterocomplex interactors is here discussed. PMID:24694366

  7. From Topology to Phenotype in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pržulj, Nataša

    We have recently witnessed an explosion in biological network data along with the development of computational approaches for their analyses. This new interdisciplinary research area is an integral part of systems biology, promising to provide new insights into organizational principles of life, as well as into evolution and disease. However, there is a danger that the area might become hindered by several emerging issues. In particular, there is typically a weak link between biological and computational scientists, resulting in the use of simple computational techniques of limited potential to explain these complex biological data. Hence, there is a danger that the community might view the topological features of network data as mere statistics, ignoring the value of the information contained in these data. This might result in the imposition of scientific doctrines, such as scale-free-centric (on the modelling side) and genome-centric (on the biological side) opinions onto this nascent research area. In this chapter, we take a network science perspective and present a brief, high-level overview of the area, commenting on possible challenges ahead. We focus on protein-protein interaction networks (PINs) in which nodes correspond to proteins in a cell and edges to physical bindings between the proteins.

  8. Helping Educators Analyse Interactions within Networked Learning Communities: A Framework and the AnalyticsTool System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Petropoulou; S. Retalis; K. Siassiakos; S. Karamouzis; Theodoros Kargidis

    Networked learning is much more ambitious than previous approaches of using technology in education. It is, therefore, more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the networked learning activities. Evaluation of learners' interactions in networked learning environments is a resource and expertise demanding task. Educators participating in networked learning communities, have very little support by integrated tools to evaluate

  9. SEBINI-CABIN: An Analysis Pipeline for Biological Network Inference, with a Case Study in Protein-Protein Interaction Network Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald C. Taylor; Mudita Singhal; Don Simone Daly; Kelly O. Domico; Amanda M. White; Deanna L. Auberry; Kenneth J. Auberry; Brian S. Hooker; Gregory B. Hurst; Jason E. McDermott; W. Hayes McDonald; Dale A. Pelletier; Denise D. Schmoyer; William R. Cannon

    2007-01-01

    The Software Environment for Biological Network Inference (SEBINI) has been created to provide an interactive environment for the deployment and testing of network inference algorithms that use high-throughput expression data. Networks inferred from the SEBINI software platform can be further analyzed using the Collective Analysis of Biological Interaction Networks (CABIN), software that allows integration and analysis of protein- protein interaction

  10. Identifying interesting topology structure of membrane protein interaction networks based on intelligent agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Zhen Shen; Yong-Sheng Ding

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a collective effort from multiple research areas has been made to understand membrane protein and its interaction network. These researches require the ability to simulate particular biological systems as cells, organs, organisms and communities. In this paper, a novel membrane protein interaction network simulator is proposed by combining intelligent agents. We consider a set of active computational components interacting

  11. An Intelligent Multi-Agents Method for Study on Membrane Protein Interaction Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Zhen Shen; Yong-Sheng Ding

    2010-01-01

    Membrane protein and its interaction network has become a novel research direction in bioinformatics. Multiple researches on these interactions can improve our understanding of diseases and provide the basis to revolutionize therapeutic treatments. In this paper, a novel membrane protein interaction network simulator is proposed for system biology studies by intelligent multi-agents method. We consider biological system as a set

  12. Piecewise Linear Dynamic Modeling and Identification of Gene-Protein Interaction Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Westra

    In this lecture we will focus on piece-wise linear state space models for gene-protein interaction networks. Moreover, this lecture is concerned with the identifiability and controllability of natural in- formation processing networks under chaos and noise. Fundamental questions considered include: what are the basic mechanisms involved in the interactions, how does macroscopic complexity arise from microscopic interactions, what is the

  13. Study on membrane protein interaction network based on ensemble intelligent method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Zhen Shen; Yong-Sheng Ding

    2010-01-01

    Membrane protein and its interaction network has become a novel research direction in bioinformatics. Multiple researches on these interactions can improve our understanding of diseases and provide the basis to revolutionize therapeutic treatments. In this paper, a novel membrane protein interaction network simulator is proposed for system biology studies by ensemble intelligent method including spectrum analysis and fuzzy KNN algorithm.

