Sample records for facet joint arthrosis

  1. Types of subtalar joint facets.

    PubMed

    Jung, Min-Ho; Choi, Byoung Young; Lee, Ji Yong; Han, Chang Sung; Lee, Jin Suk; Yang, Young Chul; Cho, Byung Pil

    2015-08-01

    Articular facets of the clinical subtalar joint (CSTJ) were analyzed using a total of 118 (right 57, left 61) dry, paired calcanei and tali from 68 Korean adult cadavers. The CSTJ facets were classified into the following three types depending on their continuity: type A, all three facets are separated; type B, the anterior and middle facets are partially connected; and type C, the anterior and middle facets are fused to form a single facet. The continuity between the anterior and middle facets was represented by the degree of separation (DS), which ranged between 2.00 (type A) and 1.00 (type C). Type A was most common (39.0 %) in calcanei and rarest (11.0 %) in tali. Matching of calcaneus-talus pairs yielded five combined types: A-A (11.0 %), A-B (28.0 %), B-B (18.6 %), B-C (13.6 %), and C-C (28.8 %). The mean DS was slightly greater in calcanei (1.53) than in tali (1.32), and decreased in the order of types A-A, A-B, B-B, B-C, and C-C. The intersecting angles between the anterior and middle facets, which are related to the mobility of the CSTJ, were inversely related to the DS. These findings indicate that the anterior and middle facets are fused more frequently in tali than in calcanei, and combinations of different CSTJ facet types (A-B, B-C) exist over 40 % of feet. Our results indicate that types with a smaller DS (such as B-C and C-C) are relatively mobile but less stable compared to those with a greater DS (such as A-A and A-B). PMID:25822134

  2. Cervical facet joint kinematics during bilateral facet dislocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manohar M. Panjabi; Andrew K. Simpson; Paul C. Ivancic; Adam M. Pearson; Yasuhiro Tominaga; James J. Yue

    2007-01-01

    Previous biomechanical models of cervical bilateral facet dislocation (BFD) are limited to quasi-static loading or manual\\u000a ligament transection. The goal of the present study was to determine the facet joint kinematics during high-speed BFD. Dislocation\\u000a was simulated using ten cervical functional spinal units with muscle force replication by frontal impact of the lower vertebra,\\u000a tilted posteriorly by 42.5°. Average peak

  3. The Effects of Lumbar Facet Dowels on Joint Stiffness: A Biomechanical Study

    PubMed Central

    Trahan, Jayme; Morales, Eric; Richter, Erich O.; Tender, Gabriel C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Facet joint arthrosis may play a significant role in low back pain generation. The placement of facet dowels is a percutaneous treatment that aims to fuse the facets and increase joint stiffness. In this cadaveric study, we evaluated spine stiffness after facet dowel insertion in combination with several surgical procedures and determined which motions promote dowel migration. Methods Six fresh frozen lumbar spines were tested in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Spine stiffness was determined for the intact specimens, after L4 laminectomy, and after bilateral L4-L5 facet dowel placement, respectively. One specimen underwent a unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) construct and another underwent extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) graft (22 mm) placement, followed by placement of facet dowels. Afterwards, the specimens were subjected to 10,000 cycles of fatigue testing in flexion-extension or axial rotation. Results The overall decrease in stiffness after laminectomy was 4.6%. Facet dowel placement increased overall stiffness by 7.2%. The greatest increase was seen with axial rotation (13%), compared to flexion, extension, and lateral bending (9.5%, 2.3%, and 5.6%, respectively). The TLIF and XLIF plus dowel construct increased specimen stiffness to 266% and 163% of baseline, respectively. After fatigue testing, dowel migration was detected by computed tomography in the 2 uninstrumented specimens undergoing axial rotation cycling. Conclusion Facet dowels increase the stiffness of the motion segment to which they are applied and can be used in conjunction with laminectomy procedures to increase the stiffness of the joint. However, dowel migration can occur after axial rotation movements. Hybrid TLIF or XLIF plus facet dowel constructs have significantly higher stiffness than noninstrumented ones and may prevent dowel migration. PMID:24688332

  4. Psychological Differences between Patients that Elect Operative or Nonoperative Treatment for Trapeziometacarpal Joint Arthrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago A. Lozano-Calderon; J. Sebastiaan Souer; Jesse B. Jupiter; David Ring

    2008-01-01

    Among 44 consecutive patients electing operative treatment of trapeziometacarpal arthrosis, three age- and gender-matched\\u000a controls that presented during the same time period but had not yet requested operative treatment were selected from billing\\u000a records. Each patient and control was mailed a survey that included an upper extremity-specific health status measure (Disabilities\\u000a of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire; DASH) and

  5. Neurophysiological and biomechanical characterization of goat cervical facet joint capsules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Chen, Chaoyang; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Patwardhan, Ajit; Cavanaugh, John M

    2005-07-01

    Cervical facet joints have been implicated as a major source of pain after whiplash injury. We sought to identify facet joint capsule receptors in the cervical spine and quantify their responses to capsular deformation. The response of mechanosensitive afferents in C5-C6 facet joint capsules to craniocaudal stretch (0.5 mm/s) was examined in anaesthetized adult goats. Capsular afferents were characterized into Group III and IV based on their conduction velocity. Two-dimensional strains across the capsules during stretch were obtained by a stereoimaging technique and finite element modeling. 17 (53%) Group III and 14 (56%) Group IV afferents were identified with low strain thresholds of 0.107+/-0.033 and 0.100+/-0.046. A subpopulation of low-strain-threshold afferents had discharge rate saturation at the strains of 0.388+/-0.121 (n=9, Group III) and 0.341+/-0.159 (n=9, Group IV). Two (8%) Group IV units responded only to high strains (0.460+/-0.170). 15 (47%) Group III and 9 (36%) Group IV units could not be excited even by noxious capsular stretch. Simple linear regressions were conducted with capsular load and principal strain as independent variables and neural response of low-strain-threshold afferents as the dependent variable. Correlation coefficients (R2) were 0.73+/-0.11 with load, and 0.82+/-0.12 with principal strain. The stiffness of the C5-C6 capsules was 16.8+/-11.4 N/mm. Our results indicate that sensory receptors in cervical facet joint capsules are not only capable of signaling a graded physiological mechanical stimulus, but may also elicit pain sensation under excessive deformation. PMID:16022990

  6. Percutaneous CT-Guided Treatment of Lumbar Facet Joint Synovial Cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Chang

    2009-01-01

    Symptomatic intraspinal lumbar facet joint synovial cysts can be managed both conservatively and surgically. Diagnosis of\\u000a the lumbar facet joint cyst is made through cross-sectional imaging of the spine, either by computerized tomography (CT) scan,\\u000a myelography, or most commonly magnetic resonance imaging. Conservative treatment by facet joint injection can be performed\\u000a under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, although only CT guidance

  7. Detecting Facet Joint and Lateral Mass Injuries of the Subaxial Cervical Spine in Major Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ian; Dalzell, Kristian; Deverall, Hamish; Freeman, Brian J.C.; Morris, Stephen A.C.; Sandler, Simon J.I.; Williams, Richard; Yau, Y.H.; Goss, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Radiologic imaging measurement study. Purpose To assess the accuracy of detecting lateral mass and facet joint injuries of the subaxial cervical spine on plain radiographs using computed tomography (CT) scan images as a reference standard; and the integrity of morphological landmarks of the lateral mass and facet joints of the subaxial cervical spine. Overview of Literature Injuries of lateral mass and facet joints potentially lead to an unstable subaxial cervical spine and concomitant neurological sequelae. However, no study has evaluated the accuracy of detecting specific facet joint injuries. Methods Eight spinal surgeons scored four sets of the same, randomly re-ordered, 30 cases with and without facet joint injuries of the subaxial cervical spine. Two surveys included conventional plain radiographs series (test) and another two surveys included CT scan images (reference). Facet joint injury characteristics were assessed for accuracy and reliability. Raw agreement, Fleiss kappa, Cohen's kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient statistics were used for reliability analysis. Majority rules were used for accuracy analysis. Results Of the 21 facet joint injuries discerned on CT scan images, 10 were detected in both plain radiograph surveys (sensitivity, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.70). There were no false positive facet joint injuries in either of the first two X-ray surveys (specificity, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.63-1.0). Five of the 11 cases with missed injuries had an injury below the lowest visible articulating level on radiographs. CT scan images resulted in superior inter- and intra-rater agreement values for assessing morphologic injury characteristics of facet joint injuries. Conclusions Plain radiographs are not accurate, nor reliable for the assessment of facet joint injuries of the subaxial cervical spine. CT scans offer reliable diagnostic information required for the detection and treatment planning of facet joint injuries.

  8. Association between facet joint osteoarthritis and the Oswestry Disability Index

    PubMed Central

    Maataoui, Adel; Vogl, Thomas J; Middendorp, Marcus; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M Fawad

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) at lumbar levels L4/L5 and L5/S1 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). METHODS: The study involved lumbar MRIs of 591 patients with a mean age of 47.3 years. The MRIs of the lumbar spine were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner (Magnetom® Avanto, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) using a dedicated receive only spine coil. After initial blinding, each dataset was evaluated by 2 board certified radiologist with more than 5 years experience in musculoskeletal imaging. In total 2364 facet joints were graded. Degenerative changes of the facet joints were evaluated according to the 4-point scale as proposed by Weishaupt et al Functional status was assessed using the ODI. The index is scored from 0 to 100 and interpreted as follows: 0%-20%, minimal disability; 20%-40%, moderate disability; 40%-60%, severe disability; 60%-80%, crippled; 80%-100%, patients are bedbound. Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation was used for statistical analysis, with significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: In total 2364 facet joints at lumbar levels L4/5 and L5/S1 were analysed in 591 individuals. FJOA was present in 97% (L4/L5) and 98% (L5/S1). At level L4/5 (left/right) 17/15 (2.9%/2.5%) were described as grade 0, 146/147 (24.7%/24.9%) as grade 1, 290/302 (49.1%/51.1%) as grade 2 and 138/127 (23.4%/21.5%) as grade 3. At level L5/S1 (left/right) 10/11 (1.7%/1.9%) were described as grade 0, 136/136 (23.0%/23.0%) as grade 1, 318/325 (53.8%/55.0%) as grade 2 and 127/119 (21.5%/20.1%) as grade 3. Regarding the ODI scores, patients’ disability had a minimum of 0% and a maximum of 91.11% with an arithmetic mean of 32.77% ± 17.02%. The majority of patients (48.39%) had moderate functional disability (21%-40%). There was no significant correlation between FJOA and ODI on both sides of lumbar level L4/5 and on the left side of lumbar level L5/S1. A weak positive correlation was evaluated between ODI and FJOA on the right side of lumbar level L5/S1. CONCLUSION: The missing correlation of FJOA and ODI confirms our clinical experience that imaging alone is an insufficient approach explaining low back pain. Clinical correlation is imperative for an adequate diagnostic advance in patients with low back pain. PMID:25431643

  9. In vivo topographic analysis of lumbar facet joint space width distribution in healthy and symptomatic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Peter; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A.; Andersson, Gunnar B. J.; An, Howard S.; Inoue, Nozomu

    2013-01-01

    Study Design In vivo three-dimensional facet joint space width measurement. Objective To determine lumbar facet joint space width within clinically relevant topographical zones in vivo and its correlations with age, level and presence of lower back pain symptoms. Summary of Background Data Narrowing of the facet joint gap, articular cartilage thinning, and subarticular cortical bone hypertrophy are frequently observed age-related changes. Facet joint space width is a well-defined parameter to evaluate osteoarthritis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other study that quantifies three-dimensional facet joint space width distribution in vivo. Methods Three-dimensional measurement to quantify facet joint space width distribution based on five clinically relevant topographic zones in a cohort of healthy and symptomatic low-back-pain volunteers using subject-based three-dimensional CT models with respect to spinal level, subject age, gender and presence/absence of lower back pain. Results Facet joint space width was 1.93±0.51 (mean ± standard deviation) mm for the central zone, 1.75±0.48 mm for the superior zone, 1.63±0.49 mm for the inferior zone, 1.48±0.44 mm for the medial and 1.65±0.48 mm for the lateral zone, respectively. There were no significant differences between right and left facet joints. Males showed larger space width than females. Overall, space width of symptomatic subjects was significantly narrower when compared against the asymptomatic group. Facet joints in the peripheral zones were narrower than in the central zone. Age-group comparisons showed local narrowing occurring as early as in the third decade at the inferior zone of L5/S1 with all the remaining zones implicated after the fourth decade. Conclusions This in vivo study shows variations in facet joint space width narrowing with spinal level and region within the facet joint and in vivo evidence of localized, age-influenced facet cartilage thinning. Techniques developed in this study may be applied in the detection of early osteoarthritis-related changes in the facet joints. PMID:22433501

  10. Lumbar Facet Joint Arthritis Is Associated with More Coronal Orientation of the Facet Joints at the Upper Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Jentzsch, Thorsten; Geiger, James; Zimmermann, Stefan M.; Slankamenac, Ksenija; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Werner, Clément M. L.

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of 620 individuals, who presented to our traumatology department between 2008 and 2010. Facet joint (FJ) arthritis was present in 308 (49.7%) individuals with a mean grade of 1. It was seen in 27% of individuals ?40 years and in 75% of individuals ?41 years (P < 0.0001) as well as in 52% of females and 49% of males (P = 0.61). Mean FJ orientation was 30.4° at L2/3, 38.7° at L3/4, 47° at L4/5, and 47.3° at L5/S1. FJ arthritis was significantly associated with more coronal (increased degree) FJ orientation at L2/3 (P = 0.03) with a cutoff point at ?32°. FJs were more coronally oriented (48.8°) in individuals ?40 years and more sagittally oriented (45.6°) in individuals ?41 years at L5/S1 (P = 0.01). Mean FJ asymmetry was 4.89° at L2/3, 6.01° at L3/4, 6.67° at L4/5, and 7.27° at L5/S1, without a significant difference for FJ arthritis. FJ arthritis is common, increases with age, and affects both genders equally. More coronally oriented FJs (?32°) in the upper lumbar spine may be an individual risk factor for development of FJ arthritis. PMID:24260713

  11. Desmoid Type Fibromatosis in the Facet Joint of Lumbar Spine: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Jung; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun

    2013-01-01

    Desmoid type fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic tumor arising from the fascia or musculoaponeurosis. It may occur in various locations, but most commonly in the shoulder girdle and neck; to our knowledge, there has been no reported case originating from a facet joint of the spine. We report CT and MR imaging findings of a desmoid type fibromatosis, involving the facet joint of the L3-4 spine with bone involvement. PMID:24043979

  12. Material Properties of the Human Lumbar Facet Joint Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Little, Jesse S.; Khalsa, Partap S.

    2005-01-01

    The human facet joint capsule is one of the structures in the lumbar spine that constrains motions of vertebrae during global spine loading (e.g., physiological flexion). Computational models of the spine have not been able to include accurate nonlinear and viscoelastic material properties, as they have not previously been measured. Capsules were tested using a uniaxial ramp-hold protocol or a haversine displacement protocol using a commercially available materials testing device. Plane strain was measured optically. Capsules were tested both parallel and perpendicular to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers in the capsules. Viscoelastic material properties were determined. Parallel to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers, the complex modulus of elasticity was E* = 1.63MPa, with a storage modulus of E? = 1.25MPa and a loss modulus of: E? = 0.39MPa. The mean stress relaxation rates for static and dynamic loading were best fit with first-order polynomials: B (?) = 0.1110 ? ? 0.0733 and B (?) = ?0.1249? 11794-8181 +0.0190, respectively. Perpendicular to the collagen fiber orientation, the viscous and elastic secant moduli were 1.81 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The mean stress relaxation rate for static loading was best fit with a first-order polynomial: B (?) = ? 0.04? ? 0.06. Capsule strength parallel and perpendicular to collagen fiber orientation was 1.90 and 0.95 MPa, respectively, and extensibility was 0.65 and 0.60, respectively. Poisson’s ratio parallel and perpendicular to fiber orientation was 0.299 and 0.488, respectively. The elasticity moduli were nonlinear and anisotropic, and capsule strength was larger aligned parallel to the collagen fibers. The phase lag between stress and strain increased with haversine frequency, but the storage modulus remained large relative to the complex modulus. The stress relaxation rate was strain dependent parallel to the collagen fibers, but was strain independent perpendicularly. PMID:15868784

  13. Encapsulated Ruffini-like endings in human lumbar facet joints

    PubMed Central

    VANDENABEELE, F.; CREEMERS, J.; LAMBRICHTS, I.; LIPPENS, P.; JANS, M.

    1997-01-01

    The innervation of the human lumbar facet joint capsule was studied by light and electron microscopy. Small numbers of encapsulated corpuscular endings were identified in the dense fibrous layer. Clusters of 2 types of endings were found: small cylindrical corpuscles (type 1) and large fusiform corpuscles (type 2). The corpuscles were classified structurally as Ruffini-type endings. The 1st type was predominant and characterised by a compartmentalised receptor complex, a thin perineurial capsule and a narrow subcapsular space. The 2nd type was characterised by a thicker perineurial capsule, a ‘spindle-like’ receptive complex, and an extensive subcapsular space with capillaries and concentrically oriented fibroblast-like cells. Both types of endings were innervated mainly by thinly myelinated group III (A delta) and unmyelinated group IV (C) nerve fibres that branched and terminated in the receptor complex. Their sensory endings were intimately related to the collagen fibre bundles as multiple enlarged axonal segments (‘beads’) with ultrastructural features which were characteristic of receptive sites: an accumulation of mitochondria and vesicles, and ‘bare’ areas of axolemma lacking a Schwann cell investment but covered by a thin basal lamina. Some beads in the 2nd type of ending contained granular vesicles, 30–60 mm in diameter, resembling sympathetic nerve endings. Small diameter collagen fibrils situated within multilayered basal laminae were found among the multiple receptive sites in the receptive complex in both types of ending. Their possible functional significance in mechanoreception is discussed. Particular attention has been given to their apparent variable orientation to the mechanoreceptive site. PMID:9449076

  14. Prevalence of Facet Joint Degeneration in Association with Intervertebral Joint Degeneration in a Sample of Organ Donors

    PubMed Central

    Muehleman, Carol; Li, Jun; Abe, Yumiko; Masuda, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Among the most common causes of low back pain are strain on the muscles and ligaments associated with the spine, degeneration of the intervertebral discs (IVD), and osteoarthritis of the facet joints. It is not clear, however, how these latter two conditions are related to each other in terms of their development during a patient’s lifetime. The facet joint is the sole synovial joint of the spine but because it is difficult to image its degenerative history as well as its relationship to other degenerative factors within the spine remain elusive. We compared the gross and histologic characteristics of the lumbar spine from a sample of organ donors to the integrity of their associated IVDs as assessed through magnetic resonance imaging. In our study sample, we found that facet joint degeneration was common, occurring as early as 15 years of age, while the IVD could still remain intact. Facet degeneration was more severe at the L4/5 level and progressed along with IVD degeneration with age. Because such early degenerative changes in the facet joint are somewhat surprising, degeneration of this joint should not be overlooked when assessing OA of the spine and causes of lower back pain. PMID:21360583

  15. Increase in facet joint loading after nucleotomy in the human lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Ivicsics, M F; Bishop, N E; Püschel, K; Morlock, M M; Huber, G

    2014-05-01

    Low-back pain has been related to degenerative changes after nucleotomy. Although several etiologies for pain after nucleotomy have been proposed, there is evidence of pain arising in the facet joints in general, which may be related to changes in load transfer. This study addresses the effect of nucleotomy on facet joint loading. Nine human lumbar motion segments (age: 40-59 years) were loaded in axial compression and extension-flexion. Reaction forces were compared with soft tissue structures sequentially removed. After nucleotomy the facets supported significantly greater load, almost doubling from a median of 8.6% of the applied external force to 15.8%. Force transmission related to the capsular ligament increased significantly from an intact median of 1.2-5.1% after nucleotomy. No correlation was observed between force increase on the facets and the proportion of disc nucleus removed. Even a small quantity of nucleus removal (range: 0.7-1.7g) increased the forces transmitted over the facet joints, both with and without capsular ligaments. This suggests that the proportion of material removed might not be important clinically with regard to facet joint degeneration and pain. PMID:24661835

  16. Urinary CTX?II levels are associated with radiographic subtypes of osteoarthritis in hip, knee, hand, and facet joints in subject with familial osteoarthritis at multiple sites: the GARP study

    PubMed Central

    Meulenbelt, I; Kloppenburg, M; Kroon, H M; Houwing?Duistermaat, J J; Garnero, P; Graverand, M?P Hellio Le; DeGroot, J; Slagboom, P E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the relation between the urinary concentrations of type II collagen C?telopeptide (UCTX?II) and radiographic signs of osteoarthritis (ROA) in the GARP (Genetics, Arthrosis and Progression) study. Methods UCTX?II levels were measured in GARP study participants, who are sibling pairs predominantly with symptomatic osteoarthritis at multiple sites. Kellgren and Lawrence scores were used to assess ROA in the knees, hips, hands, and vertebral facet joints, and spinal disc degeneration. A proportionate score was made for each joint location, based on the number of joints with ROA. The sum total ROA score represents a measure of cartilage abnormalities within each patient. By using linear mixed models the total ROA score and the joint site specific ROA scores were correlated with the UCTX?II level. Results In 302 subjects the mean (SD) and median (range) for UCTX?II were 265 (168) and 219 (1346) ng/mmol creatine, respectively. There was a significant association between the total ROA score and UCTX?II levels. Subsequent multivariate analysis showed that the joint site specific ROA score at all joint sites, except for spinal disc degeneration, contributed independently to this association. Conclusions The total ROA score of GARP patients, representing cartilage abnormalities at the most prevalent ROA joint locations, showed an excellent correlation with UCTX?II levels. The specific ROA scores at the hip, hand, facet, and knee joints additively and independently explained this association. Even in patients with osteoarthritis at multiple sites, UCTX?II may be a sensitive quantitative marker of ROA. PMID:16079167

  17. The Effect of Augmented Reality Training on Percutaneous Needle Placement in Spinal Facet Joint Injections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caitlin T. Yeo; Tamas Ungi; Paweena U-Thainual; Andras Lasso; Robert C. McGraw; Gabor Fichtinger

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if aug- mented reality image overlay and laser guidance systems can assist medical trainees in learning the correct placement of a needle for percutaneous facet joint injection. The Perk Station training suite was used to conduct and record the needle insertion procedures. A total of 40 volunteers were randomized into two groups

  18. Lumbar facet joint fat pads: their normal anatomy and their appearance when enlarged

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Taylor; C. C. McCormick

    1991-01-01

    The polar recesses, superior and inferior to lumbar facet joints, are filled by fat pads from which fatfilled synovial folds project between the articular surfaces for a distance of two to four millimetres. The intracapsular superior recess lies between the ligamentum flavum and the lamina above. The extracapsular inferior recess lies on the back of the lamina below and communicates

  19. A Novel Modality for Facet Joint Denervation: Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation for Lumbar Facet Syndrome. A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Zachary L; Walker, Jeremy; Marshall, Benjamin; McCarthy, Robert; Walega, David R

    2015-01-01

    Background While cooled radiofrequency ablation (C-RFA) appears to be a promising technology for joint denervation, outcomes of this technique for the treatment of lumbar facet syndrome have not been described. We report clinical outcomes in a case series of patients treated with C-RFA for lumbar facet syndrome. Methods Consecutive patients aged 18-60 years diagnosed with lumbar facet syndrome, confirmed by ?75% symptom relief with at least one set of diagnostic medial branch nerve blocks, who underwent C-RFA between January 2007 and December 2013 in an urban academic pain center were included. The respective proportions of participants who reported ?50% improvement in pain and in function were calculated. Change in median NRS score, daily morphine equivalent consumption (DME), and medication quantification scale III (MQS III) score were measured. Results Twelve patients underwent C-RFA; three were lost to follow-up. The median and 25%-75% interquartile range (IQR) for age was 44 years (35, 54). The median duration of follow-up was 34 months, IQR (21, 55). The percentage and 95% confidence interval (CI) of patients who reported ?50% improvement in pain was 33% CI (12%, 64%) and in function was 78%, CI (41%, 96%). There was no significant change in DME or MSQ III score. Approximately 50% of patients sought additional healthcare by long-term follow-up. No complications were reported. Conclusions This case series suggests that C-RFA may improve function and to a lesser degree pain at long-term follow-up. A randomized, controlled trial is warranted. PMID:25866845

  20. [Clinical aspects of arthrosis].

    PubMed

    Kolarz, G; Adlassnig, K P

    1995-01-01

    Symptoms, physical, laboratory, and x-ray findings in osteoarthrosis are reviewed, special emphasis is drawn to the different clinical forms as compensated, activated, decompensated osteoarthrosis. A sample of 2,494 patients with degenerative joint disease or functional disorders as e.g. myalgia were studied with respect to symptoms and physical findings. As previously described in other studies it turned out, that osteoarthrosis of the knee specially in women is correlated with high body weight; furthermore it could be shown that foot deformities--hallux valgus and pes planus in gonarthrosis, hallux valgus and hammer-toe in polyarthrosis of the finger joints--are significantly more frequent in some degenerative joint diseases. PMID:7597808

  1. Congenital absence of lumbosacral articular facet joint associated with conjoined nerve root: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Yoshioka; Koichi Sairyo; Toshinori Sakai; Natsuo Yasui

    2010-01-01

    We report a rare case of congenital absence of the L5-S1 facet joint, which was associated with a conjoined nerve root. Combination\\u000a of these two anomalies has been quite rarely reported in the literature. A 39-year-old man presented with acute low back pain\\u000a and right leg radiating pain. Muscle weakness and sensory disturbance of the right leg were also apparent

  2. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes in the lumbar spine: a manifestation of facet degenerative joint disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Morrison; Phoebe A. Kaplan; Robert G. Dussault; Mark W. Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Signal intensity changes in lumbar pedicles, similar to those described in vertebral body endplates adjacent to degenerated\\u000a discs, have been described as an ancillary sign of spondylolysis on MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether\\u000a pedicle marrow signal intensity changes also occur in association with facet degenerative joint disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design. Eighty-nine lumbar spine MRI examinations without

  3. Geometry of the articular facets of the lateral atlanto-axial joints in the case of occipitalization.

    PubMed

    Ryniewicz, A M; Skrzat, J; Ryniewicz, A; Ryniewicz, W; Walocha, J

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates if atlanto-occipital fusion affects the size and geometrical configuration of the articular facets of the atlanto-axial joint. Morphometric analysis was performed on the male adult skull, the occipital bone of which is assimilated with the first cervical vertebrae (the atlas). The perimeter, Feret's diameter, surface area, and circularity of the inferior articular fa-cets were measured. However, we did not observe significant bilateral differences in size of the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas compared to normal first cervical vertebrae. Geometrical conformation of the articular facets of the atlas and axis was assessed using a coordinate measuring machine (PMM - 12106, Leitz). The results obtained from this machine indicated that the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas presented asymmetrical orientation compared to the normal anatomy of the atlas. Hence, in the case of occipitalization, the gap between the articulating facets of the atlas and the axis was measured to be greater than in the normal atlanto-axial joint. Computer assisted tomography was applied to visualise the anatomical relationship between the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas and the corresponding facets located on the axis. In this case, radiographic examination revealed that the bilaterally articulating facets (inferior and superior) showed disproportion in their adjustment within the lateral atlanto-axial joints. Thus, we concluded that the fusion of the atlas with the occipital bone altered the geometry of the inferior articular facets of the atlas and influenced the orientation of the superior articular facets of the axis. PMID:21154284

  4. Painful facet joint injury induces neuronal stress activation in the DRG: implications for cellular mechanisms of pain.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ling; Odeleye, Akinleye O; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2008-10-01

    The cervical facet joint is implicated as one of the most common sources of chronic neck pain, owing to its rich nociceptive innervation and susceptibility to injurious mechanical loading. Injuries to the facet joint and its ligament can induce inflammation in the joint and spinal cord. Inflammatory molecules which are known to have a role in pain can also stimulate the integrated stress response (ISR). Therefore, we hypothesize that ISR is activated by facet joint injury in a rodent model of pain. To address this hypothesis, we assessed the expression of binding protein (BiP) (also known as growth-related protein 78 (GRP78)), a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress response, in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after painful facet joint injury. In a rodent model of facet joint injury, dynamic distraction of the C6/C7 joint (injury, n=12) was imposed; sham procedures were performed separately (sham, n=8). Forepaw mechanical allodynia was assessed postoperatively for 7 days as a quantitative measure of pain symptoms. The C6 DRG was harvested and assessed for BiP expression using triple label immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and immunoblot analyses. BiP was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the DRG after injury than sham and was expressed predominantly in neurons. Similarly, quantification of BiP by immunoblot demonstrated a significant 2.1-fold increase (p=0.03) in injury compared to sham at day 7. Findings suggest neuronal stress activation is associated with painful facet joint injury, and that joint loading may directly mediate the behavior of DRG neurons in this class of injury. PMID:18675314

  5. THE PROSTAGLANDIN E2 RECEPTOR, EP2, IS UPREGULATED IN THE DRG AFTER PAINFUL CERVICAL FACET JOINT INJURY IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Kras, Jeffrey V.; Dong, Ling; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design This study implemented immunohistochemistry to assay prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP2 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats after painful cervical facet joint injury. Objective The objective of this study was to identify if inflammatory cascades are induced in association with cervical facet joint distraction-induced pain by investigating the time course of EP2 expression in the DRG. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint is a common source of neck pain and non-physiological stretch of the facet capsular ligament can initiate pain from the facet joint via mechanical injury. PGE2 levels are elevated in painful inflamed and arthritic joints, and PGE2 sensitizes joint afferents to mechanical stimulation. Although in vitro studies suggest the EP2 receptor subtype contributes to painful joint disease the EP2 response has not been investigated for any association with painful mechanical joint injury. Methods Separate groups of male Holtzman rats underwent either a painful cervical facet joint distraction injury or sham procedure. Bilateral forepaw mechanical allodynia was assessed, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify EP2 expression in the DRG at days 1 and 7. Results Facet joint distraction induced mechanical allodynia that was significant (p<0.024) at all time points. Painful joint injury also significantly elevated total EP2 expression in the DRG at day 1 (p=0.009), which was maintained also at day 7 (p<0.001). Neuronal expression of EP2 in the DRG was only increased over sham levels at day 1 (p=0.013). Conclusions Painful cervical facet joint distraction induces an immediate and sustained increase of EP2 expression in the DRG, implicating peripheral inflammation in the initiation and maintenance of facet joint pain. The transient increase in neuronal EP2 suggests, as in other painful joint conditions, that after joint injury non-neuronal cells may migrate to the DRG, some of which likely express EP2. PMID:22789984

  6. Lumbar Facet Joint Synovial Cysts: Does T2 Signal Intensity Predict Outcomes after Percutaneous Rupture?

    PubMed Central

    Cambron, S.C.; McIntyre, J.J.; Guerin, S.J.; Li, Z.; Pastel, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Lumbar facet synovial cysts are a cause of back pain and radiculopathy with facet joint degeneration, the most common cause for cyst formation. Typically, LFSCs are T2 hyperintense on MR imaging, but the signal intensity is variable. Treatment options include percutaneous rupture and surgical resection. This study evaluates the relationship between LFSC signal intensity on MR imaging and outcomes as it relates to percutaneous rupture success and need for subsequent surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review of 110 patients who underwent CT fluoroscopic-guided rupture of symptomatic LFSCs was performed. The LFSCs were characterized by their T2 signal intensity on MR imaging and divided into 3 groups: high, intermediate, and low T2 signal intensity. The rates of successful cyst rupture and need for subsequent surgery were recorded. RESULTS Percutaneous LFSC rupture was technically successful in 87% of all cases. Cyst rupture was successful in 89% and 90% of high and intermediate signal intensity cysts, respectively, and in 65% of low signal intensity cysts (P = .017, .030). High signal intensity cysts had lower postprocedural surgical rates (29%) when compared with intermediate and low signal cyst as a group (P = .045). CONCLUSIONS T2 hyperintense and intermediate signal intensity LFSCs are easier to rupture, perhaps because the cysts contain a higher proportion of fluid and are less gelatinous or calcified than T2 hypointense cysts. Patients with T2 hyperintense LFSCs are less likely to need surgery. PMID:23449657

  7. Fine structure of vesiculated nerve profiles in the human lumbar facet joint.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenabeele, F; Creemers, J; Lambrichts, I; Robberechts, W

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of vesiculated nerve profiles were examined within a perivascular plexus of unmyelinated nerve fibres around small arteries and arterioles in the posterior facet joint capsule. Such profiles were exclusively observed in the dense fibrous layer and the adjacent part of the subintimal layer. The ligamentum flavum lacked any type of innervation. The vesiculated nerve profiles were tentatively classified on the basis of the fine structural appearances of their vesicular content. Two major types of nerve profiles could readily be distinguished in the capsular tissue. Both displayed a variable number of mitochondria, neurotubules and neurofilaments. The first type, containing predominantly small vesicles with an electron-dense granule or core, was frequently encountered and considered to be adrenergic in function. Profiles similar in morphology were also observed in the synovial plical tissue. A second type of profile, found in the joint capsule, contained varying proportions of small agranular (clear) vesicles and mitochondria. Some of these profiles exhibited an accumulation of mitochondria and were considered to be sensory in function. Nerve profiles filled with predominantly small flattened vesicles were occasionally encountered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8586567

  8. Tensile stretching of cervical facet joint capsule and related axonal changes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anita; Lu, Ying; Chen, Chaoyang; Patwardhan, Ajit; Cavanaugh, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines axonal changes in goat cervical facet joint capsules (FJC) subjected to low rate loading. Left C5–C6 FJC was subjected to a series of tensile tests from 2 mm to failure using a computer-controlled actuator. The FJC strain on the dorsal aspect was monitored by a stereo-imaging system. Stretched (n = 10) and unstretched (n = 7) capsules were harvested and serial sections were processed by a silver impregnation method. The mean peak actuator displacement was 21.3 mm (range: 12–30 mm). The average peak strain encompassing various regions of the capsule was 72.9 ± 7.1%. Complete failure of the capsule was observed in 70% of the stretched capsules. Silver impregnation of the sections revealed nerve fibers and bundles in all the regions of the capsule. A blinded analysis of digital photomicrographs of axons revealed a statistically significant number of swollen axons with non-uniform caliber in stretched FJCs. Axons with terminal retraction balls, with occasional beaded appearance or with vacuolations were also observed. Stretching the FJC beyond physiological range could result in altered axonal morphology that may be related to secondary or delayed axotomy changes similar to those seen in central nervous system injuries where axons are subjected to stretching and shearing. These may contribute to neuropathic pain and are potentially related to neck pain after whiplash events. PMID:18080147

  9. Incorporation of Lower Neck Shear Forces to Predict Facet Joint Injury Risk in Low-Speed Automotive Rear Impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Stemper; Steven G. Storvik

    2010-01-01

    Lower neck shear force remains a viable candidate for a low-velocity automotive rear-impact injury criterion. Data were previously reported to demonstrate high correlations between the magnitude of lower neck shear force and lower cervical spine facet joint motions. The present study determined the ability of lower neck shear force to predict soft-tissue injury risk in simulated automotive rear impacts. Rear-impact

  10. Effect of changing lumbar stiffness by single facet joint dysfunction on the responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to vertebral movement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Individuals experiencing low back pain often present clinically with intervertebral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether relative changes in stiffness at a single spinal joint alters neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. Methods: Muscle spindle discharge was recorded in response to 1mm L6 ramp and hold movements (0.5mm/s) in the same animal for lumbar laminectomy-only (n=23), laminectomy & L5/6 facet screw (n=19), laminectomy & L5/6 facetectomy (n=5) conditions. Mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) was calculated for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down and post-ramp phases during each joint condition. Results: Mean MIFs were not significantly different between the laminectomy-only and the other two types of joint dysfunction for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down, or post-ramp phases. Conclusion: Stiffness changes caused by single facet joint dysfunction failed to alter spindle responses during slow 1mm ramp and hold movements of the L6 vertebra. PMID:24932020

  11. Percutaneous Resolution of Lumbar Facet Joint Cysts as an Alternative Treatment to Surgery: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shuang, Feng; Hou, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Jia-Liang; Ren, Dong-Feng; Cao, Zheng; Tang, Jia-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A comprehensive review of the literature in order to analyze data about the success rate of percutaneous resolution of the lumbar facet joint cysts as a conservative management strategy. Methods A systematic search for relevant articles published during 1980 to May 2014 was performed in several electronic databases by using the specific MeSH terms and keywords. Most relevant data was captured and pooled for the meta-analysis to achieve overall effect size of treatment along with 95% confidence intervals. Results 29 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Follow-up duration as mean ± sd (range) was 16±10.2 (5 days to 5.7 years). Overall the satisfactory results (after short- or long-term follow-up) were achieved in 55.8 [49.5, 62.08] % (pooled mean and 95% CI) of the 544 patients subjected to percutaneous lumbar facet joint cyst resolution procedures. 38.67 [33.3, 43.95] % of this population underwent surgery subsequently to achieve durable relief. There existed no linear relationship between the increasing average duration of follow-up period of individual studies and percent satisfaction from the percutaneous resolutions procedure. Conclusion Results shows that the percutaneous cyst resolution procedures have potential to be an alternative to surgical interventions but identification of suitable subjects requires further research. PMID:25389771

  12. Activating transcription factor 4, a mediator of the integrated stress response, is increased in the dorsal root ganglia following painful facet joint distraction

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ling; Guarino, Benjamin B.; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L.; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders in the US. Although biomechanical and clinical studies have implicated the facet joint as a primary source of neck pain, specific cellular mechanisms still remain speculative. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a mediator (ATF4) of the integrated stress response (ISR) is involved in facet-mediated pain. Holtzman rats underwent C6/C7 facet joint loading that produces either painful (n=16) or nonpainful (n=8) responses. A sham group (n=9) was also included as surgical controls. Behavioral sensitivity was measured and the C6 DRGs were harvested on day 7 to evaluate the total and neuronal ATF4 expression. In separate groups, an intra-articular ketorolac injection was administered either immediately (D0 ketorolac) or 1 day (D1 ketorolac) after painful facet joint loading. Allodynia was measured at days 1 and 7 after injury to assess the effects on behavioral responses. ATF4 and BiP (an indicator of ISR activation) were separately quantified at day 7. Facet joint loading sufficient to elicit behavioral hypersensitivity produced a 3-fold increase in total and neuronal ATF4 expression in the DRG. After ketorolac treatment at the time of injury, ATF4 expression was significantly (p<0.01) reduced despite not producing any attenuation of behavioral responses. Interestingly, ketorolac treatment at day 1 significantly (p<0.001) alleviated behavioral sensitivity at day 7, but did not modify ATF4 expression. BiP expression was unchanged after either intervention time. Results suggest that ATF4-dependent activation of the ISR does not directly contribute to persistent pain, but may sensitize neurons responsible for pain initiation. These behavioral and immunohistochemical findings imply that facet-mediated pain may be sustained through other pathways of the ISR. PMID:21821103

  13. Indian Hedgehog signaling pathway members are associated with magnetic resonance imaging manifestations and pathological scores in lumbar facet joint osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shuang, Feng; Zhou, Ying; Hou, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Jia-Liang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chun-Li; Tang, Jia-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Indian Hedgehog (HH) has been shown to be involved in osteoarthritis (OA) in articular joints, where there is evidence that Indian HH blockade could ameliorate OA. It seems to play a prominent role in development of the intervertebral disc (IVD) and in postnatal maintenance. There is little work on IHH in the IVD. Hence the aim of the current study was to investigate the role of Indian Hedgehog in the pathology of facet joint (FJ) OA. 24 patients diagnosed with lumbar intervertebral disk herniation or degenerative spinal stenosis were included. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) histopathology grading system was correlated to the mRNA levels of GLI1, PTCH1, and HHIP in the FJs. The Weishaupt grading and OARSI scores showed high positive correlation (r?=?0.894) (P?

