These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Facet Joints Arthrosis in Normal and Stenotic Lumbar Spines.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: Study Design. A descriptive CT study of lumbar facet joint (FJ) arthrosis in general and spinal stenosis populations.Objective. To reveal the prevalence of FJ arthrosis in general and stenosis populations and to establish its relationship to age and gender.Summary of Background Data. FJ arthrosis is a common radiographic finding and has been suggested as a cause of low back and lower extremity pain. It is also considered a dominant player in the genesis of lumbar spinal stenosis. Although it is well accepted that FJ arthrosis is an age dependent phenomenon, controversies still exist as to its association with gender and its prevalence at different spine levels. Additionally, data on FJ arthrosis frequency in spinal stenosis population are missing.Methods. Two groups were studied. The first included 65 individuals with LSS (mean age 66 ± 10 years) and the second, 150 individuals (mean age 52 ± 19 years) without LSS related symptoms. Both left and right FJ arthrosis for each vertebral level (L3 to S1) were evaluated on CT images (Brilliance 64, Philips Medical System, Cleveland Ohio). Chi-Square, Linear-by-Linear Association and McNemar test were carried out to reveal the correlation between FJ arthrosis and demographic factors (age, gender) and prevalence at different lumbar levels in both stenosis and non-stenosis groups. Additionally, a 2-way ANOVA was used to determine the association between BMI and FJ arthrosis.Results. The rate of FJ arthrosis at L3-4 and L4-5 were significantly higher (P<0.001) in the stenotic group compared to the control. In the control group the prevalence of FJ arthrosis increases cephalo-caudally (L3-L4 = 16%, L4-L5 = 28%, L5-S1 = 55%), whereas in the stenotic group there is a sharp increase from L3-4 (27%) to L4-5 (58%), but not from L4-5 to L5-S1 (55%). No association between FJ arthrosis and gender was noted. Although, mean BMI was significantly smaller in the control group compared to the stenotic group, no association between BMI and facet arthrosis was found. In the general population the prevalence of FJ arthrosis at all three levels was greater for the right side; however, significant difference (P = 0.004) was obtained only for L3-4. In all joints studied, the prevalence of FJ arthrosis increases considerably from the young age cohort (18-39) to the old age cohort (>60). Nevertheless, 10% of the young individuals (18-39) have already manifested FJ arthrosis at L5-S1. No arthrosis at that age was observed at L3-4.Conclusion. FJ arthrosis is an age-dependent and BMI and gender-independent phenomenon. In the general population, the prevalence of FJ arthrosis increases cephalo-caudally with the highest frequency at L5-S1. In the stenotic group, the highest frequency was observed at the two caudal levels; L4-5 and L5-S1. The prevalence of FJ arthrosis was greater for the right side. PMID:21270678

J, Abbas; K, Hamoud; S, Peleg; H, May; Y, Masharawi; H, Cohen; N, Peled; I, Hershkovitz

2011-01-21

2

Incidentally found and unexpected tumors discovered by MRI examination for temporomandibular joint arthrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the frequency of incidentally found or unexpected tumors discovered at the time of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region for patients with suspicion of TMJ arthrosis. Five MR images (T1-weighted transverse scout image and proton density and T2-weighted oblique sagittal images at the open and closed mouth) were acquired. In 2776 MRI examinations

Yoshinobu Yanagi; Jun-ichi Asaumi; Yuu Maki; Jun Murakami; Miki Hisatomi; Hidenobu Matsuzaki; Hironobu Konouchi; Yosutoshi Honda; Kanji Kishi

2003-01-01

3

Bilateral rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint resulting from subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis.  

PubMed

A 57-year-old woman suffered rapid destruction of both hip joints over a 10 months period. At the first visit, her radiographs demonstrated slight joint space narrowing and acetabular cyst formation in both hips. Five months later, joint space narrowing had further progressed, and intra-articular injection of steroid was given in both hips. However, the hip pain gradually became worse. Five months later, both joint spaces had totally disappeared and both femoral heads had undergone massive collapse. At gross examination, both resected femoral heads showed extensive opaque yellow areas consistent with osteonecrosis. Microscopic examination of these areas revealed evidence of both extensive fracture and callus formation, as well as necrosis throughout, indicating that the osteonecrosis observed in this case was a secondary phenomenon superimposed on pre-existing osteoarthritis and subchondral fracture. There were many pseudogranulomatous lesions in the marrow space and necrotic area, where tiny fragments of bone and articular cartilage, surrounded by histiocytes and giant cells, were embedded, such as are typically seen in rapidly destructive arthrosis. No radiologic or morphologic evidence of primary osteonecrosis was noted. This case indicates that at least some cases of rapidly destructive arthritis are the result of subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis. PMID:19953244

Yamamoto, Takuaki; Schneider, Robert; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Bullough, Peter G

2010-02-01

4

Osteoarthritis of the spine: the facet joints  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the spine involves the facet joints, which are located in the posterior aspect of the vertebral column and, in humans, are the only true synovial joints between adjacent spinal levels. Facet joint osteoarthritis (FJ OA) is widely prevalent in older adults, and is thought to be a common cause of back and neck pain. The prevalence of facet-mediated pain in clinical populations increases with increasing age, suggesting that FJ OA might have a particularly important role in older adults with spinal pain. Nevertheless, to date FJ OA has received far less study than other important OA phenotypes such as knee OA, and other features of spine pathoanatomy such as degenerative disc disease. This Review presents the current state of knowledge of FJ OA, including relevant anatomy, biomechanics, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations. We present the view that the modern concept of FJ OA is consonant with the concept of OA as a failure of the whole joint, and not simply of facet joint cartilage. PMID:23147891

Gellhorn, Alfred C.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Suri, Pradeep

2014-01-01

5

Protecting facet joints post-lumbar discectomy: Barricaid annular closure device reduces risk of facet degeneration.  

PubMed

Lumbar discectomy is an effective treatment for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Although the majority of patients experience successful outcomes, a significant fraction will experience a recurrence of their back pain due to facet joint degeneration. Facet joint degeneration after discectomy may be the result of excessive nuclear removal, disc space narrowing, and annular injury. This study investigated whether implantation with the Barricaid annular closure device (ACD) during discectomy reduced the rate of facet degeneration. Inclusion criteria were primary lumbar disc herniation failing conservative treatment, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) Leg?40/100, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)?40/100 and defects that were ?60 mm2 (Barricaid arm only), and patient age 18-75. CT interpretations were collected preoperatively and 12 months post-discectomy. Patients implanted with Barricaid had significantly reduced rates and grades of facet degeneration than patients without Barricaid. Reinforcing the annulus fibrosus with Barricaid during lumbar discectomy may slow the progression of facet joint degeneration. PMID:23473658

Trummer, Martin; Eustacchio, Sandro; Barth, Martin; Klassen, Peter Douglas; Stein, Shlomit

2013-08-01

6

Bilateral rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint resulting from subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 57-year-old woman suffered rapid destruction of both hip joints over a 10 months period. At the first visit, her radiographs\\u000a demonstrated slight joint space narrowing and acetabular cyst formation in both hips. Five months later, joint space narrowing\\u000a had further progressed, and intra-articular injection of steroid was given in both hips. However, the hip pain gradually became\\u000a worse. Five months

Takuaki Yamamoto; Robert Schneider; Yukihide Iwamoto; Peter G. Bullough

2010-01-01

7

Three-dimensional evaluation of the facet joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging nave revolurionalized analysis of vertebral anatomy and pathology. Further advances with 3-dimensional imaging have recently become an important adjunct for diagnosis and treatment in structural abnormalities. Facets are intimately related to their surrounding musculature and malalignment may cause pain directly or indirectly. High resolution 3-dimensional reformations of CT Scans give us new insight on structure and function of facet joints, since their motion and architecture are ever complex. It is well documented in the literature that facet joint biomecnanics is a partial contributor to the myriad at causes of low back The term "facet Joint syndrome" was coined in 1933 by GhorMley.3 The osteopathic lesion complex is well defined by LeRoy and McCole and comparison of roentgenographic findings before and after manipulation has teen described by Long and Lioyd.4,5 since alterations in facet biamechanics are an important aspect of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OT), 3-dimensional hign resolution imaging will prove to be a great asset in osteopathic research. Rotating the spine allows for different viewing perspectives to provide optimal and consistent measurements of the facet joint. Rotations are performed on the X, Y and 7, axis and measurements pre and post-manipulation are performed and compared on matching axis and perspectives. Rotation about the X, Y and Z axis help appreciate the 3-dimensionality of the vertebral column to project to the viewer a feeling that the spine is floating in space before them. This does give the viewer a 3-D understanding of the object however, only at a perspective at a Lime.

Folio, Les R.

1990-04-01

8

Facet joint laser radiation: tissue effects of a new clinical laser application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronic unilateral and bilateral back pain with pseudoradicular symptoms, is a common clinical syndrome, which in many cases can be related to the facet joint syndrome. The pain is caused by mechanical affection of synovial and capsular nerve terminals. Therefore, current therapeutical attempts including physical therapy, intra-articular injection of local anesthetics and steroids and thermocoagulation of the facet joint with a thermocoagulator, are performed. We confirmed laser coagulation of the facet joint. Porcine cadaveric spines were treated immediately after death by intra-articular facet joint laser radiation. With the pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) altogether 600 J were applied in three different places 4 mm apart at the top of the facet joint. The results showed that facet joint laser radiation leads to a small (about 1 - 2 mm diameter) lesion restricted to the facet joint cavity and its synovia. Histologically, we found a central carbonization zone and necrosis, including almost the whole cartilage and approximately 0.2 mm of the adjacent bone. These changes are similar to Nd:Yag-laser applications in other skeletal regions. It is suggested that these changes may lead to facet joint denervation by coagulation of the synovial nerve terminals. Cicatration of the laser lesion might cause ankylosis of this joint. In sum, facet joint laser radiation could be an alternative therapeutical tool for lower back pain of the facet joint syndrome type. Therefore, future clinical application of this technique seems to be very promising.

Werkmann, Klaus; Thal, Dietmar R.

1996-01-01

9

Association between facet joint osteoarthritis and the Oswestry Disability Index  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the correlation of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) at lumbar levels L4/L5 and L5/S1 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). METHODS: The study involved lumbar MRIs of 591 patients with a mean age of 47.3 years. The MRIs of the lumbar spine were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner (Magnetom® Avanto, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) using a dedicated receive only spine coil. After initial blinding, each dataset was evaluated by 2 board certified radiologist with more than 5 years experience in musculoskeletal imaging. In total 2364 facet joints were graded. Degenerative changes of the facet joints were evaluated according to the 4-point scale as proposed by Weishaupt et al Functional status was assessed using the ODI. The index is scored from 0 to 100 and interpreted as follows: 0%-20%, minimal disability; 20%-40%, moderate disability; 40%-60%, severe disability; 60%-80%, crippled; 80%-100%, patients are bedbound. Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation was used for statistical analysis, with significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: In total 2364 facet joints at lumbar levels L4/5 and L5/S1 were analysed in 591 individuals. FJOA was present in 97% (L4/L5) and 98% (L5/S1). At level L4/5 (left/right) 17/15 (2.9%/2.5%) were described as grade 0, 146/147 (24.7%/24.9%) as grade 1, 290/302 (49.1%/51.1%) as grade 2 and 138/127 (23.4%/21.5%) as grade 3. At level L5/S1 (left/right) 10/11 (1.7%/1.9%) were described as grade 0, 136/136 (23.0%/23.0%) as grade 1, 318/325 (53.8%/55.0%) as grade 2 and 127/119 (21.5%/20.1%) as grade 3. Regarding the ODI scores, patients’ disability had a minimum of 0% and a maximum of 91.11% with an arithmetic mean of 32.77% ± 17.02%. The majority of patients (48.39%) had moderate functional disability (21%-40%). There was no significant correlation between FJOA and ODI on both sides of lumbar level L4/5 and on the left side of lumbar level L5/S1. A weak positive correlation was evaluated between ODI and FJOA on the right side of lumbar level L5/S1. CONCLUSION: The missing correlation of FJOA and ODI confirms our clinical experience that imaging alone is an insufficient approach explaining low back pain. Clinical correlation is imperative for an adequate diagnostic advance in patients with low back pain. PMID:25431643

Maataoui, Adel; Vogl, Thomas J; Middendorp, Marcus; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M Fawad

2014-01-01

10

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound treatment of facet joint pain: summary of preclinical phase  

PubMed Central

Study design A phantom experiment, two thermocouple experiments, three in vivo pig experiments, and a simulated treatment on a healthy human volunteer were conducted to test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) for treating facet joint pain. Objective The goal of the current study was to develop a novel method for accurate and safe noninvasive facet joint ablation using MRgFUS. Summary of background data Facet joints are a common source of chronic back pain. Direct facet joint interventions include medial branch nerve ablation and intra-articular injections, which are widely used, but limited in the short and long term. MRgFUS is a breakthrough technology that enables accurate delivery of high-intensity focused ultrasound energy to create a localized temperature rise for tissue ablation, using MR guidance for treatment planning and real-time feedback. Methods We validated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of MRgFUS for facet joint ablation using the ExAblate 2000® System (InSightec Ltd., Tirat Carmel, Israel) and confirmed the system's ability to ablate the edge of the facet joint and all terminal nerves innervating the joint. A phantom experiment, two thermocouple experiments, three in vivo pig experiments, and a simulated treatment on a healthy human volunteer were conducted. Results The experiments showed that targeting the facet joint with energies of 150–450 J provides controlled and accurate heating at the facet joint edge without penetration to the vertebral body, spinal canal, or root foramina. Treating with reduced diameter of the acoustic beam is recommended since a narrower beam improves access to the targeted areas. Conclusions MRgFUS can safely and effectively target and ablate the facet joint. These results are highly significant, given that this is the first study to demonstrate the potential of MRgFUS to treat facet joint pain. PMID:24921048

2014-01-01

11

Facet joint orientation, facet and costovertebral joint osteoarthrosis, disc degeneration, vertebral body osteophytosis, and Schmorl's nodes in the thoracolumbar junctional region of cadaveric spines.  