  14. Does the Internet Increase, Decrease, or Supplement Social Capital?: Social Networks, Participation, and Community Commitment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Wellman; Anabel Quan Haase; J. WITTE; K. HAMPTON

    2001-01-01

    How does the Internet affect social capital? Do the communication possibilities of the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement interpersonal contact, participation, and community commitment? Our evidence comes from a 1998 survey of 39,211 visitors to the National Geographic Society website, one of the first large-scale web surveys. We find that people's interaction online supplements their face-to-face and telephone communication, without

  15. Four-dimensional visualisation and analysis of protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Goel, Apurv; Li, Simone S; Wilkins, Marc R

    2011-07-01

    Protein-protein interaction networks are typically built with interactions collated from many experiments. These networks are thus composite and show all interactions that are currently known to occur in a cell. However, these representations are static and ignore the constant changes in protein-protein interactions. Here we present software for the generation and analysis of dynamic, four-dimensional (4-D) protein interaction networks. In this, time-course-derived abundance data are mapped onto three-dimensional networks to generate network movies. These networks can be navigated, manipulated and queried in real time. Two types of dynamic networks can be generated: a 4-D network that maps expression data onto protein nodes and one that employs 'real-time rendering' by which protein nodes and their interactions appear and disappear in association with temporal changes in expression data. We illustrate the utility of this software by the analysis of singlish interface date hub interactions during the yeast cell cycle. In this, we show that proteins MLC1 and YPT52 show strict temporal control of when their interaction partners are expressed. Since these proteins have one and two interaction interfaces, respectively, it suggests that temporal control of gene expression may be used to limit competition at the interaction interfaces of some hub proteins. The software and movies of the 4-D networks are available at http://www.systemsbiology.org.au/downloads_geomi.html. PMID:21630449

  16. Spatially-Interactive Biomolecular Networks Organized by Nucleic Acid Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinglin; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus Living systems have evolved a variety of nanostructures to control the molecular interactions that mediate many functions including the recognition of targets by receptors, the binding of enzymes to substrates, and the regulation of enzymatic activity. Mimicking these structures outside of the cell requires methods that offer nanoscale control over the organization of individual network components. Advances in DNA nanotechnology have enabled the design and fabrication of sophisticated one-, two- and three-dimensional (1D, 2D and 3D) nanostructures that utilize spontaneous and sequence specific DNA hybridization. Compared to other self-assembling biopolymers, DNA nanostructures offer predictable and programmable interactions, and surface features to which other nanoparticles and bio-molecules can be precisely positioned. The ability to control the spatial arrangement of the components while constructing highly-organized networks will lead to various applications of these systems. For example, DNA nanoarrays with surface displays of molecular probes can sense noncovalent hybridization interactions with DNA, RNA, and proteins and covalent chemical reactions. DNA nanostructures can also align external molecules into well-defined arrays, which may improve the resolution of many structural determination methods, such as X-ray diffraction, cryo-EM, NMR, and super-resolution fluorescence. Moreover, by constraining target entities to specific conformations, self-assembled DNA nanostructures can serve as molecular rulers to evaluate conformation-dependent activities. This Account describes the most recent advances in the DNA nanostructure directed assembly of biomolecular networks and explores the possibility of applying this technology to other fields of study. Recently, several reports have demonstrated the DNA nanostructure directed assembly of spatially-interactive biomolecular networks. For example, researchers have constructed synthetic multi-enzyme cascades by organizing the position of the components using DNA nanoscaffolds in vitro, or by utilizing RNA matrices in vivo. These structures display enhanced efficiency compared to the corresponding unstructured enzyme mixtures. Such systems are designed to mimic cellular function, where substrate diffusion between enzymes is facilitated and reactions are catalyzed with high efficiency and specificity. In addition, researchers have assembled multiple choromophores into arrays using a DNA nanoscaffold that optimizes the relative distance between the dyes and their spatial organization. The resulting artificial light harvesting system exhibits efficient cascading energy transfers. Finally, DNA nanostructures have been used as assembly templates to construct nanodevices that execute rationally-designed behaviors, including cargo loading, transportation and route control. PMID:22642503

  17. BioNetwork Interactive E-Learning Tools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. The tools included here cover such topics as Aseptic Technique, Fermentation, pH Meter Calibration, and Sterile Gowning Procedures. The items here require that users have or download Unity Web Player.

  18. Quantifying nonverbal communicative behavior in face-to-face human dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skhiri, Mustapha; Cerrato, Loredana

    2002-11-01

    The referred study is based on the assumption that understanding how humans use nonverbal behavior in dialogues can be very useful in the design of more natural-looking animated talking heads. The goal of the study is twofold: (1) to explore how people use specific facial expressions and head movements to serve important dialogue functions, and (2) to show evidence that it is possible to measure and quantify the entity of these movements with the Qualisys MacReflex motion tracking system. Naturally elicited dialogues between humans have been analyzed with focus on the attention on those nonverbal behaviors that serve the very relevant functions of regulating the conversational flux (i.e., turn taking) and producing information about the state of communication (i.e., feedback). The results show that eyebrow raising, head nods, and head shakes are typical signals involved during the exchange of speaking turns, as well as in the production and elicitation of feedback. These movements can be easily measured and quantified, and this measure can be implemented in animated talking heads.

