Sample records for face-to-face interaction networks

  1. Modeling Human Dynamics of Face-to-Face Interaction Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-04-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of interconversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents that perform a random walk in a two-dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  2. Modelling Interaction Dynamics during Face-to-Face Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasser Mohammad; Toyoaki Nishida

    \\u000a During face to face interactions, the emotional state of each participant is greatly affected by the behavior of other participants\\u000a and how much this behavior conforms with common protocols of interaction in the society. Research in human to human interaction\\u000a in face to face situations has uncovered many forms of synchrony in the behavior of the interacting partners. This includes

  3. Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1130251 MINING FACE-TO-FACE INTERACTION NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    , the most effective network structures for "latent" social networks (those that characterize the network School of Management lynnwu@mit.edu Ben Waber MIT Media Laboratory bwaber@media.mit.edu Sinan Aral NYU Sloan School of Management erikb@mit.edu Alex "Sandy" Pentland MIT Media Laboratory sandy@media

  4. Effectiveness of Link Prediction for Face-to-Face Behavioral Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tsugawa, Sho; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Research on link prediction for social networks has been actively pursued. In link prediction for a given social network obtained from time-windowed observation, new link formation in the network is predicted from the topology of the obtained network. In contrast, recent advances in sensing technology have made it possible to obtain face-to-face behavioral networks, which are social networks representing face-to-face interactions among people. However, the effectiveness of link prediction techniques for face-to-face behavioral networks has not yet been explored in depth. To clarify this point, here we investigate the accuracy of conventional link prediction techniques for networks obtained from the history of face-to-face interactions among participants at an academic conference. Our findings were (1) that conventional link prediction techniques predict new link formation with a precision of 0.30–0.45 and a recall of 0.10–0.20, (2) that prolonged observation of social networks often degrades the prediction accuracy, (3) that the proposed decaying weight method leads to higher prediction accuracy than can be achieved by observing all records of communication and simply using them unmodified, and (4) that the prediction accuracy for face-to-face behavioral networks is relatively high compared to that for non-social networks, but not as high as for other types of social networks. PMID:24339956

  5. Pervasive Sensing to Model Political Opinions in Face-to-Face Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anmol Madan; Katayoun Farrahi; Daniel Gatica-Perez

    2011-01-01

    Exposure and adoption of opinions in social networks are important questions in education, business, and government. We de- scribe a novel application of pervasive computing based on using mobile phone sensors to measure and model the face-to-face interactions and subsequent opinion changes amongst undergraduates, during the 2008 US presidential election campaign. We nd that self-reported political discussants have characteristic interaction

  6. Opo: A Wearable Sensor for Capturing High-Fidelity Face-to-Face Interactions

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabal

    ] and wearable RF/RSSI scanning sensors [21]. Smartphone deployments use Bluetooth scans to deter- mine if twoOpo: A Wearable Sensor for Capturing High-Fidelity Face-to-Face Interactions William Huang, Ye study face-to-face interactions us- ing wearable sensors and smartphones which provide 2 to 5 m

  7. A Comparison of Face-to-Face and Electronic Peer-Mentoring: Interactions with Mentor Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.; Scielzo, Shannon A.; Yarbrough, Charyl S.; Rosopa, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared the relative impact of peer-mentoring that took place either face-to-face or through electronic chat. Proteges were 106 college freshmen randomly assigned to a senior college student mentor and to one of the two communication modes. Fifty-one mentors interacted with one of these proteges face-to-face and one solely…

  8. Social sensing: obesity, unhealthy eating and exercise in face-to-face networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anmol Madan; Sai T. Moturu; David Lazer

    2010-01-01

    What is the role of face-to-face interactions in the diffusion of health-related behaviors- diet choices, exercise habits, and long-term weight changes? We use co-location and communication sensors in mass-market mobile phones to model the diffusion of health-related behaviors via face-to-face interactions amongst the residents of an undergraduate residence hall during the academic year of 2008--09. The dataset used in this

  9. Animated Pedagogical Agents: Face-to-Face Interaction in Interactive Learning Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lewis Johnson; Jeff W. Rickel; James C. Lester

    2000-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the birth of a new paradigm for learning environments: animated pedagogical agents. These lifelike autonomous characters cohabit learning environments with students to create rich, face-to-face learning interactions. This opens up exciting new possibilities; for example, agents can demonstrate complex tasks, employ locomotion and gesture to focus students' attention on the most salient aspect of the task

  10. Social Sensing: Obesity, Unhealthy Eating and Exercise in Face-to-Face Networks

    E-print Network

    bluetooth proximity scans, 802.11 WLAN AP scans, calling and SMS networks and self-reported diet, exerciseSocial Sensing: Obesity, Unhealthy Eating and Exercise in Face-to-Face Networks Anmol Madan MIT individuals. To better understand this adoption mechanism, we contrast the role of exposure to different sub

  11. Discourse Management Strategies in Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Decision Making Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Sherri L.; Cech, Claude G.

    1996-01-01

    Compares discourse management strategies in face-to-face and computer-mediated interactions involving four decision-making tasks. Examines these issues in qualitative and quantitative analyses of data using an utterance-unit coding system to identify discourse functions. Finds that participants compensate for decreased efficiency by adopting…

  12. Learning Opportunities in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication and Face-to-Face Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hye Yeong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) and face-to-face (F2F) oral interaction influence the way in which learners collaborate in language learning and how they solve their communicative problems. The findings suggest that output modality may affect how learners produce language, attend to linguistic forms,…

  13. Co-Constructing Mother-Infant Distress in Face-to-Face Interactions: Contributions of Microanalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the use of microanalysis of videotapes to look at nonverbal elements (such as smiles, facial expressions, eye gaze, touch, and head and body movements toward and away from the other) to determine the caregiver-infant interactive (regulatory) experience. Video microanalysis of face-to-face play by infants and parents…

  14. Internet Communication versus Face-to-Face Interaction in Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul S. N.; Leung, Louis; Lo, Venhwei; Xiong, Chengyu; Wu, Tingjun

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the role of the Internet in quality of life (QoL). Specifically, it examines the question of whether Internet communication serves, like face-to-face interactions, to enhance quality of life. It is hypothesized that the use of the Internet for interpersonal communication can improve quality of life among Internet…

  15. Social sensing: Obesity, unhealthy eating and exercise in face-to-face networks

    E-print Network

    Madan, Anmol Prem Prakash

    What is the role of face-to-face interactions in the diffusion of health-related behaviors- diet choices, exercise habits, and long-term weight changes? We use co-location and communication sensors in mass-market mobile ...

  16. Exploring Relationship between Face-to-Face Interaction and Team Performance Using Wearable Sensor Badges

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Ishibashi, Nozomu; Yano, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of human-generated data collected in various fields have uncovered many patterns of complex human behaviors. However, thus far the quantitative evaluation of the relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance has been inadequate. Here, we present findings demonstrating the significant relationship between the physical behaviors of employees and their performance via experiments we conducted in inbound call centers while the employees wore sensor badges. There were two main findings. First, we found that face-to-face interaction among telecommunicators and the frequency of their bodily movements caused by the face-to-face interaction had a significant correlation with the entire call center performance, which we measured as “Calls per Hour.” Second, our trial to activate face-to-face interaction on the basis of data collected by the wearable sensor badges the employees wore significantly increased their performance. These results demonstrate quantitatively that human-human interaction in the physical world plays an important role in team performance. PMID:25501748

  17. The Collaborative Language Learning Attributes of Cyber Face-to-Face Interaction: The Perspectives of the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuping; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degrees of collaborative language learning that were supported in cyber face-to-face interaction. The concept of "cyber face-to-face" is used here to encapsulate the kind of environment in which a combination of real-time oral/aural, visual, and text-based interaction happens simultaneously via the various features in an…

  18. Link Prediction and the Role of Stronger Ties in Networks of Face-to-Face Proximity

    E-print Network

    Scholz, Christoph; Stumme, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the structures why links are formed is an important and prominent research topic. In this paper, we therefore consider the link prediction problem in face-to-face contact networks, and analyze the predictability of new and recurring links. Furthermore, we study additional influence factors, and the role of stronger ties in these networks. Specifically, we compare neighborhood-based and path-based network proximity measures in a threshold-based analysis for capturing temporal dynamics. The results and insights of the analysis are a first step onto predictability applications for human contact networks, for example, for improving recommendations.

  19. Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and anonymous real-time team competition in a networked gaming learning environment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Han, Chialing; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates the impact of anonymous, computerized, synchronized team competition on students' motivation, satisfaction, and interpersonal relationships. Sixty-eight fourth-graders participated in this study. A synchronous gaming learning system was developed to have dyads compete against each other in answering multiple-choice questions set in accordance with the school curriculum in two conditions (face-to-face and anonymous). The results showed that students who were exposed to the anonymous team competition condition responded significantly more positively than those in the face-to-face condition in terms of motivation and satisfaction at the 0.050 and 0.056 levels respectively. Although further studies regarding the effects of anonymous interaction in a networked gaming learning environment are imperative, the positive effects detected in this preliminary study indicate that anonymity is a viable feature for mitigating the negative effects that competition may inflict on motivation and satisfaction as reported in traditional face-to-face environments. PMID:18721101

  20. Live face-to-face interaction during fMRI: A new tool for social cognitive neuroscience

    E-print Network

    Kleiner, Mario

    Cooperative social interaction is critical for human social development and learning. Despite the importance of social interaction, previous neuroimaging studies lack two fundamental components of everyday face-to-face ...

  1. Investigating Face-to-Face Peer Interaction Patterns in a Collaborative Web Discovery Task: The Bene?ts of a Shared Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, C-W.; Lee, C-C.; Liu, C-C.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computers are now increasingly applied to facilitate face-to-face collaborative learning. However, the factors affecting face-to-face peer interactions are complex as they involve rich communication media. In particular, non-verbal interactions are necessary to convey critical communication messages in face-to-face communication. Through…

  2. A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Basic Pharmacokinetics and the Significance of Face-to-Face Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess pharmacy students' attitudes towards a blended-learning pharmacokinetics course. Design Narrated visual presentations and animations that illustrated kinetic processes and guided students through the use of software programs used for calculations were created. Other learning techniques used included online self-assessment quizzes, practice problem sets, and weekly face-to-face problem-solving tutorials. Assessment A precourse questionnaire to assess students' level of enthusiasm towards the blended-learning course and to solicit any concerns they had was administered at the beginning of the course. A postcourse questionnaire that included the same 4 Likert-scale items from the precourse questionnaire and follow-up open-ended questions was administered. Individual changes in level of enthusiasm were compared for individuals who completed both the precourse and postcourse questionnaire. Students' concerns about the blended method of learning had decreased postcourse while their enthusiasm for the benefits of blended learning had increased. Conclusion Students' initial concerns about the blended learning experience were focused on their ability to communicate with the instructor about the online components, but shifted to their own time management skills at the end of the course. Face-to-face interactions with each other and with the instructor were more highly rated than online interactions in this course. PMID:20798797

  3. Development and Implementation of an ESL Classroom Assessment of Face-to-Face Conversational Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauper, Nancy Louise

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of local norms and conventions of interaction and ability to use them appropriately as well as the ability to negotiate meaning with interlocutors are important for ESL graduate students and prospective teaching assistants in an English-speaking university context. The interactive communication (IC) assessment using a paired student…

  4. The effects of physical deviance upon face-to-face interaction: The other side

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Comer; Jane A. Piliavin

    1972-01-01

    Explored the behavioral output of 30 disabled male patients in interaction with a confederate appearing to be normal or disabled. Using a modified procedure of previous studies where it was found that physically normal persons contribute nonverbal cues of \\

  5. Social evolution : opinions and behaviors in face-to-face networks

    E-print Network

    Madan, Anmol P. (Anmol Prem Prakash)

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to new ideas and opinions, and their diffusion within social networks, are important questions in education, business, and government. However until recently there has been no method to automatically capture ...

  6. Enhancing Discussions in the Asynchronous Online Classroom: The Lack of Face-to-Face Interaction Does Not Lessen the Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Debra R.; Lenaghan, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses educators' concerns about using asynchronous online discussions in lieu of face-to-face discussions. Drawing from research on asynchronous online education and Bloom's taxonomy, the authors introduce the system of "original examples" and "value-added comments" that they have developed to promote engaging and meaningful…

  7. Differences in the Nature of Discussion between Peer Response Sessions Conducted on Networked Computers and Those Conducted in the Traditional Face-to-Face Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Su-Yueh

    This study investigated the nature of students' discussion in peer response sessions in an English-as-a-Second-Language composition class in Taiwan. Subjects were 17 university students, divided into four writing groups. Half of the 16 peer response sessions were computer-mediated (CM), the other half in face-to-face interaction (FF). Analysis of…

  8. Normal Gaze Cueing in Children with Autism Is Disrupted by Simultaneous Speech Utterances in “Live” Face-to-Face Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Douglas D.; Webster, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Gaze cueing was assessed in children with autism and in typically developing children, using a computer-controlled “live” face-to-face procedure. Sensitivity to gaze direction was assessed using a Posner cuing paradigm. Both static and dynamic directional gaze cues were used. Consistent with many previous studies, using photographic and cartoon faces, gaze cueing was present in children with autism and was not developmentally delayed. However, in the same children, gaze cueing was abolished when a mouth movement occurred at the same time as the gaze cue. In contrast, typical children were able to use gaze cues in all conditions. The findings indicate that gaze cueing develops successfully in some children with autism but that their attention is disrupted by speech utterances. Their ability to learn to read nonverbal emotional and intentional signals provided by the eyes may therefore be significantly impaired. This may indicate a problem with cross-modal attention control or an abnormal sensitivity to peripheral motion in general or the mouth region in particular. PMID:22937251

  9. Interpersonal Similarity between Body Movements in Face-To-Face Communication in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Higo, Naoki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Minemura, Juichi; Xu, Bujie; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ogata, Taiki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results confirm an interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals in face-to-face communication, for all the organizations studied, and suggest that some body interaction is behind this similarity. PMID:25014021

  10. Friending, IMing, and hanging out face-to-face: overlap in adolescents' online and offline social networks.

    PubMed

    Reich, Stephanie M; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2012-03-01

    Many new and important developmental issues are encountered during adolescence, which is also a time when Internet use becomes increasingly popular. Studies have shown that adolescents are using these online spaces to address developmental issues, especially needs for intimacy and connection to others. Online communication with its potential for interacting with unknown others, may put teens at increased risk. Two hundred and fifty-one high school students completed an in-person survey, and 126 of these completed an additional online questionnaire about how and why they use the Internet, their activities on social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace) and their reasons for participation, and how they perceive these online spaces to impact their friendships. To examine the extent of overlap between online and offline friends, participants were asked to list the names of their top interaction partners offline and online (Facebook and instant messaging). Results reveal that adolescents mainly use social networking sites to connect with others, in particular with people known from offline contexts. While adolescents report little monitoring by their parents, there was no evidence that teens are putting themselves at risk by interacting with unknown others. Instead, adolescents seem to use the Internet, especially social networking sites, to connect with known others. While the study found moderate overlap between teens' closest online and offline friends, the patterns suggest that adolescents use online contexts to strengthen offline relationships. PMID:22369341

  11. Mutual touch during mother-infant face-to-face still-face interactions: influences of interaction period and infant birth status.

    PubMed

    Mantis, Irene; Stack, Dale M; Ng, Laura; Serbin, Lisa A; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2014-08-01

    Contact behaviours such as touch, have been shown to be influential channels of nonverbal communication between mothers and infants. While existing research has examined the communicative roles of maternal or infant touch in isolation, mutual touch, whereby touching behaviours occur simultaneously between mothers and their infants, has yet to be examined. The present study was designed to investigate mutual touch during face-to-face interactions between mothers and their 5½-month-old fullterm (n=40), very low birth weight/preterm (VLBW/preterm; n=40) infants, and infants at psychosocial risk (n=41). Objectives were to examine: (1) how the quantitative and qualitative aspects of touch employed by mothers and their infants varied across the normal periods of the still-face (SF) procedure, and (2) how these were associated with risk status. Mutual touch was systematically coded using the mother-infant touch scale. Interactions were found to largely consist of mutual touch and one-sided touch plus movement, highlighting that active touching is pervasive during mother-infant interactions. Consistent with the literature, while the SF period did not negatively affect the amount of mutual touch engaged in for mothers and their fullterm infants and mothers and their infants at psychosocial risk, it did for mothers and their VLBW/preterm infants. Together, results illuminate how both mothers and infants participate in shaping and co-regulating their interactions through the use of touch and underscore the contribution of examining the influence of birth status on mutual touch. PMID:24793734

  12. Face-to-Face Interactions of Postpartum Depressed and Nondepressed Mother–Infant Pairs at 2 Months

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey F. Cohn; Susan B. Campbell; Reinaldo Matias; Joyce Hopkins

    1990-01-01

    Depression’s influence on mother–infant interactions at 2 months postpartum was studied in 24 depressed and 22 nondepressed mother–infant dyads. Depression was diagnosed using the SADS-L and RDC. In S’s homes, structured interactions of 3 min duration were videotaped and later coded using behavioral descriptors and a 1-s time base. Unstructured interactions were described using rating scales. During structured interactions, depressed

  13. Face to Face with Ants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Biology

    Imagine being the size of an ant. Be careful - a face-to-face encounter with an ant would be scary and potentially life-threatening! But, if you avoided being eaten, you could learn a lot about ant anatomy from a close-up view. Ants have many body parts that are normally hard to see without a magnifying glass or microscope. And each structure has its own special function.

  14. Face-to-Face Interactions in Unacquainted Female-Male Adolescent DyadsHow Do Girls and Boys Behave?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giselle C. Kolaric; Nancy L. Galambos

    1995-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal behaviors of adolescents interacting in female-male dyads were examined for gender and context (i.e., topic of discussion) differences. Thirty dyads, comprised of unacquainted 15-year-olds, discussed a masculine, feminine, and gender-neutral task for 3 minutes each. The videotaped interactions were coded for verbal (questions, uncertainty, speaking time) and nonverbal (gestures, head\\/facial touches, smiling, gazing) behaviors. Codes also were

  15. Face-to-Face Interactions in Unacquainted Female-Male Dyads: How Do Girls and Boys Behave?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolaric, Giselle C.; Galambos, Nancy L.

    1995-01-01

    Examined adolescents' verbal and nonverbal behavior in 30 female-male dyads. All behaviors were coded. Analysis of videotaped interactions revealed more similarities between girls and boys than differences, although gender distinctions were evident in speaking time and in smiling. Results focus on developmental and contextual accounts of…

  16. Do Handheld Devices Facilitate Face-to-Face Collaboration? Handheld Devices with Large Shared Display Groupware to Facilitate Group Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Kao, L.-C.

    2007-01-01

    One-to-one computing environments change and improve classroom dynamics as individual students can bring handheld devices fitted with wireless communication capabilities into the classrooms. However, the screens of handheld devices, being designed for individual-user mobile application, limit promotion of interaction among groups of learners. This…

  17. Developing Students' Metacognitive Awareness in Asynchronous Learning Networks in Comparison to Face-to-Face Discussion Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalsky, Tova; Zion, Michal; Mevarech, Zemira R.

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of the present study is to investigate empirically the effects of Asynchronic Learning Network (ALN) embedded within metacognitive instruction (META) on two components of metacognitive awareness: Knowledge about Cognition (KC) and Regulation of Cognition (RC). Participants were 202 tenth grade students: 102 students who studied under…

  18. Face to face versus Facebook: does exposure to social networking web sites augment or attenuate physiological arousal among the socially anxious?

    PubMed

    Rauch, Shannon M; Strobel, Cara; Bella, Megan; Odachowski, Zachary; Bloom, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The present study tested two competing hypotheses about the effect of Facebook exposure on the physiological arousal level of participants who then encountered the stimulus person in a face-to-face situation. Facebook exposure may attenuate later arousal by providing increased comfort and confidence, but it is also possible that Facebook exposure will augment arousal, particularly among the socially anxious. Participants completed a measure of social anxiety and were exposed to a stimulus person via Facebook, face to face, or both. Galvanic skin response was recorded during the exposures to the stimulus person. Results were consistent with the augmentation hypothesis: a prior exposure on Facebook will lead to increased arousal during a face-to-face encounter, particularly for those high in social anxiety. PMID:24180223

  19. Comparative Analysis of Online vs. Face-to-Face Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott D.; Aragon, Steven R.; Shaik, Najmuddin; Palma-Rivas, Nilda

    This empirical study compared a graduate online course with an equivalent course taught in a traditional face-to-face format. Comparisons included student ratings of instructor and course quality; assessment of course interaction, structure, and support; and learning outcomes such as course grades and student self-assessment of ability to perform…

  20. Experiments with Face-To-Face Collaborative AR Interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Billinghurst; Hirokazu Kato; Kiyoshi Kiyokawa; Daniel Belcher; Ivan Poupyrev

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT We describe a design approach, Tangible Augmented Reality, for developing face-to-face collaborative Augmented Reality (AR) interfaces. Tangible Augmented Reality combines Augmented Reality techniques with Tangible User Interface elements to create interfaces in which users can interact with spatial data as easily as real objects. Tangible AR interfaces remove the separation between the real and virtual worlds and so enhance

  1. Programmed versus Face-to-Face Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William M.; Ewing, Thomas N.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effectiveness of a programmed Self-Counseling Manual and a normal precollege counseling interview by experienced counselors. Findings supported the use of programmed counseling as an adjunct to or substitute for face-to-face counseling. (Author)

  2. The Place of Face-to-Face Communication in Distributed Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie A. Nardi; Steve Whittaker

    2002-01-01

    Most distributed work requires mediated communication, but the appropriate use of mediated, as compared with face-to-face communication, is not well understood. From our ethnographic research on workplace communication, we characterize unique aspects of face-to-face communication. Face to face communication supports touch, shared activities, eating and drinking together, as well as informal interactions and attention management. We argue that these activities

  3. Developmental changes in mother-infant face-to-face communication: Birth to 3 months

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Lavelli; Alan Fogel

    2002-01-01

    This study documented the growth of the earliest form of face-to-face communication in 16 mother- infant dyads, videotaped weekly during a naturalistic face-to-face interaction, between 1 and 14 weeks, in 2 conditions: with the infant in the mother's arms and with the infant semi-reclined on a sofa. Results showed a curvilinear development of early face-to-face communication, with a significant increase

  4. The sound of your lips: electrophysiological cross-modal interactions during hand-to-face and face-to-face speech perception.

    PubMed

    Treille, Avril; Vilain, Coriandre; Sato, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent magneto-encephalographic and electro-encephalographic studies provide evidence for cross-modal integration during audio-visual and audio-haptic speech perception, with speech gestures viewed or felt from manual tactile contact with the speaker's face. Given the temporal precedence of the haptic and visual signals on the acoustic signal in these studies, the observed modulation of N1/P2 auditory evoked responses during bimodal compared to unimodal speech perception suggest that relevant and predictive visual and haptic cues may facilitate auditory speech processing. To further investigate this hypothesis, auditory evoked potentials were here compared during auditory-only, audio-visual and audio-haptic speech perception in live dyadic interactions between a listener and a speaker. In line with previous studies, auditory evoked potentials were attenuated and speeded up during both audio-haptic and audio-visual compared to auditory speech perception. Importantly, the observed latency and amplitude reduction did not significantly depend on the degree of visual and haptic recognition of the speech targets. Altogether, these results further demonstrate cross-modal interactions between the auditory, visual and haptic speech signals. Although they do not contradict the hypothesis that visual and haptic sensory inputs convey predictive information with respect to the incoming auditory speech input, these results suggest that, at least in live conversational interactions, systematic conclusions on sensory predictability in bimodal speech integration have to be taken with caution, with the extraction of predictive cues likely depending on the variability of the speech stimuli. PMID:24860533

  5. The sound of your lips: electrophysiological cross-modal interactions during hand-to-face and face-to-face speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Treille, Avril; Vilain, Coriandre; Sato, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent magneto-encephalographic and electro-encephalographic studies provide evidence for cross-modal integration during audio-visual and audio-haptic speech perception, with speech gestures viewed or felt from manual tactile contact with the speaker’s face. Given the temporal precedence of the haptic and visual signals on the acoustic signal in these studies, the observed modulation of N1/P2 auditory evoked responses during bimodal compared to unimodal speech perception suggest that relevant and predictive visual and haptic cues may facilitate auditory speech processing. To further investigate this hypothesis, auditory evoked potentials were here compared during auditory-only, audio-visual and audio-haptic speech perception in live dyadic interactions between a listener and a speaker. In line with previous studies, auditory evoked potentials were attenuated and speeded up during both audio-haptic and audio-visual compared to auditory speech perception. Importantly, the observed latency and amplitude reduction did not significantly depend on the degree of visual and haptic recognition of the speech targets. Altogether, these results further demonstrate cross-modal interactions between the auditory, visual and haptic speech signals. Although they do not contradict the hypothesis that visual and haptic sensory inputs convey predictive information with respect to the incoming auditory speech input, these results suggest that, at least in live conversational interactions, systematic conclusions on sensory predictability in bimodal speech integration have to be taken with caution, with the extraction of predictive cues likely depending on the variability of the speech stimuli. PMID:24860533

  6. Collaborative recall in face-to-face and electronic groups.

    PubMed

    Ekeocha, Justina Ohaeri; Brennan, Susan E

    2008-04-01

    When people remember shared experiences, the amount they recall as a collaborating group is less than the amount obtained by pooling their individual memories. We tested the hypothesis that reduced group productivity can be attributed, at least in part, to content filtering, where information is omitted from group products either because individuals fail to retrieve it or choose to withhold it (self-filtering), or because groups reject or fail to incorporate it (group-filtering). Three-person groups viewed a movie clip together and recalled it, first individually, then in face-to-face or electronic groups, and finally individually again. Although both kinds of groups recalled equal amounts, group-filtering occurred more often face-to-face, while self-filtering occurred more often electronically. This suggests that reduced group productivity is due not only to intrapersonal factors stemming from cognitive interference, but also to interpersonal costs of coordinating the group product. Finally, face-to-face group interaction facilitated subsequent individual recall. PMID:18324550

  7. Cocaine Exposure Is Associated with Subtle Compromises of Infants' and Mothers' Social-Emotional Behavior and Dyadic Features of Their Interaction in the Face-to-Face Still-Face Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronick, E. Z.; Messinger, D. S.; Weinberg, M. K.; Lester, B. M.; LaGasse, L.; Seifer, R.; Bauer, C. R.; Shankaran, S.; Bada, H.; Wright, L. L.; Poole, K.; Liu, J.

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure are thought to subtly compromise social and emotional development. The authors observed a large sample of 236 cocaine-exposed and 459 nonexposed infants (49 were opiate exposed and 646 nonexposed) with their mothers in the face-to-face still-face paradigm. Infant and maternal behaviors were microanalytically…

  8. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamat, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  9. Tobacco cessation education for pharmacists: Face-to-face presentations versus live webinars.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Hoch, Matthew A; Vitale, Frank M; Wahl, Kimberly R; Corelli, Robin L; de Moor, Carl

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the perceived effectiveness of tobacco cessation continuing education for pharmacists in face-to-face presentation versus live webinar modalities. METHODS A continuing pharmacy education (CPE) activity, Do Ask, Do Tell: A Practical Approach to Smoking Cessation, was offered in face-to-face and live webinar modalities. Following the activity, participants completed a brief questionnaire that assessed the anticipated impact of the activity on their smoking cessation counseling practices. RESULTS Of the 1,088 CPE participants, 819 (75%) attended a face-to-face presentation and 269 (25%) participated in a live webinar. Posttraining self-rated ability to address tobacco use was similar between groups ( P = 0.38), and both the face-to-face and live webinar groups reported a significant difference between pre- and posttraining abilities ( P < 0.05 for both groups). Attendees of the face-to-face presentation reported higher likelihoods of providing each of the individual tasks required to provide an effective, brief tobacco cessation intervention ( P < 0.05 for each task). CONCLUSION These data suggest that more value exists in face-to-face education than live webinars when personal and interactive skills are the focus of the activity. PMID:24407740

  10. Synthesis and characterization of "face-to-face" porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    Collman, J P; Elliott, C M; Halbert, T R; Tovrog, B S

    1977-01-01

    The syntheses of four binary porphyrins, two of which are constrained to a "face-to-face" conformation, and their Co2+ and Cu2+ derivatives are described. Electron spin resonance indicates that the intermetallic separation in the binuclear "face-to-face" porphyrins is about 6.5-6.8 A. Electronic spectra and proton magnetic resonance spectra support the postulated "face-to-face" conformations. A hypothesis that related compounds may serve as multielectron redox catalysts for O2 and N2 is presented. PMID:189304

  11. Non-Egalitarian Allocations among Preschool Peers in a Face-to-Face Bargaining Task.

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Floedl, Anja; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In face-to-face bargaining tasks human adults almost always agree on an equal split of resources. This is due to mutually recognized fairness and equality norms. Early developmental studies on sharing and equality norms found that egalitarian allocations of resources are not common before children are 5 or 6 years old. However, recent studies have shown that in some face-to face collaborative situations, or when recipients express their desires, children at much younger ages choose equal allocations. We investigated the ability of 3.5 and 5-year-olds to negotiate face-to-face, whether to collaborate to obtain an equal or an unequal distribution of rewards. We hypothesized that the face-to-face interaction and interdependency between partners would facilitate egalitarian outcomes at both ages. In the first experiment we found that 5-year-olds were more egalitarian than 3.5-year-olds, but neither of the age classes shared equally. In the second experiment, in which we increased the magnitude of the inequality, we found that children at both ages mostly agreed on the unequal distribution. These results show that communication and face-to-face interactions are not sufficient to guarantee equal allocations at 3-5 years of age. These results add to previous findings suggesting that in the context of non-collaboratively produced resources it is only after 5 years of age that children use equality norms to allocate resources. PMID:25786250

  12. Non-Egalitarian Allocations among Preschool Peers in a Face-to-Face Bargaining Task

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Alicia P.; Floedl, Anja; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In face-to-face bargaining tasks human adults almost always agree on an equal split of resources. This is due to mutually recognized fairness and equality norms. Early developmental studies on sharing and equality norms found that egalitarian allocations of resources are not common before children are 5 or 6 years old. However, recent studies have shown that in some face-to face collaborative situations, or when recipients express their desires, children at much younger ages choose equal allocations. We investigated the ability of 3.5 and 5-year-olds to negotiate face-to-face, whether to collaborate to obtain an equal or an unequal distribution of rewards. We hypothesized that the face-to-face interaction and interdependency between partners would facilitate egalitarian outcomes at both ages. In the first experiment we found that 5-year-olds were more egalitarian than 3.5-year-olds, but neither of the age classes shared equally. In the second experiment, in which we increased the magnitude of the inequality, we found that children at both ages mostly agreed on the unequal distribution. These results show that communication and face-to-face interactions are not sufficient to guarantee equal allocations at 3–5 years of age. These results add to previous findings suggesting that in the context of non-collaboratively produced resources it is only after 5 years of age that children use equality norms to allocate resources. PMID:25786250

  13. Cyborg Ontologies and the Lecturer's Voice: A Posthuman Reading of the "Face-to-Face"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    The lecture is often posited as the prototypical "face-to-face" educational encounter, seen as embodying key features of the pre-networked academy. These are implicitly characterised as forms of boundedness or impermeability, in terms of both the physical and temporal context, and the ontological status of the participants and the nature of the…

  14. An Exploratory Comparison of the Roles of Representations in Face to Face and Online Collaborative Learning

    E-print Network

    Hundhausen, Chris

    networked software) conditions. Two competing hypotheses were evaluated: (1) The influence. The study reported in this paper compares Proximal (face to face) with Distal (synchronous collaboration via) The influence of representations in the Distal study could be stronger because participants may rely more

  15. Face-to-Face blog - Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery (NPG)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Online for less than a year, Face-to-Face is written by a team of National Portrait Gallery staff members with diverse responsibilities, from web design to curatorial. The blog is "dedicated to art, history, and the telling of American lives." There are four categories on Face-to-Face: Biography, Events, Exhibitions and News. "Biography" currently features an article series on presidential trivia, just in time for the election and "Exhibitions" provides coverage of current and recent exhibits, including "RECOGNIZE! Hip Hop and Contemporary Portraiture", "KATE" - celebrating Katherine Hepburn's 100th birthday, and the saga of the reinstallation of the painting Grant and His Generals by Ole Peter Hansen Balling, oil on canvas, 1865, when NPG re-opened in 2006 after 6 years of renovation. And of course, since it's a blog, interested readers can sign up for the RSS feed of Face-to-Face, so as not to miss a thing.

  16. Professional Staff Committee MINUTES 12/10/2009 FACE-TO-FACE

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Professional Staff Committee MINUTES 12/10/2009 FACE-TO-FACE LOCATION HWB TIME Noon CHAIR Shellie that the Faculty Senate in general faces the same lack of understanding across campus. Shellie noted interactions are well received, such as eating in the union or dining commons. iv. Internal communication

  17. IGlasses: an automatic wearable speech supplementin face-to-face communication and classroom situations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic W. Massaro; Miguel Á. Carreira-perpiñán; David J. Merrill; Cass Sterling; Stephanie Bigler; Elise Piazza; Marcus Perlman

    2008-01-01

    The need for language aids is pervasive in today's world. There are millions of individuals who have language and speech challenges, and these individuals require additional support for communication and language learning. We demonstrate technology to supplement common face-to-face language interaction to enhance intelligibility, understanding, and communication, particularly for those with hearing impairments. Our research is investigating how to automatically

  18. An Exploration of Online Environments Supporting Follow-Up to Face-to-Face Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Marybeth; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of online follow-up and online peer interaction following a face-to face professional development workshop on attitudes towards that professional development and completion of a professional development task. School librarians were invited to work online on a three page plan outlining interventions a library…

  19. Developing Leadership Skills: Online versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbergh, David; Lennon, Kate

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present final results from an exploratory research project that aimed to compare and contrast the effectiveness of different delivery modes (especially online as opposed to face-to-face) when developing leadership skills in established managers. Design/methodology/approach: This study sought to identify whether…

  20. Comparing face-to-face, synchronous, and asynchronous learning: postgraduate dental resident preferences.

    PubMed

    Kunin, Marc; Julliard, Kell N; Rodriguez, Tobias E

    2014-06-01

    The Department of Dental Medicine of Lutheran Medical Center has developed an asynchronous online curriculum consisting of prerecorded PowerPoint presentations with audio explanations. The focus of this study was to evaluate if the new asynchronous format satisfied the educational needs of the residents compared to traditional lecture (face-to-face) and synchronous (distance learning) formats. Lectures were delivered to 219 dental residents employing face-to-face and synchronous formats, as well as the new asynchronous format; 169 (77 percent) participated in the study. Outcomes were assessed with pretests, posttests, and individual lecture surveys. Results found the residents preferred face-to-face and asynchronous formats to the synchronous format in terms of effectiveness and clarity of presentations. This preference was directly related to the residents' perception of how well the technology worked in each format. The residents also rated the quality of student-instructor and student-student interactions in the synchronous and asynchronous formats significantly higher after taking the lecture series than they did before taking it. However, they rated the face-to-face format as significantly more conducive to student-instructor and student-student interaction. While the study found technology had a major impact on the efficacy of this curricular model, the results suggest that the asynchronous format can be an effective way to teach a postgraduate course. PMID:24882771

  1. SPACE: Vision and Reality: Face to Face. Proceedings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 11th National Space Symposium entitled 'Vision and Reality: Face to Face' is presented. Technological areas discussed include the following sections: Vision for the future; Positioning for the future; Remote sensing, the emerging era; space opportunities, Competitive vision with acquisition reality; National security requirements in space; The world is into space; and The outlook for space. An appendice is also attached.

  2. Autistic Traits and Brain Activation during Face-to-Face Conversations in Typically Developed Adults

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Masashi; Takei, Yuichi; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Narita, Kosuke; Sakurai, Noriko; Fukuda, Masato; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviours. The severity of these characteristics is posited to lie on a continuum that extends into the general population. Brain substrates underlying ASD have been investigated through functional neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI has methodological constraints for studying brain mechanisms during social interactions (for example, noise, lying on a gantry during the procedure, etc.). In this study, we investigated whether variations in autism spectrum traits are associated with changes in patterns of brain activation in typically developed adults. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a recently developed functional neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light, to monitor brain activation in a natural setting that is suitable for studying brain functions during social interactions. Methodology We monitored regional cerebral blood volume changes using a 52-channel NIRS apparatus over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and superior temporal sulcus (STS), 2 areas implicated in social cognition and the pathology of ASD, in 28 typically developed participants (14 male and 14 female) during face-to-face conversations. This task was designed to resemble a realistic social situation. We examined the correlations of these changes with autistic traits assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Principal Findings Both the PFC and STS were significantly activated during face-to-face conversations. AQ scores were negatively correlated with regional cerebral blood volume increases in the left STS during face-to-face conversations, especially in males. Conclusions Our results demonstrate successful monitoring of brain function during realistic social interactions by NIRS as well as lesser brain activation in the left STS during face-to-face conversations in typically developed participants with higher levels of autistic traits. PMID:21637754

  3. Blended Instruction: Student Perceptions of Communications Technology in Face-to-Face Courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Jo An; Theodore Frick

    Blended instruction is becoming more commonplace in higher education. Students not only attend classes, meeting face-to-face with each other and their instructors, but they also can communicate electronically outside of class meetings using course management tools such as WebCT, BlackBoard, Angel, and the like. There has been a considerable amount of research on human interaction and communication in online distance

  4. Real-Time Decision Making in Multimodal Face-to-Face Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT This paper describes an architecture and mechanism for simulating real-time decision making as observed in full-duplex, multimodal face-to-face interaction between humans. The work bridges between multimodal perception and multimodal action generation and allows flexible implementation of multimodal, full- duplex, conversational characters. It is part of a broad computational model of psychosocial dialogue skills called Ymir . The architecture

  5. Social anxiety and technology: Face-to-face communication versus technological communication among teens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamyra Pierce

    2009-01-01

    This study examined teens’ use of socially interactive technologies (SITs), such as online social sites, cell phones\\/text messaging, and instant messaging (IM), and the role that social anxiety plays on how teens communicate with others (technologically or face-to-face). Participants included 280 high school students from a large western city. On average, 35–40% of teens reported using cell phones\\/text messaging and

  6. Predicting face-to-face arene arene binding energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg, Shana; Waggoner, Kristine; Ahmad, Yusuf; Watt, Michelle; Lewis, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Parallel face-to-face arene-arene binding energies between benzene and multi-halo substituted aromatics and between tyrptophan and multi-halo substituted aromatics were calculated at the MP2(full)/6-311G ?? level of theory. A correlation was investigated between the binding energy and either the quadrupole moment ( ?zz) or the sum of the Hammett substituent constant ?p (? ?p) of the substituted aromatic. For both benzene and tryptophan, an excellent correlation was found between the calculated binding energy with multi-halo substituted aromatics and the sum of the ? ?p values of the substituted aromatics.