PubMed

The disc degeneration in the thoracolumbar junctional region (T10-L1) of 37 male cadaveric spines was recorded with the use of discography. From 24 of these spines the facet joint orientation and degenerative findings of the facet and costovertebral joints, vertebral bodies (osteophytosis) and discs, and Schmorl's nodes were recorded directly from bones. At T11-12, the most common site for the transitional zone between thoracic and lumbar facet type, there was a marked variation in the orientation of facets. The occurrence of degenerative findings and Schmorl's nodes at the three levels in the region differed. At T10-11, disc degeneration, vertebral body osteophytosis, and Schmorl's nodes were most common (anterior degeneration). At T12-L1, facet and costovertebral joint degeneration were dominant (posterior degeneration). At T11-12, disc degeneration, vertebral body osteophytosis, Schmorl's nodes, and facet and costovertebral joint degeneration all occurred (anterior and posterior degeneration). The results point to a pathoanatomic association between degenerative changes and facet orientation. PMID:3629397

Malmivaara, A; Videman, T; Kuosma, E; Troup, J D

1987-06-01

12

In vivo topographic analysis of lumbar facet joint space width distribution in healthy and symptomatic subjects  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vivo three-dimensional facet joint space width measurement. Objective To determine lumbar facet joint space width within clinically relevant topographical zones in vivo and its correlations with age, level and presence of lower back pain symptoms. Summary of Background Data Narrowing of the facet joint gap, articular cartilage thinning, and subarticular cortical bone hypertrophy are frequently observed age-related changes. Facet joint space width is a well-defined parameter to evaluate osteoarthritis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other study that quantifies three-dimensional facet joint space width distribution in vivo. Methods Three-dimensional measurement to quantify facet joint space width distribution based on five clinically relevant topographic zones in a cohort of healthy and symptomatic low-back-pain volunteers using subject-based three-dimensional CT models with respect to spinal level, subject age, gender and presence/absence of lower back pain. Results Facet joint space width was 1.93±0.51 (mean ± standard deviation) mm for the central zone, 1.75±0.48 mm for the superior zone, 1.63±0.49 mm for the inferior zone, 1.48±0.44 mm for the medial and 1.65±0.48 mm for the lateral zone, respectively. There were no significant differences between right and left facet joints. Males showed larger space width than females. Overall, space width of symptomatic subjects was significantly narrower when compared against the asymptomatic group. Facet joints in the peripheral zones were narrower than in the central zone. Age-group comparisons showed local narrowing occurring as early as in the third decade at the inferior zone of L5/S1 with all the remaining zones implicated after the fourth decade. Conclusions This in vivo study shows variations in facet joint space width narrowing with spinal level and region within the facet joint and in vivo evidence of localized, age-influenced facet cartilage thinning. Techniques developed in this study may be applied in the detection of early osteoarthritis-related changes in the facet joints. PMID:22433501

Simon, Peter; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro A.; Andersson, Gunnar B. J.; An, Howard S.; Inoue, Nozomu

2013-01-01

13

Material Properties of the Human Lumbar Facet Joint Capsule  

PubMed Central

The human facet joint capsule is one of the structures in the lumbar spine that constrains motions of vertebrae during global spine loading (e.g., physiological flexion). Computational models of the spine have not been able to include accurate nonlinear and viscoelastic material properties, as they have not previously been measured. Capsules were tested using a uniaxial ramp-hold protocol or a haversine displacement protocol using a commercially available materials testing device. Plane strain was measured optically. Capsules were tested both parallel and perpendicular to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers in the capsules. Viscoelastic material properties were determined. Parallel to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers, the complex modulus of elasticity was E* = 1.63MPa, with a storage modulus of E? = 1.25MPa and a loss modulus of: E? = 0.39MPa. The mean stress relaxation rates for static and dynamic loading were best fit with first-order polynomials: B (?) = 0.1110 ? ? 0.0733 and B (?) = ?0.1249? 11794-8181 +0.0190, respectively. Perpendicular to the collagen fiber orientation, the viscous and elastic secant moduli were 1.81 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The mean stress relaxation rate for static loading was best fit with a first-order polynomial: B (?) = ? 0.04? ? 0.06. Capsule strength parallel and perpendicular to collagen fiber orientation was 1.90 and 0.95 MPa, respectively, and extensibility was 0.65 and 0.60, respectively. Poisson’s ratio parallel and perpendicular to fiber orientation was 0.299 and 0.488, respectively. The elasticity moduli were nonlinear and anisotropic, and capsule strength was larger aligned parallel to the collagen fibers. The phase lag between stress and strain increased with haversine frequency, but the storage modulus remained large relative to the complex modulus. The stress relaxation rate was strain dependent parallel to the collagen fibers, but was strain independent perpendicularly. PMID:15868784

Little, Jesse S.; Khalsa, Partap S.

2005-01-01

14

MR imaging of lumbar facet joint synovial cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The increasing application of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine has raised the awareness of lumbar facet synovial\\u000a cysts (LFSC). This well recognised, yet uncommon condition, presents with low back pain and radiculopathy due to the presence\\u000a of an extradural mass. The commonest affected level is L4\\/5 with a mild degenerative spondylolisthesis a frequent associated\\u000a finding. MR imaging

E. Apostolaki; A. M. Davies; N. Evans; V. N. Cassar-Pullicino

2000-01-01

15

Technical note: the swimmer's view for cervical facet joint injections.  

PubMed

Image intensifier (C-arm) guided facet infiltration of a mixture of long acting local anaesthetic and corticosteroid is a safe and effective office procedure for cervical spondylosis. Visualisation of lower cervical anatomy using C-arm may not always be possible due to the shadow cast by the shoulders. We describe the successful adaptation of swimmer's view in such cases to carry out the injections. PMID:16676153

Kulkarni, Arvind Gopalrao; Sabet, Tamer; Ashley, Helen; Diwan, Ashish D

2006-07-01

16

Bipolar Intra-articular Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation of the Thoracic Facet Joints: A Case Series of a New Technique  

PubMed Central

Background This study tests the hypothesis that of bipolar radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the thoracic facet joint capsule may provide a safe and effect method of pain control from thoracic facet origin. Methods Among patients suffering from localized mid back pain, nine patients with thoracic facet disease confirmed by magnetic resonance image and diagnostic thoracic facet block were enrolled. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation in the inferior aspect of the thoracic facet joint was done. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was measured pre-intervention and 1 month post-intervention. Any complications and changes in amount of pain medication were recorded. Results Significant 47.6% reduction in VAS was noted at 1 month. There were no serious complications. Conclusions Intra-articular bipolarradiofrequency thermocoagulation of the thoracic facet joint may be a technically easier and valid method of treating mid back pain of thoracic facet origin. PMID:24478900

2014-01-01

17

Total Elbow Arthroplasty for Post-traumatic Arthrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttraumatic arthrosis of the elbow is often characterized by a chronic painful condition frequently associated with stiffness,\\u000a joint deformity, contractures, bone loss, instability, numerous previous procedures resulting in a poor soft tissue envelope,\\u000a and damaged and hypersensitive nerves [1]. Its treatment can therefore be difficult with an elevated number of complications.

Alberto G. Schneeberger; Bernard F. Morrey

18

Muscular response to tensile loading of the cervical facet joint capsule: A potential whiplash pain mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whiplash and whiplash-associated disorders are a major cause of neck pain. Although muscle damage sustained during whiplash exposure is expected to heal quickly, the cervical muscles may play a role in the development of chronic whiplash pain secondary to facet joint capsule (FJC) damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate cervical muscle response and changes in muscle recruitment

Nadia Oglan Azar

2009-01-01

19

Establishment of a rat model of adjuvant-induced osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joint.  

PubMed

To study the establishment of adjuvant-induced osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joint in a rat model. Complete Freund's adjuvant (experimental group) and saline (control group) were randomly injected into the right and left side of rat, respectively. The rats were killed, and degeneration of lumbar facet joint was evaluated at macroscopic level and scored based on OARSI scores system. Moreover, Interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? levels in the synovium were measured. The macroscopic scores and OARSI scores of experimental group were higher than the control group (P < 0.05). The concentration of tumor necrosis factor-? was significantly increased only on 3- and 7-day post-surgery when compared with controls, and interleukin-1? was increased on days 3,7 and 14 post-surgery (P < 0.05). The rat model of adjuvant can induce degeneration of the lumbar facet joint. It can be useful for studies on mechanisms and treatment of lumbar facet joint osteoarthritis. PMID:24973958

Shuang, Feng; Zhu, Jialiang; Song, Keran; Hou, Shuxun; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chunli; Tang, Jiaguang

2014-12-01

20

Joint FACET: the Canada-Netherlands initiative to study multisensor data fusion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the progress of a collaborative effort between Canada and The Netherlands in analyzing multi-sensor data fusion systems, e.g. for potential application to their respective frigates. In view of the overlapping interest in studying and comparing applicability and performance and advanced state-of-the-art Multi-Sensor Data FUsion (MSDF) techniques, the two research establishments involved have decided to join their efforts in the development of MSDF testbeds. This resulted in the so-called Joint-FACET, a highly modular and flexible series of applications that is capable of processing both real and synthetic input data. Joint-FACET allows the user to create and edit test scenarios with multiple ships, sensor and targets, generate realistic sensor outputs, and to process these outputs with a variety of MSDF algorithms. These MSDF algorithms can also be tested using typical experimental data collected during live military exercises.

Bosse, Eloi; Theil, Arne; Roy, Jean; Huizing, Albert G.; van Aartsen, Simon

1998-09-01

21

Conservative Management of a Young Adult with Hip Arthrosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Case report Background Clinical practice guidelines regarding the conservative management of degenerative hip conditions in older adults routinely incorporate therapeutic exercise and manual therapy. However, the application of these recommendations to young, active adults is less clear. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a young adult with advanced hip arthrosis using a multi-faceted rehabilitation program. Case Description A 28-year old female with severe left hip degeneration per diagnostic imaging was referred to physical therapy. Reduced hip range of motion and strength, sacroiliac joint asymmetries, and a modified Harris Hip Score of 76 were observed. She was seen for 12 visits over a 3-month period and treated with an individualized program including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and neuromuscular re-education. Outcome Substantial improvements were noted in pain, hip range of motion and strength and function (modified Harris Hip Score of 97). In addition, she discontinued the use of anti-inflammatory medications and returned to her prior level of activity. Improvements were maintained at a 3 month follow up, with symptom recurrence managed using a self mobilization technique to the left hip and massage to the left iliopsoas. Discussion Degenerative hip conditions are common among older adults but are relatively rare in the younger population. Although it is likely that this patient will experience a return of her symptoms and functional limitations as her hip disease progresses, the immediate improvements may delay the need for eventual surgical management. These outcomes suggest that physical therapy management should be considered in those with an early onset of degenerative hip disease and are consistent with results previously reported in the older population. Level of Evidence Therapy, Level 4 PMID:20026881

Cook, Kyle M.; Heiderscheit, Bryan

2010-01-01

22

Biomechanical analysis of the lumbar spine on facet joint force and intradiscal pressure - a finite element study  

PubMed Central

Background Finite element analysis results will show significant differences if the model used is performed under various material properties, geometries, loading modes or other conditions. This study adopted an FE model, taking into account the possible asymmetry inherently existing in the spine with respect to the sagittal plane, with a more geometrically realistic outline to analyze and compare the biomechanical behaviour of the lumbar spine with regard to the facet force and intradiscal pressure, which are associated with low back pain symptoms and other spinal disorders. Dealing carefully with the contact surfaces of the facet joints at various levels of the lumbar spine can potentially help us further ascertain physiological behaviour concerning the frictional effects of facet joints under separate loadings or the responses to the compressive loads in the discs. Methods A lumbar spine model was constructed from processes including smoothing the bony outline of each scan image, stacking the boundary lines into a smooth surface model, and subsequent further processing in order to conform with the purpose of effective finite element analysis performance. For simplicity, most spinal components were modelled as isotropic and linear materials with the exception of spinal ligaments (bilinear). The contact behaviour of the facet joints and changes of the intradiscal pressure with different postures were analyzed. Results The results revealed that asymmetric responses of the facet joint forces exist in various postures and that such effect is amplified with larger loadings. In axial rotation, the facet joint forces were relatively larger in the contralateral facet joints than in the ipsilateral ones at the same level. Although the effect of the preloads on facet joint forces was not apparent, intradiscal pressure did increase with preload, and its magnitude increased more markedly in flexion than in extension and axial rotation. Conclusions Disc pressures showed a significant increase with preload and changed more noticeably in flexion than in extension or in axial rotation. Compared with the applied preloads, the postures played a more important role, especially in axial rotation; the facet joint forces were increased in the contralateral facet joints as compared to the ipsilateral ones at the same level of the lumbar spine. PMID:20602783

2010-01-01

23

Hematogenous pyogenic facet joint infection of the subaxial cervical spine. A report of two cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Two cases of hematogenous, pyogenic, subaxial cervical facet joint infection are reported, and the literature is reviewed. Infection of the cervical facet joint is a rarely diagnosed condition; only one case has been reported in the literature. Lumbar facet joint infections are also rare but more commonly reported. Approximately one fourth of facet joint infections in the lumbar spine are complicated by epidural abscess formation, which can lead to a neurological deficit. Because of the paucity of reports on cervical facet joint infections, the clinical characteristics of this entity are not well known. Both patients presented with an acute onset of unilateral neck pain that radiated into the ipsilateral shoulder. Frank radicular pain was initially absent. Unilateral upper-extremity motor weakness that was attributed to associated epidural abscess or granulation tissue formation was also demonstrated in both patients. Leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated in both cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was necessary to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Staphylococcus aureus was identified as the offending pathogen in both cases. Decompressive surgery and antibiotic therapy were required to cure the condition. One patient recovered completely and the other sustained a permanent motor deficit. Hematogenous cervical facet joint infection is a rare clinical entity that has many characteristics in common with the more-common lumbar homolog. All three reported cases, however, have been complicated by epidural abscess or granulation tissue formation that has led to a neurological deficit. This finding suggests that a facet joint infection in the cervical spine may have a less benign clinical course than that in the lumbar spine. PMID:11453416

Muffolerro, A J; Nader, R; Westmark, R M; Nauta, H J; Garges, K J; Hadjipavlou, A G

2001-07-01

24

Fluoroscopically guided infiltration of the cervical nerve root: an indirect approach through the ipsilateral facet joint.  