  14. Early afferent activity from the facet joint after painful trauma to its capsule potentiates neuronal excitability and glutamate signaling in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Nathan D; Gilliland, Taylor M; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2014-09-01

    Cervical facet joint injury induces persistent pain and central sensitization. Preventing the peripheral neuronal signals that initiate sensitization attenuates neuropathic pain. Yet, there is no clear relationship among facet joint afferent activity, development of central sensitization, and pain, which may be hindering effective treatments for this pain syndrome. This study investigates how afferent activity from the injured cervical facet joint affects induction of behavioral sensitivity and central sensitization. Intra-articular bupivacaine was administered to transiently suppress afferent activity immediately or 4 days after facet injury. Mechanical hyperalgesia was monitored after injury, and spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and spinal expression of proteins that promote neuronal excitability were measured on day 7. Facet injury with saline vehicle treatment induced significant mechanical hyperalgesia (P<.027), dorsal horn neuronal hyperexcitability (P<.026), upregulation of pERK1/2, pNR1, mGluR5, GLAST, and GFAP, and downregulation of GLT1 (P<.032). However, intra-articular bupivacaine immediately after injury significantly attenuated hyperalgesia (P<.0001), neuronal hyperexcitability (P<.004), and dysregulation of excitatory signaling proteins (P<.049). In contrast, intra-articular bupivacaine at day 4 had no effect on these outcomes. Silencing afferent activity during the development of neuronal hyperexcitability (4 hours, 8 hours, 1 day) attenuated hyperalgesia and neuronal hyperexcitability (P<.045) only for the treatment given 4 hours after injury. This study suggests that early afferent activity from the injured facet induces development of spinal sensitization via spinal excitatory glutamatergic signaling. Peripheral intervention blocking afferent activity is effective only over a short period of time early after injury and before spinal modifications develop, and is independent of modulating spinal glial activation. PMID:24978827

  15. The Prevalence of Lumbar Spine Facet Joint Osteoarthritis and Its Association with Low Back Pain in Selected Korean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Lee, Sangwook; Lee, Jaekun; Chang, Hojin

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was to evaluate the association of lumbar spine facet joint osteoarthritis (LSFJOA) identified by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) with age and low back pain (LBP) in an adult community-based population in Korea. Methods A sample of 472 participants (age range, 20 to 84 years) who underwent MDCT imaging for abdominal or urological lesions, not for chief complaints of LBP, were included in this study. LSFJOA based on MDCT findings was characterized using four grades of osteoarthritis of the facet joints. The prevalence of LSFJOA according to age group (below 40 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, and above 70 years), gender, and spinal level was analyzed using chi-square tests and the association between LBP and LSFJOA adjusting for age, gender, and spine level was analyzed using multiple binary logistic regression test. Results Eighty-three study subjects (17.58%) had LSFJOA (grade ? 2). The prevalence of LSFJOA was not associated with gender (p = 0.092). The prevalence of LSFJOA increased with age (p = 0.015). The highest prevalence of LSFJOA was observed at L4-5 in men (p = 0.001) and at L5-S1 in women (p = 0.003), and at L5-S1 in the overall population (p = 0.000). LSFJOA was not associated with LBP in men (p = 0.093) but was associated with LBP in women (p = 0.003), especially at L3-4 (p = 0.018) and L5-S1 (p = 0.026). Conclusions The prevalence of LSFJOA based on the computed tomography imaging was 17.58% in the adult community Korean population. The prevalence of LSFJOA increased with age, and the highest prevalence was noted at L5-S1. LSFJOA was not associated with LBP at any spinal level and age except at L3-4 and L5-S1 in women. PMID:25436061

  16. The use of surface strain data and a neural networks solution method to determine lumbar facet joint loads during in vitro spine testing.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Anna G U; Crawford, Neil R

    2008-08-28

    A new method for determining facet loads during in vitro spine loading using strain gauges and a neural networks solution method was investigated. A test showed that the new solution method was more robust than and as accurate as a previously presented graphical solution method for computing facet loads using surface strain. The technique was subsequently utilized to assess facet loads at L1-L2 during flexibility testing [7.5 N m pure moments in flexion (FL), extension (EX), right and left axial rotation (AR), and right and left lateral bending (LB)], and stiffness testing (FL-EX with 400 N compressive follower load) of six human lumbar spine segments (T12-L2). In contrast to other techniques, such as thin film sensors or pressure-sensitive film, the strain-gauge method leaves the facet joint capsule intact during data collection, presumably allowing more natural load transmission. During flexibility tests, the mean (+/-standard deviation) calculated facet loads (in N) were 46.1+/-41.3 (FL), 51.5+/-39.0 (EX), 70.3+/-43.2 (AR-contralateral side), 31.3+/-33.4 (AR-ipsilateral side), 30.6+/-29.1 (LB-contralateral side), and 32.0+/-44.4 (LB-ipsilateral side). During stiffness tests, the calculated facet loads were 45.5+/-40.4 (upright), 46.6+/-41.9 (full FL), and 75.4+/-39.0 (full EX), corresponding to an equivalent of 11.4%, 11.6%, and 18.8% of the compressive follower load (upright, full FL and EX, respectively). The error associated with this technique, which was below 11 N for loads up to 125 N, is comparable to that reported with other techniques. The new method shows promise for assessing facet load during in vitro spine testing, an important parameter when evaluating new implant systems and surgical techniques. PMID:18657814

  17. Fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or disc-related neck pain without disc herniation, facet joint pain, or radiculitis

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Background While chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population, with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30%–50%, there is a lack of consensus regarding its causes and treatment. Despite limited evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic neck pain. Methods A randomized, double-blind, active, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of chronic neck pain with or without upper extremity pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Results One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, ie, injection of local anesthetic only (group 1) or local anesthetic mixed with nonparticulate betamethasone (group 2). The primary outcome of significant pain relief and improvement in functional status (?50%) was demonstrated in 72% of group 1 and 68% of group 2. The overall average number of procedures per year was 3.6 in both groups with an average total relief per year of 37–39 weeks in the successful group over a period of 52 weeks. Conclusion Cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be effective in patients with chronic function-limiting discogenic or axial pain. PMID:22826642

  18. Unusual presentation of giant cell tumor originating from a facet joint of the thoracic spine in a child: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Giant cell tumor of the synovium is a common benign lesion that frequently occurs at the tendon sheaths in the hand; it is usually found in adults over 30 years old. It is related to pigmented villonodular synovitis. Giant cell tumor of the synovium or pigmented villonodular synovitis has been described rarely in the axial skeleton especially in the thoracic vertebrae of a child. Case presentation A previously healthy 7-year-old Thai girl presented with back pain and progressive paraparesis and was unable to walk for 1 month. She had weakness and hyperreflexia of both lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined homogeneously and intensely enhanced extradural mass with cord compression at T4 to T7 levels. The patient underwent laminectomy at T4 through to T7 and total tumor removal. Permanent histopathologic sections and immunostains revealed a giant cell tumor of the synovium. Postoperative neurological status recovered to grade V. Magnetic resonance imaging at the 1-year follow-up showed no recurrence and there was no clinical recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion We report an extremely rare case of giant cell tumor in the epidural space that extended from a thoracic facet joint. The tumor was removed successfully through laminectomies. Although giant cell tumor of a facet joint of the thoracic spine is very rare, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis for masses occurring in the epidural space in a child. Total tumor removal is the best treatment. Careful monitoring of recurrence can achieve a good clinical outcome. PMID:23830026

  19. Modeling of facet articulation as a nonlinear moving contact problem: sensitivity study on lumbar facet response.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Langrana, N A; Rodriguez, J

    1998-02-01

    A finite element (FE) based scheme for modeling facet articulation in a spinal motion segment is proposed. The algorithm presented models the facet articulation as a nonlinear progressive contact problem. This algorithm is used to perform a nonlinear FE analysis of a complete L3-L4 motion segment. The role of facets in load transmission through a motion segment and its sensitivity to facet geometric parameters (i.e., spatial orientation of the facets and the gap between the facet articular surfaces) on this load transmission are studied. Compression, flexion, extension, and torsion loads are used in this study. The effect of facetectomy on gross segment response and disk fiber strains is studied by comparing the response of FE models of motion segment with and without facets. Large facet loads are obtained when the motion segment is subjected to torsional and large extension rotations, whereas minimal facet loads are observed under compression and flexion loading. Removal of facets reduces the segment stiffness considerably in torsion and results in higher strain levels in disk fibers. The facet load transmission is sensitive to facet geometric parameters, i.e., spatial orientation and initial facet joint gap. The facet loads increase uniformly with decrease in initial gap between the facet articular surfaces under compression, extension, and torsional loads. The sensitivity to spatial orientation angles of the facet is, however, found to vary with the type of loading. This sensitivity may account for the wide variation in the facet response reported in literature. PMID:9675690

  20. Facets: Ersatz, Resource and Tag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frické, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Faceted classification appears to be of utmost importance. Ersatz facets, resource faceting and tag faceting: The distinctions are drawn between facets and ersatz facets, and between faceted resources and faceted tags. Single tag resource faceting and multiple tag information object faceting: The basic features are explored of single…

  1. Comparison of human lumbar facet joint capsule strains during simulated high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation versus physiological motions

    PubMed Central

    Ianuzzi, Allyson; Khalsa, Partap S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Spinal manipulation (SM) is a n effective treatment for low back pain (LBP), and it has been theorized that SM induces a beneficial neurophysiological effect by stimulating mechanically sensitive neurons in the lumbar facet joint capsule (FJC). PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine whether human lumbar FJC strains during simulated SM were different from those that occur during physiological motions. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING Lumbar FJC strains were measured in human cadaveric spine specimens during physiological motions and simulated SM in a laboratory setting. METHODS Specimens were tested during displacement-controlled physiological motions of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotations. SM was simulated using combinations of manipulation site (L3, L4, and L5), impulse speed (5, 20, and 50 mm/s), and pre-torque magnitude (applied at T12 to simulate patient position; 0, 5, 10 Nm). FJC strains and vertebral motions (using six degrees of freedom) were measured during both loading protocols. RESULTS During SM, the applied loads were within the range measured during SM in vivo. Vertebral translations occurred primarily in the direction of the applied load, and were similar in magnitude regardless of manipulation site. Vertebral rotations and FJC strain magnitudes during SM were within the range that occurred during physiological motions. At a given FJC, manipulations delivered distally induced capsule strains similar in magnitude to those that occurred when the manipulation was applied proximally. CONCLUSIONS FJC strain magnitudes during SM were within the physiological range, suggesting that SM is biomechanically safe. Successful treatment of patients with LBP using SM may not require precise segmental specificity, because the strain magnitudes at a given FJC during SM do not depend upon manipulation site. PMID:15863084

  2. Hip arthrosis and surgical intervention: what and when?

    PubMed Central

    Innocenti, Massimo; Nistri, Lorenzo; Biondi, Marco; Del Prete, Armando; Giorgini, Marco; Macera, Armando; Soderi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Summary Osteoarthritis of the hip is a common pathology and involves forms of disability and need for treatments that affect the quality of life of patients and their families, and in general of the whole society. It should be considered as such degenerative joint disease is increasing as the increase in life expectancy and musculoskeletal trauma, the latter responsible for secondary forms of osteoarthritis. The treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip has changed a lot over the years, since the earlier diagnosis and, before, with prevention through proper lifestyle. More in-depth knowledge of the biology of the tissues involved, first of all hyaline cartilage, has lead to non-surgical treatments such as infiltration with hyaluronic acid (viscosupplementation) and autologous growth factors derived from platelets (platelet rich plasma). Surgical therapy with prosthetic replacement is finally a choice to share with the patient based on pain and functional limitation, bearing in mind always the best technology and tribology and the possibility of less invasive surgical access, while recognizing that there are not still eternal prosthesis. Of particular importance then is the age of the patient. There are also other types of surgery (hip arthroscopy, forage) for other pathologies of the hip which can be resolutive, or, in a sense, can delay the arrival to the prosthetic replacement. We will discuss below the decision-making process that leads the surgeon with the patient to the surgery option. PMID:23858310

  3. [Management of facet pain syndrome in patients treated by microdiscectomy].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A V; Dreval', O N; Rynkov, I P; Chagava, D A; Zakirov, A A

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of high-frequency denervation of facet joints in facet pain syndrome in patients who underwent microdiscectomy. The analyzed series included 42 patients treated by microdiscectomy 2 to 56 months before minimally invasive manipulation. The control group was made of 50 patients of similar age with facet pain syndrome who did not undergo spinal surgery. Effectiveness of treatment in the main group reached 62% while in the control group it was 82%. VAS score after 6-12 months changed from 7.6 to 3.2 and from 7.9 to 2.2 in control and mail groups, respectively. Conclusions are made about effectiveness of high-frequency denervation of facet joints in patients with failed back surgery syndrome in conditions of their careful selection for this procedure. PMID:21793297

  4. SLAC All Access: FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Mark

    2012-07-05

    SLAC's Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests, or FACET, is a test-bed where researchers are developing the technologies required for particle accelerators of the future. Scientists from all over the world come to explore ways of improving the power and efficiency of the particle accelerators used in basic research, medicine, industry and other areas important to society. In this video, Mark Hogan, head of SLAC's Advanced Accelerator Research Department, offers a glimpse into FACET, which uses part of SLAC's historic two-mile-long linear accelerator.

  5. Development of a model based method for investigating facet articulation.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel J; Cheng, Boyle C

    2010-06-01

    Reported investigations of facet articulation in the human spine have often been conducted through the insertion of pressure sensitive film into the joint space, which requires incision of the facet capsule and may alter the characteristics of interaction between the facet surfaces. Load transmission through the facet has also been measured using strain gauges bonded to the articular processes. While this method allows for preservation of the facet capsule, it requires extensive instrumentation of the spine, as well as strain-gauge calibration, and is highly sensitive to placement and location of the strain gauges. The inherently invasive nature of these techniques makes it difficult to translate them into medical practice. A method has been developed to investigate facet articulation through the application of test kinematics to a specimen-specific rigid-body model of each vertebra within a lumbar spine segment. Rigid-body models of each vertebral body were developed from CT scans of each specimen. The distances between nearest-neighboring points on each facet surface were calculated for specific time frames of each specimen's flexion/extension test. A metric describing the proportion of each facet surface within a distance (2 mm) from the neighboring surface, the contact area ratio (CAR), was calculated at each of these time frames. A statistically significant difference (p<0.037) was found in the CAR between the time frames corresponding to full flexion and full extension in every level of the lumbar spine (L1-L5) using the data obtained from the seven specimens evaluated in this study. The finding that the contact area of the facet is greater in extension than flexion corresponds to other findings in the literature, as well as the generally accepted role of the facets in extension. Thus, a biomechanical method with a sufficiently sensitive metric is presented as a means to evaluate differences in facet articulation between intact and treated or between healthy and pathologic spines. PMID:20887038

  6. Beam Diagnostics for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

  7. Optics Design for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y.; Bane, K.; Bentson, L.; Erickson, R.; Hogan, M.J.; Li, N.; Seeman, J.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC

    2009-05-07

    FACET is a proposed facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. It will provide high energy, tightly focused and compressed electron and positron bunches for beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration research and other experiments. FACET will be built in the SLAC linac sector 20, where it will be separated from the LCLS located immediately downstream and will take advantage of the upstream 2 km linac for up to 23 GeV beam acceleration. FACET will also include an upgrade to linac sector 10, where a new e+ compressor chicane will be installed. The sector 20 will contain a new optics consisting of two chicanes for e+ and ebunch length compression, a final focus and an experimental line with a dump. The e+ and e- chicanes will allow the transport of e+ and ebunches together, their compression and proper positioning of e+ witness bunch behind the e- drive bunch at the plasma Interaction Point. The new optics will mostly use the existing SLAC magnets to minimize the project cost. Details of the FACET optics design and results of particle tracking simulations are presented.

  8. FACET Emittance Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  9. Optics Tuning Knobs for Facet

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Yuri; Hogan, Mark J.; Wittmer, Walter; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    FACET is a new facility under construction at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The FACET beam line is designed to provide 23 GeV tightly focused and compressed electron and positron bunches for beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration research and other experiments. Achieving optimal beam parameters for various experimental conditions requires the optics capability for tuning in a sufficiently wide range. This will be achieved by using optics tuning systems (knobs). Design of such systems for FACET is discussed.

  10. An anatomical investigation of the human cervical facet capsule, quantifying muscle insertion area

    PubMed Central

    WINKELSTEIN, BETH A.; McLENDON, ROGER E.; BARBIR, ANA; MYERS, BARRY S.

    2001-01-01

    Facet capsule injury has been hypothesised as a mechanism for neck pain. While qualitative studies have demonstrated the proximity of neck muscles to the cervical facet capsule, the magnitude of their forces remains unknown owing to a lack of quantitative muscle geometry. In this study, histological techniques were employed to quantify muscle insertions on the human cervical facet capsule. Computerised image analysis of slides stained with Masson's trichrome was performed to characterise the geometry of the cervical facet capsule and determine the total insertion area of muscle fibres into the facet capsule for the C4–C5 and C5–C6 joints. Muscle insertions were found to cover 22·4±9·6 % of the capsule area for these cervical levels, corresponding to a mean muscle insertion area of 47·6±21·8 mm2. The magnitude of loading to the cervical facet capsule due to eccentric muscle contraction is estimated to be as high as 51 N. When taken in conjunction with the forces acting on the capsular ligament due to vertebral motions, these forces can be as high as 66 N. In that regard, these anatomical data provide quantitative evidence of substantial muscle insertions into the cervical facet capsular ligament and provide a possible mechanism for injury to this ligament and the facet joint as a whole. PMID:11327207

  11. SLAC Linac Preparations for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.; Bentson, L.; Kharakh, D.; Owens, A.; Schuh, P.; Seeman, J.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stanek, M.; Wittmer, W.; Yocky, G.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2011-02-07

    The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been cut at the two-thirds point to provide beams to two independent programs. The last third provides the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), leaving the first two-thirds available for FACET, the new experimental facility for accelerator science and test beams. In this paper, we describe this separation and projects to prepare the linac for the FACET experimental program.

  12. Faceted Navigation for Software Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Niu; Anas Mahmoud; Xiaoyong Yang

    2011-01-01

    Much of developers' time is spent in exploring and understanding an unfamiliar software space. In this paper, we present a novel approach that characterizes the code fragments along several orthogonal dimensions in order for developers to navigate complex software spaces in a flexible manner. Central to our approach are hierarchical faceted categories (HFC), which have become especially successful in supporting

  13. Plasma Wakefield Experiments at FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, M.J.; England, R.J.; Frederico, J.; Hast, C.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; An, W.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Tochitsky, S.; /UCLA; Muggli, P.; Pinkerton, S.; Shi, Y.; /Southern California U.

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to {approx}20{micro}m long and focused to {approx}10{micro}m wide. The intense fields of the FACET bunches will be used to field ionize neutral lithium or cesium vapor produced in a heat pipe oven. Previous experiments at the SLAC FFTB facility demonstrated 50GeV/m gradients in an 85cm field ionized lithium plasma where the interaction distance was limited by head erosion. Simulations indicate the lower ionization potential of cesium will decrease the rate of head erosion and increase single stage performance. The initial experimental program will compare the performance of lithium and cesium plasma sources with single and double bunches. Later experiments will investigate improved performance with a pre-ionized cesium plasma. The status of the experiments and expected performance are reviewed. The FACET Facility is being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The facility will begin commissioning in summer 2011 and conduct an experimental program over the coming five years to study electron and positron beam driven plasma acceleration with strong wake loading in the non-linear regime. The FACET experiments aim to demonstrate high-gradient acceleration of electron and positron beams with high efficiency and negligible emittance growth.

  14. Faceting Artifact Analysis for Computer Graphics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Qu; Gary W. Meyer

    2007-01-01

    The faceting signal, defined in this paper as the differ- ence signal between a rendering of the original geometric model and a simplified version of the geometric model, is responsible for the faceting artifacts commonly observed in the renderings of coarse geometric models. We analyze the source of the faceting artifacts and develop a perceptual metric for the visibility of

  15. Why do grain boundaries exhibit finite facet lengths?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hamilton; Donald Siegel; Istvan Daruka; Francois Leonard

    2003-01-01

    Faceted grain boundaries (GB) commonly exhibit regularly spaced arrays of finite facets. The essential question is whether this regularity is due to energetics or kinetics, a crucial issue in understanding GB facet stability and phase transitions. By analogy to stress domain theories of surface faceting, it has been argued that finite GB facet lengths are energetic effects due to relaxation

  16. Functional adaptations of facet geometry in the canine thoracolumbar and lumbar spine (Th10-L6).

    PubMed

    Breit, Sabine

    2002-07-01

    The shape, size and transverse distance between contralateral caudal articular processes of caudal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated in a sample of 140 macerated canine spines to contribute to the understanding of the development of vertebral misalignment. Dogs were grouped as large, chondrodystrophic, and small breeds. In large dogs, caudal articular surfaces were adapted to higher body-weight by the presence of larger articular surfaces. Additionally, caudal articular surfaces not only covered the lateral, but also the ventral (i.e. ventral facet) and/or caudal aspects (i.e. caudal facet) of the caudal articular processes. Ventral facets, which increase loading capacity of the zygapophyseal joints in normally aligned vertebrae, were more frequently observed in large breeds (p < 0.001) than in small and chondrodystrophic breeds. With some exceptions, caudal facets primarily were present in large dogs, especially at the vertebral levels L3-L5. Their formation is induced by extension of the normal lykphotic thoracic and lumbar spine causing lumbar lordosis and denotes loss in elasticity of the bow-and-string-construction of the trunk. Because ventral and caudal facets are consistent with convexity of the caudal articular surfaces, which to a great degree was noted to result in formation of ball-and-socket joints, spinal stability is supposed to be decreased under such conditions. PMID:12201048

  17. New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, P.C.; Roberts, D.A.; Robson, P.N. (Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)); Adams, M.J.; Robertson, M.J. (BT Labs., Martlesham Heath, Ipswich (United Kingdom))

    1993-02-01

    A new analytic expression for the main mode reflectivity of a multicoated laser facet at normal incidence is derived using the free space radiation mode technique. This uses exact guided modes, and accurately models the radiation modes near the facet. The results compare favorably with exact TE and TM bench marks while retaining the simplicity and speed of the Fresnel approximations.

  18. Reflectivity of coated and tilted semiconductor facets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Buus; Mark C. Farries; David J. Robbins

    1991-01-01

    A comparatively simple model for calculating the reflectivity of coated and tilted semiconductor facets is described. The model can be briefly described as follows: the forward-propagating waveguide field is propagated to the (tilted) facet, and a Fourier transformation is performed. Each angular component is then further decomposed into parallel and perpendicular components. Fresnel reflection coefficients are applied, and the coupling

  19. Method for partially coating laser diode facets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Bars of integral laser diode devices cleaved from a wafer are placed with their p regions abutting and n regions abutting. A thin BeCu mask having alternate openings and strips of the same width as the end facets is used to mask the n region interfaces so that multiple bars can be partially coated over their exposed p regions with a reflective or partial reflective coating. The partial coating permits identification of the emitting facet from the fully coated back facet during a later device mounting procedure.

  20. Posterior Epidural Migration of an Extruded Lumbar Disc Mimicking a Facet Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young Sun; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Dong Min

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal extradural migration of extruded disc material is clinically uncommon. We report a rare case of posterior epidural migration of an extruded lumbar disc mimicking a facet cyst. A 32-year-old man was admitted to our institute with a 2-week history of severe low back pain and radiating pain in the left leg. The magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed a dorsally located, left-sided extradural cystic mass at the L2-3 level. The initial diagnosis was an epidural facet cyst because of the high signal intensity on MR images and its location adjacent to the facet joint. Intraoperatively, an encapsulated mass of soft tissue adherent to the dural sac was observed and excised. The pathological diagnosis was degenerated disc material. After surgery, the patient experienced complete relief from leg pain. PMID:25883662

  1. Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, M. J.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Seryi, A.; Muggli, P.; Katsouleas, T.; Huang, C.; Lu, W.; An, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.

    2010-05-01

    FACET—Facilities for Accelerator science and Experimental Test beams at SLAC—will provide high-energy-density electron and positron beams with peak currents of roughly 20 kA that will be focused down to a 10 ?m×10 ?m transverse spot size at an energy of ~23 GeV. With FACET, the SLAC linac will support a unique program concentrating on second-generation research in plasma wakefield acceleration. Topics include high-gradient electron acceleration with a narrow energy spread and preserved emittance, beam loading and high-gradient positron acceleration. This paper describes the FACET facility, summarizes the state of the art for plasma wakefield accelerators and discusses the plasma wakefield accelerator program to be conducted at FACET over the next five years.

  2. Stability of crystal facets in gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Katz-Boon, Hadas; Walsh, Michael; Dwyer, Christian; Mulvaney, Paul; Funston, Alison M; Etheridge, Joanne

    2015-03-11

    Metal nanocrystals can be grown in a variety of shapes through the modification of surface facet energies via surfactants. However, the surface facets are only a few atoms wide, making it extremely challenging to measure their geometries and energies. Here, we locate and count atoms in Au nanorods at successive time intervals using quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy. This enables us to determine the atomic-level geometry and the relative stability of the facets and to expound their relationship to the overall three-dimensional nanocrystal shape and size. We reveal coexisting high- and low-index facets with comparable stability and dimensions and find the geometry of the nanorods is remarkably stable, despite significant atom movements. This information provides unique insights into the mechanisms that govern growth kinetics and nanocrystal morphology. PMID:25658226

  3. FACET: Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmoria, Karl D.; Banavar, Sridhar; Chatterji, Gano B.; Sheth, Kapil S.; Grabbe, Shon

    2000-01-01

    FACET (Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool) is an Air Traffic Management research tool being developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. This paper describes the design, architecture and functionalities of FACET. The purpose of FACET is to provide E simulation environment for exploration, development and evaluation of advanced ATM concepts. Examples of these concepts include new ATM paradigms such as Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management, airspace redesign and new Decision Support Tools (DSTs) for controllers working within the operational procedures of the existing air traffic control system. FACET is currently capable of modeling system-wide en route airspace operations over the contiguous United States. Airspace models (e.g., Center/sector boundaries, airways, locations of navigation aids and airports) are available from databases. A core capability of FACET is the modeling of aircraft trajectories. Using round-earth kinematic equations, aircraft can be flown along flight plan routes or great circle routes as they climb, cruise and descend according to their individual aircraft-type performance models. Performance parameters (e.g., climb/descent rates and speeds, cruise speeds) are obtained from data table lookups. Heading, airspeed and altitude-rate dynamics are also modeled. Additional functionalities will be added as necessary for specific applications. FACET software is written in Java and C programming languages. It is platform-independent, and can be run on a variety of computers. FACET has been designed with a modular software architecture to enable rapid integration of research prototype implementations of new ATM concepts. There are several advanced ATM concepts that are currently being implemented in FACET airborne separation assurance, dynamic density predictions, airspace redesign (re-sectorization), benefits of a controller DST for direct-routing, and the integration of commercial space transportation system operations into the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS).

  4. Surface Processes of Faceted Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy and high precision optical interferometry allow to analyze the processes that are in the core of our present understanding of faceted crystal growth. Some of these processes will be reviewed. Recent experiments suggest that the Gibbs-Thomson Law (GTL) may not be applicable to the weakly fluctuating strongly polygonized steps, with low kink density. Propagation rate of a straight short step segment changes with the segment length much steeper than predicted by GTL. If the step fluctuations are still well developed, the typical transition length may be determined just by the radius of rounded comers of the polygonized step. If fluctuations do not have enough time to develop, the kinetic effects may be essential. Indeed, 'communications' between comers of a short straight step segment may occur and, thus, the GTL may be implemented only via kink exchange. E.g., dissolutions of this short segment at macroscopic equilibrium occurs as follows: The kinks are split from one comer as a result of fluctuations, and annihilate with kinks of the opposite sign generated by another comer. Similarly, an exchange via chain of kinks on a rough step is the mechanism to implement the GT Law. If there is a supersaturation with respect to a large crystal, the kinks not only diffuse along the step, but move back the generating comers. This 'wind' prevents communication between the comers and places upper limit supersaturation only below which GTL is applicable. Steps replace kinks in the 3D case, though, of course, another dimensionality brings about another physics. Another specific problem to think about is if fluctuations are always fast enough to provide enough kinks for linear dependence of step rate on supersaturation. Increasing azimuthal polygonization of growth hillocks is a sign of insufficient fluctuation rate. Morphological stability of vicinal faces is usually considered on the basis of mutually parallel steps. Azimuthal anisotropy and interlacing of step bunches inducing the well known bunch splitting is another challenge. Among other challenging problems are: existence of surface diffusion on the crystal/so1ution interface, step interaction in solutions, achievement of step flow modes from liquids, impurity effects. New phenomena essential in biomacromolecular crystallization is another interesting area.

  5. Facet development for a faceted stretched-membrane dish by Solar Kinetics, Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertz, P. T.; Brown, D. C.; Konnerth, A., III

    1991-07-01

    A 3.6-meter diameter stretched-membrane optical facet for a parabolic dish has been successfully designed and demonstrated under contract with Sandia National Laboratories. Twelve facets identical to them will be used to make the lightweight reflector of the dish. The project goal of 2.5-mrad surface accuracy was met with each of the two full-sized prototypes, and accuracies of as low as 1.1 mrad were achieved. The facet weight is 11.7 kg/sq m (2.4 lbs/sq ft). The facet is similar in construction to the successful stretched-membrane heliostat; it has two thin metal membranes attached to a ring. However, the front membrane for this facet is plastically formed at the factor in order to achieve a shorter facet f/D (approximately 3.0). A passive tether restrains the front membrane when not in operation, that is, when the stabilizing vacuum is off. The optical surface is achieved with a silvered-acrylic film laminated to the metal membrane. The facet is expected to cost $55.40/sq m at a production rate of 10,000 facets per year and $115,000/sq m at a production rate of 500 facets a year. Several key issues have been resolved. Stress concentrations due to seams in the reflective laminate did not cause membrane rupture during forming as they have for dishes with lower focal length-to-diameter ratios. The laminate survived the forming process and simulated operation without deterioration. The optical effect of the tether on the membrane was tested and found to be very small. Most important, highly accurate shapes were obtained using a simple forming procedure. Additional tests are needed to demonstrate process repeatability and facet performance in typical operating conditions.

  6. Facet development for a faceted stretched-membrane dish by Solar Kinetics, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Schertz, P.T.; Brown, D.C.; Konnerth, A. III (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)) [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1991-07-01

    A 3.6-meter diameter stretched-membrane optical facet for a parabolic dish has been successfully designed and demonstrated under contract with Sandia National Laboratories. Twelve facets identical to them will be used to make the lightweight reflector of the dish. The project goal of 2.5-mrad surface accuracy was met with each of the two full-sized prototypes, and accuracies of as low as 1.1 mrad were achieved. The facet weight is 11.7 kg/m{sup 2} (2.4lbs/ft{sup 2}). The facet is similar in construction to the successful stretched-membrane heliostat; it has two thin metal membranes attached to a ring. However, the front membrane for this facet is plastically formed at the factor in order to achieve a shorter facet f/D (approximately 3.0). A passive tether restrains the from membrane when not in operation, that is, when the stabilizing vacuum is off. The optical surface is achieved with a silvered-acrylic film laminated to the metal membrane. The facet is expected to cost $55.40/m{sup 2} at a production rate of 10,000 facets per year and $115, 000/m{sup 2}-at a production rate of 500 facets a year. Several key issues have been resolved. Stress concentrations due to seams in the reflective laminate did not cause membrane rupture during forming as they have for dishes with lower focal length-to-diameter ratios. The laminate survived the forming process and simulated operation without deterioration. The optical effect of the tether on the membrane was tested and found to be very small. Most important, highly accurate shapes were obtained using a simple forming procedure. Additional tests are needed to demonstrate process repeatablility and facet performance in typical operating conditions. 18 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. The acoustical characteristics of the normal and abnormal temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Gay, T; Bertolami, C N; Donoff, R B; Keith, D A; Kelly, J P

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes the results of a clinical study that recorded and analyzed sounds emitted from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) during simple function as a means for differentially diagnosing disorders of the joint. The technique is based on the principle that each different disorder of the TMJ produces a different effect on the mechanical relationship between the articulating surfaces of the joint, and that these mechanical effects can be determined by analyzing joint sounds in relation to joint movement. A total of 79 patients (101 joints) were studied; 32 (46 joints) were diagnosed as having extracapsular disorders, (primarily MPD), 27 (32 joints) were diagnosed as having a displaced disc with reduction, nine (10 joints) were diagnosed as having a displaced disc without reduction, and 11 (13 joints) were diagnosed as degenerative disease (osteoarthritis/arthrosis). In addition, 25 adults (50 joints) with normal TMJs were included as controls. The results of this study demonstrated that each specific disease of the TMJ is characterized by a unique relationship between the sounds propagated by the joint and the movement of the joint. Essentially, an extracapsular disease was characterized by acoustic quiescence during natural (as opposed to maximal) jaw movement, an internal derangement by a usually symmetrical short duration click/reciprocal click, or random click complex, depending on the subcategory of the disorder, and a degenerative disease by a long duration noise during either or both jaw opening and closing. The data further suggest that the technique serves to reflect the mechanical events (and abnormalities) that are involved in function of the diseased joint and has potential for use as a clinical diagnostic tool. PMID:3471925

  8. Faceting oscillations in nano-ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J. F., E-mail: jfs32@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: jfs32@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-04

    We observe periodic faceting of 8-nm diameter ferroelectric disks on a 10?s time-scale when thin Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} film is exposed to constant high-resolution transmission electron microscopy beams. The oscillation is between circular disk geometry and sharply faceted hexagons. The behavior is analogous to that of spin structure and magnetic domain wall velocity oscillations in permalloy [Bisig et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 2328 (2013)], involving overshoot and de-pinning from defects [Amann et al., J. Rheol. 57, 149–175 (2013)].

  9. Joint swelling

    MedlinePLUS

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  10. Problem of time: facets and Machian strategy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Edward

    2014-10-01

    The problem of time is that "time" in each of ordinary quantum theory and general relativity are mutually incompatible notions. This causes difficulties in trying to put these two theories together to form a theory of quantum gravity. The problem of time has eight facets in canonical approaches. I clarify that all but one of these facets already occur at the classical level, and reconceptualize and re-name some of these facets as follows. The frozen formalism problem becomes temporal relationalism, the thin sandwich problem becomes configurational relationalism, via the notion of best matching. The problem of observables becomes the problem of beables, and the functional evolution problem becomes the constraint closure problem. I also outline how each of the global and multiple-choice problems of time have their own plurality of facets. This article additionally contains a local resolution to the problem of time at the conceptual level and which is actually realizable for the relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution is, moreover, Machian, and has three levels: classical, semiclassical, and a combined semiclassical-histories-timeless records scheme. I end by delineating the current frontiers of this program toward resolution of the problem of time in the cases of full general relativity and of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology. PMID:25266113

  11. Facets for Discovery and Exploration in Text Collections

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Roberts, Ian E.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

    2011-10-24

    Faceted classifications of text collections provide a useful means of partitioning documents into related groups, however traditional approaches of faceting text collections rely on comprehensive analysis of the subject area or annotated general attributes. In this paper we show the application of basic principles for facet analysis to the development of computational methods for facet classification of text collections. Integration with a visual analytics system is described with summaries of user experiences.

  12. Facet-Selective Epitaxy of Compound Semiconductors on Faceted Silicon Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mankin, Max N; Day, Robert W; Gao, Ruixuan; No, You-Shin; Kim, Sun-Kyung; McClelland, Arthur A; Bell, David C; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Integration of compound semiconductors with silicon (Si) has been a long-standing goal for the semiconductor industry, as direct band gap compound semiconductors offer, for example, attractive photonic properties not possible with Si devices. However, mismatches in lattice constant, thermal expansion coefficient, and polarity between Si and compound semiconductors render growth of epitaxial heterostructures challenging. Nanowires (NWs) are a promising platform for the integration of Si and compound semiconductors since their limited surface area can alleviate such material mismatch issues. Here, we demonstrate facet-selective growth of cadmium sulfide (CdS) on Si NWs. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that crystalline CdS is grown epitaxially on the {111} and {110} surface facets of the Si NWs but that the Si{113} facets remain bare. Further analysis of CdS on Si NWs grown at higher deposition rates to yield a conformal shell reveals a thin oxide layer on the Si{113} facet. This observation and control experiments suggest that facet-selective growth is enabled by the formation of an oxide, which prevents subsequent shell growth on the Si{113} NW facets. Further studies of facet-selective epitaxial growth of CdS shells on micro-to-mesoscale wires, which allows tuning of the lateral width of the compound semiconductor layer without lithographic patterning, and InP shell growth on Si NWs demonstrate the generality of our growth technique. In addition, photoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy show that the epitaxial shells display strong and clean band edge emission, confirming their high photonic quality, and thus suggesting that facet-selective epitaxy on NW substrates represents a promising route to integration of compound semiconductors on Si. PMID:26057208

  13. Faceting of ? ? ? ?3 and ? ? ? ?9 Grain Boundaries in Copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Straumal; S. A. Polyakov; E. Bischoff; W. Gust; E. J. Mittemeijer

    Faceting is a well documented phenomenon known both for surfaces and interfaces, particularly, grain boundaries (GBs). Faceting can be considered as a phase transition when the original surface or GB dissociates onto flat segments whose energy is less than that of the original surface or GB. For the investigation of GB faceting a cylindrical Cu bicrystal with an island grain

  14. Formulation and Application of the Generalized Multilevel Facets Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chih-Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors develop a generalized multilevel facets model, which is not only a multilevel and two-parameter generalization of the facets model, but also a multilevel and facet generalization of the generalized partial credit model. Because the new model is formulated within a framework of nonlinear mixed models, no efforts are…

  15. Between Facets and Domains: 10 Aspects of the Big Five

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin G. DeYoung; Lena C. Quilty; Jordan B. Peterson

    2007-01-01

    Factor analyses of 75 facet scales from 2 major Big Five inventories, in the Eugene-Springfield community sample (N = 481), produced a 2-factor solution for the 15 facets in each domain. These findings indicate the existence of 2 distinct (but correlated) aspects within each of the Big Five, representing an intermediate level of personality structure between facets and domains. The

  16. [Juxta-facet Cyst Associated with Conjoined Nerve Roots:A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Fukuda, Miyuki; Ueda, Shigeo; Hoshimaru, Minoru

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of a patient with a juxta-facet cyst and conjoined nerve roots. A 66-year-old man presented with left leg pain from the past 4 months. Neurological examinations revealed L5 and S1 radiculopathy on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)detected a mass lesion located near the left intervertebral joint at the level of L5/S1 and canal stenosis at the level of L3/L4. A juxta-facet cyst was diagnosed by arthrography. We performed a curettage and resection of the mass, posterior lumbar interbody fusion at the level of L5/S1, and laminectomy at the level of L3/L4. Conjoined left L5/S1 nerve roots were observed during surgery. The patient recovered from the symptoms of L5 and S1 radiculopathy immediately after surgery. Postoperative review of the preoperative computed tomography images revealed bony abnormality in the L5/S1 joint. We speculate that the bony abnormality may be associated with the development of conjoined nerve roots and the juxta-facet cyst. PMID:26015382

  17. Interventional radiology in bone and joint

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, M.; Laredo, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Recent radiologic procedures in bone and joints, some of which eliminate the need for surgery are exposed, including: trephine biopsies of the thoracic and lumbar spine, sacro-iliac joints, peripheral bones synovial membrane and soft tissues, using either fluoroscopic echographic or CT guidance - chemonucleolysis - vascular embolization of skeletal tumors and management of vertebral hemangiomas - selective steroid injection in a broad spectrum of diseases including vertebral facet syndrome, cervicobrachial nerve root pain, rotator cuff calcium deposit, bone cysts.

  18. JPL tests of a LaJet concentrator facet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, E. W.; Argoud, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    A LaJet Energy Company (LEC) concentrator facet, 60 in. in diameter, was tested for imaging quality. The following two methods were used: (1) autofocus tests with a point source of light at the facet's radius of curvature; and (2) tests with the Sun close to the horizon as a distant source. The tests of the LaJet facet indicate that all of the solar image reflected by an LEC 460 solar concentrator made of like facets should fall within a 9-in. aperture if the outer facets are carefully adjusted. Such a concentrator would have acceptable performance, but complete evaluation must be made with an assembled concentrator.

  19. A delayed diagnosis of bilateral facet dislocation of the cervical spine: a case report

    PubMed Central

    O’Shaughnessy, Julie; Grenier, Julie-Marthe; Stern, Paula J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the case of a patient suffering from bilateral facet dislocation of the cervical spine. Clinical features: A 53-year-old male was involved in a car accident and was transported to the hospital. Cervical radiographs were taken at the emergency department and interpreted as normal. Four days later, he consulted a chiropractor where radiographs of the cervical spine were repeated. The examination revealed bilateral cervical facet joint dislocation at C5–C6 as well as a fracture involving the spinous process and laminae of C6. Intervention and outcome: The patient was referred to the hospital and underwent surgery. Conclusion: Patients involved in motor vehicle accidents often consult chiropractors for neck pain treatment. A high index of suspicion due to significant history and physical examination findings should guide the clinician in determining the need for reviewing the initial radiographs (if taken and available) or request repeat studies, regardless of the initial imaging status. PMID:24587496

  20. The facets of relativistic quantum field theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Dosch; V. F. Müller

    2011-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theory is generally recognized to form the adequate theoretical frame for subatomic physics, with\\u000a the Standard Model of Particle Physics as a major achievement. We point out that quantum field theory in its present form\\u000a is not a monolithic theory, but rather consists of distinct facets, which aim at a common ideal goal. We give a short

  1. FACET: The New User Facility at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, C.I.; Decker, F.J.; Erikson, R.; Hast, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Li, S.Z.; Nosochkov, Y.; Phinney, N.; Sheppard, J.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC; Seryi, A.; /Oxford U., JAI; Wittmer, W.; /Michigan State U.

    2011-12-13

    FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests) is a new User Facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Its high power electron and positron beams make it a unique facility, ideal for beam-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration studies. The first 2 km of the SLAC linac produce 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron and positron beams with short bunch lengths of 20 {mu}m. A final focusing system can produce beam spots 10 {mu}m wide. User-aided Commissioning took place in summer 2011 and FACET will formally come online in early 2012. We present the User Facility, the current features, planned upgrades and the opportunities for further experiments. Accelerators are our primary tool for discovering the fundamental laws to the universe. Each new frontier we probe requires a new, more powerful method. Accelerators are therefore increasing in size and cost. The future of this field requires new accelerating techniques that can reach the high energies required over shorter distances. New concepts for high gradient acceleration include utilizing the wakes in plasma and dielectric and metallic structures. FACET was built to provide a test bed for novel accelerating concepts with its high charge and highly compressed beams. As a test facility unlike any other, it has also attracted groups interested in beam diagnostic techniques and terahertz studies. The first phase of the construction was completed in May 2011. Beam commissioning began in June and was interleaved with the installation of five experiments. Users were invited to aid with the commissioning for the month of August during which time experimental hardware and software were checked out and some first measurements were taken. FACET is currently in the process of becoming a Department of Energy User Facility for High Energy Physics.

  2. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hypermobile joints have an increased risk for joint dislocation and other problems. Extra care may be needed ... the joint? Is there any history of joint dislocation, difficulty walking, or difficulty using the arms? Further ...

  3. Morphometric analysis of the cervical facets and the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of Goel inter-facet spacer distraction technique

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Quantitative anatomy of the facets of the sub-axial cervical spine was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the feasibility of insertion of Goel inter-facetal articular spacers in the sub-axial cervical spine. Only few studies detailing the morphometry of the facets are available in the literature. Materials and Methods: Ten cervical vertebrae from C3 to C7 with a total of 20 facets were evaluated by the author. The anatomic parameters studied were the height, width, thickness, shape, orientation, and inclination of each of the superior and inferior facets. The alterations in a number of intervertebral segmental distances were measured before and after spacer insertion. The distance of the inferior facet from the foramen tranversarium, spinal canal, and neural foramina was measured to assess safety of spacer insertion with respect to the vertebral artery and neural structures. Results: The height, width and thickness of the superior facets from C3 to C7 ranged from 6 to 12 mm, 8 to 12 mm, and 2.5 to 6 mm, respectively. The inferior facets had an average height of 10.5 mm, average width of 11.2 mm and average thickness of 3.5 mm. The inclination of the superior facets with respect to the transverse plane ranged from 22° to 45° and that of the inferior facets ranged from 29° to 53°. The distance of the anterior margin of the inferior facet from the posterior border of the foramen transversium ranged from 5 to 7 mm. This distance was maximum at C3 level, then decreased at C4 and remained constant from C5 to C7. Conclusion: This anatomic evaluation aided in understanding the morphology of the cervical facets and the suitability of the cervical facetal articular cavity for insertion of spacers. PMID:25013341

  4. Oxidation and faceting of polycrystalline tungsten ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, J.; Mezin, A.; Nivoit, M.

    1985-10-01

    We have measured the oxidation rate of tungsten and the evaporation rate of tungsten oxide in the temperature range from 900 to 1200 K at an oxygen pressure from 5 × 10 -4 to 5 × 10 -3 Torr. The oxidation rate increases steadily with coverage in the whole range studied. The evaporation rate decreases at high pressure and is strongly dependent on the initial conditions of the experiments. These kinetic measurements support a qualitative model of oxidation. The surface is composed of oxide islands surrounded by oxide-free regions covered only by chemisorbed oxygen atoms. On the bare regions beside the chemisorbed oxygen atoms we suppose the existence of a dilute chemisorbed oxide layer which can either enter the condensed oxide phase or evaporate. The number of the growing islands is set up at the beginning of the reaction and does not increase further. This model, consistent with kinetic results during oxidation, has been proposed first to explain results obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy and thermal desorption spectroscopy under vacuum. Faceting is particularly important in the early stages of the experiment because it can hinder the nucleation of the oxide which is a necessary step for growth. In a narrow range of temperature and oxygen pressure this inhibited nucleation leads to an enhanced evaporation rate so that the growth rate is lower. Recording this growth rate allows us to follow faceting. The parameters studied are the oxygen coverage and the temperature, experimental results are in agreement with LEED and RHEED results. Reconstruction and faceting are discussed and are believed to be caused by a smoothing of the surface during the chemisorption step.

  5. Fabrication of faceted nanopores in magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shujing; Cao, Fan; Zheng, He; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Chun; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Dongshan; Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: wang@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)] [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2013-12-09

    In this paper, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, we showed the fabrication of faceted nanopores with various shapes in magnesium by focused electron beam (e-beam). The characteristics of nanopore shapes and the crystallographic planes corresponding to the edges of the nanopores were discussed in detail. Interestingly, by manipulating the e-beam (e.g., irradiation direction and duration), the nanopore shape and size could be effectively controlled along different directions. Our results provide important insight into the nanopore patterning in metallic materials and are of fundamental importance concerning the relevant applications, such as nanopore-based sensor, etc.

  6. Transverse effects in plasma wakefield acceleration at FACET - Simulation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Adli, E.; Hogan, M.; Frederico, J.; Litos, M. D.; An, W.; Mori, W. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    We investigate transverse effects in the plasma-wakefield acceleration experiments planned and ongoing at FACET. We use PIC simulation tools, mainly QuickPIC, to simulate the interaction of the drive electron beam and the plasma. In FACET a number of beam dynamics knobs, including dispersion and bunch length knobs, can be used to vary the beam transverse characteristics in the plasma. We present simulation results and the status of the FACET experimental searches.

  7. [Performance assessment using the Many-Facet Rasch Measurement].