  7. Comparisons of Internet-Based and Face-to-Face Learning Systems Based on "Equivalency of Experiences" According to Students' Academic Achievements and Satisfactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Sercin; Simsek, Nurettin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether "equivalent learning experiences" ensure equivalency, in the Internet-based and face-to-face interaction methods on learning results and student satisfaction. In the experimental process of this study, the effect of the Internet-based and face-to-face learning on the equivalency in learning…

  8. A Comparison between the Occurrence of Pauses, Repetitions and Recasts under Conditions of Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Communication: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabaroglu, Nese; Basaran, Suleyman; Roberts, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This study compares pauses, repetitions and recasts in matched task interactions under face-to-face and computer-mediated conditions. Six first-year English undergraduates at a Turkish University took part in Skype-based voice chat with a native speaker and face-to-face with their instructor. Preliminary quantitative analysis of transcripts showed…

  9. Really Reaching the Public, Face-to-Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foukal, Peter

    2014-02-01

    This past summer I was able to provide a young couple with their first view of Saturn through a telescope, and afterward they told me what a profound experience this look into space had been for them. It wasn't the first time I'd seen such an emotional response since I opened the East Point Solar Observatory, a small public observatory in Nahant, Mass., in 1995. But listening to them reminded me how lucky we scientists are to pursue a career that brings out such warm feelings in our neighbors. It also made me wonder whether the effectiveness of our national approach to public outreach might be increased by more face-to-face contact between scientists and the public.

  10. 78 FR 52996 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Face to Face: Flanders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Face to Face: Flanders, Florence, and Renaissance Painting'' Exhibition...that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Face to Face: Flanders, Florence, and Renaissance...

  11. Incorporating Online Discussion in Face to Face Classroom Learning: A New Blended Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative blended learning strategy which incorporates online discussion in both in-class face to face, and off-classroom settings. Online discussion in a face to face class is compared with its two counterparts, off-class online discussion as well as in-class, face to face oral discussion, to examine the advantages and…

  12. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

  13. Making the Jump to Hybrid Space: Employing Face-to-Face and Online Modalities in a Special Event Planning Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Every quarter at California State University East Bay, a special event-planning course is offered in a hybrid format (face-to-face and online) and uses interactive Problem-Based Learning (PBL) activities designed to challenge and inspire intellectual growth. The PLB method is different in that students are not only receivers of knowledge but are…

  14. Teacher Training in a Synchronous Cyber Face-to-Face Classroom: Characterizing and Supporting the Online Teachers' Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuping; Chen, Nian-Shing; Levy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the learning process undertaken by language teachers in a cyber face-to-face teacher training program. Eight tertiary Chinese language teachers attended a 12-week training program conducted in an online synchronous learning environment characterized by multimedia-based, oral and visual interaction. The term "cyber…

  15. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (? 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories “physical activity”, “media” and “older adults”. The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n?=?11), compared to internet (n?=?3) and other media (n?=?2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n?=?10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n?=?6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One study reported that 98% of the sample read the respective intervention newsletters, whereas another study found that only 4% of its participants visited the intervention website more than once. From this review, non-face-to-face physical activity interventions effectively promote physical activity in older adults. Future research should target diverse older adult populations in multiple regions while also exploring the potential of emerging technologies. PMID:24612748

  16. An evaluation of remote communication versus face-to-face in clinical dental education.

    PubMed

    Martin, N; Lazalde, O Martínez; Stokes, C; Romano, D

    2012-03-01

    Distance learning and internet-based delivery of educational content are becoming very popular as an alternative to real face-to-face delivery. Clinical-based discussions still remain greatly face-to-face despite the advancement of remote communication and internet sharing technology. In this study we have compared three communication modalities between a learner and educator: audio and video using voice over internet protocol (VoIP) alone [AV]; audio and video VoIP with the addition of a three dimensional virtual artefact [AV3D] and physical face-to-face [FTF]. Clinical case discussions based on fictitious patients were held between a 'learner' and an 'expert' using the three communication modalities. The learner presented a clinical scenario to the experts, with the aid of a prop (partially dentate cast, digitised for AV3D), to obtain advice on the management of the clinical case. Each communication modality was tested in timed exercises in a random order among one of three experts (senior clinical restorative staff) and a learner (from a cohort of 15 senior clinical undergraduate students) all from the School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield. All learners and experts used each communication modality in turn with no prior training. Video recording and structured analysis were used to ascertain learner behaviour and levels of interactivity. Evaluation questionnaires were completed by experts and learners immediately after the experiment to ascertain effectiveness of information exchange and barriers/facilitators to communication. The video recordings showed that students were more relaxed with AV and AV3D than FTF (p = 0.01). The evaluation questionnaires showed that students felt they could provide (p = 0.03) and obtain (p = 0.003) more information using the FTF modality, followed by AV and then AV3D. Experts also ranked FTF better than AV and AV3D for providing (p = 0.012) and obtaining (p = 0) information to/from the expert. Physical face-to-face learning is a more effective communication modality for clinical case-based discussions between a learner and an expert. Remote, internet-based discussions enable a more relaxed discussion environment. The effectiveness of 3D supported internet-based communication is dependent upon a robust and simple to use interface, along with some prior training. PMID:22446272

  17. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (? 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories "physical activity", "media" and "older adults". The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n=11), compared to internet (n=3) and other media (n=2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n=10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n=6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One study reported that 98% of the sample read the respective intervention newsletters, whereas another study found that only 4% of its participants visited the intervention website more than once. From this review, non-face-to-face physical activity interventions effectively promote physical activity in older adults. Future research should target diverse older adult populations in multiple regions while also exploring the potential of emerging technologies. PMID:24612748

  18. Effectiveness of integrating case studies in online and face-to-face instruction of pathophysiology: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Suha M; Asi, Yara M; Hamed, Kastro M

    2013-06-01

    Due to growing demand from students and facilitated by innovations in educational technology, institutions of higher learning are increasingly offering online courses. Subjects in the hard sciences, such as pathophysiology, have traditionally been taught in the face-to-face format, but growing demand for preclinical science courses has compelled educators to incorporate online components into their classes to promote comprehension. Learning tools such as case studies are being integrated into such courses to aid in student interaction, engagement, and critical thinking skills. Careful assessment of pedagogical techniques is essential; hence, this study aimed to evaluate and compare student perceptions of the use of case studies in face-to-face and fully online pathophysiology classes. A series of case studies was incorporated into the curriculum of a pathophysiology class for both class modes (online and face to face). At the end of the semester, students filled out a survey assessing the effectiveness of the case studies. Both groups offered positive responses about the incorporation of case studies in the curriculum of the pathophysiology class. This study supports the argument that with proper use of innovative teaching tools, such as case studies, online pathophysiology classes can foster a sense of community and interaction that is typically only seen with face-to-face classes, based on student responses. Students also indicated that regardless of class teaching modality, use of case studies facilitates student learning and comprehension as well as prepares them for their future careers in health fields. PMID:23728138

  19. Applying the scholarship of teaching and learning: student perceptions, behaviours and success online and face?to?face

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agi Horspool; Carsten Lange

    2010-01-01

    This study compares student perceptions, learning behaviours and success in online and face?to?face versions of a Principles of Microeconomics course. It follows a Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) approach by using a cycle of empirical analysis, reflection and action to improve the learning experience for students. The online course design involves 58 interactive narrated online modules, interactive online quizzes

  20. Face-to-face or not-to-face: A technology preference for communication.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-11-01

    This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication. PMID:25405782

  1. Web-Based vs. Face-to-Face MBA Classes: A Comparative Assessment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Barry; Brownstein, Deborah; Gerlowski, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    The challenges of online learning include ensuring that the learning outcomes are at least as robust as in the face-to-face sections of the same course. At the University of Baltimore, both online sections and face-to-face sections of core MBA courses are offered. Once admitted to the MBA, students are free to enroll in any combination of…

  2. The Challenges of Interfacing between Face-To-Face and Online Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada H.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the development and use of Web-based instruction in higher education focuses on issues of course content; technological assumptions; logistical and implementation challenges; interfacing between face-to-face and online learning environments; and the use of a Web-based course management tool to support face-to-face instruction. (LRW)

  3. Highlights from a Literature Review Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Between March 2009 and March 2011, Talk To Your Baby has been engaged in a research project, under the title of Face to Face, to identify key messages for parents and carers in relation to communicating with babies and young children, and has examined the most effective ways to promote these messages to parents and carers. The Face to Face project…

  4. Moodle: A Way for Blending VLE and Face-to-Face Instruction in the ELT Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilin, Gulden

    2013-01-01

    This classroom research explores the probable consequences of a blended Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYLs) course comprised of Moodle applications and face to face instruction in the English Language Teaching (ELT) context. Contrary to previous face to face only procedure, the course was divided into two segments: traditional classroom…

  5. Comparing the Roles of Representations in Face-to-Face and Online Computer Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthers, Daniel D.; Hundhausen, Christopher D.; Girardeau, Laura E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an empirical study comparing the role of discourse and knowledge representations (graphical evidence mapping) in face-to-face versus synchronous online collaborative learning. Prior work in face-to-face collaborative learning situations has shown that the features of representational notations can influence the focus of…

  6. The Impact of Face-to-Face Orientation on Online Retention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Radwan; Leeds, Elke M.

    2009-01-01

    Student retention in online education is a concern for students, faculty and administration. Retention rates are 20% lower in online courses than in traditional face-to-face courses. As part of an integration and engagement strategy, a face-to-face orientation was added to an online undergraduate business information systems course to examine its…

  7. Comparing Student Outcomes in Blended and Face-to-Face Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study of student outcomes in a pair of matched courses, one taught face-to-face and one taught in a blended format, in which students completed most of the work online but met several times face-to-face. Learning objectives, course content, and pedagogical approaches were identical but the mode of instruction was…

  8. Online or Face to Face? A Comparison of Two Methods of Training Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Kristin; Dworkin, Jodi; Gengler, Colleen; Olson, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Online courses offer benefits over face-to-face courses such as accessibility, affordability, and flexibility. Literature assessing the effectiveness of face-to-face and online courses is growing, but findings remain inconclusive. This study compared evaluations completed by professionals who had taken a research update short course either face to…

  9. Researcher and Researched: The Phenomenology of Change from Face-to-Face to Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Frank E.; Fewell, Martha D.; Sugar, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Online instruction, courses, and degree programs are rising in popularity in higher education and corporations. Novice and experienced instructors face increased demands from administrators and students to teach online, in a higher education environment long noted for face-to-face, residence-based instruction. Viewing the shift from face-to-face

  10. Examining the Roles of the Facilitator in Online and Face-to-Face PD Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gina; Johnson, Heather; Vath, Richard; Kubitskey, Beth; Fishman, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Online teacher professional development has become an alternative to face-to-face professional development. Such a shift from face-to-face to online professional development, however, brings new challenges for professional development facilitators, whose roles are crucial in orchestrating teacher learning. This paper is motivated by the need to…

  11. Choosing between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Community College Student Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith

    2014-01-01

    In this study, community college students discussed their experiences with online and face-to-face learning as well as their reasons for selecting online (rather than face-to-face) sections of specific courses. Students reported lower levels of instructor presence in online courses and that they needed to "teach themselves." Accordingly,…

  12. Modeling Face-to-Face Communication using the Sociometer

    E-print Network

    -to-face proximity and also when they are having conversations. Keywords Organizational behavior, social network network analysis, information diffusion and knowledge management applications. We are developing methods to automatically and unobtrusively learn the social network structures that arise within human groups based

  13. Exploring face-to-face and Web-based pedagogy in undergraduate natural resource sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbabaliye, Theogene

    Little has been published about Internet instruction compared to traditional classroom teaching in undergraduate natural resource science (NRS) education. This study hypothesized associations between teaching environments (face-to-face only (FF), Web only (WE), mixed mode (MI)); and teaching philosophy, practices, and perceived course outcomes. A questionnaire was sent to 142 faculty members with experience teaching in these environments in Western US. Sixty percent responded. Data were analyzed using factor analysis and multivariate statistics. Only statistically significant differences are presented. Most respondents were male (68%) 50-59 years old (80%) and tenured (74%). Overall, Web-based instruction was not seen as equivalent to face to face instruction. Adoption of the Internet for teaching was beyond critical mass. Most faculty members ranked their ability to use the Internet as average (27%) or expert (22%). Faculty rarely perceived students' learning experience in a WE course as "better" than FF. Web-based courses were not usually required of majors in the offering department. Faculty age, gender and experience are significant variables in use of some teaching practices. Faculty members who used the Internet favored a constructivist teaching philosophy, while FF and MI instruction tended towards a behaviorist philosophy. Respondents' most frequent teaching practices addressed connections, collaboration, meaning making, and learner autonomy. Collaborative teaching strategies were seldom used in Web-based instruction relative to FF. Learning assessments focused on learner interactions, efforts (individual or groups), and recall. The latter assessment was used less on the Web. Respondents viewed effective teaching in all teaching environments as achieving competency and application of knowledge. Personal experience, resource availability, and feedback were the most important influences on teaching. Resource availability constrained Internet instruction most. Instructional goals emphasized broad understanding of natural resources, information technology competence and effective communication in all learning environments. There was doubt that Web instruction adequately achieved critical thinking objectives. Key results should be verified independent of self reports. Overall, Web-based instruction was not seen as equivalent to face to face instruction, indicating a need to assure that Web-based instruction is used optimally.

  14. Stability and Transitions in Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication During the First 6 Months: A Microhistorical Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Chin Hsu; Alan Fogel

    2003-01-01

    In this study the authors attempted to unravel the relational, dynamical, and historical nature of mother-infant communication during the first 6 months. Thirteen mothers and their infants were videotaped weekly from 4 to 24 weeks during face-to-face interactions. Three distinct patterns of mother-infant communication were identified: symmetrical, asymmetrical, and unilateral. Guided by a dynamic systems perspective, the authors explored the

  15. Affect reflection technology in face-to-face service encounters

    E-print Network

    Kim, Kyunghee, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of facial expressions in dyadic interactions between a banking service provider and customer. We conduct experiments in which service providers manipulate their facial expressions while ...

  16. Professional Staff Committee MINUTES Nov. 13, 2008 FACE-TO-FACE

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Professional Staff Committee MINUTES Nov. 13, 2008 FACE-TO-FACE LOCATION Student Union TIME 12 noon noted that the proposed survey was asking what issues pro staff were facing right now; however, those

  17. Face to face with the white rabbit - sharing ideas in Second Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rive; M. Billinghurst; A. Thomassen; Marcia Lyons

    2008-01-01

    The popular virtual world, second life, presents a number of opportunities and limitations for the sharing of ideas in the information economy. In this paper we ask the question, dasiato what extent can second life simulate an actual face-to-face meeting?psila Many authors have written that tacit knowledge transfer requires face-to-face meetings, however, virtual reality technology can provide tools that enable

  18. HYBRID LEARNING: BALANCING FACE-TO-FACE AND ONLINE CLASS SESSIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinithya Ranganathan; Solomon Negash; Marlene V. Wilcox

    2007-01-01

    This paper raises the question: What is the appropriate proportion for face-to-face and online sessions when courses are taught in a hybrid learning format? Proportions of online and face-to- face sessions in six institutions that utilize hybrid learning format were reviewed. The review indicates a loosely defined proportion between the two formats, with ratios varying from 75% online and 25%

  19. Face to Face or E-Learning in Turkish EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to understand e-learners and face to face learners' views towards learning English through e-learning in vocational higher school context and to determine the role of academic achievement and gender in e-learning and face to face learning. This study was conducted at a state-run university in 2012-2013 academic…

  20. 77 FR 40411 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will...

  1. 77 FR 8328 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ...Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee...

  2. 77 FR 55525 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will...

  3. 20 CFR 266.6 - Information to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. 266.6 Section 266.6 Employees...to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. Before the Board...

  4. 77 FR 2611 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will...

  5. 77 FR 21157 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will...

  6. 76 FR 78342 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will...

  7. 77 FR 47166 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will...

  8. 77 FR 37101 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will...

  9. 20 CFR 266.6 - Information to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. 266.6 Section 266.6 Employees...to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. Before the Board...

  10. 77 FR 30591 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ...Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face [[Page 30592

  11. 20 CFR 266.6 - Information to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. 266.6 Section 266.6 Employees...to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. Before the Board...

  12. 77 FR 61053 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will...

  13. 20 CFR 266.6 - Information to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. 266.6 Section 266.6 Employees...to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. Before the Board...

  14. Synthesis and photophysical properties of a "face-to-face" stacked tetracene dimer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heyuan; Nichols, Valerie M; Shen, Li; Jahansouz, Setarah; Chen, Yuhan; Hanson, Kerry M; Bardeen, Christopher J; Li, Xiyou

    2015-02-18

    A covalently linked tetracene dimer has been prepared and its molecular structure is characterized by (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The minimized molecular structure reveals that the tetracene subunits in a dimer adopt a "face-to-face" stacked configuration. Its absorption spectrum differs significantly from that of the monomeric counterpart in solution, suggesting the presence of strong interactions between the two tetracene subunits. In solution, the fluorescence spectrum is dominated by a band at around 535 nm, due to an oxidative impurity. In the longer wavelength range, a short-lived lower energy emission can be identified as the intrinsic emission of the dimer. In a polystyrene matrix or at low temperatures, the lifetime of the lower energy emission lengthens and it becomes more prominent. We suggest that the interactions between the two tetracene subunits produce a short-lived, lower energy "excimer-like" state. The fluorescence decays show no observable dependence on an applied magnetic field, and no obvious evidence of significant singlet fission is found in this dimer. This research suggests that even though there are strong electronic interactions between the tetracene subunits in the dimer, singlet fission cannot be achieved efficiently, probably because the formation of "excimer-like" states competes effectively with singlet fission. PMID:25656462

  15. 20 CFR 266.6 - Information to be submitted by a representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. 266.6 Section 266.6 Employees...representative payee-applicant; face-to-face interview. Before the Board selects a representative...Board may also conduct a face-to-face interview with the payee-applicant....

  16. Improving Students' Summary Writing Ability through Collaboration: A Comparison between Online Wiki Group and Conventional Face-To-Face Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichadee, Saovapa

    2013-01-01

    Wikis, as one of the Web 2.0 social networking tools, have been increasingly integrated into second language (L2) instruction to promote collaborative writing. The current study examined and compared summary writing abilities between students learning by wiki-based collaboration and students learning by traditional face-to-face collaboration.…

  17. The transition from face-to-face to online CME facilitation.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Sargeant, Joan; Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa

    2006-11-01

    This study examines the experiences of nine medical teachers who transitioned from face-to-face teaching to facilitating a course in an online environment. The authors examined the reasons why the teachers agreed to facilitate an online course, the challenges they encountered and their practical solutions, and the advantages and disadvantages they perceived to this teaching environment. Thirty-minute phone interviews were conducted. An iterative process was used to develop the themes and sub-themes for coding. Teachers reported being attracted to the novelty of the new instructional format and saw online learning as an opportunity to reach different learners. They described two facets to the transition associated with the technical and facilitation aspects of online facilitation. They had to adapt their usual teaching materials and determine how they could make the 'classroom' user friendly. They had to determine ways to encourage interaction and facilitate learning. Lack of participation was frustrating for most. This study has implications for those intending to develop online courses. Teacher selection is important as teachers must invest time in course development and teaching and encourage participation. Teacher support is critical for course design, site navigation and mentoring to ensure teachers facilitate online discussion. PMID:17594554

  18. An Experimental Study of Cyber Face-to-Face vs. Cyber Text-Based English Tutorial Programs for Low-Achieving University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ejean; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yang, Shu Ching

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two types of e-tutoring interventions (text-based vs. face-to-face videoconferencing, TB vs. F2F) on the grammar performance and motivation of low-achieving students. The study investigates the patterns of interaction between tutors and students in both platforms, including the manner in which tutors and students…

  19. A Predictive Study of Learner Satisfaction and Outcomes in Face-to-Face, Satellite Broadcast, and Live Video-Streaming Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the predictive relationships among delivery mode (DM), self-perceived learner-to-teacher interaction, self-rated computer skill, prior distance learning experience, and learners' satisfaction and outcomes. Participants were enrolled in courses which used three different DMs: face-to-face, satellite broadcasting,…

  20. The effects of teamwork on individual learning and perceptions of team performance : A comparison of face-to-face and online project settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethlyn A. Williams; Stephanie L. Castro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – In light of contradictory research findings, the purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating effects of team setting (face-to-face or online) on the relationship that team member affect and interaction processes have on individual team source learning, and at the team level on the relationship between group cohesiveness and perceived team performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Students enrolled

  1. Learning Gains in Introductory Astronomy: Online Can Be as Good as Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margoniner, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Universities and even high schools are moving more and more to online instruction as a cost-effective way to reach more students with fewer resources. This naturally raises the question: Can online learning be effective? (The question is not "Is online learning effective?" because just like face-to-face instruction, online instruction…

  2. Finding Support in Moodle: A Face-to-Face Chemistry Course for Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vega, Carolina Armijo; McAnally-Salas, Lewis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to know the students' perceptions of using online support in a chemistry course. To achieve this objective, a qualitative research was conducted over a chemistry course that was imparted in a face-to-face modality using a LMS (learning management system) for on-line support. The supports available in the LMS were forums,…

  3. Face-to-Face and Online Professional Development for Mathematics Teachers: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Michael; Carey, Rebecca; Kleiman, Glenn; Venable, Joanne Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The study compared the effects of a professional development course delivered in an online and a face-to-face format. The effects examined included changes in teachers' pedagogical beliefs, instructional practices, and understanding of teaching number-sense and related mathematical concepts. The study randomly assigned participants to either the…

  4. Student Success in Face-to-Face and Distance Teleclass Environments: A Matter of Contact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deka, Teddi S.; McMurry, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Learning from a distance continues to gain popularity. An influx of traditional, and even on-campus students attest to its flexibility, but are they equipped to succeed in a low-contact distance environment versus a face-to-face, on-campus environment? This research explored whether several variables including background, preparedness and…

  5. Pattern Discovery for the Design of Face-to-Face Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capponi, Maria Francisca; Nussbaum, Miguel; Marshall, Guillermo; Lagos, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology of discovering social action patterns in collaborative learning activities for use in improving activity design, and in particular for restructuring existing designs involving face-to-face social actions to enhance their social dynamics and thus better ensure the achievement of a specified aim. An activity in this…

  6. Faculty Best Practices Using Blended Learning in E-Learning and Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortera-Gutierrez, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Presenting a higher education case study from Mexico: "Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey" (ITESM-CCM) College, Mexico city campus, describing faculty best and worst practices using a blended learning approach in e-learning and face-to-face instruction. The article comments on conceptual definitions of blended learning,…

  7. Combining Face-to-Face Learning with Online Learning in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Anke; Gonzalez-Pardo, Antonio; Camacho, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of videogame-like applications in a 3D virtual environment as a complement to the face-to-face teaching and learning. With the changing role of teaching and learning and the increasing use of "blended learning," instructors are increasingly expected to explore new ways to attend to the needs of their students.…

  8. Effects of Synchronicity and Belongingness on Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Constructive Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Andy J.; Roseth, Cary J.

    2014-01-01

    Adapting face-to-face (FTF) pedagogies to online settings raises boundary questions about the contextual conditions in which the same instructional method stimulates different outcomes. We address this issue by examining FTF and computer-mediated communication (CMC) versions of constructive controversy, a cooperative learning procedure involving…

  9. Active and passive fields face to face Antonio Celani1,5

    E-print Network

    Cencini, Massimo

    Active and passive fields face to face Antonio Celani1,5 , Massimo Cencini2 , Andrea Mazzino3 of active and passive scalar fields transported by the same turbulent flow are investigated. Four examples is akin to that of its co- evolving passive counterpart. The two other cases indicate that this similarity

  10. Increasing Students' Perceived Sociopolitical Empowerment through Online and Face-to-Face Community Psychology Seminars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francescato, Donata; Solimeno, Andrea; Mebane, Minou Ella; Tomai, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Community psychology theorists underline the importance of promoting sociopolitical empowerment, but few studies have been conducted on the evaluation of the efficacy of empowering programs among university students. The authors report two studies: the first, with 216 psychology majors, compared the efficacy of face-to-face and online community…

  11. Professional Staff Committee MINUTES 2/11/2010 FACE-TO-FACE

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Professional Staff Committee MINUTES 2/11/2010 FACE-TO-FACE LOCATION HWB TIME Noon CHAIR Shellie include: i. Athletics/T&M ii. Administration/Advancement iii. Provost (2 positions) iv. Student Affairs of the financial figures the university cur- rently faces as the legislature convenes a special session to deal

  12. Visualizing the Decision-Making Process in a Face-to-Face Meeting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fouad Shoie Alallah; Mahtab Nezhadasl; Pourang Irani; Dean Jin

    2007-01-01

    The decision making process is usually one of the most critical elements of any face-to-face meeting. Participants in a group meeting follow certain procedures and guidelines for facilitating the decision making process. These include such rules as turn taking, not interrupting the consultation, and keeping suggestions or ideas clear and concise. The ultimate objective of such meetings is to arrive

  13. A Comparison of Student Views on Web-Based and Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sad, Suleyman Nihat; Goktas, Ozlem; Bayrak, Ilhami

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe and compare the perceptions of web-based distance education students and campus-based face-to-face students about the quality of education provided in their programs with regard to variables including gender, marital status, and employment status. A baseline descriptive survey design and complementary "ex post…

  14. Analysis of the Questions Asked through Digital and Face-to-Face Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Keita; Arai, Shunsuke; Suga, Reina; Ikeuchi, Atsushi; Yoshikane, Fuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, only a few public libraries provide e-mail reference services. To help public libraries start e-mail reference services, the authors investigated reference questions received by libraries via e-mail and traditional face-to-face services. The authors found that research questions are more frequently observed among e-mail questions and…

  15. Distinguishing between Online and Face-to-Face Communities: How Technology Makes the Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet and virtual communities focuses on differences between online and face-to-face communities. Topics include interdependency; infrastructure; intensity of participation; representation of members; accessibility to resources, information, and expertise; and activity theory as a framework for analyzing communities.…

  16. Instructor Time and Effort in Online and Face-to-Face Teaching: Lessons Learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanda L. Worley; Lee S. Tesdell

    2009-01-01

    Results in past studies comparing teaching time and effort in online and face-to-face (FTF) teaching environments have been inconsistent. This research study compares the instructional time and effort it took the authors to teach the same course online and FTF in their respective universities. The authors hypothesize that it takes more time to teach online courses. The results of the

  17. Online and Face-to-Face Activities of Non-Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carmen Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine non-native English speaking students' activity in face-to-face versus online learning environments. The amount of foreign students in the United States increased by 3% in the academic year 2009-2010 (Open Doors, 2010). Adding close to $20 billion to the USA economy, "higher education is among the…

  18. UBU: A pop-up app to facilitate face-to-face introductions

    E-print Network

    Webb, Campbell O.

    UBU: A pop-up app to facilitate face-to-face introductions among Hubud members A design brief, and to overcome inherent shyness, we will design, build, release, train and maintain a small browser-based app, which Hubud `in-house' members could launch on their laptops. The app indicates who is logged

  19. Negotiating Common Ground in Computer-Mediated versus Face-to-Face Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergriff, Ilona

    2006-01-01

    To explore the impact of the communication medium on building common ground, this article presents research comparing learner use of reception strategies in traditional face-to-face (FTF) and in synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC). Reception strategies, such as reprises, hypothesis testing and forward inferencing provide evidence of…

  20. Factors for Effective Learning Groups in Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature related to creating effective learning groups in face-to-face and virtual environments for distance education using research from cooperative learning, computer-mediated communication, organizational development, and group dynamics. Highlights include creating the groups, structuring the learning activities, and facilitating…

  1. Post-Adoption Face-to-Face Contact with Birth Parents: Prospective Adopters' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkington, Selina; Taylor, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    The trend in adoption since the 1960s has been away from secrecy and towards greater openness; contact through an intermediary, and direct contact by letter, is now widely accepted. More controversial is the challenge of face-to-face contact with birth parents, and social workers involved in the decision-making process find themselves having to…

  2. Affinities, Seeing and Feeling Like Family: Exploring Why Children Value Face-to-Face Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Hayley

    2012-01-01

    This article examines face-to-face contact as a way in which children practise, imagine and constitute their closest relationships. Based on the findings of a qualitative school-based study, the article shows that children regard "seeing" as a family and relational practice that enables them to feel connected to and develop affinities with others.…

  3. Comparing Student Performance in Online and Face-to-Face Delivery Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare student performance in an online or face-to-face (F2F) required Psychology course on three distinct sets of variables (i.e., pre-course, course, and post-course variables). Analyses revealed mixed significant and nonsignificant results. Students did not differ in terms of such variables as hours…

  4. A Comparative Study of an Online and a Face-to-Face Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Damkaci, Fehmi; Bowman, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    While online and face-to-face (F2F) courses have been compared in numerous studies, there has been a lack of focus on online chemistry courses. This study was conducted to compare the success of students instructed in an online or F2F general chemistry course for non-majors. One hundred forty six exam questions were categorized according to…

  5. Satisfaction of Supervisory Working Alliance: Distance versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Angelia Dawn Holland

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the differences between the perceptions of distance and face-to-face faculty supervision, this research surveyed 190 master's-level counseling students regarding their supervisory working alliance and supervision satisfaction. It also explored the differences between the perceptions of practicum- and internship-level…

  6. Technology Confidence, Competence and Problem Solving Strategies: Differences within Online and Face-to-Face Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon L.; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

    2011-01-01

    This study identified the problem solving strategies used by students within a university course designed to teach pre-service teachers educational technology, and whether those strategies were influenced by the format of the course (i.e., face-to-face computer lab vs. online). It also examined to what extent the type of problem solving strategies…

  7. Attitudes of Middle School Students: Learning Online Compared to Face to Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Clayton; Rule, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Education in an online setting is an increasingly popular method of instruction. Previous studies comparing college or high school student performance in online and face-to-face courses found, in most cases, similar achievement between conditions. However, research is lacking regarding middle school students' academic performance and attitudes…

  8. Face-to-Face or Distance Training: Two Different Approaches To Motivate SMEs to Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Naomi; Allan, John; O'Dwyer, Michele

    2000-01-01

    Two approaches to training for small/medium-sized enterprises were compared: a British distance learning program and an Irish program offering face-to-face training for micro-enterprises. Both used constructivist, collaborative, and reflective methods. Advantages and disadvantages of each approach were identified. (SK)

  9. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face

  10. Overcoming Student Resistance to Group Work: Online Versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Sorensen, Chris; Gump, Andrew; Heindel, Allen J.; Caris, Mieke; Martinez, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared student group work experiences in online (OL) versus face-to-face (f2f) sections of the same graduate course, over three years, to determine what factors influence student group work experiences and how do these factors play out in f2f versus OL environments. Surveys and student journals suggest that communication issues,…

  11. Comparing Student Learning Outcomes in Face-to-Face and Online Course Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Stephen; Dutter, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Since the advent of fully online delivery of college-level coursework, a number of issues has preoccupied administrators, educators, and researchers with regard to student learning outcomes or performance vis-a-vis face-to-face delivery. The present study does not seek to demonstrate or to discover which mode of delivery is "superior" or…

  12. Re-Training Writing Raters Online: How Does It Compare with Face-to-Face Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute; Read, John; von Randow, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The training of raters for writing assessment through web-based programmes is emerging as an attractive and flexible alternative to the conventional method of face-to-face training sessions. Although some online training programmes have been developed, there is little published research on them. The current study aims to compare the effectiveness…

  13. Developing Face-to-Face Argumentation Skills: Does Arguing on the Computer Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iordanou, Kalypso

    2013-01-01

    Arguing on the computer was used as a method to promote development of face-to-face argumentation skills in middle schoolers. In the study presented, sixth graders engaged in electronic dialogues with peers on a controversial topic and in some reflective activities based on transcriptions of the dialogues. Although participants initially exhibited…

  14. Comparison of Novice Programmers' Performances: Blended versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Unal

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of blended learning on novices' understandings of the introductory programming. A quasi-experimental design with participants of preservice computer and instructional technologies teachers, one control group (CG, N =64) and one experimental group (EG, N=61) who received the course 11 weeks. While face-to-face

  15. Student Learning and Instructor Investment in Online and Face-to-Face Natural Resources Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuellner, Melissa R.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial growth in online education in the United States has prompted questions on the levels of student learning and satisfaction achieved and the amount of instructor time investment required in the online environment compared to the face-to-face (F2F) environment. To date, very few have studied these measurements in science courses, and none…

  16. Face-to-Face versus Online Tutoring Support in Humanities Courses in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2009-01-01

    The experiences of students taking the same courses in the humanities by distance learning were compared when tutorial support was provided conventionally (using limited face-to-face sessions with some contact by telephone and email) or online (using a combination of computer-mediated conferencing and email). The Course Experience Questionnaire…

  17. Face-to-Face versus Online Tutoring Support in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Linda; Richardson, John T. E.; Jelfs, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The experiences of students taking the same course by distance learning were compared when tutorial support was provided conventionally (using limited face-to-face sessions with some contact by telephone and email) or online (using a combination of computer-mediated conferencing and email). Study 1 was a quantitative survey using an adapted…

  18. Undergraduate Student Outcomes: A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Courses

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    of the Online Comparative Outcomes Sub- Committee to date includes the following: 1. Continuing and ProfessionalUndergraduate Student Outcomes: A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Courses Report from on Online Learning Martha L. A. Stassen, Academic Planning and Assessment, Chair Marilyn Blaustein

  19. Teaching Time Investment: Does Online Really Take More Time than Face-to-Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Vord, Rebecca; Pogue, Korolyn

    2012-01-01

    Enrollments in online programs are growing, increasing demand for online courses. The perception that teaching online takes more time than teaching face-to-face creates concerns related to faculty workload. To date, the research on teaching time does not provide a clear answer as to the accuracy of this perception. This study was designed to…

  20. Academic Help-Seeking in Online and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Randa A.; Sowan, Azizeh K.; Nassar, Yahya H.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares actual help-seeking frequencies across online and face-to-face learning environments. It also examines strategies enacted by nursing students when they faced academic difficulties, reasons for help-seeking avoidance, and the relationship between the frequency of asking questions and achievement. Participants were nursing…

  1. An Experiment Comparing HBSE Graduate Social Work Classes: Face-to-Face and at a Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehle, Ralph; Quinn, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental comparison of two master's level social work classes delivering content on human behavior in the social environment. One class, delivered face-to-face, was largely synchronous. The other class, delivered using distance technologies, was more asynchronous than the first. The authors hypothesized that…

  2. Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Standard Setting Using the Angoff Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Irvin R.; Tannenbaum, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Web-based standard setting holds promise for reducing the travel and logistical inconveniences of traditional, face-to-face standard setting meetings. However, because there are few published reports of setting standards via remote meeting technology, little is known about the practical potential of the approach, including technical feasibility of…

  3. Professional Staff Committee MINUTES 1/9/2009 FACE-TO-FACE

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Professional Staff Committee MINUTES 1/9/2009 FACE-TO-FACE LOCATION Student Union 205 TIME 12 noon for employees to pay attention to the PEBP and SAGE proposals on benefits. Phil said he will send further information for distribution on the PSC listserv. #12;G. Kathy announced that the senate seat for athletics

  4. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  5. Grade Performance of Face-to-Face versus Online Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina A.; Makus, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Online course offerings have been growing at a rapid pace in post-secondary education. An ordered probit model is estimated to analyze the effects of online vs. face-to-face course format in achieving specific letter grades. An upper-division agricultural economics course taught over 9 years using both formats is used for the analysis. For a…

  6. Correlates of Student Preference for Online Instruction over Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishore, Masao; Tabrizi, M. H. Nassehzadeh; Ozan, Erol; Aziz, Shahnaz; Wuensch, Karl L.

    2009-01-01

    In order to examine current online course delivery systems, the authors created and conducted a survey that examined both face-to-face (FTF) and online education (OE) classes offered at 46 universities and some community colleges in the United States, as well as at some foreign universities. Students were asked whether they preferred FTF or OE…

  7. Teleconference versus Face-to-Face Scientific Peer Review of Grant Application: Effects on Review Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Stephen A.; Carpenter, Afton S.; Glisson, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Teleconferencing as a setting for scientific peer review is an attractive option for funding agencies, given the substantial environmental and cost savings. Despite this, there is a paucity of published data validating teleconference-based peer review compared to the face-to-face process. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective analysis of scientific peer review data to investigate whether review setting has an effect on review process and outcome measures. We analyzed reviewer scoring data from a research program that had recently modified the review setting from face-to-face to a teleconference format with minimal changes to the overall review procedures. This analysis included approximately 1600 applications over a 4-year period: two years of face-to-face panel meetings compared to two years of teleconference meetings. The average overall scientific merit scores, score distribution, standard deviations and reviewer inter-rater reliability statistics were measured, as well as reviewer demographics and length of time discussing applications. The data indicate that few differences are evident between face-to-face and teleconference settings with regard to average overall scientific merit score, scoring distribution, standard deviation, reviewer demographics or inter-rater reliability. However, some difference was found in the discussion time. These findings suggest that most review outcome measures are unaffected by review setting, which would support the trend of using teleconference reviews rather than face-to-face meetings. However, further studies are needed to assess any correlations among discussion time, application funding and the productivity of funded research projects. PMID:23951223

  8. Comparing online and face-to-face dissonance-based eating disorder prevention.

    PubMed

    Serdar, Kasey; Kelly, Nichole R; Palmberg, Allison A; Lydecker, Janet A; Thornton, Laura; Tully, Carrie E; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2014-01-01

    Disordered eating behavior is common in college women. Thus, it is important to develop programs to reduce eating disorder (ED) risk. Studies suggest that dissonance-based (DB) prevention programs successfully reduce ED risk factors; however, face-to-face DB groups lack anonymity and convenience. One way to address these barriers is to adapt DB programs for online use. Few studies have examined the feasibility of this delivery mode. This study compared the efficacy of an online DB program with a face-to-face DB program and an assessment-only condition. Undergraduate women (N = 333) recruited from a participant pool at a public university in the mid-Atlantic United States participated (n = 107 face-to-face DB, n = 112 online DB, n = 114 assessment-only). It was hypothesized that: (a) participants in the face-to-face and online DB conditions would report greater decreases in thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and ED symptoms at post-testing relative to participants in the assessment-only control group, and (b) online and face-to-face programs would yield comparable results. Modified intent-to-treat analyses indicated that participants in both conditions manifested less body dissatisfaction at post-test compared with assessment-only participants; there were no significant differences in outcomes between the two modes of program delivery. These findings indicate that DB ED prevention programs can be successfully adapted for online use. Future studies should continue to refine online adaptations of such programs and examine their effects with samples that include older and younger women, and men. PMID:24456277

  9. Online versus face-to-face biology: A comparison of student transactional distance, approach to learning, and knowledge outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggins, Mary Erin

    Community colleges are among many other institutions increasing course offerings online, but there is still some concern about the quality of online learning. Educator concerns, a lack of empirical evidence on biology courses offered online, and the need for an equal opportunity for education support the need for clarification of the quality of distance education in biology, especially in the community college setting. Student attitudes, approaches to learning, and performance should all be studied in order to formulate a better evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of online courses (Svirko & Mellanby, 2008). The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in student perceptions of transactional distance, approaches to learning, and student learning outcomes in online versus face-to-face community college introductory biology courses. The results of this investigation indicate that some aspects of transactional distance did affect the participants' desires for deep learning approaches. Also, except for perceptions of student interaction and collaboration, the online and face-to-face course experiences and outcomes seemed similar.

  10. Face-to-Face Handoff: Improving Transfer to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Vergales, Jeffrey; Addison, Nancy; Vendittelli, Analise; Nicholson, Evelyn; Carver, D Jeannean; Stemland, Christopher; Hoke, Tracey; Gangemi, James

    2015-03-01

    The goal was to develop and implement a comprehensive, primarily face-to-face handoff process that begins in the operating room and concludes at the bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU) for pediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery. Involving all stakeholders in the planning phase, the framework of the handoff system encompassed a combination of a formalized handoff tool, focused process steps that occurred prior to patient arrival in the ICU, and an emphasis on face-to-face communication at the conclusion of the handoff. The final process was evaluated by the use of observer checklists to examine quality metrics and timing for all patients admitted to the ICU following cardiac surgery. The process was found to improve how various providers view the efficiency of handoff, the ease of asking questions at each step, and the overall capability to improve patient care regardless of overall surgical complexity. PMID:24443318

  11. Noise path identification using face-to-face and side-by-side microphone arrangements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    In large complex structures, with several major sound transmission paths and high levels of background noise, it can be a complex task to locate and rank the contribution of an individual sound transmission path. The two microphone acoustic intensity techniques are investigated as a tool for path identification. Laboratory tests indicate that, if the intensity transmitted through a particular section of the fuselage is measured in the presence and absence of flanking paths using the face to face and side by side microphone arrangements, then no significant difference exists between the two measured intensities if the face to face microphone arrangement is used. However, if the side by side arrangement is used, then considerable difference exists between the two measured intensities.