PubMed

Transforaminal infiltrations in the cervical spine are governed by a higher rate of vascular puncture than in the lumbar spine. The purpose of our study is to assess the safety and efficacy of percutaneous, fluoroscopically guided nerve root infiltrations in cases of cervical radiculopathy. An indirect postero-lateral approach was performed through the ipsilateral facet joint. During the last 2 years, 25 patients experiencing cervical radiculopathy underwent percutaneous, fluoroscopically guided nerve root infiltrations by means of an indirect postero-lateral approach through the ipsilateral facet joint. The intra-articular position of the needle (22-gauge spinal needle) was fluoroscopically verified after injection of a small amount of contrast medium which also verified dispersion of the contrast medium periradicularly and in the epidural space. Then a mixture of long-acting glucocorticosteroid diluted in normal saline (1.5/1 mL) was injected intra-articularly. A questionnaire with a Numeric Visual Scale (NVS) scale helped assess pain relief, life quality, and mobility improvement. A mean of 2.3 sessions was performed in the patients of our study. In the vast majority of our patients 19/25 (76%), the second infiltration was performed within 7-10 days of the first one. Comparing the pain scores prior (mean value 8.80 ± 1.080 NVS units) and after (mean value 1.84 ± 1.405 NVS units), there was a mean decrease of 6.96 ± 1.695 NVS units [median value 7 NVS units (P < 0.001) in terms of pain reduction, effect upon mobility, and life quality. There were no clinically significant complications noted in our study. Fluoroscopically guided transforaminal infiltrations through the ipsilateral facet joint seem to be a feasible, efficacious, and safe approach for the treatment of patients with cervical radiculopathy. This approach facilitates needle placement and minimizes risk of complications. PMID:25054388

Kelekis, Alexios; Filippiadis, Dimitrios K; Velonakis, Georgios; Martin, Jean-Baptist; Oikonomopoulos, Nikolaos; Brountzos, Elias; Kelekis, Nikolaos

2014-01-01

25

THE PROSTAGLANDIN E2 RECEPTOR, EP2, IS UPREGULATED IN THE DRG AFTER PAINFUL CERVICAL FACET JOINT INJURY IN THE RAT  

PubMed Central

Study Design This study implemented immunohistochemistry to assay prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP2 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats after painful cervical facet joint injury. Objective The objective of this study was to identify if inflammatory cascades are induced in association with cervical facet joint distraction-induced pain by investigating the time course of EP2 expression in the DRG. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint is a common source of neck pain and non-physiological stretch of the facet capsular ligament can initiate pain from the facet joint via mechanical injury. PGE2 levels are elevated in painful inflamed and arthritic joints, and PGE2 sensitizes joint afferents to mechanical stimulation. Although in vitro studies suggest the EP2 receptor subtype contributes to painful joint disease the EP2 response has not been investigated for any association with painful mechanical joint injury. Methods Separate groups of male Holtzman rats underwent either a painful cervical facet joint distraction injury or sham procedure. Bilateral forepaw mechanical allodynia was assessed, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify EP2 expression in the DRG at days 1 and 7. Results Facet joint distraction induced mechanical allodynia that was significant (p<0.024) at all time points. Painful joint injury also significantly elevated total EP2 expression in the DRG at day 1 (p=0.009), which was maintained also at day 7 (p<0.001). Neuronal expression of EP2 in the DRG was only increased over sham levels at day 1 (p=0.013). Conclusions Painful cervical facet joint distraction induces an immediate and sustained increase of EP2 expression in the DRG, implicating peripheral inflammation in the initiation and maintenance of facet joint pain. The transient increase in neuronal EP2 suggests, as in other painful joint conditions, that after joint injury non-neuronal cells may migrate to the DRG, some of which likely express EP2. PMID:22789984

Kras, Jeffrey V.; Dong, Ling; Winkelstein, Beth A.

2012-01-01

26

Injection in the cervical facet joint for shoulder pain with myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle.  

PubMed

The goal of this double-blinded, randomized, controlled study was to confirm the effectiveness of the cervical facet joint injection in treating shoulder pain with the myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle secondary to cervical facet lesion. Eighty-nine patients with chronic unilateral shoulder pain due to myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle received an injection to the C4-5 facet joint in the experimental group and to the corresponding unilateral multifidi muscle in the control group. Subjective pain intensity and pressure pain threshold of the myofascial trigger point were assessed, and the prevalence of endplate noise in the myofascial trigger point region was measured in 28 patients before, immediately after, and 1 month after the injection. Half of the patients in the experimental group, but none of the control patients, reported being completely pain free 1 month after the injection. Both the decrease in the pain intensity and the increase in pressure pain threshold were significantly more in the experimental group than in the control group either immediately or 1 month after the injection. There was no significant difference in the change of endplate noise prevalence between the 2 groups. This study demonstrates that intra-articular or peri-articular injection into the cervical facet joint region can effectively inactivate the upper trapezius myofascial trigger point secondary to the facet lesion. PMID:19708635

Tsai, Chien-Tsung; Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Kao, Mu-Jung; Hong, Chang-Zern

2009-08-01

27

Explosive growth of facet joint interventions in the medicare population in the United States: a comparative evaluation of 1997, 2002, and 2006 data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services (OIG-DHHS) issued a report which showed explosive growth and also raised questions of lack of medical necessity and\\/or indications for facet joint injection services in 2006. The purpose of the study was to determine trends of frequency and cost of facet joint interventions in managing spinal

Laxmaiah Manchikanti; Vidyasagar Pampati; Vijay Singh; Mark V Boswell; Howard S Smith; Joshua A Hirsch

2010-01-01

28

Human Lumbar Spine Creep during Cyclic and Static Flexion: Creep Rate, Biomechanics, and Facet Joint Capsule Strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a high incidence of low back pain (LBP) associated with occupations requiring sustained and\\/or repetitive lumbar flexion (SLF and RLF, respectively), which cause creep of the viscoelastic tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of creep on lumbar biomechanics and facet joint capsule (FJC) strain. Specimens were flexed for 10 cycles, to a maximum

Jesse S. Little; Partap S. Khalsa

2005-01-01

29

Explosive growth of facet joint interventions in the medicare population in the United States: a comparative evaluation of 1997, 2002, and 2006 data  

PubMed Central

Background The Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services (OIG-DHHS) issued a report which showed explosive growth and also raised questions of lack of medical necessity and/or indications for facet joint injection services in 2006. The purpose of the study was to determine trends of frequency and cost of facet joint interventions in managing spinal pain. Methods This analysis was performed to determine trends of frequency and cost of facet joint Interventions in managing spinal pain, utilizing the annual 5% national sample of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for 1997, 2002, and 2006. Outcome measures included overall characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries receiving facet joint interventions, utilization of facet joint interventions by place of service, by specialty, reimbursement characteristics, and other variables. Results From 1997 to 2006, the number of patients receiving facet joint interventions per 100,000 Medicare population increased 386%, facet joint visits increased 446%, and facet joint interventions increased 543%. The increases were higher in patients aged less than 65 years compared to those 65 or older with patients increasing 504% vs. 355%, visits increasing 587% vs. 404%, and services increasing 683% vs. 498%. Total expenditures for facet joint interventions in the Medicare population increased from over $229 million in 2002 to over $511 million in 2006, with an overall increase of 123%. In 2006, there was a 26.8-fold difference in utilization of facet joint intervention services in Florida compared to the state with the lowest utilization - Hawaii. There was an annual increase of 277.3% in the utilization of facet joint interventions by general physicians, whereas a 99.5% annual increase was seen for nurse practitioners (NPs) and certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) from 2002 to 2006. Further, in Florida, 47% of facet joint interventions were performed by general physicians. Conclusions The reported explosive growth of facet joint interventions in managing spinal pain in certain regions and by certain specialties may result in increased regulations and scrutiny with reduced access. PMID:20353602

2010-01-01

30

Systematic review of tests to identify the disc, SIJ or facet joint as the source of low back pain  

PubMed Central

Clinical practice guidelines state that the tissue source of low back pain cannot be specified in the majority of patients. However, there has been no systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests used to identify the source of low back pain. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tests available to clinicians to identify the disc, facet joint or sacroiliac joint (SIJ) as the source of low back pain. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched up to February 2006 with citation tracking of eligible studies. Eligible studies compared index tests with an appropriate reference test (discography, facet joint or SIJ blocks or medial branch blocks) in patients with low back pain. Positive likelihood ratios (+LR) > 2 or negative likelihood ratios (-LR) < 0.5 were considered informative. Forty-one studies of moderate quality were included; 28 investigated the disc, 8 the facet joint and 7 the SIJ. Various features observed on MRI (high intensity zone, endplate changes and disc degeneration) produced informative +LR (> 2) in the majority of studies increasing the probability of the disc being the low back pain source. However, heterogeneity of the data prevented pooling. +LR ranged from 1.5 to 5.9, 1.6 to 4.0, and 0.6 to 5.9 for high intensity zone, disc degeneration and endplate changes, respectively. Centralisation was the only clinical feature found to increase the likelihood of the disc as the source of pain: +LR = 2.8 (95%CI 1.4–5.3). Absence of degeneration on MRI was the only test found to reduce the likelihood of the disc as the source of pain: ?LR = 0.21 (95%CI 0.12–0.35). While single manual tests of the SIJ were uninformative, their use in combination was informative with +LR of 3.2 (95%CI 2.3–4.4) and ?LR of 0.29 (95%CI 0.12–0.35). None of the tests for facet joint pain were found to be informative. The results of this review demonstrate that tests do exist that change the probability of the disc or SIJ (but not the facet joint) as the source of low back pain. However, the changes in probability are usually small and at best moderate. The usefulness of these tests in clinical practice, particularly for guiding treatment selection, remains unclear. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00586-007-0391-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17566796

Maher, C. G.; Latimer, J.; Spindler, M. F.; McAuley, J. H.; Laslett, M.; Bogduk, N.

2007-01-01

31

Axial involvement with facet joint arthropathy and bony ankylosis in a case of camptodactyly, arthropathy, coxa vara, pericarditis (CACP) syndrome.  

PubMed

Familial arthropathy associated with congenital camptodactyly has been previously recognized as a definite clinical entity in the literature. The clinical spectrum of this disease seems to be variable. The typical features of congenital camptodactyly, arthropathy, coxa vara and pericarditis (CACP syndrome) appear to be a more frequent presentation in children from the Middle East and North Africa. Musculoskeletal presentation of this rare familial form of arthropathy is unique and heterogeneous. In all previous reports, non-inflammatory pattern of arthropathy involving the peripheral joints with typical coxa vara deformity were described, and in a few cases spine abnormalities, including kyphosis, lordosis, or scoliosis. We describe the first case of axial involvement in a typical case of CACP syndrome with facet joint arthropathy and ankylosis at L5/S1 levels. PMID:23931850

Emad, Yasser; Ragab, Yasser; Khalifa, Maher; Bassyouni, Iman; El-Shaarawy, Nashwa; Rasker, Johannes J

2013-10-01

32

Fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic axial low back pain without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic low back pain without disc herniation is common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing this condition, including epidural injections. However, there is continued debate on the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. Methods A randomized, double-blind, actively controlled trial was conducted. The objective was to evaluate the ability to assess the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joints, or sacroiliac joints. A total of 120 patients were randomized to two groups; one group did not receive steroids (group 1) and the other group did (group 2). There were 60 patients in each group. The primary outcome measure was at least 50% improvement in Numeric Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary outcome measures were employment status and opioid intake. These measures were assessed at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Results Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (primary outcome) defined as a 50% or more reduction in scores from baseline, were observed in 54% of patients in group 1 and 60% of patients in group 2 at 24 months. In contrast, 84% of patients in group 1 and 73% in group 2 saw significant pain relief and functional status improvement in the successful groups at 24 months. Conclusion Caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids are effective in patients with chronic axial low back pain of discogenic origin without facet joint pain, disc herniation, and/or radiculitis. PMID:23091395

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar

2012-01-01

33

Strain and load thresholds for cervical muscle recruitment in response to quasi-static tensile stretch of the caprine C5–C6 facet joint capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the response of cervical muscles to physiologic tensile stretch of cervical facet joint capsule (FJC) at a quasi-static displacement rate of 0.5mm\\/s. In vivo caprine left C5–C6 FJC preparations were subjected to an incremental tensile displacement paradigm. EMG activity was recorded during FJC stretch from the right trapezius (TR) and multifidus (MF)

Nadia R. Azar; Srinivasu Kallakuri; Chaoyang Chen; Ying Lu; John M. Cavanaugh

2009-01-01

34

Comparison of cranial facet joint violation rate between percutaneous and open pedicle screw placement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Percutaneous and open pedicle screw placements have been widely used in lumbar fusion surgery. However, there are conflicting reports of cranial facet joint violation rate for the 2 techniques.To better determine the rate of cranial facet joint violation, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in the present study.We searched the established electronic literature databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, World of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for trials involving the 2 pedicle screw placement techniques. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.Four comparative trials with a cumulative sample size of 881 patients and 1755 cranial pedicle screws were identified and analyzed. The results showed that cranial facet joint violation rate was 18.18% (154/847) in percutaneous group and 18.72% (170/908) in open group. The pooled data revealed that there was no significant difference in the violation rate (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.24-2.30, P?=?0.62). In addition, there was also no significant difference for the rate of severe violation between the 2 techniques (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.55-2.62, P?=?0.64, random effect model).Based on the current data, the meta-analysis shows that similar cranial facet joint violation rate occurs during the percutaneous and open pedicle screw placement techniques. In addition, taking the limitations of this study into consideration, it was still not appropriate to draw such a strong conclusion. More well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess violation rate for the 2 techniques in the future. PMID:25654397

Wang, Liang; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Bin; Li, Zhengyao; Li, Ye

2015-02-01

35

Symptomatic anterior subtalar arthrosis after ankle arthrodesis.  