    PubMed

    Prieto Adánez, Gerardo

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes how the Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM) can be applied to constructed-response items and rater analysis. The article provides an introduction to MFRM, a description of facet analysis procedures, and an illustrative example to examine the effects of various sources of variability on students' performance on a DELE (Diplomas in Spanish as a Foreign Language) test by means of the FACETS program. Results highlight the usefulness of the MFRM to detect raters that have extreme values on the continuum of severity. MFRM facilitates comprehension of the assessment process as well as providing objective measurement of facet elements. PMID:21504675

  8. Faceted Gold Nanorods: Nanocuboids, Convex Nanocuboids, and Concave Nanocuboids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Zhou, Yadong; Villarreal, Esteban; Lin, Ye; Zou, Shengli; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-10

    Au nanorods are optically tunable anisotropic nanoparticles with built-in catalytic activities. The state-of-the-art seed-mediated nanorod synthesis offers excellent control over the aspect ratios of cylindrical Au nanorods, which enables fine-tuning of plasmon resonances over a broad spectral range. However, facet control of Au nanorods with atomic-level precision remains significantly more challenging. The coexistence of various types of low-index and high-index facets on the highly curved nanorod surfaces makes it extremely challenging to quantitatively elucidate the atomic-level structure-property relationships that underpin the catalytic competence of Au nanorods. Here we demonstrate that cylindrical Au nanorods undergo controlled facet evolution during their overgrowth in the presence of Cu(2+) and cationic surfactants, resulting in the formation of anisotropic nanostructures enclosed by well-defined facets, such as low-index faceting nanocuboids and high-index faceting convex nanocuboids and concave nanocuboids. These faceted Au nanorods exhibit enriched optical extinction spectral features, broader plasmonic tuning range, and enhanced catalytic tunability in comparison to the conventional cylindrical Au nanorods. The capabilities to both fine-tailor the facets and fine-tune the plasmon resonances of anisotropic Au nanoparticles open up unique opportunities for us to study, in great detail, the facet-dependent interfacial molecular transformations on Au nanocatalysts using surface-enhanced Raman scattering as a time-resolved spectroscopic tool. PMID:25927399

  9. FaSet: A Set Theory Model for Faceted Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dario Bonino; Fulvio Corno; Laura Farinetti

    2009-01-01

    Faceted classification is a technique originated and refined in the library science field, that recently gained a lot of attention for creating efficient search interfaces for web databases. Faceted search requires the definition of a formal representation model, a search algorithm and a responsive user interface. This paper proposes FaSet, a representation model and search algorithm supporting the implementation of

  10. Search Interface Design Using Faceted Indexing for Web Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadason, Francis; Intaraksa, Neelawat; Patamawongjariya, Pornprapa; Desai, Kavita

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experimental system designed to organize and provide access to Web documents using a faceted pre-coordinate indexing system based on the Deep Structure Indexing System (DSIS) derived from POPSI (Postulate based Permuted Subject Indexing) of Bhattacharyya, and the facet analysis and chain indexing system of Ranganathan. (AEF)

  11. Interactive Retrieval Based on Faceted Feedback Lanbo Zhang, Yi Zhang

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yi

    that helps retrieval systems learn more about user information needs with limited user interactions. Faceted- value pair recommendation approaches and two retrieval models that incorporate user feedback on document facets. Evaluated based on user feedback collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk, our experimental

  12. Personalized Interactive Faceted Search Jonathan Koren, Yi Zhang

    E-print Network

    Miller, Ethan L.

    information spaces. A faceted search system presents users with key- value metadata that is used for query, faceted search, interactive search, user modeling, personalization, evaluation 1. INTRODUCTION Helping and personalization to customize the search interface to each user's behavior. This paper also proposes a utility

  13. An information model for managing domain knowledge via Faceted Taxonomies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Ju Chu; R. Y. C. Chow

    2010-01-01

    Faceted Taxonomies are often used for managing complex knowledge within a domain. They can be used as a reference model for bottom-up new information analysis and integration. This paper proposes a domain information model that quantifies the semantics (indexing concepts) of the faceted taxonomy nodes and uses them as indexer for integrating and managing knowledge such as software requirements. Through

  14. FACET Tolerances for Static and Dynamic Misalignments

    SciTech Connect

    Federico, Joel

    2012-07-13

    The Facility for AdvancedAccelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is designed to deliver a beam with a transverse spot size on the order of 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m in a new beamline constructed at the two kilometer point of the SLAC linac. Commissioning the beamline requires mitigating alignment errors and their effects, which can be significant and result in spot sizes orders of magnitude larger. Sextupole and quadrupole alignment errors in particular can introduce errors in focusing, steering, and dispersion which can result in spot size growth, beta mismatch, and waist movement. Alignment errors due to static misalignments, mechanical jitter, energy jitter, and other physical processes can be analyzed to determine the level of accuracy and precision that the beamline requires. It is important to recognize these effects and their tolerances in order to deliver a beam as designed.

  15. Role of chemical potential in relaxation of faceted crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Joshua P; Nakamura, Kanna; Margetis, Dionisios

    2014-06-01

    Below the roughening transition, crystal surfaces have macroscopic plateaus, facets, whose evolution is driven by the microscale dynamics of steps. A long-standing puzzle was how to reconcile discrete effects in facet motion with fully continuum approaches. We propose a resolution of this issue via connecting, through a jump condition, the continuum-scale surface chemical potential away from the facet, characterized by variations of the continuum surface free energy, with a chemical potential originating from the decay of atomic steps on top of the facet. The proposed condition accounts for step flow inside a discrete boundary layer near the facet. To validate this approach, we implement in a radial geometry a hybrid discrete-continuum scheme in which the continuum theory is coupled with only a few, minimally three, steps in diffusion-limited kinetics with conical initial data. PMID:25019795

  16. Role of chemical potential in relaxation of faceted crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Joshua P.; Nakamura, Kanna; Margetis, Dionisios

    2014-06-01

    Below the roughening transition, crystal surfaces have macroscopic plateaus, facets, whose evolution is driven by the microscale dynamics of steps. A long-standing puzzle was how to reconcile discrete effects in facet motion with fully continuum approaches. We propose a resolution of this issue via connecting, through a jump condition, the continuum-scale surface chemical potential away from the facet, characterized by variations of the continuum surface free energy, with a chemical potential originating from the decay of atomic steps on top of the facet. The proposed condition accounts for step flow inside a discrete boundary layer near the facet. To validate this approach, we implement in a radial geometry a hybrid discrete-continuum scheme in which the continuum theory is coupled with only a few, minimally three, steps in diffusion-limited kinetics with conical initial data.

  17. Ultra-steep side facets in multi-faceted SiGe/Si(001) Stranski-Krastanow islands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    For the prototypical Ge/Si(001) system, we show that at high growth temperature a new type of Stranski-Krastanow islands is formed with side facets steeper than {111} and high aspect ratio. Nano-goniometric analysis of the island shapes reveals the presence of six new facet groups in addition to those previously found for dome or barn-shaped islands. Due to the highly multi-faceted island shape and high aspect ratio, the new island types are named "cupola" islands and their steepest {12 5 3} side facet is inclined by 68°to the substrate surface. Assessing the relative stability of the new facets from surface area analysis, we find that their stability is similar to that of {113} and {15 3 23} facets of dome islands. The comparison of the different island shapes shows that they form a hierarchical class of geometrical structures, in which the lower aspect ratio islands of barns, domes and pyramids are directly derived from the cupola islands by successive truncation of the pedestal bases without facet rearrangements. The results underline the key role of surface faceting in the process of island formation, which is as crucial for understanding the island's growth evolution as it is important for device applications. PMID:21711579

  18. Ultra-steep side facets in multi-faceted SiGe/Si(001) Stranski-Krastanow islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Moritz; Lichtenberger, Herbert; Fromherz, Thomas; Springholz, Gunther

    2011-12-01

    For the prototypical Ge/Si(001) system, we show that at high growth temperature a new type of Stranski-Krastanow islands is formed with side facets steeper than {111} and high aspect ratio. Nano-goniometric analysis of the island shapes reveals the presence of six new facet groups in addition to those previously found for dome or barn-shaped islands. Due to the highly multi-faceted island shape and high aspect ratio, the new island types are named "cupola" islands and their steepest {12 5 3} side facet is inclined by 68°to the substrate surface. Assessing the relative stability of the new facets from surface area analysis, we find that their stability is similar to that of {113} and {15 3 23} facets of dome islands. The comparison of the different island shapes shows that they form a hierarchical class of geometrical structures, in which the lower aspect ratio islands of barns, domes and pyramids are directly derived from the cupola islands by successive truncation of the pedestal bases without facet rearrangements. The results underline the key role of surface faceting in the process of island formation, which is as crucial for understanding the island's growth evolution as it is important for device applications.

  19. Characterization of etched facets for GaN-based lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, M.; Schwegler, V.; Seyboth, M.; Eberhard, F.; Kirchner, C.; Kamp, M.; Ulu, G.; Ünlü, M. S.; Gruhler, R.; Hollricher, O.

    2001-09-01

    Dry-etching of laser facets is commonly used for (InAl)GaN/sapphire-based structures since the epitaxial planes of the nitride layers are rotated with respect to the substrate planes making cleaving impractical. To achieve steep and smooth facets by chemically assisted ion beam etching, a 3-layer resist system is developed for patterning. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy shows facets with root-mean-square roughnesses of 7 nm and inclination angles of 2-4°. Optically pumped lasers yield low threshold excitation densities for fully doped separate confinement heterostructure lasers.

  20. Atomic-scale determination of surface facets in gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Goris, Bart; Bals, Sara; Van den Broek, Wouter; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Gómez-Graña, Sergio; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2012-11-01

    It is widely accepted that the physical properties of nanostructures depend on the type of surface facets. For Au nanorods, the surface facets have a major influence on crucial effects such as reactivity and ligand adsorption and there has been controversy regarding facet indexing. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy is the ideal technique to study the atomic structure of nanomaterials. However, these images correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D nano-objects, leading to an incomplete characterization. Recently, much progress was achieved in the field of atomic-resolution electron tomography, but it is still far from being a routinely used technique. Here we propose a methodology to measure the 3D atomic structure of free-standing nanoparticles, which we apply to characterize the surface facets of Au nanorods. This methodology is applicable to a broad range of nanocrystals, leading to unique insights concerning the connection between the structure and properties of nanostructures. PMID:23085569

  1. Facette : using facets to improve tag-based bookmarking

    E-print Network

    Lai, Peter (Peter J.)

    2009-01-01

    Facette is a web service that uses facets to enhance the organizational capabilities of tag-based bookmarking systems. As with other bookmarking services, Facette allows users to associate tags with bookmarks to assist the ...

  2. Hydrothermal growth of multi-facet anatase spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jin-Ming; Song, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Lu-Yao; Wei, Xiao-Dan

    2011-03-01

    Titania with various nanostructures can be synthesized by several F --mediated procedures. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a novel multi-facet microsphere consisting of etched single-crystalline anatase by simply immersing metallic Ti plates in an HF aqueous solution under hydrothermal conditions. The etched multi-facet sphere was found to grow through the nucleation and growth of truncated bipyramids on a previously precipitated one to assemble a microsphere, and its subsequent etching by HF to expose the thermodynamic stable {1 0 1} facets. The photocatalytic activity of such etched multi-facet sphere thin films was evaluated utilizing rhodamine B and sulfonic salicylic acid in water as target molecules and compared with commercial Degussa P25 titania nanoparticles.

  3. Analysis on linac quadrupole misalignment in FACET commissioning 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    In this note, the analysis on linac quadrupole misalignment is presented for the FACET linac section LI05-09 plus LI11-19. The effectiveness of the beam-based alignment technique is preliminarily confirmed by the measurement. Beam-based alignment technique was adopted at SLAC linac since SLC time. Here the beam-based alignment algorithms are further developed and applied in the FACET commissioning during 2012 run.

  4. Measurement of vibrational motions using a three-facet mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won S.; Cho, Hyungsuck; Byun, Yong-Kyu

    2001-10-01

    A new measurement method to measure vibrational motions of objects is presented. The original principle is similar to the previous work that utilized a 3-facet mirror to obtain three dimensional positions and orientations of rigid bodies. While the previous work was presented for only stationary objects, in this paper, we newly investigate the feasibility of this method for dynamic applications. The 3-facet mirror that looks like a triangular pyramid having an equilateral cross-sectional shape. The mirror has three lateral reflective surfaces inclined 45 degrees to its bottom surface, and is mounted on the object whose motion is to be measured. As optical components, a He-Ne laser source and three position-sensitive detectors (PSD) are used. The laser beam is emitted from the He-Ne laser source located at the upright position and vertically incident to the top of the 3-facet mirror. The laser beam is reflected from the 3-facet mirror and splits into three sub-beams, each of which is reflected from the three facets and finally arrives at three PSDs, respectively. Since each PSD is a 2-dimensional sensor, we can acquire the information on the three dimensional position and orientation of the 3-facet mirror. From this principle, we can get the motion of any object simply by mounting the 3-facet mirror on the object. In this paper, the measurement principle and a series of experiments are presented. The experiments include measurements of vibrational motions of a piezoelectric actuator that moves the 3-facet mirror in a single axis. The experimental results are compared with those of a laser doppler vibrometer. Through the experiments, the proposed sensor is proven to be an effective means for measuring dynamic motions of objects.

  5. Structural Equation Modelling of Multiple Facet Data: Extending Models for Multitrait-Multimethod Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Maris, Gunter

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about the structural equation modelling of quantitative measures that are obtained from a multiple facet design. A facet is simply a set consisting of a finite number of elements. It is assumed that measures are obtained by combining each element of each facet. Methods and traits are two such facets, and a multitrait-multimethod…

  6. Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in…

  7. Empirical relationships among triangular facet slope, facet height and slip rates along active normal faults from ASTER DEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimi, Christina; Ganas, Athanassios

    2015-04-01

    ASTER DEM data (30-m pixel size) are used to derive empirical relationships between triangular facet attributes and slip rates along active normal faults. We sampled 232 triangular facets along 10 normal faults in Greece and Bulgaria that slip with rates from 0.1 mm/yr up to 1.3 mm/yr. The studied normal faults accumulate Quaternary tectonic strain in well-known extensional provinces, such as central Greece, Crete and SW Bulgaria. The normal fault footwalls analysed herein have been developed under similar long-term climatic conditions. It is suggested that two key geometrical features of the youngest generation of triangular facets (slope angle and height) can provide useful metrics to assess rates of deformation when seismological and geodetic data are lacking or not found in sufficient quantity to make reasonable assessments. Our derived empirical relation between slip rate and facet slope angle is: Y=0.057•X-1 where Y is fault slip rate (mm/yr) and X is facet slope angle (degrees), with an R² = 0.728. It is envisaged that our analysis may be helpful in assessing seismic hazard along normal faults with similar facet characteristics in other extensional settings. Note: This research was funded by The Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation Of Risk (RASOR) project http://www.rasor-project.eu/

  8. Faceted visualization of three dimensional neuroanatomy by combining ontology with faceted search.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, Harini; Miller, James V

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we present a faceted-search based approach for visualization of anatomy by combining a three dimensional digital atlas with an anatomy ontology. Specifically, our approach provides a drill-down search interface that exposes the relevant pieces of information (obtained by searching the ontology) for a user query. Hence, the user can produce visualizations starting with minimally specified queries. Furthermore, by automatically translating the user queries into the controlled terminology our approach eliminates the need for the user to use controlled terminology. We demonstrate the scalability of our approach using an abdominal atlas and the same ontology. We implemented our visualization tool on the opensource 3D Slicer software. We present results of our visualization approach by combining a modified Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) ontology with the Surgical Planning Laboratory (SPL) Brain 3D digital atlas, and geometric models specific to patients computed using the SPL brain tumor dataset. PMID:24006207

  9. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  10. Facets of Parenting a Child with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Gwen R.; Rogers, Laura G.; Ravindran, Vinitha; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to conceptualize the needs of parents of young children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) to provide a theoretical framework to inform the development of future parent interventions. Participants were parents and grandparents (n = 53) of 15 young children who had undergone the Sano surgical approach for HLHS. Analysis of recorded and transcribed single interviews with each participant was done as directed by interpretive description methodology. A model of five facets of parenting was conceptualized. These included survival parenting, “hands-off” parenting, expert parenting, uncertain parenting, and supported parenting. The facets of parenting delineated through this study provide a theoretical framework that can be used to guide the development and evaluation of interventions for parents of children with complex congenital heart disease and potentially other life-threatening conditions. Each facet constitutes a critical component for educational or psychosocial intervention for parents. PMID:22548161

  11. Mapping Mindfulness Facets onto Dimensions of Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Methods Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Results Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress -anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Conclusions Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these specific aspects of mindfulness in interventions for anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:23768665

  12. Faceting and branching in 2D crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Tegze, György; Tóth, Gyula I; Gránásy, László

    2011-05-13

    Using atomic scale time-dependent density functional calculations we confirm that both diffusion-controlled and diffusionless crystallization modes exist in simple 2D systems. We provide theoretical evidence that a faceted to nonfaceted transition is coupled to these crystallization modes, and faceting is governed by the local supersaturation at the fluid-crystalline interface. We also show that competing modes of crystallization have a major influence on mesopattern formation. Irregularly branched and porous structures are emerging at the crossover of the crystallization modes. The proposed branching mechanism differs essentially from dendritic fingering driven by diffusive instability. PMID:21668173

  13. Morphological Traits Around Patellofemoral Joint in Indian Femora and their Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Suchismita; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge of structural variations around patellofemoral joint has helped to understand postural behavior patterns of various population groups. The biomechanical impact of postures may lead to certain skeletal modifications which may contribute to knee pathologies like patellofemoral arthritis, patellar subluxation and trochlear dysplasia. This study was conducted to report the incidence of skeletal non-metric markers on femur in Indian population and to understand their correlation with some pathologies of patellofemoral joint. The traits studied were Martin’s facet, Peritrochlear groove and Supratrochlear facet. Materials and Methods: The study material was a collection of 152 adult femora from osteology museum in Department of Anatomy, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India, with equal percentage of bones from each side and gender. All bones were evaluated for the above mentioned traits and results were obtained as percentage of incidence and Chi-Square test using SPSS version 17. Results: The data showed that Martin’s facet and Peritrochlear groove showed a higher occurrence in male femora. However, Supratrochlear facet was more commonly found in female bones. Martin’s facet had an equal incidence on femora of each side while peritrochlear groove and supratrochlear facet had higher percentage of occurrence on right side. Supratrochlear facet revealed significant side variation. Conclusion: These data suggest that casual or occupational postures may impose structural adaptations around patell- ofemoral joint. The stress of these postures may have causal,consequential or co-incidental relationship with joint pathologies. The gender, special occupations like sports and genetic predisposition may possibly have a role to play. PMID:25302179

  14. Quality assurance model capturing ERP implementation facets through RVRA services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarallah S. AlGhamdi; Zeeshan Muzaffar

    2011-01-01

    Success of any ERP project requires the clear understanding of the various implementation facets and careful and appropriate identification of systematic QA activities to provide adequate confidence that when rolled out the system will fulfill requirements for quality and achieve envisaged business value. In this effort, we unleash details of rigorous ERP QA model designed at Ministry of Education, Saudi

  15. Clique-based facets for the precedence constrained knapsack ...

    E-print Network

    Dec 19, 2005 ... for network design and other related problems. ... In this paper, we determine facet-defining inequalities for the convex hull conv(P) of the PCKP ...... I.: A study of part type selection approaches for short-term production plan-.

  16. The Development of Artificial Immune System in Topographic Facet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bidisha Das; Preeti Kumari; Rachna Jindal; Rashmi Rameshwari

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores artificial immune system in feature extraction mechanism. Certain important features like robustness, dynamic, adaptive, error tolerant, distributive are key features of natural immune system. These features have a detailed description. We have used adaptive immune system to develop this extraction method successfully. The terrain has several facets such as water, vegetation, urban, denseurban, barren and many more.

  17. On the 0, 1 facets of the set covering polytope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard Cornuéjols; Antonio Sassano

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we consider inequalities of the formS ajxj = ß, whereaj equals 0 or 1, andß is a positive integer. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such inequalities to define facets of the set covering polytope associated with a 0, 1 constraint matrixA. These conditions are in terms of critical edges and critical cutsets defined in the

  18. Beyond Conflict: Functional Facets of the Work-Family Interplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Seiger, Christine P.; Schmid, Christian M.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with three positive facets of the work-family interplay, i.e., transfer of competencies, transfer of positive mood, and cross-domain compensation. The latter refers to the experience that engagement in one domain helps dealing with failures in the other domain. In two correlational studies (N[subscript 1] = 107 working…

  19. Conceptualizing Educational Leadership: Does Exploring Macro-Level Facets Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    The present review attempts to examine the present status of educational leadership highlighting the role of macro-level facets in Asian Pacific context. The conceptualization of educational leadership among researchers so far had been found to vary according to different contexts and situations. Theoretical perspectives associated with…

  20. Performance Appraisal Process and System Facets: Relationships With Contextual Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry M. Findley; William F. Giles; Kevin W. Mossholder

    2000-01-01

    Because appraisal-related interactions between supervisors and employees may influence more than task performance, the authors considered the potential effects of social and interpersonal processes in performance appraisal on contextual performance. They hypothesized that performance appraisal process and system facets were associated with employees’ contextual performance as well as with their perceptions of appraisal accuracy. After controlling relevant variables, they found

  1. MULTI-FACETED SUSTAINABILITY ON ITHACA COLLEGE NATURAL LANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This student-generated proposal presents a multi-faceted program for sustainable stewardship of the natural areas south of the built campus of Ithaca College. Our challenge is to use student research and class projects to enhance biodiversity, support education and research, and...

  2. Annotations in Digital Libraries and Collaboratories - Facets, Models and Usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maristella Agosti; Nicola Ferro; Ingo Frommholz; Ulrich Thiel

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our study regarding the dif- ferent facets and ways of using annotations in both digital libraries and collaboratories. This study represents an innovative attempt at gathering methodological tools and synergies from both fields in order to effectively define a comprehensive model for annotations. Thus we propose a con- ceptual model for annotations in order

  3. Analyses of small facets imaged with scanning-probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegeman, J. B. J. W.; Kooi, B. J.; Groen, H. B.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    1999-10-01

    Two tools for the analysis of facets as detected by scanning-probe microscopy (SPM) images are proposed. One tool is an adaptation of the radial-histogram transform proposed by D. Schleef et al. in Phys. Rev. B. 55, 2535 (1997). In this article the local slopes in the SPM image are in the present version determined by Savitsky-Golay filters with variable lengths [A. Savitsky and M. J. E. Golay, Anal. Chem. 36, 1627 (1964)]. These variable length filters turn out to be important to suppress the influence of noise obscuring the possibility to detect facets and to analyze corrugations with different length scales in SPM images, e.g., surface reconstructions. The other tool allows the direct quantitative determination of the orientation (with a standard deviation) of user-specified parts of facets. It makes use of a Savitsky-Golay filter as well. Both tools were applied to an artificially constructed SPM image and several experimental SFM images showing (ionic) MnO precipitates protruding out of a (metallic) Cu surface. It is shown that the Miller indices of the facets can be derived experimentally.

  4. Terahertz Light Source and User Area at FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Z.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Fisher, A.D.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    FACET at SLAC provides high charge, high peak current, low emittance electron beam that is bunched at THz wavelength scale during its normal operation. A THz light source based coherent transition radiation (CTR) from this beam would potentially be the brightest short-pulse THz source ever constructed. Efforts have been put into building this photon source together with a user area, to provide a platform to utilize this unique THz radiation for novel nonlinear and ultrafast phenomena researches and experiments. Being a long-time underutilized portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz (100 GHz {approx} 10 THz) spectral range is experiencing a renaissance in recent years, with broad interests from chemical and biological imaging, material science, telecommunication, semiconductor and superconductor research, etc. Nevertheless, the paucity of THz sources especially strong THz radiation hinders both its commercial applications and nonlinear processes research. FACET - Facilities for Accelerator science and Experimental Test beams at SLAC - provides 23 GeV electron beam with peak currents of {approx} 20 kA that can be focused down to 100 {mu}m{sup 2} transversely. Such an intense electron beam, when compressed to sub-picosecond longitudinal bunch length, coherently radiates high intensity EM fields well within THz frequency range that are orders of magnitude stronger than those available from laboratory tabletop THz sources, which will enable a wide variety of THz related research opportunities. Together with a description of the FACET beamline and electron beam parameters, this paper will report FACET THz radiation generation via coherent transition radiation and calculated photon yield and power spectrum. A user table is being set up along the THz radiation extraction sites, and equipped with various signal diagnostics including THz power detector, Michelson interferometer, sample stages, and sets of motorized optical components. This setup will also be presented. Potential THz research areas including studies of magnetism, ferroelectric switching dynamics, semiconductor devices and chemical reaction controls have already been proposed for the FACET THz area.

  5. Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2

    E-print Network

    Analyti, Anastasia

    Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2 and Anastasia Analyti2 1 of managing (faceted) taxonomy-based in- formation sources. Specifically, we discuss (i) the seman- tic description of faceted taxonomies, based on the Com- pound Term Composition Algebra (CTCA), (ii) the revision

  6. Description Logic and Faceted Knowledge Representation School of Library and Information Science

    E-print Network

    Priss, Uta

    of abstraction or the same aspect on different lev- els of abstraction. The notion of facets is related Representation The elements (or uniformities) of faceted knowledge rep- resentation are units, relations and facets. Units are atomic elements or tuples of atomic elements. Relations are sequences or matrices of 0

  7. Study of reactive ion etched (RIE) facets of silicon- on-insulator (SOI) rip waveguides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zimmermann; M. Schnarrenberger; T. Mitze; J. Bruns; K. Petermann

    2005-01-01

    In our study we compare the quality of dry etched rip waveguide facets to facets prepared by a conventional polishing technique. Linear SOI waveguide arrays were fabricated on BESOI (bonded and etched-back SOI) material with a silicon top-layer of H = 4 ?m. We used standard contact lithography for patterning and a commercial RIE system for waveguide and facet etching.

  8. Development and Validation of a Synthetic Lumbar Facet Joint and its Load Bearing Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Mar, Damon

    2011-12-31

    valid as pain is often reported to persist even after the procedure is performed [16]. ? Laminotomy/Laminectomy: These procedures aim to reduce pressure on spinal nerves and the spinal cord by the removal vertebral lamina. These procedures...

  9. Adsorbate-Induced Faceting of Ir and Re Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Payam Kaghazchi; Timo Jacob; Matthias Scheffler; Wenhua Chen; Hao Wang; Theodore Madey

    2008-01-01

    Since high-index clean metal surfaces typically have lower surface atom densities and higher surface free energies compared to the close-packed surfaces of the same metal they can be used as the basis for surface reconstruction and facet formation studies. In this context experimentally we found recently that on Ir(210) and Re(1121) surfaces strongly interacting adsorbates are able to induce the

  10. Adsorbate-induced nanoscale faceting of rhenium surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Wang

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, we report the first systematic study of adsorbate-induced faceting of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metal surfaces. Focusing on two atomically rough rhenium surfaces: Re(1231) and Re(11 21), we reveal the dependence of their surface morphology on adsorbate coverage and species by means of low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), temperature programmed

  11. Generalized sloped facet models useful in multispectral image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E. A., Jr.

    1985-11-01

    It is shown how sloped facet models (SFMs) can be used in multispectral image analysis to produce first-order descriptions in terms of their essential components. The concept of SFM and the concept of split-and-merge is unified in order to obtain a more reliable classification scheme. Finally, a Sobolev design is introduced which makes it possible to trade off slope information and mesh size in determining improved regression models.

  12. Extraversion and psychopathology: A facet-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Stanton, Kasey

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to explicate how the lower order facets of extraversion are related to psychopathology. We used a "bottom-up" approach in which specific extraversion scales from 3 comprehensive personality inventories were used to model these facets as latent factors. We collected both self-report and interview measures of a broad range of psychopathology from a large community sample. Replicating previous findings using a similar approach (Naragon-Gainey & Watson, 2014; Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009), structural analyses yielded four factors: Positive Emotionality, Sociability, Assertiveness, and Experience Seeking. Scores on these latent dimensions were related to psychopathology in correlational analyses and in two sets of regressions (the first series used the four facets as predictors; the second included composite scores on the other Big Five domains as additional predictors). These results revealed a striking level of specificity. As predicted, Positive Emotionality displayed especially strong negative links to depressive symptoms and diagnoses. Sociability also was negatively related to psychopathology, showing particularly strong associations with indicators of social dysfunction and the negative symptoms of schizotypy (i.e., social anxiety, social aloofness, and restricted affectivity). Assertiveness generally had weak associations at the bivariate level but was negatively related to social anxiety and was positively correlated with some forms of externalizing. Finally, Experience Seeking had substantial positive associations with a broad range of indicators related to externalizing and bipolar disorder; it also displayed negative links to agoraphobia. These differential correlates demonstrate the importance of examining personality-psychopathology relations at the specific facet level. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25751628

  13. Joint Projects / Joint Seminars October 2013

    E-print Network

    Fuchs, Clemens

    Joint Projects / Joint Seminars October 2013 Information Sheet Bilateral Programs (MoU) ­ Joint Projects (JP) / Joint Seminars (JS) FWF has signed bilateral agreements ­ so called "Memorandums of Understanding" (MoU) ­ with several international partner organisations. These agreements usually aim at jointly

  14. Tunable Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Catalytically Active High-Index Facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hao; Large, Nicolas; Zhang, Qinfeng; Nordlander, Peter; Wang, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been of tremendous interest due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent plasmonic and catalytic properties. Combining tunable plasmon resonances with superior catalytic activities on the same metallic nanoparticle, however, has long been challenging because nanoplasmonics and nanocatalysis typically require nanoparticles in two drastically different size regimes. Here, we demonstrate that creation of high-index facets on subwavelength metallic nanoparticles provides a unique approach to the integration of desired plasmonic and catalytic properties on the same nanoparticle. Through site-selective surface etching of metallic nanocuboids whose surfaces are dominated by low-index facets, we have controllably fabricated nanorice and nanodumbbell shaped particles, which exhibit drastically enhanced catalytic activities arising from the catalytically active high-index facets abundant on the particle surfaces. The nanorice and nanodumbbell particles also possess appealing tunable plasmonic properties that allow us to gain quantitative insights into nanoparticle-catalyzed reactions with unprecedented sensitivity and detail through time-resolved plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic measurements. Past affiliation: Rice University.

  15. Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-12-18

    The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

  16. Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Pigarov, Alexander

    2011-10-15

    The FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) project of Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program was aimed at providing a high-fidelity whole-tokamak modeling for the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program and ITER through coupling separate components for each of the core region, edge region, and wall, with realistic plasma particles and power sources and turbulent transport simulation. The project also aimed at developing advanced numerical algorithms, efficient implicit coupling methods, and software tools utilizing the leadership class computing facilities under Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The FACETS project was conducted by a multi-discipline, multi-institutional teams, the Lead PI was J.R. Cary (Tech-X Corp.). In the FACETS project, the Applied Plasma Theory Group at the MAE Department of UCSD developed the Wall and Plasma-Surface Interaction (WALLPSI) module, performed its validation against experimental data, and integrated it into the developed framework. WALLPSI is a one-dimensional, coarse grained, reaction/advection/diffusion code applied to each material boundary cell in the common modeling domain for a tokamak. It incorporates an advanced model for plasma particle transport and retention in the solid matter of plasma facing components, simulation of plasma heat power load handling, calculation of erosion/deposition, and simulation of synergistic effects in strong plasma-wall coupling.

  17. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  18. Singular orientations and faceted motion of dislocations in body-centered cubic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Keonwook; Bulatov, Vasily V.; Cai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Dislocation mobility is a fundamental material property that controls strength and ductility of crystals. An important measure of dislocation mobility is its Peierls stress, i.e., the minimal stress required to move a dislocation at zero temperature. Here we report that, in the body-centered cubic metal tantalum, the Peierls stress as a function of dislocation orientation exhibits fine structure with several singular orientations of high Peierls stress—stress spikes—surrounded by vicinal plateau regions. While the classical Peierls-Nabarro model captures the high Peierls stress of singular orientations, an extension that allows dislocations to bend is necessary to account for the plateau regions. Our results clarify the notion of dislocation kinks as meaningful only for orientations within the plateau regions vicinal to the Peierls stress spikes. These observations lead us to propose a Read-Shockley type classification of dislocation orientations into three distinct classes—special, vicinal, and general—with respect to their Peierls stress and motion mechanisms. We predict that dislocation loops expanding under stress at sufficiently low temperatures, should develop well defined facets corresponding to two special orientations of highest Peierls stress, the screw and the M111 orientations, both moving by kink mechanism. We propose that both the screw and the M111 dislocations are jointly responsible for the yield behavior of BCC metals at low temperatures. PMID:22949701

  19. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC and its Radiological Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, X.S.; Leitner, M.Santana; Vollaire, J.

    2011-08-22

    Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) in SLAC will be used to study plasma wakefield acceleration. FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to design a maze wall to separate FACET project and LCLS project to allow persons working in FACET side during LCLS operation. Also FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to design the shielding for FACET dump to get optimum design for shielding both prompt and residual doses, as well as reducing environmental impact. FACET will be an experimental facility that provides short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons to excite plasma wakefields and study a variety of critical issues associated with plasma wakefield acceleration [1]. This paper describes the FACET beam parameters, the lay-out and its radiological issues.

  20. Energetic and kinetic aspects of the faceting transformation of a [Sigma]3 grain boundary in Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Muschik, T.; Laub, W.; Wolf, U.; Finnis, M.W.; Gust, W. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1993-07-01

    Grain-boundary facets forming at the intersection between grain boundary and free surface in diffusion bonded Cu[Sigma]3 bicrystals during prolonged annealing have been characterized crystallographically by metallographic methods. The facet geometry is discussed with regard to the relevant (011) section of the inverse [gamma][sub b]-plot for [Sigma]3 grain boundaries which is constructed from earlier computer simulation data on [Sigma]3 grain boundary energies [gamma][sub b]. It is shown that the observed faceting reduces the total grain boundary energy by 15-20%. A faceting mechanism is proposed which is consistent with the experimentally observed facet geometry and with the atomistic structure of the facets.

  1. Real-space observation of (111) facet formation on vicinal Si(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibino, H.; Homma, Y.; Ogino, T.

    1995-03-01

    We report real-space observations of nucleation of (111) facets with 7×7 structures on a vicinal Si(111) surface using ultrahigh-vacuum scanning electron microscopy. As reported previously by Phaneuf et al., who used low-energy electron microscopy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2986 (1991)], (111) facets grow in very anisotropic shapes and are much longer along steps than normal to steps. In addition, we show that (1) the facet width is dependent on the heating current direction and (2) the facets tend to nucleate adjacent to one another. The second result is explained by the fact that stepped regions near the facets are not uniformly inclined but undulated. The local inclination is directly observed using ex situ atomic force microscopy and is in good agreement with calculated results accounting for step-motion kinetics. Additionally, we link the disappearance of the (111) facets to As adsorption.

  2. Model for reflection and transmission matrices of nanowire end facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Guro K.; Weman, Helge; Skaar, Johannes

    2011-05-01

    Nanowires show a large potential for various electro-optical devices, such as light emitting diodes, solar cells, and nanowire lasers. We present a method developed to calculate the modal reflection and transmission matrix at the end facets of a waveguide of arbitrary cross-section, resulting in a generalized version of the Fresnel equations. The reflection can be conveniently computed using fast Fourier transforms once the waveguide modes are known. We demonstrate that the reflection coefficient is qualitatively described by two main parameters: the modal field confinement and the average Fresnel reflection of the plane waves constituting the waveguide mode.

  3. A model for the geomorphic development of normal-fault facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, G. E.; Hobley, D. E. J.; McCoy, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Triangular facets are among the most striking landforms associated with normal faulting. The genesis of facets is of great interest both for the information facets contain about tectonic motion, and because the progressive emergence of facets makes them potential recorders of both geomorphic and tectonic history. In this report, we present observations of triangular facets in the western United States and in the Italian Central Apennines. Facets in these regions typically form quasi-planar surfaces that are aligned in series along and above the trace of an active fault. Some facet surfaces consist mainly of exposed bedrock, with a thin and highly discontinuous cover of loose regolith. Other facets are mantled by a several-decimeter-thick regolith cover. Over the course of its morphologic development, a facet slope segment may evolve from a steep (~60 degree) bedrock fault scarp, well above the angle of repose for soil, to a gentler (~20-40 degree) slope that can potentially sustain a coherent regolith cover. This evolutionary trajectory across the angle of repose renders nonlinear diffusion theory inapplicable. To formulate an alternative process-based theory for facet evolution, we use a particle-based approach that acknowledges the possibility for both short- and long-range sediment-grain motions, depending on the topography. The processes of rock weathering, grain entrainment, and grain motion are represented as stochastic state-pair transitions with specified transition rates. The model predicts that facet behavior can range smoothly along the spectrum from a weathering-limited mode to a transport-limited mode, depending on the ratio of fault-slip rate to bare-bedrock regolith production rate. The model also implies that facets formed along a fault with pinned tips should show systematic variation in slope angle that correlates with along-fault position and slip rate. Preliminary observations from central Italy and the eastern Basin and Range are consistent with this prediction.

  4. Comparing Linkage Designs Based on Land Facets to Linkage Designs Based on Focal Species

    PubMed Central

    Brost, Brian M.; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5–16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches. PMID:23152831

  5. Synthesis and Isolation of {110}-Faceted Gold Bipyramids and Rhombic Dodecahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Personick, Michelle L.; Langille, Mark R.; Zhang, J.; Harris, Nadine; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Two {110}-faceted gold nanostructures—rhombic dodecahedra and obtuse triangular bipyramids—have been synthesized via a Ag-assisted, seed-mediated growth method. The combination of a Cl{sup ?}-containing surfactant with a low concentration of Ag{sup +} plays a role in the stabilization of the {110} facets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported synthesis of a {110}-faceted bipyramid structure.

  6. FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.

    2000-06-30

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

  7. Nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant {1 1 1} facets shows high photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Qian, Lisha; Yang, Lingxia; Tao, Xi; Su, Kunpeng; Wang, Hongbo; Xi, Junhua; Ji, Zhenguo

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we report a novel synthesis of nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant highly active {1 1 1} facets by a simple one-step hydrothermal route with the assistance of NH4F and HF. In this progress, the exposed crystal facets of TiO2 can been directly tuned by controlling the mole ratio of NH4+ and F-. When the mole ratio of NH4+ and F-reach 1:2, nanoscale anatase TiO2 with dominant {1 1 1} facets can be obtained. Nanoscale anatase TiO2 with exposed {1 0 1} or {0 0 1} facets will be prepared when there is only ammonia or HF added respectively. Such nano-TiO2 with exposed highly active {1 1 1} facets has large specific surface area and shows excellent photocatalytic activity: as much as 2-3 times than that of TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {0 0 1} facets and commercial Degussa P25 which confirms the {1 1 1} facets have higher photocatalytic activity than {0 0 1} and {1 0 1} facets. The higher photocatalytic activity of {1 1 1} facets can be ascribed to the fact that all Ti and O atoms on the surface are unsaturated Ti5c, Ti3c and O2c modes which produces a higher adsorption and degradation ability. The present work demonstrates a explore of hydrothermal synthetic method for controlling preparation of nano-materials.

  8. Intensity Effects of the FACET Beam in the SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.-J.; Lipkowitz, N.; Sheppard, J.; White, G.R.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

    2012-07-03

    The beam for FACET (Facility for Advanced aCcelerator Experimental Tests) at SLAC requires an energy-time correlation ('chirp') along the linac, so it can be compressed in two chicanes, one at the midpoint in sector 10 and one W-shaped chicane just before the FACET experimental area. The induced correlation has the opposite sign to the typical used for BNS damping, and therefore any orbit variations away from the center kick the tail of the beam more than the head, causing a shear in the beam and emittance growth. Any dispersion created along the linac has similar effects due to the high (>1.2% rms) energy spread necessary for compression. The initial huge emittances could be reduced by a factor of 10, but were still bigger than expected by a factor of 2-3. Normalized emittance of 3 {micro}m-rad in Sector 2 blew up to 150 {micro}m-rad in Sector 11 but could be reduced to about 6-12 {micro}m-rad, for the vertical plane although the results were not very stable. Investigating possible root causes for this, we found locations where up to 10 mm dispersion was created along the linac, which were finally verified with strong steering and up to 7 mm settling of the linac accelerator at these locations.

  9. Anatomical observations of the human acromioclavicular joint.

    PubMed

    Emura, Kenji; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Miki, Akinori; Terashima, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    The condition of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) is considered to be one factor in the etiology of shoulder impingement syndrome, but there are few supporting morphological data. Fifty-two sides of 35 cadavers were investigated macroscopically and histologically using Safranin O, Fast green, and Weigert's iron hematoxylin staining. The ACJs were classified into three major types depending on the presence or absence of the articular disk. In type 1, the articular disk divided the articular cavity completely (n?=?2; 3.8%). In type 2, the articular disk was incomplete and divided the joint cavity incompletely (n?=?13; 25%). Type 2 was further divided into subtypes 2a and 2b depending on the configurations of the articular facets. In type 3, no articular disk was found in the joint cavity (n?=?37; 71.2%). Type 3 was further divided into subtypes 3a, 3b, and 3c depending on the configurations of the articular surfaces. Fewer than half of the ACJ specimens (22/52 or 42.3%) demonstrated an ellipsoid character in which axial rotation was limited. Histological observation revealed that the upper part of the articular disk of the ACJ comprised fibrocartilage while the lower part comprised dense connective tissue. In cases where the ACJ appears to be an ellipsoid joint, its limited axial rotation restricts posterior tilting of the scapula during arm elevation, which could contribute to shoulder impingement syndrome. PMID:24752963

  10. Growth Rates of the Principal Facets of Ice between -10 C to -40 C

    E-print Network

    Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

    Growth Rates of the Principal Facets of Ice between -10 C to -40 C K G. L 1 Norman Bridge to the Journal of Crystal Growth, with revisions, August 21, 2002] Abstract. We describe measurements of the growth rates of the basal and prism facets of ice crystals grown from the vapor phase at temperatures -39

  11. Testing of the SAIC facets on the stretched-membrane dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, J. W.; Erdman, W. W.; Houser, R. M.; Davenport, R.

    1994-04-01

    A dish structure sized for a 25 kW electric dish/generator system has been installed at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The dish is used as an optical test bed for prototype stretched-membrane facets. Sandia procured twelve (12) stretched-membrane facets from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for installation on the dish structure. Individual facet optical performance was measured using the 2f test method under development at Sandia. Four facets were tested on-sun using the test truss at the NSTTF prior to installation on the dish structure. During the final stages of the structure assembly, the facets were installed for testing. A distant light source alignment technique was used to align the facets to a 9 meter focal length. The alignment and focus were optimized with on-sun measurements of individual facet characteristics. On-sun flux maps of the image were made using the Beam Characterization System. Calorimetry tests were performed using a cold water calorimeter. This data was used to create a power intercept curve and predict the power inside apertures of different sizes. The focal plane was moved to 9.95 meters and the alignment, optimization, and on-sun tests repeated. This paper presents the results of the testing on the individual facets as well as the results of testing the dish system. The effects of the change in focal length on the optical performance of the dish are shown in the results.