  19. Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and mediated communication: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ederyn Williams

    1977-01-01

    Reviews approximately 30 recent research studies that have investigated how human communication is affected by the use of telecommunications media. These studies used various types of media and both cooperative and conflictful communication situations. Several media effects were described in these studies, and consistencies among these results have begun to emerge. Accordingly, it is now possible to test theories of

  20. Quantifying nonverbal communicative behavior in face-to-face human dialogues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustapha Skhiri; Loredana Cerrato

    2002-01-01

    The referred study is based on the assumption that understanding how humans use nonverbal behavior in dialogues can be very useful in the design of more natural-looking animated talking heads. The goal of the study is twofold: (1) to explore how people use specific facial expressions and head movements to serve important dialogue functions, and (2) to show evidence that

  1. Synchronized Ego-Motion Recovery of Two Face-to-Face Cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinshi Cui; Yasushi Yagi; Hongbin Zha; Yasuhiro Mukaigawa; Kazuaki Kondo

    2007-01-01

    A movie captured by a wearable camera affixed to an actor’s body gives audiences the sense of “immerse in the movie”. The\\u000a raw movie captured by wearable camera needs stabilization with jitters due to ego-motion. However, conventional approaches\\u000a often fail in accurate ego-motion estimation when there are moving objects in the image and no sufficient feature pairs provided\\u000a by background

  2. Leadership Development Using Three Modes of Educational Delivery: Online, Blended and Face to Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladyshewsky, Richard; Taplin, Ross

    2014-01-01

    This research explores differences in the development of life long learning skills that support leadership development across three different modes of educational delivery. Performance outcomes from 550 students across three modes of educational delivery in a post graduate leadership and management course were compared. The 12 module course and…

  3. Professional Staff Committee MINUTES 6/10/2010 FACE-TO-FACE

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    university and President's Office b) Focus on problem-solving and enabling action on suggestions hoc committee) i) Example: Changes to the notice provisions in our contracts were negotiated with NSHE are available to them? k) There's interest in knowing our government relations strategy moving forward

  4. Professional Staff Committee MINUTES December 11, 2008 FACE-TO-FACE

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    , the subcommittee sent out its first campus email update to pro staff. b. Pro Staff Member of Year award there is a sense that the Faculty Senate does not have enough say in graduate education matters. In addition, some was the desire for pro staff to donated to a catastrophic leave pool. Currently, only classified staff can donate

  5. Meeting Face to Face = Seeing Eye to Eye?: Interglobal Dialogue via Videoconference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Koon Hwee

    2011-01-01

    Based on a series of videoconferences held between two universities, one located in China and another in the United States, this pilot curriculum study illustrates how successful interglobal communication via synchronized educational technology requires detailed planning and the use of a substantial number of pedagogical strategies. Achieving the…

  6. Open Day is your chance to chat face-to-face with our academics and current

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    & Social Sciences Local talent Live gigs, exhibitions and showcases from Arts and Social Sciences. Visit us of robot soccer or check out the UNSW racing cars. Find Engineering at the Tyree Building [H5] and Scientia

  7. Optimal diabetes care outcomes following face-to-face medication therapy management services.

    PubMed

    Brummel, Amanda R; Soliman, Ahmed M; Carlson, Angeline M; de Oliveira, Djenane Ramalho

    2013-02-01

    Pharmacists play an integral role in influencing resolution of drug-related problems. This study examines the relationship between a pharmacist-led and delivered medication therapy management (MTM) program and achievement of Optimal Diabetes Care benchmarks. Data within Fairview Pharmacy Services were used to identify a group of patients with diabetes who received MTM services during a 2007 demonstration project (n=121) and a control group who were invited to receive MTM services but opted out (n=103). Rates of achieving optimal diabetes clinical management for both groups were compared using the D5 diabetes measure for years 2006, 2007, and 2008. The D5 components are: glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c<7%); low-density lipoprotein (<100 mg/dl); blood pressure (<130/80 mmHg); tobacco free; and daily aspirin use. Multivariate difference-in-differences (DID) estimation was used to determine the impact of 1 year of MTM services on each care component. Patients who opted in for MTM had higher Charlson scores, more complex medication regimens, and a higher percentage of diabetes with complications (P<0.05). In 2007, the percentage of diabetes patients optimally managed was significantly higher for MTM patients compared to 2006 values (21.49% vs. 45.45%, P<0.01). Nonlinear DID models showed that MTM patients were more likely to meet the HbA1c criterion in 2007 (odds ratio: 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-5.85, P=0.038). Linear DID models for HbA1c showed a mean reduction of 0.54% (95% CI: 0.091%-0.98%, P=0.018) for MTM patients. An MTM program contributed to improved optimal diabetes management in a population of patients with complex diabetes clinical profiles. PMID:23113628

  8. Student Performance in a Quantitative Methods Course under Online and Face-to-Face Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Penny; Wakeling, Victor

    2011-01-01

    In a study conducted at a large public university, the authors assessed, for an upper-division quantitative methods business core course, the impact of delivery method (online versus face-toface) on the success rate (percentage of enrolled students earning a grade of A, B, or C in the course). The success rate of the 161 online students was 55.3%,…