PubMed

A 76-year-old man reported right lateral heel pain 11 years after ankle arthrodesis. Clinically, there was tenderness in the right sinus tarsi and over the junction point between the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints. Radiographs showed that the joint spaces of the posterior subtalar joint and the talonavicular joint were preserved although there were osteophytes at both joints. Arthroscopic findings showed degeneration of the anterior subtalar and talonavicular joints. The symptoms subsided after arthroscopic debridement. PMID:24825553

Lui, Tun Hing

2014-01-01

36

Unusual presentation of giant cell tumor originating from a facet joint of the thoracic spine in a child: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Giant cell tumor of the synovium is a common benign lesion that frequently occurs at the tendon sheaths in the hand; it is usually found in adults over 30 years old. It is related to pigmented villonodular synovitis. Giant cell tumor of the synovium or pigmented villonodular synovitis has been described rarely in the axial skeleton especially in the thoracic vertebrae of a child. Case presentation A previously healthy 7-year-old Thai girl presented with back pain and progressive paraparesis and was unable to walk for 1 month. She had weakness and hyperreflexia of both lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined homogeneously and intensely enhanced extradural mass with cord compression at T4 to T7 levels. The patient underwent laminectomy at T4 through to T7 and total tumor removal. Permanent histopathologic sections and immunostains revealed a giant cell tumor of the synovium. Postoperative neurological status recovered to grade V. Magnetic resonance imaging at the 1-year follow-up showed no recurrence and there was no clinical recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion We report an extremely rare case of giant cell tumor in the epidural space that extended from a thoracic facet joint. The tumor was removed successfully through laminectomies. Although giant cell tumor of a facet joint of the thoracic spine is very rare, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis for masses occurring in the epidural space in a child. Total tumor removal is the best treatment. Careful monitoring of recurrence can achieve a good clinical outcome. PMID:23830026

2013-01-01

37

Facets: Ersatz, Resource and Tag  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Faceted classification appears to be of utmost importance. Ersatz facets, resource faceting and tag faceting: The distinctions are drawn between facets and ersatz facets, and between faceted resources and faceted tags. Single tag resource faceting and multiple tag information object faceting: The basic features are explored of single…

Frické, Martin H.

2013-01-01

38

Analysis of IL-17+ cells in facet joints of patients with spondyloarthritis suggests that the innate immune pathway might be of greater relevance than the Th17-mediated adaptive immune response  

PubMed Central

Introduction In this study, we analysed the number of IL-17+ cells in facet joints, in the peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) of spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients and compared these results with those of patients with other rheumatic diseases and controls. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of IL-17+ cells was performed in facet joints of 33 ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and compared with data from 20 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The frequency of IL-17+CD4+ T cells in PB and SF of SpA patients (PB n = 30, SF n = 11), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (PB n = 14, SF n = 7), OA patients (PB n = 10) and healthy controls (PB n = 12) was analysed after stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin and quantified by flow cytometry. Results In AS facet joints, the frequency of IL-17-secreting cells was significantly higher than in samples obtained from OA patients (P < 0.001), with a slight predominance of IL-17+ cells among the mononuclear cells (61.5% ± 14.9%) compared to cells with polysegmental nuclei. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the majority of IL-17+ cells were myeloperoxidase-positive (35.84 ± 13.06/high-power field (HPF) and CD15+ neutrophils (24.25 ± 10.36/HPF), while CD3+ T cells (0.51 ± 0.49/HPF) and AA-1+ mast cells (2.28 ± 1.96/HPF) were less often IL-17-positive. The frequency of IL-17+CD4+ T cells in the PB and SF of SpA patients did not differ significantly compared to RA patients, OA patients or healthy controls. Conclusions Our data suggest an important role for IL-17 in the inflammatory processes in AS. However, the innate immune pathway might be of greater relevance than the Th17-mediated adaptive immune response. PMID:21689402

2011-01-01

39

The effect of different design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty on the range of motion, facet joint forces and instantaneous center of rotation of a L4-5 segment  

PubMed Central

Although both unconstrained and constrained core lumbar artificial disc designs are in clinical use, the effect of their design on the range of motion, center of rotations, and facet joint forces is not well understood. It is assumed that the constrained configuration causes a fixed center of rotation with high facet forces, while the unconstrained configuration leads to a moving center of rotation with lower loaded facets. The authors disagree with both assumptions and hypothesized that the two different designs do not lead to substantial differences in the results. For the different implant designs, a three-dimensional finite element model was created and subsequently inserted into a validated model of a L4-5 lumbar spinal segment. The unconstrained design was represented by two implants, the Charité® disc and a newly developed disc prosthesis: Slide-Disc®. The constrained design was obtained by a modification of the Slide-Disc® whereby the inner core was rigidly connected to the lower metallic endplate. The models were exposed to an axial compression preload of 1,000 N. Pure unconstrained moments of 7.5 Nm were subsequently applied to the three anatomical main planes. Except for extension, the models predicted only small and moderate inter-implant differences. The calculated values were close to those of the intact segment. For extension, a large difference of about 45% was calculated between both Slide-Disc designs and the Charité® disc. The models predicted higher facet forces for the implants with an unconstrained core compared to an implant with a constrained core. All implants caused a moving center of rotation. Except for axial rotation, the unconstrained and constrained configurations mimicked the intact situation. In axial rotation, only the Slide-Disc® with mobile core reproduced the intact behavior. Results partially support our hypothesis and imply that different implant designs do not lead to strong differences in the range of motion and the location of center of rotations. In contrast, facet forces appeared to be strongly dependent on the implant design. However, due to the great variability in facet forces reported in the literature, together with our results, we could speculate that these forces may be more dependent on the individual spine geometry rather than a specific implant design. PMID:19763638

Midderhoff, Stefan; Adkins, Kyle; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

2009-01-01

40

Preoperative gait characterization of patients with ankle arthrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinematic changes that occur about the foot and ankle during gait in patients with degenerative joint disease (DJD). By comparing a normal adult population with what was found in the DJD population we determined how the motion of theses groups differed, thereby characterizing how this pathology affects foot and ankle motion.

Michael Khazzam; Jason T. Long; Richard M. Marks; Gerald F. Harris

2006-01-01

41

Controlled medial branch anesthetic block in the diagnosis of chronic lumbar facet joint pain: the value of a three-month follow-up  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To verify the incidence of facetary and low back pain after a controlled medial branch anesthetic block in a three-month follow-up and to verify the correlation between the positive results and the demographic variables. METHODS: Patients with chronic lumbar pain underwent a sham blockade (with a saline injection) and then a controlled medial branch block. Their symptoms were evaluated before and after the sham injection and after the real controlled medial branch block; the symptoms were reevaluated after one day and one week, as well as after one, two and three months using the visual analog scale. We searched for an association between the positive results and the demographic characteristics of the patients. RESULTS: A total of 104 controlled medial branch blocks were performed and 54 patients (52%) demonstrated >50% improvements in pain after the blockade. After three months, lumbar pain returned in only 18 individuals, with visual analogue scale scores >4. Therefore, these patients were diagnosed with chronic facet low back pain. The three-months of follow-up after the controlled medial branch block excluded 36 patients (67%) with false positive results. The results of the controlled medial branch block were not correlated to sex, age, pain duration or work disability but were correlated with patient age (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patient diagnosis with a controlled medial branch block proved to be effective but was not associated with any demographic variables. A three-month follow-up is required to avoid a high number of false positives. PMID:25141111

da Rocha, Ivan Dias; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa

2014-01-01

42

First Beam to FACET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been reconfigured to provide a beam of electrons to the new Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) while simultaneously providing an electron beam to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). On June 23, 2011, the first electron beam was transported through this new facility. Commissioning of FACET is in progress. On June

R. Erickson; C. Clarke; W. Colocho; F.-J. Decker; M. Hogan; S. Kalsi; N. Lipkowitz; J. Nelson; N. Phinney; P. Schuh; J. Sheppard; H. Smith; T. Smith; M. Stanek; J. Turner; J. Warren; S. Weathersby; U. Wienands; W. Wittmer; M. Woodley; G. Yocky

2011-01-01

43

Hip arthrosis and surgical intervention: what and when?  

PubMed Central

Summary Osteoarthritis of the hip is a common pathology and involves forms of disability and need for treatments that affect the quality of life of patients and their families, and in general of the whole society. It should be considered as such degenerative joint disease is increasing as the increase in life expectancy and musculoskeletal trauma, the latter responsible for secondary forms of osteoarthritis. The treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip has changed a lot over the years, since the earlier diagnosis and, before, with prevention through proper lifestyle. More in-depth knowledge of the biology of the tissues involved, first of all hyaline cartilage, has lead to non-surgical treatments such as infiltration with hyaluronic acid (viscosupplementation) and autologous growth factors derived from platelets (platelet rich plasma). Surgical therapy with prosthetic replacement is finally a choice to share with the patient based on pain and functional limitation, bearing in mind always the best technology and tribology and the possibility of less invasive surgical access, while recognizing that there are not still eternal prosthesis. Of particular importance then is the age of the patient. There are also other types of surgery (hip arthroscopy, forage) for other pathologies of the hip which can be resolutive, or, in a sense, can delay the arrival to the prosthetic replacement. We will discuss below the decision-making process that leads the surgeon with the patient to the surgery option. PMID:23858310

Innocenti, Massimo; Nistri, Lorenzo; Biondi, Marco; Del Prete, Armando; Giorgini, Marco; Macera, Armando; Soderi, Stefano

2013-01-01

44

Hip arthrosis and surgical intervention: what and when?  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis of the hip is a common pathology and involves forms of disability and need for treatments that affect the quality of life of patients and their families, and in general of the whole society. It should be considered as such degenerative joint disease is increasing as the increase in life expectancy and musculoskeletal trauma, the latter responsible for secondary forms of osteoarthritis. The treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip has changed a lot over the years, since the earlier diagnosis and, before, with prevention through proper lifestyle. More in-depth knowledge of the biology of the tissues involved, first of all hyaline cartilage, has lead to non-surgical treatments such as infiltration with hyaluronic acid (viscosupplementation) and autologous growth factors derived from platelets (platelet rich plasma). Surgical therapy with prosthetic replacement is finally a choice to share with the patient based on pain and functional limitation, bearing in mind always the best technology and tribology and the possibility of less invasive surgical access, while recognizing that there are not still eternal prosthesis. Of particular importance then is the age of the patient. There are also other types of surgery (hip arthroscopy, forage) for other pathologies of the hip which can be resolutive, or, in a sense, can delay the arrival to the prosthetic replacement. We will discuss below the decision-making process that leads the surgeon with the patient to the surgery option. PMID:23858310

Innocenti, Massimo; Nistri, Lorenzo; Biondi, Marco; Del Prete, Armando; Giorgini, Marco; Macera, Armando; Soderi, Stefano

2013-01-01

45

First Beam to FACET  

SciTech Connect

The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been reconfigured to provide a beam of electrons to the new Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) while simultaneously providing an electron beam to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). On June 23, 2011, the first electron beam was transported through this new facility. Commissioning of FACET is in progress. On June 23, 2011, an electron beam was successfully transported through the new FACET system to a dump in Sector 20 in the linac tunnel. This was achieved while the last third of the linac, operating from the same control room, but with a separate injector system, was providing an electron beam to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), demonstrating that concurrent operation of the two facilities is practical. With the initial checkout of the new transport line essentially complete, attention is now turning toward compressing the electron bunches longitudinally and focusing them transversely to support a variety of accelerator science experiments.

Erickson, R.; Clarke, C.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.; Kalsi, S.; Lipkowitz, N.; Nelson, J.; Phinney, N.; Schuh, P.; Sheppard, J.; Smith, H.; Smith, T.; Stanek, M.; Turner, J.; Warren, J.; Weathersby, S.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

2011-12-13

46

Disorders of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint.  

PubMed

The two most common disorders of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint are hallux valgus and hallux rigidus. The hallux valgus deformity has been the subject of numerous clinical studies in the past decade. This information has enabled the creation of an algorithm to assist the clinician in evaluating the patient with hallux valgus and selecting the appropriate surgical procedure. The technical aspects of various operative procedures and the most common complications are reviewed. The other major disorder of the first MTP joint is arthrosis, which results in hallux rigidus. As the arthrosis progresses, there is often proliferation of bone on the dorsal aspect of the metatarsal head, which results in impingement of the proximal phalanx during dorsiflexion. The impingement causes jamming, instead of gliding, of the proximal phalanx on the metatarsal head, which results in pain. The treatment for this condition consists of debridement of the MTP joint to relieve the dorsal impingement and, in most cases, the pain. If the arthrosis is advanced in an active individual, arthrodesis is indicated. PMID:10790651

Mann

1995-01-01

47

SLAC All Access: FACET  

SciTech Connect

SLAC's Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests, or FACET, is a test-bed where researchers are developing the technologies required for particle accelerators of the future. Scientists from all over the world come to explore ways of improving the power and efficiency of the particle accelerators used in basic research, medicine, industry and other areas important to society. In this video, Mark Hogan, head of SLAC's Advanced Accelerator Research Department, offers a glimpse into FACET, which uses part of SLAC's historic two-mile-long linear accelerator.

Hogan, Mark

2012-07-05

48

Facets of Subjectification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjectification, as the diachronic facet of subjectivity, has raised in the last two decades a number of interesting questions in grammaticalization and semantic change theory. In this paper I shall reflect on the nature and construal of subjectification, focusing on the question, formulated by Traugott (2010a, p. 58), "whether it is possible to…

Visconti, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

49

Beam Diagnostics for FACET  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

2011-08-19

50

Radiographic comparison of a fractured clavicle exhibiting a pseudo-arthrosis.  