  12. ON THE DrFF,US~VE CAVITATION OF ISOLATED GRAIN BOUNDARY FACETS TN

    E-print Network

    ON THE DrFF,US~VE CAVITATION OF ISOLATED GRAIN BOUNDARY FACETS TN CREEPING POLYCRYSTALS J. R. RICE-Following concepts introduced by B. F. Dyson (Metal Sci.349 19761,the dilTusive cavitation of grain facets is considered in circumstances for which the cavitated fasts are well separated from one another. In this case

  13. ECO: A Framework for Entity Co-Occurrence Exploration with Faceted Navigation

    E-print Network

    ECO: A Framework for Entity Co-Occurrence Exploration with Faceted Navigation M.S. Final Project. The primary goal of the ECO project is to develop a scalable framework for extracting and presenting these relationships for exploration using an easily navigable faceted user interface. ECO uses entity co

  14. Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2

    E-print Network

    Tzitzikas, Yannis

    Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2 and Anastasia Analyti2 1) taxonomy-based information sources. Specifically, we discuss (i) the semantic descrip- tion of faceted taxonomies, based on the Compound Term Composition Algebra (CTCA), (ii) the revision of CTCA ex- pressions

  15. Simple Measurement of the Reflectivity of Antireflection-Coated Laser Diode Facets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroo Ukita; Keisuke Mise; Yoshitada Katagiri

    1988-01-01

    A laser diode facet reflectivity measuring method which uses the threshold current ratio of an antireflection coated to an uncoated laser is proposed. The method's measuring characteristics are determined and compared with those of conventional methods. The proposed method is simpler, easier and more accurate than conventional methods, such as the two-facet power ratio method and the spectrum modulation index

  16. Determination of wavelength dependence of the reflectivity at AR coated diode facets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Luo; L. Wu; J. Chen; Y. Lu

    1993-01-01

    Wavelength dependence of the reflectivity at an antireflection (AR) coated diode facet has been determined by comparing the spontaneous emission spectra obtained under the same bias condition before and after this facet is AR coated. Reliable measurements can be achieved by proper choice of the bias current

  17. Exploring Local Item Dependence Using a Random-Effects Facet Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The random-effects facet model that deals with local item dependence in many-facet contexts is presented. It can be viewed as a special case of the multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model (MRCMLM) so that the estimation procedures for the MRCMLM can be directly applied. Simulations were conducted to examine parameter recovery…

  18. Between Facets and Domains: 10 Aspects of the Big Five Colin G. DeYoung

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    Between Facets and Domains: 10 Aspects of the Big Five Colin G. DeYoung Yale University Lena C of 75 facet scales from 2 major Big Five inventories, in the Eugene-Springfield community sample (N 481 distinct (but correlated) aspects within each of the Big Five, representing an intermediate level

  19. Title of dissertation: EVOLUTION OF FACETED CRYSTAL SURFACES: MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: EVOLUTION OF FACETED CRYSTAL SURFACES: MODELING AND ANALYSIS Kanna influences. #12;EVOLUTION OF FACETED CRYSTAL SURFACES: MODELING AND ANALYSIS by Kanna Nakamura Dissertation David Levermore Professor John Weeks, Deans Representative #12;c Copyright by Kanna Nakamura 2014 #12

  20. Nitrogen-induced reconstruction and faceting of Re(112{sup ¯}1)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Wenhua; Bartynski, Robert A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Kaghazchi, Payam; Jacob, Timo [Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    The surface morphology of Re(112{sup ¯}1), tailored on the nanometer scale by kinetic control of nitrogen, has been investigated using low energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) in combination with the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics approach. Experiments show that when exposing to NH{sub 3} (>0.5 L) at 300 K followed by annealing in ultra-high vacuum at 700 K or 900 K, the initially planar Re(112{sup ¯}1) surface becomes (2 × 1) reconstructed or partially faceted, respectively. Upon annealing in 100 L NH{sub 3} at 900 K, Re(112{sup ¯}1) becomes fully faceted and covered by N. The fully faceted surface consists of two-sided ridges formed by (134{sup ¯}2) and (314{sup ¯}2) facets. The (2 × 1) reconstruction may serve as a precursor state for faceting of Re(112{sup ¯}1). The DFT calculations provide an atomistic understanding of facet formation in terms of binding sites and energies of N on Re surfaces of the substrate and facets as well as the corresponding surface phase diagram. The N-covered faceted Re(112{sup ¯}1) surfaces are promising nanoscale model catalysts and nanotemplates. Our findings should be of importance for the design and development of Re-based heterogeneous catalysts operating under nitrogen-rich conditions.

  1. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  2. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the joint. It is usually due to a bacterial infection in the joint. Joint aspiration helps to diagnose ... at the time of the test. If a bacterial infection such as septic arthritis is suspected, a culture ...

  3. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  4. Facets of perfectionism in a sample of hypersexual patients.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rory C; Cooper, Erin B; Prause, Nicole; Li, Desiree S; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the role of perfectionism in a treatment-seeking sample (N = 136) of adult men and women using the Perfectionism Inventory (PI) and the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI). Several facets of perfectionism were positively correlated with hypersexuality, with the concern over mistakes scale from the PI accounting for most of the predictive variance in patterns of hypersexual behavior measured by the HBI. Items associated with concern over mistakes closely parallel the construct of shame noted in other studies of hypersexual patients. To a lesser degree, the PI scale planfulness also showed a negative relationship with hypersexuality, suggesting tendencies of impulsivity in the current patients. These data reinforce the findings in other studies that patterns of harsh self-criticism and impulsivity seem to strongly influence hypersexual behavior. PMID:23124185

  5. Do Different Facets of Impulsivity Predict Different Types of Aggression?

    PubMed Central

    Derefinko, Karen; DeWall, C. Nathan; Metze, Amanda V.; Walsh, Erin C.; Lynam, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between impulsivity-related traits (as assessed by the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale) and aggressive behaviors. Results indicated that UPPS-P Lack of Premeditation and Sensation Seeking were important in predicting general violence. In contrast, UPPS-P Urgency was most useful in predicting intimate partner violence. To further explore relations between intimate partner violence and Urgency, a measure of autonomic response to pleasant and aversive stimuli and facets of Neuroticism from the NEO PI-R were used as control variables. Autonomic responsivity was correlated with intimate partner violence at the zero-order level, and predicted significant variance in intimate partner violence in regression equations. However, UPPS-P Urgency was able to account for unique variance in intimate partner violence above and beyond measures of Neuroticism and arousal. Implications regarding the use of a multifaceted conceptualization of impulsivity in the prediction of different types of violent behavior are discussed. PMID:21259270

  6. Giant photoluminescence emission in crystalline faceted Si grains

    PubMed Central

    Faraci, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Agata R.; Alberti, Alessandra; Ruggeri, Rosa; Mannino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Empowering an indirect band-gap material like Si with optical functionalities, firstly light emission, represents a huge advancement constantly pursued in the realization of any integrated photonic device. We report the demonstration of giant photoluminescence (PL) emission by a newly synthesized material consisting of crystalline faceted Si grains (fg-Si), a hundred nanometer in size, assembled in a porous and columnar configuration, without any post processing. A laser beam with wavelength 632.8?nm locally produce such a high temperature, determined on layers of a given thickness by Raman spectra, to induce giant PL radiation emission. The optical gain reaches the highest value ever, 0.14?cm/W, representing an increase of 3 orders of magnitude with respect to comparable data recently obtained in nanocrystals. Giant emission has been obtained from fg-Si deposited either on glass or on flexible, low cost, polymeric substrate opening the possibility to fabricate new devices. PMID:24056300

  7. Examining student rating of teaching effectiveness using FACETS.

    PubMed

    Mat Daud, Nuraihan; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide

    2011-01-01

    Students' evaluations of teaching staff can be considered high-stakes, as they are often used to determine promotion, reappointment, and merit pay to academics. Using Facets, the reliability and validity of one student rating questionnaire is analyzed. A total of 13,940 respondents of the Human Science Division of International Islamic University Malaysia were involved in the study. The analysis shows that the student rating questionnaire used was valid and reliable, and it allows identification of staff for the institution's prestigious teaching excellence awards, and those needing in-service training. It was found that there was no significant difference in terms of rank, age and gender of the staff. The study also shows that the majority of staff have problems keeping the class interested and getting students to participate in class activities. Faculty also hardly discussed common errors in assignments and tests. PMID:22089510

  8. Measured and predicted root-mean-square errors in square and triangular antenna mesh facets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichter, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Deflection shapes of square and equilateral triangular facets of two tricot-knit, gold plated molybdenum wire mesh antenna materials were measured and compared, on the basis of root mean square (rms) differences, with deflection shapes predicted by linear membrane theory, for several cases of biaxial mesh tension. The two mesh materials contained approximately 10 and 16 holes per linear inch, measured diagonally with respect to the course and wale directions. The deflection measurement system employed a non-contact eddy current proximity probe and an electromagnetic distance sensing probe in conjunction with a precision optical level. Despite experimental uncertainties, rms differences between measured and predicted deflection shapes suggest the following conclusions: that replacing flat antenna facets with facets conforming to parabolically curved structural members yields smaller rms surface error; that potential accuracy gains are greater for equilateral triangular facets than for square facets; and that linear membrane theory can be a useful tool in the design of tricot knit wire mesh antennas.

  9. Nucleation and Growth During Faceting of the Platinum Covered W(111) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Hannon, J.B.; Kellogg, G.L.; Madey, T.E.; Pelhos, K.

    1999-07-20

    Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) have been used to investigate the faceting of W(111) as induced by Pt. The atomically rough W(111) surface, when fully covered with a monolayer film of Pt and annealed to temperatures higher than {approximately}750 K, experiences a significant morphological restructuring: the initially planar surface undergoes a faceting transition and forms three-sided pyramids with {l_brace}211{r_brace} faces. When Pt is dosed onto the heated surface, the transition from planar to faceted structure proceeds through the nucleation and growth of spatially separated faceted regions, as shown by LEEM. STM reveals the atomic structure of the partially faceted surface, with large planar regions, dotted by clusters of pyramids of various sizes.

  10. Quantum cascade lasers with a tilted facet utilizing the inherent polarization purity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sangil; Ristanic, Daniela; Gansch, Roman; Reininger, Peter; Schwarzer, Clemens; MacFarland, Donald C; Detz, Hermann; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2014-10-20

    We report on quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with a tilted facet utilizing their polarization property. Contrary to diode lasers, QCLs generate purely TM polarized light due to the intersubband selection rules. This property enables the utilization of reflectivity in terms of only TM polarized light (TM reflectivity). The TM reflectivity is reduced by tilting the front facet, resulting in enhanced light output power from the tilted facet. The peak output power of a QCL with a facet angle of 12° are increased by 31 %. The slope efficiency of a QCL with a facet angle of 17° are increased by 43 %. Additionally, a peculiar property of TM reflectivity, the Brewster angle, is investigated by using COMSOL simulations to find its availability in QCLs. PMID:25401662

  11. Friction in Total Hip Joint Prosthesis Measured In Vivo during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Damm, Philipp; Dymke, Joern; Ackermann, Robert; Bender, Alwina; Graichen, Friedmar; Halder, Andreas; Beier, Alexander; Bergmann, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Friction-induced moments and subsequent cup loosening can be the reason for total hip joint replacement failure. The aim of this study was to measure the in vivo contact forces and friction moments during walking. Instrumented hip implants with Al2O3 ceramic head and an XPE inlay were used. In vivo measurements were taken 3 months post operatively in 8 subjects. The coefficient of friction was calculated in 3D throughout the whole gait cycle, and average values of the friction-induced power dissipation in the joint were determined. On average, peak contact forces of 248% of the bodyweight and peak friction moments of 0.26% bodyweight times meter were determined. However, contact forces and friction moments varied greatly between individuals. The friction moment increased during the extension phase of the joint. The average coefficient of friction also increased during this period, from 0.04 (0.03 to 0.06) at contralateral toe off to 0.06 (0.04 to 0.08) at contralateral heel strike. During the flexion phase, the coefficient of friction increased further to 0.14 (0.09 to 0.23) at toe off. The average friction-induced power throughout the whole gait cycle was 2.3 W (1.4 W to 3.8 W). Although more parameters than only the synovia determine the friction, the wide ranges of friction coefficients and power dissipation indicate that the lubricating properties of synovia are individually very different. However, such differences may also exist in natural joints and may influence the progression of arthrosis. Furthermore, subjects with very high power dissipation may be at risk of thermally induced implant loosening. The large increase of the friction coefficient during each step could be caused by the synovia being squeezed out under load. PMID:24260114

  12. Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Deletion of an Insulator Element by the Mutation facet-strawberry

    E-print Network

    Schedl, Paul

    by the Mutation facet-strawberry in Drosophila melanogaster Julio Vazquez* and Paul Schedl *Department mutation, facet-strawberry (faswb ), suggest that this small deletion disrupts such a boundary element

  13. A Systems Biology Approach to Synovial Joint Lubrication in Health, Injury, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Alexander Y.; McCarty, William J.; Masuda, Koichi; Firestein, Gary S.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The synovial joint contains synovial fluid (SF) within a cavity bounded by articular cartilage and synovium. SF is a viscous fluid that has lubrication, metabolic, and regulatory functions within synovial joints. SF contains lubricant molecules, including proteoglycan-4 and hyaluronan. SF is an ultrafiltrate of plasma with secreted contributions from cell populations lining and within the synovial joint space, including chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Maintenance of normal SF lubricant composition and function are important for joint homeostasis. In osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and joint injury, changes in lubricant composition and function accompany alterations in the cytokine and growth factor environment and increased fluid and molecular transport through joint tissues. Thus, understanding the synovial joint lubrication system requires a multi-faceted study of the various parts of the synovial joint and their interactions. Systems biology approaches at multiple scales are being used to describe the molecular, cellular, and tissue components and their interactions that comprise the functioning synovial joint. Analyses of the transcriptome and proteome of SF, cartilage, and synovium suggest that particular molecules and pathways play important roles in joint homeostasis and disease. Such information may be integrated with physicochemical tissue descriptions to construct integrative models of the synovial joint that ultimately may explain maintenance of health, recovery from injury, or development and progression of arthritis. PMID:21826801

  14. Photocatalytic and dye-sensitized solar cell performances of {010}-faceted and [111]-faceted anatase TiO? nanocrystals synthesized from tetratitanate nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-en; Feng, Qi; Chen, Changdong; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yang, Xiaojing

    2014-09-24

    The morphology and exposed facet of the anatase-type TiO2 are very important to improve the photocatalytic activity and photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, we report the synthesis and the photocatalytic and dye-sensitized solar cell performances of anatase-type TiO2 single nanocrystals with exposed {010}- and [111]-facets and with various morphologies by using exfoliated tetratitanate nanoribbons as precursors. The precursor nanoribbons were prepared from the exfoliation of the protonated and, subsequently, tetramethylammonium/H(+) ion-exchanged K2Ti4O9. The colloidal suspension containing the nanoribbons was hydrothermally heated with a microwave-assistance at temperatures from 120 to 190 °C after pH was adjusted to 0.5-14. The dependence of the crystalline phases on temperature and pH indicated that anatase single phase can be obtained at pH 3-13 whereas temperatures higher than 160 °C. The [111]-faceted nanorod-shaped anatase nanocrystals were formed preferentially at pH ? 3, whereas the {010}-faceted anatase nanocrystals with morphologies of rhombic, cuboid, and spindle were preferentially at pH ?5. The morphology observation revealed that the nanoribbons were transformed to anatase nanocrystals mainly by the topotactic structural transformation reaction accompanied by an Ostwald ripening reaction, and pH of the reaction solution took a critical role in the crystal morphology change. At pH ?1, the mixture of anatase, rutile, and brookite were obtained at higher temperature conditions. The photocatalytic activity and photovoltaic performance were enhanced in an order of surface without a specific facet < [111]-faceted surface < {010}-faceted surface. PMID:25158319

  15. Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

  16. Obtaining Content Weights for Test Specifications from Job Analysis Task Surveys: An Application of the Many-Facets Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ning; Stahl, John

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Many-Facets Rasch Model, via the FACETS computer program (Linacre, 2006a), to scale job/practice analysis survey data as well as to combine multiple rating scales into single composite weights representing the tasks' relative importance. Results from the Many-Facets Rasch Model are compared with those…

  17. The joint intersection probability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Hatzor; A. Feintuch

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a practical method to apply block theory is presented. Block theory provides the removable joint pyramids from a given free surface regardless of the number of joints in any joint intersection. While robust, the application of the theory in real practice is hampered by the large outcome space of possibly removable joint pyramids consisting of k mutually

  18. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  19. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals: part 2: facet-by-facet melting at Ia3d/vapor interfaces.

    PubMed

    Leroy, S; Grenier, J; Rohe, D; Even, C; Pieranski, P

    2006-05-01

    From experiments with metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. Recently, we have shown that anisotropic surface melting occurs also in lyotropic systems. In our previous paper (Eur. Phys. J. E 19, 223 (2006)), we have focused on the case of poor faceting at the Pn3m/L1 interface in C12EO2/water binary mixtures. There anisotropic melting occurs in the vicinity of a Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. In the present paper, we focus on the opposite case of a rich devil's-staircase-type faceting at Ia3d/vapor interfaces in monoolein/water and phytantriol/water mixtures. We show that anisotropic surface melting takes place in these systems in a narrow humidity range close to the Ia3d-L2 transition. As whole (hkl) sets of facets disappear one after another when the transition is approached, surface melting occurs in a facet-by-facet type. PMID:16733635

  20. Peroneal spastic flatfoot in adolescents with accessory talar facet impingement: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Niki, Hisateru; Aoki, Haruhito; Hirano, Takaaki; Akiyama, Yui; Fujiya, Hiroto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed imaging, arthroscopic findings, and treatment responses for peroneal spastic flatfoot (PSFF) caused by talocalcaneal impingement at the accessory anterolateral talar facet (AALTF) (accessory talar facet impingement) in 13 adolescents without histories of trauma and tarsal coalition. The AALTF was determined with computed tomography and MRI. Focal abutting bone marrow edema (FABME) on MRI around the AALTF was confirmed. In seven patients who underwent AALTF resection, subtalar arthroscopy was performed. All experienced alleviation PSFF after treatment; reduction in FABME was observed. AALTF resection alone is beneficial for PSFF caused by accessory talar facet impingement when peroneal spasms are restored by an injection of local anesthesia. PMID:25856276

  1. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-05-28

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets. PMID:25930122

  2. Workflow in interventional radiology: nerve blocks and facet blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddoway, Donald; Ingeholm, Mary Lou; Burgert, Oliver; Neumuth, Thomas; Watson, Vance; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    Workflow analysis has the potential to dramatically improve the efficiency and clinical outcomes of medical procedures. In this study, we recorded the workflow for nerve block and facet block procedures in the interventional radiology suite at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, USA. We employed a custom client/server software architecture developed by the Innovation Center for Computer Assisted Surgery (ICCAS) at the University of Leipzig, Germany. This software runs in an internet browser, and allows the user to record the actions taken by the physician during a procedure. The data recorded during the procedure is stored as an XML document, which can then be further processed. We have successfully gathered data on a number if cases using a tablet PC, and these preliminary results show the feasibility of using this software in an interventional radiology setting. We are currently accruing additional cases and when more data has been collected we will analyze the workflow of these procedures to look for inefficiencies and potential improvements.

  3. Design of a solar concentrator with hexagonal facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera Vázquez, Joel; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio

    2007-09-01

    In this work we present the optical design of a solar concentrator for an High-Flux solar furnace of a solar laboratory, these concentrator is compound for an aspheric mirror surface sectioned in 121 hexagonal facets to simplify the construction process, its total diameter is 6.6 m and a focal length is 3.68 m, also was developed the corresponding algorithm to determine the correct position and orientation of each hexagonal section that compound the arrangement. We present the results of the focused energy of this configuration and we propose a modification on the original position of the mirrors for optimizing the focusing of energy by the sun furnace. These modifications produces an increment on the energy focused on a small area in a remarkable way similar to used a parabolic mirror. The algorithm before mentioned was programmed in MathCAD and it calculates the modification of the original position of each hexagonal mirror giving us a file that ZEMAX can read. This file contains the information of each 121 mirrors from the arrangement and also the correct form, position and direction, simplifying the traditional input process one by one.

  4. Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase--the multi-facets enzyme.

    PubMed

    Milewski, S?awomir

    2002-06-01

    L-Glutamine: D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, known under trivial name of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase, as the only member of the amidotransferase subfamily of enzymes, does not display any ammonia-dependent activity. This enzyme, catalysing the first committed step in a pathway leading to the eventual formation of uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), is an important point of metabolic control in biosynthesis of amino sugar-containing macromolecules. The molecular mechanism of reaction catalysed by GlcN-6-P synthase is complex and involves both amino transfer and sugar isomerisation. Substantial alterations to the enzyme structure and properties have been detected in different neoplastic tissues. GlcN-6-P synthase is inflicted in phenomenon of hexosamine-induced insulin resistance in diabetes. Finally, this enzyme has been proposed as a promising target in antifungal chemotherapy. Most of these issues, especially their molecular aspects, have been extensively studied in recent years. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge on this multi-facets enzyme. PMID:12044898

  5. Effects of CeO2 Support Facets on VOx/CeO2 Catalysts in Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Wei, Zhehao; Gao, Feng; Kovarik, Libor; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong

    2014-05-13

    CeO2 supports with dominating facets, i.e., low index (100), (110) and (111) facets, are prepared. The facet effects on the structure and catalytic performance of supported vanadium oxide catalysts are investigated using oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol as a model reaction. In the presence of mixed facets, Infrared and Raman characterizations demonstrate that surface vanadia species preferentially deposit on CeO2 (100) facets, presumably because of its higher surface energy. At the same surface vanadium densities, VOx species on (100) facets show better dispersion, followed by (110) and (111) facets. The VOx species on CeO2 nanorods with (110) and (100) facets display higher activity and lower apparent activation energies compared to that on CeO2 nanopolyhedras with dominating (111) facets and CeO2 nanocubes with dominating (100) facets. The higher activity for VOx/CeO2(110) might be related to the more abundant oxygen vacancies present on the (110) facets, evidenced from Raman spectroscopic measurements.

  6. Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, K.P.; Lamontagne, B.; Delage, A.; Janz, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Picard, M.; Post, E.; Chow-Chong, P.; Malloy, M.; Roth, D.; Marshall, P.; Liu, K.Y.; Syrett, B. [Department of Electronics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Electronics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario KIS 5B6 (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    We present a technique to lithographically define and fabricate all required optical facets on a silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuit by an inductively coupled plasma etch process. This technique offers 1 {mu}m positioning accuracy of the facets at any location within the chip and eliminates the need of polishing. Facet fabrication consists of two separate steps to ensure sidewall verticality and minimize attack on the end surfaces of the waveguides. Protection of the waveguides by a thermally evaporated aluminum layer before the 40-70 {mu}m deep optical facet etching has been proven essential in assuring the facet smoothness and integrity. Both scanning electron microscopy analysis and optical measurement results show that the quality of the facets prepared by this technique is comparable to the conventional facets prepared by polishing.

  7. [Temporomandibular joint reconstruction with free rib and iliac crest bone transplants].

    PubMed

    Ordung, R; Reuther, J; Michel, C; Pistner, H; Eckstein, T

    1994-01-01

    From 1981-1992 we reconstructed the temporomandibular joint in 42 patients. In 33 cases reconstruction followed tumour resection of the mandible, almost advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the retromolar region. Primary reconstruction was made by an alloplastic condylar prosthesis combined with a plate for mandibular reconstruction. 2 years after first treatment secondary reconstruction followed by transplantation of a free iliac bone graft. In some cases a new condylus was formed using autogenous rib graft or allogenous cartilage. Result was adequate and painless oral aperture. For reconstruction after ankylosis, arthrosis or arthritis we use a autogenous costochondral graft. 9 patients received such treatment. In 5 or 9 cases with severe ankylosis we prefer a two-time-approach: after resection of the ankylosis we first fix an alloplastic implant (Palacos) at the skull base for distraction of the scar. Two or three years later we do secondary reconstruction with a costochondral graft. The final result strongly depends on functional postoperative treatment and the compliance of the patient. PMID:8088648

  8. A facet approach to extending the normative component of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Donald, I; Cooper, S R

    2001-12-01

    Using facet theory, this study addresses the weak explanatory power of normative influence in theories of reasoned action or planned behaviour. A broad normative construct is hypothesized as being characterized by two facets--social unit and behavioural modality--each of which is examined in relation to recreational drug use. A questionnaire was developed from the facets and administered to undergraduate students. Data (N = 181) were analysed using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The results suggest that the facets provide an adequate description of the normative construct and that personal and social normative beliefs, behavioural norms and behavioural intentions can be distinguished empirically. The results also lend partial support to Ajzen's (1988; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) principle of compatibility. Implications for how social influence is operationalized and conceptualized are also discussed. PMID:11795070

  9. Erosion Triangular Facets as Markers of Order in an Open Dissipative System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliaga, Guido

    2015-07-01

    The complexity and non-linearity of the morphogenetic system which is responsible for shaping the Earth's surface have been widely recognised by many authors who have documented the fractal nature of erosion. In this paper, two peculiar kinds of landforms are compared to point out ordered structures, i.e. triangular facets that arise in different geomorphic systems, due to the principle of morphologic convergence. Occurrence of triangular facets has been documented in mountainous areas in relation to base level changes and hydrographical network evolution; similarly shaped landforms are present even in recent tectonic uplift areas along faults. The spatial distribution of the two kinds of facets has been investigated in two river basins located in Liguria (northern Italy) and in a mountainous area in Oman. The results of this analysis document the different spatial features of the two kinds of facets.

  10. Organizational culture, creative behavior, and information and communication technology (ICT) usage: a facet analysis.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Abraham; Sternberg, Akiva; Elizur, D

    2008-04-01

    Despite the prominence of organizational culture (OC), this concept is controversial and its structure has yet to be systematically analyzed. This study develops a three-pronged formal definitional framework on the basis of facet theory (FT) and explores behavior modality, referent, and object. This facet analysis (FA) of OC accounts successfully for variation in both creative behavior at work and the usage of information and communication technologies (ICTs). An analysis of data collected from 230 employees in the financial industry indicates that a radex structure was obtained for work and ICT. The behavior modality facet ordered the space from center to periphery, and referents facet relates to the direction angles away from the origin. PMID:18422410

  11. Facet-Specific Assembly of Proteins on SrTiO3 Polyhedral Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lingqing; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Kui; Shi, Hui; Wang, Qi; Weng, Wenjian; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Precisely controlling the protein-nanomaterial interactions at selective sites is crucial in engineering biomolecule composite architectures with tailored nanostructures and functions for a variety of biomedical applications. This strategy, however, is only beginning to be explored. Here, we demonstrate the facet-specific assembly of proteins, such as albumin, immunoglobulin and protamine, on {100} facets of SrTiO3 polyhedral nanocrystals, while none on {110} facets. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate the immobile surface hydration layer might play a barrier role to effectively prevent proteins adsorption on specific {110} facets. This work thus provides new insights into the fundamentally understanding of protein-nanomaterial interactions, and open a novel, general and facile route to control the selective adsorption of various proteins on various nanocrystals. PMID:24866740

  12. Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-01-01

    We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes. PMID:24097175

  13. Facets of emotional awareness and associations with emotion regulation and depression.

    PubMed

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2015-06-01

    Emotion theories posit that effective emotion regulation depends upon the nuanced information provided by emotional awareness; attending to and understanding one's own emotions. Additionally, the strong associations between facets of emotional awareness and various forms of psychopathology may be partially attributable to associations with emotion regulation. These logically compelling hypotheses are largely uninvestigated, including which facets compose emotional awareness and how they relate to emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology. We used exploratory structural equation modeling of individual difference measures among a large adult sample (n = 919) recruited online. Results distinguished 4 facets of emotional awareness (type clarity, source clarity, involuntary attention to emotion, and voluntary attention to emotion) that were differentially associated with expressive suppression, acceptance of emotions, and cognitive reappraisal. Facets were associated with depression both directly and indirectly via associations with emotion regulation strategies. We discuss implications for theory and research on emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25706832

  14. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Seryi

    2009-09-09

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  15. Faceting during GaAs quantum dot self-assembly by droplet epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Heyn, Ch.; Stemmann, A.; Schramm, A.; Welsch, H.; Hansen, W.; Nemcsics, A. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Zentrum fuer Mikrostrukturforschung, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2007-05-14

    Strain-free GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are grown in a self-assembled fashion by applying Ga droplet epitaxy. The QDs are studied using electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Two distinct regimes are observed for the QD shape. QDs whose volume exceeds approximately 3x10{sup 5} Ga atoms are shaped like truncated pyramids with side facets having an angle of about 55 deg. . Smaller QDs are pyramidlike with 25 deg. facets.

  16. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    ScienceCinema

    Andrei Seryi

    2010-01-08

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  17. Controlled InAs quantum dot nucleation on faceted nanopatterned pyramids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Wong; G. Balakrishnan; N. Nuntawong; J. Tatebayashi; D. L. Huffaker

    2007-01-01

    The selective quantum dot (QD) nucleation on nanofaceted GaAs pyramidal facets is explored. The GaAs pyramids, formed on a SiO2 masked (001) GaAs substrate, are characterized by well-defined equilibrium crystal shapes (ECSs) defined by three crystal plane families including {11n}, {10n}, and (001). Subsequent patterned QD (PQD) nucleation on the GaAs pyramidal facets is highly preferential towards the (11n) planes

  18. Helium-atom scattering investigation of facetting of the Al stepped (332) surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Hinch; A. Lock; H. H. Madden; J. P. Toennies; G. Witte

    1990-01-01

    Helium-atom scattering has been used to study the facetting of an aluminum crystal that was cut at an angle of 10.0° from the (111) face to produce a (332) periodically stepped surface. After initial surface preparation of repeated sputtering and annealing cycles, the diffraction peak structures indicated strong facetting. Data collected for a wide range of initial He-atom wave vectors

  19. Edge-Graph Diameter Bounds for Convex Polytopes with Few Facets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bremner; Lars Schewe

    2008-01-01

    We show that the edge graph of a 6-dimensional polytope with 12 facets has diameter at most 6, thus verifying the d-step conjecture of Klee and Walkup in the case of d=6. This implies that for all pairs (d,n) with n-d \\\\leq 6 the diameter of the edge graph of a d-polytope with n facets is bounded by 6, which

  20. Influence of diode facet reflectivity on the dynamics of actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Garside, B.K.; Kempf, P.

    1986-11-01

    The majority of models developed to describe the actively mode-locked operation of diode lasers have been generated for diodes having one antireflection coated facet. The basic starting point of such models is the assumption that the residual facet reflectivity can be ignored. In the present paper, we employ a model developed specifically to deal with mode-locked operation for diodes with a significant facet reflectivity. Experimental observation of mode-locked operation for different facet reflectivities shows that the model provides a good description of this mode of operation. It is to be emphasized that the comparison between model predictions and experimental observations is basically exact; no fitting parameters are used, and the significant diode parameters are independently measured. This model, thus validated, used to explore how low the residual facet reflectivity needs to be treated as negligible. It is shown that, even for very low values, this facet relectivity has a strong influence on the dynamical behavior of the mode-locked diode laser.

  1. Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-11-13

    This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

  2. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  3. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    MedlinePLUS

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to the side of your head. When it works well, it enables you to ... For people with TMJ dysfunction, problems with the joint and muscles around it may cause Pain that ...

  4. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe the place where the sacrum and the iliac bones join. The ... The main purpose of the joint is to connect the spine and the pelvis. As a result, there is very little movement at the sacroiliac joint. Listed ...

  5. Asymmetric anatase TiO? nanocrystals with exposed high-index facets and their excellent lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Lou, Xiong Wen David; Hng, Huey Hoon

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a unique organic solvent system to synthesize asymmetric anatase TiO(2) nanocrystals with a bipyramidal structure, where the upper pyramid is bound by (201) facets, and the lower pyramid is bound by (401) surfaces. Due to the high surface energy of these (401) high-index facets, the nanocrystals tend to assemble on these facets to minimize the free energy, leading to the formation of a dandelion-like hierarchical structure. PMID:21892504

  6. Neurologically Intact Patient Following Bilateral Facet Dislocation: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Vikram; Mullin, Jeffrey P.; Abbott, E. Emily; Anderson, James; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Complete spinal cord lesions and quadriplegia occur in 50%-84% of patients with bilateral facet dislocation. We present a patient who suffered both bilateral facet dislocation and bilateral pedicle fractures while remaining neurologically intact. Based on this case and our literature review, we hypothesize that bilateral facet dislocations without neurological deficits are accompanied by significant associated fractures that facilitate the maintenance of cervical spine canal patency. Case Report After a fall down a flight of stairs, an 86-year-old woman presented to the hospital complaining of neck pain. She denied numbness and weakness of her extremities. On physical examination she was neurologically intact without focal sensory or motor deficits and with normal reflexes throughout. Computed tomography (CT) of her neck demonstrated bilateral C5-C6 facet dislocation with locking of the C6 superior articular process dorsal to the C5 inferior articular process, as well as corresponding bilateral C6 pedicle fractures. Additional acute fractures were identified on the thoracic CT. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no spinal cord compression, edema, or hemorrhage. The patient had a C6-C7 anterior cervical discectomy and allograft fusion and a C5-T1 anterior cervical plate with screw fixation. Conclusion Because bilateral facet dislocations without neurological deficits are rare, the most appropriate surgical intervention is not evident. We believe the best choice as a first step is an anterior cervical discectomy and allograft fusion with plating. PMID:24688342

  7. Surface roughening and unstable neck formation in faceted particles. 1: Experimental results and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, J.; Sheldon, B.W. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1999-07-01

    Experimental in situ TEM results described by Rankin and Boatner are surprising because they show initial neck formation between two isolated MgO particles, followed by neck rupture. A quantitative assessment of the original images shows that initial neck growth corresponds to material removed from the rounded edges which contact the neck, and that neck rupture transfers material directly from the neck to the adjacent faceted faces. During the initial neck growth process surface diffusion along the rounded edges of the crystals is apparently the dominant mass transport mechanism, and material is not transferred to the faceted faces because of the energy barrier associated with forming a new atomic layer on top of a faceted surface. This energy barrier can apparently be overcome when a curvature reversal at a facet/rough surface boundary creates a step which makes it possible to add one or more new atomic layers to the faceted face(s). This can move material away from the neck, and thus lead to neck rupture.

  8. Differential relations of depression and social anxiety symptoms to the facets of extraversion/positive emotionality.

    PubMed

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David; Markon, Kristian E

    2009-05-01

    Previous research has shown that both depression and social anxiety--2 facets of internalizing psychopathology--are characterized by low levels of extraversion/positive emotionality (E/PE). However, little is known about the relations of the facets of E/PE with the symptoms of depression and social anxiety. This study utilized multiple measures of each facet of E/PE, as well as depression and social anxiety symptoms. Self-report data were collected from large samples of college students and psychiatric outpatients. Separate factor analyses in each sample revealed a 4-factor structure of E/PE consisting of Sociability, Positive Emotionality, Ascendance, and Fun-Seeking. Structural equation modeling revealed that, after controlling for the higher order internalizing factor and the overlap among the E/PE facets, social anxiety was broadly related to all 4 facets of E/PE, whereas depression was strongly related to only low positive emotionality. Implications for hierarchical models of personality and psychopathology, assessment and treatment, and etiological models are discussed. PMID:19413405

  9. Defeaturing CAD models using a geometry-based size field and facet-based reduction operators.

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan; Owen, Steven James

    2010-04-01

    We propose a method to automatically defeature a CAD model by detecting irrelevant features using a geometry-based size field and a method to remove the irrelevant features via facet-based operations on a discrete representation. A discrete B-Rep model is first created by obtaining a faceted representation of the CAD entities. The candidate facet entities are then marked for reduction by using a geometry-based size field. This is accomplished by estimating local mesh sizes based on geometric criteria. If the field value at a facet entity goes below a user specified threshold value then it is identified as an irrelevant feature and is marked for reduction. The reduction of marked facet entities is primarily performed using an edge collapse operator. Care is taken to retain a valid geometry and topology of the discrete model throughout the procedure. The original model is not altered as the defeaturing is performed on a separate discrete model. Associativity between the entities of the discrete model and that of original CAD model is maintained in order to decode the attributes and boundary conditions applied on the original CAD entities onto the mesh via the entities of the discrete model. Example models are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Facet-dependent electrical conductivity properties of Cu2O crystals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chih-Shan; Hsu, Shih-Chen; Ke, Wei-Hong; Chen, Lih-Juann; Huang, Michael H

    2015-03-11

    It is interesting to examine facet-dependent electrical properties of single Cu2O crystals, because such study greatly advances our understanding of various facet effects exhibited by semiconductors. We show a Cu2O octahedron is highly conductive, a cube is moderately conductive, and a rhombic dodecahedron is nonconductive. The conductivity differences are ascribed to the presence of a thin surface layer having different degrees of band bending. When electrical connection was made on two different facets of a rhombicuboctahedron, a diode-like response was obtained, demonstrating the potential of using single polyhedral nanocrystals as functional electronic components. Density of state (DOS) plots for three layers of Cu2O (111), (100), and (110) planes show respective metallic, semimetal, and semiconducting band structures. By examining DOS plots for varying number of planes, the surface layer thicknesses responsible for the facet-dependent electrical properties of Cu2O crystals have been determined to be below 1.5 nm for these facets. PMID:25706855

  11. Interferometric technique for faceted microstructure metrology using an index matching liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, Daryl; Suratkar, Amit; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-02-01

    Microstructured optical products are becoming more widespread due to advances in manufacturing. Many of these structures contain faceted surfaces with steep slopes. Adequate metrology for such surfaces is lacking. We describe an interferometric technique that combines plane wave illumination with an index matching liquid to achieve high quality, high speed measurements of such faceted microstructures. We account for refraction at the interfaces, rather than consider only optical path length changes due to the index liquid, and this significantly improves the facet angle measurement. We demonstrate the technique with the measurement of an array of micropyramids and show that our results are in good agreement with measurements taken on a contact profilometer. We also extend the technique to measure opaque microcorner cubes by implementing an intermediate replication step.

  12. Spatial variation of luminescence from AlGaN grown by facet controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A.; Liu, R.; Parasuraman, U. K.; Ponce, F. A.; Kamiyama, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

    2004-10-01

    Interesting phenomena have been observed in the epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlxGa1-xN alloys using facet control on serrated GaN templates. A complex microstructure is observed that involves misfit dislocation arrays that are closely related to regions with significantly large variations in composition. The dislocations are on inclined planar boundaries and result from basal-plane slip, which is allowed in this inclined facet geometry. The spatial variation of the aluminum composition in the overgrowth region is determined by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and ranges from x =0.06to0.27, for constant growth conditions that after planarization result in a uniform composition at x =0.16. These results indicate that aluminum incorporation depends significantly on the growth direction with marked preference for facets parallel to the basal plane.

  13. Faceting of {sigma}3 and {sigma}9 grain boundaries in Cu-Bi alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Straumal, B.B. [Laboratory of Interfaces in Metals, Institute of Solid State Physics, Institutskii prospect 15, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: straumal@issp.ac.ru; Polyakov, S.A. [Laboratory of Interfaces in Metals, Institute of Solid State Physics, Institutskii prospect 15, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung and Institut fuer Metallkunde, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bischoff, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung and Institut fuer Metallkunde, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Gust, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung and Institut fuer Metallkunde, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Baretzky, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung and Institut fuer Metallkunde, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-01-10

    The faceting of {sigma}3 and {sigma}9 tilt grain boundaries (GBs) has been studied in bicrystals of pure Cu and Cu-Bi alloys containing 2.5 x 10{sup -3}, 10 x 10{sup -3} and 16 x 10{sup -3} at.% Bi. The {sigma}3(1 0 0), {sigma}9(1 0 0), {sigma}9(-1 1 0), and {sigma}9(-1 2 0) facets and non-CSL {sigma}3 82 deg 9R facet were observed, where {sigma} is the inverse density of coincidence sites. The ratio between GB energy, {sigma}{sub GB}, and surface energy, {sigma}{sub sur}, was measured by atomic force microscopy using the GB thermal-groove method. The GB energy and thermal-groove deepening rate increased slightly between 0 and 10 x 10{sup -3} at.% Bi for all facets studied. However, between 10 x 10{sup -3} and 16 x 10{sup -3} at.% Bi the GB energy increased dramatically [from a factor 2 for the {sigma}9(1 1 0) facet to 15 times larger for the {sigma}3(1 0 0) facet]. The thermal-groove deepening rate also increased by a factor of 10 in this concentration range. This change corresponds well with the GB solidus line (i.e., the formation of a stable layer of a liquid-like GB phase called GB prewetting) observed previously. Wulff diagrams were constructed using measured {sigma}{sub GB}/{sigma}{sub sur} values.

  14. Mechanics of Suture Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaning; Song, Juha; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary; Ortiz group/DMSE/MIT Team; Boyce group/ME/MIT Team

    2011-03-01

    Biological sutures are joints which connect two stiff skeletal or skeletal-like components. These joints possess a wavy geometry with a thin organic layer providing adhesion. Examples of biological sutures include mammalian skulls, the pelvic assembly of the armored fish Gasterosteus aculeatus (the three-spined stickleback), and the suture joints in the shell of the red-eared slider turtle. Biological sutures allow for movement and compliance, control stress concentrations, transmit loads, reduce fatigue stress and absorb energy. In this investigation, the mechanics of the role of suture geometry in providing a naturally optimized joint is explored. In particular, analytical and numerical micromechanical models of the suture joint are constructed. The anisotropic mechanical stiffness and strength are studied as a function of suture wavelength, amplitude and the material properties of the skeletal and organic components, revealing key insights into the optimized nature of these ubiquitous natural joints.

  15. Item and rater analysis of constructed response items via the multi-faceted Rasch model.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Edward W

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how the multi-faceted Rasch model (MFRM) can be applied to item and rater analysis and the types of information that is made available by a multifaceted analysis of constructed-response items. Particularly, the text describes evidence that is made available by such analyses that is relevant to improving item and rubric development as well as rater training and monitoring. The article provides an introduction to MRFM extensions of the family of Rasch models, a description of item analysis procedures, a description of rater analysis procedures, and concludes with an example analysis conducted using a commercially available program that implements the MFRM, Facets. PMID:19671993

  16. Contemporary cybernetics and its facets of cognitive informatics and computational intelligence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingxu; Kinsner, Witold; Zhang, Du

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores the architecture, theoretical foundations, and paradigms of contemporary cybernetics from perspectives of cognitive informatics (CI) and computational intelligence. The modern domain and the hierarchical behavioral model of cybernetics are elaborated at the imperative, autonomic, and cognitive layers. The CI facet of cybernetics is presented, which explains how the brain may be mimicked in cybernetics via CI and neural informatics. The computational intelligence facet is described with a generic intelligence model of cybernetics. The compatibility between natural and cybernetic intelligence is analyzed. A coherent framework of contemporary cybernetics is presented toward the development of transdisciplinary theories and applications in cybernetics, CI, and computational intelligence. PMID:19349246

  17. Examining Rater Effects in TestDaF Writing and Speaking Performance Assessments: A Many-Facet Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    I studied rater effects in the writing and speaking sections of the Test of German as a Foreign Language (TestDaF). Building on the many-facet Rasch measurement methodology, the focus was on rater main effects as well as 2- and 3-way interactions between raters and the other facets involved, that is, examinees, rating criteria (in the writing…

  18. Violence Risk Assessment and Facet 4 of the Psychopathy Checklist: Predicting Institutional and Community Aggression in Two Forensic Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL/PCL-R) were used to predict institutional aggression and community violence in two groups of forensic patients. Results showed that Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL/PCL-R or one of its parcels consistently achieved incremental validity relative to the first three facets, whereas the…

  19. Fabrication process for low-cost GaInAsP\\/InP etched-facet photodetectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Michel; Jacqueline Lehoux; Alexandre Marceaux; Olivier Parillaud; Nakita Vodjdani

    2005-01-01

    The optical waveguide entry facet of high-speed, 40 GHz waveguide photodetectors is usually obtained by manual cleaving, which has limited accuracy (+\\/- 10 mum) and reduces fabrication yields. In our new fabrication process, the waveguide facet is obtained with Chemically Assisted Ion Beam Etching (CAIBE). Length is therefore precisely controlled by photolithography. The antireflection coating is also deposited collectively on

  20. Campylobacter Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vasoo, Shawn; Schwab, Jeramy J.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Robinson, Trisha J.; Cass, Joseph R.; Berbari, Elie F.; Walker, Randall C.; Osmon, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with probable Campylobacter jejuni prosthetic knee infection after a diarrheal illness. Joint aspirate and operative cultures were negative, but PCR of prosthesis sonicate fluid was positive, as was stool culture. Nineteen additional cases of Campylobacter prosthetic joint infection reported in the literature are reviewed. PMID:24523462

  1. Joint Newspaper Operating Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Marie

    The number of competing daily newspapers in American cities has dwindled until only about 50 cities boast two papers. Of the newspapers in those cities, 23 now maintain separate editorial operations but have joint printing, advertising, and circulation departments. The concept of joint operation is 50 years old, dating from the Depression years…

  2. Compound solder joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, R. I.; Simonson, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    Joining technique prevents contamination, may be used to join dissimilar metal tubes, minimizes fluid and gas entrapment, expedites repairs, and can yield joints having leakage rates less than 0.000001 standard cubic cm He/min. Components of joint are solder sleeve, two solder rings, Teflon sleeve, and tubing to be joined.