  9. Face to face: Blocking facial mimicry can selectively impair recognition of emotional expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsay M. Oberman; Piotr Winkielman; Vilayanur S. Ramachandran

    2007-01-01

    People spontaneously mimic a variety of behaviors, including emotional facial expressions. Embodied cognition theories suggest that mimicry reflects internal simulation of perceived emotion in order to facilitate its understanding. If so, blocking facial mimicry should impair recognition of expressions, especially of emotions that are simulated using facial musculature. The current research tested this hypothesis using four expressions (happy, disgust, fear,

  10. Innovative, High-Pressure, Cryogenic Control Valve: Short Face-to-Face, Reduced Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Karlin; Larsen, Ed; McCourt, Jackson

    2003-01-01

    A control valve that can throttle high-pressure cryogenic fluid embodies several design features that distinguish it over conventional valves designed for similar applications. Field and design engineers worked together to create a valve that would simplify installation, trim changes, and maintenance, thus reducing overall cost. The seals and plug stem packing were designed to perform optimally in cryogenic temperature ranges. Unlike conventional high-pressure cryogenic valves, the trim size can be changed independent of the body.

  11. Professionals' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Online versus Face-to-face Continuing Professional Education Courses 

    E-print Network

    Ke, Jie

    2011-10-21

    were female perceived online CPE courses? ability in improving their professional knowledge and practice less negatively than male participants; and (e) who were firefighters favored the online CPE courses compared to professionals from the other units...

  12. Virtually face-to-face: changes in the meaning of 'online learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Cashion; Phoebe Palmieri

    1. Abstract Online education is not only part of the changing face of VET, but has itself also had a change of face in the last six years. This paper explores what these changes have been and what online learning means now in the VET sector. Six years ago, online learning was envisioned as fully autonomous learning at a distance

  13. Replacing Face-to-Face Tutorials by Synchronous Online Technologies: Challenges and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kwok Chi

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which investigates the implementation of a synchronous e-learning system ("Interwise") for online tutorials on an information technology related course offered by the Open University of Hong Kong (OUHK). It examines a set of interview data related to students' and tutors' views on the use of the system. Issues…

  14. How Middle School Students Come Face to Face with Down Syndrome Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jared; Buckingham, Jane; Roper, Randall; Marrs, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how real research on Down syndrome, being done in a lab at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), was incorporated into a laboratory activity for middle school students. The activity asked students to evaluate real evidence from the research laboratory of a GK-12 fellow (a graduate student funded by the…

  15. How Middle School Students Come Face to Face With Down Syndrome Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jane Buckingham

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how real research on Down syndrome, being done in a lab at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), was incorporated into a laboratory activity for middle school students. The activity asked students to evaluate re

  16. Folk computing : designing technology to support face-to-face community building

    E-print Network

    Borovoy, Richard Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Creating common ground in a community of people who do not all know each other is a chicken-and-egg problem: members do not share enough common ground to support the kinds of conversations that help build it. "Folk Computing" ...

  17. Social Evolution: Opinions and Behaviors in Face-to-Face Anmol Madan

    E-print Network

    and Sciences Program in Media Arts and Sciences Thesis Supervisor Accepted by Prof. Pattie Maes Associate individuals become sick, reflected in features like total communication, temporal structure in communi- cation

  18. Testing Principles of Language Learning in a Cyber Face-to-Face Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Wang, Yuping

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the application of the established principles of instructed language learning in a cyber fact-to-face environment supported by an advanced Synchronous Learning Management System (SLMS). Following a critical review of the use of SLMS in distance language learning, the main body of the article focuses on the discussion of…

  19. Management Summary of Qualitative Research Report Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This is a summary of research findings from a piece of qualitative research conducted between May and July 2010 for the National Literacy Trust to inform the Talk To Your Baby campaign. The objectives of the research were to identify motivating messages to encourage parents to communicate with their children under three, and to understand key ways…

  20. Professional Staff Committee MINUTES 12/10/2009 FACE-TO-FACE

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    of awardees -- Some wanted different mechanism for selecting awardees, one based on merit. It was noted that explaining the PSC should be a year-round activity. (3) General comments noted that the event offered little help engage faculty/staff during difficult budget times ii. Elora suggested the AD attend a future PSC

  1. Comparing Student Performance: Online versus Blended versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, David K.; Sung, Chung-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to perform a three way comparison of delivery modes for an introductory Management Information Systems course to determine if there existed a difference in student success among the delivery modes. The research compares student exam and final grade results in this class that was taught by the same instructor using…

  2. Professionals' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Online versus Face-to-face Continuing Professional Education Courses

    E-print Network

    Ke, Jie

    2011-10-21

    non-academic context for professions other than nursing or healthcare. Moreover, the learners? voice is often absent in the debates. This exploratory study was designed to a) obtain professionals? perceptions concerning the effectiveness of online...