PubMed

Bone remodeling is a natural process that is potentially problematic for radiographic comparisons because it can occur after antemortem (AM) imaging, thus interfering with the comparability of AM and postmortem (PM) radiographs from the same individual. While the effects of age-related remodeling have been studied, limited attention has been given to trauma-related remodeling with respect to radiographic comparisons. This report adds to the latter topic by presenting a case of AM clavicle fracture that developed into a pseudo-arthrosis over a 12-month period prior to the individual's death. Even though remodeling was discernable along the fracture margins, adjacent skeletal features on the PM radiograph remained unaltered and constituted compelling evidence for the identification. This case illustrates the potential of using both normal and pathological anatomy concurrently to maximize the surety of findings from radiographic comparisons. PMID:22409353

Rhode, Matthew P; Goodhue, William W; Stephan, Carl N

2012-07-01

51

Optics Tuning Knobs for Facet  

SciTech Connect

FACET is a new facility under construction at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The FACET beam line is designed to provide 23 GeV tightly focused and compressed electron and positron bunches for beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration research and other experiments. Achieving optimal beam parameters for various experimental conditions requires the optics capability for tuning in a sufficiently wide range. This will be achieved by using optics tuning systems (knobs). Design of such systems for FACET is discussed.

Nosochkov, Yuri; Hogan, Mark J.; Wittmer, Walter; /SLAC

2011-06-02

52

Quantitative morphometric analysis of the lumbar vertebral facets and evaluation of feasibility of lumbar spinal nerve root and spinal canal decompression using the Goel intraarticular facetal spacer distraction technique: A lumbar/cervical facet comparison  

PubMed Central

Objective: The authors evaluate the anatomic subtleties of lumbar facets and assess the feasibility and effectiveness of use of ‘Goel facet spacer’ in the treatment of degenerative spinal canal stenosis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five lumbar vertebral cadaveric dried bones were used for the purpose. A number of morphometric parameters were evaluated both before and after the introduction of Goel facet spacers within the confines of the facet joint. Results: The spacers achieved distraction of facets that was more pronounced in the vertical perspective. Introduction of spacers on both sides resulted in an increase in the intervertebral foraminal height and a circumferential increase in the spinal canal dimensions. Additionally, there was an increase in the disc space or intervertebral body height. The lumbar facets are more vertically and anteroposteriorly oriented when compared to cervical facets that are obliquely and transversely oriented. Conclusions: Understanding the anatomical peculiarities of the lumbar and cervical facets can lead to an optimum utilization of the potential of Goel facet distraction arthrodesis technique in the treatment of spinal degenerative canal stenosis.

Satoskar, Savni R.; Goel, Aimee A.; Mehta, Pooja H.; Goel, Atul

2014-01-01

53

An anatomical investigation of the human cervical facet capsule, quantifying muscle insertion area  

PubMed Central

Facet capsule injury has been hypothesised as a mechanism for neck pain. While qualitative studies have demonstrated the proximity of neck muscles to the cervical facet capsule, the magnitude of their forces remains unknown owing to a lack of quantitative muscle geometry. In this study, histological techniques were employed to quantify muscle insertions on the human cervical facet capsule. Computerised image analysis of slides stained with Masson's trichrome was performed to characterise the geometry of the cervical facet capsule and determine the total insertion area of muscle fibres into the facet capsule for the C4–C5 and C5–C6 joints. Muscle insertions were found to cover 22·4±9·6 % of the capsule area for these cervical levels, corresponding to a mean muscle insertion area of 47·6±21·8 mm2. The magnitude of loading to the cervical facet capsule due to eccentric muscle contraction is estimated to be as high as 51 N. When taken in conjunction with the forces acting on the capsular ligament due to vertebral motions, these forces can be as high as 66 N. In that regard, these anatomical data provide quantitative evidence of substantial muscle insertions into the cervical facet capsular ligament and provide a possible mechanism for injury to this ligament and the facet joint as a whole. PMID:11327207

WINKELSTEIN, BETH A.; McLENDON, ROGER E.; BARBIR, ANA; MYERS, BARRY S.

2001-01-01

54

Surface evolution of faceted islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ge islands were grown on Si(0 0 1) by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy and their surface was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. The facets composing the island surface were identified and their area was measured as a function of island size. Three kinds of islands were observed: pyramids, dome shaped islands and large dislocated islands. A statistical analysis revealed that domes do not ripen in a self-similar way. The main facets composing the surface of dislocated islands were identified.

Rastelli, Armando; von Känel, Hans

2002-09-01

55

Plasma Wakefield Experiments at FACET  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to {approx}20{micro}m long and focused to {approx}10{micro}m wide. The intense fields of the FACET bunches will be used to field ionize neutral lithium or cesium vapor produced in a heat pipe oven. Previous experiments at the SLAC FFTB facility demonstrated 50GeV/m gradients in an 85cm field ionized lithium plasma where the interaction distance was limited by head erosion. Simulations indicate the lower ionization potential of cesium will decrease the rate of head erosion and increase single stage performance. The initial experimental program will compare the performance of lithium and cesium plasma sources with single and double bunches. Later experiments will investigate improved performance with a pre-ionized cesium plasma. The status of the experiments and expected performance are reviewed. The FACET Facility is being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The facility will begin commissioning in summer 2011 and conduct an experimental program over the coming five years to study electron and positron beam driven plasma acceleration with strong wake loading in the non-linear regime. The FACET experiments aim to demonstrate high-gradient acceleration of electron and positron beams with high efficiency and negligible emittance growth.

Hogan, M.J.; England, R.J.; Frederico, J.; Hast, C.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; An, W.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Tochitsky, S.; /UCLA; Muggli, P.; Pinkerton, S.; Shi, Y.; /Southern California U.

2011-08-19

56

Lumbar facet injection for the treatment of chronic piriformis myofascial pain syndrome: 52 case studies  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of lumbar facet joint injection for piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. Methods Fifty-two patients with chronic myofascial pain in the piriformis muscle each received a lumbar facet injection into the ipsilateral L5–S1 facet joint region, using the multiple insertion technique. Subjective pain intensity, trunk extension range, and lumbar facet signs were measured before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after injection. Thirty-six patients received follow-up for 6 months. Results Immediately after the injection, 27 patients (51.9%) had complete pain subsidence, 19 patients (36.5%) had pain reduction to a tolerable level, and only 6 patients (11.5%) had no pain relief to a tolerable level. Mean pain intensity was reduced from 7.4±0.9 to 1.6±2.1 after injection (P<0.01). This effectiveness lasted for 2 weeks in 49 patients (94.2%), and lasted for approximately 6 months in 35 (97.2%) of 36 patients. The mean range of motion increased from 13.4±6.8 degrees to 22.1±6.0 degrees immediately after injection, and further increased 2 weeks and 6 months later. Immediately after injection, 45 patients (86.5%) had no facet sign. In addition, 90.4% and 94.4% of patients had no facet sign after 2 weeks and after 6 months, respectively. Conclusions It is important to identify the possible cause of piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. If this pain is related to lumbar facet lesions, lumbar facet joint injection can immediately suppress piriformis myofascial pain symptoms. This effectiveness may last for at least 6 months in most patients. This study further supports the importance of eliminating the underlying etiological lesion for complete and effective relief of myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:25170256

Huang, Jen-Ting; Chen, Han-Yu; Hong, Chang-Zern; Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Tsai, Chien-Tsung; Chang, Wen-Dien

2014-01-01

57

Design of a lattice-based faceted classification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a software reuse architecture supporting component retrieval by facet classes. The facets are organized into a lattice of facet sets and facet n-tuples. The query mechanism supports precise retrieval and flexible browsing.

Eichmann, David A.; Atkins, John

1992-01-01

58

Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major focus of this investigation is to study the fundamentals of layer spreading mechanisms during growth of doped Ge (a facet forming material), and to determine the conditions for morphological instability of vicinal solid-liquid interfaces. The investigation will also lead to the determination of the effect of dopants on the layer growth kinetics, step free energy, and dopant capture by the advancing ledges. The theoretical treatment of growth of faceted interfaces indicates that the kinetics of a step on a growing vicinal interface considerably depends on its angle of inclination, the melt concentration, and characteristics of flow currents in the melt. The morphological stability of the interface also depends on these parameters, as well as on the density and spreading velocity of the steps. However, the treatment of the instability of the interface by the layer growth mechanism is rather difficult because it requires exact knowledge of the thermal and solutal fields, hydrodynamics of the melt, and supercooling at the interface. The results of recent space experiments of the principal investigator involving directional solidification of faceted Bi-Sn alloys have shown that the morphological stability of various crystallographic orientations is significantly affected by the anistropy in interfacial properties of the faceted alloy in general, and the interface kinetics in particular. These findings have also raised many important and fundamental questions, particularly with respect to the behavior of interfacial steps, which need to be addressed via additional groundbased and microgravity experiments. For the present investigation we will use a novel crystal growth technique which provides axial heat flux close to the solid-liquid boundary. The Axial Heat Processing (AHP) technique allows for precise control and determination of the heat and mass transfer close to the crystallization front, and the establishment of a planar interface over the entire cross-section of the growing crystal.

Abbaschian, Reza; Golyshev, V. D.; Gonik, M.; Tsvetivsky, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.

2001-01-01

59

Gabapentin alleviates facet-mediated pain in the rat through reduced neuronal hyperexcitability and astrocytic activation in the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Although joint pain is common, its mechanism(s) remain undefined, with little known about the spinal neuronal responses that contribute to this type of pain. Afferent activity and sustained spinal neuronal hyperexcitability correlate to facet joint loading and the extent of behavioral sensitivity induced after painful facet injury, suggesting spinal neuronal plasticity is induced in association with facet-mediated pain. This study used a rat model of painful C6/C7 facet joint stretch, together with intrathecal administration of gabapentin, to investigate the effects of one aspect of spinal neuronal function on joint pain. Gabapentin or saline vehicle was given via lumbar puncture prior to and at 1 day after painful joint distraction. Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured in the forepaw for 7 days. Extracellular recordings of neuronal activity and astrocytic and microglial activation in the cervical spinal cord were evaluated at day 7. Gabapentin significantly (p=0.0001) attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia and the frequency of evoked neuronal firing also significantly decreased (p<0.047) with gabapentin treatment. Gabapentin also decreased (p<0.04) spinal GFAP expression. Although spinal Iba1 expression was doubled over sham, gabapentin did not reduce it. Facet joint-mediated pain appears to be sustained through spinal neuronal modifications that are also associated with astrocytic activation. PMID:24094695

Dong, Ling; Crosby, Nathan D.; Winkelstein, Beth A.

2013-01-01

60

Is End-Stage Ankle Arthrosis Best Managed with Total Ankle Replacement or Arthrodesis? A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction. End-stage ankle osteoarthritis is a debilitating condition. Traditionally, ankle arthrodesis (AA) has been the surgical intervention of choice but the emergence of total ankle replacement (TAR) has challenged this concept. This systematic review aims to address whether TAR or AA is optimal in terms of functional outcomes. Methods. We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA checklist using the online databases Medline and EMBASE after January 1, 2005. Participants must be skeletally mature and suffering from ankle arthrosis of any cause. The intervention had to be an uncemented TAR comprising two or three modular components. The comparative group could include any type of ankle arthrodesis, either open or arthroscopic, using any implant for fixation. The study must have reported at least one functional outcome measure. Results. Of the four studies included, two reported some significant improvement in functional outcome in favour of TAR. The complication rate was higher in the TAR group. However, the quality of studies reviewed was poor and the methodological weaknesses limited any definitive conclusions being drawn. Conclusion. The available literature is insufficient to conclude which treatment is superior. Further research is indicated and should be in the form of an adequately powered randomised controlled trial. PMID:25215242

Jordan, Robert W.; Chahal, Gurdip S.; Chapman, Anna

2014-01-01

61

Benchmarking the parallel FACETS core solver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Framework Architecture for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS) is a SciDAC project targeting whole-device plasma simulations in tokamaks such as ITER. A key component in the multi-physics FACETS effort has been the development of a core transport solver (FACETS::core) that is both robust and runs in parallel. FACETS::core can interface to any of the flux calculators available through the Framework for Modernization and Componentization Fusion Modules (FMCFM), including GLF23 and MMM95. Electron and ion temperatures are advanced implicitly using the nonlinear fluxes from GLF23 (or other model). Here, we present results comparing the stability and accuracy of FACETS::core with the ASTRA transport code. Although FACET::core is slower than ASTRA on a per time step basis, the multigrid algorithm and PETSc/SNES solver applied by FACETS::core allow the latter to take orders of magnitude larger time steps, conferring to FACETS::core a 5-10x overall performance improvement over ASTRA. This, combined with the capability of FACETS::core to scale to tens of processors, contributes towards a wall clock time reduction of the core transport computation by a factor 200-500x.

Pletzer, Alexander; Hakim, Ammar; Miah, Mahmood; Cary, John; Kruger, Scott; Vadlamani, Srinath; Pankin, Alexei

2008-11-01

62

Solitary Epidural Lipoma with Ipsilateral Facet Arthritis Causing Lumbar Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old obese man (body mass index, 31.6 kg/m2) presented radiating pain and motor weakness in the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass posterior to the L5 vertebral body, which was isosignal to subcutaneous fat and it asymmetrically compressed the left side of the cauda equina and the exiting left L5 nerve root on the axial T1 weighted images. Severe arthritis of the left facet joint and edema of the bone marrow regarding the left pedicle were also found. As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning a solitary epidural lipoma combined with ipsilateral facet arthorsis causing lumbar radiculopathy. Solitary epidural lipoma with ipsilateral facet arthritis causing lumbar radiculopathy was removed after the failure of conservative treatment. After decompression, the neurologic deficit was relieved. At a 2 year follow-up, motor weakness had completely recovered and the patient was satisfied with the result. We recommend that a solitary epidural lipoma causing neurologic deficit should be excised at the time of diagnosis. PMID:22977701

Kim, Hong Kyun; Koh, Sung Hye

2012-01-01

63

Sandwich construction solar structural facets  

SciTech Connect

Silver/glass mirrors have excellent optical properties but need a method of support in order to be used in concentrating solar thermal systems. In collaboration with the Cummins dish/Stirling development program, the authors started investigating sandwich construction as a way to integrate silver/glass mirrors into solar optical elements. In sandwich construction, membranes such as sheet metal or plastic are bonded to the front and back of a core (like a sandwich). For solar optical elements, a glass mirror is bonded to one of the membranes. This type of construction has the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio, and reasonable material and manufacturing cost. The inherent stiffness of sandwich construction mirror panels also facilitates large panels. This can have cost advantages for both the amount of hardware required as well as reduced installation and alignment costs. In addition, by incorporating the panels into the support structure reductions in the amount of structural support required are potentially possible. The authors have investigated sandwich construction panels that employ cores of polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyurethane foams as well as conventional aluminum and cardboard honeycombs. The authors investigations have involved fabricating 0.5 x 0.6-m (20 x 24-inch) spherical-contour panels and testing their optical properties and environmental durability. The authors have also performed preliminary cost and performance studies. Evaluations included optical testing with the SunLab 2f and VSHOT tools both before and after exposures to environmental chamber testing. The results showed that sandwich mirror panels are potentially very accurate. However, long-term degradation due to creep was evident in all of the foam core facets. The aluminum honeycomb core facets were accurate and durable. In this paper, the design principles that guided the investigations, estimates of cost, and the results of the experimental investigations are presented.