  3. Acromioclavicular joint disease.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, Scott; Hopper, Melanie A

    2015-07-01

    The acromioclavicular joint is an important component of the shoulder girdle experiencing significant loading during normal activities of daily living. The joint is frequently subjected to trauma and as a synovial articulation can become involved in rheumatoid arthritis and the seronegative arthropathies. PMID:26021590

  4. A FACETS Analysis of Rater Bias in Measuring Japanese Second Language Writing Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2002-01-01

    Using FACETS, investigates how judgments of trained teacher raters are biased toward certain types of candidates and certain criteria in assessing Japanese second language writing. Explores the potential for using a modified version of a rating scale for norm-referenced decisions about Japanese second language writing ability. (Author/VWL)

  5. FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-02

    FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

  6. Validity of Social, Moral and Emotional Facets of Self-Description Questionnaire II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Abduljabbar, Adel S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies adopting a construct validity approach can be categorized into within- and between-network studies. Few studies have applied between-network approach and tested the correlations of the social (same-sex relations, opposite-sex relations, parent relations), moral (honesty-trustworthiness), and emotional (emotional stability) facets of the…

  7. FACET AND PRISM BASED MODEL FOR PEDAGOGICAL INDEXATION OF TEXTS FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FACET AND PRISM BASED MODEL FOR PEDAGOGICAL INDEXATION OF TEXTS FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING.ponton}@u-grenoble3.fr Keywords: Pedagogical indexation, Computer assisted language learning, Natural language of texts for language learning and address it under the scope of the notion of "pedagogical context

  8. Facets of Impulsivity Are Differentially Linked to Insomnia: Evidence From an Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph E. Schmidt; Philippe Gay; Martial Van der Linden

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the association between insomnia and four facets of impulsivity as distinguished by Whiteside and Lynam (2001): urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking. A sample of 233 university students completed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index, and a short questionnaire on sleep-related mentation. Correlational analyses revealed that urgency was related to

  9. Towards an Understanding of Facets and Exemplars of Big Data Applications Geoffrey C.Fox1

    E-print Network

    Towards an Understanding of Facets and Exemplars of Big Data Applications Geoffrey C.Fox1 Big Data applications from a variety of research and commercial areas and suggest a set Big Data properties, and then to understand applications with those properties. There are many

  10. The multiple facets of c-aminobutyric acid dysfunction in epilepsy Yehezkel Ben-Aria

    E-print Network

    Cossart, Rosa

    REVIEW The multiple facets of c-aminobutyric acid dysfunction in epilepsy Yehezkel Ben inhibition to excitation in the developing brain and in epilepsies. This review deals with recent while inhibiting those of the mother. In epilepsies, recurrent seizures also lead to an accumulation

  11. Polymer waveguide end facet roughness and optical input/output coupling loss for OPCB applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghsiahi, Hadi; Wang, Kai; Pitwon, Richard; Selviah, David R.

    2014-03-01

    Electro-optical printed circuit board technology (EOCB) based on integrated planar polymer optical waveguides has been the subject of research and development for many years to provide a cost viable, fully integrated system embedded optical interconnect solution, however a number of constraints of this technology have yet to be overcome. Optical coupling loss at the input and output of the waveguides is one of the major issues and waveguide end facet roughness is one of the main sources of the coupling loss which is investigated in this paper. The results of a comprehensive investigation of the end facet roughness of multimode polymer waveguides, fabricated on FR4 printed circuit boards, PCBs, and its effect of optical loss are presented theoretically and experimentally. The waveguide end facet roughness was measured using an atomic force microscope, AFM, when the waveguides were cut using a milling router with various numbers of cutting edges called flutes. The optimized cutting parameters are derived and the optical coupling loss, between the laser source and the waveguide, due to the different roughness magnitudes is measured by experiment for the first time. To improve the surface quality and decrease the waveguide optical loss, a new fabrication technique for reducing the end facet roughness after cutting is proposed and demonstrated. The insertion loss was reduced by 2.60 dB +/- 1.3 dB which is more than that achieved by other conventional methods such as index matching fluid.

  12. Facets of a Discourse Analysis of Safety Requirements Patrick Saint-Dizier

    E-print Network

    also emerged, e.g. EEC norms for chemical product storage and uses. Besides public regulations, safetyFacets of a Discourse Analysis of Safety Requirements Patrick Saint-Dizier IRIT - CNRS, 118 route a linguistic analysis and an implementation of the discourse structure of safety requirements within

  13. Investigation of the suitability of silicate bonding for facet termination in active

    E-print Network

    Byer, Robert L.

    bonding an optical flat to the output facet of an active fiber device can increase the reliability of high-power, single-transverse-mode operation of a 100 µm core diameter, Yb-doped rodlike photonic crystal fiber," Advanced Solid State Photonics, Santa Fe, USA, February pp. 1­4 (2004). 5. J. Nilsson, J. Sahu, Y. Jeong, W

  14. Angle-resolved photoemission of Au clusters on graphite: quantized surface states on cluster facets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hövel; I. Barke

    2006-01-01

    We present an experimental study for the electronic properties of metal clusters on surfaces. For the specific case of the confined Shockley surface state on the top (111) facets of gold clusters on graphite [1] we were able to detect the quantized electronic structure with two independent experimental techniques, scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Here we

  15. Technology shapes every facet of modern life. Familiarity with the characteristics,

    E-print Network

    Ge, Qiaode Jeff

    Technology shapes every facet of modern life. Familiarity with the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of current and emerging technologies is indispen- sable to wise and effective decisions and address the problems that technology often presents. Technologi- cal developments are indeed re

  16. Four Facets of Privacy and Intellectual Freedom in Licensing Contracts for Electronic Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Alan; Zhang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of the treatment of library patron privacy in licenses for electronic journals in academic libraries. We begin by distinguishing four facets of privacy and intellectual freedom based on the LIS and philosophical literature. Next, we perform a content analysis of 42 license agreements for electronic journals, focusing on terms for…

  17. FaThumb: a facet-based interface for mobile search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy K. Karlson; George G. Robertson; Daniel C. Robbins; Mary P. Czerwinski; Greg R. Smith

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for searching large data sets from a mobile phone. Existing interfaces for mobile search require keyword text entry and are not suited for browsing. Our alternative uses a hybrid model to de- emphasize tedious keyword entry in favor of iterative data filtering. We propose navigation and selection of hierarchical metadata (facet navigation),

  18. Teachers' Perceptions Structured through Facet Theory: Smallest Space Analysis versus Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovaty, Nava; Marshall, Anne E.; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the facet theory (FT) of L. Gutman and compared it to factor analysis (FA) in the context of two research studies, one of desirable student traits perceived by 203 Israeli teachers and the other of the perceptions of 92 Israeli teachers regarding teacher professionalism. By using FT and FA, the multidimensional theory and structural…

  19. Faceting of the interface between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and anorthite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Mallamaci, M.P.; Carter, C.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1998-05-01

    The {l_brace}10{bar 1}0{r_brace} and {l_brace}11{bar 2}0{r_brace} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces have been equilibrated in contact with anorthite liquid at 1,600 C. The structure of the resulting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/glass interfaces has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Both interfaces were unstable in the presence of the liquid and reconstructed to give regular arrays of facets. The (10{bar 1}0) interface developed (10{bar 1}1) and ({bar 1}012) facets while the (11{bar 2}0) interface developed {l_brace}hh{ovr 2h}3{r_brace} facets. It is proposed that the (10{bar 1}0) glass/crystal interface is thermodynamically stable, but that the (11{bar 2}0) interface facets due to interface-step migration. The microstructure thus shows that both the crystallography and the anisotropic interface energies are important in determining the wetting/dewetting behavior of glass on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  20. The Multi-Faceted Role of an "Ideal" CC Faculty Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammons, James O.

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the ideal role of future community college faculty members. This role is to include five facets: (1) teaching, (2) advising students, (3) service to the community, (4) service to the college, and (5) personal development. Suggests the value of the model in enhancing student learning and institutional goals. (JG)

  1. An Examination of Blue- versus White-Collar Workers' Conceptualizations of Job Satisfaction Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xiaoxiao; Kaplan, Seth; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which blue- versus white-collar workers differentially conceptualize various job facets, namely the work itself, co-workers, supervisors, and pay. To examine these potential differences, we conducted a series of analyses on job satisfaction ratings from two samples of university workers. Consistent with the study…

  2. Infinity as a Multi-Faceted Concept in History and in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzarello, Ferdinando; Bussi, Maria G., Bartolini; Robutti, Ornella

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptualisation of infinity as a multi-faceted concept, discussing two examples. The first is from history and illustrates the work of Euler, when using infinity in an algebraic context. The second sketches an activity in a school context, namely students who approach the definite integral with symbolic-graphic…

  3. Centrifugal Shape Sorting of Faceted Gold Nanoparticles Using an Atomic Plane-Selective Surfactant

    E-print Network

    Gao, Hongjun

    Centrifugal Shape Sorting of Faceted Gold Nanoparticles Using an Atomic Plane-Selective Surfactant control or postsynthetic processing that relies on centrifugal sedimentation-based sorting schemes whereNPs possessing different shapes that would otherwise be virtually indistinguishable during centrifugal

  4. Construct Validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Meditating and Nonmeditating Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Ruth A.; Smith, Gregory T.; Lykins, Emily; Button, Daniel; Krietemeyer, Jennifer; Sauer, Shannon; Walsh, Erin; Duggan, Danielle; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on assessment of mindfulness by self-report suggests that it may include five component skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, and nonreactivity to inner experience. These elements of mindfulness can be measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The authors…

  5. Wisconsin FACETS Community Parent Resource Center. Final Project Report, 10/1/98-9/30/01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Family Assistance Center for Education, Training and Support, Inc., Milwaukee.

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of the Wisconsin FACETS program, a program that provides parent information and training services for underserved parents and caretakers of infants, toddlers, children, and young adults with disabilities who live in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The goals of the program are provided, along with a…

  6. Observations of oxidation mechanisms and kinetics in faceted FeCo magnetic nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    McHenry, Michael E.

    Observations of oxidation mechanisms and kinetics in faceted FeCo magnetic nanoparticles N. J the as received size. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3334197 I. INTRODUCTION FeCo needs to be investigated, noting how the oxide couples to the core of FeCo. FeCo magnetic nanoparticles

  7. Facet Classification of Blogs: Know-Center at the TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    Facet Classification of Blogs: Know-Center at the TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task Elisabeth Lex,mgrani,ajuffinger}@know-center.at Abstract. In this paper, we outline our experiments carried out at the TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task. Our system is based on a plain text index extracted from the XML feeds of the TREC Blogs08 dataset

  8. Applying Perkins's Facets of a Learning Environment for Information Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blummer, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Perkins, a professor of Education at Harvard University, promoted the use of constructivism in conjunction with information processing technologies to facilitate students' understanding and active use of knowledge and skills. He identified five facets of a learning environment including: information banks, symbol pads, construction kits,…

  9. Modeling of facet formation in SiC bulk crystal growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Matukov; D. S. Kalinin; M. V. Bogdanov; S. Yu. Karpov; D. Kh. Ofengeim; M. S. Ramm; J. S. Barash; E. N. Mokhov; A. D. Roenkov; Yu. A. Vodakov; M. G. Ramm; H. Helava; Yu. N. Makarov

    2004-01-01

    Control of the crystallization front profile is of great importance for various aspects of bulk SiC crystal growth by physical vapor transport. The structural defect density, doping uniformity, and polytype stability are largely dependent on the profile evolution. In this paper, we consider the binary crystal growth from the multicomponent vapor and suggest a model of facet formation. The model

  10. Electrostatic-Discharge-Induced Degradation Caused by Argon Ion Bombardment in Facet-Coating Process of GaInAsP\\/InP Laser Diode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Ichikawa; Masashi Ito; Kotaro Hamada; Akira Yamaguchi; Takashi Nakabayashi

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD)-induced degradation is one of the most important reliability issues of GaInAsP\\/InP laser diodes. We investigated the relation between ion irradiation in the facet-coating process and ESD-induced degradation. We used electron-beam evaporation with two types of argon ion irradiation for facet-coating. One type of irradiation is used for facet cleaning, in which argon ions bombard the facet directly.

  11. JOINT ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING AND

    E-print Network

    JOINT ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING AND PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM "Speckle Statistics, Coherence confirmation of the increase in the well- defined polarization state of the output radiation. In the joint

  12. Compliant Joints For Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Compliant joints devised to accommodate misalignments of tools and/or workpieces with respect to robotic manipulators. Has characteristics and appearance of both universal-joint and cable-spring-type flexible shaft coupling. Compliance derived from elastic properties of short pieces of cable. Compliance of joint determined by lengths, distances between, relative orientations, thickness of strands, number of strands, material, amount of pretwist, and number of short pieces of cable. Worm-drive mechanism used to adjust lengths to vary compliance as needed during operation.

  13. High-active anatase TiO? nanosheets exposed with 95% {100} facets toward efficient H? evolution and CO? photoreduction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Ouyang, Shuxin; Li, Peng; Kako, Tetsuya; Ye, Jinhua

    2013-02-01

    We succeed in preparation of anatase TiO? single crystals with marked photocatalytic activity via a facile and effective method. This TiO? is composed of TiO? ultrathin nanosheets (2 nm in thickness) with 95% of exposed {100} facet, which is considered to be the active facet for photocatalytic reaction. This percentage (95%) is the highest among previously reported {100} facet exposed anatase TiO?. More importantly, due to this high ratio, our developed TiO? nanosheets showed marked photocatalytic activity, about 5 times higher activity in both H? evolution and CO? reduction than the reference sample, TiO? cuboids with 53% of exposed {100} facet. For the TiO? nanosheets, both the higher percentage of exposed {100} facets and larger surface area can offer more surface active sites in the photocatalytic reaction. On the other hand, the superior electronic band structure which results from the higher percentage of {100} facet is also beneficial for the higher activity. This study exemplifies that the facet engineering of semiconductors is one of the most effective strategies to achieve advanced properties over photofunctional materials for solar energy conversion. PMID:23360579

  14. Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Tie Bar, & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Medora Bridge, Spanning East Fork of White River at State Route 235, Medora, Jackson County, IN

  15. Highly reactive {001} facets of TiO2-based composites: synthesis, formation mechanism and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wee-Jun; Tan, Lling-Lling; Chai, Siang-Piao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2014-02-21

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides due to its extraordinary surface, electronic and catalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and massive recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic and photovoltaic efficiency. Therefore, increasing research attention is now being directed towards engineering the surface structure of TiO2 at the most fundamental and atomic level namely morphological control of {001} facets in the range of microscale and nanoscale to fine-tune its physicochemical properties, which could ultimately lead to the optimization of its selectivity and reactivity. The synthesis of {001}-faceted TiO2 is currently one of the most active interdisciplinary research areas and demonstrations of catalytic enhancement are abundant. Modifications such as metal and non-metal doping have also been extensively studied to extend its band gap to the visible light region. This steady progress has demonstrated that TiO2-based composites with {001} facets are playing and will continue to play an indispensable role in the environmental remediation and in the search for clean and renewable energy technologies. This review encompasses the state-of-the-art research activities and latest advancements in the design of highly reactive {001} facet-dominated TiO2via various strategies, including hydrothermal/solvothermal, high temperature gas phase reactions and non-hydrolytic alcoholysis methods. The stabilization of {001} facets using fluorine-containing species and fluorine-free capping agents is also critically discussed in this review. To overcome the large band gap of TiO2 and rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, modifications are carried out to manipulate its electronic band structure, including transition metal doping, noble metal doping, non-metal doping and incorporating graphene as a two-dimensional (2D) catalyst support. The advancements made in these aspects are thoroughly examined, with additional insights related to the charge transfer events for each strategy of the modified-TiO2 composites. Finally, we offer a summary and some invigorating perspectives on the major challenges and new research directions for future exploitation in this emerging frontier, which we hope will advance us to rationally harness the outstanding structural and electronic properties of {001} facets for various environmental and energy-related applications. PMID:24384624

  16. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePLUS

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... result means no bacteria are present on the Gram stain. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a ...

  17. Arthroscopy of the subtalar joint and arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Tasto, James P

    2006-01-01

    Subtalar arthroscopy has become a valuable adjunct to the tools used in lower extremity surgery. For the past 25 years, ankle arthroscopy has been in vogue for treating a variety of conditions. Subtalar arthroscopy has more treatment limitations and is more technically difficult to perform than ankle arthroscopy because of the anatomic confines and structure of the subtalar joint. Most procedures are performed on the posterior aspect of the subtalar joint. The subtalar joint is composed of three articulations (posterior, middle, and anterior facets) and is surrounded by a variety of intra-articular and extra-articular ligaments, whose anatomy must be fully understood before attempting this procedure. Subtalar arthroscopy may be indicated for diagnostic purposes and for débridement of synovial impingement syndromes in the sinus tarsi. It may be used to examine loose bodies or osteochondral lesions, to address fractures of the lateral process of the talus, and to evaluate subtalar instability to determine appropriate stabilization methods. Arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis also has gained credibility over the past 10 years as an acceptable surgical procedure. Arthroscopic evaluation of subtalar instability is useful in planning the appropriate stabilization. Subtalar arthroscopy is usually performed with the patient in the lateral decubitus position without traction. Anterior and posterior portals as well as an accessory anterior portal are usually necessary to perform all of the above procedures. Because of the limited confines of the joint, care must be taken to prevent any articular cartilage damage. When performing subtalar arthroscopy in conjunction with ankle arthroscopy, the subtalar arthroscopy should be performed first to avoid excessive extravasation from the ankle arthroscopy, which could obscure entry to the subtalar joint. Complications of subtalar arthroscopy are similar to those encountered in ankle arthroscopy, such as damage to the sural and superficial peroneal nerves. PMID:16958488

  18. Noninfectious joint disease in cattle.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Sylvain; Lardé, Hélène

    2014-03-01

    Osteochondrosis causes variable degrees of joint effusion and lameness. Arthroscopic debridement of the lesions provides the best long-term outcome. Articular fracture or joint instability following collateral ligament rupture causes severe joint effusion and lameness. Internal fixation combined with external coaptation is the treatment of choice. Degenerative joint disease in young animals has a guarded prognosis. Arthroscopy combined with medical therapy may slow down the disease process. Degenerative joint disease involving the distal interphalangeal joint has a good prognosis following joint resection. PMID:24534666

  19. NANOCATALYSTS. Platinum-based nanocages with subnanometer-thick walls and well-defined, controllable facets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Roling, Luke T; Wang, Xue; Vara, Madeline; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Choi, Sang-Il; Park, Jinho; Herron, Jeffrey A; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-07-24

    A cost-effective catalyst should have a high dispersion of the active atoms, together with a controllable surface structure for the optimization of activity, selectivity, or both. We fabricated nanocages by depositing a few atomic layers of platinum (Pt) as conformal shells on palladium (Pd) nanocrystals with well-defined facets and then etching away the Pd templates. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the etching is initiated via a mechanism that involves the formation of vacancies through the removal of Pd atoms incorporated into the outermost layer during the deposition of Pt. With the use of Pd nanoscale cubes and octahedra as templates, we obtained Pt cubic and octahedral nanocages enclosed by {100} and {111} facets, respectively, which exhibited distinctive catalytic activities toward oxygen reduction. PMID:26206931

  20. Reconstructing cultural behavior from dental wear studies: is para-facets analysis approach scientifically valid?

    PubMed

    Sarig, Rachel; Tillier, Anne-marie

    2014-06-01

    It is common knowledge, that in archaic populations teeth were used as tools, this behavior can be studied by evaluating attrition patterns. Parafacets were defined as nonmasticatory wear areas that have no antagonist matching wear facets. The presence of the parafacets led to far-reaching conclusions regarding cultural interactions between Near Eastern Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans. This study was aimed to examine the identification of parafacets in some of the Qafzeh specimens. Based on findings of our research we suggest that the attrition facets mistakenly considered as parafacets are in fact the result of the static and dynamic occlusion. Therefore the observations induce much less dramatic interpretation. We here propose several guidelines that would be beneficial in that they aim to evaluate the parafacets with heightened accuracy. PMID:24767822

  1. Percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy of lumbar spinal facets: the results of 46 cases.

    PubMed

    Göçer, A I; Cetinalp, E; Tuna, M; Ildan, F; Ba?dato?lu, H; Haciyakupo?lu, S

    1997-01-01

    The results of percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy of lumbar spinal facets in 46 patients followed at least three months (mean 15 months) are reported and compared with those reported previously. Satisfactory pain relief three months after the procedure was achieved in 36.4 percent of patients without operations and in 41.7 percent of patients, with operations other than fusion. No patient had previously undergone fusion. Treatment of low-back pain by using radio-frequency thermocoagulation of spinal facets is a simple, safe, and well-tolerated procedure. It can be used to relief of pain in spite of decreasing rates of success within the follow-up period. PMID:9226670

  2. Faceting Transition in an Exactly Solvable Terrace-Ledge-Kink model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas B. Abraham; Fabian H. L. Eßler; Franck T. Latremoliere

    1998-01-01

    We solve exactly a Terrace-Ledge-Kink (TLK) model describing a crystal\\u000asurface at a microscopic level. We show that there is a faceting transition\\u000adriven either by temperature or by the chemical potential that controls the\\u000aslope of the surface. In the rough phase we investigate thermal fluctuations of\\u000athe surface using Conformal Field Theory.

  3. Simple model for crystal shapes: Step-step interactions and facet edges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jayaprakash; Craig Rottman; W. F. Saam

    1984-01-01

    The terrace-step-kink model for equilibrium crystal shapes is considered. Noninteracting steps are known to correspond to a free-fermion model which leads to a continuous transition from facets to curved surfaces. We study both short- and long-ranged interactions between steps within meanfield theory. For nearest-neighbor step interactions, the model can be solved exactly, and details are given. The possibility of a

  4. Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

  5. Structural unit and faceting description of ?3 asymmetric tilt grain boundaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Tschopp; David L. McDowell

    2007-01-01

    Atomistic simulations are employed to investigate the structure of ?3 asymmetric tilt grain boundaries (ATGBs) with boundary\\u000a planes rotated about the $$\\\\langle 110 \\\\rangle$$ misorientation axis in Cu and Al. Results show that the structural units (SUs) and faceting of all 25 ?3 ATGBs in Cu and\\u000a Al intermediate to the coherent twin boundary and the symmetric incoherent twin boundary

  6. Mass transport, faceting and behavior of dislocations in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, S.; Kashima, T.; Kariya, M.; Yukawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

    2000-07-01

    The behavior of threading dislocations during mass transport of GaN was investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy. Mass transport occurred at the surface. Therefore, growing species are supplied from the in-plane direction. The behavior of threading dislocations was found to be strongly affected by the mass transport process as well as the high crystallographic anisotropy of the surface energy of the facets particular to GaN.

  7. Heritability of the Big Five Personality Dimensions and Their Facets: A Twin Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry L. Jang; W. John Livesley; Philip A. Vemon

    1996-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic and environmental,etiology of the five-factor model of personality as measured by the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was assessed using 123 pairs of identical twins and 127 pairs of fraternal twins. Broad genetic influence on the five dimensions of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness was estimated at 41%, 53%, 61%, 41%, and 44%, respectively. The facet

  8. Theoretical analysis and fabrication of antireflection coatings on laser-diode facets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Saitoh; Takaaki Mukai; Osamu Mikami

    1985-01-01

    Reflectivity of an antireflection-(AR) coated laser-diode (LD) facet is analyzed on the basis of a slab waveguide model and an angular spectrum approach. The reflectivities of single- and double-layer AR coatings on 1.55-?m GaInAsP\\/InP LD's are numerically calculated. Optimum film parameters, such as thickness and refractive index of single-layer AR coating films, are obtained as functions of the active layer

  9. Facet Dependent Disorder in the Pristine High Voltage Lithium-Manganese-Rich Cathode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Hemant M [ORNL; Zhou, Wu [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Defects and surface reconstructions are thought to be crucial for the long term stability of high-voltage lithium-manganese-rich cathodes. Unfortunately, many of these defects arise only after electrochemical cycling which occur under harsh conditions making it difficult to fully comprehend the role they play in degrading material performance. Recently, it has been observed that defects are present even in the pristine material. This study, therefore, focuses on examining the nature of the disorder observed in pristine Li$_{1.2}$Ni$_{0.175}$Mn$_{0.525}$Co$_{0.1}$O$_2$ (LNMCO) particles. Using atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements we show that there are indeed a significant amount of anti-site defects present in this material; with transition metals substituting on Li metal sites. Furthermore, we find a strong tendency of segregation of these types of defects towards open facets (surfaces perpendicular to the layered arrangement of atoms), rather than closed facets (surfaces parallel to the layered arrangement of atoms). First principles calculations identify anti-site defect pairs of Ni swapping with Li ions as the predominant defect in the material. Furthermore, energetically favorable swapping of Ni on the Mn sites were observed to lead to Mn depletion at open facets. Relatively, low Ni migration barriers also support the notion that Ni are the predominant cause of disorder. These insights suggests that certain facets of the LNMCO particles may be more useful for inhibiting surface reconstruction and improving the stability of these materials through careful consideration of the exposed surface.

  10. The management of traumatic cervical bilateral facet fracture-dislocations with unicortical anterior plates.

    PubMed

    Razack, N; Green, B A; Levi, A D

    2000-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate single-level anterior cervical discectomy and stabilization for bilateral facet fracture dislocations using bone graft and anterior titanium plates with unicortical screw fixation in the clinical setting. We conducted a retrospective review during a consecutive 6-year period of patients treated in a single institution for traumatic single-level cervical bilateral facet fracture-dislocation. All fracture-dislocations that could be aligned with traction were subsequently stabilized using an anterior cervical discectomy with bone graft and titanium unicortical locking plates. All patients were examined after operation for radiographic evidence of healing and neurologic outcome. Twenty-two patients (M:F ratio, 16:6; average age, 47.7 years) underwent an anterior cervical discectomy and stabilization with either an allograft (n = 12) or an autograft (n = 10) and a titanium unicortical locking plate. Most patients had sustained a spinal cord injury (87%) or a radicular injury (9%). The average follow-up was 32 months, with a minimum follow-up of 1 year (range, 13 to 77 months). There was one instrumentation-related failure, but all 22 patients ultimately had evidence of stability at the instrumented level on the final follow-up examination. Anterior fixation with unicortical cervical locking plates as a single procedure offers an excellent surgical alternative in the management of many cervical bilateral facet fracture dislocations in patients who can be reduced preoperatively. PMID:11052345

  11. Efficient gaseous toluene photoconversion on graphene-titanium dioxide nanocomposites with dominate exposed {001} facets.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qianqian; Tan, Xin; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Zhiyang; Zou, Yunling; Wang, Siyu

    2015-10-01

    A series of GnTiO2 {001} nanocomposites (GTN) with dominate exposed {001} facets has been synthesized by various dosage of graphite oxide (GO) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) during a facile solvothermal process successfully. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency (PDE) of the optimal sample reached up to 98.7% for liquids methyl orange and up to 78.6% for gaseous toluene under the UV-light irradiation for 30min, which is much higher than P25. The effects mechanism of HF and GO on the percentage of {001} facets exposed and the crystal morphology are investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis, XPS and BET measurement, particularly. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to explore the electron transfer mechanisms of GnTiO2 {001} nanocomposites. These results reveal the enhanced photocatalytic properties attribute to the excellent electron transport of Gn and highly reactive {001} facets can facilitate the separation of photo-generated charge carriers. Moreover, Gn can extend the absorption range of light and improve the adsorptivity of pollutant molecules. PMID:26057946

  12. An improved algorithm for facet-based infrared small target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Kejia; Deng, Tingquan; Guan, Jing; Wang, Gongze; Chen, Hao

    2011-11-01

    Infrared small target detection is an important research area of computer vision and often a key technique in Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems. Many algorithms have been reported for this purpose. The facet-based method is one of novel algorithms and is shown as robust and efficient, but it does not perform well in target preservation. The method cannot detect peripheral pixel of target, which causes information loss of target intensity distribution and affects post processing of detection, such as target tracking and recognition. In this paper an improved algorithm is developed for solving this shortcoming. The detection behavior of the facet model is further analyzed. Small target is surrounded by background, so local image edge that indicates target contour can be represented by zero-crossings of the second partial derivatives. The improved algorithm uses facet model to fit local intensity surface and detect potential targets using extremum theory, then the zero-crossings of the second partial derivatives of the fitting function in each potential target's neighborhood are found and the pixels inside the zero-crossing contour are restored to the potential target. In experiments involving typical infrared images target intensity distribution information is well preserved by proposed algorithm and its execution time is also acceptable.

  13. (100) facets of ?-Al2O3: the active surfaces for alcohol dehydration reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos

    2011-05-01

    Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on ?-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic active sites for alcohol dehydration reactions. Two high temperature (> 473 K) desorption features were observed following ethanol adsorption. Samples calcined at T?473 K displayed a desorption feature in the 523-533 K temperature range, while those calcined at T ? 673 K showed a single desorption feature at 498 K. The switch from the high to low temperature ethanol desorption correlated well with the dehydroxylation of the (100) facets of ?-Al2O3 that was predicted at 550 K DFT calculations. Theoretical DFT simulations of the mechanism of dehydration. on clean and hydroxylated ?-Al2O3(100) surfaces, find that a concerted elimination of ethylene from an ethanol molecule chemisorbed at an Al3+ pentacoordinated site is the rate limiting step for catalytic cycle on both surfaces. Furthermore, titration of the pentacoordinate Al3+ sites on the (100) facets of ?-Al2O3 by BaO completely turned off the methanol dehydration reaction activity. These results unambiguously demonstrate that only the (100) facets on ?-Al2O3 are the catalytic active surfaces for alcohol dehydration.

  14. Treating personality-relationship transactions with respect: narrow facets, advanced models, and extended time frames.

    PubMed

    Mund, Marcus; Neyer, Franz J

    2014-08-01

    Contrary to premises of dynamic transactionism, most studies investigating personality-relationship transaction only found personality effects on relationships but failed to find effects of relationship experiences on personality development. The current study reconsiders this issue in 3 ways. First, alongside the broad Big Five characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness), specific personality facets were considered to make comparisons with relationships more symmetric. Second, a recent extension of latent change modeling was applied allowing for a theoretically more appropriate model that compensates for the shortcomings of traditionally used cross-lagged panel or growth curve models. Third, personality-relationship transaction was studied from young adulthood to midlife using a 15-year longitudinal study with 654 German adults. Results showed patterns of personality-relationship transaction with the romantic partner, friends, kin, and other interaction partners. Specifically, the development of Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and their facets was closely interacting with partner and friend relationships, underlining the importance of these relationships for personality maturation during the adult years. We conclude that relationship effects have often been underestimated in previous studies. They are not bound to specific developmental periods, such as emerging adulthood, but their detection depends on the modeling approach and the analysis level (broad dimensions vs. facets). Relationship effects are most likely to occur in relationships that reflect self-selected life styles and circumstances. PMID:25090133

  15. Effects of ligand binding strength and facet coverage on the morphology of nanocrystal superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bealing, Clive; Hennig, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Nanocrystals (NCs) of lead-salt have been proposed for a number of photovoltaic applications. These NCs consist of an inorganic core, in the rock salt structure, whose surface is usually passivated by oleate ligands. The self-assembly of NCs from colloidal solutions into mesoscale superlattices provides a path to materials with tunable electronic, physical and chemical properties that are promising for applications. The self-assembly is controlled by the NC shape and by ligand-mediated interactions between NCs; to understand this, it is necessary to know the effect of the ligands on the surface energies, as well as the relative coverage of the different facets. Our density functional calculations of the binding energies of carboxylic acid-based ligands on PbSe and PbS show that the ligands exhibit a strong energetic preference to particular facets. The results suggest that the transformation of the NC superlattice structure from fcc to bcc in aged NC assemblies is caused by the preferential detachment of ligands from particular facets, leading to anisotropic ligand coverage. Combined with the experimental results, our calculations present a potential route to greater control over the morphology of the NC superlattice assembly. This work was supported by Award No. KUS-C1-018-02, made by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).

  16. Surface roughening and unstable neck formation in faceted particles. 2: Mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, B.W.; Rankin, J. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1999-07-01

    Unstable neck formation between two isolated particles was analyzed by considering the effects of both faceted and rounded (i.e., atomically rough'') surfaces. Mathematical descriptions of both neck growth and rupture are developed here. Calculations conducted with these formulations can explain the neck instability observed by Rankin and Boatner. The analysis and the experimental data suggest that the energy barrier associated with forming a new atomic layer on top of a faceted surface can restrict the shape evolution of a crystalline particle, even at moderately high temperatures. The analysis also indicates that this energy barrier can be overcome when the positive curvature which initially exists at a facet/rough surface boundary reverses as a result of neck growth. This latter effect offers an explanation for neck rupture which is consistent with the experimental results. In addition to providing an explanation for this phenomenon, the analyses presented here also demonstrate that surface phase boundaries and step energy barriers can have a significant effect on microstructure evolution during solid-state sintering.

  17. Nanoscale surface patterning by adsorbate-induced faceting and selective growth: NaCl on Cu(211)

    E-print Network

    Riemann, Andreas

    against lateral pattern formation on the nanometer scale. Cu(2 1 1) is a vicinal surface with (1 1 1 microscopy; Faceting; Surface structure, morphology, roughness, and topography; Copper; Alkali halides

  18. Catastrophic optical degradation of the output facet of high-power single-transverse-mode diode lasers. 1. Physical model

    SciTech Connect

    Miftakhutdinov, D R; Bogatov, Alexandr P; Drakin, A E [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-10

    The physical model of catastrophic optical degradation (COD) of the output facet of high-power single- transverse-mode diode lasers is developed. The model excels other models both in completeness of the physical analysis of the processes leading to COD and in allowance for design feature of lasers used to increase the COD threshold - protective coating of the output facet and current limitations near it. (lasers)

  19. Computational Investigation of the Thermochemistry and Kinetics of Steam Methane Reforming Over a MultiFaceted Nickel Catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Wayne Blaylock; Yi-An Zhu; William H. Green

    A microkinetic model of steam methane reforming over a multi-faceted nickel surface using plane-wave, periodic boundary condition\\u000a density functional theory is presented. The multi-faceted model consists of a Ni(111) surface, a Ni(100) surface, and nickel\\u000a step edge sites that are modeled as a Ni(211) surface. Flux and sensitivity analysis are combined to gain an increased understanding\\u000a of the important reactions,

  20. Universal Behavior of the Equilibrium Crystal Shape near the Facet Edge. I. A Generalized Terrace-Step-Kink Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Yamamoto; Yasuhiro Akutsu; Noriko Akutsu

    1988-01-01

    A generalized version of the terrace-step-kink (TSK) model is introduced to study in detail the shape of a crystal near the facet edge. The model is analyzed by the transfer-matrix method combined with the lattice fermion approach. As a result, behavior of the curvature near the facet edge is found to have unexpected new features: finite Gaussian curvature jump with

  1. New Joint Sealants. Criteria, Design and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    Contents include--(1) sealing concrete joints, (2) sealing glass and metal joints, (3) metal and glass joint sealants from a fabricator's viewpoint, (4) a theory of adhesion for joint sealants, (5) geometry of simple joint seals under strain, (6) joint sealant specifications from a manufacturer's viewpoint, (7) joint sealant requirements from an…

  2. Joint for deployable structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

  3. Joints in a Cornstarch Analog

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juliet Crider

    Joints are very important to problems in applied geology (fluid flow, slope stability), but three-dimensional exposures of simple joint sets are not readily accessible from my campus. I developed this exercise based on the experiments of Miller (2001) to give students hands-on practice describing and interpreting joints. For the exercise, I prepare a cornstarch-water mixture a few days in advance and pour it into plastic petri dishes. I add a "flaw" to each dish (typically a small pebble). As the cornstarch dries, vertical joints develop. In class, each group of 3-4 students is provided a petri dish of desiccated cornstarch. Students are asked to draw a map of the joints, paying particular attention to intersection angles. (The joints curve to intersect at 90 degrees.) They determine relative ages of the joints using abutting relationships. (Typically 3-6 generations of joints.) Students next dissect the sample and describe the surface textures of the larger joints and the location of the flaw. The cornstarch produces beautiful plumose structure (hackles). Students then interpret the joint propagation direction from the surface textures, and note the origin of the joint. (Typically, a first- or second-generation joint initiates at the flaw.) Students discuss the role of flaws in the initiation of joints in their groups.

  4. Clad metal joint closure

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, O.W.

    1985-04-09

    A plasma arc spray overlay of cladding metals is used over joints between clad metal pieces to provide a continuous cladding metal surface. The technique permits applying an overlay of a high melting point cladding metal to a cladding metal surface without excessive heating of the backing metal.

  5. CARTILAGE, BONES, AND JOINTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cartilage is a special type of connective tissue that is of extreme importance in embryonic development, serving as the model upon which true bone is later formed. Cartilage also persists in adult animals, primarily as articular cartilage which cushions the interface between adjacent bones or joint...

  6. Joint publication: Department of

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    century. The first law to protect consumers was passed in 1906, and Charles Dadant is credited with getJoint publication: Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services University of Florida Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services 1911 SW 34 Street PO Box 147100 Gainesville, FL

  7. Dolphin Skeleton (Gliding Joint)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; )

    2007-07-14

    The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

  8. Joint Honours AFRICAN STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    : The Joint Honours African Studies degree programme at Birmingham is broad, combining arts and social Office - Retail management - Aid work with Save the Children - Probation work - Welfare rights worker - Computer programmer - NGO work in Kurdistan - Work with adults who have learning disabilities - Research

  9. Joint Institute Marine and Atmospheric

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research NATIONALOCEA NIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION Contribution 00-328 #12;ii This research is funded by Cooperative Agreement Number NA67RJ0154 between the Joint

  10. Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion: one-year outcomes in 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Donald; Capobianco, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Background. SI joint pain is difficult to diagnose due to overlapping symptoms of the lumbar spine, and until recently, treatment options have been limited. The purpose of this retrospective study is to report on the safety and effectiveness of MIS SI joint arthrodesis using a series of triangular, porous plasma coated implants in patients refractory to conservative care. Methods. We report on the first 40 consecutive patients with one-year follow-up data that underwent MIS SI joint fusion with the iFuse Implant System (SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA) by a single surgeon. Medical charts were reviewed for demographics, perioperative metrics, complications, pain scores, and satisfaction. Results. Mean age was 58 years (range 30-81) and 75% of patients were female. Postoperative complications were minimal and included transient trochanteric bursitis (5%), facet joint pain (20%), and new low back pain (2.5%). There were no reoperations at one year. Mean pain score improved from 8.7 (1.5 SD) at baseline to 0.9 (1.6) at 12 months, a 7.8-point improvement (P < .001). Patient satisfaction was very high. Conclusions. The results of this case series reveal that MIS SI joint fusion using the iFuse Implant System is a safe and effective treatment option in carefully selected patients. PMID:23997957

  11. Cellular Pressure-Actuated Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    A modification of a pressure-actuated joint has been proposed to improve its pressure actuation in such a manner as to reduce the potential for leakage of the pressurizing fluid. The specific joint for which the modification is proposed is a field joint in a reusable solid-fuel rocket motor (RSRM), in which the pressurizing fluid is a mixture of hot combustion gases. The proposed modification could also be applicable to other pressure-actuated joints of similar configuration.

  12. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  13. Phase 1 Program Joint Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nield, George C. (Editor); Vorobiev, Pavel Mikhailovich (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This report consists of inputs from each of the Phase I Program Joint Working Groups. The Working Groups were tasked to describe the organizational structure and work processes that they used during the program, joint accomplishments, lessons learned, and applications to the International Space Station Program. This report is a top-level joint reference document that contains information of interest to both countries.

  14. Joint Communiqu Progress against the

    E-print Network

    1 Joint Communiqué Progress against the Joint Statement of Cooperation between Kalimantan Timur the Joint Statement of Cooperation of 16 September 2010 designed to develop closer ties between Kalimantan the following areas: Livestock Following the 2010 Livestock Workshop held in Balikpapan, a Kalimantan Timur

  15. Joint Seminar UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lily

    Joint Seminar UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS DEPARTMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY longitudinal covariates are involved in the modeling of the survival data. A joint likelihood approach has been data. However, in the presence of left truncation, there are additional challenges for the joint

  16. JOINT PERFORMANCE Guide for Optimum

    E-print Network

    July 2012 JOINT PERFORMANCE Guide for Optimum of Concrete Pavements #12; #12;Guide for Optimum Joint Performance of Concrete Pavements i Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2. Report Date Guide for Optimum Joint Performance of Concrete Pavements July 2012 6. Performing

  17. Faceting via correlated disorder of a stochastically growing interface or domain boundary 

    E-print Network

    Lyuksyutov, Igor F.; Everts, HU.

    1998-01-01

    superconductor with so-called columnar ~correlated! dis- order. We discuss this relation briefly in Sec. V. Faceting via correlated disorder of a stochasticall Igor F. Lyuksyuto Department of Physics, Texas A&M University H.-U. Institut fu?r Theoretische... analysis ~see, Refs. 23, 22, and 17!. Consider a region with characteristic scale r . From Eq. ~4! we conclude that h scales with r as h}rx, and the nonlinear term in the modified KPZ equation @Eq. ~1!# as u?hu2}r2x22. According to Eq. ~3!, the integral...

  18. Final Report for the "Fusion Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R; Kruger, Scott

    2014-10-02

    The FACETS project over its lifetime developed the first self-consistent core-edge coupled capabilities, a new transport solver for modeling core transport in tokamak cores, developed a new code for modeling wall physics over long time scales, and significantly improved the capabilities and performance of legacy components, UEDGE, NUBEAM, GLF23, GYRO, and BOUT++. These improved capabilities leveraged the team’s expertise in applied mathematics (solvers and algorithms) and computer science (performance improvements and language interoperability). The project pioneered new methods for tackling the complexity of simulating the concomitant complexity of tokamak experiments.

  19. Coadsorption of lithium and oxygen on W(1 1 2): nanosized facets versus single crystals.

    PubMed

    Suchorski, Y; Hupalo, M S

    2011-05-01

    Coadsorption of lithium and oxygen on a nanosized W-tip is studied using field ion appearance energy spectroscopy (FIAES). Binding energies of coadsorbed Li-adatoms are derived locally for chosen atomic sites on (1 1 2) facets for different oxygen and Li-coverages. Independently, the binding energies of Li-adatoms in coadsorbed Li/oxygen layers are determined for macroscopic W(1 1 2) single crystal samples from the adsorption isobars in adsorption-desorption equilibrium experiments and compared with the local nm-scale measurements. The comparison reveals a very good agreement of results obtained by two different methods on differing length scales. PMID:21664538

  20. Reflections on the four facets of symmetry: how physics exemplifies rational thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchet, Amaury

    2013-12-01

    In contemporary theoretical physics, the powerful notion of symmetry stands for a web of intricate meanings among which I identify four clusters associated with the notion of transformation, comprehension, invariance and projection. While their interrelations are examined closely these four facets of symmetry are scrutinised one after the other in great detail. This decomposition allows us to carefully examine the multiple different roles symmetry plays in many places in physics. Furthermore, some connections with other disciplines like neurobiology, epistemology, cognitive sciences and, not least, philosophy are proposed in an attempt to show that symmetry can be an organising principle also in these fields.

  1. 47 CFR 76.912 - Joint certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...912 Joint certification. (a) Franchising authorities may apply for joint...data collection, and ratemaking. Franchising authorities jointly certified to regulate...independent rate decisions. (b) Franchising authorities may apply for joint...

  2. 47 CFR 76.912 - Joint certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...912 Joint certification. (a) Franchising authorities may apply for joint...data collection, and ratemaking. Franchising authorities jointly certified to regulate...independent rate decisions. (b) Franchising authorities may apply for joint...

  3. Joint Degrees & Promotion towards European Students

    E-print Network

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    Joint Degrees & Promotion towards European Students 26 June 2014 MATTEA CAPELLI & ALESSANDRA GALLERANO INTERNATIONAL OFFICE #12;Joint Degrees and Promotion towards European students Joint degrees guidelines and template for agreements Support to student participation Promotion of Joint Degrees towards

  4. Facet-dependent stripping behavior of cu2 o microcrystals toward lead ions: a rational design for the determination of lead ions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Gang; Sun, Yu-Feng; Chen, Wen-Kai; Kong, Yuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Xing; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Facet-dependent stripping behavior in the determination of Pb(II): Well-defined Cu2 O microcrystals with different structures show facet-dependent electrochemical behaviors toward heavy metal ions. This provides an important insight into the understanding the efficiency of facet-dependent properties of microcrystals on electroanalytical performance for the rational design of electrochemical analytical techniques for efficient detection of heavy metal ions. PMID:25630388

  5. Broad bandwidth or high fidelity? Evidence from the structure of genetic and environmental effects on the facets of the five factor model.