  3. The Embedded Librarian Online or Face-to-Face: American University's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Michael A.; Matsuoka-Motley, Nobue; Mayer, William

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role online communication and tools play in embedded librarianship at American University. Two embedded models of user engagement, traditional and hybrid, are discussed. The librarians operating in each mode share their experiences providing tailored support to the departments of music/performing arts and business. The…

  4. Gerota and Brâncu?i: Romanian anatomy and art face to face.

    PubMed

    Chirculescu, A R M; Panduru, Andra; Chirculescu, Mihaela; Morris, J F

    2010-02-01

    Gerota's name is associated with two eponyms and two histochemical methods, but he was also Brâncu?i's teacher and supervisor. When Brâncu?i was a student in Bucharest, he produced an 'écorché' (flayed man), of which six plaster replicas still exist, two in apparently the original shape and four which have been modified/'cosmetized'. The two are in the University of Arts in Bucharest, one in the main hall, the other in the classroom used for teaching students. Of the other four, one is in the Museum of Arts and one in the Museum of Natural Sciences of Carol I National College in Craiova (where Gerota graduated in 1885), and one each in the Faculties of Medicine in Cluj Napoca and Iassy. One more probably existed in the Faculty of Medicine in Bucharest, and one in the Faculty of Fine Arts in Iassy but no trace of them could be found. The original clay model was lost (or destroyed during transportation) in the 1930s or 1956. Two variants of the écorché exist: one 'artistic' (slender and smoother) in the University of Arts in Bucharest; the other more 'anatomical' (muscular, robust, athletic) in Craiova, Cluj and Iassy. Both variants are a very realistic representation of the human muscular system, but with that extra which only a master artist can add. Interestingly, the head of the écorché bears a striking resemblance in attitude and curves to that of Brâncu?i's famous head of Mademoiselle Pogany. The replicas appear to have been distributed to embellish the capitals of four of the six historical Romanian provinces: Muntenia (Bucharest), Oltenia (Craiova), Moldavia (Iassy), and Transylvania (Cluj). PMID:20447246

  5. Online vs Face-to-Face: Educator Opinions on Professional Development Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Teresa Scruggs

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess teacher perceptions regarding the effectiveness of online courses as a delivery method for professional development. Participants were divided into two groups, educators who have participated in and now teach professional development courses online (instructors) and educators who have participated in the…

  6. Face-to-Face, Hybrid, or Online?: Issues Faculty Face Redesigning an Introductory Engineering Graphics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branoff, Theodore; Wiebe, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid introductory course was developed and piloted during the Fall 2007 semester in three laptop sections (i.e., all of the students owned and brought laptops to class each day). The online portion of the course included voiced-over content presentations, software demonstrations, and sketching examples as well as online assessments. Sections…

  7. Telephone and face to face methods of assessment of veteran's community reintegration yield equivalent results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Community Reintegration of Service Members (CRIS) is a new measure of community reintegration developed to measure veteran's participation in life roles. It consists of three sub-scales: Extent of Participation (Extent), Perceived Limitations with Participation (Perceived), and Satisfaction with Participation (Satisfaction). Testing of the CRIS measure to date has utilized in-person administration. Administration of the CRIS measure by telephone, if equivalent to in-person administration, would be desirable to lower cost and decrease administrative burden. The purpose of this study was to test the equivalence of telephone and in-person mode of CRIS administration. Methods A convenience sample of 102 subjects (76% male, 24% female, age mean = 49 years, standard deviation = 8.3) were randomly assigned to received either telephone interview at Visit 1 and in-person interview at Visit 2, or in-person interview at Visit 1 and telephone interview a Visit 2. Both Visits were conducted within one week. Intraclass correlation coefficients, ICC (2,1), were used to evaluate correspondence between modes for both item scores and summary scores. ANOVAs with mode order as a covariate were used to test for presence of an ordering effect. Results ICCs (95%CI) for the subscales were 0.92 (0.88-0.94) for Extent, 0.85 (0.80-0.90) for Perceived, and 0.89 (0.84-0.93) for Satisfaction. No ordering effect was observed. Conclusion Telephone administration of the CRIS measure yielded equivalent results to in-person administration. Telephone administration of the CRIS may enable lower costs of administration and greater adoption. PMID:21703000

  8. Cyberbullying Versus Face-to-Face Bullying: A Theoretical and Conceptual Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian J. Dooley; Jacek Pyzalski; Donna S Cross

    2009-01-01

    Cyberbullying has been described as a type of electronic bullying and has recently been subjected to intense media scrutiny largely due to a number of high profile and tragic cases of teen suicide. Despite the media attention relatively little is known about the nature of cyberbullying. This is, at least in part, due to a lack of theoretical and conceptual

  9. Characterization of essential proteins based on network topology in proteins interaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Taheri, Javid; Zomaya, Albert Y.