Diver, R.B.; Grossman, J.W.

1999-07-01

64

Method for partially coating laser diode facets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bars of integral laser diode devices cleaved from a wafer are placed with their p regions abutting and n regions abutting. A thin BeCu mask having alternate openings and strips of the same width as the end facets is used to mask the n region interfaces so that multiple bars can be partially coated over their exposed p regions with a reflective or partial reflective coating. The partial coating permits identification of the emitting facet from the fully coated back facet during a later device mounting procedure.

Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

65

Accessory Anterolateral Talar Facet as an Etiology of Painful Talocalcaneal Impingement in the Rigid Flatfoot: A New Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

A retrospective review identified six patients with seven painful rigid flatfeet. In each case, pain was localized laterally to an accessory facet of the anterolateral talus. cross-sectional imaging demonstrated no evidence of tarsal coalition. In five of the six, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained and in each case demonstrated focal abutting bone marrow edema consistent with impingement between the accessory facet and the anterior calcaneus. Seven feet in six patients underwent resection of the accessory facet with additional subtalar joint-sparing reconstructive procedures. At an average follow-up of 11 months, clinical results were graded as four good and two fair. An association between this accessory facet and pain in the rigid flatfoot has not been previously reported. Obesity was universal and may represent a risk factor for facet impingement. At early follow-up, facet resection with subtalar joint-sparing flatfoot reconstruction provided good results with symptomatic and functional improvement in the majority of patients. PMID:19223941

Martus, Jeffrey E.; Femino, John E.; Caird, Michelle S.; Kuhns, Lawrence R.; Craig, Clifford L.; Farley, Frances A.

2008-01-01

66

FACET: SLAC___s New User Facility  

SciTech Connect

FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests) is a new User Facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The first User Run started in spring 2012 with 20 GeV, 3 nC electron beams. The facility is designed to provide short (20 {micro}m) bunches and small (20 {micro}m wide) spot sizes, producing uniquely high power beams. FACET supports studies from many fields but in particular those of Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and Dielectric Wakefield Acceleration. The creation of drive and witness bunches and shaped bunch profiles is possible with 'Notch' Collimation. FACET is also a source of THz radiation for material studies. Positrons will be available at FACET in future user runs. We present the User Facility and the available tools and opportunities for future experiments.

Clarke, C.I.; Decker, F.-J.; England, R.J.; Erickson, R.A.; Hast, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.D.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seeman, J.T.; Sheppard, J.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

2012-05-16

67

Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FACET—Facilities for Accelerator science and Experimental Test beams at SLAC—will provide high-energy-density electron and positron beams with peak currents of roughly 20 kA that will be focused down to a 10 ?m×10 ?m transverse spot size at an energy of ~23 GeV. With FACET, the SLAC linac will support a unique program concentrating on second-generation research in plasma wakefield acceleration. Topics include high-gradient electron acceleration with a narrow energy spread and preserved emittance, beam loading and high-gradient positron acceleration. This paper describes the FACET facility, summarizes the state of the art for plasma wakefield accelerators and discusses the plasma wakefield accelerator program to be conducted at FACET over the next five years.

Hogan, M. J.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Seryi, A.; Muggli, P.; Katsouleas, T.; Huang, C.; Lu, W.; An, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.

2010-05-01

68

Semiconductor laser diode facet reflectivity measurement techniques  

E-print Network

SEMICONDUCTOR LASER DIODE FACET REFLECTIVITY MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES A Thesis by MICHAEL JOHN THOMPSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering SEMICONDUCTOR LASER DIODE FACET REFLECTIVITY MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES A Thesis by MICHAEL JOHN THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: Hen F. a lor (Chairman of Committee) Wx ram B...

Thompson, Michael John

2012-06-07

69

Faceted fracture in beta annealed titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the correlation between fatigue failure and prior ?-grain size, in ?-annealed microstructures, the morphology\\u000a of fatigue fracture facets which contain more than one ? platelet colony in Ti-11 and IMI-685 titanium alloys was investigated.\\u000a It was found that most ?\\/? traces on the basal fracture facets, intersect at angles approximately 50, 60 and 70 deg. These\\u000a angles

D. Eylon

1979-01-01

70

Guided vortex motion in faceted niobium films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guided vortex motion has been observed in niobium films on a faceted Al2O3 substrate. The even and odd components of the longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistances of the samples are measured for various orientations of the transport current relative to the facetting direction. The even and odd components of the magnetoresistance are separated according to a change in the sign of the magnetic field.

Soroka, A. K.; Huth, M.

2002-11-01

71

Surface Processes of Faceted Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic force microscopy and high precision optical interferometry allow to analyze the processes that are in the core of our present understanding of faceted crystal growth. Some of these processes will be reviewed. Recent experiments suggest that the Gibbs-Thomson Law (GTL) may not be applicable to the weakly fluctuating strongly polygonized steps, with low kink density. Propagation rate of a straight short step segment changes with the segment length much steeper than predicted by GTL. If the step fluctuations are still well developed, the typical transition length may be determined just by the radius of rounded comers of the polygonized step. If fluctuations do not have enough time to develop, the kinetic effects may be essential. Indeed, 'communications' between comers of a short straight step segment may occur and, thus, the GTL may be implemented only via kink exchange. E.g., dissolutions of this short segment at macroscopic equilibrium occurs as follows: The kinks are split from one comer as a result of fluctuations, and annihilate with kinks of the opposite sign generated by another comer. Similarly, an exchange via chain of kinks on a rough step is the mechanism to implement the GT Law. If there is a supersaturation with respect to a large crystal, the kinks not only diffuse along the step, but move back the generating comers. This 'wind' prevents communication between the comers and places upper limit supersaturation only below which GTL is applicable. Steps replace kinks in the 3D case, though, of course, another dimensionality brings about another physics. Another specific problem to think about is if fluctuations are always fast enough to provide enough kinks for linear dependence of step rate on supersaturation. Increasing azimuthal polygonization of growth hillocks is a sign of insufficient fluctuation rate. Morphological stability of vicinal faces is usually considered on the basis of mutually parallel steps. Azimuthal anisotropy and interlacing of step bunches inducing the well known bunch splitting is another challenge. Among other challenging problems are: existence of surface diffusion on the crystal/so1ution interface, step interaction in solutions, achievement of step flow modes from liquids, impurity effects. New phenomena essential in biomacromolecular crystallization is another interesting area.

Chernov, A.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

72

Facet development for a faceted stretched-membrane dish by Solar Kinetics, Inc  

SciTech Connect

A 3.6-meter diameter stretched-membrane optical facet for a parabolic dish has been successfully designed and demonstrated under contract with Sandia National Laboratories. Twelve facets identical to them will be used to make the lightweight reflector of the dish. The project goal of 2.5-mrad surface accuracy was met with each of the two full-sized prototypes, and accuracies of as low as 1.1 mrad were achieved. The facet weight is 11.7 kg/m{sup 2} (2.4lbs/ft{sup 2}). The facet is similar in construction to the successful stretched-membrane heliostat; it has two thin metal membranes attached to a ring. However, the front membrane for this facet is plastically formed at the factor in order to achieve a shorter facet f/D (approximately 3.0). A passive tether restrains the from membrane when not in operation, that is, when the stabilizing vacuum is off. The optical surface is achieved with a silvered-acrylic film laminated to the metal membrane. The facet is expected to cost $55.40/m{sup 2} at a production rate of 10,000 facets per year and $115, 000/m{sup 2}-at a production rate of 500 facets a year. Several key issues have been resolved. Stress concentrations due to seams in the reflective laminate did not cause membrane rupture during forming as they have for dishes with lower focal length-to-diameter ratios. The laminate survived the forming process and simulated operation without deterioration. The optical effect of the tether on the membrane was tested and found to be very small. Most important, highly accurate shapes were obtained using a simple forming procedure. Additional tests are needed to demonstrate process repeatablility and facet performance in typical operating conditions. 18 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

Schertz, P.T.; Brown, D.C.; Konnerth, A. III (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)) [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1991-07-01

73

Joint swelling  

MedlinePLUS

Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

74

Laser ionized preformed plasma at FACET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC installed a 10-TW Ti?:?sapphire laser system for pre-ionized plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. High energy (500 mJ), short (50 fs) pulses of 800 nm laser light at 1 Hz are used at the FACET experimental area to produce a plasma column. The laser pulses are stretched to 250 fs before injection into a vapor cell, where the laser is focused by an axicon lens to form a plasma column that can be sustained over the desired radius and length. A 20 GeV electron bunch interacts with this preformed plasma to generate a non-linear wakefield, thus accelerating a trailing witness bunch with gradients on the order of several GV m-1. The experimental setup and the methods for producing the pre-ionized plasma for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments performed at FACET are described.

Green, S. Z.; Adli, E.; Clarke, C. I.; Corde, S.; Edstrom, S. A.; Fisher, A. S.; Frederico, J.; Frisch, J. C.; Gessner, S.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, P.; Hogan, M. J.; Jobe, R. K.; Litos, M.; May, J. E.; Walz, D. R.; Yakimenko, V.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Marsh, K. A.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Muggli, P.

2014-08-01

75

Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiments at FACET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests) is a new facility at SLAC primarily dedicated to the study of beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), an advanced particle acceleration technique which can produce longitudinal electric fields that are orders of magnitude stronger than those in conventional metal structures, and can sustain those fields over a distance of meters. These features make PWFA an attractive technology for the design of future linear colliders and light sources. The experiments at FACET will roughly mimic a single stage of a plasma-based accelerator by demonstrating the uniform acceleration of a discrete electron witness bunch, increasing its energy by about 20 GeV over a distance of 1 m in a plasma wake induced by a separate driver bunch of electrons. Another major goal of FACET is to study PWFA using various combinations of positrons and electrons in the roles of driver and witness bunch for the first time.

Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

2011-11-01

76

Facet engineering of high power single emitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ever increasing demand for high-power, high-reliability operation of single emitters at 9xx nm wavelengths requires the development of laser diodes with improved facet regions immune to both catastrophic and wear-out failure modes. In our study, we have evaluated several laser facet definition technologies in application to 90 micron aperture single emitters in asymmetric design (In)GaAs/AlGaAs based material emitting at 915, 925 and 980nm. A common epitaxy and emitter design makes for a straightforward comparison of the facet technologies investigated. Our study corroborates a clear trend of increasing difficulty in obtaining reliable laser operation from 980nm down to 915nm. At 980nm, one can employ dielectric facet passivation with a pre-clean cycle delivering a device lifetime in excess of 3,000 hours at increasing current steps. At 925nm, quantum-well intermixing can be used to define non-absorbing mirrors giving good device reliability, albeit with a large efficiency penalty. Vacuum cleaved emitters have delivered excellent reliability at 915nm, and can be expected to perform just as well at 925 and 980nm. Epitaxial regrowth of laser facets is under development and has yet to demonstrate an appreciable reliability improvement. Only a weak correlation between start-of-life catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) levels and reliability was established. The optimized facet design has delivered maximum powers in excess of 19 MW/sq.cm (rollover limited) and product-grade 980nm single emitters with a slope efficiency of >1 W/A and a peak efficiency of >60%. The devices have accumulated over 1,500 hours of CW operation at 11W. A fiber-coupled device emits 10W ex-fiber with 47% efficiency.

Yanson, Dan; Levi, Moshe; Shamay, Moshe; Tesler, Renana; Rappaport, Noam; Don, Yaroslav; Karni, Yoram; Schnitzer, Itzhak; Sicron, Noam; Shusterman, Sergey

2011-03-01

77

Bone scans are reliable for the identification of lumbar disk and facet pathology.  

PubMed

Study Design?Surgeon survey. Objective?To evaluate the reliability of bone single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) versus bone SPECT images co-registered with computed tomography (bone SPECT-CT) by analyzing interobserver agreement for identification of the anatomical location of technetium(99m)-labeled oxidronate uptake in the lumbar disk and/or facet joint. Methods?Seven spine surgeons interpreted 20 bone scans: 10 conventional black-and-white tomograms (bone SPECT) and 10 color-graded bone SPECT-CT scans. Each surgeon was asked to identify the location of any diagnostically relevant uptake in the disk and/or facet joint between L1 and S1. Reliability was evaluated using the free-marginal kappa statistic, and the level of agreement was assessed using the Landis and Koch interpretation. Results?Conventional bone SPECT scans and bone SPECT-CT scans were reliable for the identification of diagnostically relevant uptake, with bone SPECT-CT having higher reliability (kappa?=?0.72) than bone SPECT alone (0.59). Bone SPECT and bone SPECT-CT were also reliable in identifying disk pathology, with kappa values of 0.72 and 0.81, respectively. However, bone SPECT-CT was more reliable (0.81) than bone SPECT (0.60) when identifying facet disease. Conclusions?For the identification of disk pathology, it is reasonable to use either conventional bone SPECT or bone SPECT-CT; however, bone SPECT-CT is more reliable for facet joint pathology. PMID:25648168

Malham, Gregory M; Parker, Rhiannon M; Ballok, Zita E; Goss, Ben; Diwan, Ashish D; Uribe, Juan S

2015-02-01

78

Thrombospondin-4 and excitatory synaptogenesis promote spinal sensitization after painful mechanical joint injury.  