  12. Knowing Your Place: Self-Perceptions of Status in Face-to-Face Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron Anderson; Sanjay Srivastava; Jennifer S. Beer; Sandra E. Spataro; Jennifer A. Chatman

    2006-01-01

    Status is the prominence, respect, and influence individuals enjoy in the eyes of others. Theories of positive illusions suggest that individuals form overly positive perceptions of their status in face-to-face groups. In contrast, the authors argue that individuals' perceptions of their status are highly accurate—that is, they closely match the group's perception of their status—because forming overly positive status self-perceptions

  13. Performance patterns in face-to-face and computer-supported teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pilar Pazos; Mario G. Beruvides

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents a longitudinal experimental study on teams with the purpose of investigating the impact of communication media on decision-making teams. The authors aims to achieve that by comparing face-to-face (FTF) and computer-supported (CS) teams over a series of three sessions on three response variables: performance, cohesiveness, and synergy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 24 teams, each

  14. Visualization of knowledge-creation process using face-to-face communication data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tsuji; N. Sato; K. Yano; R. Otsuka; N. Moriwaki; K. Ara; Y. Wakisaka; N. Ohkubo; M. Hayakawa; Y. Horry

    2009-01-01

    No firm can survive without building a mechanism to create knowledge in the 21st century. The knowledge-creation theory by Nonaka has successfully generalized a knowledge-creation process in an organization. However, nobody has found a quantitative method for evaluating the process. This paper proposes a technique of visualizing the knowledge-creation process by plotting graphs of face-to-face contact time and number of

  15. Application of computer conferencing in the electronic extensions of face-to-face symposia and congresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eng-Leong Foo; Carl-Göran Hedén

    1987-01-01

    An electronic extension of a face-to-face symposium or a congress enables people to participate in the symposium from their home countries. Using a terminal linked to a computer-based messaging or conferencing system, a participant can read and discuss abstracts of papers and posters presented at a symposium, and can conduct asynchronous discussions with the participants gathered at the symposium venue.

  16. TURNING A REGULAR (FACE-TO-FACE) COURSE INTO A MORE ENGAGING BLENDED (HYBRID) COURSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian R. Sun

    This session provides some discussions on blended course design, hands-on practices and offer practical tips for faculty who wish to explore the types of benefits from turning a face-to-face course into a more engaging blended (hybrid) course. Through this discussion, the participants will learn how to evaluate various factors in determining how to develop such a blended course, consider the

  17. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Therapeutic Alliance in Face-to-Face and

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    therapeutic alliance in clients receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression by telephone (T-CBT) or face-to-face (FtF-CBT). Method: We randomized 325 participants to receive 18 sessions of T-CBT or FtF-CBT T-CBT or FtF-CBT (Cohen's f2 ranged from 0 to .013, all ps .05). All WAI scores predicted depression

  18. Individual face-to-face tutorials: the value in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Martina

    2015-02-12

    The individual, face-to-face tutorial is one means by which academic support can be provided to students in higher education. This mode of tutorial support has been deemed effective but it can be considered labour-intensive, which is a concern in the UK with the recession currently impacting on higher education institutions. Nevertheless, with increasing student fees come higher student expectations. With all UK pre-registration nursing study programmes at degree level and with the emphasis on widening access, students may require additional academic support to ensure success. This study aimed to examine the value of individual, face-to-face tutorials for academic support in nurse education. A descriptive and exploratory design was used, mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. The survey approach employed a web-based, self-completion questionnaire, which was distributed to lecturers and pre-registration student nurses in a UK university. Following analysis of the questionnaire results, students were invited to attend a group interview. Findings highlighted the importance of individual, face-to-face tutorials with qualitative data supplying detailed accounts regarding their value. PMID:25679246

  19. Agreement between telepsychiatry assessment and face-to-face assessment for Emergency Department psychiatry patients.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Richard W; Kilgus, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    We compared psychiatrists' evaluations of Emergency Department (ED) mental health patients made face-to-face or by telemedicine. In a 39-month study, 73 patients presenting in the ED were enrolled after initial screening. Patients were interviewed by a psychiatrist either face-to-face in the ED or remotely by video. A second psychiatrist, acting as an observer, was in the room with the patient and independently completed the assessment. Based on the primary diagnosis of the interviewer, 48% of patients had a depressive disorder, 18% a substance use disorder, 14% a bipolar disorder, 11% a psychotic disorder, 6% an anxiety disorder and 4% other disorders. The raw agreement between the psychiatrists about disposition when both used face-to-face assessment was 84% and it was 86% when one used telemedicine. Using Cohen's kappa to evaluate agreement, there were no significant differences for disposition recommendation, strength of recommendation, diagnosis or the HCR-20 dangerousness scale. There was no significant difference for the intraclass correlation coefficients for the suicide scale. The results provide preliminary support for the safe use of telepsychiatry in the ED to determine the need for admission to inpatient care. PMID:24414395

  20. Speech and Face-to-face Communication An Introduction Marion Dohen, Jean-Luc Schwartz & Grard Bailly

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Speech and Face-to-face Communication ­ An Introduction Marion Dohen, Jean-Luc Schwartz & Gérard Bailly This special issue was launched in parallel with the "speech and face to face communication in 1998. The aim of this workshop was to show how and why speech communication must be increasingly

  1. Counting to 20: Online Implementation of a Face-to-Face, Elementary Mathematics Methods Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Catherine Stein

    2012-01-01

    This study describes implementation of the same problem-solving activity in both online and face-to-face environments. The activity, done in the first class period or first module of a K-2 mathematics methods course, was initially used in a face-to-face class and then adapted later for use in an online class. While the task was originally designed…

  2. Stability and transitions in mother-infant face-to-face communication during the first 6 months: a microhistorical approach.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Fogel, Alan

    2003-11-01

    In this study the authors attempted to unravel the relational, dynamical, and historical nature of mother-infant communication during the first 6 months. Thirteen mothers and their infants were videotaped weekly from 4 to 24 weeks during face-to-face interactions. Three distinct patterns of mother-infant communication were identified: symmetrical, asymmetrical, and unilateral. Guided by a dynamic systems perspective, the authors explored the stability of and transitions between these communication patterns. Findings from event history analysis showed that (a) there are regularly recurring dyadic communication patterns in early infancy, (b) these recurring patterns show differential stabilities and likelihoods of transitions, (c) dynamic stability in dyadic communication is shaped not only by individual characteristics (e.g., infant sex and maternal parity) but also by the dyad's communication history, and (d) depending on their recency, communication histories varying in temporal proximity exert differential effects on the self-organization processes of a dyadic system. PMID:14584985

  3. Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Dissemination of a Theory-Based After School Nutrition and Physical Activity Training and Curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonya Irish Hauser; Jeanne P. Goldberg; Parke Wilde; Marina Bers; Lori Ioannone; Christina D. Economos

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare two different online delivery methods to train after school program leaders (ASPLs) to implement a nutrition and physical activity curriculum for children to each other and to a face-to-face (FTF) training model. A three-group design was used in which ASPLs from 12 states were randomized to either standard (n = 34) or an enhanced interaction (n = 31)

  4. A Hybrid Astronomy Course - The Best of Face-to-Face and Online Pedagogy to Create a Very Effective General Astronomy Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavsar, Suketu P.

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid course formally integrates the best pedagogical practices in a face-to-face class with the unique opportunities and flexibility inherent in an on-line class. I will describe a general astronomy course "The Universe in Ten Weeks" that was developed as a hybrid astronomy course at Cal Poly Pomona. Students interacted on a daily basis in discussions and observations. Class meetings were enormously productive and active. The instructor has daily feedback and came to class knowing the issues and questions that the students faced in their reading and on-line discussions. He knew before the face-to-face class meetings what conceptual challenges the students faced and what they wanted to research further. I will describe many of the techniques as well as the syllabus that made this class so successful for student learning.

  5. Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael

    2012-03-01

    An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents. PMID:22268607

  6. 76 FR 41032 - Medicaid Program; Face-to-Face Requirements for Home Health Services; Policy Changes and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare...Face-to-Face Requirements for Home Health Services; Policy Changes and Clarifications Related to Home Health AGENCY: Centers for Medicare &...

  7. Speech and Face to Face Communication Workshop in memory of Christian Benot Session 3: Non-Verbal Communication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Speech and Face to Face Communication Workshop in memory of Christian Benoît Session 3: Non Speech & Cognition Department, GIPSA-lab France {benjamin.roustan, marion (Mcneill, 1992; Kendon, 1997). The links between hand gestures and speech were mainly analyzed

  8. Effects of Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Constructive Controversy on Social Interdependence, Motivation, and Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cary J. Roseth; Andy J. Saltarelli; Chris R. Glass

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning capitalizes on the relational processes by which peers promote learning, yet it remains unclear whether these processes operate similarly in face-to-face and online settings. This study addresses this issue by comparing face-to-face and computer-mediated versions of constructive controversy, a cooperative learning procedure designed to create intellectual conflict among students. One hundred and one undergraduates were randomly assigned to

  9. Is internet-based CBT for panic disorder and agoraphobia as effective as face-to-face CBT?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Litza A. Kiropoulos; Britt Klein; David W. Austin; Kathryn Gilson; Ciaran Pier; Joanna Mitchell; Lisa Ciechomski

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Panic Online (PO), an internet-based CBT intervention, to best-practice face-to-face CBT for people with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Eighty-six people with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder were recruited from Victoria, Australia. Participants were randomly assigned to either PO (n=46) or best practice face-to-face CBT (n=40). Effects of the internet-based CBT program were found to

  10. A randomised controlled trial of face to face versus pure online self-help cognitive behavioural treatment for perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Egan, Sarah J; van Noort, Emily; Chee, Abby; Kane, Robert T; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey D

    2014-09-30

    Previous research has shown cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) to be effective in reducing perfectionism. The present study investigated the efficacy of two formats of CBT for perfectionism (CBT-P), face-to-face and pure online self-help, in reducing perfectionism and associated psychological symptoms. Participants were randomly allocated to face-to-face CBT-P (n = 18), pure online self-help CBT-P (n = 16), or a waitlist control period (n = 18). There was no significant change for the waitlist group on any of the outcome measures at the end of treatment. Both the face-to-face and pure online self-help groups reported significant reductions at the end of treatment for the perfectionism variables which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. The face-to-face group also reported significant reductions over this time in depression, anxiety, and stress, and a significant pre-post increase in self-esteem, all of which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. In contrast, the pure online self-help group showed no significant changes on these outcomes. The face-to-face group was statistically superior to the pure online self-help group at follow-up on the perfectionism measures, concern over mistakes and personal standards. The results show promising evidence for CBT for perfectionism, especially when offered face to face, where sustained benefit across a broad range of outcomes can be expected. PMID:25461785

  11. Patient Reactions to Vital Sign Measures: Comparing Home Monitoring Technology to Face-to-Face Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Kimberly; Chamoff, Breanna

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly home health agencies are using home-based technologies to monitor vital signs of chronically ill patients. Patients receive measurements such as blood pressure and weight that indicate risks to their health. Cognitive reactions to risk measures have been studied for face-to-face delivery; however, it is unknown whether the same reactions exist with technology delivery. Reported in this article are study results of a comparative content expert analysis of reactions to technology-delivered health-risk measures. Results suggest that patients have the similar reactions but may be more likely to just accept, without evaluating or considering threats to their health. As home telemonitoring applications continue to evolve, care must be taken avoid creating passive patients and develop best practices that use technology to encourage beneficial self-care behaviors. PMID:22337499

  12. Adherence to Internet-Based and Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Depression: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Karyotaki, Eirini; Andersson, Gerhard; Smit, Jan H.; Riper, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is an effective and acceptable treatment for depression, especially when it includes guidance, but its treatment adherence has not yet been systematically studied. We conducted a meta-analysis, comparing the adherence to guided iCBT with the adherence to individual face-to-face CBT. Methods Studies were selected from a database of trials that investigate treatment for adult depression (see www.evidencebasedpsychotherapies.org), updated to January 2013. We identified 24 studies describing 26 treatment conditions (14 face-to-face CBT, 12 guided iCBT), by means of these inclusion criteria: targeting depressed adults, no comorbid somatic disorder or substance abuse, community recruitment, published in the year 2000 or later. The main outcome measure was the percentage of completed sessions. We also coded the percentage of treatment completers (separately coding for 100% or at least 80% of treatment completed). Results We did not find studies that compared guided iCBT and face-to-face CBT in a single trial that met our inclusion criteria. Face-to-face CBT treatments ranged from 12 to 28 sessions, guided iCBT interventions consisted of 5 to 9 sessions. Participants in face-to-face CBT completed on average 83.9% of their treatment, which did not differ significantly from participants in guided iCBT (80.8%, P ?=? .59). The percentage of completers (total intervention) was significantly higher in face-to-face CBT (84.7%) than in guided iCBT (65.1%, P < .001), as was the percentage of completers of 80% or more of the intervention (face-to-face CBT: 85.2%, guided iCBT: 67.5%, P ?=? .003). Non-completers of face-to-face CBT completed on average 24.5% of their treatment, while non-completers of guided iCBT completed on average 42.1% of their treatment. Conclusion We did not find studies that compared guided iCBT and face-to-face CBT in a single trial. Adherence to guided iCBT appears to be adequate and could be equal to adherence to face-to-face CBT. PMID:25029507

  13. Face-to-face transfer of wafer-scale graphene films.

    PubMed

    Gao, Libo; Ni, Guang-Xin; Liu, Yanpeng; Liu, Bo; Castro Neto, Antonio H; Loh, Kian Ping

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted worldwide interest since its experimental discovery, but the preparation of large-area, continuous graphene film on SiO2/Si wafers, free from growth-related morphological defects or transfer-induced cracks and folds, remains a formidable challenge. Growth of graphene by chemical vapour deposition on Cu foils has emerged as a powerful technique owing to its compatibility with industrial-scale roll-to-roll technology. However, the polycrystalline nature and microscopic roughness of Cu foils means that such roll-to-roll transferred films are not devoid of cracks and folds. High-fidelity transfer or direct growth of high-quality graphene films on arbitrary substrates is needed to enable wide-ranging applications in photonics or electronics, which include devices such as optoelectronic modulators, transistors, on-chip biosensors and tunnelling barriers. The direct growth of graphene film on an insulating substrate, such as a SiO2/Si wafer, would be useful for this purpose, but current research efforts remain grounded at the proof-of-concept stage, where only discontinuous, nanometre-sized islands can be obtained. Here we develop a face-to-face transfer method for wafer-scale graphene films that is so far the only known way to accomplish both the growth and transfer steps on one wafer. This spontaneous transfer method relies on nascent gas bubbles and capillary bridges between the graphene film and the underlying substrate during etching of the metal catalyst, which is analogous to the method used by tree frogs to remain attached to submerged leaves. In contrast to the previous wet or dry transfer results, the face-to-face transfer does not have to be done by hand and is compatible with any size and shape of substrate; this approach also enjoys the benefit of a much reduced density of transfer defects compared with the conventional transfer method. Most importantly, the direct growth and spontaneous attachment of graphene on the underlying substrate is amenable to batch processing in a semiconductor production line, and thus will speed up the technological application of graphene. PMID:24336218

  14. Towards a Model of Interactivity in Alternative Media: A Multilevel Analysis of Audiences and Producers in a New Social Movement Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua D. Atkinson

    2008-01-01

    This research utilized multilevel analysis to explore interactive alternative media production in a new social movement network. Interviews with audiences, local producers, and global producers provide evidence of interactivity between local audiences and local producers and between local producers and global producers. The local audiences provided encouragement to local producers through face-to-face interactions that aided in the establishment of organizational

  15. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276

  16. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276

  17. Data on face-to-face contacts in an office building suggests a low-cost vaccination strategy based on community linkers

    E-print Network

    Génois, Mathieu; Fournet, Julie; Panisson, André; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Barrat, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Empirical data on contacts between individuals in social contexts play an important role in the information of models describing human behavior and how epidemics spread in populations. Here, we analyze data on face-to-face contacts collected in an office building. The statistical properties of contacts are similar to other social situations, but important differences are observed in the contact network structure. In particular, the contact network is strongly shaped by the organization of the offices in departments, which has consequences in the design of accurate agent-based models of epidemic spread. We then consider the contact network as a potential substrate for infectious disease spread and show that its sparsity tends to prevent outbreaks of fast-spreading epidemics. Moreover, we define three typical behaviors according to the fraction $f$ of links each individual shares outside its own department: residents, wanderers and linkers. Linkers ($f\\sim 50%$) act as bridges in the network and have large betw...

  18. Atypical brain activation patterns during a face-to-face joint attention game in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Dodell-Feder, David; Mavros, Penelope L; Kleiner, Mario; Pearrow, Mark J; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D; Saxe, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Joint attention behaviors include initiating one's own and responding to another's bid for joint attention to an object, person, or topic. Joint attention abilities in autism are pervasively atypical, correlate with development of language and social abilities, and discriminate children with autism from other developmental disorders. Despite the importance of these behaviors, the neural correlates of joint attention in individuals with autism remain unclear. This paucity of data is likely due to the inherent challenge of acquiring data during a real-time social interaction. We used a novel experimental set-up in which participants engaged with an experimenter in an interactive face-to-face joint attention game during fMRI data acquisition. Both initiating and responding to joint attention behaviors were examined as well as a solo attention (SA) control condition. Participants included adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 13), a mean age- and sex-matched neurotypical group (n = 14), and a separate group of neurotypical adults (n = 22). Significant differences were found between groups within social-cognitive brain regions, including dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), during the RJA as compared to SA conditions. Region-of-interest analyses revealed a lack of signal differentiation between joint attention and control conditions within left pSTS and dMPFC in individuals with ASD. Within the pSTS, this lack of differentiation was characterized by reduced activation during joint attention and relative hyper-activation during SA. These findings suggest a possible failure of developmental neural specialization within the STS and dMPFC to joint attention in ASD. PMID:22505330

  19. A comparison of student performance in human development classes using three different modes of delivery: Online, face-to-face, and combined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalsow, Susan Christensen

    1999-11-01

    The problem. The dual purposes of this research were to determine if there is a difference in student performance in three Human Development classes when the modes of delivery are different and to analyze student perceptions of using Web-based learning as all or part of their course experience. Procedures. Data for this study were collected from three Human Development courses taught at Drake University. Grades from five essays, projects, and overall grades were used in the three classes and analyzed using a single factor analysis of variance to determine if there was a significant difference. Content analysis was used on the evaluation comments of the participants in the online and combined classes to determine their perceptions of Web-based learning. Findings. The single factor analysis of variance measuring student performance showed no significant difference among the online, face-to-face, and combined scores at the .05 level of significance, however, the difference was significant at the .06. The content analysis of the online and combined course showed the three major strengths of learning totally or partly online to be increased comfort in using the computer, the quality of the overall experience, and convenience in terms of increased access to educational opportunities. The barriers included lack of human interaction and access to the professor. Conclusions. The study indicates that Web-based learning is a viable option for postsecondary educational delivery in terms of student performance and learning. On the average, performance is at least as good as performance in traditional face-to-face classrooms. Improved performance, however, is contingent on adequate access to equipment, faculty skill in teaching using a new mode of delivery, and the personality of the student. The convenient access to educational opportunities and becoming more comfortable with technology are benefits that were important to these two groups. Web-based learning is not for everyone, but Web-assisted learning may be. It has the potential to reach a population of students who otherwise would not have access to postsecondary education. Recommendations. Technology in the twenty-first century will continue to explode and impact our lives. Universities and colleges have the potential to reach a more diverse population, but face-to-face learning will always have value. Consideration must be given to how technology and the use of Web-based learning can be used in varying degrees to meet the needs of students. Classes in the future should have some expected component of navigation and productive use of online learning. Web classes vary from totally online to mostly face-to-face, but all students in the twenty-first century should be expected to know and use this powerful educational resource.

  20. Integrating Blog and Face-to-Face Instruction into an ESP Course: English for Hospitality and Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ru-Chu

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid growth of international trade and globalization, English language has been emphasized in Asia countries, thus professionals with a good command of English has become essential and important. This study aimed to establish a blended model combining face-to-face (F2F) instruction for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course: English…

  1. Student Learning Outcomes and Pedagogy in Online and Face-to-Face College English Composition: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montagne, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study combined quantitative statistics and qualitative inquiry to determine if any differences exist between how students in face-to-face and online college English composition courses performed on and demonstrated knowledge of the California state curriculum standards, and to explore the online learning environment in this…

  2. Accuracy of Answers Provided by Digital/Face-to-Face Reference Services in Japanese Public Libraries and Q & A Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Keita; To, Haruna; Hara, Atsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We asked the same 60 questions using DRS (digital reference services) in Japanese public libraries, face-to-face reference services and Q & A (question and answer) sites. It was found that: (1) The correct answer ratio of DRS is higher than that of Q & A sites; (2) DRS takes longer to provide answers as compared to Q & A sites; and (3) The correct…

  3. Interdyad Differences in Early Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Real-Time Dynamics and Developmental Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A microgenetic research design with a multiple case study method and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses was used to investigate interdyad differences in real-time dynamics and developmental change processes in mother-infant face-to-face communication over the first 3 months of life. Weekly observations of 24 mother-infant dyads…

  4. The Challenges of Blending a Face-to-Face Laboratory Experience with a Televised Distance Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeDrew, June; Cummings-Vickaryous, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the practical challenges faced by instructors who must blend a face-to-face laboratory experience into a distance education course. This issue is discussed in the context of an ongoing kinesiology and health course that includes a mandatory physical activity laboratory experience. The challenges that have arisen around this…

  5. Performance Gaps between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Differences across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Di; Jaggars, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a dataset containing nearly 500,000 courses taken by over 40,000 community and technical college students in Washington State, this study examines the performance gap between online and face-to-face courses and how the size of that gap differs across student subgroups and academic subject areas. While all types of students in the study…

  6. Ariadne's Thread: Using Social Presence Indices to Distinguish Learning Events in Face-to-Face and ICT-Rich Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Colin; Henderson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on ancient Greek mythology, this article traces the learning experiences of 164 pre-service education students as they make the transition from a conventional face-to-face (f-2-f) learning environment to an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) rich setting. Influenced by Social Presence Theory (Short, Williams & Christie, 1976)…

  7. Hybrid Structures: Faculty Use and Perception of Web-Based Courseware as a Supplement to Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Robert; Baker, Jason D.; Hopper, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The researchers examined responses from 862 faculty members at 38 institutions nationwide using the blackboard Learning Management System (LMS) to supplement their face-to-face instruction. The four research questions addressed the primary uses that faculty make of blackboard, perceptions that faculty have of how certain blackboard features…

  8. Childhood Fever Management Program for Korean Paediatric Nurses: A Comparison between Blended and Face-to-Face Learning Method.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Sun; Kim, Jin Sun

    2014-11-28

    Abstract Background: A blended learning can be a useful learning strategy to improve the quality of fever and fever management education for paediatric nurses. Aim: This study compared the effects of a blended and face-to-face learning program on paediatric nurses' childhood fever management, using Theory of Planned Behavior. Methods/Design: A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. A fevermanagement education program using blended learning (combining face-to-face and online learning components) was offered to 30 paediatric nurses, and 29 paediatric nurses received face-to-face training. Results/Findings: Learning outcomes did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, learners' satisfaction was higher for the blended learning program than the face-toface learning program. Conclusion: A blended-learning paediatric fever management program was as effective as a traditional face-to-face learning program. Therefore, a blended-learning paediatric fever management-learning program could be a useful and flexible learning method for paediatric nurses. PMID:25431343

  9. Virtual Journey Coupled with Face-to-Face Exchange: Enhancing the Cultural Sensitivity and Competence of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenwood, Audrey E.; Snyders, Frederik J. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to enhance cultural sensitivity for graduate students at an American and a South African university, using a six-week online List Serv, email buddy exchange, and two-week face-to-face experience. After the course was over, results of the intercultural developmental inventory, using "t"-tests for related samples, showed that…

  10. A Retrospective Look at Replacing Face-to-Face Embryology Instruction with Online Lectures in a Human Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Elmus G.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Lee, Vaughan H.

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology…

  11. Blending Synchronous Face-to-Face and Computer-Supported Cooperative Learning in a Hybrid Doctoral Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseth, Cary; Akcaoglu, Mete; Zellner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Online education is often assumed to be synonymous with asynchronous instruction, existing apart from or supplementary to face-to-face instruction in traditional bricks-and-mortar classrooms. However, expanding access to computer-mediated communication technologies now make new models possible, including distance learners synchronous online…

  12. A comparison of online versus face-to-face teaching delivery in statistics instruction for undergraduate health science students.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fletcher; Lemonde, Manon

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess if online teaching delivery produces comparable student test performance as the traditional face-to-face approach irrespective of academic aptitude. This study involves a quasi-experimental comparison of student performance in an undergraduate health science statistics course partitioned in two ways. The first partition involves one group of students taught with a traditional face-to-face classroom approach and the other through a completely online instructional approach. The second partition of the subjects categorized the academic aptitude of the students into groups of higher and lower academically performing based on their assignment grades during the course. Controls that were placed on the study to reduce the possibility of confounding variables were: the same instructor taught both groups covering the same subject information, using the same assessment methods and delivered over the same period of time. The results of this study indicate that online teaching delivery is as effective as a traditional face-to-face approach in terms of producing comparable student test performance but only if the student is academically higher performing. For academically lower performing students, the online delivery method produced significantly poorer student test results compared to those lower performing students taught in a traditional face-to-face environment. PMID:23238874

  13. Connectivity: A Framework for Understanding Effective Language Teaching in Face-to-Face and Online Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Rose

    2010-01-01

    This is an exploratory paper that uses the construct of connectivity to examine the nature of effective language teaching and learning in both face-to-face and online learning environments. Broader in scope than Siemens' notion of connectivism, the term connectivity accommodates both transmission approaches to teaching and learning and social…

  14. Instructional Strategies for Face-to-Face, Internet-Based, and Hybrid Education: An Action Oriented Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naffziger, Loren Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet and the rapid growth of educational software, high schools are applying new instructional strategies with their students, including online and hybrid education. Hybrid education combines face-to-face encounters with online methods; students attend classroom sessions with their teachers and peers, and they engage…

  15. Underpinning Principles of Adult Learning in Face to Face (f2f) Meetings Employed by Distance-Teaching Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.; Karagiorgi, Yiasemina

    2014-01-01

    The study presented in this article explores the application of the principles of adult learning in the face to face (f2f) meetings organised within the context of blended learning courses. The study adopts a case study approach, employing qualitative data collection through semi-structured interviews with participants in four thematic units in…

  16. Effectiveness of Integrating Case Studies in Online and Face-to-Face Instruction of Pathophysiology: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Suha M.; Asi, Yara M.; Hamed, Kastro M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to growing demand from students and facilitated by innovations in educational technology, institutions of higher learning are increasingly offering online courses. Subjects in the hard sciences, such as pathophysiology, have traditionally been taught in the face-to-face format, but growing demand for preclinical science courses has compelled…

  17. Are You a Dream Come True or a Nightmare? Desired Characteristics in the Face to Face and Online Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Aldis; Lesage, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    All instructors would all like to be a "Dream Come True" but unfortunately many come across to their students as a "nightmare". The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics in effective and successful online and/or face-to-face instructors. Characteristics as perceived by pre-service teachers in each setting…

  18. A Comparison of a Sociocultural and Chronological Approach to Music Appreciation in Face-to-Face and Online Instructional Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakes, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences exist with regard to music achievement, music self-concept, or student course satisfaction among students enrolled in four different sections of an undergraduate music appreciation course taught from chronological or sociocultural approaches in online or face-to-face formats.…

  19. Study Shows No Difference in Impact between Online and Face-to-Face Professional Learning. Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2014-01-01

    Adopting new curricula presents both a need and an opportunity for professional development to advance teacher content knowledge and instructional practices for achieving curriculum-specific student outcomes. This study examines two modalities of professional development: face-to-face in a summer workshop and online that included two days of…

  20. A Comparison of Online versus Face-to-Face Teaching Delivery in Statistics Instruction for Undergraduate Health Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Fletcher; Lemonde, Manon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess if online teaching delivery produces comparable student test performance as the traditional face-to-face approach irrespective of academic aptitude. This study involves a quasi-experimental comparison of student performance in an undergraduate health science statistics course partitioned in two ways. The…

  1. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  2. Comparing the Impact of Online and Face-to-Face Professional Development in the Context of Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Barry; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Kubitskey, Beth W.; Vath, Richard; Park, Gina; Johnson, Heather; Edelson, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a randomized experiment to examine differences in teacher and student learning from professional development (PD) in two modalities: online and face-to-face. The study explores whether there are differences in teacher knowledge and beliefs, teacher classroom practice, and student learning outcomes related to PD modality.…

  3. Personality, sex of participant, and face-to-face interaction affect reading of informed consent forms.

    PubMed

    Knepp, Michael M

    2014-02-01

    Students (N = 183) participated in a study designed to determine if each student read the informed consent form. Approximately 12% of students in the online condition followed the procedure compared with 38% in the laboratory phase. Participants with higher trait worry and those with lower emotion reappraisal were more likely to follow the procedure, while women were more likely to read the form than men. Across conditions, most students do not read informed consent documents, particularly in online formats. These findings of this research support the idea that women tend to be more information-seeking than men in health and research settings and those with higher trait worry tend to read the consent forms to alleviate uncertainty and trust concerns. PMID:24765727

  4. Fostering Face to Face Oral Interaction through Webquests: A Case Study in ESP for Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Webquests have been used for some time to research a variety of topics. According to Lacina (2007), a webquest is an inquiry-based technology activity designed by Bernie Dodge and Tom March in which information is usually drawn from the Internet, and is a powerful instructional exercise both for teachers and students.Webquests enhance personal and…

  5. Are you friendly or just polite? - analysis of smiles in spontaneous face-to-face interactions

    E-print Network

    Hoque, Mohammed Ehasanul

    This work is part of a research effort to understand and characterize the morphological and dynamic features of polite and amused smiles. We analyzed a dataset consisting of young adults (n=61), interested in learning about ...

  6. Interplay between Telecommunications and Face-to-Face Interactions: A Study Using Mobile Phone Data

    E-print Network

    Calabrese, Francesco

    In this study we analyze one year of anonymized telecommunications data for over one million customers from a large European cellphone operator, and we investigate the relationship between people's calls and their physical ...

  7. Close Encounters in a Pediatric Ward: Measuring Face-to-Face Proximity and Mixing Patterns with Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Isella, Lorenzo; Romano, Mariateresa; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro; Colizza, Vittoria; Van den Broeck, Wouter; Gesualdo, Francesco; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Ravà, Lucilla; Rizzo, Caterina; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infections place a substantial burden on health care systems and represent one of the major issues in current public health, requiring notable efforts for its prevention. Understanding the dynamics of infection transmission in a hospital setting is essential for tailoring interventions and predicting the spread among individuals. Mathematical models need to be informed with accurate data on contacts among individuals. Methods and Findings We used wearable active Radio-Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) to detect face-to-face contacts among individuals with a spatial resolution of about 1.5 meters, and a time resolution of 20 seconds. The study was conducted in a general pediatrics hospital ward, during a one-week period, and included 119 participants, with 51 health care workers, 37 patients, and 31 caregivers. Nearly 16,000 contacts were recorded during the study period, with a median of approximately 20 contacts per participants per day. Overall, 25% of the contacts involved a ward assistant, 23% a nurse, 22% a patient, 22% a caregiver, and 8% a physician. The majority of contacts were of brief duration, but long and frequent contacts especially between patients and caregivers were also found. In the setting under study, caregivers do not represent a significant potential for infection spread to a large number of individuals, as their interactions mainly involve the corresponding patient. Nurses would deserve priority in prevention strategies due to their central role in the potential propagation paths of infections. Conclusions Our study shows the feasibility of accurate and reproducible measures of the pattern of contacts in a hospital setting. The obtained results are particularly useful for the study of the spread of respiratory infections, for monitoring critical patterns, and for setting up tailored prevention strategies. Proximity-sensing technology should be considered as a valuable tool for measuring such patterns and evaluating nosocomial prevention strategies in specific settings. PMID:21386902

  8. Innovative, High-Pressure, Cryogenic Control Valve: Short Face-to-Face, Reduced Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A control valve that can throttle high-pressure cryogenic fluid embodies several design features that distinguish it over conventional valves designed for similar applications. Field and design engineers worked together to create a valve that would simplify installation, trim changes, and maintenance, thus reducing overall cost. The seals and plug stem packing were designed to perform optimally in cryogenic temperature ranges. Unlike conventional high-pressure cryogenic valves, the trim size can be changed independent of the body. The design feature that provides flexibility for changing the trim is a split body. The body is divided into an upper and a lower section with the seat ring sandwiched in between. In order to maintain the plug stem packing at an acceptable sealing temperature during cryogenic service, heat-exchanging fins were added to the upper body section. The body is made of stainless steel. The seat ring is made of a nickel-based alloy having a coefficient of thermal expansion less than that of the body material. Consequently, when the interior of the valve is cooled cryogenically, the body surrounding the seat ring contracts more than the seat ring. This feature prevents external leakage at the body-seat joint. The seat ring has been machined to have small, raised-face sealing surfaces on both sides of the seal groove. These sealing surfaces concentrate the body bolt load over a small area, thereby preventing external leakage. The design of the body bolt circle is different from that of conventional highpressure control valves. Half of the bolts clamp the split body together from the top, and half from the bottom side. This bolt-circle design allows a short, clean flow path, which minimizes frictional flow losses. This bolt-circle design also makes it possible to shorten the face-toface length of the valve, which is 25.5 in. (65 cm). In contrast, a conventional, high-pressure control valve face-to-face dimension may be greater than 40 in. (>1 m) long.

  9. Comparing Costs of Telephone versus Face-to-Face Extended Care Programs for the Management of Obesity in Rural Settings

    PubMed Central

    Radcliff, Tiffany A.; Bobroff, Linda B.; Lutes, Lesley D.; Durning, Patricia E.; Daniels, Michael J.; Limacher, Marian C.; Janicke, David M.; Martin, A. Daniel; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Background A major challenge following successful weight loss is continuing the behaviors required for long-term weight maintenance. This challenge may be exacerbated in rural areas with limited local support resources. Objective This study describes and compares program costs and cost-effectiveness for 12-month extended care lifestyle maintenance programs following an initial 6-month weight loss program. Design A 1-year prospective controlled randomized clinical trial. Participants/Setting The study included 215 female participants age 50 or older from rural areas who completed an initial 6-month lifestyle program for weight loss. The study was conducted from June 1, 2003, to May 31, 2007. Intervention The intervention was delivered through local Cooperative Extension Service offices in rural Florida. Participants were randomly-assigned to a 12-month extended care program using either individual telephone counseling (n=67), group face-to-face counseling (n=74), or a mail/control group (n=74). Main Outcome Measures Program delivery costs, weight loss, and self-reported health status were directly assessed through questionnaires and program activity logs. Costs were estimated across a range of enrollment sizes to allow inferences beyond the study sample. Statistical Analyses Performed Non-parametric and parametric tests of differences across groups for program outcomes were combined with direct program cost estimates and expected value calculations to determine which scales of operation favored alternative formats for lifestyle maintenance. Results Median weight regain during the intervention year was 1.7 kg for participants in the face-to-face format, 2.1 kg for the telephone format, and 3.1 kg for the mail/control format. For a typical group size of 13 participants, the face-to-face format had higher fixed costs, which translated into higher overall program costs ($420 per participant) when compared to individual telephone counseling ($268 per participant) and control ($226 per participant) programs. While the net weight lost after the 12-month maintenance program was higher for the face-to-face and telephone programs compared to the control group, the average cost per expected kilogram of weight lost was higher for the face-to-face program ($47/kg) compared to the other two programs (approximately $33/kg for telephone and control). Conclusions Both the scale of operations and local demand for programs are important considerations in selecting a delivery format for lifestyle maintenance. In this study, the telephone format had a lower cost, but similar outcomes compared to the face-to-face format. PMID:22818246

  10. Procedural Justice and Identification with Virtual Teams: The Moderating Role of Face-to-Face Meetings and Geographical Dispersion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko Hakonen; Jukka Lipponen

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the previously unstudied relationship between procedural justice and identification within virtual teams,\\u000a with a particular focus on how two features of virtual teams, namely frequency of face-to-face meetings and geographical dispersion,\\u000a moderate that relationship. We argue that these two variables are sources of uncertainty, which in turn makes virtual team\\u000a members more sensitive to perceptions of procedural fairness

  11. Experiences from implementing a face-to-face educational game for iPhone\\/iPod Touch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alf Inge Wang; Bian Wu; Sveinung Kval Bakken

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a location-aware educational game for the iPhone\\/iPod Touch platform. The game, KnowledgeWar, is a quiz game where students can challenge each other in face-to-face or remote knowledge battles. The game contains a game lobby where players can see all who are connected, and the physical distance to them. The paper describes our experiences from developing KnowledgeWar and

  12. Do Iconic Hand Gestures Really Contribute to the Communication of Semantic Information in a Face-to-Face Context?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Holler; Heather Shovelton; Geoffrey Beattie

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that iconic gestures are effective at communicating semantic information, particularly about the\\u000a size and relative position of objects. However, the conclusions of these experiments have been somewhat limited by the fact\\u000a that the methodology has typically involved presenting gesture–speech samples on video rather than in an actual face-to-face\\u000a context. Because these different viewing conditions can impact

  13. Difficulty with Negative Feedback: Face-to-Face Evaluation of Junior Medical Student Clinical Performance Results in Grade Inflation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. Colletti

    2000-01-01

    Hypothesis. Direct, face-to-face feedback regarding a medical students' clinical performance will not increase critical, objective analysis of their performance.Methods. A new ward evaluation system (NS) was used concurrently with our standard written ward evaluation system (OS). The two methods were directly compared using a standard t test. The OS is a subjective written evaluation of clinical performance, with a summary

  14. Concordance and time estimation of store-and-forward mobile teledermatology compared to classical face-to-face consultation.