    PubMed

    Briley, Daniel A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2012-09-01

    The Five Factor Model of personality is well-established at the phenotypic level, but much less is known about the coherence of the genetic and environmental influences within each personality domain. Univariate behavioral genetic analyses have consistently found the influence of additive genes and nonshared environment on multiple personality facets, but the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on specific facets reflect more general influences on higher order factors is less clear. We applied a multivariate quantitative-genetic approach to scores on the CPI-Big Five facets for 490 monozygotic and 317 dizygotic twins who took part in the National Merit Twin Study. Our results revealed a complex genetic structure for facets composing all five factors, with both domain-general and facet-specific genetic and environmental influences. For three of the Big Five domains, models that required common genetic and environmental influences on each facet to occur by way of effects on a higher order trait did not fit as well as models allowing for common genetic and environmental effects to act directly on the facets. These results add to the growing body of literature indicating that important variation in personality occurs at the facet level which may be overshadowed by aggregating to the trait level. Research at the facet level, rather than the factor level, is likely to have pragmatic advantages in future research on the genetics of personality. PMID:22695681

  6. Achieving joint benefits from joint implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moomaw, W.R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) appears to have been born with Applied Energy Services Guatemala project in 1988. That project, to plant 52 million trees, protect existing forests from cutting and fire, and enhance rural development, is being implemented by CARE Guatemala to offset 120 per cent of the emissions of a small coal burning power plant that has been built in Connecticut. Since that time, several utilities and governments have initiated additional projects. Not all of these necessarily consist of tree planting in other countries, but may consist of energy efficiency or energy conservation programs designed to reduce carbon emissions by at least as much as the additional releases from a new facility. All JI projects share the characteristic of linking the release of greenhouse gases in an industrial country with an offset that reduces or absorbs a comparable amount in another country. The emitter in the industrial country is willing to pay for the reduction elsewhere because costs are less than they would be at home.

  7. Laboratory characterization of rock joints

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1994-05-01

    A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed.

  8. Collective and joint intention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimo Tuomela; Joint Intentions

    2000-01-01

    The paper discussed and analyzes collective and joint intentions of various strength. Thus there are subjectively shared collective\\u000a intentions and intersubjectively shared collective intentions as well as collective intentions which are objectively and intersubjectively\\u000a shared. The distinction between collective and private intentions is considered from several points of view. Especially, it\\u000a is emphasized that collective intentions in the full sense

  9. Joint measurements and Bell inequalities

    E-print Network

    Wonmin Son; Erika Andersson; Stephem M. Barnett; M. S. Kim

    2005-09-20

    Joint quantum measurements of non-commuting observables are possible, if one accepts an increase in the measured variances. A necessary condition for a joint measurement to be possible is that a joint probability distribution exists for the measurement. This fact suggests that there may be a link with Bell inequalities, as these will be satisfied if and only if a joint probability distribution for all involved observables exists. We investigate the connections between Bell inequalities and conditions for joint quantum measurements to be possible. Mermin's inequality for the three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state turns out to be equivalent to the condition for a joint measurement on two out of the three quantum systems to exist. Gisin's Bell inequality for three co-planar measurement directions, meanwhile, is shown to be less strict than the condition for the corresponding joint measurement.

  10. Highly exposed {001} facets of titanium dioxide modified with reduced graphene oxide for dopamine sensing.

    PubMed

    How, Gregory Thien Soon; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Ming, Huang Nay; Ngee, Lim Hong

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) with highly exposed {001} facets was synthesized through a facile solvo-thermal method and its surface was decorated by using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The morphology and chemical composition of the prepared rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite were examined by using suitable characterization techniques. The rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE), which showed higher electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA), when compared to unmodified GCE. The differential pulse voltammetric studies revealed good sensitivity and selectivity nature of the rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite modified GCE for the detection of DA in the presence of AA. The modified GCE exhibited a low electrochemical detection limit of 6??M over the linear range of 2-60??M. Overall, this work provides a simple platform for the development of GCE modified with rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite with highly exposed {001} facets for potential electrochemical sensing applications. PMID:24853929

  11. Highly exposed {001} facets of titanium dioxide modified with reduced graphene oxide for dopamine sensing

    PubMed Central

    How, Gregory Thien Soon; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Ming, Huang Nay; Ngee, Lim Hong

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) with highly exposed {001} facets was synthesized through a facile solvo-thermal method and its surface was decorated by using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The morphology and chemical composition of the prepared rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite were examined by using suitable characterization techniques. The rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE), which showed higher electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA), when compared to unmodified GCE. The differential pulse voltammetric studies revealed good sensitivity and selectivity nature of the rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite modified GCE for the detection of DA in the presence of AA. The modified GCE exhibited a low electrochemical detection limit of 6??M over the linear range of 2–60??M. Overall, this work provides a simple platform for the development of GCE modified with rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite with highly exposed {001} facets for potential electrochemical sensing applications. PMID:24853929

  12. Development of a new modelling tool (FACET) to assess exposure to chemical migrants from food packaging.

    PubMed

    Oldring, P K T; O'Mahony, C; Dixon, J; Vints, M; Mehegan, J; Dequatre, C; Castle, L

    2014-01-01

    The approach used to obtain European Union-wide data on the usage and concentration of substances in different food packaging materials is described. Statistics were collected on pack sizes and market shares for the different materials used to package different food groups. The packaging materials covered were plastics (both flexible and rigid), metal containers, light metal packaging, paper and board, as well as the adhesives and inks used on them. An explanation as to how these data are linked in various ways in the FACET exposure modelling tool is given as well as an overview of the software along with examples of the intermediate tables of data. The example of bisphenol A (BPA), used in resins that may be incorporated into some coatings for canned foodstuffs, is used to illustrate how the data in FACET are combined to produce concentration distributions. Such concentration distributions are then linked probabilistically to the amounts of each food item consumed, as recorded in national food consumption survey diaries, in order to estimate exposure to packaging migrants. Estimates of exposure are at the level of the individual consumer and thus can be expressed for various percentiles of different populations and subpopulations covered by the national dietary surveys. PMID:24215584

  13. Pathways toward unidirectional alignment in block copolymer thin films on faceted surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunkel, Ilja; Gu, Xiaodan; Sarje, Abhinav; Hexemer, Alexander; Russell, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has been shown recently to be an effective means to produce long-range lateral order in block copolymer (BCP) thin films in relatively short times. Furthermore, using substrates with faceted surfaces allows for generating unidirectionally aligned BCP microdomains on the size scale of an entire wafer. While in recent years SVA has been largely demystified, the detailed pathways toward obtaining unidirectional alignment still remain unclear. Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is a very powerful tool for characterizing the structure and morphology of BCPs in thin films, and is particularly useful for studying structural changes in BCP thin films during SVA. We here present in situ GISAXS experiments on cylinder-forming PS-b-P2VP BCP thin films on faceted Sapphire substrates during annealing in THF. We show that the degree of alignment of cylindrical microdomains is greatly enhanced at solvent concentrations close to the order-disorder transition of the copolymer. Furthermore, we observed that inducing disorder by further increasing the solvent concentration and subsequent quenching to the ordered (not yet glassy) state induced the highest degree of alignment with nearly unidirectional alignment of the microdomains in less than 30 min.

  14. Oligoethylene-bridged diferrocene on Ag(110): Monolayer structures and adsorbate-induced faceting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, D. Y.; Fuchs, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany) and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech), Universitaet Muenster, Heisenbergstrasse 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, W. C.; Dou, R. F.; Chi, L. F. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, 48149 Muenster, Germany and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech), Universitaet Muenster, Heisenbergstrasse 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Wedeking, K.; Erker, G. [Organisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 40, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The self-assembly of a ferrocene (Fc) derivative, oligoethylene-bridged diferrocene (diFc), Fc(CH{sub 2}){sub 14}Fc, on Ag(110) surface has been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) under ultrahigh vacuum. Three ordered structures, the majority {beta} and the minorities {alpha} and {gamma}, are formed at monolayer coverage. In {alpha} and {gamma}, a unit cell contains one molecule and the molecules are parallel to each other so that the distances between Fc groups and between oligoethylene chains are reduced. A unit cell contains five molecules in {beta}: four of them are parallel to each other but not parallel to the fifth. The interaction between diFc and Ag(110), which is relatively strong in comparison to the intermolecular interaction, is dominant for the assembly of the ordered structures. The adsorption of diFc molecules induces the reorganization of substrate steps, which prefer to follow the directions of the superstructure lattice vectors, i.e. ({+-}1,2) and ({+-}3,2) of the Ag(110) surface. The (12 13-1) facet is formed due to step bunching at regions with high step density. By using in situ STM, the process of step reorganization and faceting has been observed in real time. It is concluded that the Ag adatoms play a key role on the substrate reorganization.

  15. Problem of Time: Temporal Relationalism Compatibility of Other Local Classical Facets Completed

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Temporal Relationalism (TR) is that there is no time for the universe as a whole at the primary level. Time emerges rather at a secondary level; one compelling idea for this is Mach's `time is to be abstracted from change'. TR leads to, and better explains, the well-known Frozen Formalism Problem encountered in GR at the quantum level. Indeed, abstraction from change is a type of emergent time resolution of this.Moreover, the Frozen Formalism Problem is but one of the many Problem of Time facets, which are furthermore notoriously interconnected. The other local and already classically present facets are as follows. 2) The GR Thin Sandwich involves a subcase of Best Matching, which is one particular implementation of Configurational Relationalism. 3) The Constraint Closure Problem, 4) the Problem of Observables or Beables, 5) Spacetime Relationalism, 6) the Spacetime Construction Problem, and 7) the Foliation Dependence Problem as resolved in classical GR by Refoliation Invariance. In this Article, I bring tog...

  16. Problem of Time: Temporal Relationalism Compatibility of Other Local Classical Facets Completed

    E-print Network

    Edward Anderson

    2015-06-11

    Temporal Relationalism (TR) is that there is no time for the universe as a whole at the primary level. Time emerges rather at a secondary level; one compelling idea for this is Mach's `time is to be abstracted from change'. TR leads to, and better explains, the well-known Frozen Formalism Problem encountered in GR at the quantum level. Indeed, abstraction from change is a type of emergent time resolution of this.Moreover, the Frozen Formalism Problem is but one of the many Problem of Time facets, which are furthermore notoriously interconnected. The other local and already classically present facets are as follows. 2) The GR Thin Sandwich involves a subcase of Best Matching, which is one particular implementation of Configurational Relationalism. 3) The Constraint Closure Problem, 4) the Problem of Observables or Beables, 5) Spacetime Relationalism, 6) the Spacetime Construction Problem, and 7) the Foliation Dependence Problem as resolved in classical GR by Refoliation Invariance. In this Article, I bring together the individual classical resolutions of these, and how these can be rendered compatible with TR. Having covered that in detail for 2) to 6) elsewhere, the rest of the current Article is dedicated to the detailed form that 7) and its TR compatible modification takes. I.e. I consider TR implementing foliations, the TR versions of Refoliation Invariance and the associated TR version of hypersurface kinematics and hypersurface deformations. These require a TR counterpart of the Arnowitt--Deser--Misner split.

  17. Self-assembly of faceted particles triggered by a moving ice front.

    PubMed

    Bouville, Florian; Maire, Eric; Deville, Sylvain

    2014-07-29

    The possibility to align and organize faceted particles in the bulk offers intriguing possibilities for the design and discovery of materials and architectures exhibiting novel functional properties. The growth of ice crystals can be used to trigger the self-assembly of large, anisotropic particles and consequently to obtain three-dimensional porous materials of large dimensions in a limited amount of time. These mechanisms have not been explored so far due to the difficulty to experimentally investigate these systems. Here we elucidate the self-assembly mechanisms of faceted particles driven by ice growth by a combination of X-ray holotomography and discrete element modeling, providing insights into both the dynamics of self-assembly and their final packing. The encapsulation of particles is the result of a delicate balance between the force exerted by the percolating network of concentrated particles and the force exerted by the moving interface. We illustrate the benefits of such self-assembly for thermal management composite materials. PMID:24432973

  18. Pseudocapacitive hausmannite nanoparticles with (101) facets: synthesis, characterization, and charge-transfer mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yeager, Matthew P; Du, Wenxin; Wang, Qi; Deskins, N Aaron; Sullivan, Matthew; Bishop, Brendan; Su, Dong; Xu, Wenqian; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Si, Rui; Hanson, Jonathan; Teng, Xiaowei

    2013-10-01

    Hausmannite Mn3 O4 octahedral nanoparticles of 18.3 ± 7.0 nm with (101) facets have been prepared by an oxygen-mediated growth. The electrochemical properties of the Mn3 O4 particles as pseudocapacitive cathode materials were characterized both in half-cells and in button-cells. The Mn3 O4 nanoparticles exhibited a high mass-specific capacitance of 261 F g(-1), which was calculated from cyclic voltammetry analyses, and a capacitive retention of 78% after 10,000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The charge-transfer mechanisms of the Mn3 O4 nanoparticles were further studied by using synchrotron-based in situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy and XRD. Both measurements showed concurrently that throughout the potential window of 0-1.2?V (vs. Ag/AgCl), a stable spinel structure of Mn3 O4 remained, and a reversible electrochemical conversion between tetrahedral [Mn(II) O4 ] and octahedral [Mn(III) O6 ] units accounted for the redox activity. Density functional theory calculations further corroborated this mechanism by confirming the enhanced redox stability afforded by the abundant and exposed (101) facets of Mn3 O4 octahedra. PMID:23650213

  19. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOEpatents

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  20. Multi-facet concentrator of solar setup for irradiating the objects placed in a target plane with solar light

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Yampolskiy, Vladislav (Moscow, RU); Alekseev, Valerie (Moscow, RU); Son, Valentin (Moscow, RU)

    2001-01-01

    According to the proposed invention, this technical result is achieved so that many-facet concentrator of a solar setup for exposure of objects, placed in a target plane, to the action of solar radiation containing a supporting frame and facets differing by that the facets of the concentrator are chosen with spherical focusing reflective surfaces of equal focal lengths and with selective coatings reflecting a desired spectral fraction of solar radiation, and are arranged on the supporting frame symmetrically with respect to the common axis of the concentrator, their optical axes being directed to the single point on the optical axis of the concentrator located before the nominal focus point of the concentrator and determining the position of arranging the target plane.

  1. A 3D implementation of ray tracing combined with diffraction on facets: Verification and a potential application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Adrian J. M.; Hesse, Evelyn; Ulanowski, Zbigniew; Kaye, Paul H.

    2006-07-01

    A 3D implementation of a new model of light scattering applicable to dielectric faceted objects is introduced. The model combines standard geometric optics with diffraction on individual facets. It can be applied to any faceted geometry. The model adds no significant computational overheads to classical geometric optics yet provides much improved results. Initial results for long hexagonal columns are compared to SVM and appear favourable. 2D scattering patterns are calculated for a hexagonal column in a fixed orientation and compared to those created by ice analogue crystals in the laboratory with close agreement. The comparison includes the observation of a guided wave propagating along the length of the column. The new model is then applied to a selection of geometries to illustrate how it could be used to aid particle characterization, particularly in the case of cirrus ice.

  2. Application of combined EBSD and 3D-SEM technique on crystallographic facet analysis of steel at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, P; Solberg, J K; Karlsen, M; Akselsen, O M; Ostby, E

    2013-07-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction has been increasingly used to identify the crystallographic planes and orientation of cleavage facets with respect to the rolling direction in fracture surfaces. The crystallographic indices of cleavage planes can be determined either directly from the fracture surface or indirectly from metallographic sections perpendicular to the plane of the fracture surface. A combination of electron backscatter diffraction and 3D scanning electron microscopy imaging technique has been modified to determine crystallographic facet orientations. The main purpose of this work has been to identify the macroscopic crystallographic orientations of cleavage facets in the fracture surfaces of weld heat affected zones in a well-known steel fractured at low temperatures. The material used for the work was an American Petroleum Institute (API) X80 grade steel developed for applications at low temperatures, and typical heat affected zone microstructures were obtained by carrying out weld thermal simulation. The fracture toughness was measured at different temperatures (0°C, -30°C, -60°C and -90°C) by using Crack Tip Opening Displacement testing. Fracture surfaces and changes in microstructure were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Crystallographic orientations were identified by electron backscatter diffraction, indirectly from a polished section perpendicular to the major fracture surface of the samples. Computer assisted 3D imaging was used to measure the angles between the cleavage facets and the adjacent polished surface, and then these angles were combined with electron backscatter diffraction measurements to determine the macroscopic crystallographic planes of the facets. The crystallographic indices of the macroscopic cleavage facet planes were identified to be {100}, {110}, {211} and {310} at all temperatures. PMID:23692572

  3. Integrating Actionable User-defined Faceted Rules into the Hybrid Science Data System for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manipon, G. J. M.; Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Sacco, G. F.; Agram, P. S.; Moore, A. W.; Yun, S. H.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Rosen, P. A.; Webb, F.; Liu, Z.; Smith, A. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Simons, M.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Hybrid Science Data System (HySDS) scalably powers the ingestion, metadata extraction, cataloging, high-volume data processing, and publication of the geodetic data products for the Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis for Monitoring Hazard (ARIA-MH) project at JPL. HySDS uses a heterogeneous set of worker nodes from private & public clouds as well as virtual & bare-metal machines to perform every aspect of the traditional science data system. For our science data users, the forefront of HySDS is the facet search interface, FacetView, which allows them to browse, filter, and access the published products. Users are able to explore the collection of product metadata information and apply multiple filters to constrain the result set down to their particular interests. It allows them to download these faceted products for further analysis and generation of derived products. However, we have also employed a novel approach to faceting where it is also used to apply constraints for custom monitoring of products, system resources, and triggers for automated data processing. The power of the facet search interface is well documented across various domains and its usefulness is rooted in the current state of existence of metadata. However, user needs usually extend beyond what is currently present in the data system. A user interested in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over Kilauea will download them from FacetView but would also want email notification of future incoming scenes. The user may even want that data pushed to a remote workstation for automated processing. Better still, these future products could trigger HySDS to run the user's analysis on its array of worker nodes, on behalf of the user, and ingest the resulting derived products. We will present our findings in integrating an ancillary, user-defined, system-driven processing system for HySDS that allows users to define faceted rules based on facet constraints and triggers actions when new SAR data products arrive that match the constraints. We will discuss use cases where users have defined rules for the automated generation of InSAR derived products: interferograms for California and Kilauea, time-series analyses, and damage proxy maps. These findings are relevant for science data system development of the proposed NASA-ISRO SAR mission.

  4. On representations for joint moments using a joint coordinate system.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Oliver M; Sena, Mark P; Feeley, Brian T; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-01

    In studies of the biomechanics of joints, the representation of moments using the joint coordinate system has been discussed by several authors. The primary purpose of this technical brief is to emphasize that there are two distinct, albeit related, representations for moment vectors using the joint coordinate system. These distinct representations are illuminated by exploring connections between the Euler and dual Euler bases, the "nonorthogonal projections" presented in a recent paper by Desroches et al. (2010, "Expression of Joint Moment in the Joint Coordinate System," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 132(11), p. 11450) and seminal works by Grood and Suntay (Grood and Suntay, 1983, "A Joint Coordinate System for the Clinical Description of Three-Dimensional Motions: Application to the Knee," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 105(2), pp. 136-144) and Fujie et al. (1996, "Forces and Moment in Six-DOF at the Human Knee Joint: Mathematical Description for Control," Journal of Biomechanics, 29(12), pp. 1577-1585) on the knee joint. It is also shown how the representation using the dual Euler basis leads to straightforward definition of joint stiffnesses. PMID:24008987

  5. Posttraumatic Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, Helen E.; Quinn, Peter D.; Granquist, Eric; Chou, Joli C.

    2009-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has many essential functions. None of its components are exempt from injury. Facial asymmetry, malocclusion, disturbances in growth, osteoarthritis, and ankylosis can manifest as complications from trauma to the TMJ. The goals of initial treatment include achievement of pretraumatic function, restoration of facial symmetry, and resolution of pain. These same objectives hold true for late repairs and reconstruction of the TMJ apparatus. Treatment is demanding, and with opposing approaches. The following article explores various treatment options for problems presenting as a result of a history of trauma to the TMJ. PMID:22110802

  6. Joint bone radiobiology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Tomich, P.A. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The Joint Bone Radiobiology Workshop was held on July 12--13, 1991 in Toronto, Canada. This document contains the papers presented at the meeting. The five sections were: Dose-effects, Endogenous Cofactors, Tumorigenesis, New Methods and Medical Implications. The papers covered risk assessment, tissue distribution of radionuclides, lifetime studies, biological half-lifes, the influence of age at time of exposure, tumor induction by different radionuclides, microscopic localization of radionuclides, and nuclear medicine issues including tissue distribution in the skeleton and bone marrow transplantation. (MHB)

  7. Patellofemoral Joint Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stalker, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Knee pain is a common presenting complaint by athletes and the general population. Disorders of the patellofemoral joint are responsible for most of these disorders. Abnormal patellar tracking is thought to be the principal cause. Patellar tracking is influenced by a number of dynamic and static factors. These can be assessed with a careful history and physical examination. A treatment program can be designed to alter the precipitating factors. Lower-extremity malalignment, principally hyperpronation of the foot, is believed to be a major cause of abnormal patellar tracking. Conservative treatment programs have had successful results, and less emphasis is now being placed on surgical procedures. PMID:21263850

  8. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ). It reviews the anatomy of the jaw, plus symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment options for TMJ disorders. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  9. Bladder operated robotic joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a robotic joint which is operated by inflatable bladders and which can be used in applications where it is desired to move or hold an object. A support block supports an elongated plate to which is pivotally attached a finger. A tension strip passes over a lever attached to the finger and is attached at its ends to the support block on opposite sides of the plate. Bladders positioned between the plate and the tension strip on opposite sides of the plate can be inflated by pumps to pivot the finger, with one of the bladders being inflated while the other is being deflated.

  10. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, John V. (Livonia, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

    1991-01-01

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

  11. Strength of Welded Aircraft Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueggeman, W C

    1937-01-01

    This investigation is a continuation of work started in 1928 and described in NACA-TR-348 which shows that the insertion of gusset plates was the most satisfactory way of strengthening a joint. Additional tests of the present series show that joints of this type could be improved by cutting out the portion of the plate between the intersecting tubes. T and lattice joints in thin-walled tubing 1 1/2 by 0.020 inch have somewhat lower strengths than joints in tubing of greater wall thickness because of failure by local buckling. In welding the thin-walled tubing, the recently developed "carburizing flux" process was found to be the only method capable of producing joints free from cracks. The "magnetic powder" inspection was used to detect cracks in the joints and flaws in the tubing.

  12. OIG targets contractual joint ventures.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Patrick K

    2003-09-01

    A recent OIG Special Advisory Bulletin raises questions for providers involved in joint ventures. The Bulletin describes several characteristics that the OIG views as potentially suspect, including a referral stream controlled by the provider initiating the joint venture and the use of a wholly owned subsidiary of the provider to bill and collect for services. According to the OIG, profits paid by the subsidiary to the provider owner in such "suspect contractual joint ventures" could constitute illegal remuneration for referrals. PMID:14503145

  13. The Facets of Empowerment in Solution-Focused Brief Therapy for Lower-Status Married Women in Taiwan: An Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Su Hsu

    2009-01-01

    Empowerment is an essential component of therapy. Since SFBT is an empowerment approach, it is vital to explore what kinds of facets of empowerment are generated from SFBT sessions. Nine low-status married women in Taiwan participated as clients in this study. The researcher coded and compared the rates of 20 facets of empowerment from 32 verbatim counseling transcripts of clients'

  14. In-Situ TEM Observation of Crystal-Facet-Dependent Self-Rearranging Gold Atoms Under Tensile Stress Controlled by MEMS Nanoprobe Positioner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Ishida; Kuniyuki Kakushima; Makoto Mita; Hiroshi Toshiyoshi; Hiroyuki Fujita

    2007-01-01

    We have newly observed the gold atom migration and rearrangement at the artificially made point contact in a well controlled manner using microactuated probes with nano positioning accuracy. In-situ TEM observation revealed that the initial gold facet before contact strongly influences the shape of a nanobridge during the tensile test. Crystallographic facets of (211 macr), (101 macr) and (110 macr)

  15. www.stke.org/cgi/content/full/sigtrans;2004/239/re9 Page 1 Apoptosis plays important roles in many facets of nor-

    E-print Network

    Gauthier, Eric

    and nuclear fragmentation (pyknosis), plasma membrane blebbing, and cell shrinkage. Eventually, the cell facets of nor- mal physiology in animal species, including pro- grammed cell death associated with fetal is a type of cell death that plays important roles in many facets of normal physiology in animal species (1

  16. Joint custody: solution or illusion?

    PubMed

    Benedek, E P; Benedek, R S

    1979-12-01

    Although the phrase "joint custody" is in popular use, the concept lacks standard definitin; parents who express interest in this form of disposition have widely differing objectives and expectations. The authors discuss the need for determining the primary objectives of the parties involved and for exploring the potential for achieving these through joint custody as well as through other alternatives. They examine the benefits of joint custody as well as the risks engendered by this type of arrangement and make a number of specific recommendations. They conclude that joint custody should be considered and explored, together with other available alternatives, and awarded only in appropriate cases. PMID:507203

  17. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints 

    E-print Network

    Pendelton, Alice Mae

    2009-05-15

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. ...

  18. Metacarpophalangeal joint arthroscopy: indications revisited.

    PubMed

    Choi, Alexander K Y; Chow, Esther C S; Ho, P C; Chow, Y Y

    2011-08-01

    Arthroscopic surgery has become the gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of major joint disorders. With advancement in arthroscopic technique, arthroscopy has become feasible in most human joints, even those as small as the finger joints. The metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) can become spacious with simple traction, the intra-articular anatomy is simple, and its major structures can be easily visualized and identified. However, MCPJ arthroscopy has never been popular. This article describes our experience with MCPJ arthroscopy and seeks to establish its role in clinical practice. PMID:21871361

  19. Rotary Joint for Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shauback, R.

    1986-01-01

    Rotary joint exchanges heat between two heat pipes - one rotating and one stationary. Joint accommodates varying heat loads with little temperature drop across interface. According to concept, heat pipe enters center of disklike stationary section of joint. There, wicks in central artery of heat pipe separate into multiple strands that lead to concentric channels on rotaryinterface side of stationary disk. Thin layer of liquid sodium/potassium alloy carries heat from one member of rotary joint to other. Liquid conducts heat efficiently while permitting relative motion between members. Polypropylene rings contain liquid without interfering with rotation.

  20. Jointly Sponsored Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Everett A. Sondreal; John G. Hendrikson; Thomas A. Erickson

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40321 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying highly efficient, nonpolluting energy systems that meet the nation's requirements for clean fuels, chemicals, and electricity in the 21st century. The EERC in partnership with its nonfederal partners jointly performed 131 JSRP projects for which the total DOE cost share was $22,716,634 (38%) and the nonfederal share was $36,776,573 (62%). Summaries of these projects are presented in this report for six program areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, and (6) advanced materials. The work performed under this agreement addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration; near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources.

  1. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  2. Joint collaborative technology experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Michael; Ciccimaro, Donny; Yee, See; Denewiler, Thomas; Stroumtsos, Nicholas; Messamore, John; Brown, Rodney; Skibba, Brian; Clapp, Daniel; Wit, Jeff; Shirts, Randy J.; Dion, Gary N.; Anselmo, Gary S.

    2009-05-01

    Use of unmanned systems is rapidly growing within the military and civilian sectors in a variety of roles including reconnaissance, surveillance, explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), and force-protection and perimeter security. As utilization of these systems grows at an ever increasing rate, the need for unmanned systems teaming and inter-system collaboration becomes apparent. Collaboration provides a means of enhancing individual system capabilities through relevant data exchange that contributes to cooperative behaviors between systems and enables new capabilities not possible if the systems operate independently. A collaborative networked approach to development holds the promise of adding mission capability while simultaneously reducing the workload of system operators. The Joint Collaborative Technology Experiment (JCTE) joins individual technology development efforts within the Air Force, Navy, and Army to demonstrate the potential benefits of interoperable multiple system collaboration in a force-protection application. JCTE participants are the Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Airbase Technologies Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRL/RXQF); the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center Software Engineering Directorate (AMRDEC SED); and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center - Pacific (SSC Pacific) Unmanned Systems Branch operating with funding provided by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE). This paper will describe the efforts to date in system development by the three partner organizations, development of collaborative behaviors and experimentation in the force-protection application, results and lessons learned at a technical demonstration, simulation results, and a path forward for future work.

  3. Faceted and vertically aligned GaN nanorod arrays fabricated without catalysts or lithography.

    PubMed

    Deb, Parijat; Kim, Hogyoung; Rawat, Vijay; Oliver, Mark; Kim, Sangho; Marshall, Mike; Stach, Eric; Sands, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    Monocrystalline, vertically aligned and faceted GaN nanorods with controlled diameter have been synthesized by selective organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) onto GaN exposed at the bottom of pores in silicon dioxide templates patterned by reactive ion etching through self-organized porous anodic alumina films. This process is free of foreign catalysts, and the nanorod diameter control is achieved without the need for low-throughput nanolithographic techniques. The use of conventional OMVPE growth conditions allows for the straightforward adaptation of conventional doping and heterostructure growth as will be necessary for the fabrication of nanorod-based strain-relaxed electrically pumped lasers and light-emitting diodes. PMID:16159236

  4. MFV-class: a multi-faceted visualization tool of object classes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-meng; Pan, Yun-he; Zhuang, Yue-ting

    2004-11-01

    Classes are key software components in an object-oriented software system. In many industrial OO software systems, there are some classes that have complicated structure and relationships. So in the processes of software maintenance, testing, software reengineering, software reuse and software restructure, it is a challenge for software engineers to understand these classes thoroughly. This paper proposes a class comprehension model based on constructivist learning theory, and implements a software visualization tool (MFV-Class) to help in the comprehension of a class. The tool provides multiple views of class to uncover manifold facets of class contents. It enables visualizing three object-oriented metrics of classes to help users focus on the understanding process. A case study was conducted to evaluate our approach and the toolkit. PMID:15495330

  5. Power of confinement: adsorbate dynamics on nanometer-scale exposed facets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhihai; Luo, Miaomiao; Wyrick, Jonathan; Sun, Dezheng; Kim, Daeho; Zhu, Yeming; Lu, Wenhao; Kim, Kwangmoo; Einstein, T L; Bartels, Ludwig

    2010-09-01

    The diffusion and arrangements of CO adsorbates within nanometer-scale pores on a copper surface are investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. In contrast to extended terraces, confinement stabilizes dislocation lines that expose more than one-fourth of the adsorbate population to potentially more reactive adsorption configurations. Confinement allows correlation between adsorbate diffusivity and the number of adsorbates in the pore. A marked increase is found that coincides with the absence of dense films on the exposed facets. In combination, we find that in confinement CO molecules are much more likely to be at adsorption sites that allow lateral access, in contrast to the dense and uniform films on extended terraces. PMID:20681618

  6. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being. PMID:26132197

  7. Personality Traits, Facets and Cognitive Performance: Age Differences in Their Relations

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Eileen K.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits and cognitive performance are related, but little work has examined how these associations vary by personality facet or age. 154 adults aged 22 to 84 completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) and the NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed negative emotional aspects of personality (neuroticism, depression) were associated with lower reasoning, and social aspects of personality (assertiveness) were associated with faster reaction time, yet lower reasoning. The association between neuroticism and performance was found primarily among younger adults. In older adulthood, better performance was associated with positive emotional aspects of personality. We discuss how personality may have different associations with performance across age and the implications for possible interventions. PMID:24821992

  8. Co3O4 nanocages with highly exposed {110} facets for high-performance lithium storage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dequan; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xuebin; Tian, Wei; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Functional materials with both exposed highly reactive planes and hollow structures have attracted considerable attentions with respect to improved catalytic activity and enhanced electrochemical energy storage. Herein, we report the synthesis of unusual single-crystal Co3O4 nanocages with highly exposed {110} reactive facets via a one-step solution method. When tested as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, these Co3O4 nanocages deliver a high reversible lithium storage capacity of 864?mAh g?1 at 0.2C over 50 cycles and exhibit an excellent rate capability. The dominantly exposed {110} planes, a high density of atomic steps in nanocages, and the large void interiors lead to the regarded superior electrochemical performance. PMID:23995848

  9. Design of a Shape Memory Alloy deployment hinge for reflector facets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, W. S.; Rogers, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept for a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated hinge mechanism for deploying segmented facet-type reflector surfaces on antenna truss structures is presented. The mechanism uses nitinol, a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, as a displacement-force micro-actuator. An electrical current is used to resistively heat a 'plastically' elongated SMA actuator wire, causing it to contract in response to a thermally-induced phase transformation. The resulting tension creates a moment, imparting rotary motion between two adjacent panels. Mechanical stops are designed into the device to limit its range of motion and to establish positioning accuracy at the termination of deployment. The concept and its operation are discussed in detail, and an analytical dynamic simulation model is presented. The model has been used to perform nondimensionalized parametric design studies.

  10. Personality Traits, Facets and Cognitive Performance: Age Differences in Their Relations.

    PubMed

    Graham, Eileen K; Lachman, Margie E

    2014-03-01

    Personality traits and cognitive performance are related, but little work has examined how these associations vary by personality facet or age. 154 adults aged 22 to 84 completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) and the NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed negative emotional aspects of personality (neuroticism, depression) were associated with lower reasoning, and social aspects of personality (assertiveness) were associated with faster reaction time, yet lower reasoning. The association between neuroticism and performance was found primarily among younger adults. In older adulthood, better performance was associated with positive emotional aspects of personality. We discuss how personality may have different associations with performance across age and the implications for possible interventions. PMID:24821992

  11. Journal of Crystal Growth 230 (2001) 554557 Characterization of etched facets for GaN-based lasers

    E-print Network

    2001-01-01

    for patterning. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy shows facets-mean-square (rms) roughness. Due to the short emission wavelength l the surface smoothness requirements are more heterostructures (SCH) are grown in a horizontal MOVPE reactor (AIXTRON AIX 200 RF) on c-plane sapphire substrates

  12. Competitiveness facets and sensation seeking as predictors of problem gambling among a sample of university student gamblers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nicholas; Newby, Jennifer; Klein, Rupert G

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to problem gambling (PG) is imperative. Individual differences in sensation seeking (SS), as measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale Form (SSS-V), have been found to be predictive of PG among university student samples. However, what is less clear, is if the four SSS-V subscales capture unique facets of SS that are particularly predictive of PG. Much less studied than SS, competitiveness has also been found to be predictive of PG. The Competitiveness Orientation Measure (COM) is a newly developed measure of competitiveness, comprising of four facets. The main purpose of the current study was to examine if these four facets of competitiveness predicted variance in PG over and above the variance predicted by the four SSS-V subscales. Participants included 158 university student gamblers. Sequential regression analysis showed that after accounting for gender, age, and the four SSS-V subscales the only facet of the COM found to be a significant predictor of PG severity was Dominant Competitiveness. Dominant Competitiveness predicted an additional 11 % of PG severity. These results provide support for the Dominant Competitiveness subscale of the COM as having utility in predicting PG over and above the predictive utility of the SSS-V subscales. Practical implications for the current findings are discussed. PMID:24337941

  13. L2 READING COMPREHENSION TEST IN THE PERSIAN CONTEXT: LANGUAGE OF PRESENTATION AS A TEST METHOD FACET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Rahimi

    2007-01-01

    Test method facet has been considered as an important factor affecting the testee's performance on a test. That is, a test used to assess a particular ability would yield different results when different test methods are used to gauge the same trait. The language of presentation is an aspect of test method conceived of as affecting the performance of the

  14. L2 Reading Comprehension Test in the Persian Context: Language of Presentation as a Test Method Facet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Test method facet has been considered as an important factor affecting the testee's performance on a test. That is, a test used to assess a particular ability would yield different results when different test methods are used to gauge the same trait. The language of presentation is an aspect of test method conceived of as affecting the performance…

  15. Developing a Measure of Therapist Adherence to Contingency Management: An Application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Jason E.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    2008-01-01

    A unique application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) is introduced as the preferred method for evaluating the psychometric properties of a measure of therapist adherence to Contingency Management (CM) treatment of adolescent substance use. The utility of psychometric methods based in Classical Test Theory was limited by complexities of the…

  16. Facet dependent binding and etching: ultra-sensitive colorimetric visualization of blood uric acid by unmodified silver nanoprisms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kanghui; Yang, Guang; Chen, Huide; Shen, Pengfei; Huang, Yucheng; Xia, Yunsheng

    2014-09-15

    By combination of experiments and density functional theory calculations, we present a simple but effective "facet dependent binding and etching" strategy for non-enzymatic and non-aggregated colorimetric sensing of blood uric acid (UA), using unmodified Ag nanoprisms as the signal readout. In the absence of UA, the triangular Ag nanoprisms are etched alongside (110) facets by H2O2 and form round nanodiscs, and a more than 160 nm surface plasmon resonance (SPR) blue shift is observed. Because of special affinity between UA and side facets of the Ag nanoprisms, pre-added UA can well protect the Ag nanoprisms from etching. Such protection effect can be used for well quantifying UA in the range of 10-3000 nM, based on the inverse proportion of the SPR blue shift with the added analyte. Due to very thin plate morphology (5 nm) and facet dependent binding/etching effects of the Ag nanoprisms, the sensing system has ultrahigh sensitivity. The detection limit is only 10nM, which is about 2 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of previous colorimetric sensing systems. In addition to accurate quantitation, the proposed strategy can conveniently discriminate the patient of hyperuricemia from normal person by naked eyes. So, the present simple, low-cost and visualized UA chemosensor has great potential in the applications for point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24732599

  17. Faceted growth of primary Al{sub 2}Cu crystals during directional solidification in high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chuanjun; Ren, Zhongming; Shen, Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Qiuliang; Dai, Yinming; Wang, Hui [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-10-21

    The high magnetic field is widely used to modify the crystal morphology. In this work, the effect of the magnetic field on growing behavior of faceted crystals in the Al-40 wt. %Cu alloy was investigated using directional solidification technique. It was found that the faceted growth of primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase was degraded and the primary spacing was reduced upon applying the magnetic field. Additionally, the length of the mushy zone first decreased and then increased with increase of the magnetic field intensity. The quantitative analysis reveals that the shear stress induced by the fluid motion is insufficient to break the atom bonds at the solid-liquid interface. However, both of the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) and the thermoelectric magnetic force (TEMF) cause dendrites to fracture and reduce the primary spacing. The two effects also weaken the faceting growth. Moreover, the instability of the solid-liquid interface is generated by the TEMF, which further leads to degrade the faceted growth. The length of mushy zone was changed by the TEMC and reached the minimum in the magnetic field of 0.5 T, which is in good agreement with the predicted value (0.83 T)

  18. Green synthesis of anatase TiO(2) nanocrystals with diverse shapes and their exposed facets-dependent photoredox activity.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nitish; Park, Yohan; Sohn, Youngku; Leung, Kam Tong; Pradhan, Debabrata

    2014-10-01

    The exposed facets of a crystal are known to be one of the key factors to its physical, chemical and electronic properties. Herein, we demonstrate the role of amines on the controlled synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) with diverse shapes and different exposed facets. The chemical, physical and electronic properties of the as-synthesized TiO2 NCs were evaluated and their photoredox activity was tested. It was found that the intrinsic photoredox activity of TiO2 NCs can be enhanced by controlling the chemical environment of the surface, i.e.; through morphology evolution. In particular, the rod shape TiO2 NCs with ?25% of {101} and ?75% of {100}/{010} exposed facets show 3.7 and 3.1 times higher photocatalytic activity than that of commercial Degussa P25 TiO2 toward the degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue, respectively. The higher activity of the rod shape TiO2 NCs is ascribed to the facetsphilic nature of the photogenerated carriers within the NCs. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NCs are found to be in the order of {101}+{100}/{010} (nanorods) > {101}+{001}+{100}/{010} (nanocuboids and nanocapsules) > {101} (nanoellipsoids) > {001} (nanosheets) providing the direct evidence of exposed facets-depended photocatalytic activity. PMID:25188808

  19. Job Satisfaction of Female and Male Superintendents: The Influence of Job Facets and Contextual Variables as Potential Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip; Kowalski, Theodore J.; McCord, Robert S.; Petersen, George J.

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive multiple regression approach was used to assess the job satisfaction of female and male public school superintendents taking part in a decennial survey conducted by AASA. Self-reported job satisfaction of public school superintendents was regressed on their affective reactions to specific job facets (supervision, co-workers, and…

  20. The Structural Validity of the Perceived Traits of the "Ideal Student" Multi-Faceted Theory among Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslovaty, Nava; Cohen, Arie; Furman, Sari

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a multi-faceted theory of "ideal high school student" traits. The trait system, as defined by several theories, is a translation of the teachers' belief system into educational objectives. The study focused on Bloom's taxonomies and the structural validity of its principles, using Similarity Structure Analysis. Aware of the…

  1. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals. Part 1: Pn3m/L1 interface, poor faceting.

    PubMed

    Grenier, J; Plötzing, T; Rohe, D; Pieranski, P

    2006-02-01

    From experiments with ice or metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. It is shown here by direct observations under an optical microscope that this anisotropic surface melting phenomenon occurs also in lyotropic systems. In the case of C12EO2/water mixture, it takes place in the vicinity of the peritectic Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. Above the peritectic triple point, where the Pn3m and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, the surface of a Pn3m-in-L1 crystal is composed of (111)-type facets surrounded by rough surfaces. The angular junction suggests that rough surfaces are wet by a L3-like layer while facets stay "dry". This is analogous to the pre-melting at rough surfaces in solid crystals. Upon cooling below the peritectic triple point, where L3 and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, a thick layer of the L3 phase grows from the pre-melted, rough Pn3m/L1 interface. Simultaneously, facets stay dry and their radius decreases. In this tri-phasic configuration, stable in a narrow temperature range, the L3/L1 and L3/Pn3m interfaces have shapes of constant mean curvature surfaces having common borders: edges of facets. PMID:16505945

  2. Extended Faceted Ontologies Yannis Tzitzikas 1;2 , Nicolas Spyratos 3 , Panos Constantopoulos 1;2 , and

    E-print Network

    Tzitzikas, Yannis

    ;2 , and Anastasia Analyti 2 1 Department of Computer Science, University of Crete, Greece 2 Institute of Computer two extensions of faceted ontologies, which allow inferring conjunctions of terms that are valid provide mechanisms for inferring the valid conjunctions of terms. This inference service can be exploited

  3. Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites for rf heating applications

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites for polydisperse FeCo magnetic nanoparticles MNPs synthesized using an induction plasma torch. X-ray diffraction to promote oxidation and XRD was used to follow the evolution of the FeCo core and the Fe3O4 and FeO oxide

  4. Active joints for microrobot limbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Elwenspoek; L. Smith; B. Hok

    1992-01-01

    In this contribution we propose an electrostatic actuator for active joints. The active joint consists of two plates, one of which is a bilayer and bent by the bimorph effect. The plates are clamped to each other at one edge. A voltage between the plates leads to a very large field at the clamp where the plates are in intimate

  5. Joint strength in RCS frames 

    E-print Network

    Kirby, Cynthia Dawn

    1998-01-01

    for the addition of a RC slab, cover plates, and band plates. Results indicated that the addition of a reinforced concrete slab compositely connected to the steel beams framing into a typical RCS joints as defined by the ASCE guidelines (1994), improved the joint...

  6. Robotic joint experiments under ultravacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrien, A.; Petitjean, L.

    1988-01-01

    First, various aspects of a robotic joint development program, including gearbox technology, electromechanical components, lubrication, and test results, are discussed. Secondly, a test prototype of the joint allowing simulation of robotic arm dynamic effects is presented. This prototype is tested under vacuum with different types of motors and sensors to characterize the functional parameters: angular position error, mechanical backlash, gearbox efficiency, and lifetime.

  7. International Joint Commission

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The International Joint Commission was created by Canada and the United States "because they recognized that each country is affected by the other's actions in lake and river systems along the border. The two countries cooperate to manage these waters wisely and to protect them for the benefit of today's citizens and future generations." Visitors to the site can read about great lakes water quality issues, great lakes exports, water levels, news releases, publications, view maps, and much more. One of the latest publications available on the site includes the proceeding from a workshop entitled Addressing Atmospheric Mercury: Science and Policy. This extensive site is well organized and written, giving anyone living near or interested in the great lakes a good source for timely and important information.