    2014-06-01

    The identification of essential proteins is theoretically and practically important as (1) it is essential to understand the minimal surviving requirements for cellular lives, and (2) it provides fundamental for development of drug. As conducting experimental studies to identify essential proteins are both time and resource consuming, here we present a computational approach in predicting them based on network topology properties from protein-protein interaction networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proposed method, namely EP3NN (Essential Proteins Prediction using Probabilistic Neural Network) employed a machine learning algorithm called Probabilistic Neural Network as a classifier to identify essential proteins of the organism of interest; it uses degree centrality, closeness centrality, local assortativity and local clustering coefficient of each protein in the network for such predictions. Results show that EP3NN managed to successfully predict essential proteins with an accuracy of 95% for our studied organism. Results also show that most of the essential proteins are close to other proteins, have assortativity behavior and form clusters/sub-graph in the network.

  10. Evidence for dynamically organized modularity in the yeast protein-protein interaction network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-Dong J. Han; Nicolas Bertin; Tong Hao; Debra S. Goldberg; Gabriel F. Berriz; Lan V. Zhang; Denis Dupuy; Albertha J. M. Walhout; Michael E. Cusick; Frederick P. Roth; Marc Vidal

    2004-01-01

    In apparently scale-free protein-protein interaction networks, or `interactome' networks, most proteins interact with few partners, whereas a small but significant proportion of proteins, the `hubs', interact with many partners. Both biological and non-biological scale-free networks are particularly resistant to random node removal but are extremely sensitive to the targeted removal of hubs. A link between the potential scale-free topology of

  11. ParaLearn: a massively parallel, scalable system for learning interaction networks on FPGAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narges Bani Asadi; Christopher W. Fletcher; Greg Gibeling; John Wawrzynek; Wing H. Wong; Garry P. Nolan; Zoey Zhou

    2010-01-01

    ParaLearn is a scalable, parallel FPGA-based system for learning interaction networks using Bayesian statistics. ParaLearn includes problem specific parallel\\/scalable algorithms, system software and hardware architecture to address this complex problem. Learning interaction networks from data uncovers causal relationships and allows scientists to predict and explain a system's behavior. Interaction networks have applications in many fields, though we will discuss them

  12. Phospho-tyrosine dependent protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Arndt; Benlasfer, Nouhad; Birth, Petra; Hegele, Anna; Wachsmuth, Franziska; Apelt, Luise; Stelzl, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    Post-translational protein modifications, such as tyrosine phosphorylation, regulate protein-protein interactions (PPIs) critical for signal processing and cellular phenotypes. We extended an established yeast two-hybrid system employing human protein kinases for the analyses of phospho-tyrosine (pY)-dependent PPIs in a direct experimental, large-scale approach. We identified 292 mostly novel pY-dependent PPIs which showed high specificity with respect to kinases and interacting proteins and validated a large fraction in co-immunoprecipitation experiments from mammalian cells. About one-sixth of the interactions are mediated by known linear sequence binding motifs while the majority of pY-PPIs are mediated by other linear epitopes or governed by alternative recognition modes. Network analysis revealed that pY-mediated recognition events are tied to a highly connected protein module dedicated to signaling and cell growth pathways related to cancer. Using binding assays, protein complementation and phenotypic readouts to characterize the pY-dependent interactions of TSPAN2 (tetraspanin 2) and GRB2 or PIK3R3 (p55?), we exemplarily provide evidence that the two pY-dependent PPIs dictate cellular cancer phenotypes. PMID:25814554

  13. A genetic interaction network model of a complex neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Tyler, A L; McGarr, T C; Beyer, B J; Frankel, W N; Carter, G W

    2014-11-01

    Absence epilepsy (AE) is a complex, heritable disease characterized by a brief disruption of normal behavior and accompanying spike-wave discharges (SWD) on the electroencephalogram. Only a handful of genes has been definitively associated with AE in humans and rodent models. Most studies suggest that genetic interactions play a large role in the etiology and severity of AE, but mapping and understanding their architecture remains a challenge, requiring new computational approaches. Here we use combined analysis of pleiotropy and epistasis (CAPE) to detect and interpret genetic interactions in a meta-population derived from three C3H × B6J strain crosses, each of which is fixed for a different SWD-causing mutation. Although each mutation causes SWD through a different molecular mechanism, the phenotypes caused by each mutation are exacerbated on the C3H genetic background compared with B6J, suggesting common modifiers. By combining information across two phenotypic measures - SWD duration and frequency - CAPE showed a large, directed genetic network consisting of suppressive and enhancing interactions between loci on 10 chromosomes. These results illustrate the power of CAPE in identifying novel modifier loci and interactions in a complex neurological disease, toward a more comprehensive view of its underlying genetic architecture. PMID:25251056