PubMed

Facet joint injury induces persistent pain that may be maintained by structural plasticity in the spinal cord. Astrocyte-derived thrombospondins, especially thrombospondin-4 (TSP4), have been implicated in synaptogenesis and spinal sensitization in neuropathic pain, but the TSP4 response and its relationship to synaptic changes in the spinal cord have not been investigated for painful joint injury. This study investigates the role of TSP4 in the development and maintenance of persistent pain following injurious facet joint distraction in rats and tests the hypothesis that excitatory synaptogenesis contributes to such pain. Painful facet joint loading induces dorsal horn excitatory synaptogenesis along with decreased TSP4 in the DRG and increased astrocytic release of TSP4 in the spinal cord, all of which parallel the time course of sustained tactile allodynia. Blocking injury-induced spinal TSP4 expression with antisense oligonucleotides or reducing TSP4 activity at its neuronal receptor in the spinal cord with gabapentin treatment both attenuate the allodynia and dorsal horn synaptogenesis that develop after painful facet joint loading. Increased spinal TSP4 also facilitates the development of allodynia and spinal hyperexcitability, even after non-painful physiological loading of the facet joint. These results suggest that spinal TSP4 plays an important role in the development and maintenance of persistent joint-mediated pain by inducing excitatory synaptogenesis and facilitating the transduction of mechanical loading of the facet joint that leads to spinal hyperexcitability. PMID:25483397

Crosby, Nathan D; Zaucke, Frank; Kras, Jeffrey V; Dong, Ling; Luo, Z David; Winkelstein, Beth A

2015-02-01

79

Oracy: Social Facets of Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers and educators have developed an interest in language development. Their studies focused on the cultural context in which language is learned and developed and its relationship to cognitive development. This article reviews the researchers' definitions on oracy and its social facets of language learning. Specifically, it reviews studies…

Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

2007-01-01

80

Faceting ionic shells into icosahedra via electrostatics  

PubMed Central

Shells of various viruses and other closed packed structures with spherical topology exhibit icosahedral symmetry because the surface of a sphere cannot be tiled without defects, and icosahedral symmetry yields the most symmetric configuration with the minimum number of defects. Icosahedral symmetry is different from icosahedral-shaped structures, which include some large viruses, cationic–anionic vesicles, and fullerenes. We present a faceting mechanism of ionic shells into icosahedral shapes that breaks icosahedral symmetry resulting from different arrangements of the charged components among the facets. These self-organized ionic structures may favor the formation of flat domains on curved surfaces. We show that icosahedral shapes without rotational symmetry can have lower energy than spheres with icosahedral symmetry caused by preferred bending directions in the planar ionic lattice. The ability to create icosahedral shapes without icosahedral symmetry may lead to the design of new functional materials. The electrostatically driven faceting mechanism we present here suggests that we can design faceted polyhedra with diverse symmetries by coassembling oppositely charged molecules of different stoichiometric ratios. PMID:18003933

Vernizzi, Graziano; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

2007-01-01

81

Problem of time: facets and Machian strategy.  

PubMed

The problem of time is that "time" in each of ordinary quantum theory and general relativity are mutually incompatible notions. This causes difficulties in trying to put these two theories together to form a theory of quantum gravity. The problem of time has eight facets in canonical approaches. I clarify that all but one of these facets already occur at the classical level, and reconceptualize and re-name some of these facets as follows. The frozen formalism problem becomes temporal relationalism, the thin sandwich problem becomes configurational relationalism, via the notion of best matching. The problem of observables becomes the problem of beables, and the functional evolution problem becomes the constraint closure problem. I also outline how each of the global and multiple-choice problems of time have their own plurality of facets. This article additionally contains a local resolution to the problem of time at the conceptual level and which is actually realizable for the relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution is, moreover, Machian, and has three levels: classical, semiclassical, and a combined semiclassical-histories-timeless records scheme. I end by delineating the current frontiers of this program toward resolution of the problem of time in the cases of full general relativity and of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology. PMID:25266113

Anderson, Edward

2014-10-01

82

Facet: Streaming over Videoconferencing for Censorship Circumvention University of Minnesota  

E-print Network

Keywords censorship resistance, video conferencing, traffic analysis 1. INTRODUCTION As the Internet hasFacet: Streaming over Videoconferencing for Censorship Circumvention Shuai Li University for social video sites. Facet evades detection by Internet censors by streaming social videos over Skype

Minnesota, University of

83

Subject-specific evaluation of patellofemoral joint biomechanics during functional activity.  

PubMed

Patellofemoral joint pain is a common problem experienced by active adults. However, relatively little is known about patellofemoral joint load and its distribution across the medial and lateral facets of the patella. In this study, biomechanical experiments and computational modeling were used to study patellofemoral contact mechanics in four healthy adults during stair ambulation. Subject-specific anatomical and gait data were recorded using magnetic resonance imaging, dynamic X-ray fluoroscopy, video motion capture, and multiple force platforms. From these data, in vivo tibiofemoral joint kinematics and knee muscle forces were computed and then applied to a deformable finite-element model of the patellofemoral joint. The contact force acting on the lateral facet of the patella was 4-6 times higher than that acting on the medial facet. The peak average patellofemoral contact stresses were 8.2±1.0 MPa and 5.9±1.3 MPa for the lateral and medial patellar facets, respectively. Peak normal compressive stress and peak octahedral shear stress occurred near toe-off of the contralateral leg and were higher on the lateral facet than the medial facet; furthermore, the peak compressive stress (11.5±3.0 MPa) was higher than the peak octahedral shear stress (5.2±0.9 MPa). The dominant stress pattern on the lateral patellar facet corresponded well to the location of maximum cartilage thickness. Higher loading of the lateral facet is also consistent with the clinical observation that the lateral compartment of the patellofemoral joint is more prone to osteoarthritis than the medial compartment. Predicted cartilage contact stress maps near contralateral toe-off showed three distinctly different patterns: peak stresses located on the lateral patellar facet; peak stresses located centrally between the medial and lateral patellar facets; and peak stresses located superiorly on both the medial and lateral patellar facets. PMID:24998901

Akbarshahi, Massoud; Fernandez, Justin W; Schache, Anthony G; Pandy, Marcus G

2014-09-01

84

Formulation and Application of the Generalized Multilevel Facets Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors develop a generalized multilevel facets model, which is not only a multilevel and two-parameter generalization of the facets model, but also a multilevel and facet generalization of the generalized partial credit model. Because the new model is formulated within a framework of nonlinear mixed models, no efforts are…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chih-Yu

2007-01-01

85

Results from Plasma Wakefield Experiments at FACET  

SciTech Connect

We report initial results of the Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) Experiments performed at FACET - Facility for Advanced aCcelertor Experimental Tests at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. At FACET a 23 GeV electron beam with 1.8 x 10{sup 10} electrons is compressed to 20 {mu}m longitudinally and focused down to 10 {mu}m x 10 {mu}m transverse spot size for user driven experiments. Construction of the FACET facility completed in May 2011 with a first run of user assisted commissioning throughout the summer. The first PWFA experiments will use single electron bunches combined with a high density lithium plasma to produce accelerating gradients > 10 GeV/m benchmarking the FACET beam and the newly installed experimental hardware. Future plans for further study of plasma wakefield acceleration will be reviewed. The experimental hardware and operation of the plasma heat-pipe oven have been successfully commissioned. Plasma wakefield acceleration was not observed because the electron bunch density was insufficient to ionize the lithium vapor. The remaining commissioning time in summer 2011 will be dedicated to delivering the FACET design parameters for the experimental programs which will begin in early 2012. PWFA experiments require the shorter bunches and smaller transverse sizes to create the plasma and drive large amplitude wakefields. Low emittance and high energy will minimize head erosion which was found to be a limiting factor in acceleration distance and energy gain. We will run the PWFA experiments with the design single bunch conditions in early 2012. Future PWFA experiments at FACET are discussed in [5][6] and include drive and witness bunch production for high energy beam manipulation, ramped bunch to optimize tranformer ratio, field-ionized cesium plasma, preionized plasmas, positron acceleration, etc.. We will install a notch collimator for two-bunch operation as well as new beam diagnostics such as the X-band TCAV [7] to resolve the two bunches. With these new instruments and desired beam parameters in place next year, we will be able to complete the studies of plasma wakefield acceleration in the next few years.

Li, S.Z.; Clarke, C.I.; England, R.J.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.; Litos, M.D.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Muggli, P.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; An, W.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Tochitsky, S.; /UCLA; Adli, E.; /U. Oslo

2011-12-13

86

JPL tests of a LaJet concentrator facet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A LaJet Energy Company (LEC) concentrator facet, 60 in. in diameter, was tested for imaging quality. The following two methods were used: (1) autofocus tests with a point source of light at the facet's radius of curvature; and (2) tests with the Sun close to the horizon as a distant source. The tests of the LaJet facet indicate that all of the solar image reflected by an LEC 460 solar concentrator made of like facets should fall within a 9-in. aperture if the outer facets are carefully adjusted. Such a concentrator would have acceptable performance, but complete evaluation must be made with an assembled concentrator.

Dennison, E. W.; Argoud, M. J.

1983-01-01

87

Rough surface scattering based on facet model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for the radar return from bare ground was developed to calculate the radar cross section of bare ground and the effect of the frequency averaging on the reduction of the variance of the return. It is shown that, by assuming that the distribution of the slope to be Gaussian and that the distribution of the length of the facet to be in the form of the positive side of a Gaussian distribution, the results are in good agreement with experimental data collected by an 8- to 18-GHz radar spectrometer system. It is also shown that information on the exact correlation length of the small structure on the ground is not necessary; an effective correlation length may be calculated based on the facet model and the wavelength of the incident wave.

Khamsi, H. R.; Fung, A. K.; Ulaby, F. T.

1974-01-01

88

Coherent terahertz radiation source at FACET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Facility for Accelerator science and Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC provides a high charge, high peak current, sub-picosecond bunched electron beam that is ideal for 0.1 to 2 THz radiation generation via coherent transition radiation. This paper presents preliminary characterization of the terahertz pulses generated by the FACET electron beam. The measured THz frequency content spans from 0.25 THz to 2.3 THz and peaks at around 0.5 THz. The radiation has been focused down to a 4.4 × 4.8 mm2 transverse spot with 0.69 mJ collected total energy per pulse. Fitting the energy to the spatiotemporal profile of the THz pulse yields peak e-field amplitude of 1.5 MV/cm.

Wu, Ziran; Adli, Erik; Fisher, Alan; Loos, Henrik; Hogan, Mark

2012-12-01

89

High Stability of Faceted Nanotubes and Fullerenes of Multiphase Layered Phosphorus: A Computational Study.  

PubMed

We present a paradigm in constructing very stable, faceted nanotube and fullerene structures by laterally joining nanoribbons or patches of different planar phosphorene phases. Our ab initio density functional calculations indicate that these phases may form very stable, nonplanar joints. Unlike fullerenes and nanotubes obtained by deforming a single-phase planar monolayer at substantial energy penalty, we find faceted fullerenes and nanotubes to be nearly as stable as the planar single-phase monolayers. The resulting rich variety of polymorphs allows us to tune the electronic properties of phosphorene nanotubes and fullerenes not only by the chiral index but also by the combination of different phosphorene phases. In selected phosphorene nanotubes, a metal-insulator transition may be induced by strain or by changing the number of walls. PMID:25494080

Guan, Jie; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-11-28

90

High Stability of Faceted Nanotubes and Fullerenes of Multiphase Layered Phosphorus: A Computational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a paradigm in constructing very stable, faceted nanotube and fullerene structures by laterally joining nanoribbons or patches of different planar phosphorene phases. Our ab initio density functional calculations indicate that these phases may form very stable, nonplanar joints. Unlike fullerenes and nanotubes obtained by deforming a single-phase planar monolayer at substantial energy penalty, we find faceted fullerenes and nanotubes to be nearly as stable as the planar single-phase monolayers. The resulting rich variety of polymorphs allows us to tune the electronic properties of phosphorene nanotubes and fullerenes not only by the chiral index but also by the combination of different phosphorene phases. In selected phosphorene nanotubes, a metal-insulator transition may be induced by strain or by changing the number of walls.

Guan, Jie; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

2014-11-01

91

FACET: The New User Facility at SLAC  

SciTech Connect

FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests) is a new User Facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Its high power electron and positron beams make it a unique facility, ideal for beam-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration studies. The first 2 km of the SLAC linac produce 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron and positron beams with short bunch lengths of 20 {mu}m. A final focusing system can produce beam spots 10 {mu}m wide. User-aided Commissioning took place in summer 2011 and FACET will formally come online in early 2012. We present the User Facility, the current features, planned upgrades and the opportunities for further experiments. Accelerators are our primary tool for discovering the fundamental laws to the universe. Each new frontier we probe requires a new, more powerful method. Accelerators are therefore increasing in size and cost. The future of this field requires new accelerating techniques that can reach the high energies required over shorter distances. New concepts for high gradient acceleration include utilizing the wakes in plasma and dielectric and metallic structures. FACET was built to provide a test bed for novel accelerating concepts with its high charge and highly compressed beams. As a test facility unlike any other, it has also attracted groups interested in beam diagnostic techniques and terahertz studies. The first phase of the construction was completed in May 2011. Beam commissioning began in June and was interleaved with the installation of five experiments. Users were invited to aid with the commissioning for the month of August during which time experimental hardware and software were checked out and some first measurements were taken. FACET is currently in the process of becoming a Department of Energy User Facility for High Energy Physics.

Clarke, C.I.; Decker, F.J.; Erikson, R.; Hast, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Li, S.Z.; Nosochkov, Y.; Phinney, N.; Sheppard, J.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC; Seryi, A.; /Oxford U., JAI; Wittmer, W.; /Michigan State U.