  8. Smart material joint band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucchio, Michael A.; Stoodt, Robert A.; Livsey, Robert A.

    1993-12-01

    The present invention relates to an improved connector for joining two tubular members together. The connector is formed by a plurality of longitudinally extending fingers extending from an end of one of the tubular members and at least one locking groove in the other of the tubular members for receiving the fingers. The connector further includes a circumferentially extending wire member which is received in a notch in a head portion of each of the plurality of fingers. The wire member is preferably formed from a shape memory alloy and has an original circumference less than the circumference of a circle formed by the notches in the head portions of the fingers. The connector includes apertures through which electric wires may be connected to the shape memory alloy ring member so as to cause the shape memory alloy ring member to return to its original shape and allow release of the joint connection.

  9. Smart material joint band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucchio, Michael A.; Stoodt, Robert A.; Livsey, Robert A.

    1994-11-01

    The present invention relates to an improved connector for joining two tubular members together. The connector is formed by a plurality of longitudinally extending fingers extending from an end of one of tubular members and at least one locking groove in the other of the tubular members for receiving the fingers. The connector further includes a circumferentially extending wire member which is received in a notch in a head portion of each of the plurality of fingers. The wire member is preferably formed from a shape memory alloy and has an original circumference less than the circumference of a circle formed by the notches in a head portions of the fingers. The connector includes apertures through which electric wires may be connected to the shape memory alloy ring member so as to cause the shape memory alloy ring member to return to its original shape and allow release of the joint connection.

  10. Arthritis at the shoulder joint.

    PubMed

    Sankaye, Prashant; Ostlere, Simon

    2015-07-01

    The shoulder is a complex joint with numerous structures contributing to mobility and stability. Shoulder pain is a common clinical complaint that may be due to a wide spectrum of disorders including rotator cuff disease, instability, and arthropathy. Primary osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint is uncommon because it is a non-weight-bearing joint. Significant osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint is unusual in the absence of trauma, and the detection of advanced degenerative changes in patients without a known history of trauma should alert the clinician to search for other disorders. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and key imaging findings of the common categories of the arthritis affecting the glenohumeral joint. PMID:26021591

  11. Method of forming a joint

    DOEpatents

    Butt, Darryl Paul; Cutler, Raymond Ashton; Rynders, Steven Walton; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2006-08-22

    A method of joining at least two sintered bodies to form a composite structure, including providing a first multicomponent metallic oxide having a perovskitic or fluorite crystal structure; providing a second sintered body including a second multicomponent metallic oxide having a crystal structure of the same type as the first; and providing at an interface a joint material containing at least one metal oxide containing at least one metal identically contained in at least one of the first and second multicomponent metallic oxides. The joint material is free of cations of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, P and Te and has a melting point below the sintering temperatures of both sintered bodies. The joint material is heated to a temperature above the melting point of the metal oxide(s) and below the sintering temperatures of the sintered bodies to form the joint. Structures containing such joints are also disclosed.

  12. 12 CFR 347.107 - Joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint ventures. 347.107 Section 347.107...REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.107 Joint ventures. (a) Joint ventures. If a bank, directly or...

  13. 29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Joint employment. 791.2 Section 791...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 § 791.2 Joint employment. (a) A single...

  14. 29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Joint employment. 791.2 Section 791...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 § 791.2 Joint employment. (a) A single...

  15. 29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Joint employment. 791.2 Section 791...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 § 791.2 Joint employment. (a) A single...

  16. Development of cryogenic rotatable heat transfer joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadunas, J. A.; Backovsky, Z. F.; Wilson, D. E.

    1992-07-01

    A summary of cryogenic rotatable heat transfer joint technology development, at Rockwell International Space Division, is presented. Starting with the flight qualified radiative joint on the RM-20B IR sensor of the early 70's, leading to rotatable heat pipe joint, gas conductive joints, rolling-contact-conductance joints, and the more recent work on development and evaluation of cryogenic rotatable seals and mechanical interfaces. Potential applications, joint design optimization, heat transfer, seal leakage and torque test data are presented.

  17. Personality Facets and All-Cause Mortality Among Medicare Patients Aged 66 to 102: A Follow-on Study of Weiss and Costa (2005)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Paul T.; Weiss, Alexander; Duberstein, Paul R.; Friedman, Bruce; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate associations between the personality factors and survival during 8 years follow-up. Methods Domains of personality and selected facet scores were assessed in 597 Medicare recipients (aged 66 to 102 years) who were followed up for approximately 8 years. Personality domains and factors were assessed using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Using proportional hazards regression, the present study builds on a previous analysis of the NEO-PI-R domains and selected facet scores, which revealed that the Neuroticism facet Impulsiveness, Agreeableness facet Straightforwardness, and Conscientiousness facet Self-Discipline were related to longer life during 4 years of follow-up. In the present study, we extended the follow-up period by an additional 4 years, examining all 30 facets, and using accelerated failure time (AFT) modeling as an additional analytic approach. Unlike proportional hazards regression, AFT permits inferences about the median survival length conferred by predictors. Each facet was tested in a model that included health-related covariates and NEO-PI-R factor scores for dimensions that did not include that facet. Results Over the 8-year mortality surveillance period, Impulsiveness was not significant, but Straightforwardness and Self-Discipline remained significant predictors of longevity. When dichotomized, being high versus average or low on Self-Discipline was associated with an approximately 34% increase in median lifespan. Longer mortality surveillance also revealed that each standard deviation of Altruism, Compliance, Tender-Mindedness, and Openness to Fantasy was associated with an estimated 9–11% increase in median survival time. Conclusions After extending the follow-up period from 4 to 8 years, Self-Discipline remained a powerful predictor of survival. Facets associated with imagination, generosity, and higher quality interpersonal interactions become increasingly important when the follow-up period was extended to 8 years. PMID:24933014

  18. Joint numerical ranges, quantum maps, and joint numerical shadows

    E-print Network

    Eugene Gutkin; Karol Zyczkowski

    2012-10-12

    We associate with k hermitian N\\times N matrices a probability measure on R^k. It is supported on the joint numerical range of the k-tuple of matrices. We call this measure the joint numerical shadow of these matrices. Let k=2. A pair of hermitian N\\times N matrices defines a complex N\\times N matrix. The joint numerical range and the joint numerical shadow of the pair of hermitian matrices coincide with the numerical range and the numerical shadow, respectively, of this complex matrix. We study relationships between the dynamics of quantum maps on the set of quantum states, on one hand, and the numerical ranges, on the other hand. In particular, we show that under the identity resolution assumption on Kraus operators defining the quantum map, the dynamics shrinks numerical ranges.

  19. Models for jointed rock structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuze, F. E.; Barbour, T. G.

    1981-03-01

    Models for axisymmetric interfaces found in shaft and footing designs, and for the dilatant effects of rock joints, as encountered in underground caverns and reinforced rock slopes are presented. The models were incorporated into a finite element program, and test case analyses were performed. Use of the models can lead to safer estimates of footing settlements and shaft lining stresses, as well as to more economical design of rock reinforcement. Because the dilatant joint provides a refined estimate of joint opening and closing, it can be applied to the analysis of hard rock hydraulics, in which the flow is very sensitive to fracture aperture.

  20. Arthritis: joints inflamed.

    PubMed

    Casey, Georgina

    2015-06-01

    ARTHRITIS IS a generic term for inflammatory joint disease. There are various forms of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. Arthritis can be a chronic debilitating condition or a transient effect of bacterial or viral infections. As a chronic condition, arthritis can cause loss of quality of life, disability and, with rheumatoid disease, early death. The economic burden of arthritis, in terms of management and loss of productivity due to disability, is high and set to increase with the ageing population. Recent advances in our understanding of the causes and progression of a number of forms of arthritis have raised hopes of better management and possible remission. Pharmacotherapy has moved from symptom management to addressing underlying disease processes. However, therapies that prevent or cure arthritis remain elusive. Current care for people with arthritis relies on a multidisciplinary approach and substantial pharmacological intervention. Nurses have a key role to play in guiding patients through treatment, ensuring they receive optimal therapy to reduce the impact of arthritis and its management on their lives. PMID:26168559

  1. Acromioclavicular joint cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Andrew D; Miller, Joshua D; Zeller, John L

    2010-03-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) cysts are an uncommon and unusual sequela associated with shoulder pathophysiology. The majority of literature on ACJ cysts consists of individual case reports with no definitive literature review currently available. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, four clinical cases are presented in this report. First described by Craig (1984), a total of 41 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Of these cases, five occurred with the rotator cuff musculature intact. The remaining 36 cases of ACJ cysts occurred in patients with a complete tear/avulsion of the rotator cuff. Previous attempts at compiling a complete record of all reported cases have combined several distinct conditions into a single category. This article presents two distinct etiologies for the pathogenesis of ACJ cyst formation. In the presence of an intact rotator cuff, a Type 1 cyst can form superficially and be limited to the ACJ. Following a massive or traumatic tear of the rotator cuff, mechanical instability of the humeral head can cause a deterioration of the inferior acromioclavicular capsule (cuff tear arthropathy) and an overproduction of synovial fluid. Overtime, a "geyser" of fluid can form between the glenohumeral and the ACJ, forming a Type 2 cyst. This differentiation and categorization is essential for appropriate classification and treatment. PMID:20069645

  2. Joint services electronics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Leon, Jr.

    1992-11-01

    The report represents the fifteenth annual summary of The Ohio State University Joint Services Electronics Program (JSEP). The transfer of the compact range identification technology initiated under JSEP support for time domain studies continues to make large advances. We are also assisting Rockwell (Tulsa) to update their RCS facilities. This work is on a subcontract to the ESL from the Air Force. This has lead to involvement in the study of Ultra Wide Band radar systems. The research activities devoted to the Generalized Ray and Gaussian Beams continues. Our JSEP research continues to be expanded by external funding. This program is being expanded by use of such funds which are more focussed on the requirements of the sponsors which includes both the Air Force and the Navy. Our JSEP research continues to focus on electromagnetic related topics. There are four major electromagnetics areas that were pursued in the past year. The Diffraction Studies Work Unit has initiated research on a time domain version of the Uniform Theory of Diffraction. A second topic under the Diffraction Studies Work Unit involves further extensions of the generalized resistive boundary condition and the generalized impedance boundary condition. These have been applied to scattering from a chiral slab. A third topic of interest is the diffraction from a corner. A fourth task involves the reflection/diffraction of a Gaussian beam. This represents an approach to replace the usual ray optics solution for very complex geometries where the versatile ray optics solution becomes cumbersome.

  3. Synthesis and field emission behaviour of well faceted In2Se3 micro-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolhe, Panakj S.; Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Shisode, Raju T.; More, Mahendra A.

    2015-06-01

    Here in, we report synthesis of crystalline Indium Selenide (In2Se3) elegant microcrystals on Au coated Si substrates using one-step facile thermal evaporation route and their field emission investigations. The as-synthesized In2Se3 micro-crystals were subjected to structural and morphological analysis prior to the field emission studies. The XRD spectrum of the as-synthesized product reveals formation of crystalline hexagonal phase of In2Se3 under the prevailing experimental conditions. Under optimized process variables, the morphology of the as-synthesized product is characterized by presence of well facetted micron size particles of In2Se3. Furthermore, the EDAX analysis confirms the presence of In and Se in the as-synthesized sample. The field emission characteristic of the In2Se3 micro-crystal emitter is found to be superior to the other metal chalcogenides micro-crystal based emitters. The synthesized In2Se3 micro-crystals emitter delivers current density of ˜ 225 µA/cm2 at an applied electric field of ˜ 7.44 V/µm. The emission current stability investigated at pre-set value of ˜ 3 µA is observed to be fairly good. These observed results demonstrate potential of the In2Se3 cathode as an electron source for practical applications in vacuum microelectronic devices.

  4. Performance modulation of ?-MnO? nanowires by crystal facet engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenxian; Cui, Xiangyuan; Zeng, Rong; Du, Guodong; Sun, Ziqi; Zheng, Rongkun; Ringer, Simon P; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of material physical and chemical properties through selective surface engineering is currently one of the most active research fields, aimed at optimizing functional performance for applications. The activity of exposed crystal planes determines the catalytic, sensory, photocatalytic, and electrochemical behavior of a material. In the research on nanomagnets, it opens up new perspectives in the fields of nanoelectronics, spintronics, and quantum computation. Herein, we demonstrate controllable magnetic modulation of ?-MnO2 nanowires, which displayed surface ferromagnetism or antiferromagnetism, depending on the exposed plane. First-principles density functional theory calculations confirm that both Mn- and O-terminated ?-MnO2 (1 1 0) surfaces exhibit ferromagnetic ordering. The investigation of surface-controlled magnetic particles will lead to significant progress in our fundamental understanding of functional aspects of magnetism on the nanoscale, facilitating rational design of nanomagnets. Moreover, we approved that the facet engineering pave the way on designing semiconductors possessing unique properties for novel energy applications, owing to that the bandgap and the electronic transport of the semiconductor can be tailored via exposed surface modulations. PMID:25758232

  5. Treatment of bipolar disorder: a complex treatment for a multi-faceted disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Vieta, Eduard; Siamouli, Melina; Valenti, Marc; Magiria, Stamatia; Oral, Timucin; Fresno, David; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Kaprinis, George S

    2007-01-01

    Background Manic-depression or bipolar disorder (BD) is a multi-faceted illness with an inevitably complex treatment. Methods This article summarizes the current status of our knowledge and practice of its treatment. Results It is widely accepted that lithium is moderately useful during all phases of bipolar illness and it might possess a specific effectiveness on suicidal prevention. Both first and second generation antipsychotics are widely used and the FDA has approved olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole for the treatment of acute mania. These could also be useful in the treatment of bipolar depression, but only limited data exists so far to support the use of quetiapine monotherapy or the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination. Some, but not all, anticonvulsants possess a broad spectrum of effectiveness, including mixed dysphoric and rapid-cycling forms. Lamotrigine may be effective in the treatment of depression but not mania. Antidepressant use is controversial. Guidelines suggest their cautious use in combination with an antimanic agent, because they are supposed to induce switching to mania or hypomania, mixed episodes and rapid cycling. Conclusion The first-line psychosocial intervention in BD is psychoeducation, followed by cognitive-behavioral therapy. Other treatment options include Electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation. There is a gap between the evidence base, which comes mostly from monotherapy trials, and clinical practice, where complex treatment regimens are the rule. PMID:17925035

  6. Chiral symmetry breaking and surface faceting in chromonic liquid crystal droplets with giant elastic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Joonwoo; Davidson, Zoey S; Collings, Peter J; Lubensky, Tom C; Yodh, A G

    2014-02-01

    Confined liquid crystals (LC) provide a unique platform for technological applications and for the study of LC properties, such as bulk elasticity, surface anchoring, and topological defects. In this work, lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) are confined in spherical droplets, and their director configurations are investigated as a function of mesogen concentration using bright-field and polarized optical microscopy. Because of the unusually small twist elastic modulus of the nematic phase of LCLCs, droplets of this phase exhibit a twisted bipolar configuration with remarkably large chiral symmetry breaking. Further, the hexagonal ordering of columns and the resultant strong suppression of twist and splay but not bend deformation in the columnar phase, cause droplets of this phase to adopt a concentric director configuration around a central bend disclination line and, at sufficiently high mesogen concentration, to exhibit surface faceting. Observations of director configurations are consistent with Jones matrix calculations and are understood theoretically to be a result of the giant elastic anisotropy of LCLCs. PMID:24449880

  7. Simulations of Jitter Coupling due to Wakefields in the FACET Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, Stephen

    2009-10-30

    Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams (FACET) is a proposed facility at SLAC that would use the initial two-thirds of the linac to transport e{sup +} and e{sup -} beams to an experimental region. A principal use of this facility is to identify the optimum method for accelerating positrons in a beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator. To study this, a positron bunch, followed an RF-cycle later by an electron bunch, will be accelerated to an asymmetric chicane designed to move the positrons behind the electrons, and then on to the plasma wakefield test stand. A major focus of study was the coupling of jitter of the positron bunch to the electron bunch via linac wakes. Lucretia is a Matlab toolbox for the simulation of electron beam transport systems, capable of multi-bunch tracking and wakefield calculations. With the exception of the lack of support for tracking of electrons and positrons within a single bunch train, it was well suited to the jitter coupling studies. This paper describes the jitter studies, including modifications made to Lucretia to correctly simulate tracking of mixed-species bunch trains through a lattice of magnetic elements and EM wakes.

  8. Direct Synthesis of Anatase Films with ~100% (001) Facets and [001] Preferred Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Andrew S.; Mack, Brianne; Usmani, Shirin M.; Mars, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Anatase films exhibiting ~100% (001) reactive facets at the surface were grown hydrothermally on gold substrate from a homogeneous solution of TiF4 and NaF. In addition to NaF, it was found that TiO2 films with very similar properties could be prepared with the fluoride salts LiF, CsF, HF, NH4F, and N(CH2CH3)4F. The polycrystalline anatase films are continuous, approximately 1 ?m thick, and evenly coat the substrate. The surface grain size is ~400 nm. Grazing angle XRD measurements show that the films exhibit a high degree of preferred orientation with the c-axis normal to the substrate surface. SEM images reveal that the grains span the thickness of the films. Annealing the films at 500 °C removes fluorine and causes crystallites within the grains to restructure as shown by SEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. Supported anatase films grown from this one-pot method may serve as oxidative photocatalysts and electrodes for photoelectrochemical applications such as solar cells and hydrogen evolution. PMID:22844184

  9. Dissociated Signals in Human Dentate Gyrus and CA3 Predict Different Facets of Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Reagh, Zachariah M.; Watabe, Joseph; Ly, Maria; Murray, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of evidence has implicated the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe cortices in support of recognition memory. However, the roles of the various subfields of the hippocampus are poorly understood. In this study, we concurrently varied stimulus familiarization and repetition to engage different facets of recognition memory. Using high-resolution fMRI (1.5 mm isotropic), we observed distinct familiarity and repetition-related recognition signal profiles in the dentate gyrus (DG)/CA3 subfield in human subjects. The DG/CA3 demonstrated robust response suppression with repetition and familiarity-related facilitation. Both of these discrete responses were predictive of different aspects of behavioral performance. Consistent with previous work, we observed novelty responses in CA1 consistent with “match/mismatch detection,” as well as mixed recognition signaling distributed across medial temporal lobe cortices. Additional analyses indicated that the repetition and familiarity-related signals in the DG/CA3 were strikingly dissociated along the hippocampal longitudinal axis and that activity in the posterior hippocampus was strongly correlated with the retrosplenial cortex. These data provide novel insight into the roles of hippocampal subfields in support of recognition memory and further provide evidence of a functional heterogeneity in the human DG/CA3, particularly along the longitudinal axis. PMID:25274810

  10. Faceted phospholipid vesicles tailored for the delivery of Santolina insularis essential oil to the skin.

    PubMed

    Castangia, Ines; Manca, Maria Letizia; Caddeo, Carla; Maxia, Andrea; Murgia, Sergio; Pons, Ramon; Demurtas, Davide; Pando, Daniel; Falconieri, Danilo; Peris, José E; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to formulate Santolina insularis essential oil-loaded nanocarriers, namely Penetration Enhancer containing Vesicles (PEVs), evaluate the physico-chemical features and stability, and gain insights into their ability to deliver the oil to the skin. S. insularis essential oil was obtained by steam distillation, and was predominantly composed of terpenes, the most abundant being ?-phellandrene (22.6%), myrcene (11.4%) and curcumenes (12.1%). Vesicles were prepared using phosphatidylcholine, and ethylene or propylene glycol were added to the water phase (10% (v/v)) to improve vesicle performances as delivery systems. Vesicles were deeply characterized by light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, the results showing polyhedral, faceted, unilamellar vesicles of ?115nm in size. The presence of the glycols improved vesicle stability under accelerated ageing conditions, without changes in size or migration phenomena (e.g. sedimentation and creaming). Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of pig skin treated with S. insularis formulations displayed a penetration ability of PEVs greater than that of control liposomes. Moreover, all formulations showed a marked in vitro biocompatibility in human keratinocytes. These findings suggest that the nanoformulation may be of value in enhancing the delivery of S. insularis essential oil to the skin, where it can exert its biological activities. PMID:26057243

  11. A brief history of defect formation, segregation, faceting, and twinning in melt-grown semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurle, D. T. J.; Rudolph, P.

    2004-03-01

    A historical review of the development of knowledge of defect formation in semiconductor crystals is given. The treatment starts with zero-dimensional defect types, especially native point defects in Si and GaAs. One-dimensional structural disturbances—dislocations and their patterning—are discussed next. Whereas in Si the total elimination of extended dislocations is well established, in semiconductor compounds, like III-Vs with low critical resolved shear stress, this seems to be impossible. In a further section micro- and macro-segregation phenomena—striations and the effects of constitutional supercooling—are reviewed. Finally, two-dimensional features are discussed. First the interplay between facets and inhomogeneous dopant incorporation is described. Then the problem of twinning, especially in InP, is outlined. The paper is focused on the grassroots from the beginning of the 1950s—the birth of semiconductor melt growth. For each defect type the current state of knowledge and methods of control are indicated. Problems remaining to be solved in the future are summarised.

  12. The Effects of a Hatha Yoga Intervention on Facets of Distress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Medina, Johnna; Hopkins, Lindsey; Powers, Mark; Baird, Scarlett O; Smits, Jasper

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with low distress tolerance (DT) experience negative emotion as particularly threatening and are highly motivated to reduce or avoid such affective experiences. Consequently, these individuals have difficulty regulating emotions and tend to engage in maladaptive strategies, such as overeating, as a means to reduce or avoid distress. Hatha yoga encourages one to implement present-centered awareness and non-reaction in the face of physical and psychological discomfort and, thus, emerges as a potential strategy for increasing DT. To test whether a hatha yoga intervention can enhance DT, a transdiagnostic risk and maintenance factor, this study randomly assigned females high in emotional eating in response to stress (N = 52) either to an 8-week, twice-weekly hatha (Bikram) yoga intervention or to a waitlist control condition. Self-reported DT and emotional eating were measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and 1-week post-treatment. Consistent with prediction, participants in the yoga condition reported greater increases in DT over the course of the intervention relative to waitlist participants (Cohen's d = .82). Also consistent with prediction, the reduction in emotional eating was greater for the yoga condition than the waitlist condition (Cohen's d = .92). Importantly, reductions distress absorption, a specific sub-facet of DT, accounted for 15% of the variance in emotional eating, a hallmark behavior of eating pathology and risk factor for obesity. PMID:25952547

  13. Performance modulation of ?-MnO2 nanowires by crystal facet engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenxian; Cui, Xiangyuan; Zeng, Rong; Du, Guodong; Sun, Ziqi; Zheng, Rongkun; Ringer, Simon P.; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-03-01

    Modulation of material physical and chemical properties through selective surface engineering is currently one of the most active research fields, aimed at optimizing functional performance for applications. The activity of exposed crystal planes determines the catalytic, sensory, photocatalytic, and electrochemical behavior of a material. In the research on nanomagnets, it opens up new perspectives in the fields of nanoelectronics, spintronics, and quantum computation. Herein, we demonstrate controllable magnetic modulation of ?-MnO2 nanowires, which displayed surface ferromagnetism or antiferromagnetism, depending on the exposed plane. First-principles density functional theory calculations confirm that both Mn- and O-terminated ?-MnO2 (1 1 0) surfaces exhibit ferromagnetic ordering. The investigation of surface-controlled magnetic particles will lead to significant progress in our fundamental understanding of functional aspects of magnetism on the nanoscale, facilitating rational design of nanomagnets. Moreover, we approved that the facet engineering pave the way on designing semiconductors possessing unique properties for novel energy applications, owing to that the bandgap and the electronic transport of the semiconductor can be tailored via exposed surface modulations.

  14. Small single-crystal silicon cantilevers formed by crystal facets for atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Kazuhisa; Hashiguchi, Gen; Kawakatsu, Hideki

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a batch fabrication method of small cantilevers formed by crystal facets of single-crystal silicon for improving the sensitivity of atomic force microscopy. In order to realize a small cantilever with a very sharp tip, we have employed KOH anisotropic etching and local oxidation of silicon. We have made two types of small cantilevers, the V-shaped triangular type and the bulk triangular type. The length of each cantilever is 20 ?m. The tip of the V-shaped type is bridged by two wires with thickness of 0.6 ?m. The bulk triangular type has a thickness of 1.5 ?m. The frequency characteristics of the cantilevers vibrated using photothermal excitation were measured by laser Doppler velocimetry. The resonance frequency of the V-shaped type and the bulk triangular type were 687 kHz and 8.42 MHz, and their spring constants are estimated to be 0.7 N/m and 370 N/m, respectively.

  15. Osteochondral Lesions of Major Joints

    PubMed Central

    Durur-Subasi, Irmak; Durur-Karakaya, Afak; Yildirim, Omer Selim

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides information about osteochondral lesions (OCL) and example cases of OCL occurring in major joints, some of which are rarely seen. This simple tutorial is presented in question and answer format. PMID:26180500

  16. MISR JOINT_AS Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-21

    ... reported on various geographic grids depending on the data product. Parameters from multiple orbits are combined to make complete ... The Joint Aerosol product provides a monthly global statistical summary of MISR Level 2 aerosol optical depth retrievals on a 5 ...

  17. The complexity of joint computation

    E-print Network

    Drucker, Andrew Donald

    2012-01-01

    Joint computation is the ubiquitous scenario in which a computer is presented with not one, but many computational tasks to perform. A fundamental question arises: when can we cleverly combine computations, to perform them ...

  18. Hierarchical LiFePO4 with a controllable growth of the (010) facet for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Binbin; Ruan, Hongcheng; Zheng, Cheng; Fei, Hailong; Wei, Mingdeng

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchically structured LiFePO4 was successfully synthesized by ionic liquid solvothermal method. These hierarchically structured LiFePO4 samples were constructed from nanostructured platelets with their (010) facets mainly exposed. To the best of our knowledge, facet control of a hierarchical LiFePO4 crystal has not been reported yet. Based on a series of experimental results, a tentative mechanism for the formation of these hierarchical structures was proposed. After these hierarchically structured LiFePO4 samples were coated with a thin carbon layer and used as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, they exhibited excellent high-rate discharge capability and cycling stability. For instance, a capacity of 95% can be maintained for the LiFePO4 sample at a rate as high as 20 C, even after 1000 cycles. PMID:24071818

  19. High-index Cu2O (113) film on faceted MgO (110) by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Wenxing; Shi, Jin'an; Mei, Zengxia; Liu, Lishu; Li, Junqiang; Gu, Lin; Du, Xiaolong; Xue, Qikun

    2015-06-01

    We report the growth of single-oriented Cu2O (113) film on faceted MgO (110) substrate by radio-frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A MgO {100} faceted homoepitaxial layer was introduced beforehand as a template for epitaxy of Cu2O film. The epitaxial relationship is determined to be Cu2O (113)//MgO (110) with a tilt angle of 4.76° and Cu2O [ 1 1 bar 0]//MgO [ 1 1 bar 0] by the combined study of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The film demonstrates a good p-type conductivity and excellent optical properties, indicating that this unique approach is potentially applicable for high-index film preparation and device applications.

  20. FACET: a radiation view factor computer code for axisymmetric, 2D planar, and 3D geometries with shadowing

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.

    1983-08-01

    The computer code FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors for input to finite-element heat-transfer analysis codes. The first section of this report is a brief review of previous radiation-view-factor computer codes. The second section presents the defining integral equation for the geometric view factor between two surfaces and the assumptions made in its derivation. Also in this section are the numerical algorithms used to integrate this equation for the various geometries. The third section presents the algorithms used to detect self-shadowing and third-surface shadowing between the two surfaces for which a view factor is being calculated. The fourth section provides a user's input guide followed by several example problems.

  1. Joint probabilities and quantum cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, J. Acacio

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we discuss the existence of joint probability distributions for quantumlike response computations in the brain. We do so by focusing on a contextual neural-oscillator model shown to reproduce the main features of behavioral stimulus-response theory. We then exhibit a simple example of contextual random variables not having a joint probability distribution, and describe how such variables can be obtained from neural oscillators, but not from a quantum observable algebra.

  2. Joint probabilities and quantum cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Acacio de Barros, J. [Liberal Studies, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)

    2012-12-18

    In this paper we discuss the existence of joint probability distributions for quantumlike response computations in the brain. We do so by focusing on a contextual neural-oscillator model shown to reproduce the main features of behavioral stimulus-response theory. We then exhibit a simple example of contextual random variables not having a joint probability distribution, and describe how such variables can be obtained from neural oscillators, but not from a quantum observable algebra.

  3. Blood-Induced Joint Damage

    PubMed Central

    Roosendaal, Goris; Jansen, Nathalie W.D.; Lafeber, Floris P.J.G.; Mastbergen, Simon C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Four days of blood exposure leads to irreversible cartilage damage in vitro. In contrast, intermittent intra-articular blood injections twice a week during 4 weeks (mimicking micro-bleeds) in a canine model resulted in transient damage only. In this study, it was evaluated whether acute joint bleeds are more harmful than micro-bleeds in a canine model of knee arthropathy. Design: Seven dogs received 4 sequential daily intra-articular blood injections twice in 2 weeks (mimicking 2 acute 4-day joint bleeds). Seven other dogs received the same blood load but in a total of 8 injections intermittently over the 4-week period with at least 1 day in between (mimicking micro-bleeds over the same timespan). Contralateral knees served as controls. Ten weeks after the last injection cartilage matrix turnover and synovial inflammation were evaluated. Results: Only after the acute joint bleeds the release of newly formed and total (resident) cartilage matrix glycosaminoglycans were increased (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, in animals with the acute joint bleeds cartilage glycosaminoglycan content was decreased (P = 0.01) and not in animals with micro-bleeds. Mild synovial inflammation was observed in both groups (both P < 0.0001) but was not different between groups. Conclusions: In contrast to micro-bleeds, 2 acute joint bleeds lead to prolonged cartilage damage independent of the level of synovial inflammation. This model suggests that micro-bleeds are less devastating than acute joint bleeds with respect to joint damage, which might be of relevance to treatment of joint bleeds in clinical practice.

  4. Joint probabilities and quantum cognition

    E-print Network

    de Barros, J Acacio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the existence of joint probability distributions for quantum-like response computations in the brain. We do so by focusing on a contextual neural-oscillator model shown to reproduce the main features of behavioral stimulus-response theory. We then exhibit a simple example of contextual random variables not having a joint probability distribution, and describe how such variables can be obtained from neural oscillators, but not from a quantum observable algebra.

  5. Arrhenius parameters for the rate process leading to catastrophic damage of AlGaAs-GaAs laser facets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Moser; E. E. Latta

    1992-01-01

    The time dependence of catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) is investigated for cw operation of AlGaAs-GaAs quantum well lasers. The apparent Arrhenius parameters (i.e., the activation energy and pre-exponential factor) for the rate process leading to COMD are determined. In particular, we compare the rate process for various cleaved facets with and without a subsequent plasma oxidation step. Analysis of

  6. Facets of anger, childhood sexual victimization, and gender as predictors of suicide attempts by psychiatric patients after hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Naomi; McNiel, Dale E

    2013-08-01

    Models of suicidal behavior that assess the interplay of multiple risk factors are needed to better identify at-risk individuals during periods of elevated risk, including following psychiatric hospitalization. This study investigated contributions of facets of anger, gender, and sexual victimization to risk for suicide attempts after hospital discharge. Psychiatric patients (N = 748; ages 18-40; 44% female) recruited from 3 inpatient facilities were assessed during hospitalization and every 10 weeks during the year following discharge as part of the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. Multiple logistic regression models with facets of anger (disposition toward physiological arousal, hostile cognitions, and angry behavior) from the Novaco Anger Scale (Novaco, 1994), gender, and childhood sexual victimization history were used to predict suicide attempts in the year following hospital discharge. Facets of anger differentially predicted suicide attempts as a function of gender and sexual victimization history, over and above the variance accounted for by symptoms of depression, anxiety, and recent suicide attempts. In men, greater disposition toward angry behavior predicted an overall greater likelihood of a suicide attempt in the year following hospital discharge, particularly among men with childhood sexual victimization. In women with a history of childhood sexual victimization, physiological arousal predicted suicide attempts. Results indicate that facets of anger are relevant predictors of suicide attempts following hospital discharge for psychiatric patients with a history of childhood sexual victimization. Further, results suggest that incorporating gender and victimization history into models of risk for suicide can help clarify relationships between anger and self-directed violence. PMID:23834063

  7. The relationship between polymer waveguide optical interconnection end facet roughness and the optical input and output coupling losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghsiahi, Hadi; Wang, Kai; Pitwon, Richard; Selviah, David R.

    2015-03-01

    The RMS surface roughness of an optical polymer waveguide end facet cut by a milling router and measured by AFM is investigated for a range of rotation speeds and translation speeds of the router. It was found that 1 flute (cutting edge) routers gave significantly less rough surfaces than 2 or 3 flute routers. The best results were achieved for a 1 flute router when the milling bit was inserted from the copper layer side of the board with a rotation speed of 15,000 rpm and a translation speed of 0.25 m/min which minimized the waveguide core end facet RMS roughness to 183 +/- 8 nm and gave input optical coupling loss of 1.7 dB +/- 0.5 dB and output optical coupling loss of 2.0 dB +/- 0.7 dB. The relationship between optical coupling loss at the input and output of the waveguides and waveguide end facet roughness is also investigated in this paper. The ratio of RMS roughness to autocorrelation length of the roughness is shown to have a quantified linear relationship with experimental measurements of optical insertion loss, input optical coupling loss and output optical coupling loss. A new fabrication technique for cut waveguide end facet treatment has been proposed and demonstrated which reduces the insertion loss by 2.60 dB +/- 1.3 dB which is more than that achieved by the closest available index matching fluid which gave 2.23 dB +/- 1.2 dB and which is far more robust for use in commercial products.

  8. Multi-spectral investigation of bulk and facet failures in high-power single emitters at 980 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanson, Dan; Levy, Moshe; Shamay, Moshe; Cohen, Shalom; Shkedy, Lior; Berk, Yuri; Tessler, Renana; Klumel, Genadi; Rappaport, Noam; Karni, Yoram

    2013-03-01

    Reliable single emitters delivering >10W in the 9xx nm spectral range, are common building blocks for fiber laser pumps. As facet passivation techniques can suppress or delay catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) extending emitter reliability into hundreds of thousands of hours, other, less dominant, failure modes such as intra-chip catastrophic optical bulk damage (COBD) become apparent. Based on our failure statistics in high current operation, only ~52% of all failures can be attributed to COMD. Imaging through a window opened in the metallization on the substrate (n) side of a p-side down mounted emitter provides valuable insight into both COMD and COBD failure mechanisms. We developed a laser ablation process to define a window on the n-side of an InGaAs/AlGaAs 980nm single emitter that is overlaid on the pumped 90?m stripe on the p-side. The ablation process is compatible with the chip wire-bonding, enabling the device to be operated at high currents with high injection uniformity. We analyzed both COMD and COBD failed emitters in the electroluminescence and mid-IR domains supported by FIB/SEM observation. The ablated devices revealed branching dark line patterns, with a line origin either at the facet center (COMD case) or near the stripe edge away from the facet (COBD case). In both cases, the branching direction is always toward the rear facet (against the photon density gradient), with SEM images revealing a disordered active layer structure. Absorption levels between 0.22eV - 0.55eV were observed in disordered regions by FT-IR spectroscopy. Temperature mapping of a single emitter in the MWIR domain was performed using an InSb detector. We also report an electroluminescence study of a single emitter just before and after failure.

  9. Dynamic response of QWS-DFB lasers with convex tapered grating structure and non-zero facet reflection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bazhdanzadeh; V. Ahmadi; H. Ghafoorifard; F. Shahshahani

    2008-01-01

    Using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we analyze static and dynamic response of non-uniform grating quarter-wavelength shift distributed feedback QWS-DFB laser with non-zero facet reflection coefficients, both for large signal transient and small signal modulation. By introducing a convex tapered grating structure for QWS-DFB laser (XTG-DFB), it is shown that single mode stability of laser enhances and laser is

  10. Phase control and fast start-up of a magnetron using modulation of an addressable faceted cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, J., E-mail: JimBrowning@BoiseState.edu; Fernandez-Gutierrez, S. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Lin, M. C.; Smithe, D. N. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Watrous, J. [TechFlow, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-06-09

    The use of an addressable, faceted cathode has been proposed as a method of modulating current injection in a magnetron to improve performance and control phase. To implement the controllable electron emission, five-sided and ten-sided faceted planar cathodes employing gated field emitters are considered as these emitters could be fabricated on flat substrates. For demonstration, the conformal finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell simulation, as implemented in VORPAL, has been used to model a ten-cavity, rising sun magnetron using the modulated current sources and benchmarked against a typical continuous current source. For the modulated, ten-sided faceted cathode case, the electrons are injected from three emitter elements on each of the ten facets. Each emitter is turned ON and OFF in sequence at the oscillating frequency with five emitters ON at one time to drive the five electron spokes of the ?-mode. The emitter duty cycle is then 1/6th the Radio-Frequency (RF) period. Simulations show a fast start-up time as low as 35?ns for the modulated case compared to 100?ns for the continuous current cases. Analysis of the RF phase using the electron spoke locations and the RF magnetic field components shows that the phase is controlled for the modulated case while it is random, as typical, for the continuous current case. Active phase control during oscillation was demonstrated by shifting the phase of the electron injection 180° after oscillations started. The 180° phase shift time was approximately 25 RF cycles.

  11. 5, 163185, 2008 Joint effect of the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    investigated. Joint effect of the WPWP and EPWP on ENSO was examined based on a joint effect index, which by the WPWP and EPWP on ENSO, and the joint effect of both warm pools must be considered. A joint index of 1 global climate abnormity and serious drought or flood, and cold calamity in many regions of the world

  12. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction: complications and innovations.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C; Lubowitz, James H; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Minimally invasive anatomic reconstruction of the acromioclavicular joint is a technically challenging procedure. The repair must be sufficiently strong and reconstitute the joint as closely as possible. This includes restoration of both superior-inferior stability, and the often overlooked anterior-posterior stability, of the acromioclavicular joint. There is no gold standard treatment for acromioclavicular joint separation. PMID:25953219

  13. Degenerative joint disease in captive waterfowl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Degernes; P. S. Lynch; H. L. Shivaprasad

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate degenerative joint disease (DJD) in captive waterfowl that died or were euthanized at Fresno's Chaffee Zoo in Fresno, California, USA from 2001 to 2005. Of these, 16 out of 33 birds (48%) had DJD in one or both stifle (femoral–tibiotarsal joint; n = 13), hock (tibiotarsal–tarsometatarsal joint; n = 4), or toe joints

  14. Young Children's Understanding of Joint Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    When adults make a joint commitment to act together, they feel an obligation to their partner. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether young children also understand joint commitments to act together. In the first study, when an adult orchestrated with the child a joint commitment to play a game together and then broke off from their joint

  15. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture...VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by...

  16. Joint Press Release TWELFTH ITER NEGOTIATION MEETING

    E-print Network

    Joint Press Release TWELFTH ITER NEGOTIATION MEETING Jeju, Korea, 6 December th 2005 Delegations on an Agreement on the joint implementation of the ITER international fusion energy project. This was the first/6/05 1:21 PMDraft Joint News Release Page 1 of 2http://www.iter.org/N_12_Joint_Press_Release.htm #12

  17. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture...VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by...

  18. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture...VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by...

  19. 7 CFR 97.14 - Joint applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint applicants. 97.14 Section 97.14 Agriculture...VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.14 Joint applicants. (a) Joint owners shall file a joint application by...

  20. Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Exposed {001} Facets for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2015-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were synthesized from Ti powder via a sequential hydrothermal reaction process. At the first-step hydrothermal reaction, H-titanate nanowires were obtained in NaOH solution with Ti powder, and at second-step hydrothermal reaction, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were formed in NH4F solution. If the second-step hydrothermal reaction was carried out in pure water, the H-titanate nanowires were decomposed into random shape anatase-TiO2 nanostructures, as well as few impurity of H2Ti8O17 phase and rutile TiO2 phase. Then, the as-prepared TiO2 nanostructures synthesized in NH4F solution and pure water were applied to the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.06% (VOC of 0.756?V, JSC of 14.80?mA/cm2, FF of 0.631) and 3.47% (VOC of 0.764?V, JSC of 6.86?mA/cm2, FF of 0.662), respectively. The outstanding performance of DSSCs based on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets was attributed to the high activity and large special surface area for excellent capacity of dye adsorption. PMID:26190140

  1. Facets of job effort in bus driver health: deconstructing "effort" in the effort-reward imbalance model.

    PubMed

    Tse, John L M; Flin, Rhona; Mearns, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to test the relative value of developing and using job-specific facets of effort and testing them using J. Siegrist's (1996) effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theory to extend understanding of how one might determine job strain in urban bus driving. In addition, the interactive effects of the ERI model are further investigated to address the lack of research into the relationships of the model's constructs. Using focus groups and published papers, a measure of bus driver effort was created, which was subsequently completed by 186 male U.K. bus drivers as part of a questionnaire study. The results were factor analyzed to create 4 facets of effort, which demonstrated additional variance in predicting strain, above and beyond J. Siegrist's original effort construct. One facet, workload and fatigue, was observed to be a particularly important contributor to strain. The analyses further indicated that the ERI model's assumptions that ERI creates job strain could not be completely upheld, although poorer levels of reward and higher levels of overcommitment were strong main predictors of job strain. Research and applied implications are considered. PMID:17257066

  2. Facet-dependent optical properties of Pd-Cu2O core-shell nanocubes and octahedra.

    PubMed

    Rej, Sourav; Wang, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Ming-Xue; Hsu, Shih-Chen; Tan, Chih-Shan; Lin, Fan-Cheng; Huang, Jer-Shing; Huang, Michael H

    2015-06-18

    Pd-Cu2O core-shell nanocubes and truncated octahedra with six average sizes for each particle shape have been synthesized from 29 nm Pd nanocubes. The nanocubes have average edge lengths of 64-124 nm, while the truncated octahedra are 107-183 nm in the opposite tip distance. The core and shell composition and lattice orientation have been determined, showing the formation of single-crystalline Cu2O shells. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band from the Pd nanocrystal cores is barely visible. However, the Cu2O shells display facet-dependent optical properties. The Cu2O absorption band for smaller Pd-Cu2O cubes is consistently more red-shifted than somewhat larger Pd-Cu2O truncated octahedra. This work again shows that the observed facet-dependent optical phenomenon in metal-Cu2O core-shell nanocrystals is derived from the Cu2O shells. The use of 40 nm Pd cubes as cores gave uniform and size-tunable Pd-Cu2O nanocubes and truncated octahedra that display the Pd SPR band. The Pd SPR band is consistently located at 650 nm for Pd-Cu2O truncated octahedra, and 670 nm for the cubes despite large variation in the shell thickness. Both the Cu2O absorption and the Pd plasmonic band exhibit facet-dependent optical properties. PMID:26059169

  3. Facet-dependent photocatalytic properties of TiO(2) -based composites for energy conversion and environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wee-Jun; Tan, Lling-Lling; Chai, Siang-Piao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2014-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides because of its extraordinary surface, electronic, and photocatalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and the considerable recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic efficiency. Therefore, research attention is being increasingly directed towards engineering the surface structure of TiO2 on the atomic level (namely morphological control of {001} facets on the micro- and nanoscale) to fine-tune its physicochemical properties; this could ultimately lead to the optimization of selectivity and reactivity. This Review encompasses the fundamental principles to enhance the photocatalytic activity by using highly reactive {001}-faceted TiO2 -based composites. The current progress of such composites, with particular emphasis on the photodegradation of pollutants and photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen generation, is also discussed. The progresses made are thoroughly examined for achieving remarkable photocatalytic performances, with additional insights with regard to charge transfer. Finally, a summary and some perspectives on the challenges and new research directions for future exploitation in this emerging frontier are provided, which hopefully would allow for harnessing the outstanding structural and electronic properties of {001} facets for various energy- and environmental-related applications. PMID:24532412

  4. In situ identification of crystal facet-mediated chemical reactions on tetrahexahedral gold nanocrystals using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lang, Xiufeng; You, Tingting; Yin, Penggang; Tan, Enzhong; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Yifan; Zhu, Hongping; Ren, Bin; Guo, Lin

    2013-11-28

    Direct monitoring of a metal-catalyzed reaction by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is always a challenging issue as it needs bifunctional metal structures that have plasmonic properties and also act as catalysts. Here we demonstrate that the tetrahexahedral (THH) gold nanocrystals (Au NCs) with exposed {520} facets give highly enhanced Raman signals from molecules at the interface, permitting in situ observation of chemical transformation from para-aminothiophenol (PATP) to 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB). The origin of the intense SERS signals of DMAB is carefully investigated based on the comparison of the SERS spectra of PATP obtained with both the THH Au NCs and the Au nanospheres with the exposed {111} facets. It is elucidated that the high-index {520} facet rather than the localized surface plasmons of the THH Au NCs plays a key role in producing a high yield of the product DMAB which is accompanied by the selective enhancement of the characteristic Raman signals. PMID:24121935

  5. Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Exposed {001} Facets for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing'ao

    2015-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were synthesized from Ti powder via a sequential hydrothermal reaction process. At the first-step hydrothermal reaction, H-titanate nanowires were obtained in NaOH solution with Ti powder, and at second-step hydrothermal reaction, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were formed in NH4F solution. If the second-step hydrothermal reaction was carried out in pure water, the H-titanate nanowires were decomposed into random shape anatase-TiO2 nanostructures, as well as few impurity of H2Ti8O17 phase and rutile TiO2 phase. Then, the as-prepared TiO2 nanostructures synthesized in NH4F solution and pure water were applied to the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.06% (VOC of 0.756?V, JSC of 14.80?mA/cm(2), FF of 0.631) and 3.47% (VOC of 0.764?V, JSC of 6.86?mA/cm(2), FF of 0.662), respectively. The outstanding performance of DSSCs based on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets was attributed to the high activity and large special surface area for excellent capacity of dye adsorption. PMID:26190140

  6. arXiv:0810.3042v1[physics.bio-ph]16Oct2008 Single-domain protein folding: a multi-faceted

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    arXiv:0810.3042v1[physics.bio-ph]16Oct2008 Single-domain protein folding: a multi-faceted problem protein-like models can help to understand many controversial issues. Keywords: Protein folding, energy

  7. Effect of Head-Neck Position on Cervical Facet Stretch of Post Mortem Human Subjects during Low Speed Rear End Impacts.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srini; Prasad, Priya; Demetropoulos, Constantine K; Tashman, Scott; Begeman, Paul C; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of head-neck position on cervical facet stretch during low speed rear end impact. Twelve tests were conducted on four Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in a generic bucket seat environment. Three head positions, namely Normal (neutral), Zero Clearance between the head and head restraint, and Body Forward positions were tested. A high-speed x-ray system was used to record the motion of cervical vertebrae during these tests. Results demonstrate that: a) The maximum mean facet stretch at head restraint contact occurs at MS4 and MS5 for the Body Forward condition, b) The lower neck flexion moment, prior to head contact, shows a non-linear relationship with facet stretch, and c) "Differential rebound" during rear end impact increases facet stretch. PMID:17230273

  8. How joint is the joint attention of apes and human infants? Malinda Carpenter

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, M.alinda

    How joint is the joint attention of apes and human infants? Malinda Carpenter Josep Call Department In press, Agency and joint attention, H.S. Terrace & J. Metcalfe (Eds.). New York: Oxford University Press. #12;The jointness of joint attention 2 Abstract In this chapter we first argue (following Tomasello

  9. Enhanced performance of {0 0 1} facets dominated mesoporous TiO2 photocatalyst composed of high-reactive nanocrystals and mesoporous spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Chunhua; Ni, Yaru; Peng, Fengping; Xu, Zhongzi

    2013-01-01

    {0 0 1} facets dominated mesoporous anatase TiO2 sheets composed of mesoporous spheres and high reactive nanocrystals with exposed {0 0 1} facets were synthesized successfully with NH4F as the capping agent by the hydrothermal and heat treatment method. The photocatalyst exhibits a high specific surface area and a higher photocatalytic activity than Degussa P25 and pure TiO2 nanosheets in the degradation of organic dyes under UV irradiation.