  14. Phospho-tyrosine dependent protein–protein interaction network

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Arndt; Benlasfer, Nouhad; Birth, Petra; Hegele, Anna; Wachsmuth, Franziska; Apelt, Luise; Stelzl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications, such as tyrosine phosphorylation, regulate protein–protein interactions (PPIs) critical for signal processing and cellular phenotypes. We extended an established yeast two-hybrid system employing human protein kinases for the analyses of phospho-tyrosine (pY)-dependent PPIs in a direct experimental, large-scale approach. We identified 292 mostly novel pY-dependent PPIs which showed high specificity with respect to kinases and interacting proteins and validated a large fraction in co-immunoprecipitation experiments from mammalian cells. About one-sixth of the interactions are mediated by known linear sequence binding motifs while the majority of pY-PPIs are mediated by other linear epitopes or governed by alternative recognition modes. Network analysis revealed that pY-mediated recognition events are tied to a highly connected protein module dedicated to signaling and cell growth pathways related to cancer. Using binding assays, protein complementation and phenotypic readouts to characterize the pY-dependent interactions of TSPAN2 (tetraspanin 2) and GRB2 or PIK3R3 (p55?), we exemplarily provide evidence that the two pY-dependent PPIs dictate cellular cancer phenotypes. PMID:25814554

  15. Node similarity within subgraphs of protein interaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Orion; Sood, Vishal; Musso, Gabriel; Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2008-06-01

    We propose a biologically motivated quantity, twinness, to evaluate local similarity between nodes in a network. The twinness of a pair of nodes is the number of connected, labeled subgraphs of size n in which the two nodes possess identical neighbours. The graph animal algorithm is used to estimate twinness for each pair of nodes (for subgraph sizes n=4 to n=12) in four different protein interaction networks (PINs). These include an Escherichia coli PIN and three Saccharomyces cerevisiae PINs - each obtained using state-of-the-art high-throughput methods. In almost all cases, the average twinness of node pairs is vastly higher than that expected from a null model obtained by switching links. For all n, we observe a difference in the ratio of type A twins (which are unlinked pairs) to type B twins (which are linked pairs) distinguishing the prokaryote E. coli from the eukaryote S. cerevisiae. Interaction similarity is expected due to gene duplication, and whole genome duplication paralogues in S. cerevisiae have been reported to co-cluster into the same complexes. Indeed, we find that these paralogous proteins are over-represented as twins compared to pairs chosen at random. These results indicate that twinness can detect ancestral relationships from currently available PIN data.

  16. Collective behavior of interacting locally synchronized oscillations in neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2012-10-01

    Local circuits in the cortex and hippocampus are endowed with resonant, oscillatory firing properties which underlie oscillations in various frequency ranges (e.g. gamma range) frequently observed in the local field potentials, and in electroencephalography. Synchronized oscillations are thought to play important roles in information binding in the brain. This paper addresses the collective behavior of interacting locally synchronized oscillations in realistic neural networks. A network of five neurons is proposed in order to produce locally synchronized oscillations. The neuron models are Hindmarsh-Rose type with electrical and/or chemical couplings. We construct large-scale models using networks of such units which capture the essential features of the dynamics of cells and their connectivity patterns. The profile of the spike synchronization is then investigated considering different model parameters such as strength and ratio of excitatory/inhibitory connections. We also show that transmission time-delay might enhance the spike synchrony. The influence of spike-timing-dependence-plasticity is also studies on the spike synchronization.

  17. Dynamic patterns and their interactions in networks of excitable elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Pulin; Steel, Harrison; Robinson, Peter; Qi, Yang

    2013-10-01

    Formation of localized propagating patterns is a fascinating self-organizing phenomenon that happens in a wide range of spatially extended, excitable systems in which individual elements have resting, activated, and refractory states. Here we study a type of stochastic three-state excitable network model that has been recently developed; this model is able to generate a rich range of pattern dynamics, including localized wandering patterns and localized propagating patterns with crescent shapes and long-range propagation. The collective dynamics of these localized patterns have anomalous subdiffusive dynamics before symmetry breaking and anomalous superdiffusive dynamics after that, showing long-range spatiotemporal coherence in the system. In this study, the stability of the localized wandering patterns is analyzed by treating an individual localized pattern as a subpopulation to develop its average response function. This stability analysis indicates that when the average refractory period is greater than a certain value, there are too many elements in the refractory state after being activated to allow the subpopulation to support a self-sustained pattern; this is consistent with symmetry breaking identified by using an order parameter. Furthermore, in a broad parameter space, the simple network model is able to generate a range of interactions between different localized propagating patterns including repulsive collisions and partial and full annihilations, and interactions between localized propagating patterns and the refractory wake behind others; in this study, these interaction dynamics are systematically quantified based on their relative propagation directions and the resultant angles between them before and after their collisions. These results suggest that the model potentially provides a modeling framework to understand the formation of localized propagating patterns in a broad class of systems with excitable properties.