    PubMed

    Nami, Niccolò; Massone, Cesare; Rubegni, Pietro; Cevenini, Gabriele; Fimiani, Michele; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones have overcome the limitations of image quality seen in older devices and opened a new field of telemedicine called "mobile teledermatology". Technological advances and the need to reduce health service costs will strongly promote the development of telemedicine. For this reason, we evaluated the concordance between store-and-forward mobile teledermatology and the classical face-to-face dermatological visit. We also measured the time taken to submit a teleconsultation using a smartphone. Before conventional face-to-face visit, a final-year resident of the three-year course for general practitioners collected medical history, took digital images of skin diseases with a smartphone and, measuring the time required to complete this operation, transmitted them to an expert teledermatologist. In 391 patients we obtained a concordance between face-to-face and store-and-forward diagnosis of 91.05% (Cohen ? coefficient?=?0.906). On average only few minutes needs to be added to a normal visit to transmit the cases to an expert teledermatologist. PMID:24889827

  15. AIDS and behavioural risk factors in women in inner city Baltimore: a comparison of telephone and face to face surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Nebot, M; Celentano, D D; Burwell, L; Davis, A; Davis, M; Polacsek, M; Santelli, J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to investigate the influence the mode of administration of a questionnaire (telephone or face to face) on reports of sexual behaviour and attitudes of HIV risk among woman of reproductive age. DESIGN--Two cross sectional surveys--one, a modified random digit dialing telephone survey, the second, a face to face street sample--were carried out by the same interviewers using similar questionnaires in the same neighbourhoods. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Two socially deprived, inner city neighbourhoods of Baltimore City were assessed in early 1990 before a community health intervention was carried out in one of them. Women between 17 and 35 years were surveyed. MAIN RESULTS--Altogether 775 and 416 women in the target age group were interviewed by telephone and face to face methods: the response rates were 66.4% and 77% respectively. Telephone respondents tended to be older, had more education, were more often married, were less likely to live in subsidised housing, and were more likely to report HIV testing. The proportions of respondents who reported a previous abortion and had had a surgical sterilisation were higher among the telephone respondents (34.7% v 24.1% and 26.4% v 20.6%, respectively). With regard to sexual risk behaviour, the only statistically significant differences were found in the proportion who reported having used drugs (10.6% of the face to face v 2.4% of the telephone sample) or alcohol (30.5% v 16.3%) at last sexual intercourse. The observed method effect on these variables remained unchanged after adjusting for age, education, employment, and marital status. This effect was even stronger for a subgroup of face to face respondents who reported not having a telephone at home. The adjusted odds ratios for reporting alcohol consumption and use of drugs at the last sexual encounter in this group compared with the telephone respondents were 3.7 (2.1, 6.6) and 14.1 (5.7, 34.5) respectively. CONCLUSIONS--Despite the socioeconomic bias associated with the mode of data collection, there are only a few differences between the telephone and personal survey methods in reports of sexual behaviour. These differences are mostly concentrated in young women (under 20 years), and in a particularly socioeconomically deprived subgroup identified through telephone ownership. PMID:7964343

  16. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  17. Instruments to Explore Blended Learning: Modifying a Method to Analyse Online Communication for the Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leng, Bas A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Donkers, H. H. L. M.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the complex practice of today's blended learning, educators need to be able to evaluate both online and face-to-face communication in order to get the full picture of what is going on in blended learning scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of a practical instrument for analysing face-to-face

  18. The Effects of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Discussion on Computer Engineering Majors' Performance on the Karnaugh Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Yen-Chu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the different effects of web-based and face-to-face discussion on computer engineering majors' performance using the Karnaugh map in digital logic design. Pretest and posttest scores for two treatment groups (web-based discussion and face-to-face discussion) and a control group were compared and subjected to covariance…

  19. The Benefits of Synchronized Genuine Smiles in Face-to-Face Service Encounters

    E-print Network

    Picard, Rosalind W.

    This paper examines the role of facial expressions in dyadic interactions between a banking service provider and customer. We conduct experiments in which service providers manipulate their facial expressions while interacting ...

  20. The effect of face-to-face teaching on student knowledge and satisfaction in an undergraduate neuroanatomy course.

    PubMed

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P

    2013-01-01

    The total number of anatomy teaching hours has declined in medical courses worldwide. Conversely, face-to-face teaching in undergraduate neuroanatomy at Macquarie University increased by 50% in 2011. Our aim was to investigate whether this influenced student performance and overall satisfaction with the course. One hundred eighty-one students consented to participate in this study. A questionnaire was administered to rate the course, and final grades from the old and new unit cohorts were compared. The old and new unit cohorts did not differ in their final grades (P = 0.249). However, the new unit cohort rated their knowledge of the material higher compared to the old unit cohort (P = 0.013), and reported higher levels of satisfaction with the course (P < 0.001). In an era in which teaching time for anatomy has been reduced at tertiary institutions, and there is much lamenting of the effect this will have, there is a paucity of literature on whether the decrease really influences neuroanatomical knowledge. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to show that an increase in total face-to-face teaching hours does not improve student grades, but does increase student satisfaction with the course. PMID:23225606

  1. Evaluating a Geovisualization Prototype with Two Approaches: Remote Instructional vs. Face-to-Face Exploratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Larissa Marsh; Jason Dykes; Fenia Attilakou

    2006-01-01

    Two evaluations of a prototype designed to help expert users visualize key census statistics are conducted. The results yielded are compared in terms of usability issues, task completion (interaction) and ideation facilitated. Ways in which this information may be affected by the use of different data collection techniques, participants and tasks are considered. We report differences in the results of

  2. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or Reading between the Lines? Theory of Mind Predicts Collective Intelligence Equally Well Online and Face-To-Face

    E-print Network

    Engel, David

    Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called “collective intelligence”) predicted a group’s performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also ...

  3. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice. PMID:23184436

  4. Self-seeding-based 10Gb/s over 25km optical OFDM transmissions utilizing face-to-face dual-RSOAs at gain saturation.

    PubMed

    Deng, M L; Ling, Y; Chen, X F; Giddings, R P; Hong, Y H; Yi, X W; Qiu, K; Tang, J M

    2014-05-19

    Self-seeded passive optical networks (PONs) are currently attracting extensive research interest. In this paper, a novel self-seeded PON transmitter is, for the first time, proposed and experimentally demonstrated, which incorporates two face-to-face-positioned reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) operating at their gain saturation regions: one RSOA directly driven by an upstream electrical signal and the other RSOA biased at a fixed current. Detailed experimental explorations are undertaken of the dynamic performance characteristics of the proposed transmitter. It is shown that, in comparison with previously reported self-seeded transmitters each employing a reflective mirror and a single electrical signal-driven RSOA, the proposed transmitter has a number of salient advantages including, considerably narrowed optical signal spectra, up to 16dB reduction in RINs of intensity-modulated optical signals, and residual intensity modulation crosstalk suppression as high as 10.7dB. The aforementioned features enable experimental demonstrations of real-time self-seeded 10Gb/s optical OFDM (OOFDM) transmitters. In particular, by making use of two low-cost RSOAs having their 3-dB modulation bandwidths as small as 1.125GHz, 10Gb/s over 25km adaptive OOFDM transmissions with power penalties of 0.6dB are experimentally achieved in the simple self-seeded IMDD PON systems. PMID:24921316

  5. Guided Internet-based vs. face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychiatric and somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Gerhard; Cuijpers, Pim; Carlbring, Per; Riper, Heleen; Hedman, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been tested in many research trials, but to a lesser extent directly compared to face-to-face delivered cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in which guided ICBT was directly compared to face-to-face CBT. Studies on psychiatric and somatic conditions were included. Systematic searches resulted in 13 studies (total N=1053) that met all criteria and were included in the review. There were three studies on social anxiety disorder, three on panic disorder, two on depressive symptoms, two on body dissatisfaction, one on tinnitus, one on male sexual dysfunction, and one on spider phobia. Face-to-face CBT was either in the individual format (n=6) or in the group format (n=7). We also assessed quality and risk of bias. Results showed a pooled effect size (Hedges' g) at post-treatment of ?0.01 (95% CI: ?0.13 to 0.12), indicating that guided ICBT and face-to-face treatment produce equivalent overall effects. Study quality did not affect outcomes. While the overall results indicate equivalence, there are still few studies for each psychiatric and somatic condition and many conditions for which guided ICBT has not been compared to face-to-face treatment. Thus, more research is needed to establish equivalence of the two treatment formats. PMID:25273302

  6. 'Intimate mothering publics': comparing face-to-face support groups and Internet use for women seeking information and advice in the transition to first-time motherhood.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sophia Alice

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to an understanding of the changing nature of support and information-seeking practices for women in the transition to first-time motherhood. In the context of increasing digitalisation, the significance of new virtual spaces for parenting is discussed. The paper demonstrates how women seek out alternative forms of expertise (specifically, non-medical expertise) and social support. The author argues for the importance of 'intimate mothering publics' through which women gather experiential information and practical support. These publics can act as a space for women to 'test' or legitimise their new identity as a mother. Intimate mothering publics are particularly useful for thinking about the meaning-making practices and learning experiences that occur during intimate online and face-to-face interactions. A variety of types of online support may be used during pregnancy. Surreptitious support in particular involves users invisibly receiving advice, information and reassurance that might otherwise be lacking. Access to intimate mothering publics is motivated by a number of factors, including feelings of community or acceptance, the desire to be a good mother or parent, emotional support and the need for practical and experiential advice. PMID:25339096

  7. Emotional Expression and Heart Rate in High-Risk Infants during the Face-To-Face/Still-Face

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Whitney I.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Lambert, Brittany; Tronick, Ed; Lester, Barry M.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    In infants, eye constriction—the Duchenne marker—and mouth opening appear to index the intensity of both positive and negative facial expressions. We combined eye constriction and mouth opening that co-occurred with smiles and cry-faces (respectively, the prototypic expressions of infant joy and distress) to measure emotional expression intensity. Expression intensity and heart rate were measured throughout the Face-to-Face/Still Face (FFSF) in a sample of infants with prenatal cocaine exposure who were at risk for developmental difficulties. Smiles declined and cry-faces increased in the still-face episode, but the distribution of eye constriction and mouth opening in smiles and cry-faces did not differ across episodes of the FFSF. As time elapsed in the still face episode potential indices of intensity increased, cry-faces were more likely to be accompanied by eye constriction and mouth opening. During cry-faces there were also moderately stable individual differences in the quantity of eye constriction and mouth opening. Infant heart rate was higher during cry-faces and lower during smiles, but did not vary with intensity of expression or by episode. In sum, infants express more intense negative affect as the still-face progresses, but do not show clear differences in expressive intensity between episodes of the FFSF. PMID:24095807

  8. Discrimination against facially stigmatized applicants in interviews: an eye-tracking and face-to-face investigation.

    PubMed

    Madera, Juan M; Hebl, Michelle R

    2012-03-01

    Drawing from theory and research on perceived stigma (Pryor, Reeder, Yeadon, & Hesson-McInnis, 2004), attentional processes (Rinck & Becker, 2006), working memory (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), and regulatory resources (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000), the authors examined discrimination against facially stigmatized applicants and the processes involved. In Study 1, 171 participants viewed a computer-mediated interview of an applicant who was facially stigmatized or not and who either did or did not acknowledge the stigma. The authors recorded participants' (a) time spent looking at the stigma (using eye tracker technology), (b) ratings of the applicant, (c) memory recall about the applicant, and (d) self-regulatory depletion. Results revealed that the participants with facially stigmatized applicants attended more to the cheek (i.e., where the stigma was placed), which led participants to recall fewer interview facts, which in turn led to lower applicant ratings. In addition, the participants with the stigmatized (vs. nonstigmatized) applicant depleted more regulatory resources. In Study 2, 38 managers conducted face-to-face interviews with either a facially stigmatized or nonstigmatized applicant, and then rated the applicant. Results revealed that managers who interviewed a facially stigmatized applicant (vs. a nonstigmatized applicant) rated the applicant lower, recalled less information about the interview, and depleted more self-regulatory resources. PMID:22004221

  9. A comparison of telehealth and face-to-face presentation for school professionals supporting students with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Ryan J; Davis, Kathy; Patterson, James

    2008-01-01

    We compared the perceptions of school professionals who received education about students with chronic illness by videoconference (VC) or by face-to-face (FTF) presentation. Forty-five different one-hour presentations were provided by a paediatric educator to a total of 1389 subjects - 919 viewed FTF presentations and 417 viewed VC presentations. Subjects completed a 10-item survey to assess satisfaction and other perceptions, such as access and convenience of the sessions, on a 5-point Likert scale. The results for the two different modalities were compared using analysis of variance. Participants at the FTF presentations (mean 4.6, SD = 0.6) and VC presentations (mean 4.3, SD = 0.7) indicated that they were very satisfied with the instruction they received. The FTF participants were significantly more satisfied than the VC participants (P < 0.001). Similarly, comfort with the sessions, perceived preparedness, convenience and other items were also highly rated in both groups, although the FTF group rated many of these perceptions significantly higher. Regression analysis showed that the comfort level with the presentations was a predictor of satisfaction, suggesting that people might not be familiar enough with VC sessions to be comfortable and satisfied with this delivery mechanism. Nonetheless, VC delivery appears to be a viable alternative when FTF is not possible, particularly in rural areas. PMID:18534957

  10. Assessing knowledge of human papillomavirus and collecting data on sexual behavior: computer assisted telephone versus face to face interviews

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Education campaigns seeking to raise awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) and promoting HPV vaccination depend on accurate surveys of public awareness and knowledge of HPV and related sexual behavior. However, the most recent population-based studies have relied largely on computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) as opposed to face to face interviews (FTFI). It is currently unknown how these survey modes differ, and in particular whether they attract similar demographics and therefore lead to similar overall findings. Methods A comprehensive survey of HPV awareness and knowledge, including sexual behavior, was conducted among 3,045 Singaporean men and women, half of whom participated via CATI, the other half via FTFI. Results Overall levels of awareness and knowledge of HPV differed between CATI and FTFI, attributable in part to demographic variations between these survey modes. Although disclosure of sexual behavior was greater when using CATI, few differences between survey modes were found in the actual information disclosed. Conclusion Although CATI is a cheaper, faster alternative to FTFI and people appear more willing to provide information about sexual behavior when surveyed using CATI, thorough assessments of HPV awareness and knowledge depend on multiple survey modes. PMID:19930668

  11. A Virtual World Versus Face-to-Face Intervention Format to Promote Diabetes Self-Management Among African American Women: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Heyden, Robin; Mejilla, Roanne; Capelson, Roberta; Chalmers, Karen A; Rizzo DePaoli, Maria; Veerappa, Chetty; Wiecha, John M

    2014-01-01

    Background Virtual world environments have the potential to increase access to diabetes self-management interventions and may lower cost. Objective We tested the feasibility and comparative effectiveness of a virtual world versus a face-to-face diabetes self-management group intervention. Methods We recruited African American women with type 2 diabetes to participate in an 8-week diabetes self-management program adapted from Power to Prevent, a behavior-change in-person group program for African Americans with diabetes or pre-diabetes. The program is social cognitive theory–guided, evidence-based, and culturally tailored. Participants were randomized to participate in the program via virtual world (Second Life) or face-to-face, both delivered by a single intervention team. Blinded assessors conducted in-person clinical (HbA1c), behavioral, and psychosocial measurements at baseline and 4-month follow-up. Pre-post differences within and between intervention groups were assessed using t tests and chi-square tests (two-sided and intention-to-treat analyses for all comparisons). Results Participants (N=89) were an average of 52 years old (SD 10), 60% had ?high school, 82% had household incomes face-to-face, virtual world was slightly superior for total activity, light activity, and inactivity (P=.05, P=.07, and P=.025, respectively). HbA1c reduction was significant within face-to-face (?0.46, P=02) but not within virtual world (?0.31, P=.19), although there were no significant between group differences in HbA1c (P=.52). In both groups, 14% fewer patients had post-intervention HbA1c ?9% (virtual world P=.014; face-to-face P=.002), with no significant between group difference (P=.493). Compared to virtual world, face-to-face was marginally superior for reducing depression symptoms (P=.051). The virtual world intervention costs were US $1117 versus US $931 for face-to-face. Conclusions It is feasible to deliver diabetes self-management interventions to inner city African American women via virtual worlds, and outcomes may be comparable to those of face-to-face interventions. Further effectiveness research is warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340079; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01340079 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6T2aSvmka). PMID:25344620

  12. Effectiveness of Web-Based Versus Face-To-Face Delivery of Education in Prescription of Falls-Prevention Exercise to Health Professionals: Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Romi; Keating, Jennifer L; Molloy, Elizabeth; Jolly, Brian; Sims, Jane; Morgan, Prue; Haines, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Background Exercise is an effective intervention for the prevention of falls; however, some forms of exercises have been shown to be more effective than others. There is a need to identify effective and efficient methods for training health professionals in exercise prescription for falls prevention. Objective The objective of our study was to compare two approaches for training clinicians in prescribing exercise to prevent falls. Methods This study was a head-to-head randomized trial design. Participants were physiotherapists, occupational therapists, nurses, and exercise physiologists working in Victoria, Australia. Participants randomly assigned to one group received face-to-face traditional education using a 1-day seminar format with additional video and written support material. The other participants received Web-based delivery of the equivalent educational material over a 4-week period with remote tutor facilitation. Outcomes were measured across levels 1 to 3 of Kirkpatrick’s hierarchy of educational outcomes, including attendance, adherence, satisfaction, knowledge, and self-reported change in practice. Results Of the 166 participants initially recruited, there was gradual attrition from randomization to participation in the trial (n = 67 Web-based, n = 68 face-to-face), to completion of the educational content (n = 44 Web-based, n = 50 face-to-face), to completion of the posteducation examinations (n = 43 Web-based, n = 49 face-to-face). Participant satisfaction was not significantly different between the intervention groups: mean (SD) satisfaction with content and relevance of course material was 25.73 (5.14) in the Web-based and 26.11 (5.41) in the face-to-face group; linear regression P = .75; and mean (SD) satisfaction with course facilitation and support was 11.61 (2.00) in the Web-based and 12.08 (1.54) in the face-to-face group; linear regression P = .25. Knowledge test results were comparable between the Web-based and face-to-face groups: median (interquartile range [IQR]) for the Web-based group was 90.00 (70.89–90.67) and for the face-to-face group was 80.56 (70.67–90.00); rank sum P = .07. The median (IQR) scores for the exercise assignment were also comparable: Web-based, 78.6 (68.5–85.1), and face-to-face, 78.6 (70.8–86.9); rank sum P = .61. No significant difference was identified in Kirkpatrick’s hierarchy domain change in practice: mean (SD) Web-based, 21.75 (4.40), and face-to-face, 21.88 (3.24); linear regression P = .89. Conclusion Web-based and face-to-face approaches to the delivery of education to clinicians on the subject of exercise prescription for falls prevention produced equivalent results in all of the outcome domains. Practical considerations should arguably drive choice of delivery method, which may favor Web-based provision for its ability to overcome access issues for health professionals in regional and remote settings. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number: ACTRN12610000135011; http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12610000135011.aspx (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/63MicDjPV) PMID:22189410

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of COMPASS Web-Based and Face-to-Face Teacher Coaching in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John H.; Toland, Michael D.; Dalrymple, Nancy J.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objective Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success (COMPASS; Ruble, Dalrymple, & McGrew, 2010; Ruble, Dalrymple, & McGrew, 2012) was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group. Method Forty-nine teacher–child dyads were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: (1) a placebo control (PBO) group, (2) COMPASS followed by face-to-face (FF) coaching sessions, and (3) COMPASS followed by web-based (WEB) coaching sessions. Three individualized goals (social, communication, and independence skills) were selected for intervention for each child. The primary outcome of independent ratings of child goal attainment and several process measures (e.g., consultant and teacher fidelity) were evaluated. Results Using an intent-to-treat approach, findings replicated earlier results with a very large effect size (d = 1.41) for the FF group and a large effect size (d = 1.12) for the WEB group relative to the PBO group. There were no differences in overall change across goal domains between the FF and WEB groups, suggesting the efficacy of videoconferencing technology. Conclusions COMPASS is effective and results in improved educational outcomes for young children with autism. Videoconferencing technology, as a scalable tool, has promise for facilitating access to autism specialists and bridging the research-to-practice gap. PMID:23438314

  14. Effectiveness of Online Instruction: Differences in Measured Student Outcomes Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenhorst, Don G.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth in online courses offered at the high school level but little evidence as to whether they are as effective as face-to-face courses. It has become critical to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of online education in order to reap the benefits and reduce the drawbacks of contrasting learning modes. The…

  15. Effects of an Online Learning Community on Active and Reflective Learners' Learning Performance and Attitudes in a Face-to-Face Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Zehui; Xu, Fuyin; Ye, Huiwen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an Online Learning Community (OLC) on active and reflective learners' learning performance and attitude in a face-to-face undergraduate digital design course. 814 freshmen in an introductory digital design course were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: one offered students an OLC,…

  16. Traditional Face-to-Face and Web-Based Tutorials: A Study of University Students' Perspectives on the Roles of Tutorial Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Jill; O'Donoghue, Tom; Whitehead, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Despite considerable research on the outcomes of teaching approaches at the tertiary level, there have been very few investigations of students' perspectives on the different approaches. This study, based on a series of in-depth interviews with students who completed a unit using traditional face-to-face tutorials and web-based bulletin-board…

  17. Beyond the Therapeutic Hour: An Exploratory Pilot Study of Using Technology to Enhance Alliance and Engagement within Face-to-Face Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Penelope; Simpson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and investigate the capacity for a novel, technologically advanced system (goACT) to enhance face-to-face psychotherapy. Specifically, we explore the capacity for goACT to enhance therapeutic alliance (TA) and engagement, and reduce distress. Using a mixed-methods, multiple-baseline design we present the first study to…

  18. Comparing Learning Outcomes of Video-Based E-Learning with Face-to-Face Lectures of Agricultural Engineering Courses in Korean Agricultural High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung Youl; Kim, Soo-Wook; Cha, Seung-Bong; Nam, Min-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of e-learning by comparing the learning outcomes in conventional face-to-face lectures and e-learning methods. Two video-based e-learning contents were developed based on the rapid prototyping model and loaded onto the learning management system (LMS), which was available at http://www.greenehrd.com.…

  19. Testing for Near and Far Transfer Effects with a Short, Face-to-Face Adaptive Working Memory Training Intervention in Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy A.; Messer, David J.; Nash, Gilly

    2014-01-01

    A relatively quick, face-to-face, adaptive working memory training intervention was assessed in 5-to 8-year-old typically developing children, randomly allocated to a 6-week intervention condition, or an active control condition. All children received 18 sessions of 10?minutes, three times/week for 6?weeks. Assessments of six working memory…

  20. Attitudes toward Face-to-Face and Online Counseling: Roles of Self-Concealment, Openness to Experience, Loss of Face, Stigma, and Disclosure Expectations among Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathje, Geoff J.; Kim, Eunha; Rau, Ellen; Bassiouny, Muhammad Adam; Kim, Taehoon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined attitudes toward face-to-face (f2f) and online counseling among 228 Korean college students. In addition, it tested a hypothesized model proposing that general propensities (i.e., self-concealment, openness to experience, and loss of face) would influence counseling-specific expectations (i.e., self-stigma and disclosure…

  1. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  2. Learner Outcomes and Satisfaction: A Comparison of Live Video-Streamed Instruction, Satellite Broadcast Instruction, and Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; Yoshimura, Miki

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the final grade and satisfaction level differences among students taking specific courses using three different methods: face-to-face in class, via satellite broadcasting at remote sites, and via live video-streaming at home or at work. In each case, the same course was taught by the same instructor in all three delivery…

  3. Test–retest reliability of an online measure of past week alcohol consumption (the TOTAL), and comparison with face-to-face interview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zarnie Khadjesari; Elizabeth Murray; Eleftheria Kalaitzaki; Ian R. White; Jim McCambridge; Christine Godfrey; Paul Wallace

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveThis paper reports on the development of a new online measure of beverage-specific past week alcohol consumption (the TOT-AL), its test–retest reliability, and comparability with the face-to-face approach of ascertaining alcohol intake.

  4. Entropic separations of mixtures of aromatics by selective face-to-face molecular stacking in one-dimensional channels of metal-organic frameworks and zeolites.

    PubMed

    Torres-Knoop, Ariana; Balestra, Salvador R G; Krishna, Rajamani; Calero, Sofía; Dubbeldam, David

    2015-02-23

    Separation of challenging mixtures using metal-organic frameworks can be achieved by an entropy-driven mechanism, where one of the components can arrange into a "face-to-face" stacking, thus reducing its "footprint" and reaching a higher saturation loading. PMID:25504615

  5. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or Reading between the Lines? Theory of Mind Predicts Collective Intelligence Equally Well Online and Face-To-Face

    PubMed Central

    Engel, David; Woolley, Anita Williams; Jing, Lisa X.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Malone, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called “collective intelligence”) predicted a group’s performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members’ ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called “Theory of Mind” or “ToM”). Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to “read” the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test), it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1) a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2) surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states. PMID:25514387

  6. Exercise Motivation of College Students in Online, Face-to-Face, and Blended Basic Studies Physical Activity and Wellness Course Delivery Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidman, Cara Lynn; Fiala, Kelly Ann; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess exercise motivation among college students self-selected into 4 online (OL) and face-to-face (F2F) basic studies' physical activity and wellness course delivery formats. Participants/Methods: Out of 1,037 enrolled students during the Spring 2009 semester, 602 responded online to demographic…

  7. The Effects of Choice on Student Persistence, Academic Satisfaction, and Performance in Both Online and Face-to-Face Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosta, James William

    2010-01-01

    The researcher examined the effects of online (OL) and face-to-face (FTF) course modality choice, as a motivational component, on students. self-selection of courses. A naturally occurring control and treatment group comparison design was employed. The participants were 435 college students (200 OL and 235 FTF) who attended an accredited private…

  8. Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Using Computer-Based and Face-to-Face Personal Hygiene Training Methods in Food Processing Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…

  9. Which Is More Effective in Educating Teachers to Work with Children with Autism: An Online or Face-to-Face Format of Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online format of instruction versus a face-to-face format of instruction in order to determine which format of instruction is most effective in educating teachers to work with students with autism spectrum disorders. Given the current rise in students with autism being served in…

  10. A Qualitative Case Study Comparing a Computer-Mediated Delivery System to a Face-to-Face Mediated Delivery System for Teaching Creative Writing Fiction Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Mindy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to compare the pedagogical and affective efficiency and efficacy of creative prose fiction writing workshops taught via asynchronous computer-mediated online distance education with creative prose fiction writing workshops taught face-to-face in order to better understand their operational pedagogy and…

  11. Patterns and Principles for Blended Synchronous Learning: Engaging Remote and Face-to-Face Learners in Rich-Media Real-Time Collaborative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Kenney, Jacqueline; Dalgarno, Barney; Lee, Mark J. W.; Kennedy, Gregor E.

    2014-01-01

    Blended synchronous learning involves using rich-media technologies to enable remote and face-to-face students to jointly participate in the same live classes. This article presents blended synchronous learning designs from seven case studies that were part of a project funded by the Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching and…

  12. Why Do Rape Survivors Volunteer for Face-to-Face Interviews? A Meta-Study of Victims' Reasons for and Concerns about Research Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Adams, Adrienne E.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding how different research methods are perceived by victims of violence and what survivors will reveal to researchers (termed "meta-research" or "meta-studies"). The purpose of this project was to conduct a qualitative meta-study on why rape survivors chose to participate in community-based, face-to-face

  13. Lecturing and Other Face-to-Face Teaching--Too Much or Too Little? An Assessment Based on Student Feedback and Fail Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Matthew R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Institutes of higher learning are tending to reduce the amount of face-to-face teaching that they offer, and particularly through the traditional pedagogical method of lecturing. There is ongoing debate about the educational value of lectures as a teaching approach, in terms of both whether they facilitate understanding of subject material and…

  14. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2014-10-14

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1 % prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5 % made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs. PMID:25312868

  15. A Social Network Analysis Comparison of an Experienced and a Novice Instructor in Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidalgo, Patricia; Thormann, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The most productive learning experience for students whether online or in face-to-face classes can often be the interaction among students and with an instructor. Online teaching and Social Network Analysis (SNA) offer the opportunity to examine intellectual social networking and strategies that promotes student interaction which can enhance…

  16. Face-to-Face and Synchronous Interactive Videoconferencing Instruction: Learning Experiences of Educators Enrolled in an Autism Certificate Program

    E-print Network

    Swanson, Terri Cooper

    2013-05-31

    , podcast, videoconference, telephone, live text, or chat rooms) (Er, Ozden, & Arifoglu, 2009). Autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A group of five neurological disorders that share a common core of characteristics; namely, challenges in communication, social..., radio, webcast, podcast, videoconference, telephone, live text, or chat rooms. Synchronous learning may occur in the same or difference spaces. Asynchronous learning refers to learning formats that can occur at any time in difference spaces, and can...

  17. Mixing Face-to-Face and Online Interactions in a Leadership Development Programme: A Blended Action Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Kate; Yoong, Pak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the use of ICT to support leadership learning within an education context. Leadership development opportunities that encourage reflection, the development of self-awareness, the sharing of practice, and that support the transfer of learning back to the workplace are challenging to fit into the life of…

  18. Manual Actions of Nine- to Fifteen-Week-Old Human Infants during Face-to-Face Interaction with their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Alan; Hannan, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Presents evidence that the manual actions of infants as young as nine weeks of age may occur in relation to their facial expression, gaze direction, and vocalization. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the ontogeny of nonverbal communicative gestures. (Author/RH)

  19. Breakeven, Cost Benefit, Cost Effectiveness, and Willingness to Pay for Web-Based Versus Face-to-Face Education Delivery for Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Romi; Keating, Jenny L; Molloy, Elizabeth; Jolly, Brian; Sims, Jane; Morgan, Prue; Haines, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of Web-based education and open universities has seen an increase in access to professional development within the health professional education marketplace. Economic efficiencies of Web-based education and traditional face-to-face educational approaches have not been compared under randomized controlled trial conditions. Objective To compare costs and effects of Web-based and face-to-face short courses in falls prevention education for health professionals. Methods We designed two short courses to improve the clinical performance of health professionals in exercise prescription for falls prevention. One was developed for delivery in face-to-face mode and the other for online learning. Data were collected on learning outcomes including participation, satisfaction, knowledge acquisition, and change in practice, and combined with costs, savings, and benefits, to enable a break-even analysis from the perspective of the provider, cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the health service, and cost-benefit analysis from the perspective of the participant. Results Face-to-face and Web-based delivery modalities produced comparable outcomes for participation, satisfaction, knowledge acquisition, and change in practice. Break-even analysis identified the Web-based educational approach to be robustly superior to face-to-face education, requiring a lower number of enrollments for the program to reach its break-even point. Cost-effectiveness analyses from the perspective of the health service and cost-benefit analysis from the perspective of the participant favored face-to-face education, although the outcomes were contingent on the sensitivity analysis applied (eg, the fee structure used). Conclusions The Web-based educational approach was clearly more efficient from the perspective of the education provider. In the presence of relatively equivocal results for comparisons from other stakeholder perspectives, it is likely that providers would prefer to deliver education via a Web-based medium. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN): 12610000135011; http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?id=335135 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/668POww4L) PMID:22469659

  20. Friending, IMing, and Hanging out Face-to-Face: Overlap in Adolescents' Online and Offline Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Many new and important developmental issues are encountered during adolescence, which is also a time when Internet use becomes increasingly popular. Studies have shown that adolescents are using these online spaces to address developmental issues, especially needs for intimacy and connection to others. Online communication with its potential for…

  1. Comparison of face-to-face versus email guided self-help for binge eating: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Guided self-help is a recommended first-step treatment for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and atypical variants of these disorders. Further research is needed to compare guided self-help that is delivered face-to-face versus via email. Methods/Design This clinical trial uses a randomised, controlled design to investigate the effectiveness of providing guided self-help either face-to-face or via e-mail, also using a delayed treatment control condition. At least 17 individuals are required per group, giving a minimum N of 51. Discussion Symptom outcomes will be assessed and estimates of cost-effectiveness made. Results are proposed to be disseminated locally and internationally (through submission to conferences and peer-reviewed journals), and will hopefully inform local service provision. The trial has been approved by an ethics review board and was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01832792 on 9 April 2013. PMID:24886555

  2. Exercise Motivation of College Students in Online, Face-to-Face, and Blended Basic Studies Physical Activity and Wellness Course Delivery Formats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cara Lynn Sidman; Kelly Ann Fiala; Michelle Lee D’Abundo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess exercise motivation among college students self-selected into 4 online (OL) and face-to-face (F2F) basic studies’ physical activity and wellness course delivery formats. Participants\\/Methods: Out of 1,037 enrolled students during the Spring 2009 semester, 602 responded online to demographic questions and to the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire, which assessed exercise motivation

  3. The Effect of Face-to-Face With Telephone-Based Counseling on Sexual Satisfaction Among Reproductive Aged Women in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zargar Shoushtari, Shirin; Afshari, Poorandokht; Abedi, Parvin; Tabesh, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate and compare the effect of face-to-face with telephone-based counseling on sexual satisfaction in women of reproductive age in Iran. This study was a randomized controlled trial in which 46 married women who got married 1-5 years ago were randomly selected and assigned to 1 of 2 groups (face-to-face and telephone-based counseling). Two groups received counseling by a trained midwife once a week for 4 weeks. The sexual satisfaction (using the Sexual Satisfaction Index) score was calculated in the beginning of the study and after 4 weeks. An independent t test, chi-square test, likelihood ratio test, Fisher's exact test, and linear-by-linear test were used for analyzing data. The mean score of sexual satisfaction in the face-to-face group was 93.6 (SD = 7.1) and improved significantly to 108.08 (SD = 5.44) after intervention (p =.001). The mean score of sexual satisfaction in the telephone-based counseling was 93.52 (SD = 5) and increased to 113 (SD = 6.07) after 4 weeks (p =.001). Telephone-based counseling could increase the sexual satisfaction better than face-to-face counseling (mean difference: 20.34 [SD = 7.38] vs. 14.47 [SD = 5.32], p =.003). The telephone-based counseling is an effective and affordable method to solve the sexual problems and could increase the sexual satisfaction. Using this method in public health centers is recommended. PMID:24766525

  4. Collecting Maternal Health Information From HIV-Positive Pregnant Women Using Mobile Phone-Assisted Face-to-Face Interviews in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane; Tollman, Stephen; Richter, Linda; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Most of the world’s women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Although efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission are underway, obtaining complete and accurate data from rural clinical sites to track progress presents a major challenge. Objective To describe the acceptability and feasibility of mobile phones as a tool for clinic-based face-to-face data collection with pregnant women living with HIV in South Africa. Methods As part of a larger clinic-based trial, 16 interviewers were trained to conduct mobile phone–assisted personal interviews (MPAPI). These interviewers (participant group 1) completed the same short questionnaire based on items from the Technology Acceptance Model at 3 different time points. Questions were asked before training, after training, and 3 months after deployment to clinic facilities. In addition, before the start of the primary intervention trial in which this substudy was undertaken, 12 mothers living with HIV (MLH) took part in a focus group discussion exploring the acceptability of MPAPI (participant group 2). Finally, a sample of MLH (n=512) enrolled in the primary trial were asked to assess their experience of being interviewed by MPAPI (participant group 3). Results Acceptability of the method was found to be high among the 16 interviewers in group 1. Perceived usefulness was reported to be slightly higher than perceived ease of use across the 3 time points. After 3 months of field use, interviewer perceptions of both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness were found to be higher than before training. The feasibility of conducting MPAPI interviews in this setting was found to be high. Network coverage was available in all clinics and hardware, software, cost, and secure transmission to the data center presented no significant challenges over the 21-month period. For the 12 MHL participants in group 2, anxiety about the multimedia capabilities of the phone was evident. Their concern centered on the possibility that their privacy may be invaded by interviewers using the mobile phone camera to photograph them. For participants in group 3, having the interviewer sit beside vs across from the interviewee during the MPAPI interview was received positively by 94.7% of MHL. Privacy (6.3%) and confidentiality (5.3%) concerns were low for group 3 MHL. Conclusions Mobile phones were found both to be acceptable and feasible in the collection of maternal and child health data from women living with HIV in South Africa. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00972699; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00972699 (Archived by WebCite at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00972699) PMID:23748182

  5. Towards Socially-Intelligent Wearable Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anmol Madan; Ron Caneel

    We propose a wearable system that uses machine perception to quantify a user's social context and propagate this information to others in the user's social network. The social context is evaluated for the user's instantaneous, face-to- face interactions by evaluating proximity, collective speech features, head-movements, and galvanic skin responses. This information is then propagated to others within the user's social

  6. Telephone Follow-Up by a Midlevel Provider After Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair Instead of Face-to-Face Clinic Visit

    PubMed Central

    Hwa, Kimberly; Wren, Sherry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The need for more cost- and time-efficient provision of medical care has prompted an interest in remote or telehealth approaches to delivery of health care. We present a study examining the feasibility and outcomes of implementation of a telephone follow-up program for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of consecutive patients who prospectively agreed to undergo telephone follow-up after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair instead of standard face-to-face clinic visits. Patients received a telephone call from a dedicated physician assistant 2 to 3 weeks after surgery and answered a predetermined questionnaire. A face-to-face clinic visit was scheduled based on the results of the call or on patient request. Results: Of 62 patients who underwent surgery, all agreed to telephone follow-up instead of face-to-face clinic visits. Their mean round-trip distance to the hospital was 122 miles. Fifty-five patients (88.7%) successfully completed planned telephone follow-up. Three patients (4.8%) were lost to follow-up, and 4 (6.5%) were erroneously scheduled for a clinic appointment. Of the 55 patients who were reached by telephone, 50 (90.9%) were satisfied and declined an in-person clinic visit. Five patients (9.1%) returned for a clinic appointment based on concerns raised during the telephone call. Of these, 1 was found to have an early hernia recurrence and 1 had a seroma. Conclusion: Telephone follow-up by a midlevel provider after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is feasible and effective and is well received by patients.

  7. Effect of face-to-face interview versus computer-assisted self-interview on disclosure of intimate partner violence among African American women in WIC clinics.

    PubMed

    Fincher, Danielle; VanderEnde, Kristin; Colbert, Kia; Houry, Debra; Smith, L Shakiyla; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-03-01

    African American women in the United States report intimate partner violence (IPV) more often than the general population of women. Overall, women underreport IPV because of shame, embarrassment, fear of retribution, or low expectation of legal support. African American women may be especially unlikely to report IPV because of poverty, low social support, and past experiences of discrimination. The purpose of this article is to determine the context in which low-income African American women disclose IPV. Consenting African American women receiving Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in WIC clinics were randomized to complete an IPV screening (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales-Short Form) via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) or face-to-face interview (FTFI). Women (n = 368) reported high rates of lifetime and prior-year verbal (48%, 34%), physical (12%, 7%), sexual (10%, 7%), and any (49%, 36%) IPV, as well as IPV-related injury (13%, 7%). Mode of screening, but not interviewer race, affected disclosure. Women screened via FTFI reported significantly more lifetime and prior-year negotiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 10.54, 3.97) and more prior-year verbal (aOR = 2.10), sexual (aOR = 4.31), and any (aOR = 2.02) IPV than CASI-screened women. African American women in a WIC setting disclosed IPV more often in face-to-face than computer screening, and race-matching of client and interviewer did not affect disclosure. Findings highlight the potential value of face-to-face screening to identify women at risk of IPV. Programs should weigh the costs and benefits of training staff versus using computer-based technologies to screen for IPV in WIC settings. PMID:24923890

  8. Face-to-Face Versus Telephone Administration of the Parent’s Version of the Children’s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (P-ChIPS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wynn W. Paing; Ronald A. Weller; Thomas A. Dixon; Elizabeth B. Weller

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acceptability and reliability of telephone administration of the parent’s version\\u000a of the Children’s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (P-ChIPS), a diagnostic interview examining 21 separate psychiatric\\u000a syndromes, compared with face-to-face administration. Parents of 12 participants—seven boys and five girls—completed this\\u000a preliminary study. The mean age of the children was 12.2 years (SD, 3.9 years).

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy in depressed primary care patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use: effect of telephone-administered vs. face-to-face treatment – A secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Ho, Joyce; Cai, Xuan; Vinogradov, Sophia; Batki, Steven L.; Mohr, David C.