  10. Delithation, Exfoliation, and Transformation of Rock-Salt-Structured Li2TiO3 to Highly Exposed {010}-Faceted Anatase.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-en; Du, Dejian; Feng, Qi; Yang, Xiaojing

    2015-04-22

    {010}-Facet-exposed anatase TiO2 crystals exhibit the highest photoreactivity among the exposed facets. To obtain a higher exposure rate of this facet, the work investigated the transformation of the nanosheets with cavities within the layers derived from a rock-salt-structured Li2TiO3 precursor. All the lithium ions were extracted from the precursor by H+/Li+ ion exchange in HCl aqueous solutions, and after tetramethylammonium ions were intercalated, the precursor can delaminated into the nanosheets. The [TiO3]2- nanosheets were hydrothermally treated under different temperatures and pH values. The results showed that the anatase phase was formed in a wider range of pH and temperature, compared with using nanoribbons of [Ti4O9]2- and nanosheets of [Ti1.73O4]1.07-. At low pH, [111]-faceted nanorod-shaped anatase nanocrystals were formed preferentially, and the nanocrystals preferentially grow along the [001] direction with the increase of solution pH, leading to a large percentage of {010} facets on their surface. The photocatalytic activity increases with the increase of exposure rate of {010} facets. PMID:25822787

  11. An analysis of a joint shear model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koteras, J.R.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes a joint shear model used in conjunction with a computational model for jointed media with orthogonal joint sets. The joint shear model allows nonlinear behavior for both joint sets. Because nonlinear behavior is allowed for both joint sets, a great many cases must be considered to fully describe the joint shear behavior of the jointed medium. An extensive set of equations is required to describe the joint shear stress and slip displacements that can occur for all the various cases. This report examines possible methods for simplifying this set of equations so that the model can be implemented efficiently form a computational standpoint. The shear model must be examined carefully to obtain a computationally efficient implementation that does not lead to numerical problems. The application to fractures in rock is discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Elk-1 a Transcription Factor with Multiple Facets in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Antoine; Galan-Rodriguez, Beatriz; Vanhoutte, Peter; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    The ternary complex factor (TCF) Elk-1 is a transcription factor that regulates immediate early gene (IEG) expression via the serum response element (SRE) DNA consensus site. Elk-1 is associated with a dimer of serum response factor (SRF) at the SRE site, and its phosphorylation occurs at specific residues in response to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK), p38/MAPK, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK). This phosphorylation event is critical for triggering SRE-dependent transcription. Although MAPKs are fundamental actors for the instatement and maintenance of memory, and much investigation of their downstream signaling partners have been conducted, no data yet clearly implicate Elk-1 in these processes. This is partly due to the complexity of Elk-1 sub-cellular localization, and hence functions, within neurons. Elk-1 is present in its resting state in the cytoplasm, where it colocalizes with mitochondrial proteins or microtubules. In this particular sub-cellular compartment, overexpression of Elk-1 is toxic for neuronal cells. When phosphorylated by the MAPK/ERK, Elk-1 translocates to the nucleus where it is implicated in regulating chromatin remodeling, SRE-dependent transcription, and neuronal differentiation. Another post-translational modification is the conjugation to SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier), which relocalizes Elk-1 in the cytoplasm. Thus, Elk-1 plays a dual role in neuronal functions: pro-apoptotic within the cytoplasm, and pro-differentiation within the nucleus. To address the role of Elk-1 in the brain, one must be aware of its multiple facets, and design molecular tools that will shut down Elk-1 expression, trafficking, or activation, in specific neuronal compartments. We summarize in this review the known molecular functions of Elk-1, its regulation in neuronal cells, and present evidence of its possible implication in model systems of synaptic plasticity, learning, but also in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21441990

  13. Faceting of Nanocrystals during Chemical Transformation: FromSolid Silver Spheres to Hollow Gold Octahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yadong; Erdonmez, Can; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-06-23

    Sustained progress in nanocrystal synthesis has enabled recent use of these materials as inorganic, macromolecular precursors that can be chemically transformed into new nanostructures. The literature now contains several cases with chemical transformations being accompanied by varying degrees of modification of properties, including crystal structure and particle shape. As a recent example, we demonstrated that as-synthesized metallic nanocrystals yield, upon oxidation, nanostructures with modified morphologies such as hollow particles. This morphological change derives from directional material flows due to differing diffusivities for the reacting atomic species, in a nanoscale version of the well-known Kirkendall Effect. This general methodology has since been extended by other groups to produce nanostructures with various compositions and shapes. We demonstrate that performing a replacement reaction on single crystalline Ag nanospheres of {approx}10 nm in diameter in an organic solvent produces hollow Au nanocrystals with an octahedral shape. Different from those Au shells made by starting with Ag particles about one order of magnitude larger, which largely reproduce that of the sacrificial Ag counterparts, the hollow nanocrystals obtained in this work show significant changes in the external morphology from the spherical Ag precursors. This evolution of a faceted external morphology during chemical transformation is made possible by the enhanced role of surface effects in our smaller nanocrystals. The competition between the Au atom deposition and Ag atom dissolution on various nanocrystal surfaces is believed to determine the final octahedral shape of the hollow Au nanocrystals. Simultaneous achievement of surface-mediated shape control and a hollow morphology in a one-pot, single-step synthetic procedure in this study promises an avenue to finer tuning of particle morphology, and thus physical properties such as surface plasmon resonance.

  14. Unsharp measurements and joint measurability

    E-print Network

    H. S. Karthik; A. R. Usha Devi; A. K. Rajagopal

    2015-05-16

    We give an overview of joint unsharp measurements of non-commuting observables using positive operator valued measures (POVMs). We exemplify the role played by joint measurability of POVMs in entropic uncertainty relation for Alice's pair of non-commuting observables in the presence of Bob's entangled quantum memory. We show that Bob should record the outcomes of incompatible (non-jointly measurable) POVMs in his quantum memory so as to beat the entropic uncertainty bound. In other words, in addition to the presence of entangled Alice-Bob state, implementing incompatible POVMs at Bob's end is necessary to beat the uncertainty bound and hence, predict the outcomes of non-commuting observables with improved precision. We also explore the implications of joint measurability to {\\em validate} a moment matrix constructed from average pairwise correlations of three dichotomic non-commuting qubit observables. We prove that a classically acceptable moment matrix -- which ascertains the existence of a legitimate joint probability distribution for the outcomes of all the three dichotomic observables -- could be realized if and only if compatible POVMs are employed.

  15. Strength of welded copper joints

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzyukova, A.N.; Fedorenko, M.I.; Kovalenko, N.I.; Zelik, E.I.

    1983-07-01

    A coefficient of the strength of welded joints in structures of copper and its alloys made by manual arc welding are known. At the Severedonetsk Branch of the Institute of Chemical Engineering the strength coefficients were determined for welded joints made of MZR (phosphorous-deoxydized) copper produced by manual argonarc welding. Optimum welding regimes were selected, and specimens of strips tested for tensile strength. Metallographic investigations showed significant grain growth in the zone of thermal influence. The results of mechanical tests are given. The results are verified by the fabrication of nine models. All the models ruptured in the zone of thermal influence, confirming results that the zone of thermal influence was the weak point in the welded joints in copper.

  16. Joint service EOD robotics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Kurt; Brezina, Byron; DeBolt, Chris

    2006-05-01

    Within the military, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) community has been an early adopter of robotic capabilities. The Joint Service EOD (JSEOD) Program is in the process of fielding its third generation of robotic systems to the EOD technicians. Robots have been an invaluable asset to the EOD technician, and they have been critical to operations in Iraq as we prosecute the IED problem. This paper provides a brief history of past EOD robotic systems, a description of currently fielded and supported systems, and the future of robotic programs within the Joint Service EOD community.

  17. [Divorce and joint physical custody].

    PubMed

    Golse, B

    2014-04-01

    This work first recalls the definition of joint physical custody, as well as the current legal procedure for obtaining it, its practical implementation, the financial implications for parents, and finally some statistics. Some psychological and psychopathological reflections on the impact of divorce on children are then presented before considering the question of joint physically custody with regard to attachment theory and depending on the age of the child (a great caution seems to be required before three years). The article concludes with a brief discussion of parental alienation syndrome. PMID:24630624

  18. Surgical and clinical efficacy of sacroiliac joint fusion: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Montoure, Andrew J; Dickman, Curtis A

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and surgical intervention for treating SIJ pain or dysfunction has been a topic of much debate in recent years. There has been a resurgence in the implication of this joint as the pain generator for many patients experiencing low-back pain, and new surgical methods are gaining popularity within both the orthopedic and neurosurgical fields. There is no universally accepted gold standard for diagnosing or surgically treating SIJ pain. The authors systematically reviewed studies on SIJ fusion in the neurosurgical and orthopedic literature to investigate whether sufficient evidence exists to support its use. METHODS A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and OvidSP-Wolters Kluwer Health for all articles regarding SIJ fusion published from 2000 to 2014. Original, peer-reviewed, prospective or retrospective scientific papers with at least 2 patients were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included follow-up shorter than 1-year, nonsurgical treatment, inadequate clinical data as determined by 2 independent reviewers, non-English manuscripts, and nonhuman subjects. RESULTS A total of 16 peer-reviewed journal articles met the inclusion criteria: 5 consecutive case series, 8 retrospective studies, and 3 prospective cohort studies. A total of 430 patients were included, of whom 131 underwent open surgery and 299 underwent minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for SIJ fusion. The mean duration of follow-up was 60 months for open surgery and 21 months for MIS. SIJ degeneration/arthrosis was the most common pathology among patients undergoing surgical intervention (present in 257 patients [59.8%]), followed by SIJ dysfunction (79 [18.4%]), postpartum instability (31 [7.2%]), posttraumatic (28 [6.5%]), idiopathic (25 [5.8%]), pathological fractures (6 [1.4%]), and HLA-B27+/rheumatoid arthritis (4 [0.9%]). Radiographically confirmed fusion rates were 20%-90% for open surgery and 13%-100% for MIS. Rates of excellent satisfaction, determined by pain reduction, function, and quality of life, ranged from 18% to 100% with a mean of 54% in open surgical cases. For MIS patients, excellent outcome, judged by patients' stated satisfaction with the surgery, ranged from 56% to 100% (mean 84%). The reoperation rate after open surgery ranged from 0% to 65% (mean 15%). Reoperation rate after MIS ranged from 0% to 17% (mean 6%). Major complication rates ranged from 5% to 20%, with 1 study that addressed safety reporting a 56% adverse event rate. CONCLUSIONS Surgical intervention for SIJ pain is beneficial in a subset of patients. However, with the difficulty in accurate diagnosis and evidence for the efficacy of SIJ fusion itself lacking, serious consideration of the cause of pain and alternative treatments should be given before performing the operation. PMID:25840040

  19. One year follow-up of a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of a group-based fatigue management programme (FACETS) for people with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness at 1-year follow-up of a manualised group-based programme (‘FACETS’) for managing MS-fatigue. Methods One-year follow-up of a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial. People with MS and significant fatigue were randomised to FACETS plus current local practice (FACETS) or current local practice alone (CLP), using concealed computer-generated randomisation. Participant blinding was not possible. Primary outcome measures were fatigue severity (Global Fatigue Severity subscale of the Fatigue Assessment Instrument), self-efficacy (MS-Fatigue Self-Efficacy) and disease-specific quality of life (MS Impact Scale). Results Between May 2008 and November 2009, 164 participants were randomised. Primary outcome data were available at 1 year for 131 (80%). The benefits demonstrated at 4-months in the FACETS arm for fatigue severity and self-efficacy largely persisted, with a slight reduction in standardised effect sizes (SES) (?0.29, p?=?0.06 and 0.34, p?=?0.09, respectively). There was a significant difference on the MS Impact Scale favouring FACETS that had not been present at 4-months (SES ?0.24, p?=?0.046). No adverse events were reported. Conclusions Improvements in fatigue severity and self-efficacy at 4-months follow-up following attendance of FACETS were mostly sustained at 1 year with additional improvements in MS impact. The FACETS programme provides modest long-term benefits to people with MS-fatigue. Trial registration ISRCTN76517470 PMID:24886398

  20. Facet-dependent optical properties of Pd-Cu2O core-shell nanocubes and octahedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rej, Sourav; Wang, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Ming-Xue; Hsu, Shih-Chen; Tan, Chih-Shan; Lin, Fan-Cheng; Huang, Jer-Shing; Huang, Michael H.

    2015-06-01

    Pd-Cu2O core-shell nanocubes and truncated octahedra with six average sizes for each particle shape have been synthesized from 29 nm Pd nanocubes. The nanocubes have average edge lengths of 64-124 nm, while the truncated octahedra are 107-183 nm in the opposite tip distance. The core and shell composition and lattice orientation have been determined, showing the formation of single-crystalline Cu2O shells. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band from the Pd nanocrystal cores is barely visible. However, the Cu2O shells display facet-dependent optical properties. The Cu2O absorption band for smaller Pd-Cu2O cubes is consistently more red-shifted than somewhat larger Pd-Cu2O truncated octahedra. This work again shows that the observed facet-dependent optical phenomenon in metal-Cu2O core-shell nanocrystals is derived from the Cu2O shells. The use of 40 nm Pd cubes as cores gave uniform and size-tunable Pd-Cu2O nanocubes and truncated octahedra that display the Pd SPR band. The Pd SPR band is consistently located at 650 nm for Pd-Cu2O truncated octahedra, and 670 nm for the cubes despite large variation in the shell thickness. Both the Cu2O absorption and the Pd plasmonic band exhibit facet-dependent optical properties.Pd-Cu2O core-shell nanocubes and truncated octahedra with six average sizes for each particle shape have been synthesized from 29 nm Pd nanocubes. The nanocubes have average edge lengths of 64-124 nm, while the truncated octahedra are 107-183 nm in the opposite tip distance. The core and shell composition and lattice orientation have been determined, showing the formation of single-crystalline Cu2O shells. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band from the Pd nanocrystal cores is barely visible. However, the Cu2O shells display facet-dependent optical properties. The Cu2O absorption band for smaller Pd-Cu2O cubes is consistently more red-shifted than somewhat larger Pd-Cu2O truncated octahedra. This work again shows that the observed facet-dependent optical phenomenon in metal-Cu2O core-shell nanocrystals is derived from the Cu2O shells. The use of 40 nm Pd cubes as cores gave uniform and size-tunable Pd-Cu2O nanocubes and truncated octahedra that display the Pd SPR band. The Pd SPR band is consistently located at 650 nm for Pd-Cu2O truncated octahedra, and 670 nm for the cubes despite large variation in the shell thickness. Both the Cu2O absorption and the Pd plasmonic band exhibit facet-dependent optical properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic procedure for making 40 nm Pd cubes, exact amounts of reagents used in the synthesis of Pd-Cu2O nanocrystals, particle size distribution histograms, additional TEM images, simulation spectra for Pd cores, photographs of the particle solutions, and details of numerical methods for generating simulation spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01411e

  1. A single-stage posterior approach with open reduction and pedicle screw fixation in subaxial cervical facet dislocations.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hoon; Roh, Sung Woo; Rhim, Seung Chul

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The optimal treatment for cervical facet dislocations is controversial, but the generally accepted process recommends an initial closed reduction with the next step determined according to the success of the closed reduction and the presence of traumatic disc herniation. This study aimed to show the efficacy of a posterior approach performed with an open reduction and pedicle screw fixation with removal of disc particles, if required, in the management of subaxial cervical dislocations. METHODS Between March 2012 and September 2013, 21 consecutive patients with cervical facet dislocations were enrolled. The affected levels were as follows: 4 at C3-4; 2 at C4-5; 5 at C5-6; and 10 at the C6-7 level. Seven patients had traumatic disc herniations. Closed reduction was not attempted; a prompt posterior cervical surgery was performed instead. After open reduction, pedicle screw fixation was performed. In cases with traumatic disc herniation, herniated disc fragments were excised via a posterolateral approach and successful decompressions were determined by postoperative MRI studies. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grading system. Radiological outcomes were assessed by comparing the degree of subluxation and the angle of segmental lordosis between pre- and postoperative CT scans. RESULTS All patients improved neurologically. The mean segmental angles improved from 7.3° ± 8.68° to -5.9° ± 4.85°. The mean subluxation improved from 23.4% ± 16.52% to 2.6% ± 7.19%. Disc fragments were successfully removed from the 7 patients with herniated discs, as shown on MRI. CONCLUSIONS Open reduction followed by pedicle screw fixation or posterolateral removal of herniated disc fragments is a good treatment option for cervical facet dislocations. PMID:25909272

  2. Joint service EOD robotics program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Hacker; Byron Brezina; Chris DeBolt

    2006-01-01

    Within the military, the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) community has been an early adopter of robotic capabilities. The Joint Service EOD (JSEOD) Program is in the process of fielding its third generation of robotic systems to the EOD technicians. Robots have been an invaluable asset to the EOD technician, and they have been critical to operations in Iraq as we

  3. OBSERVATION DIRECT DES JOINTS INTERGRANULAIRES.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    OF INTERFACES D. A. SMITH Department of Metallurgy, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, England. RCsum6 interfaciales conservent I'ordre dans les joints et leurs propriCtCs peuvent contrbler les processus qui se transmission electron microscopy. Interfacial dislocations conserve the order at boundaries and their behaviour

  4. [Metabolic bone and joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Endo, Itsuro

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic bone and joint diseases in adults include osteomalacia, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis. Recently, the newest molecular biology procedures and the clinical observation studies can produce good results for understanding of these diseases. From this perspective, the author introduced updated information of the pathophysiology, the latest diagnostic criteria and the therapy of these diseases. PMID:25509803

  5. Space station rotary joint mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driskill, Glen W.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism which will be used on the space station to position the solar arrays and radiator panels for Sun pointing and Sun avoidance is described. The unique design features will be demonstrated on advanced development models of two of the joints being fabricated under contract to NASA-MSFC.

  6. [Fetal bone and joint disorders].

    PubMed

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2008-12-21

    The article discusses the physiology and pathology of fetal bone and joint development and functions. The bones provide static support for the body. The skull and the bones of spinal column encase the central and part of the peripheral nervous system. The ribs and the sternum shield the heart and the lungs, while the bones of the pelvis protect the intraabdominal organs. Pathological changes of these bony structures may impair the functions of the respective systems or internal organs. Movements of the bones are brought about by muscles. The deriving motions are facilitated by joints. Bony anomalies of the extremities limit their effective functions. Apart from skeletal and joint abnormalities, akinesia may also be caused by neurological, muscular and skin diseases that secondarily affect the functions of bones and joints. Such pathological changes may lead to various degrees of physical disability and even to death. Some of the mentioned anomalies are recognizable in utero by ultrasound. The diagnosis may serve as medical indication for abortion in those instances when the identified abnormality is incompatible with independent life. PMID:19073454

  7. Offered jointly with International Business

    E-print Network

    Offered jointly with Master in International Business #12;.02 Welcome to Barcelona Welcome to UPF where business, culture and social life drive the community. Barcelona has one of the world's highest. Master in International Business #12;ESCI, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional www.esci.upf.edu .03

  8. JD MADR Joint Degree Description

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    ) are considered equivalent to two core MADR courses, DR 7220 (Neutral Intervention) and DR 7210 (Negotiation (Alternative Dispute Resolution) are equivalent, to the core MADR courses of DR 7210 (Negotiation), DR 7220. Sample Schedule For JD/MADR Joint Degree YEAR 1: Fall Semester Total Cr. JD Cr. MADR Cr. LEX 6100 - Civil

  9. Plating To Reinforce Welded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otousa, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Electrodeposition used to strengthen welded joints gouged, nicked, or suffered other mechanical damage. Plating cell, typically of acrylic plastic such as poly (Methylmetacrylate), is assembled around part to be plated. Areas not to be plated are masked with plater's tape. Weld area is plated in standard nickel-plating process.

  10. Methods of jointing ceramic pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Arkhipov; Z. O. Nemchenok

    1975-01-01

    In Czechoslovakia the ceramic pipes are jointed with the help of rubber sealing rings. The rings have a reinforced core and two internal flaps. In the cuff of the ring a steel reinforcement is pressed which hinders its deformation during mounting. The ring has a conical shape and when installed in the neck of a pipe, it clamps by itself.

  11. The Joint Gravity Model 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Tapley; M. M. Watkins; J. C. Ries; G. W. Davis; R. J. Eanes; S. R. Poole; H. J. Rim; B. E. Schutz; C. K. Shum; R. S. Nerem; F. J. Lerch; J. A. Marshall; S. M. Klosko; N. K. Pavlis; R. G. Williamson

    1996-01-01

    An improved Earth geopotential model, complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 70, has been determined by combining the Joint Gravity Model 1 (JGM 1) geopotential coefficients, and their associated error covariance, with new information from SLR, DORIS, and GPS tracking of TOPEX\\/Poseidon, laser tracking of LAGEOS 1, LAGEOS 2, and Stella, and additional DORIS tracking of SPOT 2. The

  12. Chicken Skeleton - Gliding Joint (Skull)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-28

    The chicken uses its beak to pick up small pieces of food from the ground. The gliding joint at the base of the skull allows the chicken to move its head in different directions. It can also defend itself by pecking.

  13. Sea Lion Skeleton (Gliding Joint)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, B)

    2007-07-14

    Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

  14. Joint measurements and Svetlichny's inequality

    E-print Network

    Yang Xiang; Wei Ren

    2010-12-27

    We prove that the Svetlichny's inequality can be derived from the existence of joint measurements and the principle of no-signaling. Then we show that, on the basis of quantum measurement assumption, it would imply the breach of causality if the magnitude of violation of Svetlichny's inequality exceeds quantum bound.

  15. The Feasibility of Near-field ODR Beam-size Monitoring at 23 GeV at FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; /Fermilab; Yao, C.-Y.; /Argonne; Hogan, M.; /SLAC; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.

    2012-06-01

    Extension of near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) imaging to the 23 GeV beams at the proposed FACET facility at SLAC has been evaluated. The beam-size sensitivity at the 10- to 20-{micro}m sigma level based on a simple model will be reported. Polarization effects are also seen to be important and will be discussed. The comparisons to previous experimental results and the modeling results indicate sufficient feasibility for planning of the experiments in the coming year.

  16. The feasibility of near-field ODR beam-size monitoring at 23 GeV at FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; /Fermilab; Yao, C.-Y.; /Argonne; Hogan, M.; /SLAC; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.

    2011-03-01

    Extension of near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) imaging to the 23 GeV beams at the proposed FACET facility at SLAC has been evaluated. The beam-size sensitivity at the 10- to 20-{micro}m sigma level based on a simple model will be reported. Polarization effects are also seen to be important and will be discussed. The comparisons to previous experimental results and the modeling results indicate sufficient feasibility for planning of the experiments in the coming year.

  17. Valid inequalities and facets for a hypergraph model of the nonlinear knapsack and the FMS part selection problems

    SciTech Connect

    Crama, Y.; Mazzola, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper defines the dense subhypergraph problem (DSP), which provides a generalized modelling framework for the nonlinear knapsack problem and other well-known problems arising in areas such as capital budgeting, flexible manufacturing system production planning, repair-kit selection, and compiler construction. We define several families of valid inequalities and state conditions under which these inequalities are facet-defining for DSP. We also explore the polyhedral structure of the cardinality-constrained DSP. Finally, we examine a special case of this problem that arises, for example, within the context of Lagrangian decomposition. For this case, we present a complete description of the convex hull of the feasible region.

  18. Tests on riveted joints in sheet duralumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rettew, H F; Thumin, G

    1923-01-01

    In making tension tests, the slippage of the joints was noted at three points across each joint. In addition, stress strain curves were obtained for plain tension specimens, and a chemical analysis was made of the sheet.

  19. Joint Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ?????????? ?????? ??????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Home Care After Total Joint Replacement ... zamjene zgloba - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Home Care After Total Joint ...

  20. 30 CFR 36.24 - Engine joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.24 Engine joints. (a) Cylinder head. The joint between the cylinder...

  1. 30 CFR 36.24 - Engine joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.24 Engine joints. (a) Cylinder head. The joint between the cylinder...

  2. Shear-Joint Capability Versus Bolt Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Technical Memorandum presents theoretical study of relationships between load-bearing capabilities of shear joints that comprise plates clamped together by multiple bolts and clearances between bolts and boltholes in those joints.

  3. Capacity prediction of welded timber joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Till Vallée; Thomas Tannert; Christelle Ganne-Chedville

    Linear vibration welding of timber structural elements provides new opportunities to potentially achieve structural joints.\\u000a This paper investigates to which extent welded joints can be considered for load-bearing structural joints. On the basis of\\u000a a series of experimental and numerical investigations on a series of welded single-lap joints, failure modes were identified,\\u000a and the associated failure criterion was quantified. A

  4. Transition from ripples to faceted structures under low-energy argon ion bombardment of silicon: understanding the role of shadowing and sputtering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we have investigated temporal evolution of silicon surface topography under 500-eV argon ion bombardment for two angles of incidence, namely 70° and 72.5°. For both angles, parallel-mode ripples are observed at low fluences (up to 2 × 1017 ions cm-2) which undergo a transition to faceted structures at a higher fluence of 5 × 1017 ions cm-2. Facet coarsening takes place at further higher fluences. This transition from ripples to faceted structures is attributed to the shadowing effect due to a height difference between peaks and valleys of the ripples. The observed facet coarsening is attributed to a mechanism based on reflection of primary ions from the facets. In addition, the role of sputtering is investigated (for both the angles) by computing the fractional change in sputtering yield and the evolution of surface roughness. PACS 81.05.Cy, 81.16.Rf, 61.80.Jh, 87.64.Dz PMID:23782769

  5. Analytical solution for the normal emission portion of the averaged Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzvieskii-Paddack coefficient for a single facet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuja, Antonella A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-02-01

    The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzvieskii-Paddack (YORP) effect has been well studied for asteroids. This paper develops an analytic solution to find the normal emission YORP component for a single facet. The solution presented here does not account for self-shadowing or self-heating. The YORP coefficient for all facets can be summed together to find the total coefficient of the asteroid. The normal emission component of YORP has been shown to be the most important for asteroids and it directly affects the rate of change of the asteroid's spin period. The analytical solution found is a sole function of the facet's geometry and the obliquity of the asteroid. This solution is universal for any facet and its orientation. The behaviour of the coefficient is analysed with this analytical solution. The closed-form solution is used to find the total YORP coefficient for the asteroids Apollo and 1998 ML14 whose shape models are composed of different numbers of facets. The results are then compared to published results and those obtained through numerical quadrature for validation.

  6. Synthesis of high-quality brookite TiO2 single-crystalline nanosheets with specific facets exposed: tuning catalysts from inert to highly reactive.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haifeng; Li, Liping; Zhao, Minglei; Huang, Xinsong; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Guangshe; Yu, Richeng

    2012-05-23

    The brookite phase of TiO(2) is hardly prepared and rarely studied in comparison with the common anatase and rutile phases. In addition, there exist immense controversies over the cognition of the light-induced liveliness of this material. Here, a novel, low-basicity solution chemistry method was first used to prepare homogeneous high-quality brookite TiO(2) single-crystalline nanosheets surrounded with four {210}, two {101}, and two {201} facets. These nanosheets exhibited outstanding activity toward the catalytic degradation of organic contaminants superior even to that of Degussa P25, due to the exposure of high-energy facets and the effective suppression of recombination rates of photogenerated electrons and holes by these facets as the oxidative and reductive sites. In contrast, irregularly faceted phase-pure brookite nanoflowers and nanospindles were inactive in catalytic reactions. These results demonstrate that the photocatalytic activity of brookite TiO(2) is highly dependent upon its exposed facets, which offers a strategy for tuning the catalysts from inert to highly active through tailoring of the morphology and surface structure. PMID:22559221

  7. Green synthesis of Pt-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed (001) facets and mesoscopic void space for photo-splitting of water under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Biplab; Amoli, Vipin; Maurya, Abhayankar; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-06-01

    We report a non-trivial facile chemical approach using ionic liquid ([bmim][Cl]) as a porogen for the synthesis of (001) faceted TiO2 nanocrystals having mesoscopic void space. This faceted TiO2 nanomaterial has been doped with Pt nanoclusters through chemical impregnation. The resulting Pt-doped TiO2 nanomaterials are thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and N2 sorption studies. These Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets are employed as efficient and benign catalysts for hydrogen production from pure water and methanol-water systems under one AM 1.5G sunlight illumination. The effect of platinum loading and methanol-water ratio on the photocatalytic activity of the faceted TiO2 nanocrystals are investigated and it is found that hydrogen evolution rates have been enhanced significantly upon Pt loading. Under optimized reaction conditions the highest photocatalytic activity of 11.2 mmol h(-1) g(-1) has been achieved over ca. 1.0 wt% Pt loaded Pt/TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) exposed facets, which is one of the highest hydrogen evolution rates over the noble metal/TiO2 system reported to date in the literature. PMID:26008203

  8. One-pot synthesis of high-index faceted AgCl nanocrystals with trapezohedral, concave hexoctahedral structures and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibin; Lu, Yonggang; Liu, Hong; Fang, Jingzhong

    2015-07-21

    AgCl semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with trapezohedral (TPH) and concave hexoctahedral (HOH) structures have been successfully synthesized for the first time in high yield by a direct one-pot solvothermal method. The as-prepared TPH, concave HOH AgCl NCs with unconventional polyhedral shapes and smooth surfaces were enclosed by 24 high-index {311} facets and 48 high-index {15 5 2} facets, respectively. A specific ionic liquid poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA) acted as both a Cl(-) ion precursor and a morphology-controlled stabilizer, which was indispensable for the formation of these high-index faceted AgCl polyhedra and the derived uniform octahedral AgCl in an appropriate concentration of hot AgNO3 and ethylene glycol (EG) solution. With high-index facets exposed, both TPH and concave HOH AgCl NCs exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than octahedral AgCl NCs that have mainly {111} faces exposed, with lower surface areas and surface energies, for the degradation of organics under sunlight. It is expected that the use of polyhedral AgCl NCs with high-index facets is an effective approach for the design of alternative semiconductor photocatalysts with a high performance, which may find potential applications such as in photochromics and environmental management. PMID:26088365

  9. Biomechanical considerations in patellofemoral joint rehabilitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Steinkamp; Michael F. Dillingham; Mark D. Markel; Jennifer A. Hill; Kenton R. Kaufman

    1993-01-01

    Patellofemoral joint biomechanics during leg press and leg extension exercises were compared in 20 normal subjects (10 men, 10 women) aged 18 to 45 years. Knee moment, patellofemoral joint reaction force, and patellofemoral joint stress were calculated for each subject at four knee flexion angles (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°) during leg press and leg extension exercises.All three parameters (knee

  10. of Concrete Pavements Joint PerformanCe

    E-print Network

    practitioners under- stand how to optimize concrete pavement joint perfor- mance through the identificationof Concrete Pavements Joint PerformanCe interim Guide for optimum JUNE 2012 #12;#12;Interim Guide for Optimum Joint Performance of Concrete Pavements i Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2

  11. New insights in critical solder joint location

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitul Modi; Carolyn McCormick; Norman Armendariz

    2005-01-01

    Current numerical modeling approaches to assess BGA solder joint thermal mechanical fatigue, typically identify the max DNP (distance from neutral point) solder joint as the first to fail. An experimental and numerical analysis has shown that critical solder joints can be located interior to the max DNP location. In this work, FCBGA packages were subjected to accelerated thermal cycling stress.

  12. Translational stiffness of the replaced shoulder joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Oosterom; J. L. Herder; W. ?wi?szkowski; H. E. N. Bersee

    2003-01-01

    Results after a total shoulder arthroplasty in rheumatoid patients are poor, indicated by loosening of especially the glenoid component, bad joint functionality and the possibility of a joint dislocation. The failure mechanisms behind this are multiple, including patient, surgical and design factors. These results must be improved. At present, the optimal geometrical prosthesis component design, focused on joint conformity and

  13. 49 CFR 192.233 - Miter joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.233 Miter joints. (a) A miter joint on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure...than 3°. (b) A miter joint on steel pipe to be operated at a...

  14. 49 CFR 192.233 - Miter joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.233 Miter joints. (a) A miter joint on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure...than 3°. (b) A miter joint on steel pipe to be operated at a...

  15. 49 CFR 192.233 - Miter joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.233 Miter joints. (a) A miter joint on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure...than 3°. (b) A miter joint on steel pipe to be operated at a...

  16. Joints in deployable space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since the response of deployable structural concepts being considered for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) backup structure will be dominated by the response of joints, the joint characteristics are significant. An overview is given of the research activities at LaRC on the static behavior of joints for deployable space truss structures. Since a pin-clevis-type joint will be utilized in deployable structures, an experimental research program to characterize the joint parameters which affect stiffness was conducted. An experimental research program was conducted on a second type of joint, referred to as a near-center latch joint. It was used in the center of members on the deployable truss structure for the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) flight experiment. The test results of the near-center latch joint and the member with the joints indicated that the stiffness of the near-center joint is linear and stiffer than the stiffness of the total member, and that non-linearities in the stiffness characteristics of the total member were due to bending introduced at the ends of the member. The resulting data indicates that stiff linear folding joints can be designed and that bending load paths should be avoided whenever possible. In summary, for deployable structures, special attention to the joint and the structure design is required to minimize the undesirable structural non-linearities.

  17. Stabilization for chronic sternoclavicular joint instability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Uk; Park, Il-Jung; Kim, Young-Du; Kim, Yoon-Chung; Jeong, Changhoon

    2010-12-01

    We present a surgical reconstruction technique for chronic unstable sternoclavicular (SC) joint utilizing the tendon of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and additional augmentation utilizing the palmaris longus free tendon graft to secure the medial end of the clavicle to the first rib. This double stabilization procedure may strengthen the SC joint fixation for the chronic SC joint instability. PMID:20852846

  18. Navigating Joint Projects in Telephone Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangerter, Adrian; Clark, Herbert H.; Katz, Anna R.

    2004-01-01

    Conversation coordinates joint activities and the joint projects that compose them. Participants coordinate (1) vertical transitions on entering and exiting joint projects; and (2) horizontal transitions in continuing within them. Transitions are coordinated using project markers such as uh-huh, yeah, right, and okay. In the authors' proposal,…

  19. The frictional properties of joints in rock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Jaeger

    1959-01-01

    Summary The conditions for sliding over artificial joint surfaces have been studied experimentally by cutting rock cylinders at various angles to their axes and studying slip over these surfaces in a triaxial testing apparatus. The types of joint used were: (i) filled with plaster to simulate a soft joint filling, (ii) bare surfaces ground approximately flat, and (iii) natural surfaces

  20. Septic arthritis of the acromioclavicular joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Blankstein; J. L. Amsallem; E. Rubinstein; H. Horoszowski; I. Farin

    1985-01-01

    A patient with isolated pyogenous arthritis of the acromioclavicular joint (A-C joint) caused by Streptococcus viridans is described. The patient had no underlying disease. Minor trauma preceded shortly the development of the septic process. The patient was treated successfully with surgical drainage and antibiotics. To our knowledge this is the first case report of septic arthritis of the A-C joint

  1. Evaluation and Treatment of Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Augustus D. Mazzocca; Robert A. Arciero; James Bicos

    2007-01-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries and, more specifically, separations are commonplace both in general practice and during athletic participation. This article reviews the traditional classification as well as the clinical evaluation of patients with acute and chronic acromioclavicular joint separations. It also highlights many recent advances, principally in the anatomy and biomechanics of the acromioclavicular joint ligamentous complex. The concept of increases

  2. 32 CFR 536.54 - Joint tortfeasors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Joint tortfeasors. 536.54 Section 536.54 National...Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.54 Joint tortfeasors. When joint tortfeasors are liable, it is DA policy to...

  3. Joint News Release ELEVENTH ITER NEGOTIATIONS MEETING

    E-print Network

    Joint News Release ELEVENTH ITER NEGOTIATIONS MEETING CHENGDU , CHINA, 24OCTOBER 2005 Delegations of America met in CHENGDU on 24October 2005 to continue their work to reach agreement on the joint the project and its procurements, and the continuing joint drafting of the agreement on establishing

  4. 32 CFR 536.54 - Joint tortfeasors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Joint tortfeasors. 536.54 Section 536.54 National...Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.54 Joint tortfeasors. When joint tortfeasors are liable, it is DA policy to...

  5. 29 CFR 570.115 - Joint applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Joint applicability. 570.115 Section 570...Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Joint and Separate Applicability of Sections 12(a) and 12(c) § 570.115 Joint applicability. The child labor...

  6. 32 CFR 536.54 - Joint tortfeasors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Joint tortfeasors. 536.54 Section 536.54 National...Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.54 Joint tortfeasors. When joint tortfeasors are liable, it is DA policy to...

  7. 7 CFR 1956.110 - Joint debtors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint debtors. 1956.110 Section 1956.110...Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.110 Joint debtors. Settlements may not be approved for one joint debtor unless approved for all...

  8. 7 CFR 1956.110 - Joint debtors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint debtors. 1956.110 Section 1956.110...Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.110 Joint debtors. Settlements may not be approved for one joint debtor unless approved for all...

  9. 7 CFR 1956.110 - Joint debtors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Joint debtors. 1956.110 Section 1956.110...Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.110 Joint debtors. Settlements may not be approved for one joint debtor unless approved for all...

  10. JOINT DEGREE PROGRAMS DEFINITION AND POLICY

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    1 JOINT DEGREE PROGRAMS DEFINITION AND POLICY: Within the fields of medicine and law, dual training for such complementary training can be demonstrated, the creation of a formal "Joint" degree program in which students or MD) offered at Penn State may be warranted. Such Joint degree programs enhance the educational

  11. Joint action: bodies and minds moving together

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Daniel C.

    Joint action: bodies and minds moving together Natalie Sebanz1 , Harold Bekkering2 and Gu¨ nther as individuals and as a species. Progress in understanding the cognitive and neural processes involved in joint perception and action in social context. In this article we outline how studies on joint attention, action

  12. Joint Seminar -Risk Management Institute and

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Joint Seminar - Risk Management Institute and Department of Finance Details of Seminar Date: 4 affine jump-diffusion models in capturing the joint dynamics of stock and option prices. We develop all the models we consider. Risk Management Institute Joint Seminar #12;

  13. Joint Kernel Learning for Supervised Image Segmentation

    E-print Network

    Yoo, Chang D.

    Joint Kernel Learning for Supervised Image Segmentation Jongmin Kim, Youngjoo Seo, Sanghyuk Park al- gorithm based on joint-kernelized structured prediction. In the proposed algorithm, correlation for struc- tured prediction were generally chosen to be linear with the model pa- rameter and joint feature

  14. 7 CFR 1956.110 - Joint debtors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint debtors. 1956.110 Section 1956.110...Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.110 Joint debtors. Settlements may not be approved for one joint debtor unless approved for all...

  15. Joint Invariant Signatures Peter J. Olver

    E-print Network

    Olver, Peter

    Joint Invariant Signatures Peter J. Olver School of Mathematics University of Minnesota Minneapolis­Carlo Rota Abstract. A new, algorithmic theory of moving frames is applied to classify joint invariants and joint differential invariants of transformation groups. Equivalence and sym- metry properties

  16. 29 CFR 570.115 - Joint applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Joint applicability. 570.115 Section 570...Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Joint and Separate Applicability of Sections 12(a) and 12(c) § 570.115 Joint applicability. The child labor...

  17. 7 CFR 1956.110 - Joint debtors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint debtors. 1956.110 Section 1956.110...Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.110 Joint debtors. Settlements may not be approved for one joint debtor unless approved for all...

  18. 29 CFR 570.115 - Joint applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Joint applicability. 570.115 Section 570...Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Joint and Separate Applicability of Sections 12(a) and 12(c) § 570.115 Joint applicability. The child labor...

  19. 38 CFR 4.66 - Sacroiliac joint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...sharpening of the margins of the joint. Disability is manifest from...palpation and percussion over these joints, loss of normal quickness...flexion and extension of the hip. Traumatism is a rare cause...objective evidence of damage to the joint, and history of trauma...

  20. 38 CFR 4.66 - Sacroiliac joint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...sharpening of the margins of the joint. Disability is manifest from...palpation and percussion over these joints, loss of normal quickness...flexion and extension of the hip. Traumatism is a rare cause...objective evidence of damage to the joint, and history of trauma...