  18. A DNA methylation network interaction measure, and detection of network oncomarkers.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Thomas E; Olhede, Sofia C; Zaikin, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic processes--including DNA methylation--are increasingly seen as having a fundamental role in chronic diseases like cancer. DNA methylation patterns offer a route to develop prognostic measures based directly on DNA measurements, rather than less-stable RNA measurements. A novel DNA methylation-based measure of the co-ordinated interactive behaviour of genes is developed, in a network context. It is shown that this measure reflects well the co-regulatory behaviour linked to gene expression (at the mRNA level) over the same network interactions. This measure, defined for pairs of genes in a single patient/sample, associates with overall survival outcome independent of known prognostic clinical features, in several independent data sets relating to different cancer types. In total, more than half a billion CpGs in over 1600 samples, taken from nine different cancer entities, are analysed. It is found that groups of gene-pair interactions which associate significantly with survival identify statistically significant subnetwork modules. Many of these subnetwork modules are shown to be biologically relevant by strong correlation with pre-defined gene sets, such as immune function, wound healing, mitochondrial function and MAP-kinase signalling. In particular, the wound healing module corresponds to an increase in co-ordinated interactive behaviour between genes for worse prognosis, and the immune module corresponds to a decrease in co-ordinated interactive behaviour between genes for worse prognosis. This measure has great potential for defining DNA-based cancer biomarkers. Such biomarkers could naturally be developed further, by drawing on the rapidly expanding knowledge base of network science. PMID:24400102

  19. Functional features and protein network of human sperm-egg interaction.

    PubMed

    Sabetian, Soudabeh; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Abu Naser, Mohammed

    2014-12-01

    Elucidation of the sperm-egg interaction at the molecular level is one of the unresolved problems in sexual reproduction, and understanding the molecular mechanism is crucial in solving problems in infertility and failed in vitro fertilization (IVF). Many molecular interactions in the form of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate the sperm-egg membrane interaction. Due to the complexity of the problem such as difficulties in analyzing in vivo membrane PPIs, many efforts have failed to comprehensively elucidate the fusion mechanism and the molecular interactions that mediate sperm-egg membrane fusion. The main purpose of this study was to reveal possible protein interactions and associated molecular function during sperm-egg interaction using a protein interaction network approach. Different databases have been used to construct the human sperm-egg interaction network. The constructed network revealed new interactions. These included CD151 and CD9 in human oocyte that interact with CD49 in sperm, and CD49 and ITGA4 in sperm that interact with CD63 and CD81, respectively, in the oocyte. These results showed that the different integrins in sperm may be involved in human sperm-egg interaction. It was also suggested that sperm ADAM2 plays a role as a protein candidate involved in sperm-egg membrane interaction by interacting with CD9 in the oocyte. Interleukin-4 receptor activity, receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity, and manganese ion transmembrane transport activity are the major molecular functions in sperm-egg interaction protein network. The disease association analysis indicated that sperm-egg interaction defects are also reflected in other disease networks such as cardiovascular, hematological, and breast cancer diseases. By analyzing the network, we identified the major molecular functions and disease association genes in sperm-egg interaction protein. Further experimental studies will be required to confirm the significance of these new computationally resolved interactions and the genetic links between sperm-egg interaction abnormalities and the associated disease. PMID:25222562

  20. Energetically significant networks of coupled interactions within an unfolded protein.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Hyun; Meng, Wenli; Sato, Satoshi; Kim, Eun Young; Schindelin, Hermann; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2014-08-19

    Unfolded and partially unfolded proteins participate in a wide range of biological processes from pathological aggregation to the regulation of normal cellular activity. Unfolded states can be populated under strongly denaturing conditions, but the ensemble which is relevant for folding, stability, and aggregation is that populated under physiological conditions. Characterization of nonnative states is critical for the understanding of these processes, yet comparatively little is known about their energetics and their structural propensities under native conditions. The standard view is that energetically significant coupled interactions involving multiple residues are generally not present in the denatured state ensemble (DSE) or in intrinsically disordered proteins. Using the N-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9, a small ?-? protein, as an experimental model system, we demonstrate that networks of energetically significant, coupled interactions can form in the DSE of globular proteins, and can involve residues that are distant in sequence and spatially well separated in the native structure. X-ray crystallography, NMR, dynamics studies, native state pKa measurements, and thermodynamic analysis of more than 25 mutants demonstrate that residues are energetically coupled in the DSE. Altering these interactions by mutation affects the stability of the domain. Mutations that alter the energetics of the DSE can impact the analysis of cooperativity and folding, and may play a role in determining the propensity to aggregate. PMID:25099351