    2013-01-01

    This secondary analysis of a larger study compared adherence to telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT) vs. face-to-face CBT and depression outcomes in depressed primary care patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use. To our knowledge, T-CBT has never been directly compared to face-to-face CBT in such a sample of primary care patients. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to face-to-face CBT or T-CBT for depression. Participants receiving T-CBT (n = 50) and face-to-face CBT (n = 53) were compared at baseline, end of treatment (week 18), and 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. Face-to-face CBT and T-CBT groups did not significantly differ in age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, severity of depression, antidepressant use and total score on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Face-to-face CBT and T-CBT groups were similar on all treatment adherence outcomes and depression outcomes at all timepoints. In conclusion, T-CBT and face-to-face CBT had similar treatment adherence and efficacy for the treatment of depression in depressed primary care patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use. When targeting patients who might have difficulties in accessing care, primary care clinicians may consider both types of CBT delivery when treating depression in patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use. PMID:25052784

  10. Dynamics of person-to-person interactions from distributed RFID sensor networks

    E-print Network

    Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain; Colizza, Vittoria; Pinton, Jean-François; Vespignani, Alessandro; 10.1371/journal.pone.0011596

    2010-01-01

    Digital networks, mobile devices, and the possibility of mining the ever-increasing amount of digital traces that we leave behind in our daily activities are changing the way we can approach the study of human and social interactions. Large-scale datasets, however, are mostly available for collective and statistical behaviors, at coarse granularities, while high-resolution data on person-to-person interactions are generally limited to relatively small groups of individuals. Here we present a scalable experimental framework for gathering real-time data resolving face-to-face social interactions with tunable spatial and temporal granularities. We use active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices that assess mutual proximity in a distributed fashion by exchanging low-power radio packets. We analyze the dynamics of person-to-person interaction networks obtained in three high-resolution experiments carried out at different orders of magnitude in community size. The data sets exhibit common statistical prope...

  11. Using an Audience Response System (ARS) in a Face-to-Face and Distance Education CPT/HCPCS Coding Course

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susie T; Zeng, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of an audience response system (ARS) in an undergraduate health information management course. The ARS converts a standard PowerPoint presentation into an interactive learning system that engages students in active participation, and it allows instructors to display questions, surveys, opinion polls, and games. We used the ARS in a 2008 course, Health Services Coding, for lecture and test reviews. The class consisted of 15 students; nine were on-campus students and six were distance education students. All of the responding students agreed that the ARS software facilitated learning and made lectures and reviews more interesting and interactive, and they preferred taking a class using an ARS. PMID:20697463

  12. Supporting More Inclusive Learning with Social Networking: A Case Study of Blended Socialised Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Russell; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative case study of socialised blended learning, using a social network platform to investigate the level of literacies and interactions of students in a blended learning environment of traditional face-to-face design studio and online participatory teaching. Using student and staff feedback, the paper examines the use…

  13. Factors Associated With Non-participation in a Face-to-Face Second Survey Conducted 5 Years After the Baseline Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Megumi; Shimanoe, Chisato; Otsuka, Yasuko; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nanri, Hinako; Horita, Mikako; Yasukata, Jun; Miyoshi, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-participation in second surveys is reported to be associated with certain baseline characteristics; however, such data are unavailable for Japanese populations. Although disease incidence during follow-up might influence participation, few reports have addressed this possibility. This study sought to identify factors associated with non-participation in a second survey of a population-based cohort, and to evaluate the influence of self-reported disease incidence on non-participation. Methods After excluding participants who left the area (n = 423), died (n = 163), and withdrew from the study (n = 9) among 12 078 participants in a baseline survey for the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in the Saga region between 2005 and 2007, 11 483 people were invited by mail to participate in a face-to-face second survey between 2010 and 2012. The 5-year clinical health history of non-participants was assessed by mail or telephone. Baseline characteristics and self-reported clinical outcomes of non-participants were compared with those of participants. Results Among 11 483 people, 8454 (73.6%) participated in the second survey, and 2608 out of 3029 non-participants answered mail or telephone health surveys. Female sex, youngest and oldest ages, lower education, lower occupational class, current smoking, lower physical activity level, shorter sleep time, obesity, and constipation were associated with non-participation. Light drinking (0.1–22.9 g ethanol/day) was associated with participation. Non-participants reported a significantly higher incidence of cancer and a significantly lower proportion of hypertension compared with participants. Conclusions Both baseline characteristics and disease incidence during the follow-up period had significant associations with non-participation in the face-to-face second survey. PMID:25400077

  14. Dynamics of Person-to-Person Interactions from Distributed RFID Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cattuto, Ciro; Van den Broeck, Wouter; Barrat, Alain; Colizza, Vittoria; Pinton, Jean-François; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Background Digital networks, mobile devices, and the possibility of mining the ever-increasing amount of digital traces that we leave behind in our daily activities are changing the way we can approach the study of human and social interactions. Large-scale datasets, however, are mostly available for collective and statistical behaviors, at coarse granularities, while high-resolution data on person-to-person interactions are generally limited to relatively small groups of individuals. Here we present a scalable experimental framework for gathering real-time data resolving face-to-face social interactions with tunable spatial and temporal granularities. Methods and Findings We use active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices that assess mutual proximity in a distributed fashion by exchanging low-power radio packets. We analyze the dynamics of person-to-person interaction networks obtained in three high-resolution experiments carried out at different orders of magnitude in community size. The data sets exhibit common statistical properties and lack of a characteristic time scale from 20 seconds to several hours. The association between the number of connections and their duration shows an interesting super-linear behavior, which indicates the possibility of defining super-connectors both in the number and intensity of connections. Conclusions Taking advantage of scalability and resolution, this experimental framework allows the monitoring of social interactions, uncovering similarities in the way individuals interact in different contexts, and identifying patterns of super-connector behavior in the community. These results could impact our understanding of all phenomena driven by face-to-face interactions, such as the spreading of transmissible infectious diseases and information. PMID:20657651

  15. The Sociometer: A Wearable Device for Understanding Human Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanzeem Choudhury; Alex Pentland

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of the sociometer, a wearable sensor package, for measuring face-to-face interactions between people. We develop methods for learning the structure and dynamics of human communication networks. Knowledge of how people interact is important in many disciplines, e.g. organizational behavior, social network analysis and knowledge management applications such as expert finding. At present researchers

  16. Models, Entropy and Information of Temporal Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Márton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    Temporal social networks are characterized by heterogeneous duration of contacts, which can either follow a power-law distribution, such as in face-to-face interactions, or a Weibull distribution, such as in mobile-phone communication. Here we model the dynamics of face-to-face interaction and mobile phone communication by a reinforcement dynamics, which explains the data observed in these different types of social interactions. We quantify the information encoded in the dynamics of these networks by the entropy of temporal networks. Finally, we show evidence that human dynamics is able to modulate the information present in social network dynamics when it follows circadian rhythms and when it is interfacing with a new technology such as the mobile-phone communication technology.

  17. Weight management by phone conference call: a comparison with a traditional face-to-face clinic. Rationale and design for a randomized equivalence trial.

    PubMed

    Lambourne, Kate; Washburn, Richard A; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K; Goetz, Jeannine; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K; Mayo, Matthew S; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2012-09-01

    State-of-the-art treatment for weight management consists of a behavioral intervention to facilitate decreased energy intake and increased physical activity. These interventions are typically delivered face-to-face (FTF) by a health educator to a small group of participants. There are numerous barriers to participation in FTF clinics including availability, scheduling, the expense and time required to travel to the clinic site, and possible need for dependent care. Weight management clinics delivered by conference call have the potential to diminish or eliminate these barriers. The conference call approach may also reduce burden on providers, who could conduct clinic groups from almost any location without the expenses associated with maintaining FTF clinic space. A randomized trial will be conducted in 395 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25-39.9 kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6 months) and weight maintenance (12 months) are equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies and pre-packaged meals delivered by either a conference call or the traditional FTF approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity and will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and extensive process evaluation will be completed. PMID:22664647

  18. Face-to-Face Versus Computer-Delivered Alcohol Interventions for College Drinkers: A Meta-Analytic Review, 1998 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Elliott, Jennifer C.; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol misuse occurs commonly on college campuses, necessitating prevention programs to help college drinkers reduce consumption and minimize harmful consequences. Computer-delivered interventions (CDIs) have been widely used due to their low cost and ease of dissemination but whether CDIs are efficacious and whether they produce benefits equivalent to face-to-face interventions (FTFIs) remain unclear. Therefore, we identified controlled trials of both CDIs and FTFIs and used meta-analysis (a) to determine the relative efficacy of these two approaches and (b) to test predictors of intervention efficacy. We included studies examining FTFIs (N = 5,237; 56% female; 87% White) and CDIs (N = 32,243; 51% female; 81% White). Independent raters coded participant characteristics, design and methodological features, intervention content, and calculated weighted mean effect sizes using fixed and random-effects models. Analyses indicated that, compared to controls, FTFI participants drank less, drank less frequently, and reported fewer problems at short-term follow-up (d+s = 0.15 – 0.19); they continued to consume lower quantities at intermediate (d+ = 0.23) and long-term (d+ = 0.14) follow-ups. Compared to controls, CDI participants reported lower quantities, frequency, and peak intoxication at short-term follow-up (d+s = 0.13 – 0.29), but these effects were not maintained. Direct comparisons between FTFI and CDIs were infrequent, but these trials favored the FTFIs on both quantity and problems measures (d+s = 0.12–0.20). Moderator analyses identified participant and intervention characteristics that influence intervention efficacy. Overall, we conclude that FTFIs provide the most effective and enduring effects. PMID:23022767

  19. ACASI and Face-to-Face Interviews Yield Inconsistent Estimates of Domestic Violence Among Women in India: The Samata Health Study 2005-2009

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Sujit D.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Subbiah, Kalyani; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2011-01-01

    Background Audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) are increasingly used in health research to improve the accuracy of data on sensitive behaviors. However, evidence is limited on its use among low-income populations in countries like India and for measurement of sensitive issues such as domestic violence. Method We compared reports of domestic violence and three less sensitive behaviors related to household decision making and spousal communication in ACASI and face-to-face interviews (FTFI) among 464 young married women enrolled in a longitudinal study of gender-based power and adverse health outcomes in low-income communities in Bangalore, India. We used a test-retest design. At the 12-month study visit, we elicited responses from each participant through FTFI first, followed by ACASI. At the 24-month visit, we reversed the order, implementing ACASI first, followed by FTFI. Univariable log-linear regression models and kappa statistics were used to examine ACASI’s effects on self-reports. Results Regression results showed significantly lower reporting in ACASI relative to FTFI at both visits, including for domestic violence (12-month risk ratio [RR] = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.52, 0.73; 24-month RR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89). Response agreement between interview modes, calculated by kappa scores, was universally low, though highest for domestic violence (12-month ? = 0.45; 24-month ? = 0.48). Older age and greater educational attainment appeared associated with higher response agreement. Conclusions Greater reporting in FTFI may be due to social desirability bias for the less sensitive questions and perceptions of therapeutic benefit for domestic violence. These results cast doubt on the appropriateness of using ACASI for measurement of sensitive behaviors in India. PMID:21282116

  20. Assessing Problem Solving Strategy Differences within Online and Face-to-Face Courses and Their Relationship to Pre-Service Teachers' Competence and Confidence for Integrating Technology into Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative research study identifies the problem solving strategies pre-service teachers use in learning specific technology skills within an educational technology methods class which is offered both online and face to face. It also examines how such strategies differ by the format of this course, and to what extent these strategies and/or…

  1. Human resource development of Hispanic students in a large Hispanic-majority community college in south Texas: student entry characteristics as predictors of successful course completion and retention in face-to-face and distance education

    E-print Network

    Cole, Brenda S.

    2009-06-02

    Courses via Face-to-Face .............................................................. 96 Prediction Model for Failure to Successfully Complete Courses via Internet....................................................................... 111 Prediction... Completion ............................................................................................ 110 xi LIST OF TABLES (continued) TABLE Page 22 Cross-Tabulation Table of Successful Completion of English, History, and Math Courses Taught via Internet...

  2. Yukiko Nakano, Gabe Reinstein, Tom Stocky, Justine Cassell. (2003) "Towards a Model of Face-to-Face Grounding." Proceedings of Association for Computational Linguistics. July 7-12, Sapporo, Japan.

    E-print Network

    Cassell, Justine

    Yukiko Nakano, Gabe Reinstein, Tom Stocky, Justine Cassell. (2003) "Towards a Model of Face a Model of Face-to-Face Grounding Yukiko I. Nakano/ Gabe Reinstein Tom Stocky Justine Cassell MIT Media Laboratory E15-315 20 Ames Street Cambridge, MA 02139 USA {yukiko, gabe, tstocky, justine

  3. Superstructure-dependent optical and electrical properties of an unusual face-to-face, pi-stacked, one-dimensional assembly of dehydrobenzo[12]annulene in the crystalline state.

    PubMed

    Hisaki, Ichiro; Sakamoto, Yuu; Shigemitsu, Hajime; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Miyata, Mikiji; Seki, Shu; Saeki, Akinori; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2008-01-01

    To develop a novel pi-conjugated molecule-based supramolecular assembly, we designed and synthesized trisdehydrotribenzo[12]annulene ([12]DBA) derivative 2 with three carboxyl groups at the periphery. Recrystallization of 2 from DMSO gave a crystal of the solvate 23 DMSO. Crystallographic analysis revealed, to our surprise, that a face-to-face pi-stacked one-dimensional (1D) assembly of 2 was achieved and that the DMSO molecule played a significant role as a "structure-dominant element" in the crystal. This is the first example of [12]DBA to stack completely orthogonal to the columnar axis. To reveal its superstructure-dependent optical and electrical properties, 2 and its parent molecule 1, which crystallizes in a herringbone fashion, were subjected to fluorescence spectroscopic analysis and charge-carrier mobility measurements in crystalline states. The 1D stacked structure of 2 provides a red-shifted, broadened, weakened fluorescence profile (lambda(max) = 545 nm, phi(F) = 0.01), compared to 1 (lambda(max) = 491 nm, phi(F) = 0.12), due to strong interactions between the p orbitals of the stacked molecules. The charge-carrier mobility of the single crystal of 23 DMSO, as well as 1, was determined by flash photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (FP-TRMC) measurements. The single crystal of 23 DMSO revealed significantly-anisotropic charge mobility (sigma(mu) = 1.5x10(-1) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) along the columnar axis (crystallographic c axis). This value is 12 times larger than that along the orthogonal axis (the a axis). PMID:18399533

  4. Sampling and coverage issues of telephone surveys used for collecting health information in Australia: results from a face-to-face survey from 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To examine the trend of "mobile only" households, and households that have a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the telephone directory, and to describe these groups by various socio-demographic and health indicators. Method Representative face-to-face population health surveys of South Australians, aged 15 years and over, were conducted in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008 (n = 14285, response rates = 51.9% to 70.6%). Self-reported information on mobile phone ownership and usage (1999 to 2008) and listings in White Pages telephone directory (2006 to 2008), and landline telephone connection and listings in the White Pages (1999 to 2008), was provided by participants. Additional information was collected on self-reported health conditions and health-related risk behaviours. Results Mobile only households have been steadily increasing from 1.4% in 1999 to 8.7% in 2008. In terms of sampling frame for telephone surveys, 68.7% of South Australian households in 2008 had at least a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the White Pages (73.8% in 2006; 71.5% in 2007). The proportion of mobile only households was highest among young people, unemployed, people who were separated, divorced or never married, low income households, low SES areas, rural areas, current smokers, current asthma or people in the normal weight range. The proportion with landlines or mobiles telephone numbers listed in the White Pages telephone directory was highest among older people, married or in a defacto relationship or widowed, low SES areas, rural areas, people classified as overweight, or those diagnosed with arthritis or osteoporosis. Conclusion The rate of mobile only households has been increasing in Australia and is following worldwide trends, but has not reached the high levels seen internationally (12% to 52%). In general, the impact of mobile telephones on current sampling frames (exclusion or non-listing of mobile only households or not listed in the White Pages directory) may have a low impact on health estimates obtained using telephone surveys. However, researchers need to be aware that mobile only households are distinctly different to households with a landline connection, and the increase in the number of mobile-only households is not uniform across all groups in the community. Listing in the White Pages directory continues to decrease and only a small proportion of mobile only households are listed. Researchers need to be aware of these telephone sampling issues when considering telephone surveys. PMID:20738884

  5. Stakeholders’ perspectives on access-to-medicines policy and research priorities in Latin America and the Caribbean: face-to-face and web-based interviews

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to rank policy concerns and policy-related research issues in order to identify policy and research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in low- and middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as perceived by policy makers, researchers, NGO and international organization representatives, as part of a global prioritization exercise. Methods Data collection, conducted between January and May 2011, involved face-to-face interviews in El Salvador, Colombia, Dominican Republic, and Suriname, and an e-mail survey with key-stakeholders. Respondents were asked to choose the five most relevant criteria for research prioritization and to score policy/research items according to the degree to which they represented current policies, desired policies, current research topics, and/or desired research topics. Mean scores and summary rankings were obtained. Linear regressions were performed to contrast rankings concerning current and desired policies (policy gaps), and current and desired research (research gaps). Results Relevance, feasibility, and research utilization were the top ranked criteria for prioritizing research. Technical capacity, research and development for new drugs, and responsiveness, were the main policy gaps. Quality assurance, staff technical capacity, price regulation, out-of-pocket payments, and cost containment policies, were the main research gaps. There was high level of coherence between current and desired policies: coefficients of determination (R2) varied from 0.46 (Health system structure; r = 0.68, P <0.01) to 0.86 (Sustainable financing; r = 0.93, P <0.01). There was also high coherence between current and desired research on Rational selection and use of medicines (r = 0.71, P <0.05, R2 = 0.51), Pricing/affordability (r = 0.82, P <0.01, R2 = 0.67), and Sustainable financing (r = 0.76, P <0.01, R2 = 0.58). Coherence was less for Health system structure (r = 0.61, P <0.01, R2 = 0.38). Conclusions This study combines metrics approaches, contributing to priority setting methodology development, with country and regional level stakeholder participation. Stakeholders received feedback with the results, and we hope to have contributed to the discussion and implementation of ATM research and policy priorities in LAC. PMID:24965383

  6. The Clinical Effectiveness of Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With Face-to-Face Therapist Support for Depressed Primary Care Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lillevoll, Kjersti R; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Wilsgaard, Tom; Eisemann, Martin; Waterloo, Knut; Kolstrup, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Background Most patients with mild to moderate depression receive treatment in primary care, but despite guideline recommendations, structured psychological interventions are infrequently delivered. Research supports the effectiveness of Internet-based treatment for depression; however, few trials have studied the effect of the MoodGYM program plus therapist support. The use of such interventions could improve the delivery of treatment in primary care. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a guided Web-based intervention for mild to moderate depression, which could be suitable for implementation in general practice. Methods Participants (N=106) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited from primary care and randomly allocated to a treatment condition comprising 6 weeks of therapist-assisted Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or to a 6-week delayed treatment condition. The intervention included the Norwegian version of the MoodGYM program, brief face-to-face support from a psychologist, and reminder emails. The primary outcome measure, depression symptoms, was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Secondary outcome measures included the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and the EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire (EQ-5D). All outcomes were based on self-report and were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Results Postintervention measures were completed by 37 (71%) and 47 (87%) of the 52 participants in the intervention and 54 participants in the delayed treatment group, respectively. Linear mixed-models analyses revealed a significant difference in time trends between the groups for the BDI-II, (P=.002), for HADS depression and anxiety subscales (P<.001 and P=.001, respectively), and for the SWLS (P<.001). No differential group effects were found for the BAI and the EQ-5D. In comparison to the control group, significantly more participants in the intervention group experienced recovery from depression as measured by the BDI-II. Of the 52 participants in the treatment program, 31 (60%) adhered to the program, and overall treatment satisfaction was high. The reduction of depression and anxiety symptoms was largely maintained at 6-month follow-up, and positive gains in life satisfaction were partly maintained. Conclusions The intervention combining MoodGYM and brief therapist support can be an effective treatment of depression in a sample of primary care patients. The intervention alleviates depressive symptoms and has a significant positive effect on anxiety symptoms and satisfaction with life. Moderate rates of nonadherence and predominately positive evaluations of the treatment also indicate the acceptability of the intervention. The intervention could potentially be used in a stepped-care approach, but remains to be tested in regular primary health care. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000257066; http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/trial.aspx?trialid=ACTRN12610000257066 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Ie3YhIZa). PMID:23916965

  7. A Conversation-Analytic Investigation of Disorganized Speech in Face-to-Face Interactions with Individuals Diagnosed with Schizophrenia: Why Methodology Matters

    E-print Network

    Isaac, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    defining feature of schizophrenia was what Bleuler saw as aschizophrenia as assessed through the research methodologies employed? WhatWhat implications does this research have for the ability to generalize experimental findings of communicative behavior in schizophrenia

  8. Cobalt(IV) corroles as catalysts for the electroreduction of O 2: Reactions of heterobimetallic dyads containing a face-to-face linked Fe(III) or Mn(III) porphyrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl M. Kadish; Laurent Frémond; Fabien Burdet; Jean-Michel Barbe; Claude P. Gros; Roger Guilard

    2006-01-01

    A series of heterobinuclear cofacial porphyrin–corrole dyads containing a Co(IV) corrole linked by one of four different spacers in a face-to-face arrangement with an Fe(III) or Mn(III) porphyrin have been examined as catalysts for the electroreduction of O2 to H2O and\\/or H2O2 when adsorbed on the surface of a graphite electrode in air-saturated aqueous solutions containing 1M HClO4. The examined

  9. Entropy of dynamical social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Marton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-02-01

    Dynamical social networks are evolving rapidly and are highly adaptive. Characterizing the information encoded in social networks is essential to gain insight into the structure, evolution, adaptability and dynamics. Recently entropy measures have been used to quantify the information in email correspondence, static networks and mobility patterns. Nevertheless, we still lack methods to quantify the information encoded in time-varying dynamical social networks. In this talk we present a model to quantify the entropy of dynamical social networks and use this model to analyze the data of phone-call communication. We show evidence that the entropy of the phone-call interaction network changes according to circadian rhythms. Moreover we show that social networks are extremely adaptive and are modified by the use of technologies such as mobile phone communication. Indeed the statistics of duration of phone-call is described by a Weibull distribution and is significantly different from the distribution of duration of face-to-face interactions in a conference. Finally we investigate how much the entropy of dynamical social networks changes in realistic models of phone-call or face-to face interactions characterizing in this way different type human social behavior.

  10. Exploring the Potential of Rehearsal via Automatized Structured Tasks versus Face-to-Face Pair Work to Facilitate Pragmatic and Oral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana V.

    2011-01-01

    Past research has uncovered ways to improve communicative competence, including task-based learner-learner interaction (e.g., R. Ellis, 2003) and task planning (e.g., Mochizuki and Ortega, 2008). Teacher-guided planning particularly increases the benefits of learner-learner interaction (Foster and Skehan, 1999). One component of communicative…

  11. Gaze Aversion during Social Style Interactions in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa; Riby, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    During face-to-face interactions typically developing individuals use gaze aversion (GA), away from their questioner, when thinking. GA is also used when individuals with autism (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) are thinking during question-answer interactions. We investigated GA strategies during face-to-face social style interactions with…

  12. Differences in Learning Styles and Satisfaction between Traditional Face-to-Face and Online Web-Based Sport Management Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Ellen Jo

    2010-01-01

    Each student has a unique learning style or individual way of perceiving, interacting, and responding to a learning environment. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the prevalence of learning styles among undergraduate Sport Management Studies (SMS) students at California University of Pennsylvania (Cal U). Learning style…

  13. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  14. Educational Use of Social Networking Technology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how social networking technology can be used to supplement face-to-face courses as a means of enhancing students' sense of community and, thus, to promote classroom communities of practice in the context of higher education. Data were collected from 67 students who enrolled in four face-to-face courses at two public…

  15. Romantic relationship stages and social networking sites: uncertainty reduction strategies and perceived relational norms on facebook.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Anderegg, Courtney

    2014-11-01

    Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages. PMID:25314128

  16. I Reach Faster When I See You Look: Gaze Effects in Human-Human and Human-Robot Face-to-Face Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jean-David; Pattacini, Ugo; Lelong, Amelie; Bailly, Gerrard; Elisei, Frederic; Fagel, Sascha; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Human-human interaction in natural environments relies on a variety of perceptual cues. Humanoid robots are becoming increasingly refined in their sensorimotor capabilities, and thus should now be able to manipulate and exploit these social cues in cooperation with their human partners. Previous studies have demonstrated that people follow human and robot gaze, and that it can help them to cope with spatially ambiguous language. Our goal is to extend these findings into the domain of action, to determine how human and robot gaze can influence the speed and accuracy of human action. We report on results from a human-human cooperation experiment demonstrating that an agent's vision of her/his partner's gaze can significantly improve that agent's performance in a cooperative task. We then implement a heuristic capability to generate such gaze cues by a humanoid robot that engages in the same cooperative interaction. The subsequent human-robot experiments demonstrate that a human agent can indeed exploit the predictive gaze of their robot partner in a cooperative task. This allows us to render the humanoid robot more human-like in its ability to communicate with humans. The long term objectives of the work are thus to identify social cooperation cues, and to validate their pertinence through implementation in a cooperative robot. The current research provides the robot with the capability to produce appropriate speech and gaze cues in the context of human-robot cooperation tasks. Gaze is manipulated in three conditions: Full gaze (coordinated eye and head), eyes hidden with sunglasses, and head fixed. We demonstrate the pertinence of these cues in terms of statistical measures of action times for humans in the context of a cooperative task, as gaze significantly facilitates cooperation as measured by human response times. PMID:22563315

  17. I Reach Faster When I See You Look: Gaze Effects in Human–Human and Human–Robot Face-to-Face Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Jean-David; Pattacini, Ugo; Lelong, Amelie; Bailly, Gerard; Elisei, Frederic; Fagel, Sascha; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Human–human interaction in natural environments relies on a variety of perceptual cues. Humanoid robots are becoming increasingly refined in their sensorimotor capabilities, and thus should now be able to manipulate and exploit these social cues in cooperation with their human partners. Previous studies have demonstrated that people follow human and robot gaze, and that it can help them to cope with spatially ambiguous language. Our goal is to extend these findings into the domain of action, to determine how human and robot gaze can influence the speed and accuracy of human action. We report on results from a human–human cooperation experiment demonstrating that an agent’s vision of her/his partner’s gaze can significantly improve that agent’s performance in a cooperative task. We then implement a heuristic capability to generate such gaze cues by a humanoid robot that engages in the same cooperative interaction. The subsequent human–robot experiments demonstrate that a human agent can indeed exploit the predictive gaze of their robot partner in a cooperative task. This allows us to render the humanoid robot more human-like in its ability to communicate with humans. The long term objectives of the work are thus to identify social cooperation cues, and to validate their pertinence through implementation in a cooperative robot. The current research provides the robot with the capability to produce appropriate speech and gaze cues in the context of human–robot cooperation tasks. Gaze is manipulated in three conditions: Full gaze (coordinated eye and head), eyes hidden with sunglasses, and head fixed. We demonstrate the pertinence of these cues in terms of statistical measures of action times for humans in the context of a cooperative task, as gaze significantly facilitates cooperation as measured by human response times. PMID:22563315

  18. Learners Need Face-to-Face Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedgmore, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    In January the 157 Group launched a policy paper making the case for professional careers guidance. With the launch of the National Careers Service in April, information, advice and guidance is a hot topic within the education and skills sector and one that is regularly debated. The combination of policy changes, including the introduction of…

  19. Face-to-Face With a Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows comet Tempel 1 sixty seconds before it ran over NASA's Deep Impact probe at 10:52 p.m. Pacific time, July 3 (1:52 a.m. Eastern time, July 4). The picture was taken by the probe's impactor targeting sensor.

  20. Face to Face with Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhanarajan, Gajaraj

    1997-01-01

    Begins with a tribute to Professor G. Ram Reddy (founder of Indira Gandhi National Open University), then focuses on the challenges for India of education in the coming decades. Highlights include global problems that future generations will inherit; educational investment needs; a new group of educational clients; skills needed in the 21st…

  1. Explaining Student Interaction and Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation of Delivery Mode Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Zachary S.; Cascio, Robert; Massiah, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    How interpersonal interactions within a course affect student satisfaction differently between face-to-face and online modes is an important research question to answer with confidence. Using students from a marketing course delivered face-to-face and online concurrently, our first study demonstrates that student-to-professor and…

  2. Interaction Patterns of Nurturant Support Exchanged in Online Health Social Networking

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Background Expressing emotion in online support communities is an important aspect of enabling e-patients to connect with each other and expand their social resources. Indirectly it increases the amount of support for coping with health issues. Exploring the supportive interaction patterns in online health social networking would help us better understand how technology features impacts user behavior in this context. Objective To build on previous research that identified different types of social support in online support communities by delving into patterns of supportive behavior across multiple computer-mediated communication formats. Each format combines different architectural elements, affecting the resulting social spaces. Our research question compared communication across different formats of text-based computer-mediated communication provided on the MedHelp.org health social networking environment. Methods We identified messages with nurturant support (emotional, esteem, and network) across three different computer-mediated communication formats (forums, journals, and notes) of an online support community for alcoholism using content analysis. Our sample consisted of 493 forum messages, 423 journal messages, and 1180 notes. Results Nurturant support types occurred frequently among messages offering support (forum comments: 276/412 messages, 67.0%; journal posts: 65/88 messages, 74%; journal comments: 275/335 messages, 82.1%; and notes: 1002/1180 messages, 84.92%), but less often among messages requesting support. Of all the nurturing supports, emotional (ie, encouragement) appeared most frequently, with network and esteem support appearing in patterns of varying combinations. Members of the Alcoholism Community appeared to adapt some traditional face-to-face forms of support to their needs in becoming sober, such as provision of encouragement, understanding, and empathy to one another. Conclusions The computer-mediated communication format may have the greatest influence on the supportive interactions because of characteristics such as audience reach and access. Other factors include perception of community versus personal space or purpose of communication. These results lead to a need for further research. PMID:22555303

  3. Network Physiology: Mapping Interactions Between Networks of Physiologic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bartsch, Ronny P.

    The human organism is an integrated network of interconnected and interacting organ systems, each representing a separate regulatory network. The behavior of one physiological system (network) may affect the dynamics of all other systems in the network of physiologic networks. Due to these interactions, failure of one system can trigger a cascade of failures throughout the entire network. We introduce a systematic method to identify a network of interactions between diverse physiologic organ systems, to quantify the hierarchical structure and dynamics of this network, and to track its evolution under different physiologic states. We find a robust relation between network structure and physiologic states: every state is characterized by specific network topology, node connectivity and links strength. Further, we find that transitions from one physiologic state to another trigger a markedly fast reorganization in the network of physiologic interactions on time scales of just a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. This reorganization in network topology occurs simultaneously and globally in the entire network as well as at the level of individual physiological systems, while preserving a hierarchical order in the strength of network links. Our findings highlight the need of an integrated network approach to understand physiologic function, since the framework we develop provides new information which can not be obtained by studying individual systems. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  4. Information flow in interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Stojmirovi?, Aleksandar; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2007-10-01

    Interaction networks, consisting of agents linked by their interactions, are ubiquitous across many disciplines of modern science. Many methods of analysis of interaction networks have been proposed, mainly concentrating on node degree distribution or aiming to discover clusters of agents that are very strongly connected between themselves. These methods are principally based on graph-theory or machine learning. We present a mathematically simple formalism for modelling context-specific information propagation in interaction networks based on random walks. The context is provided by selection of sources and destinations of information and by use of potential functions that direct the flow towards the destinations. We also use the concept of dissipation to model the aging of information as it diffuses from its source. Using examples from yeast protein-protein interaction networks and some of the histone acetyltransferases involved in control of transcription, we demonstrate the utility of the concepts and the mathematical constructs introduced in this paper. PMID:17985991

  5. Modelling mechanisms of social network maintenance in hunter-gatherers

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Eiluned

    2014-01-01

    Due to decreasing resource densities, higher latitude hunter-gatherers need to maintain their social networks over greater geographic distances than their equatorial counterparts. This suggests that as latitude increases, the frequency of face-to-face interaction decreases for ‘weak tie’ relationships in the outer mating pool (~500-strong) and tribal (~1500-strong) layers of a hunter-gatherer social network. A key question, then, is how a hunter-gatherer tribe sustains coherence as a single identifiable unit given that members are distributed across a large geographic area. The first step in answering this question is to establish whether the expectation that network maintenance raises a challenge for hunter-gatherers is correct, or whether sustaining inter-group contact is in fact trivial. Here I present a null model that represents mobile groups as randomly and independently moving gas particles. The aim of this model is to examine whether face-to-face contact can be maintained with every member of an individual’s tribe at all latitudes even under the baseline assumption of random movement. Contrary to baseline expectations, the number of encounters between groups predicted by the gas model cannot support tribal cohesion and is significantly negatively associated with absolute latitude. In addition, above ~40 degrees latitude random mobility no longer produces a sufficient number of encounters between groups to maintain contact across the 500-strong mating pool. These model predictions suggest that the outermost layers of hunter-gatherers’ social networks may require additional mechanisms of support in the form of strategies that either enhance encounter rates, such as coordinated mobility patterns, or lessen the need for face-to-face interaction, such as the use of symbolic artefacts to represent social affiliations. Given the predicted decline in encounters away from the equator, such additional supports might be most strongly expressed at high latitudes. PMID:25214706

  6. Interacting epidemics on overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sebastian; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between multiple pathogens spreading on networks connecting a given set of nodes presents an ongoing theoretical challenge. Here, we aim to understand such interactions by studying bond percolation of two different processes on overlay networks of arbitrary joint degree distribution. We find that an outbreak of a first pathogen providing immunity to another one spreading subsequently on a second network connecting the same set of nodes does so most effectively if the degrees on the two networks are positively correlated. In that case, the protection is stronger the more heterogeneous the degree distributions of the two networks are. If, on the other hand, the degrees are uncorrelated or negatively correlated, increasing heterogeneity reduces the potential of the first process to prevent the second one from reaching epidemic proportions. We generalize these results to cases where the edges of the two networks overlap to arbitrary amount, or where the immunity granted is only partial. If both processes grant immunity to each other, we find a wide range of possible situations of coexistence or mutual exclusion, depending on the joint degree distribution of the underlying networks and the amount of immunity granted mutually. These results generalize the concept of a coexistence threshold and illustrate the impact of large-scale network structure on the interaction between multiple spreading agents.

  7. SocialCircuits : a platform for measuring social interaction using smartphones

    E-print Network

    Chronis, lolanthe (lolanthe K.)

    2010-01-01

    SocialCircuits is a platform capable of measuring the face-to-face and phone-based communication network of a real-world community. This platform uses commodity mobile phones to measure social ties between individuals, and ...

  8. Dynamic and interacting complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickison, Mark E.

    This thesis employs methods of statistical mechanics and numerical simulations to study some aspects of dynamic and interacting complex networks. The mapping of various social and physical phenomena to complex networks has been a rich field in the past few decades. Subjects as broad as petroleum engineering, scientific collaborations, and the structure of the internet have all been analyzed in a network physics context, with useful and universal results. In the first chapter we introduce basic concepts in networks, including the two types of network configurations that are studied and the statistical physics and epidemiological models that form the framework of the network research, as well as covering various previously-derived results in network theory that are used in the work in the following chapters. In the second chapter we introduce a model for dynamic networks, where the links or the strengths of the links change over time. We solve the model by mapping dynamic networks to the problem of directed percolation, where the direction corresponds to the time evolution of the network. We show that the dynamic network undergoes a percolation phase transition at a critical concentration pc, that decreases with the rate r at which the network links are changed. The behavior near criticality is universal and independent of r. We find that for dynamic random networks fundamental laws are changed: i) The size of the giant component at criticality scales with the network size N for all values of r, rather than as N2/3 in static network, ii) In the presence of a broad distribution of disorder, the optimal path length between two nodes in a dynamic network scales as N1/2, compared to N1/3 in a static network. The third chapter consists of a study of the effect of quarantine on the propagation of epidemics on an adaptive network of social contacts. For this purpose, we analyze the susceptible-infected-recovered model in the presence of quarantine, where susceptible individuals protect themselves by disconnecting their links to infected neighbors with probability w and reconnecting them to other susceptible individuals chosen at random. Starting from a single infected individual, we show by an analytical approach and simulations that there is a phase transition at a critical rewiring (quarantine) threshold wc separating a phase (w < wc) where the disease reaches a large fraction of the population from a phase (w > wc) where the disease does not spread out. We find that in our model the topology of the network strongly affects the size of the propagation and that wc increases with the mean degree and heterogeneity of the network. We also find that wc is reduced if we perform a preferential rewiring, in which the rewiring probability is proportional to the degree of infected nodes. In the fourth chapter, we study epidemic processes on interconnected network systems, and find two distinct regimes. In strongly-coupled network systems, epidemics occur simultaneously across the entire system at a critical value betac. In contrast, in weakly-coupled network systems, a mixed phase exists below betac where an epidemic occurs in one network but does not spread to the coupled network. We derive an expression for the network and disease parameters that allow this mixed phase and verify it numerically. Public health implications of communities comprising these two classes of network systems are also mentioned.

  9. Father-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogman, Michael W.; And Others

    This study compares the face-to-face interaction of infants with fathers to their interaction with mothers and with strangers. Five infants were videotaped in individual interaction with their mothers, fathers, and unfamiliar adults at weekly intervals from the second week until the infants were 6 months old. Infants were seated in a laboratory…

  10. Protein Interaction Networks and Their Statistical Analysis

    E-print Network

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    in high throughput interaction detection techniques have led to the elucidation of substantial parts be conveniently represented in the form of networks, where the nodes represent proteins and edges represent are these networks linked with other networks, such as gene interaction networks? 5. What are the building principles

  11. Interactive Network Performance: a dream worth dreaming?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AJAY KAPUR; GE WANG; PHILIP DAVIDSON; PERRY R. COOK

    2005-01-01

    This paper questions and examines the validity and future of interactive network performance. The history of research in the area is described as well as experiments with our own system. Our custom-built networked framework, known as GIGAPOPR, transfers high-quality audio, video and MIDI data over a network connection to enable live musical performances to occur in two or more distinct

  12. Explorers of the Universe: Interactive Electronic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.; Burks, Geoffrey; Busby, Michael R.; Cannon, Tiffani; Sotoohi, Goli; Wade, Montanez

    2000-01-01

    This paper details how the Interactive Electronic Network is being utilized by secondary and postsecondary students, and their teachers and professors, to facilitate learning and understanding. The Interactive Electronic Network is couched within the Explorers of the Universe web site in a restricted portion entitled Gateway.

  13. Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Cuttone, Andrea; Madsen, Mette My; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years—the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection. PMID:24770359

  14. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution.

    PubMed

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Cuttone, Andrea; Madsen, Mette My; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection. PMID:24770359

  15. Revealing latent factors of temporal networks for mesoscale intervention in epidemic spread

    E-print Network

    Gauvin, Laetitia; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    The customary perspective to reason about epidemic mitigation in temporal networks hinges on the identification of nodes with specific features or network roles. The ensuing individual-based control strategies, however, are difficult to carry out in practice and ignore important correlations between topological and temporal patterns. Here we adopt a mesoscopic perspective and present a principled framework to identify collective features at multiple scales and rank their importance for epidemic spread. We use tensor decomposition techniques to build an additive representation of a temporal network in terms of mesostructures, such as cohesive clusters and temporally-localized mixing patterns. This representation allows to determine the impact of individual mesostructures on epidemic spread and to assess the effect of targeted interventions that remove chosen structures. We illustrate this approach using high-resolution social network data on face-to-face interactions in a school and show that our method afford...

  16. Inferring network interactions using recurrent neural networks and swarm intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ressom, Habtom W; Zhang, Yuji; Xuan, Jianhua; Wang, Yue; Clarke, Robert

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm combining artificial neural networks and swarm intelligence (SI) methods to infer network interactions. The algorithm uses ant colony optimization (ACO) to identify the optimal architecture of a recurrent neural network (RNN), while the weights of the RNN are optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO). Our goal is to construct an RNN that mimics the true structure of an unknown network and the time-series data that the network generated. We applied the proposed hybrid SI-RNN algorithm to infer a simulated genetic network. The results indicate that the algorithm has a promising potential to infer complex interactions such as gene regulatory networks from time-series gene expression data. PMID:17946231

  17. POLYSACCHARIDES: MOLECULES, CLUSTERS, NETWORKS AND INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the structural organization of polysaccharides with respect to molecules, clusters (aggregates), networks and interactions. As for proteins, different levels of structural organization exist for polysaccharides. The primary structure describes the covalent sequence of monosaccha...

  18. Interactivity vs. fairness in networked linux systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenji; Crawford, Matt; /Fermilab; ,

    2007-01-01

    In general, the Linux 2.6 scheduler can ensure fairness and provide excellent interactive performance at the same time. However, our experiments and mathematical analysis have shown that the current Linux interactivity mechanism tends to incorrectly categorize non-interactive network applications as interactive, which can lead to serious fairness or starvation issues. In the extreme, a single process can unjustifiably obtain up to 95% of the CPU! The root cause is due to the facts that: (1) network packets arrive at the receiver independently and discretely, and the 'relatively fast' non-interactive network process might frequently sleep to wait for packet arrival. Though each sleep lasts for a very short period of time, the wait-for-packet sleeps occur so frequently that they lead to interactive status for the process. (2) The current Linux interactivity mechanism provides the possibility that a non-interactive network process could receive a high CPU share, and at the same time be incorrectly categorized as 'interactive.' In this paper, we propose and test a possible solution to address the interactivity vs. fairness problems. Experiment results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  19. The Networked Teacher: How New Teachers Build Social Networks for Professional Support. Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2011-01-01

    New teachers need support from their peers and mentors to locate resources, information, new ideas, emotional support, and inspiration. This timely book explains the research and theory behind social networks (face-to-face and online), describes what effective social networking for educators looks like, reveals common obstacles that new teachers…

  20. Interactive knowledge networks for interdisciplinary course navigation within Moodle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter M Thule (Emory University/Atlanta VA Medical Center)

    2012-12-01

    Web-based hypermedia learning environments are widely used in modern education and seem particularly well suited for interdisciplinary learning. Previous work has identified guidance through these complex environments as a crucial problem of their acceptance and efficiency. We reasoned that map-based navigation might provide straightforward and effortless orientation. To achieve this, we developed a clickable and user-oriented concept map-based navigation plugin. This tool is implemented as an extension of Moodle, a widely used learning management system. It visualizes inner and interdisciplinary relations between learning objects and is generated dynamically depending on user set parameters and interactions. This plugin leaves the choice of navigation type to the user and supports direct guidance. Previously developed and evaluated face-to-face interdisciplinary learning materials bridging physiology and physics courses of a medical curriculum were integrated as learning objects, the relations of which were defined by metadata. Learning objects included text pages, self-assessments, videos, animations, and simulations. In a field study, we analyzed the effects of this learning environment on physiology and physics knowledge as well as the transfer ability of third-term medical students. Data were generated from pre- and posttest questionnaires and from tracking student navigation. Use of the hypermedia environment resulted in a significant increase of knowledge and transfer capability. Furthermore, the efficiency of learning was enhanced. We conclude that hypermedia environments based on Moodle and enriched by concept map-based navigation tools can significantly support interdisciplinary learning. Implementation of adaptivity may further strengthen this approach.

  1. Interactive knowledge networks for interdisciplinary course navigation within Moodle.

    PubMed

    Scherl, Andre; Dethleffsen, Kathrin; Meyer, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Web-based hypermedia learning environments are widely used in modern education and seem particularly well suited for interdisciplinary learning. Previous work has identified guidance through these complex environments as a crucial problem of their acceptance and efficiency. We reasoned that map-based navigation might provide straightforward and effortless orientation. To achieve this, we developed a clickable and user-oriented concept map-based navigation plugin. This tool is implemented as an extension of Moodle, a widely used learning management system. It visualizes inner and interdisciplinary relations between learning objects and is generated dynamically depending on user set parameters and interactions. This plugin leaves the choice of navigation type to the user and supports direct guidance. Previously developed and evaluated face-to-face interdisciplinary learning materials bridging physiology and physics courses of a medical curriculum were integrated as learning objects, the relations of which were defined by metadata. Learning objects included text pages, self-assessments, videos, animations, and simulations. In a field study, we analyzed the effects of this learning environment on physiology and physics knowledge as well as the transfer ability of third-term medical students. Data were generated from pre- and posttest questionnaires and from tracking student navigation. Use of the hypermedia environment resulted in a significant increase of knowledge and transfer capability. Furthermore, the efficiency of learning was enhanced. We conclude that hypermedia environments based on Moodle and enriched by concept map-based navigation tools can significantly support interdisciplinary learning. Implementation of adaptivity may further strengthen this approach. PMID:23209009

  2. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  3. Comparing Online and Face-to-Face Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Victoria Simpson

    2010-01-01

    Online education has emerged in the 21st century as a popular alternative to traditional education. Proponents argue that online education provides opportunities for learners that they would otherwise do without (Beard & Harper, 2002; Hay, Peltier, & Drago, 2004). Opponents (see, for example, Hay et al., 2004) have argued, however, that the loss…

  4. Verbmobil - Translation of Face-To-Face Dialogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Wahlster

    1993-01-01

    Verbmobil is a long-term project on the translation of spontaneous language in negotiation dialogs. We describe the goals of the project, the chosen discourse domains and the initial project schedule. We discuss some of the distinguishing features of Verbmobil and introduce the notion of translation on demand and variable depth of processing in speech translation. Finally, the role of anytime

  5. Face-to-Face Collaborative Learning Supported by Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echeverria, Alejandro; Nussbaum, Miguel; Calderon, Juan Felipe; Bravo, Claudio; Infante, Cristian; Vasquez, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The use of handheld computers in educational contexts has increased considerably in recent years and their value as a teaching tool has been confirmed by many positive experiences, particular within collaborative learning systems (Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning [MCSCL]). The cost of the devices has hindered widespread use in…

  6. 471RESONANCE May 2014 FACE-TO-FACE

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    corrections. As we study, we will find that further modifications are needed of so-called scientific laws the type of rebellious child I was, that only piqued my interest in them; I was curious that way. Perhaps chemistry lesson. DM: Tell me something about your love for molecules? How did it start? RZ: As a child

  7. The Reality of Face-to-Face Contact after Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beek, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study that examined the views of seven adoptive couples on postadoption contact with their children's birth parents. Discusses the feelings of the adopters, advantages and disadvantages of contact, and how contact affects the parents' relationship with the child and with the birth parent. (TJQ)

  8. The MUSE project face to face with reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, D.; Brotons, L.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; François, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Le Floch, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J. E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument built for ESO (European Southern Observatory) to be installed in Chile on the VLT (Very Large Telescope). The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the critical turning point of shifting from the design to the manufacturing phase, the MUSE project has now completed the realization of its different sub-systems and should finalize its global integration and test in Europe. To arrive to this point many challenges had to be overcome, many technical difficulties, non compliances or procurements delays which seemed at the time overwhelming. Now is the time to face the results of our organization, of our strategy, of our choices. Now is the time to face the reality of the MUSE instrument. During the design phase a plan was provided by the project management in order to achieve the realization of the MUSE instrument in specification, time and cost. This critical moment in the project life when the instrument takes shape and reality is the opportunity to look not only at the outcome but also to see how well we followed the original plan, what had to be changed or adapted and what should have been.

  9. Technology as Small Group Face-to-Face Collaborative Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, Miguel; Alvarez, Claudio; McFarlane, Angela; Gomez, Florencia; Claro, Susana; Radovic, Darinka

    2009-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence that collaboration between learners can enhance the outcomes for all concerned. This supports the theorization of learning as a socio-cultural practice, framed by Vygotsky and developed by other researchers such as Rogoff, Lave and Wenger. However, there is also evidence that working collaboratively may not be a…

  10. Programmed Counseling Vs. Face-To-Face Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Thomas N.; Gilbert, William M.

    One session interviews were conducted with students planning to enter the University of Illinois. The interviews dealt with interpretation of aptitude and interest tests in relation to curricular plans, discussion of the students' expected level of achievement and areas of strength and weakness, a screening procedure for personality problems and…

  11. ET Toxic Metals Replacement Review SEA Spring Face to Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratz, Earl

    2007-01-01

    The information contained in the presentation covers development work carried out under SDS projects. The intent of the effort is to find chrome(VI) free alternates to our current chromated processing solutions. The information presented reports progress in work aimed to replace our alkaline cleaner (Turco 4215), conversion coat (Iridite 14-2) and chrome (VI) compounds used in LOx tank hydrostatic proof test solution. To date we have found candidates for use in the proof test solution and alkaline cleaner. These candidates are in the final stages of testing. Lab data is reported in the presentation.

  12. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  13. Face-to-face collaborative learning supported by mobile phones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Echeverría; Miguel Nussbaum; Juan Felipe Calderón; Claudio Bravo; Cristián Infante; Andrea Vásquez

    2009-01-01

    The use of handheld computers in educational contexts has increased considerably in recent years and their value as a teaching tool has been confirmed by many positive experiences, particular within collaborative learning systems (Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning [MCSCL]). The cost of the devices has hindered widespread use in schools, however, and cell phones have emerged as an attractive alternative.

  14. Face-to-face collaborative learning supported by mobile phones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Echeverría; Miguel Nussbaum; Juan Felipe Calderón; Claudio Bravo; Cristián Infante; Andrea Vásquez

    2011-01-01

    The use of handheld computers in educational contexts has increased considerably in recent years and their value as a teaching tool has been confirmed by many positive experiences, particular within collaborative learning systems (Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning [MCSCL]). The cost of the devices has hindered widespread use in schools, however, and cell phones have emerged as an attractive alternative.

  15. Dyadic Interaction: Greater than the Sum of its Parts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ginger A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Bass, Anneliese J.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Propper, Cathi B.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The study of dyadic interaction plays a major role in infancy research. To advance conceptually informed measurement of dyadic interaction and integration across studies, we examined factor structure of individual parents' and infants' measures and dyadic measures from face-to-face interactions in two samples of 6-month-old infants and…

  16. BIND - The Biomolecular Interaction Network Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Bader; Ian Donaldson; Cheryl Wolting; B. F. Francis Ouellette; Tony Pawson; Christopher W. V. Hogue

    2001-01-01

    The Biomolecular Interaction Network Database (BIND; http:\\/\\/binddb.org) is a database designed to store full descriptions of interactions, molecular complexes and pathways. Development of the BIND 2.0 data model has led to the incorporation of virtually all components of molecular mechanisms including interactions between any two molecules composed of proteins, nucleic acids and small molecules. Chemical reactions, photochemical activation and conformational

  17. Random interactions in higher order neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre; Venkatesh, Santosh S.

    1993-01-01

    Recurrent networks of polynomial threshold elements with random symmetric interactions are studied. Precise asymptotic estimates are derived for the expected number of fixed points as a function of the margin of stability. In particular, it is shown that there is a critical range of margins of stability (depending on the degree of polynomial interaction) such that the expected number of fixed points with margins below the critical range grows exponentially with the number of nodes in the network, while the expected number of fixed points with margins above the critical range decreases exponentially with the number of nodes in the network. The random energy model is also briefly examined and links with higher order neural networks and higher order spin glass models made explicit.

  18. Modeling and Control Interactive Networks

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    are con- ducted through the World Wide Web and the Internet. But the use of these electronic information. The Internet, com- puter networks, and our digital economy have increased the demand for reliable. A growing portion of the world's business and industry, art and science, entertainment, and even crime

  19. Using Interaction in Online Discussion Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Margie A.

    2005-01-01

    As offerings of online courses, programs, and degrees continue to increase, universities are grappling for ways to assess and assure quality. The quality and quantity of interaction between faculty and students and among students constitutes a significant component of the definition of quality for any course, whether online or face-to-face. It…

  20. Consensus problems on networks with antagonistic interactions

    E-print Network

    Altafini, Claudio

    problem is the focus on cooperative systems. Consensus in these systems is achieved through collaboration collaborate, while other compete. Networks with antagonistic interactions are common for example in social--In a consensus protocol an agreement among agents is achieved thanks to the collaborative efforts of all agents

  1. Educational Instruction via Interactive Video Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Michael K.; Brehmer, Jeffery

    Perceptions of secondary educators were examined regarding delivery of educational programs via interactive video networks (IVN). The population included all agricultural education instructors, principals, and superintendents employed in public secondary schools having an agricultural education program during the 1990-91 school year in a…

  2. The Computational Power of Interactive Recur-rent Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Siegelmann , Hava T

    1 The Computational Power of Interactive Recur- rent Neural Networks J´er´emie Cabessa1 and Hava T, interactive computation, analog computation, re- current neural networks, interactive Turing machines-weighted recurrent neural networks were shown to be respectively equivalent to and strictly more powerful than

  3. Exploring drug combinations in genetic interaction network

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug combination that consists of distinctive agents is an attractive strategy to combat complex diseases and has been widely used clinically with improved therapeutic effects. However, the identification of efficacious drug combinations remains a non-trivial and challenging task due to the huge number of possible combinations among the candidate drugs. As an important factor, the molecular context in which drugs exert their functions can provide crucial insights into the mechanism underlying drug combinations. Results In this work, we present a network biology approach to investigate drug combinations and their target proteins in the context of genetic interaction networks and the related human pathways, in order to better understand the underlying rules of effective drug combinations. Our results indicate that combinatorial drugs tend to have a smaller effect radius in the genetic interaction networks, which is an important parameter to describe the therapeutic effect of a drug combination from the network perspective. We also find that drug combinations are more likely to modulate functionally related pathways. Conclusions This study confirms that the molecular networks where drug combinations exert their functions can indeed provide important insights into the underlying rules of effective drug combinations. We hope that our findings can help shortcut the expedition of the future discovery of novel drug combinations. PMID:22595004

  4. Inferring microbial interaction networks based on consensus similarity network fusion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, XingPeng; Hu, XiaoHua

    2014-11-01

    With the rapid accumulation of high-throughput metagenomic sequencing data, it is possible to infer microbial species relations in a microbial community systematically. In recent years, some approaches have been proposed for identifying microbial interaction network. These methods often focus on one dataset without considering the advantage of data integration. In this study, we propose to use a similarity network fusion (SNF) method to infer microbial relations. The SNF efficiently integrates the similarities of species derived from different datasets by a cross-network diffusion process. We also introduce consensus k-nearest neighborhood (Ck-NN) method instead of k-NN in the original SNF (we call the approach CSNF). The final network represents the augmented species relationships with aggregated evidence from various datasets, taking advantage of complementarity in the data. We apply the method on genus profiles derived from three microbiome datasets and we find that CSNF can discover the modular structure of microbial interaction network which cannot be identified by analyzing a single dataset. PMID:25326827

  5. Network Compression as a Quality Measure for Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Loic; Reimann, Matthias; Stewart, A. Francis; Schroeder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale protein interaction studies, there is much debate about data quality. Can different noise levels in the measurements be assessed by analyzing network structure? Because proteomic regulation is inherently co-operative, modular and redundant, it is inherently compressible when represented as a network. Here we propose that network compression can be used to compare false positive and false negative noise levels in protein interaction networks. We validate this hypothesis by first confirming the detrimental effect of false positives and false negatives. Second, we show that gold standard networks are more compressible. Third, we show that compressibility correlates with co-expression, co-localization, and shared function. Fourth, we also observe correlation with better protein tagging methods, physiological expression in contrast to over-expression of tagged proteins, and smart pooling approaches for yeast two-hybrid screens. Overall, this new measure is a proxy for both sensitivity and specificity and gives complementary information to standard measures such as average degree and clustering coefficients. PMID:22719828

  6. Interactive tabletops in education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Dillenbourg; Michael Evans

    Interactive tabletops are gaining increased attention from CSCL researchers. This paper analyses the relation between this\\u000a technology and teaching and learning processes. At a global level, one could argue that tabletops convey a socio-constructivist\\u000a flavor: they support small teams that solve problems by exploring multiple solutions. The development of tabletop applications\\u000a also witnesses the growing importance of face-to-face collaboration in

  7. Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding

    SciTech Connect

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A. (JHU); (Maryland)

    2013-04-08

    Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

  8. Global Mapping of the Yeast Genetic Interaction Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Hin Yan Tong; Guillaume Lesage; Gary D. Bader; Huiming Ding; Hong Xu; Xiaofeng Xin; James Young; Gabriel F. Berriz; Renee L. Brost; Michael Chang; YiQun Chen; Xin Cheng; Gordon Chua; Helena Friesen; Debra S. Goldberg; Jennifer Haynes; Christine Humphries; Grace He; Shamiza Hussein; Lizhu Ke; Nevan Krogan; Zhijian Li; Joshua N. Levinson; Hong Lu; Patrice Ménard; Christella Munyana; Ainslie B. Parsons; Owen Ryan; Raffi Tonikian; Tania Roberts; Anne-Marie Sdicu; Jesse Shapiro; Bilal Sheikh; Bernhard Suter; Sharyl L. Wong; Lan V. Zhang; Hongwei Zhu; Christopher G. Burd; Sean Munro; Chris Sander; Jasper Rine; Jack Greenblatt; Matthias Peter; Anthony Bretscher; Graham Bell; Frederick P. Roth; Grant W. Brown; Brenda Andrews; Howard Bussey; Charles Boone

    2004-01-01

    A genetic interaction network containing ~1000 genes and ~4000 interactions was mapped by crossing mutations in 132 different query genes into a set of ~4700 viable gene yeast deletion mutants and scoring the double mutant progeny for fitness defects. Network connectivity was predictive of function because interactions often occurred among functionally related genes, and similar patterns of interactions tended to

  9. Evolution of protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Makino, T; Gojobori, T

    2007-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are one of the most important components of biological networks. It is important to understand the evolutionary process of PPIs in order to elucidate how the evolution of biological networks has contributed to diversification of the existent organisms. We focused on the evolutionary rates of proteins involved with PPIs, because it had been shown that for a given protein-coding gene the number of its PPIs in a biological network was one of the important factors in determining the evolutionary rate of the gene. We studied the evolutionary rates of duplicated gene products that were involved with PPIs, reviewing the current situation of this subject. In addition, we focused on how the evolutionary rates of proteins were influenced by the characteristic features of PPIs. We, then, concluded that the evolutionary rates of the proteins in the PPI networks were strongly influenced by their PPI partners. Finally, we emphasized that evolutionary considerations of the PPI proteins were very important for understanding the building up of the current PPI networks. PMID:18753782

  10. Discussion Tool Effects on Collaborative Learning and Social Network Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomsic, Astrid; Suthers, Daniel D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the social network structure of booking officers at the Honolulu Police Department and how the introduction of an online discussion tool affected knowledge about operation of a booking module. Baseline data provided evidence for collaboration among officers in the same district using e-mail, telephone and face-to-face media…

  11. Adolescents' and Emerging Adults' Social Networking Online: Homophily or Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Richards, Lacey

    2011-01-01

    More than half of all online American adolescents and emerging adults have created personal profiles for social networking on the Internet. Does homophily in their offline friendships extend online? Drawing mainly on research of face-to-face friendship, we collected data from the public spaces, called "walls," of 129 young Americans ages 16 to 19…

  12. Growing up with Social Networks and Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This presentation examines child and adolescent social networking with an emphasis on how this unprecedented form of communication can be used to contribute to healthy growth and development. Most literature about child and adolescent relationships reflects yesterday's world, a time when face-to-face encounters were the only concern. Students saw…

  13. A New Method for Analyzing Patterns of Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Daniel C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Using software and a coding system developed by the author, the text of all spoken and written discourse was analyzed from four face-to-face (FTF) courses and two courses taught via computer-mediated communication (CMC). Results indicated that interaction patterns in the CMC courses resembled discussion, whereas patterns in the FTF courses…

  14. Parent–Child Interaction as a Power Contest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne Blunt Bugental; Keith Happaney

    2000-01-01

    We explored parental use of child derogation as a means of power assertion. Parents interacted with children (own and unrelated) after a judgment task in which competitive ideation was primed or unprimed. Evaluations included (a) face-to-face verbal derogation versus praise and (b) judgments of children's task performance. When primed, fathers with low perceived power (as measured by the Parent Attribution

  15. The interaction network of the chaperonin CCT

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Carien; Stirling, Peter C; McCormack, Elizabeth A; Filmore, Heather; Paul, Angela; Brost, Renee L; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charles; Leroux, Michel R; Willison, Keith R

    2008-01-01

    The eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) has an important function in maintaining cellular homoeostasis by assisting the folding of many proteins, including the cytoskeletal components actin and tubulin. Yet the nature of the proteins and cellular pathways dependent on CCT function has not been established globally. Here, we use proteomic and genomic approaches to define CCT interaction networks involving 136 proteins/genes that include links to the nuclear pore complex, chromatin remodelling, and protein degradation. Our study also identifies a third eukaryotic cytoskeletal system connected with CCT: the septin ring complex, which is essential for cytokinesis. CCT interactions with septins are ATP dependent, and disrupting the function of the chaperonin in yeast leads to loss of CCT–septin interaction and aberrant septin ring assembly. Our results therefore provide a rich framework for understanding the function of CCT in several essential cellular processes, including epigenetics and cell division. PMID:18511909

  16. Prediction protein--protein interaction sites heterocomplexes with neural networks

    E-print Network

    Pazos, Florencio

    Prediction protein--protein interaction sites heterocomplexes with neural networks Piero Fariselli neural network based system, which a cross validation proce­ dure and allows correct detection 73 face. However neural networks trained a reduced representation of interacting patch sequence profile su

  17. Prediction of proteinprotein interaction sites in heterocomplexes with neural networks

    E-print Network

    Pazos, Florencio

    Prediction of protein­protein interaction sites in heterocomplexes with neural networks Piero on information about evolutionary con- servation and surface disposition. We implement a neural network based protein sur- face. However neural networks trained with a reduced representation of the interacting patch

  18. Creative Multimodal Learning Environments and Blended Interaction for Problem-Based Activity in HCI Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Vasiliou, Christina; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Arh, Tanja; Klobucar, Tomaž; Pipan, Matija

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory case study aims to examine how students benefit from a multimodal learning environment while they engage in collaborative problem-based activity in a Human Computer Interaction (HCI) university course. For 12 weeks, 30 students, in groups of 5-7 each, participated in weekly face-to-face meetings and online interactions.…

  19. Structure and Interactions in Neurofilament Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jayna; Ojeda-Lopez, Miguel; Safinya, Cyrus

    2004-03-01

    Neurofilaments (NFs) are a major constituent of myelinated axons of nerve cells, which assemble from three subunit proteins of low, medium, and high molecular weight to form a 10 nm diameter rod with sidearms radiating from the center. The sidearm interactions impart structural stability and result in an oriented network of NFs running parallel to the axon. Over or under expression of NF subunits is related to abnormal NF-networks, which are known hallmarks of motor neuron diseases (ALS). Here, we reassemble NFs from subunit proteins purified from bovine spinal cord. We demonstrate the formation of the NF network in vitro where synchrotron x-ray scattering (SSRL) reveals a well-defined interfilament spacing while the defect structure in polarized optical microcopy shows the liquid crystalline nature. The spacing varies depending on subunit molar ratios and salt conditions and we relate this change to the mechanical stability of the lattice. This change in lattice spacing yields insight into the stabilizing interactions between the NF sidearms. Supported by NSF DMR- 0203755, CTS-0103516, and NIH GM-59288.

  20. SocialCircuits: The Art of Using Mobile Phones for Modeling Personal Interactions

    E-print Network

    organizational contexts to automatically predict employees' self-assessment of job satisfaction and quality@media.mit.edu ABSTRACT We describe SocialCircuits, a platform capable of measuring the face-to-face and phone-based communication network of a real- world community. This platform uses commodity mobile phones to measure social

  1. Reconstructing Amino Acid Interaction Networks by an Ant Colony Approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reconstructing Amino Acid Interaction Networks by an Ant Colony Approach Omar GACI and Stefan BALEV are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. We consider the problem of reconstructing protein's interaction network from its amino acid sequence. We rely on a probability that two

  2. On the structure and evolution of protein interaction networks

    E-print Network

    Grochow, Joshua A

    2006-01-01

    The study of protein interactions from the networks point of view has yielded new insights into systems biology [Bar03, MA03, RSM+02, WS98]. In particular, "network motifs" become apparent as a useful and systematic tool ...

  3. Percolation on networks with antagonistic and dependent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotnis, Bhushan; Kuri, Joy

    2015-03-01

    Drawing inspiration from real world interacting systems, we study a system consisting of two networks that exhibit antagonistic and dependent interactions. By antagonistic and dependent interactions we mean that a proportion of functional nodes in a network cause failure of nodes in the other, while failure of nodes in the other results in failure of links in the first. In contrast to interdependent networks, which can exhibit first-order phase transitions, we find that the phase transitions in such networks are continuous. Our analysis shows that, compared to an isolated network, the system is more robust against random attacks. Surprisingly, we observe a region in the parameter space where the giant connected components of both networks start oscillating. Furthermore, we find that for Erd?s-Rényi and scale-free networks the system oscillates only when the dependence and antagonism between the two networks are very high. We believe that this study can further our understanding of real world interacting systems.

  4. VANLO - Interactive visual exploration of aligned biological networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Brasch; Lars Linsen; Georg Fuellen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is fundamental to many biological processes. In the course of evolution, biological networks such as protein-protein interaction networks have developed. Biological networks of different species can be aligned by finding instances (e.g. proteins) with the same common ancestor in the evolutionary process, so-called orthologs. For a better understanding of the evolution of biological networks, such aligned

  5. "I'll See You on IM, Text, or Call You": A Social Network Approach of Adolescents' Use of Communication Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cleemput, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    This study explores some possibilities of social network analysis for studying adolescents' communication patterns. A full network analysis was conducted on third-grade high school students (15 year olds, 137 students) in Belgium. The results pointed out that face-to-face communication was still the most prominent way for information to flow…

  6. Dual Logic and Cerebral Coordinates for Reciprocal Interaction in Eye Contact

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to scientifically study the human brain’s response to face-to-face social interaction, the scientific method itself needs to be reconsidered so that both quantitative observation and symbolic reasoning can be adapted to the situation where the observer is also observed. In light of the recent development of dyadic fMRI which can directly observe dyadic brain interacting in one MRI scanner, this paper aims to establish a new form of logic, dual logic, which provides a theoretical platform for deductive reasoning in a complementary dual system with emergence mechanism. Applying the dual logic in the dfMRI experimental design and data analysis, the exogenous and endogenous dual systems in the BOLD responses can be identified; the non-reciprocal responses in the dual system can be suppressed; a cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction can be generated. Elucidated by dual logic deductions, the cerebral coordinate for reciprocal interaction suggests: the exogenous and endogenous systems consist of the empathy network and the mentalization network respectively; the default-mode network emerges from the resting state to activation in the endogenous system during reciprocal interaction; the cingulate plays an essential role in the emergence from the exogenous system to the endogenous system. Overall, the dual logic deductions are supported by the dfMRI experimental results and are consistent with current literature. Both the theoretical framework and experimental method set the stage to formally apply the scientific method in studying complex social interaction. PMID:25885446

  7. Multiple Tipping Points and Optimal Repairing in Interacting Networks

    E-print Network

    Majdandzic, Antonio; Curme, Chester; Vodenska, Irena; Levy-Carciente, Sary; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Systems that comprise many interacting dynamical networks, such as the human body with its biological networks or the global economic network consisting of regional clusters, often exhibit complicated collective dynamics. To understand the collective behavior of these systems, we investigate a model of interacting networks exhibiting the fundamental processes of failure, damage spread, and recovery. We find a very rich phase diagram that becomes exponentially more complex as the number of networks is increased. In the simplest example of $n=2$ interacting networks we find two critical points, 4 triple points, 10 allowed transitions, and two "forbidden" transitions, as well as a manifold of metastable regions represented by complex hysteresis. Knowing and understanding the phase diagram have an immediate practical implication; it enables us to find the optimal strategy for repairing partially or fully damaged interconnected networks. To support our model, we analyze an example of real interacting financial net...

  8. Two-Month-Old Infants' Sensitivity to Social Contingency in Mother-Infant and Stranger-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Rochat, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Two-month-old infants (N = 29) participated in face-to-face interactions with their mothers and with strangers. The contingent responsiveness for smiles and vocalizations, while attending to the partner, was assessed for each partner in both interactions. For smiles and for vocalizations, infants were less responsive to the stranger relative to…

  9. Nature of Teacher-Students' Interaction in Electronic Learning and Traditional Courses of Higher Education--A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Khurshed, Fauzia

    2011-01-01

    Present paper explores differential teacher-student interaction in electronic learning (el) and in face to face traditional learning (tl) courses at higher education. After thorough study literature available and getting information from university teachers teaching el and tl courses about the nature of teacher-students interaction in both modes…

  10. Enhancing the Functional Content of Eukaryotic Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Gaurav; Arora, Sonali; Manocha, Sahil; Whalen, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Protein interaction networks are a promising type of data for studying complex biological systems. However, despite the rich information embedded in these networks, these networks face important data quality challenges of noise and incompleteness that adversely affect the results obtained from their analysis. Here, we apply a robust measure of local network structure called common neighborhood similarity (CNS) to address these challenges. Although several CNS measures have been proposed in the literature, an understanding of their relative efficacies for the analysis of interaction networks has been lacking. We follow the framework of graph transformation to convert the given interaction network into a transformed network corresponding to a variety of CNS measures evaluated. The effectiveness of each measure is then estimated by comparing the quality of protein function predictions obtained from its corresponding transformed network with those from the original network. Using a large set of human and fly protein interactions, and a set of over GO terms for both, we find that several of the transformed networks produce more accurate predictions than those obtained from the original network. In particular, the measure and other continuous CNS measures perform well this task, especially for large networks. Further investigation reveals that the two major factors contributing to this improvement are the abilities of CNS measures to prune out noisy edges and enhance functional coherence in the transformed networks. PMID:25275489

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 35: The use of computer networks in aerospace engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Ann P.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    This research used survey research to explore and describe the use of computer networks by aerospace engineers. The study population included 2000 randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who subscribed to Aerospace Engineering. A total of 950 usable questionnaires were received by the cutoff date of July 1994. Study results contribute to existing knowledge about both computer network use and the nature of engineering work and communication. We found that 74 percent of mail survey respondents personally used computer networks. Electronic mail, file transfer, and remote login were the most widely used applications. Networks were used less often than face-to-face interactions in performing work tasks, but about equally with reading and telephone conversations, and more often than mail or fax. Network use was associated with a range of technical, organizational, and personal factors: lack of compatibility across systems, cost, inadequate access and training, and unwillingness to embrace new technologies and modes of work appear to discourage network use. The greatest positive impacts from networking appear to be increases in the amount of accurate and timely information available, better exchange of ideas across organizational boundaries, and enhanced work flexibility, efficiency, and quality. Involvement with classified or proprietary data and type of organizational structure did not distinguish network users from nonusers. The findings can be used by people involved in the design and implementation of networks in engineering communities to inform the development of more effective networking systems, services, and policies.

  12. Cambodian Parental Involvement: The Role of Parental Beliefs, Social Networks, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Sothy; Szmodis, Whitney; Mulsow, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The role of social capital (parental beliefs, social networks, and trust) as a predictor of parental involvement in Cambodian children's education was examined, controlling for human capital (family socioeconomic status). Parents of elementary students (n = 273) were interviewed face to face in Cambodia. Teacher contact scored highest,…

  13. Stumbl: Using Facebook to Collect Rich Datasets for Opportunistic Networking Research

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    Stumbl: Using Facebook to Collect Rich Datasets for Opportunistic Networking Research Theus, mobility and communication ties. Stumbl is a Facebook application that provides participating users with a user-friendly interface to report their daily face-to-face meetings with other Facebook friends

  14. Reframing practice: creating social learning networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Bartlett-Bragg

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that social learning networks can be implemented and achieve greater results than traditional e-Learning initiatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study is used to illustrate the social learning networks framework and pedagogical underpinnings. Findings – The case study shows significant outcomes not previously experienced in face-to-face taught environments. However, there are

  15. ADAPTIVE NEURAL NETWORK CONTROL BY ADAPTIVE INTERACTION George Saikalis

    E-print Network

    Lin, Feng

    1 ADAPTIVE NEURAL NETWORK CONTROL BY ADAPTIVE INTERACTION George Saikalis Hitachi America, Ltd, Michigan 48202 Abstract In this paper, we propose an approach to adaptive neural network control by using, this approach will not require the plant to be converted to its neural network equivalent, a major obstacle

  16. Global Mapping of the Yeast Genetic Interaction Network

    E-print Network

    Mihail, Milena

    principles of genetic interaction networks, we conducted a large-scale analysis of synthetic geneticGlobal Mapping of the Yeast Genetic Interaction Network Amy Hin Yan Tong,1,2 * Guillaume Lesage,3 P. Roth,7 Grant W. Brown,5 Brenda Andrews,2 Howard Bussey,3 Charles Boone1,2 A genetic

  17. Proteins: From Structural Classification to Amino Acid Interaction Networks

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Proteins: From Structural Classification to Amino Acid Interaction Networks O. GACI LITIS are the protein's amino acids and whose edges are the inter- actions between them. Using a graph theory approach: proteins, amino acid, interaction network, structural classification 1 Introduction Proteins are biological

  18. Pedagogic Effectiveness of Print, Interactive Multimedia, and Online Resources: A Case Study of IGNOU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikshit, Jyotsna; Garg, Suresh; Panda, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors report on a comparative study on the pedagogic effectiveness of printed self-learning text with face-to-face tutorial support, interactive multimedia CD-ROM and online learning in an introductory computing module at the certificate level offered at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), India. The study…

  19. Perceptive animated interfaces: first steps toward a new paradigm for human-computer interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RONALD COLE; SAREL VAN VUUREN; BRYAN PELLOM; KADRI HACIOGLU; Jiyong Ma; JAVIER MOVELLAN; SCOTT SCHWARTZ; DAVID WADE-STEIN; WAYNE WARD; Jie Yan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a vision of the near future in which computer interaction is characterized by natural face-to-face conversations with lifelike characters that speak, emote, and gesture. These animated agents will converse with people much like people converse effectively with assistants in a variety of focused applications. Despite the research advances required to realize this vision, and the lack of

  20. Pattern formation by dynamically interacting network motifs

    PubMed Central

    Lembong, Jessica; Yakoby, Nir; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2009-01-01

    Systematic validation of pattern formation mechanisms revealed by molecular studies of development is essentially impossible without mathematical models. Models can provide a compact summary of a large number of experiments that led to mechanism formulation and guide future studies of pattern formation. Here, we realize this program by analyzing a mathematical model of epithelial patterning by the highly conserved EGFR and BMP signaling pathways in Drosophila oogenesis. The model accounts for the dynamic interaction of the feedforward and feedback network motifs that control the expression of Broad, a zinc finger transcription factor expressed in the cells that form the upper part of the respiratory eggshell appendages. Based on the combination of computational analysis and genetic experiments, we show that the model accounts for the key features of wild-type pattern formation, correctly predicts patterning defects in multiple mutants, and guides the identification of additional regulatory links in a complex pattern formation mechanism. PMID:19218441

  1. Identification of Modules in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten, Sinan; Koyutürk, Mehmet

    In biological systems, most processes are carried out through orchestration of multiple interacting molecules. These interactions are often abstracted using network models. A key feature of cellular networks is their modularity, which contributes significantly to the robustness, as well as adaptability of biological systems. Therefore, modularization of cellular networks is likely to be useful in obtaining insights into the working principles of cellular systems, as well as building tractable models of cellular organization and dynamics. A common, high-throughput source of data on molecular interactions is in the form of physical interactions between proteins, which are organized into protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. This chapter provides an overview on identification and analysis of functional modules in PPI networks, which has been an active area of research in the last decade.

  2. The Collaborative Construction of Non-Serious Episodes of Interaction by Non-Speaking Children with Cerebral Palsy and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Michael; Wilkinson, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Inequality in communicative resources available to non-speaking children with cerebral palsy in comparison with their "naturally" speaking co-participants has material consequences for the ways in which face-to-face interaction is organized. Analyses of interaction involving non-speaking children with physical disability and speaking adults has…

  3. Dynamic interactions of proteins in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Appella, E.; Anderson, C.

    2009-10-01

    Recent advances in techniques such as NMR and EPR spectroscopy have enabled the elucidation of how proteins undergo structural changes to act in concert in complex networks. The three minireviews in this series highlight current findings and the capabilities of new methodologies for unraveling the dynamic changes controlling diverse cellular functions. They represent a sampling of the cutting-edge research presented at the 17th Meeting of Methods in Protein Structure Analysis, MPSA2008, in Sapporo, Japan, 26-29 August, 2008 (http://www.iapsap.bnl.gov). The first minireview, by Christensen and Klevit, reports on a structure-based yeast two-hybrid method for identifying E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes that interact with the E3 BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer ligase to generate either mono- or polyubiquitinated products. This method demonstrated for the first time that the BRCA1/BARD1 E3 can interact with 10 different E2 enzymes. Interestingly, the interaction with multiple E2 enzymes displayed unique ubiquitin-transfer properties, a feature expected to be common among other RING and U-box E3s. Further characterization of new E3 ligases and the E2 enzymes that interact with them will greatly enhance our understanding of ubiquitin transfer and facilitate studies of roles of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins in protein processing and trafficking. Stein et al., in the second minireview, describe recent progress in defining the binding specificity of different peptide-binding domains. The authors clearly point out that transient peptide interactions mediated by both post-translational modifications and disordered regions ensure a high level of specificity. They postulate that a regulatory code may dictate the number of combinations of domains and post-translational modifications needed to achieve the required level of interaction specificity. Moreover, recognition alone is not enough to obtain a stable complex, especially in a complex cellular environment. Increasing evidence indicates that disordered domains can acquire structural features that modulate the binding and strength of the signaling cascade. Whereas the first two minireviews describe ways in which protein interactions are modulated, the third, by Tompa, focuses on the importance of protein disorder in a subset of amyloid proteins. It is apparent that within this group, part of the polypeptide chain remains disordered during amyloid formation. Moreover, the disordered segments have different amino acid composition and physicochemical characteristics, which suggests that they may play a role in amyloid stability. The disordered region may serve as a linker to connect the ordered core and a globular domain, maintaining the stability and structure of the globular domain and minimizing protein refolding upon amyloid formation. As techniques in protein chemistry advance, we are learning more and more about the mechanisms that regulate and are regulated by protein interactions. The three minireviews in this series offer a glimpse of the complex dynamics fundamental to protein-protein interactions. In the future, we expect that the knowledge gained will help to augment our ability to control complex pathologies and treat diverse diseases states.

  4. Graphlet alignment in protein interaction networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mu-Fen Hsieh; Sing-Hoi Sze

    2010-01-01

    With the increased availability of genome-scale data, it becomes possible to study functional relationships of genes across multiple biological networks. While most previous approaches for studying conservation of patterns in networks are through the application of network alignment algorithms or the identification of network motifs, we show that it is possible to exhaustively enumerate all graphlet alignments, which consist of

  5. Network motifs that recur across species, including gene regulatory and protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Borotkanics, Robert; Lehmann, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Cellular molecules interact in complex ways, giving rise to a cell's functional outcomes. Conscientious efforts have been made in recent years to better characterize these patterns of interactions. It has been learned that many of these interactions can be represented abstractly as a network and within a network there in many instances are network motifs. Network motifs are subgraphs that are statistically overrepresented within networks. To date, specific network motifs have been experimentally identified across various species and also within specific, intracellular networks; however, motifs that recur across species and major network types have not been systematically characterized. We reason that recurring network motifs could potentially have important implications and applications for toxicology and, in particular, toxicity testing. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the set of intracellular, network motifs found to recur across species of both gene regulatory and protein-protein interaction networks. We report the recurrence of 13 intracellular, network motifs across species. Ten recurring motifs were found across both protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulatory networks. The significant pair motif was found to recur only in gene regulatory networks. The diamond and one-way cycle reversible step motifs were found to recur only in protein-protein interaction networks. This study is the first formal review of recurring, intracellular network motifs across species. Within toxicology, combining our understanding of recurring motifs with mechanism and mode of action knowledge could result in more robust and efficient toxicity testing models. We are sure that our results will support research in applying network motifs to toxicity testing. PMID:24847787

  6. Epidemic spreading on uniform networks with two interacting diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yun; Fan, Qingli; Ma, Lin; Ding, Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a pair of homogeneous diseases spreading concurrently on uniform networks based on the SIS model. A new model describing the transmission process of the interacting diseases is established. The influence of the transmission parameters, the interacting parameter and the initial density value of infected nodes on the epidemic spreading is presented by simulating the transmission process of the proposed model. The mathematical expressions of the conditions among the transmission parameters, the interacting parameter and the network parameter when diseases can exist in the network based on the simplified model are presented. Comparing the transmission process of this interacting model under different intervals of the interacting parameter, it is found that the interacting of the two diseases leads to larger scale prevalence with a relatively larger interacting parameter when the infection breaks out.

  7. Joint clustering of protein interaction networks through Markov random walk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biological networks obtained by high-throughput profiling or human curation are typically noisy. For functional module identification, single network clustering algorithms may not yield accurate and robust results. In order to borrow information across multiple sources to alleviate such problems due to data quality, we propose a new joint network clustering algorithm ASModel in this paper. We construct an integrated network to combine network topological information based on protein-protein interaction (PPI) datasets and homological information introduced by constituent similarity between proteins across networks. A novel random walk strategy on the integrated network is developed for joint network clustering and an optimization problem is formulated by searching for low conductance sets defined on the derived transition matrix of the random walk, which fuses both topology and homology information. The optimization problem of joint clustering is solved by a derived spectral clustering algorithm. Network clustering using several state-of-the-art algorithms has been implemented to both PPI networks within the same species (two yeast PPI networks and two human PPI networks) and those from different species (a yeast PPI network and a human PPI network). Experimental results demonstrate that ASModel outperforms the existing single network clustering algorithms as well as another recent joint clustering algorithm in terms of complex prediction and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. PMID:24565376

  8. Guaranteeing global synchronization in networks with stochastic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinglmayr, Johannes; Kirst, Christoph; Bettstetter, Christian; Timme, Marc

    2012-07-01

    We design the interactions between oscillators communicating via variably delayed pulse coupling to guarantee their synchronization on arbitrary network topologies. We identify a class of response functions and prove convergence to network-wide synchrony from arbitrary initial conditions. Synchrony is achieved if the pulse emission is unreliable or intentionally probabilistic. These results support the design of scalable, reliable and energy-efficient communication protocols for fully distributed synchronization as needed, e.g., in mobile phone networks, embedded systems, sensor networks and autonomously interacting swarm robots.

  9. Specific non-monotonous interactions increase persistence of ecological networks

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chuan; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between stability and biodiversity has long been debated in ecology due to opposing empirical observations and theoretical predictions. Species interaction strength is often assumed to be monotonically related to population density, but the effects on stability of ecological networks of non-monotonous interactions that change signs have not been investigated previously. We demonstrate that for four kinds of non-monotonous interactions, shifting signs to negative or neutral interactions at high population density increases persistence (a measure of stability) of ecological networks, while for the other two kinds of non-monotonous interactions shifting signs to positive interactions at high population density decreases persistence of networks. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of network stabilization caused by specific non-monotonous interaction types through either increasing stable equilibrium points or reducing unstable equilibrium points (or both). These specific non-monotonous interactions may be important in maintaining stable and complex ecological networks, as well as other networks such as genes, neurons, the internet and human societies. PMID:24478300

  10. Specific non-monotonous interactions increase persistence of ecological networks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chuan; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-03-22

    The relationship between stability and biodiversity has long been debated in ecology due to opposing empirical observations and theoretical predictions. Species interaction strength is often assumed to be monotonically related to population density, but the effects on stability of ecological networks of non-monotonous interactions that change signs have not been investigated previously. We demonstrate that for four kinds of non-monotonous interactions, shifting signs to negative or neutral interactions at high population density increases persistence (a measure of stability) of ecological networks, while for the other two kinds of non-monotonous interactions shifting signs to positive interactions at high population density decreases persistence of networks. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of network stabilization caused by specific non-monotonous interaction types through either increasing stable equilibrium points or reducing unstable equilibrium points (or both). These specific non-monotonous interactions may be important in maintaining stable and complex ecological networks, as well as other networks such as genes, neurons, the internet and human societies. PMID:24478300

  11. Interpersonal Accommodation of Vocal Behavior in the Interactions of Infants with Down Syndrome with Their Mothers: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Valarie; And Others

    The degree to which vocal accommodation occurred in the interaction of mothers with 27 infants 3- to 5-months old equally divided among three diagnostic groups (heart disease, Down Syndrome, and no known abnormalities) was investigated. Videotapes were made of the infants during 3 minutes of face-to-face play with their mothers. Tapes were coded…

  12. The Effects of Follow-up and Peer Interaction on Quality of Performance and Completion of Online Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Marybeth; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the inclusion of online follow-up and online peer interaction with a face-to face workshop on quality of support plan and completion of a support plan by Texas school librarians. The study used a posttest-only control group experimental design with randomly assigned self-selected participants. Three online…

  13. Using "You've Got Mail" to Teach Social Information Processing Theory and Hyperpersonal Perspective in Online Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Daria S.

    2011-01-01

    With the expansion of online interactions and exponential growth of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC), attention is brought to those theories in communication that address the implications of relationships developed within these contexts. In communication courses students learn about both face-to-face (FtF) and CMC relationships and have the…

  14. K-12 Teachers' Perceptions of and Their Satisfaction with Interaction Type in Blended Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Yu-Chun; Belland, Brian R.; Schroder, Kerstin E. E.; Walker, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning is an effective approach to instruction that combines features of face-to-face learning and computer-mediated learning. This study investigated the relationship between student perceptions of three types of interaction and blended learning course satisfaction. The participants included K-12 teachers enrolled in a graduate-level…

  15. Integrating physical and genetic maps: from genomes to interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Andreas; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ideker, Trey

    2009-01-01

    Physical and genetic mapping data have become as important to network biology as they once were to the Human Genome Project. Integrating physical and genetic networks currently faces several challenges: increasing the coverage of each type of network; establishing methods to assemble individual interaction measurements into contiguous pathway models; and annotating these pathways with detailed functional information. A particular challenge involves reconciling the wide variety of interaction types that are currently available. For this purpose, recent studies have sought to classify genetic and physical interactions along several complementary dimensions, such as ordered versus unordered, alleviating versus aggravating, and first versus second degree. PMID:17703239

  16. Socioeconomic networks with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Rui; Iori, Giulia

    2008-07-01

    We study a modified version of a model previously proposed by Jackson and Wolinsky to account for communication of information and allocation of goods in socioeconomic networks. In the model, the utility function of each node is given by a weighted sum of contributions from all accessible nodes. The weights, parametrized by the variable ? , decrease with distance. We introduce a growth mechanism where new nodes attach to the existing network preferentially by utility. By increasing ? , the network structure evolves from a power-law to an exponential degree distribution, passing through a regime characterized by shorter average path length, lower degree assortativity, and higher central point dominance. In the second part of the paper we compare different network structures in terms of the average utility received by each node. We show that power-law networks provide higher average utility than Poisson random networks. This provides a possible justification for the ubiquitousness of scale-free networks in the real world.

  17. Instructional Technology: The Information Superhighway, the Internet, Interactive Video Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Kerry S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "It Boggles the Mind" (Odell); "Merging Your Classroom onto the Information Superhighway" (Murphy); "The World's Largest Computer Network" (Fleck); "The Information Highway in Iowa" (Miller); "Interactive Video Networks in Secondary Schools" (Swan et al.); and "Upgrade to Humancentric Technology" (Berry). (JOW)

  18. An interactive network of time-sharing computers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Rutledge; Albin L. Vareha; Lee C. Varian; Allan H. Weis; Salomon F. Seroussi; James W. Mayer; Joan F. Jaffe; Mary Anne K. Angell

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an experimental interactive time-sharing network of computers created as a joint effort by Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU), Princeton University and the Research Division of IBM. The motivation behind the creation, the functional capabilities, and applications of the network are some of the key points addressed. Design philosophy and major implementation considerations are thoroughly

  19. Interactive Network Exploration to Derive Insights: Filtering, Clustering,

    E-print Network

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    transactions, social media communications, etc. (e.g., [14]). These networks represent important scientific, commercial, terrorist, or friendship interactions, where pro-social initiatives, commercial enterprises, or entertainment activities can have profound societal impacts. However, criminals or terrorists may use networks

  20. Development of Attention Networks and Their Interactions in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozuelos, Joan P.; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M.; Castillo, Alejandro; Fuentes, Luis J.; Rueda, M. Rosario

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated developmental trajectories of alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks and their interactions over childhood. Two cross-sectional experiments were conducted with different samples of 6-to 12-year-old children using modified versions of the attention network task (ANT). In Experiment 1 (N = 106),…

  1. Linking Classrooms of the Future through Interactive Telecommunications Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisco, Ponney G.

    This document describes an interactive television (ITV) distance education network designed to service rural schools. Phase one of the network involved the installation of over 14 miles of fiber optic cable linking two high schools, a career center, and the University of Rio Grande; phase two will bring seven high schools in economically depressed…

  2. Inter-Network Interactions: Impact of Connections between Oscillatory Neuronal Networks on Oscillation Frequency and Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Avella Gonzalez, Oscar J.; van Aerde, Karlijn I.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; van Pelt, Jaap; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations in electrical activity are a characteristic feature of many brain networks and display a wide variety of temporal patterns. A network may express a single oscillation frequency, alternate between two or more distinct frequencies, or continually express multiple frequencies. In addition, oscillation amplitude may fluctuate over time. The origin of this complex repertoire of activity remains unclear. Different cortical layers often produce distinct oscillation frequencies. To investigate whether interactions between different networks could contribute to the variety of oscillation patterns, we created two model networks, one generating on its own a relatively slow frequency (20 Hz; slow network) and one generating a fast frequency (32 Hz; fast network). Taking either the slow or the fast network as source network projecting connections to the other, or target, network, we systematically investigated how type and strength of inter-network connections affected target network activity. For high inter-network connection strengths, we found that the slow network was more effective at completely imposing its rhythm on the fast network than the other way around. The strongest entrainment occurred when excitatory cells of the slow network projected to excitatory or inhibitory cells of the fast network. The fast network most strongly imposed its rhythm on the slow network when its excitatory cells projected to excitatory cells of the slow network. Interestingly, for lower inter-network connection strengths, multiple frequencies coexisted in the target network. Just as observed in rat prefrontal cortex, the target network could express multiple frequencies at the same time, alternate between two distinct oscillation frequencies, or express a single frequency with alternating episodes of high and low amplitude. Together, our results suggest that input from other oscillating networks may markedly alter a network's frequency spectrum and may partly be responsible for the rich repertoire of temporal oscillation patterns observed in the brain. PMID:25007325

  3. The role of protein interaction networks in systems biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Sevimoglu, Tuba; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    The challenging task of studying and modeling complex dynamics of biological systems in order to describe various human diseases has gathered great interest in recent years. Major biological processes are mediated through protein interactions, hence there is a need to understand the chaotic network that forms these processes in pursuance of understanding human diseases. The applications of protein interaction networks to disease datasets allow the identification of genes and proteins associated with diseases, the study of network properties, identification of subnetworks, and network-based disease gene classification. Although various protein interaction network analysis strategies have been employed, grand challenges are still existing. Global understanding of protein interaction networks via integration of high-throughput functional genomics data from different levels will allow researchers to examine the disease pathways and identify strategies to control them. As a result, it seems likely that more personalized, more accurate and more rapid disease gene diagnostic techniques will be devised in the future, as well as novel strategies that are more personalized. This mini-review summarizes the current practice of protein interaction networks in medical research as well as challenges to be overcome. PMID:25379140

  4. Interaction Networks: Generating High Level Hints Based on Network Community Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Michael; Johnson, Matthew; Barnes, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel data structure, the Interaction Network, for representing interaction-data from open problem solving environment tutors. We show how using network community detecting techniques are used to identify sub-goals in problems in a logic tutor. We then use those community structures to generate high level hints between sub-goals.…

  5. Developing an online professional network for veterinary education: the NOVICE project.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Sarah; Kinnison, Tierney; Forrest, Neil; Dale, Vicki H M; Ehlers, Jan P; Koch, Michael; Mándoki, Mira; Ciobotaru, Emilia; de Groot, Esther; Boerboom, Tobias B B; van Beukelen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    An online professional network for veterinarians, veterinary students, veterinary educationalists, and ICT (Information and Communication Technology) educationalists is being developed under the EU (European Union) Lifelong Learning Programme. The network uses Web 2.0, a term used to describe the new, more interactive version of the Internet, and includes tools such as wikis, blogs, and discussion boards. Focus groups conducted with qualified and student veterinarians within the project's five founding countries (The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom, Hungary, Romania) demonstrated that online professional communities can be valuable for accessing information and establishing contacts. Online networks have the potential to overcome common challenges to face-to-face communities-such as distance, cost, and timing-but they have their own drawbacks, such as security and professionalism issues. The Network Of Veterinary ICt in Education (NOVICE) was developed using Elgg, an open-source, free social networking platform, after several software options had been considered. NOVICE aims to promote the understanding of Web 2.0, confidence to use social software tools, and participation in an online community. Therefore, the Web site contains help sections, Frequently Asked Questions, and access to support from ICT experts. Five months after the network's launch (and just over one year into the project) 515 members from 28 countries had registered. Further research will include analysis of a core group's activities, which will inform ongoing support for and development of informal, lifelong learning in a veterinary context. PMID:22130415

  6. Default Network Modulation and Large-Scale Network Interactivity in Healthy Young and Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated age-related changes in default, attention, and control network activity and their interactions in young and old adults. Brain activity during autobiographical and visuospatial planning was assessed using multivariate analysis and with intrinsic connectivity networks as regions of interest. In both groups, autobiographical planning engaged the default network while visuospatial planning engaged the attention network, consistent with a competition between the domains of internalized and externalized cognition. The control network was engaged for both planning tasks. In young subjects, the control network coupled with the default network during autobiographical planning and with the attention network during visuospatial planning. In old subjects, default-to-control network coupling was observed during both planning tasks, and old adults failed to deactivate the default network during visuospatial planning. This failure is not indicative of default network dysfunction per se, evidenced by default network engagement during autobiographical planning. Rather, a failure to modulate the default network in old adults is indicative of a lower degree of flexible network interactivity and reduced dynamic range of network modulation to changing task demands. PMID:22128194

  7. A web-based protein interaction network visualizer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interaction between proteins is one of the most important mechanisms in the execution of cellular functions. The study of these interactions has provided insight into the functioning of an organism’s processes. As of October 2013, Homo sapiens had over 170000 Protein-Protein interactions (PPI) registered in the Interologous Interaction Database, which is only one of the many public resources where protein interactions can be accessed. These numbers exemplify the volume of data that research on the topic has generated. Visualization of large data sets is a well known strategy to make sense of information, and protein interaction data is no exception. There are several tools that allow the exploration of this data, providing different methods to visualize protein network interactions. However, there is still no native web tool that allows this data to be explored interactively online. Results Given the advances that web technologies have made recently it is time to bring these interactive views to the web to provide an easily accessible forum to visualize PPI. We have created a Web-based Protein Interaction Network Visualizer: PINV, an open source, native web application that facilitates the visualization of protein interactions (http://biosual.cbio.uct.ac.za/pinv.html). We developed PINV as a set of components that follow the protocol defined in BioJS and use the D3 library to create the graphic layouts. We demonstrate the use of PINV with multi-organism interaction networks for a predicted target from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its interacting partners and its orthologs. Conclusions The resultant tool provides an attractive view of complex, fully interactive networks with components that allow the querying, filtering and manipulation of the visible subset. Moreover, as a web resource, PINV simplifies sharing and publishing, activities which are vital in today’s research collaborative environments. The source code is freely available for download at https://github.com/4ndr01d3/biosual. PMID:24885165

  8. Properties of interaction networks underlying the minority game.

    PubMed

    Caridi, Inés

    2014-11-01

    The minority game is a well-known agent-based model with no explicit interaction among its agents. However, it is known that they interact through the global magnitudes of the model and through their strategies. In this work we have attempted to formalize the implicit interactions among minority game agents as if they were links on a complex network. We have defined the link between two agents by quantifying the similarity between them. This link definition is based on the information of the instance of the game (the set of strategies assigned to each agent at the beginning) without any dynamic information on the game and brings about a static, unweighed and undirected network. We have analyzed the structure of the resulting network for different parameters, such as the number of agents (N) and the agent's capacity to process information (m), always taking into account games with two strategies per agent. In the region of crowd effects of the model, the resulting networks structure is a small-world network, whereas in the region where the behavior of the minority game is the same as in a game of random decisions, networks become a random network of Erdos-Renyi. The transition between these two types of networks is slow, without any peculiar feature of the network in the region of the coordination among agents. Finally, we have studied the resulting static networks for the full strategy minority game model, a maximal instance of the minority game in which all possible agents take part in the game. We have explicitly calculated the degree distribution of the full strategy minority game network and, on the basis of this analytical result, we have estimated the degree distribution of the minority game network, which is in accordance with computational results. PMID:25493843

  9. Properties of interaction networks underlying the minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, Inés

    2014-11-01

    The minority game is a well-known agent-based model with no explicit interaction among its agents. However, it is known that they interact through the global magnitudes of the model and through their strategies. In this work we have attempted to formalize the implicit interactions among minority game agents as if they were links on a complex network. We have defined the link between two agents by quantifying the similarity between them. This link definition is based on the information of the instance of the game (the set of strategies assigned to each agent at the beginning) without any dynamic information on the game and brings about a static, unweighed and undirected network. We have analyzed the structure of the resulting network for different parameters, such as the number of agents (N ) and the agent's capacity to process information (m ), always taking into account games with two strategies per agent. In the region of crowd effects of the model, the resulting networks structure is a small-world network, whereas in the region where the behavior of the minority game is the same as in a game of random decisions, networks become a random network of Erdos-Renyi. The transition between these two types of networks is slow, without any peculiar feature of the network in the region of the coordination among agents. Finally, we have studied the resulting static networks for the full strategy minority game model, a maximal instance of the minority game in which all possible agents take part in the game. We have explicitly calculated the degree distribution of the full strategy minority game network and, on the basis of this analytical result, we have estimated the degree distribution of the minority game network, which is in accordance with computational results.

  10. CARRIE web service: automated transcriptional regulatory network inference and interactive analysis

    E-print Network

    Weng, Zhiping

    CARRIE web service: automated transcriptional regulatory network inference and interactive analysis method that analyzes microarray and promoter sequence data to infer a transcriptional regulatory network members of a network. Deciphering the transcriptional portion of a cell's regulatory network is currently

  11. Cortico-Cardio-Respiratory Network Interactions during Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Shiogai, Yuri; Dhamala, Mukesh; Oshima, Kumiko; Hasler, Martin

    2012-01-01

    General anesthetics are used during medical and surgical procedures to reversibly induce a state of total unconsciousness in patients. Here, we investigate, from a dynamic network perspective, how the cortical and cardiovascular systems behave during anesthesia by applying nonparametric spectral techniques to cortical electroencephalography, electrocardiogram and respiratory signals recorded from anesthetized rats under two drugs, ketamine-xylazine (KX) and pentobarbital (PB). We find that the patterns of low-frequency cortico-cardio-respiratory network interactions may undergo significant changes in network activity strengths and in number of network links at different depths of anesthesia dependent upon anesthetics used. PMID:23028572

  12. Social Network Extraction and Analysis Based on Multimodal Dyadic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Escalera, Sergio; Baró, Xavier; Vitrià, Jordi; Radeva, Petia; Raducanu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions are a very important component in people’s lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times’ Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links’ weights are a measure of the “influence” a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network. PMID:22438733

  13. Behavioural phenotype affects social interactions in an animal network

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Thomas W; Samanta, Madhumita; Lindström, Jan; Royle, Nick J

    2008-01-01

    Animal social networks can be extremely complex and are characterized by highly non-random interactions between group members. However, very little is known about the underlying factors affecting interaction preferences, and hence network structure. One possibility is that behavioural differences between individuals, such as how bold or shy they are, can affect the frequency and distribution of their interactions within a network. We tested this using individually marked three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and found that bold individuals had fewer overall interactions than shy fish, but tended to distribute their interactions more evenly across all group members. Shy fish, on the other hand, tended to associate preferentially with a small number of other group members, leading to a highly skewed distribution of interactions. This was mediated by the reduced tendency of shy fish to move to a new location within the tank when they were interacting with another individual; bold fish showed no such tendency and were equally likely to move irrespective of whether they were interacting or not. The results show that animal social network structure can be affected by the behavioural composition of group members and have important implications for understanding the spread of information and disease in social groups. PMID:18647713

  14. Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…

  15. NetworkAnalyst - integrative approaches for protein–protein interaction network analysis and visual exploration

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jianguo; Benner, Maia J.; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2014-01-01

    Biological network analysis is a powerful approach to gain systems-level understanding of patterns of gene expression in different cell types, disease states and other biological/experimental conditions. Three consecutive steps are required - identification of genes or proteins of interest, network construction and network analysis and visualization. To date, researchers have to learn to use a combination of several tools to accomplish this task. In addition, interactive visualization of large networks has been primarily restricted to locally installed programs. To address these challenges, we have developed NetworkAnalyst, taking advantage of state-of-the-art web technologies, to enable high performance network analysis with rich user experience. NetworkAnalyst integrates all three steps and presents the results via a powerful online network visualization framework. Users can upload gene or protein lists, single or multiple gene expression datasets to perform comprehensive gene annotation and differential expression analysis. Significant genes are mapped to our manually curated protein-protein interaction database to construct relevant networks. The results are presented through standard web browsers for network analysis and interactive exploration. NetworkAnalyst supports common functions for network topology and module analyses. Users can easily search, zoom and highlight nodes or modules, as well as perform functional enrichment analysis on these selections. The networks can be customized with different layouts, colors or node sizes, and exported as PNG, PDF or GraphML files. Comprehensive FAQs, tutorials and context-based tips and instructions are provided. NetworkAnalyst currently supports protein-protein interaction network analysis for human and mouse and is freely available at http://www.networkanalyst.ca. PMID:24861621

  16. NetworkAnalyst--integrative approaches for protein-protein interaction network analysis and visual exploration.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianguo; Benner, Maia J; Hancock, Robert E W

    2014-07-01

    Biological network analysis is a powerful approach to gain systems-level understanding of patterns of gene expression in different cell types, disease states and other biological/experimental conditions. Three consecutive steps are required--identification of genes or proteins of interest, network construction and network analysis and visualization. To date, researchers have to learn to use a combination of several tools to accomplish this task. In addition, interactive visualization of large networks has been primarily restricted to locally installed programs. To address these challenges, we have developed NetworkAnalyst, taking advantage of state-of-the-art web technologies, to enable high performance network analysis with rich user experience. NetworkAnalyst integrates all three steps and presents the results via a powerful online network visualization framework. Users can upload gene or protein lists, single or multiple gene expression datasets to perform comprehensive gene annotation and differential expression analysis. Significant genes are mapped to our manually curated protein-protein interaction database to construct relevant networks. The results are presented through standard web browsers for network analysis and interactive exploration. NetworkAnalyst supports common functions for network topology and module analyses. Users can easily search, zoom and highlight nodes or modules, as well as perform functional enrichment analysis on these selections. The networks can be customized with different layouts, colors or node sizes, and exported as PNG, PDF or GraphML files. Comprehensive FAQs, tutorials and context-based tips and instructions are provided. NetworkAnalyst currently supports protein-protein interaction network analysis for human and mouse and is freely available at http://www.networkanalyst.ca. PMID:24861621

  17. Functional interactions between large-scale networks during memory search.

    PubMed

    Kragel, James E; Polyn, Sean M

    2015-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies have identified two major large-scale brain networks, the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN), which are engaged for internally and externally directed cognitive tasks respectively, and which show anticorrelated activity during cognitively demanding tests and at rest. We identified these brain networks using independent component analysis (ICA) of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, and examined their interactions during the free-recall task, a self-initiated memory search task in which retrieval is performed in the absence of external cues. Despite the internally directed nature of the task, the DAN showed transient engagement in the seconds leading up to successful retrieval. ICA revealed a fractionation of the DMN into 3 components. A posteromedial network increased engagement during memory search, while the two others showed suppressed activity during memory search. Cooperative interactions between this posteromedial network, a right-lateralized frontoparietal control network, and a medial prefrontal network were maintained during memory search. The DAN demonstrated heterogeneous task-dependent shifts in functional coupling with various subnetworks within the DMN. This functional reorganization suggests a broader role of the DAN in the absence of externally directed cognition, and highlights the contribution of the posteromedial network to episodic retrieval. PMID:24084128

  18. Integrating protein-protein interaction networks with phenotypes reveals signs of interactions.

    PubMed

    Vinayagam, Arunachalam; Zirin, Jonathan; Roesel, Charles; Hu, Yanhui; Yilmazel, Bahar; Samsonova, Anastasia A; Neumüller, Ralph A; Mohr, Stephanie E; Perrimon, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    A major objective of systems biology is to organize molecular interactions as networks and to characterize information flow within networks. We describe a computational framework to integrate protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and genetic screens to predict the 'signs' of interactions (i.e., activation-inhibition relationships). We constructed a Drosophila melanogaster signed PPI network consisting of 6,125 signed PPIs connecting 3,352 proteins that can be used to identify positive and negative regulators of signaling pathways and protein complexes. We identified an unexpected role for the metabolic enzymes enolase and aldo-keto reductase as positive and negative regulators of proteolysis, respectively. Characterization of the activation-inhibition relationships between physically interacting proteins within signaling pathways will affect our understanding of many biological functions, including signal transduction and mechanisms of disease. PMID:24240319

  19. Interactive transmission network planning using a least effort criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Monticelli, A.; Cunha, S.H.; Parker, B.J.; Periera, M.V.F.; Praca, J.C.A.; Santos, A. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes an interactive software tool for long term transmission system expansion planning. All network synthesis is based on the DC power-flow model. The ranking of new additions is based on a ''least-effort'' criterion that takes into account the pattern of flow distribution in the network. An automatic network synthesis algorithm can be used for static studies. The reinforcement criterion is based on the cost/benefit analysis of ''least-effort paths'' in the network. Disconnected buses are conveniently handled by the superposition of a dummy network with very low transmission capacity over the actual network. Sensitivity analysis is extensively used. The program has been implemented in the transmission department of ELETROBRAS (the holding company of the Brazilian electric sector). Three case studies are presented and discussed.

  20. Experimental evolution of protein–protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Kaçar, Betül; Gaucher, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The modern synthesis of evolutionary theory and genetics has enabled us to discover underlying molecular mechanisms of organismal evolution. We know that in order to maximize an organism's fitness in a particular environment, individual interactions among components of protein and nucleic acid networks need to be optimized by natural selection, or sometimes through random processes, as the organism responds to changes and/or challenges in the environment. Despite the significant role of molecular networks in determining an organism's adaptation to its environment, we still do not know how such inter- and intra-molecular interactions within networks change over time and contribute to an organism's evolvability while maintaining overall network functions. One way to address this challenge is to identify connections between molecular networks and their host organisms, to manipulate these connections, and then attempt to understand how such perturbations influence molecular dynamics of the network and thus influence evolutionary paths and organismal fitness. In the present review, we discuss how integrating evolutionary history with experimental systems that combine tools drawn from molecular evolution, synthetic biology and biochemistry allow us to identify the underlying mechanisms of organismal evolution, particularly from the perspective of protein interaction networks. PMID:23849056

  1. Exploring Function Prediction in Protein Interaction Networks via Clustering Methods

    PubMed Central

    Trivodaliev, Kire; Bogojeska, Aleksandra; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks have recently become the focus of research in many fields. Their structure reveals crucial information for the nodes, how they connect and share information. In our work we analyze protein interaction networks as complex networks for their functional modular structure and later use that information in the functional annotation of proteins within the network. We propose several graph representations for the protein interaction network, each having different level of complexity and inclusion of the annotation information within the graph. We aim to explore what the benefits and the drawbacks of these proposed graphs are, when they are used in the function prediction process via clustering methods. For making this cluster based prediction, we adopt well established approaches for cluster detection in complex networks using most recent representative algorithms that have been proven as efficient in the task at hand. The experiments are performed using a purified and reliable Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein interaction network, which is then used to generate the different graph representations. Each of the graph representations is later analysed in combination with each of the clustering algorithms, which have been possibly modified and implemented to fit the specific graph. We evaluate results in regards of biological validity and function prediction performance. Our results indicate that the novel ways of presenting the complex graph improve the prediction process, although the computational complexity should be taken into account when deciding on a particular approach. PMID:24972109

  2. Protein Interaction Networks—More Than Mere Modules

    PubMed Central

    Pinkert, Stefan; Schultz, Jörg; Reichardt, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that the modular organization of cellular function is reflected in a modular structure of molecular networks. A common view is that a “module” in a network is a cohesively linked group of nodes, densely connected internally and sparsely interacting with the rest of the network. Many algorithms try to identify functional modules in protein-interaction networks (PIN) by searching for such cohesive groups of proteins. Here, we present an alternative approach independent of any prior definition of what actually constitutes a “module”. In a self-consistent manner, proteins are grouped into “functional roles” if they interact in similar ways with other proteins according to their functional roles. Such grouping may well result in cohesive modules again, but only if the network structure actually supports this. We applied our method to the PIN from the Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) and found that a representation of the network in terms of cohesive modules, at least on a global scale, does not optimally represent the network's structure because it focuses on finding independent groups of proteins. In contrast, a decomposition into functional roles is able to depict the structure much better as it also takes into account the interdependencies between roles and even allows groupings based on the absence of interactions between proteins in the same functional role. This, for example, is the case for transmembrane proteins, which could never be recognized as a cohesive group of nodes in a PIN. When mapping experimental methods onto the groups, we identified profound differences in the coverage suggesting that our method is able to capture experimental bias in the data, too. For example yeast-two-hybrid data were highly overrepresented in one particular group. Thus, there is more structure in protein-interaction networks than cohesive modules alone and we believe this finding can significantly improve automated function prediction algorithms. PMID:20126533

  3. NetworkView: 3D display and analysis of protein·RNA interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Eargle, John; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2012-01-01

    Summary: NetworkView is an application for the display and analysis of protein·RNA interaction networks derived from structure and/or dynamics. These networks typically model individual protein residues and nucleic acid monomers as nodes and their pairwise contacts as edges with associated weights. NetworkView projects the network onto the underlying 3D molecular structure so that visualization and analysis of the network can be coupled to physical and biological properties. NetworkView is implemented as a plugin to the molecular visualization software VMD. Availability and implementation: NetworkView is included with VMD, which is available at http://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Research/vmd/. Documentation, tutorials and supporting programs are available at http://www.scs.illinois.edu/schulten/software/. Contact: networkview@scs.illinois.edu PMID:22982572

  4. Global alignment of protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Mongiovì, Misael; Sharan, Roded

    2013-01-01

    Sequence-based comparisons have been the workhorse of bioinformatics for the past four decades, furthering our understanding of gene function and evolution. Over the last decade, a plethora of technologies have matured for measuring Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) at large scale, yielding comprehensive PPI networks for over ten species. In this chapter, we review methods for harnessing PPI networks to improve the detection of orthologous proteins across species. In particular, we focus on pairwise global network alignment methods that aim to find a mapping between the networks of two species that maximizes the sequence and interaction similarities between matched nodes. We further suggest a novel evolutionary-based global alignment algorithm. We then compare the different methods on a yeast-fly-worm benchmark, discuss their performance differences, and conclude with open directions for future research. PMID:23192538

  5. Prediction and Annotation of Plant Protein Interaction Networks

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Wang, Jun; Yu, Jun; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Samudrala, Ram

    2009-02-01

    Large-scale experimental studies of interactions between components of biological systems have been performed for a variety of eukaryotic organisms. However, there is a dearth of such data for plants. Computational methods for prediction of relationships between proteins, primarily based on comparative genomics, provide a useful systems-level view of cellular functioning and can be used to extend information about other eukaryotes to plants. We have predicted networks for Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa indica and japonica and several plant pathogens using the Bioverse (http://bioverse.compbio.washington.edu) and show that they are similar to experimentally-derived interaction networks. Predicted interaction networks for plants can be used to provide novel functional annotations and predictions about plant phenotypes and aid in rational engineering of biosynthesis pathways.

  6. Topology and static response of interaction networks in molecular biology

    PubMed Central

    Radulescu, Ovidiu; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Siegel, Anne; Veber, Philippe; Le Borgne, Michel

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a mathematical framework describing static response of networks occurring in molecular biology. This formalism has many similarities with the Laplace–Kirchhoff equations for electrical networks. We introduce the concept of graph boundary and we show how the response of the biological networks to external perturbations can be related to the Dirichlet or Neumann problems for the corresponding equations on the interaction graph. Solutions to these two problems are given in terms of path moduli (measuring path rigidity with respect to the propagation of interaction along the graph). Path moduli are related to loop products in the interaction graph via generalized Mason–Coates formulae. We apply our results to two specific biological examples: the lactose operon and the genetic regulation of lipogenesis. Our applications show consistency with experimental results and in the case of lipogenesis check some hypothesis on the behaviour of hepatic fatty acids on fasting. PMID:16849230

  7. Evaluating Australian Football League Player Contributions Using Interactive Network Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jonathan; Bedford, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL) players to their team’s on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player’s match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong’s Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list “covering the line ”. Key points A simulated interaction matrix for Australian Rules football players is proposed The simulations were carried out by fitting unique negative binomial distributions to each player pairing in a side Eigenvector centrality was calculated for each player in a simulated matrix, then for the team The team centrality measure adequately predicted the team’s winning margin A player’s net effect on margin could hence be estimated by replacing him in the simulated side with another player PMID:24149734

  8. Enhanced Reality Audio in Interactive Networked Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicky Hardman; Marcus Iken

    1996-01-01

    The human auditory system has a two-fold function, to act as a receiver for spoken language, and also as an interpreter of the omni-directional environment that the listener is in (to direct the eyes). The acceptance of a network audio tool depends on both its ability to provide communication between remote participants, and its ability to immerse the listener in

  9. Drug interaction networks: an introduction to translational and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Azuaje, Francisco

    2013-03-15

    This article introduces fundamental concepts to guide the analysis and interpretation of drug-target interaction networks. An overview of the generation and integration of interaction networks is followed by key strategies for extracting biologically meaningful information. The article highlights how this information can enable novel translational and clinically motivated applications. Important advances for the discovery of new treatments and for the detection of adverse drug effects are discussed. Examples of applications and findings originating from cardiovascular research are presented. The review ends with a discussion of crucial challenges and opportunities. PMID:22977007

  10. Interactive, multiscale navigation of large and complicated biological networks

    PubMed Central

    Praneenararat, Thanet; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Many types of omics data are compiled as lists of connections between elements and visualized as networks or graphs where the nodes and edges correspond to the elements and the connections, respectively. However, these networks often appear as ‘hair-balls’—with a large number of extremely tangled edges—and cannot be visually interpreted. Results: We present an interactive, multiscale navigation method for biological networks. Our approach can automatically and rapidly abstract any portion of a large network of interest to an immediately interpretable extent. The method is based on an ultrafast graph clustering technique that abstracts networks of about 100 000 nodes in a second by iteratively grouping densely connected portions and a biological-property-based clustering technique that takes advantage of biological information often provided for biological entities (e.g. Gene Ontology terms). It was confirmed to be effective by applying it to real yeast protein network data, and would greatly help modern biologists faced with large, complicated networks in a similar manner to how Web mapping services enable interactive multiscale navigation of geographical maps (e.g. Google Maps). Availability: Java implementation of our method, named NaviCluster, is available at http://navicluster.cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/. Contact: thanet@cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21349867

  11. An Interaction Library for the Fc?RI Signaling Network

    PubMed Central

    Chylek, Lily A.; Holowka, David A.; Baird, Barbara A.; Hlavacek, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Antigen receptors play a central role in adaptive immune responses. Although the molecular networks associated with these receptors have been extensively studied, we currently lack a systems-level understanding of how combinations of non-covalent interactions and post-translational modifications are regulated during signaling to impact cellular decision-making. To fill this knowledge gap, it will be necessary to formalize and piece together information about individual molecular mechanisms to form large-scale computational models of signaling networks. To this end, we have developed an interaction library for signaling by the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI. The library consists of executable rules for protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions. This library extends earlier models for Fc?RI signaling and introduces new interactions that have not previously been considered in a model. Thus, this interaction library is a toolkit with which existing models can be expanded and from which new models can be built. As an example, we present models of branching pathways from the adaptor protein Lat, which influence production of the phospholipid PIP3 at the plasma membrane and the soluble second messenger IP3. We find that inclusion of a positive feedback loop gives rise to a bistable switch, which may ensure robust responses to stimulation above a threshold level. In addition, the library is visualized to facilitate understanding of network circuitry and identification of network motifs. PMID:24782869

  12. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  13. Identifying protein complexes by reducing noise in interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo; Fu, Xiangzheng; Cai, Lijun; Chen, Haowen

    2014-07-01

    Identifying protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is a fundamental problem in computational biology. High-throughput experimental techniques have generated large, experimentally detected PPI datasets. These interactions represent a rich source of data that can be used to detect protein complexes; however, such interactions contain much noise. Therefore, these interactions should be validated before they could be applied to detect protein complexes. We propose an efficient measure to estimate PPI reliability (PPIR) and reduce noise level in two different yeast PPI networks. PPIRU, which is a new protein complex clustering algorithm based on PPIR, is introduced. Experiments demonstrated that interactome graph weighting methods incorporating PPIR clearly improve the results of several clustering algorithms. PPIR also outperforms other PPI graph weighting schemes in most cases. We compare PPIRU with several efficient, existing clustering algorithms and reveal that the accuracy values of PPIRU clusters are much higher than those of other algorithms. PMID:24654850

  14. Mining the Modular Structure of Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Laura Inés; Chernomoretz, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Cluster-based descriptions of biological networks have received much attention in recent years fostered by accumulated evidence of the existence of meaningful correlations between topological network clusters and biological functional modules. Several well-performing clustering algorithms exist to infer topological network partitions. However, due to respective technical idiosyncrasies they might produce dissimilar modular decompositions of a given network. In this contribution, we aimed to analyze how alternative modular descriptions could condition the outcome of follow-up network biology analysis. Methodology We considered a human protein interaction network and two paradigmatic cluster recognition algorithms, namely: the Clauset-Newman-Moore and the infomap procedures. We analyzed to what extent both methodologies yielded different results in terms of granularity and biological congruency. In addition, taking into account Guimera’s cartographic role characterization of network nodes, we explored how the adoption of a given clustering methodology impinged on the ability to highlight relevant network meso-scale connectivity patterns. Results As a case study we considered a set of aging related proteins and showed that only the high-resolution modular description provided by infomap, could unveil statistically significant associations between them and inter/intra modular cartographic features. Besides reporting novel biological insights that could be gained from the discovered associations, our contribution warns against possible technical concerns that might affect the tools used to mine for interaction patterns in network biology studies. In particular our results suggested that sub-optimal partitions from the strict point of view of their modularity levels might still be worth being analyzed when meso-scale features were to be explored in connection with external source of biological knowledge. PMID:25856434

  15. Stabilization of perturbed Boolean network attractors through compensatory interactions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding and ameliorating the effects of network damage are of significant interest, due in part to the variety of applications in which network damage is relevant. For example, the effects of genetic mutations can cascade through within-cell signaling and regulatory networks and alter the behavior of cells, possibly leading to a wide variety of diseases. The typical approach to mitigating network perturbations is to consider the compensatory activation or deactivation of system components. Here, we propose a complementary approach wherein interactions are instead modified to alter key regulatory functions and prevent the network damage from triggering a deregulatory cascade. Results We implement this approach in a Boolean dynamic framework, which has been shown to effectively model the behavior of biological regulatory and signaling networks. We show that the method can stabilize any single state (e.g., fixed point attractors or time-averaged representations of multi-state attractors) to be an attractor of the repaired network. We show that the approach is minimalistic in that few modifications are required to provide stability to a chosen attractor and specific in that interventions do not have undesired effects on the attractor. We apply the approach to random Boolean networks, and further show that the method can in some cases successfully repair synchronous limit cycles. We also apply the methodology to case studies from drought-induced signaling in plants and T-LGL leukemia and find that it is successful in both stabilizing desired behavior and in eliminating undesired outcomes. Code is made freely available through the software package BooleanNet. Conclusions The methodology introduced in this report offers a complementary way to manipulating node expression levels. A comprehensive approach to evaluating network manipulation should take an "all of the above" perspective; we anticipate that theoretical studies of interaction modification, coupled with empirical advances, will ultimately provide researchers with greater flexibility in influencing system behavior. PMID:24885780

  16. NetworkViewer: visualizing biochemical reaction networks with embedded rendering of molecular interaction rules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Network representations of cell-biological signaling processes frequently contain large numbers of interacting molecular and multi-molecular components that can exist in, and switch between, multiple biochemical and/or structural states. In addition, the interaction categories (associations, dissociations and transformations) in such networks cannot satisfactorily be mapped onto simple arrows connecting pairs of components since their specifications involve information such as reaction rates and conditions with regard to the states of the interacting components. This leads to the challenge of having to reconcile competing objectives: providing a high-level overview without omitting relevant information, and showing interaction specifics while not overwhelming users with too much detail displayed simultaneously. This problem is typically addressed by splitting the information required to understand a reaction network model into several categories that are rendered separately through combinations of visualizations and/or textual and tabular elements, requiring modelers to consult several sources to obtain comprehensive insights into the underlying assumptions of the model. Results We report the development of an application, the Simmune NetworkViewer, that visualizes biochemical reaction networks using iconographic representations of protein interactions and the conditions under which the interactions take place using the same symbols that were used to specify the underlying model with the Simmune Modeler. This approach not only provides a coherent model representation but, moreover, following the principle of “overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on-demand,” can generate an overview visualization of the global network and, upon user request, presents more detailed views of local sub-networks and the underlying reaction rules for selected interactions. This visual integration of information would be difficult to achieve with static network representations or approaches that use scripted model specifications without offering simple but detailed symbolic representations of molecular interactions, their conditions and consequences in terms of biochemical modifications. Conclusions The Simmune NetworkViewer provides concise, yet comprehensive visualizations of reaction networks created in the Simmune framework. In the near future, by adopting the upcoming SBML standard for encoding multi-component, multi-state molecular complexes and their interactions as input, the NetworkViewer will, moreover, be able to offer such visualization for any rule-based model that can be exported to that standard. PMID:24934175

  17. Methods for Mapping of Interaction Networks Involving Membrane Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, Brian S.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Lin, Chiann Tso

    2007-11-23

    Numerous approaches have been taken to study protein interactions, such as tagged protein complex isolation followed by mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid methods, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, surface plasmon resonance, site-directed mutagenesis, and crystallography. Membrane protein interactions pose significant challenges due to the need to solubilize membranes without disrupting protein-protein interactions. Traditionally, analysis of isolated protein complexes by high-resolution 2D gel electrophoresis has been the main method used to obtain an overall picture of proteome constituents and interactions. However, this method is time consuming, labor intensive, detects only abundant proteins and is not suitable for the coverage required to elucidate large interaction networks. In this review, we discuss the application of various methods to elucidate interactions involving membrane proteins. These techniques include methods for the direct isolation of single complexes or interactors as well as methods for characterization of entire subcellular and cellular interactomes.

  18. Automatic Context-Specific Subnetwork Discovery from Large Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Ashis; Tan, Aik Choon; Kang, Jaewoo

    2014-01-01

    Genes act in concert via specific networks to drive various biological processes, including progression of diseases such as cancer. Under different phenotypes, different subsets of the gene members of a network participate in a biological process. Single gene analyses are less effective in identifying such core gene members (subnetworks) within a gene set/network, as compared to gene set/network-based analyses. Hence, it is useful to identify a discriminative classifier by focusing on the subnetworks that correspond to different phenotypes. Here we present a novel algorithm to automatically discover the important subnetworks of closely interacting molecules to differentiate between two phenotypes (context) using gene expression profiles. We name it COSSY (COntext-Specific Subnetwork discoverY). It is a non-greedy algorithm and thus unlikely to have local optima problems. COSSY works for any interaction network regardless of the network topology. One added benefit of COSSY is that it can also be used as a highly accurate classification platform which can produce a set of interpretable features. PMID:24392115

  19. The SmartPhone: Interactive Group Audio with Complementary Symbolic Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Moors

    2002-01-01

    The SmartPhone provides a medium for distributed interactive group dialog by complementing an audio channel with a symbolic\\u000a control channel. The control channel conveys information used for speaker identification, feedback, and turn taking. While\\u000a these are conveyed visually in face-to-face meetings, their absence in purely audio systems limits the interactivity possible\\u000a with such systems. Conveying control information symbolically avoids the

  20. Plant Protein-Protein Interaction Network and Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixiang; Gao, Peng; Yuan, Joshua S

    2010-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction network represents an important aspect of systems biology. The understanding of the plant protein-protein interaction network and interactome will provide crucial insights into the regulation of plant developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. In this review, we will first define the concept of plant interactome and the protein-protein interaction network. The significance of the plant interactome study will be discussed. We will then compare the pros and cons for different strategies for interactome mapping including yeast two-hybrid system (Y2H), affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and in silico prediction. The application of these platforms on specific plant biology questions will be further discussed. The recent advancements revealed the great potential for plant protein-protein interaction network and interactome to elucidate molecular mechanisms for signal transduction, stress responses, cell cycle control, pattern formation, and others. Mapping the plant interactome in model species will provide important guideline for the future study of plant biology. PMID:20808522

  1. Brain Network Interactions in Auditory, Visual and Linguistic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Barry; Braun, Allen R.

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, we discuss the importance of network interactions between brain regions in mediating performance of sensorimotor and cognitive tasks, including those associated with language processing. Functional neuroimaging, especially PET and fMRI, provide data that are obtained essentially simultaneously from much of the brain, and thus are…

  2. Analysing Interactions in a Teacher Network Forum: A Sociometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisboa, Eliana Santana; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the sociometric analysis of the interactions in a forum of a social network created for the professional development of Portuguese-speaking teachers. The main goal of the forum, which was titled Stricto Sensu, was to discuss the educational value of programmes that joined the distance learning model in Brazil. The empirical…

  3. A Quantitative Chaperone Interaction Network Reveals the Architecture of

    E-print Network

    Sabatini, David M.

    Resource A Quantitative Chaperone Interaction Network Reveals the Architecture of Cellular Protein Chaperones are abundant cellular proteins that promote the folding and function of their substrate proteins (clients). In vivo, chaperones also associate with a large and diverse set of cofactors (cochaper- ones

  4. Cell Stem Cell An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    Cell Stem Cell Resource An Expanded Oct4 Interaction Network: Implications for Stem Cell Biology is key in embryonic stem cell identity and reprogramming. Insight into its part- ners should illuminate set of Oct4-binding proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells. We find that Oct4 asso- ciates

  5. Network Game Design: Hints and Implications of Player Interaction

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    , such as online games, perform. To gain a bet- ter understanding of patterns of player interaction and their implications for game design, we analyze a 1, 356-million- packet trace of ShenZhou Online, a mid, which is inferred from network-level traces, for online games. We find that the dispersion of players

  6. Networked Interactive Video for Group Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eary, John

    2008-01-01

    The National Computing Centre (NCC) has developed an interactive video training system for the Scottish Police College to help train police supervisory officers in crowd control at major spectator events, such as football matches. This approach involves technology-enhanced training in a group-learning environment, and may have significant impact…

  7. Why Do Hubs in the Yeast Protein Interaction Network Tend To Be Essential: Reexamining the Connection

    E-print Network

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    of six variants of the genomewide protein interaction network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained using that high-degree nodes or hubs in a protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain more

  8. Beyond Social Graphs: User Interactions in Online Social Networks and their Implications

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Ben Y.

    17 Beyond Social Graphs: User Interactions in Online Social Networks and their Implications CHRISTO Barbara Social networks are popular platforms for interaction, communication, and collaboration between friends. Researchers have recently proposed an emerging class of applications that leverage relationships

  9. Local optimization for global alignment of protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Chindelevitch, Leonid; Liao, Chung-Shou; Berger, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel algorithm, PISwap, for computing global pairwise alignments of protein interaction networks, based on a local optimization heuristic that has previously demonstrated its effectiveness for a variety of other NP-hard problems, such as the Traveling Salesman Problem. Our algorithm begins with a sequence-based network alignment and then iteratively adjusts the alignment by incorporating network structure information. It has a worst-case pseudo-polynomial running-time bound and is very efficient in practice. It is shown to produce improved alignments in several well-studied cases. In addition, the flexible nature of this algorithm makes it suitable for different applications of network alignments. Finally, this algorithm can yield interesting insights into the evolutionary history of the compared species. PMID:19908365

  10. Mining functional subgraphs from cancer protein-protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks carry vital information about proteins' functions. Analysis of PPI networks associated with specific disease systems including cancer helps us in the understanding of the complex biology of diseases. Specifically, identification of similar and frequently occurring patterns (network motifs) across PPI networks will provide useful clues to better understand the biology of the diseases. Results In this study, we developed a novel pattern-mining algorithm that detects cancer associated functional subgraphs occurring in multiple cancer PPI networks. We constructed nine cancer PPI networks using differentially expressed genes from the Oncomine dataset. From these networks we discovered frequent patterns that occur in all networks and at different size levels. Patterns are abstracted subgraphs with their nodes replaced by node cluster IDs. By using effective canonical labeling and adopting weighted adjacency matrices, we are able to perform graph isomorphism test in polynomial running time. We use a bottom-up pattern growth approach to search for patterns, which allows us to effectively reduce the search space as pattern sizes grow. Validation of the frequent common patterns using GO semantic similarity showed that the discovered subgraphs scored consistently higher than the randomly generated subgraphs at each size level. We further investigated the cancer relevance of a select set of subgraphs using literature-based evidences. Conclusion Frequent common patterns exist in cancer PPI networks, which can be found through effective pattern mining algorithms. We believe that this work would allow us to identify functionally relevant and coherent subgraphs in cancer networks, which can be advanced to experimental validation to further our understanding of the complex biology of cancer. PMID:23282132

  11. Prediction of Oncogenic Interactions and Cancer-Related Signaling Networks Based on Network Topology

    PubMed Central

    Acencio, Marcio Luis; Bovolenta, Luiz Augusto; Camilo, Esther; Lemke, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a systems biology disease since many investigators have demonstrated that this malignant phenotype emerges from abnormal protein-protein, regulatory and metabolic interactions induced by simultaneous structural and regulatory changes in multiple genes and pathways. Therefore, the identification of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks is crucial for better understanding cancer. As experimental techniques for determining such interactions and signaling networks are labor-intensive and time-consuming, the development of a computational approach capable to accomplish this task would be of great value. For this purpose, we present here a novel computational approach based on network topology and machine learning capable to predict oncogenic interactions and extract relevant cancer-related signaling subnetworks from an integrated network of human genes interactions (INHGI). This approach, called graph2sig, is twofold: first, it assigns oncogenic scores to all interactions in the INHGI and then these oncogenic scores are used as edge weights to extract oncogenic signaling subnetworks from INHGI. Regarding the prediction of oncogenic interactions, we showed that graph2sig is able to recover 89% of known oncogenic interactions with a precision of 77%. Moreover, the interactions that received high oncogenic scores are enriched in genes for which mutations have been causally implicated in cancer. We also demonstrated that graph2sig is potentially useful in extracting oncogenic signaling subnetworks: more than 80% of constructed subnetworks contain more than 50% of original interactions in their corresponding oncogenic linear pathways present in the KEGG PATHWAY database. In addition, the potential oncogenic signaling subnetworks discovered by graph2sig are supported by experimental evidence. Taken together, these results suggest that graph2sig can be a useful tool for investigators involved in cancer research interested in detecting signaling networks most prone to contribute with the emergence of malignant phenotype. PMID:24204854

  12. Using a Dynamic Bayesian Network to Learn Genetic Interactions Linus Gransson

    E-print Network

    Koski, Timo

    of reverse engineering of genetic networks, i.e. inferring the underlying genetic network from analysis1 Using a Dynamic Bayesian Network to Learn Genetic Interactions Linus Göransson Graduate School. Obtaining a map of this genetic network would give a whole new perspective on genetic interactions, leading

  13. Interacting epidemics and coinfection on contact networks

    E-print Network

    Newman, M E J

    2013-01-01

    The spread of certain diseases can be promoted, in some cases substantially, by prior infection with another disease. One example is that of HIV, whose immunosuppressant effects significantly increase the chances of infection with other pathogens. Such coinfection processes, when combined with nontrivial structure in the contact networks over which diseases spread, can lead to complex patterns of epidemiological behavior. Here we consider a mathematical model of two diseases spreading through a single population, where infection with one disease is dependent on prior infection with the other. We solve exactly for the sizes of the outbreaks of both diseases in the limit of large population size, along with the complete phase diagram of the system. Among other things, we use our model to demonstrate how diseases can be controlled not only by reducing the rate of their spread, but also by reducing the spread of other infections upon which they depend.

  14. Ant Colony Approach to Predict Amino Acid Interaction Networks Le Havre University

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ant Colony Approach to Predict Amino Acid Interaction Networks Omar GACI Le Havre University LITIS the notion of protein interaction network. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids's interaction network from its amino acid sequence. An ant colony approach is used to solve this problem. 1

  15. Characterization of amino acid interaction networks in proteins Omar Gaci and Stefan Balev

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Characterization of amino acid interaction networks in proteins Omar Gaci and Stefan Balev LITIS.Balev}@univ-lehavre.fr Abstract: A protein interaction network is a graph whose vertices are the protein's amino acids and whose of interactions between the protein's amino acids which form chemical bonds. We use the following network model

  16. PhIN: A Protein Pharmacology Interaction Network Database

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Li, J; Dang, R; Liang, L; Lin, J

    2015-01-01

    Network pharmacology is a new and hot concept in drug discovery for its ability to investigate the complexity of polypharmacology, and becomes more and more important in drug development. Here we report a protein pharmacology interaction network database (PhIN), aiming to assist multitarget drug discovery by providing comprehensive and flexible network pharmacology analysis. Overall, PhIN contains 1,126,060 target–target interaction pairs in terms of shared compounds and 3,428,020 pairs in terms of shared scaffolds, which involve 12,419,700 activity data, 9,414 targets, 314 viral targets, 652 pathways, 1,359,400 compounds, and 309,556 scaffolds. Using PhIN, users can obtain interacting target networks within or across human pathways, between human and virus, by defining the number of shared compounds or scaffolds under an activity cutoff. We expect PhIN to be a useful tool for multitarget drug development. PhIN is freely available at http://cadd.pharmacy.nankai.edu.cn/phin/.

  17. Economic and functional issues associated with interactive network clients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colligan, Michael R.

    1996-01-01

    The build-out of residential interactive networks presents application developers and content providers with new and exciting distribution channels. With this opportunity comes the challenge of delivering compelling multimedia services within a severely resource-constrained environment. Initially, these networks will provide unidirectional broadband data streaming capabilities with limited bi-directional control channels. For economical reasons, the associated customer premise equipment will consist of simple set-top boxes (STBs) containing only a few megabytes of memory and no secondary storage. Given these constraints, the challenge for application developers is to construct a service delivery framework capable of efficiently utilizing powerful upstream computing resources while minimizing latencies due to the interventing network. A client/server software architecture, originally developed for enterprise networks, is the basis of this framework. Combined with distributed computing concepts, a properly partitioned system can provide a very capable interactive network platform. This discussion focuses on the client side of such a system. It explores the usage of interpretive runtime environments for STBs and suggests methods for expanding client functionality through object aggregation and encapsulation.

  18. DIP, the Database of Interacting Proteins: a research tool for studying cellular networks of protein interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis Xenarios; Lukasz Salwínski; Xiaoqun Joyce Duan; Patrick Higney; Sul-min Kim; David Eisenberg

    2002-01-01

    The Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP: http:\\/\\/ dip.doe-mbi.ucla.edu) is a database that documents experimentally determined protein-protein inter- actions. It provides the scientific community with an integrated set of tools for browsing and extracting information about protein interaction networks. As of September 2001, the DIP catalogs ?11 000 unique inter- actions among 5900 proteins from >80 organisms; the vast majority from

  19. Research on single nucleotide polymorphisms interaction detection from network perspective.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingtao; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zhihui; Han, Liang; Yan, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) mainly influence the susceptibility of complex diseases, but they still could not comprehensively explain the relationships between mutations and diseases. Interactions between SNPs are considered so important for deeply understanding of those relationships that several strategies have been proposed to explore such interactions. However, part of those methods perform poorly when marginal effects of disease loci are weak or absent, others may lack of considering high-order SNPs interactions, few methods have achieved the requirements in both performance and accuracy. Considering the above reasons, not only low-order, but also high-order SNP interactions as well as main-effect SNPs, should be taken into account in detection methods under an acceptable computational complexity. In this paper, a new pairwise (or low-order) interaction detection method IG (Interaction Gain) is introduced, in which disease models are not required and parallel computing is utilized. Furthermore, high-order SNP interactions were proposed to be detected by finding closely connected function modules of the network constructed from IG detection results. Tested by a wide range of simulated datasets and four WTCCC real datasets, the proposed methods accurately detected both low-order and high-order SNP interactions as well as disease-associated main-effect SNPS and it surpasses all competitors in performances. The research will advance complex diseases research by providing more reliable SNP interactions. PMID:25763929

  20. Research on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Interaction Detection from Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lingtao; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zhihui; Han, Liang; Yan, Lun

    2015-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) mainly influence the susceptibility of complex diseases, but they still could not comprehensively explain the relationships between mutations and diseases. Interactions between SNPs are considered so important for deeply understanding of those relationships that several strategies have been proposed to explore such interactions. However, part of those methods perform poorly when marginal effects of disease loci are weak or absent, others may lack of considering high-order SNPs interactions, few methods have achieved the requirements in both performance and accuracy. Considering the above reasons, not only low-order, but also high-order SNP interactions as well as main-effect SNPs, should be taken into account in detection methods under an acceptable computational complexity. In this paper, a new pairwise (or low-order) interaction detection method IG (Interaction Gain) is introduced, in which disease models are not required and parallel computing is utilized. Furthermore, high-order SNP interactions were proposed to be detected by finding closely connected function modules of the network constructed from IG detection results. Tested by a wide range of simulated datasets and four WTCCC real datasets, the proposed methods accurately detected both low-order and high-order SNP interactions as well as disease-associated main-effect SNPS and it surpasses all competitors in performances. The research will advance complex diseases research by providing more reliable SNP interactions. PMID:25763929

  1. Social cognition on the Internet: testing constraints on social network size

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, R. I. M.

    2012-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis (an explanation for the evolution of brain size in primates) predicts that humans typically cannot maintain more than 150 relationships at any one time. The constraint is partly cognitive (ultimately determined by some aspect of brain volume) and partly one of time. Friendships (but not necessarily kin relationships) are maintained by investing time in them, and failure to do so results in an inexorable deterioration in the quality of a relationship. The Internet, and in particular the rise of social networking sites (SNSs), raises the possibility that digital media might allow us to circumvent some or all of these constraints. This allows us to test the importance of these constraints in limiting human sociality. Although the recency of SNSs means that there have been relatively few studies, those that are available suggest that, in general, the ability to broadcast to many individuals at once, and the possibilities this provides in terms of continuously updating our understanding of network members’ behaviour and thoughts, do not allow larger networks to be maintained. This may be because only relatively weak quality relationships can be maintained without face-to-face interaction. PMID:22734062

  2. Bootstrapping under constraint for the assessment of group behavior in human contact networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Nicolas; Barrat, Alain; Forest, Cary; Nornberg, Mark; Pinton, Jean-François; Borgnat, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The increasing availability of time- and space-resolved data describing human activities and interactions gives insights into both static and dynamic properties of human behavior. In practice, nevertheless, real-world data sets can often be considered as only one realization of a particular event. This highlights a key issue in social network analysis: the statistical significance of estimated properties. In this context, we focus here on the assessment of quantitative features of specific subset of nodes in empirical networks. We present a method of statistical resampling based on bootstrapping groups of nodes under constraints within the empirical network. The method enables us to define acceptance intervals for various null hypotheses concerning relevant properties of the subset of nodes under consideration in order to characterize by a statistical test its behavior as “normal” or not. We apply this method to a high-resolution data set describing the face-to-face proximity of individuals during two colocated scientific conferences. As a case study, we show how to probe whether colocating the two conferences succeeded in bringing together the two corresponding groups of scientists.

  3. Social cognition on the Internet: testing constraints on social network size.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, R I M

    2012-08-01

    The social brain hypothesis (an explanation for the evolution of brain size in primates) predicts that humans typically cannot maintain more than 150 relationships at any one time. The constraint is partly cognitive (ultimately determined by some aspect of brain volume) and partly one of time. Friendships (but not necessarily kin relationships) are maintained by investing time in them, and failure to do so results in an inexorable deterioration in the quality of a relationship. The Internet, and in particular the rise of social networking sites (SNSs), raises the possibility that digital media might allow us to circumvent some or all of these constraints. This allows us to test the importance of these constraints in limiting human sociality. Although the recency of SNSs means that there have been relatively few studies, those that are available suggest that, in general, the ability to broadcast to many individuals at once, and the possibilities this provides in terms of continuously updating our understanding of network members' behaviour and thoughts, do not allow larger networks to be maintained. This may be because only relatively weak quality relationships can be maintained without face-to-face interaction. PMID:22734062

  4. Information sharing and relationships on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Steijn, Wouter M P; Schouten, Alexander P

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the relationship between sharing personal information and relationship development in the context of social networking sites (SNSs). Information disclosed on these sites could affect relationships in a different manner compared to more traditional interactions, such as instant messaging or face-to-face interaction. Respondents in the age range of 12 to 83 were surveyed about experiences of relationship development as a consequence of contact through Facebook or Hyves-the most popular Dutch SNSs. Results showed a primarily positive effect of information sharing on SNSs on our relationships. Furthermore, relationship development mainly occurs among acquaintances and friends, and public posts are most strongly related to relationship development. These findings suggest that SNSs might affect relationships in a distinct fashion as acquaintances and friends gain access to public self-disclosures that might normally only be reserved for close friends and family. Overall, this study provides an insight into some of the positive aspects of the public nature of SNSs in contrast with the general negative associations. PMID:23659723

  5. Interactive Querying over Large Network Data: Scalability, Visualization, and Interaction Design

    PubMed Central

    Pienta, Robert; Tamersoy, Acar; Tong, Hanghang; Endert, Alex; Chau, Duen Horng

    2015-01-01

    Given the explosive growth of modern graph data, new methods are needed that allow for the querying of complex graph structures without the need of a complicated querying languages; in short, interactive graph querying is desirable. We describe our work towards achieving our overall research goal of designing and developing an interactive querying system for large network data. We focus on three critical aspects: scalable data mining algorithms, graph visualization, and interaction design. We have already completed an approximate subgraph matching system called MAGE in our previous work that fulfills the algorithmic foundation allowing us to query a graph with hundreds of millions of edges. Our preliminary work on visual graph querying, Graphite, was the first step in the process to making an interactive graph querying system. We are in the process of designing the graph visualization and robust interaction needed to make truly interactive graph querying a reality.

  6. Ecological Networks: Structure, Interaction Strength, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Sinha, Somdatta

    The fundamental building blocks of any ecosystem, the food webs, which are assemblages of species through various interconnections, provide a central concept in ecology. The study of a food web allows abstractions of the complexity and interconnectedness of natural communities that transcend the specific details of the underlying systems. For example, Fig. 1 shows a typical food web, where the species are connected through their feeding relationships. The top predator, Heliaster (starfish) feeds on many gastropods like Hexaplex, Morula, Cantharus, etc., some of whom predate on each other [129]. Interactions between species in a food web can be of many types, such as predation, competition, mutualism, commensalism, and ammensalism (see Section 1.1, Fig. 2).

  7. Design and Integration of Low-Cost Technologies and Software to Create Interactive Learning and Support Environments which Augment Traditional Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taha A. Taha

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a project based on the premise that technologies for learning should not attempt to replace traditional education, but should provide services that facilitate teaching, learning, and education-related administrative tasks. It examines the need for an easy-to-use, open, and affordable interactive learning environment that can support both face-to-face interaction and computer meditated interaction. In

  8. Auditing Medical Records Accesses via Healthcare Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Nyemba, Steve; Malin, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are deploying increasingly complex clinical information systems to support patient care. Traditional information security practices (e.g., role-based access control) are embedded in enterprise-level systems, but are insufficient to ensure patient privacy. This is due, in part, to the dynamic nature of healthcare, which makes it difficult to predict which care providers need access to what and when. In this paper, we show that modeling operations at a higher level of granularity (e.g., the departmental level) are stable in the context of a relational network, which may enable more effective auditing strategies. We study three months of access logs from a large academic medical center to illustrate that departmental interaction networks exhibit certain invariants, such as the number, strength, and reciprocity of relationships. We further show that the relations extracted from the network can be leveraged to assess the extent to which a patient’s care satisfies expected organizational behavior. PMID:23304277

  9. Agreement dynamics on interaction networks with diverse topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, Alain; Baronchelli, Andrea; Dall'Asta, Luca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2007-06-01

    We review the behavior of a recently introduced model of agreement dynamics, called the "Naming Game." This model describes the self-organized emergence of linguistic conventions and the establishment of simple communication systems in a population of agents with pairwise local interactions. The mechanisms of convergence towards agreement strongly depend on the network of possible interactions between the agents. In particular, the mean-field case in which all agents communicate with all the others is not efficient, since a large temporary memory is requested for the agents. On the other hand, regular lattice topologies lead to a fast local convergence but to a slow global dynamics similar to coarsening phenomena. The embedding of the agents in a small-world network represents an interesting tradeoff: a local consensus is easily reached, while the long-range links allow to bypass coarsening-like convergence. We also consider alternative adaptive strategies which can lead to faster global convergence.

  10. Network interactions and dynamical phenomena in magnetic oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A. B.; Peña, O.; Moure, C.; Martínez, G.; Baibich, M. N.

    2007-09-01

    We have obtained a series of magnetic oxides based on manganese with remarkable magnetic properties at low temperatures. We associate the magnetic effects to three networks of local magnetic moments that interact to form the magnetization behaviour. The samples have general formula RE(Co xMn 1-x)O 3 (RE=Gd or Er). The RE sublattice can interact with the local field imposed by the other networks. Its orientation differs depending on the RE nature, resulting in a reversal of the magnetic moment (spin inversion) during thermal cycling. Also, dynamic effects on the hysteresis loops are seen, where a sudden change of the magnetization is triggered by d H/d t. Whenever spin inversion is seen, the branches of the hysteresis loop cross at low fields; this effect disappears once the compensation temperature is reached.

  11. Comparison and evaluation of network clustering algorithms applied to genetic interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lin; Wang, Lin; Berg, Arthur; Qian, Minping; Zhu, Yunping; Li, Fangting; Deng, Minghua

    2012-01-01

    The goal of network clustering algorithms detect dense clusters in a network, and provide a first step towards the understanding of large scale biological networks. With numerous recent advances in biotechnologies, large-scale genetic interactions are widely available, but there is a limited understanding of which clustering algorithms may be most effective. In order to address this problem, we conducted a systematic study to compare and evaluate six clustering algorithms in analyzing genetic interaction networks, and investigated influencing factors in choosing algorithms. The algorithms considered in this comparison include hierarchical clustering, topological overlap matrix, bi-clustering, Markov clustering, Bayesian discriminant analysis based community detection, and variational Bayes approach to modularity. Both experimentally identified and synthetically constructed networks were used in this comparison. The accuracy of the algorithms is measured by the Jaccard index in comparing predicted gene modules with benchmark gene sets. The results suggest that the choice differs according to the network topology and evaluation criteria. Hierarchical clustering showed to be best at predicting protein complexes; Bayesian discriminant analysis based community detection proved best under epistatic miniarray profile (EMAP) datasets; the variational Bayes approach to modularity was noticeably better than the other algorithms in the genome-scale networks. PMID:22202027

  12. Comparative analysis of differential network modularity in tissue specific normal and cancer protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large scale understanding of complex and dynamic alterations in cellular and subcellular levels during cancer in contrast to normal condition has facilitated the emergence of sophisticated systemic approaches like network biology in recent times. As most biological networks show modular properties, the analysis of differential modularity between normal and cancer protein interaction networks can be a good way to understand cancer more significantly. Two aspects of biological network modularity e.g. detection of molecular complexes (potential modules or clusters) and identification of crucial nodes forming the overlapping modules have been considered in this regard. Methods In the current study, the computational analysis of previously published protein interaction networks (PINs) has been conducted to identify the molecular complexes and crucial nodes of the networks. Protein molecules involved in ten major cancer signal transduction pathways were used to construct the networks based on expression data of five tissues e.g. bone, breast, colon, kidney and liver in both normal and cancer conditions. MCODE (molecular complex detection) and ModuLand methods have been used to identify the molecular complexes and crucial nodes of the networks respectively. Results In case of all tissues, cancer PINs show higher level of clustering (formation of molecular complexes) than the normal ones. In contrast, lower level modular overlapping is found in cancer PINs than the normal ones. Thus a proposition can be made regarding the formation of some giant nodes in the cancer networks with very high degree and resulting in reduced overlapping among the network modules though the predicted molecular complex numbers are higher in cancer conditions. Conclusion The study predicts some major molecular complexes that might act as the important regulators in cancer progression. The crucial nodes identified in this study can be potential drug targets to combat cancer. PMID:24093757

  13. Topology-free querying of protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Sharon; Hüffner, Falk; Karp, Richard M; Shamir, Ron; Sharan, Roded

    2010-03-01

    In the network querying problem, one is given a protein complex or pathway of species A and a protein-protein interaction network of species B; the goal is to identify subnetworks of B that are similar to the query in terms of sequence, topology, or both. Existing approaches mostly depend on knowledge of the interaction topology of the query in the network of species A; however, in practice, this topology is often not known. To address this problem, we develop a topology-free querying algorithm, which we call Torque. Given a query, represented as a set of proteins, Torque seeks a matching set of proteins that are sequence-similar to the query proteins and span a connected region of the network, while allowing both insertions and deletions. The algorithm uses alternatively dynamic programming and integer linear programming for the search task. We test Torque with queries from yeast, fly, and human, where we compare it to the QNet topology-based approach, and with queries from less studied species, where only topology-free algorithms apply. Torque detects many more matches than QNet, while giving results that are highly functionally coherent. PMID:20377443

  14. New collective modes of interaction nature in inhomogeneous Ising networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šamaj, L.; Percus, J. K.

    1993-10-01

    We propose a vertex formulation of the Ising model with inhomogeneous external field on multiconnected networks possessing a superbond structure. The related technique based on gauge degrees of freedom enables us to recognize new collective modes of interaction nature, which provide an exact solution of the inverse profile problem and an explicit form of a local free-energy functional on an extended magnetization-mode space. Application is made to a square strip.

  15. Modeling of Interaction of Hydraulic Fractures in Complex Fracture Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresse, O. 2; Wu, R.; Weng, X.; Gu, H.; Cohen, C.

    2011-12-01

    A recently developed unconventional fracture model (UFM) is able to simulate complex fracture network propagation in a formation with pre-existing natural fractures. Multiple fracture branches can propagate at the same time and intersect/cross each other. Each open fracture exerts additional stresses on the surrounding rock and adjacent fractures, which is often referred to as "stress shadow" effect. The stress shadow can cause significant restriction of fracture width, leading to greater risk of proppant screenout. It can also alter the fracture propagation path and drastically affect fracture network patterns. It is hence critical to properly model the fracture interaction in a complex fracture model. A method for computing the stress shadow in a complex hydraulic fracture network is presented. The method is based on an enhanced 2D Displacement Discontinuity Method (DDM) with correction for finite fracture height. The computed stress field is compared to 3D numerical simulation in a few simple examples and shows the method provides a good approximation for the 3D fracture problem. This stress shadow calculation is incorporated in the UFM. The results for simple cases of two fractures are presented that show the fractures can either attract or expel each other depending on their initial relative positions, and compares favorably with an independent 2D non-planar hydraulic fracture model. Additional examples of both planar and complex fractures propagating from multiple perforation clusters are presented, showing that fracture interaction controls the fracture dimension and propagation pattern. In a formation with no or small stress anisotropy, fracture interaction can lead to dramatic divergence of the fractures as they tend to repel each other. However, when stress anisotropy is large, the fracture propagation direction is dominated by the stress field and fracture turning due to fracture interaction is limited. However, stress shadowing still has a strong effect on fracture width, which affects the injection rate distribution into multiple perforation clusters, and hence overall fracture network geometry and proppant placement.

  16. Strongly Resilient Non-Interactive Key Predistribution For Hierarchical Networks

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hao

    2010-01-01

    Key establishment is the basic necessary tool in the network security, by which pairs in the network can establish shared keys for protecting their pairwise communications. There have been some key agreement or predistribution schemes with the property that the key can be established without the interaction (\\cite{Blom84,BSHKY92,S97}). Recently the hierarchical cryptography and the key management for hierarchical networks have been active topics(see \\cite{BBG05,GHKRRW08,GS02,HNZI02,HL02,Matt04}. ). Key agreement schemes for hierarchical networks were presented in \\cite{Matt04,GHKRRW08} which is based on the Blom key predistribution scheme(Blom KPS, [1]) and pairing. In this paper we introduce generalized Blom-Blundo et al key predistribution schemes. These generalized Blom-Blundo et al key predistribution schemes have the same security functionality as the Blom-Blundo et al KPS. However different and random these KPSs can be used for various parts of the networks for enhancing the resilience. We also presentk...

  17. ‘Real Relationships’: Sociable Interaction, Material Culture and Imprisonment in a Secure Psychiatric Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona R. Parrott

    2010-01-01

    Research into the character of social relationships in psychiatric inpatient facilities has focused on face-to-face interaction\\u000a between individuals and within groups in the communal areas of wards. Using theories developed in material culture and media\\u000a studies, this article argues that patients’ relationships to goods, namely, photographs, cards and gifts from family or friends,\\u000a televisions and radios, are important mediators and

  18. Adding Protein Context to the Human Protein-Protein Interaction Network to Reveal Meaningful Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Martin H.; Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Mah, Nancy; Shoemaker, Jason E.; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Louis-Jeune, Caroline; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Neumann, Gabriele; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kitano, Hiroaki; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions of proteins regulate signaling, catalysis, gene expression and many other cellular functions. Therefore, characterizing the entire human interactome is a key effort in current proteomics research. This challenge is complicated by the dynamic nature of protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which are conditional on the cellular context: both interacting proteins must be expressed in the same cell and localized in the same organelle to meet. Additionally, interactions underlie a delicate control of signaling pathways, e.g. by post-translational modifications of the protein partners - hence, many diseases are caused by the perturbation of these mechanisms. Despite the high degree of cell-state specificity of PPIs, many interactions are measured under artificial conditions (e.g. yeast cells are transfected with human genes in yeast two-hybrid assays) or even if detected in a physiological context, this information is missing from the common PPI databases. To overcome these problems, we developed a method that assigns context information to PPIs inferred from various attributes of the interacting proteins: gene expression, functional and disease annotations, and inferred pathways. We demonstrate that context consistency correlates with the experimental reliability of PPIs, which allows us to generate high-confidence tissue- and function-specific subnetworks. We illustrate how these context-filtered networks are enriched in bona fide pathways and disease proteins to prove the ability of context-filters to highlight meaningful interactions with respect to various biological questions. We use this approach to study the lung-specific pathways used by the influenza virus, pointing to IRAK1, BHLHE40 and TOLLIP as potential regulators of influenza virus pathogenicity, and to study the signalling pathways that play a role in Alzheimer's disease, identifying a pathway involving the altered phosphorylation of the Tau protein. Finally, we provide the annotated human PPI network via a web frontend that allows the construction of context-specific networks in several ways. PMID:23300433

  19. Linear motif-mediated interactions have contributed to the evolution of modularity in complex protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inhae; Lee, Heetak; Han, Seong Kyu; Kim, Sanguk

    2014-10-01

    The modular architecture of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is evident in diverse species with a wide range of complexity. However, the molecular components that lead to the evolution of modularity in PPI networks have not been clearly identified. Here, we show that weak domain-linear motif interactions (DLIs) are more likely to connect different biological modules than strong domain-domain interactions (DDIs). This molecular division of labor is essential for the evolution of modularity in the complex PPI networks of diverse eukaryotic species. In particular, DLIs may compensate for the reduction in module boundaries that originate from increased connections between different modules in complex PPI networks. In addition, we show that the identification of biological modules can be greatly improved by including molecular characteristics of protein interactions. Our findings suggest that transient interactions have played a unique role in shaping the architecture and modularity of biological networks over the course of evolution. PMID:25299147

  20. Flow motifs reveal limitations of the static framework to represent human interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Luis E. C.; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-04-01

    Networks are commonly used to define underlying interaction structures where infections, information, or other quantities may spread. Although the standard approach has been to aggregate all links into a static structure, some studies have shown that the time order in which the links are established may alter the dynamics of spreading. In this paper, we study the impact of the time ordering in the limits of flow on various empirical temporal networks. By using a random walk dynamics, we estimate the flow on links and convert the original undirected network (temporal and static) into a directed flow network. We then introduce the concept of flow motifs and quantify the divergence in the representativity of motifs when using the temporal and static frameworks. We find that the regularity of contacts and persistence of vertices (common in email communication and face-to-face interactions) result on little differences in the limits of flow for both frameworks. On the other hand, in the case of communication within a dating site and of a sexual network, the flow between vertices changes significantly in the temporal framework such that the static approximation poorly represents the structure of contacts. We have also observed that cliques with 3 and 4 vertices containing only low-flow links are more represented than the same cliques with all high-flow links. The representativity of these low-flow cliques is higher in the temporal framework. Our results suggest that the flow between vertices connected in cliques depend on the topological context in which they are placed and in the time sequence in which the links are established. The structure of the clique alone does not completely characterize the potential of flow between the vertices.