2011-12-13

92

Multi-faceted digital pyramid wavefront sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modulated pyramid wavefront sensor is known for its high sensitivity and adjustable dynamic range. The need for mechanically moving parts in a modulated pyramid wavefront sensor can be overcome by using the recently proposed digital pyramid wavefront sensor. In this paper, a digital multi-faceted pyramid wavefront sensor is demonstrated with the use of a reflecting phase-only spatial light modulator. The four-pupil digital pyramid wavefront sensor with 4-facets is extended to 6 and 8-facets. It is noted from the experiments performed under identical low-noise conditions that the performance of the wavefront sensor in terms of the root mean square wavefront error remains nearly the same in cases of four, six and eight pupil configurations. Under the circumstances elucidated here, the results of simulations indicate that in the presence of scatter noise, the pyramid wavefront sensor with greater number of pupils could lead to an improvement over the standard four-pupil pyramid wavefront sensor. Noise from scattering makes the choice of optimal modulation radius critical while sensing in open-loop adaptive optics systems.

Akondi, Vyas; Castillo, Sara; Vohnsen, Brian

2014-07-01

93

Facet-sparing lumbar decompression with a minimally invasive flexible MicroBlade Shaver® versus traditional decompression: quantitative radiographic assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Laminectomy/laminotomy and foraminotomy are well established surgical techniques for treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. However, these procedures have significant limitations, including limited access to lateral and foraminal compression and postoperative instability. The purpose of this cadaver study was to compare bone, ligament, and soft tissue morphology following lumbar decompression using a minimally invasive MicroBlade Shaver® instrument versus hemilaminotomy with foraminotomy (HL). Methods The iO-Flex® system utilizes a flexible over-the-wire MicroBlade Shaver instrument designed for facet-sparing, minimally invasive “inside-out” decompression of the lumbar spine. Unilateral decompression was performed at 36 levels in nine human cadaver specimens, six with age-appropriate degenerative changes and three with radiographically confirmed multilevel stenosis. The iO-Flex system was utilized on alternating sides from L2/3 to L5/S1, and HL was performed on the opposite side at each level by the same investigator. Spinal canal, facet joint, lateral recess, and foraminal morphology were assessed using computed tomography. Results Similar increases in soft tissue canal area and decreases in ligamentum flavum area were noted in nondiseased specimens, although HL required removal of 83% more laminar area (P < 0.01) and 95% more bone resection, including the pars interarticularis and facet joints (P < 0.001), compared with the iO-Flex system. Similar increases in lateral recess diameter were noted in nondiseased specimens using each procedure. In stenotic specimens, the increase in lateral recess diameter was significantly (P = 0.02) greater following use of the iO-Flex system (43%) versus HL (7%). The iO-Flex system resulted in greater facet joint preservation in nondiseased and stenotic specimens. In stenotic specimens, the iO-Flex system resulted in a significantly greater increase in foraminal width compared with HL (24% versus 4%, P = 0.01), with facet joint preservation. Conclusion The iO-Flex system resulted in significantly better decompression of the lateral recess and foraminal areas compared with HL, while preserving posterior spinal elements, including the facet joint. PMID:22879740

Lauryssen, Carl; Berven, Sigurd; Mimran, Ronnie; Summa, Christopher; Sheinberg, Michael; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2012-01-01

94

The first tarsometatarsal joint and its association with hallux valgus  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aetiology of hallux valgus is almost certainly multifactoral. The biomechanics of the first ray is a common factor to most. There is very little literature examining the anatomy of the proximal metatarsal articular surface and its relationship to hallux valgus deformity. Methods We examined 42 feet from 23 specimens in this anatomical dissection study. Results This analysis revealed three distinct articular subtypes. Type 1 had one single facet, type 2 had two distinct articular facets, and type 3 had three articular facets one of which was a lateral inferior facet elevated from the first. Type 1 joints occurred exclusively in the hallux valgus specimens, while type 3 joints occurred exclusively in normal specimens. Type 2 joints occurred in both hallux valgus and normal specimens. Another consistent finding in regards to the proximal articular surface of the first metatarsal was the lateral plantar prominence. This prominence possessed its own articular surface in type 3 joints and was significantly flatter in specimens with hallux valgus (p < 0.001) and the angle with the joint was significantly more obtuse (p < 0.001). Conclusions We believe the size and acute angle of this prominence gives structural mechanical impedance to movement at the tarsometatarsal joint and thus improves the stability. PMID:23610678

Mason, L. W.; Tanaka, H.

2012-01-01

95

An Integrated Facet-Based Library for Arbitrary Software Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reuse is an important means of reducing costs and effort during the development of complex software systems. A major challenge is to find suitable components in a large library with reasonable effort. This becomes even harder in today's development practice where a variety of artefacts such as models and documents play an equally important role as source code. Thus, different types of heterogeneous components exist and require consideration in a component search process. One flexible approach to structure (software component) libraries is faceted classification. Faceted classifications and in particular faceted browsing are nowadays widely used in online systems. This paper takes a fresh approach towards using faceted classification in heterogeneous software component libraries by transferring faceted browsing concepts from the web to software component libraries. It presents an architecture and implementation of such a library. This implementation is used to evaluate the applicability of facets in the context of an industry-driven case study.

Schmidt, Matthias; Polowinski, Jan; Johannes, Jendrik; Fernández, Miguel A.

96

Fabrication of faceted nanopores in magnesium  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, we showed the fabrication of faceted nanopores with various shapes in magnesium by focused electron beam (e-beam). The characteristics of nanopore shapes and the crystallographic planes corresponding to the edges of the nanopores were discussed in detail. Interestingly, by manipulating the e-beam (e.g., irradiation direction and duration), the nanopore shape and size could be effectively controlled along different directions. Our results provide important insight into the nanopore patterning in metallic materials and are of fundamental importance concerning the relevant applications, such as nanopore-based sensor, etc.

Wu, Shujing; Cao, Fan; Zheng, He; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Chun; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Dongshan; Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: wang@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)] [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2013-12-09

97

Radiculopathy due to spontaneous facetal cyst hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Facetal cysts are usually encountered as incidental radiological findings in spinal imaging studies. Only rarely can neurological symptoms be attributed to them. These cysts are lined by vascularized synovial tissue. There are few reports in literature of hemorrhagic transformation in these cysts with sudden increase in size precipitating symptoms acutely. We report one such case where the existence of a hitherto undiagnosed cyst was unmasked by the haemorrhage. There is a need to be aware of this complication in patients with untreated or incidentally diagnosed cysts so that any sudden neurological deterioration can be dealt with promptly.

Krishnan, Prasad; Sanyal, Sugat; Das, Sayan

2014-01-01

98

Faceted ceramic fibers, tapes or ribbons and epitaxial devices therefrom  

DOEpatents

A crystalline article includes a single-crystal ceramic fiber, tape or ribbon. The fiber, tape or ribbon has at least one crystallographic facet along its length, which is generally at least one meter long. In the case of sapphire, the facets are R-plane, M-plane, C-plane or A-plane facets. Epitaxial articles, including superconducting articles, can be formed on the fiber, tape or ribbon.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

2012-07-24

99

Faceted ceramic fibers, tapes or ribbons and epitaxial devices therefrom  

SciTech Connect

A crystalline article includes a single-crystal ceramic fiber, tape or ribbon. The fiber, tape or ribbon has at least one crystallographic facet along its length, which is generally at least one meter long. In the case of sapphire, the facets are R-plane, M-plane, C-plane or A-plane facets. Epitaxial articles, including superconducting articles, can be formed on the fiber, tape or ribbon.

Goyal, Amit

2013-07-09

100

Preliminary design of large reflectors with flat facets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for approximating curved antenna surfaces using flat facets is discussed. A preliminary design technique for determining the size of the reflector surface facets necessary to meet antenna surface accuracy requirements is presented. A proposed large microwave radiometer satellite (MRS) is selected as an application, and the far-field electromagnetic response of a faceted reflector surface is compared with that from a spherical reflector surface.

Agrawal, P. K.; Anderson, M. S.; Card, M. F.

1981-01-01

101

Preliminary design of large reflectors with flat facets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for approximating curved antenna surfaces using flat facets is discussed. A preliminary design technique for determining the size of the reflector surface facets necessary to meet antenna surface accuracy requirements is presented. A proposed large Microwave Radiometer Satellite is selected as an application, and the far field electromagnetic response of a faceted reflector surface is compared with that from a spherical reflector surface.

Agrawal, P. K.; Anderson, M. S.; Card, M. F.

1980-01-01

102

Transverse effects in plasma wakefield acceleration at FACET - Simulation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate transverse effects in the plasma-wakefield acceleration experiments planned and ongoing at FACET. We use PIC simulation tools, mainly QuickPIC, to simulate the interaction of the drive electron beam and the plasma. In FACET a number of beam dynamics knobs, including dispersion and bunch length knobs, can be used to vary the beam transverse characteristics in the plasma. We present simulation results and the status of the FACET experimental searches.

Adli, E.; Hogan, M.; Frederico, J.; Litos, M. D.; An, W.; Mori, W.

2012-12-01

103

Transverse effects in plasma wakefield acceleration at FACET - Simulation studies  

SciTech Connect

We investigate transverse effects in the plasma-wakefield acceleration experiments planned and ongoing at FACET. We use PIC simulation tools, mainly QuickPIC, to simulate the interaction of the drive electron beam and the plasma. In FACET a number of beam dynamics knobs, including dispersion and bunch length knobs, can be used to vary the beam transverse characteristics in the plasma. We present simulation results and the status of the FACET experimental searches.

Adli, E.; Hogan, M.; Frederico, J.; Litos, M. D.; An, W.; Mori, W. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

2012-12-21

104

[Performance assessment using the Many-Facet Rasch Measurement].  

PubMed

This paper describes how the Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM) can be applied to constructed-response items and rater analysis. The article provides an introduction to MFRM, a description of facet analysis procedures, and an illustrative example to examine the effects of various sources of variability on students' performance on a DELE (Diplomas in Spanish as a Foreign Language) test by means of the FACETS program. Results highlight the usefulness of the MFRM to detect raters that have extreme values on the continuum of severity. MFRM facilitates comprehension of the assessment process as well as providing objective measurement of facet elements. PMID:21504675

Prieto Adánez, Gerardo

2011-04-01

105

Simulation Study of PWFA Experiments at FACET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent PWFA experiments at FACET use Rb gas ionized by the beam as the plasma source. The Rb has a lower ionization threshold than the Li, which was used in earlier experiments, consequently a smaller peak current beam can still produce a field ionized plasma. But the Rb vapor is confined by Ar and as a result it is possible to ionize both the first electron of Ar (I.P. 14eV) as well as the second electron of Rb (I.P.24 eV). This secondary ionization can lead to a source of dark current in a PWFA. In this work QuickPIC simulation results are presented for studying the influence by the ``unwanted'' ionization. In the simulation, both Ar and Rb vapor profiles are initialized as measured in the laboratory. We use different beam parameters (including different focal position) in the simulation. The ion density of the gas is a useful diagnostic showing the ionization level of the neutral gas in the simulation. Other simulation results related FACET experiments are also presented.

An, Weiming; Vafaei-Najafabadi, Navid; Marsh, Ken; Clayton, Chris; Mori, Warren; Joshi, Chan; Adli, Erik; Corde, Sebastien; Litos, Michael; Li, Selina; Gessner, Spencer; Frederico, Joel; England, Joel; Walz, Dieter; Hogan, Mark; Muggli, Patric; Delahaye, Jean P.; Lu, Wei

2012-10-01

106

Mamillo-accessory notch and foramen: Distribution patterns and correlation with superior lumbar facet structure.  

PubMed

The mamillary (MP) and the accessory (AP) processes are two important anatomical landmarks in the lumbar vertebral morphology. These two processes form the mamillo-accessory notch (MAN) between them. In the living, the MP and the AP are connected together by the mamillo-accessory ligament (MAL). The medial branches of lumbar dorsal rami pass underneath the MAL. The MAL often undergoes varied degrees of ossification with diverse notching at the junction of these two processes, often with formation of a discrete foramen (MAF). Reports on the distribution of these notches (MAN) and foramina (MAF) are very few and most of them do not discuss such ossification in context of morphology of adjoining structures in the vertebrae. Lumbar vertebral and sacral specimens were screened for three different categories of narrowing at the mamillo-accessory junction: firstly >1/2 notch, secondly ¾ notch, and thirdly MAF and their distribution patterns were mapped along the lumbar spine. Transverse dimensions of superior facet articulating surfaces [length (a)] and widths of MPs [length (b)] were recorded. Relative widths of the MPs were calculated as index M (a/b). Results suggest associations between the degrees of assimilation of the MPs into the facet joints, the index M values, and the different types of mamillo-accessory junctional anatomy. This study may help to understand if MAN and MAF related dorsal rami entrapment neuropathies arise merely due to osteoarthritic ossification of the MAL or could also be accounted for by facet dimensions or degree of MP-facet fusions that abut close to the mamillo-accessory junctions. PMID:24889272

Mahato, N K

2014-12-01

107

Hip joints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The human hips are an example of a ball-and-socket joint. Ball-and-socket joints have the ability to rotate in a circular motion. The joint where the arm connects to the shoulder is also a type of ball-and-socket joint.

Connie Raab (National Institutes of Health;)

2006-05-17

108

Faceted grating prism for a computed tomographic imaging spectrometer  

E-print Network

Faceted grating prism for a computed tomographic imaging spectrometer Michael W. Kudenov Julia://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 02/04/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Faceted grating prism for a computed tomographic disperser based on a 2-D grating prism and a division of aperture approach. Included is an optical design

Dereniak, Eustace L.

109

Moire Superstructures of Graphene on Faceted Nickel Islands  

E-print Network

, Colorado 80401, United States G raphene, a two-dimensional (2D) single crystal of carbon atoms ar- ranged synthesized via thermal car- burization of SiC(0001)5 and by surface seg- regation of carbon dissolved observed to grow seamlessly, as single crystals, across adjacent (111) and (110) facets and over the facet

Ciobanu, Cristian

110

Why do grain boundaries exhibit finite facet lengths?  

PubMed

Uniform finite facets are frequently observed at grain boundaries (GBs) and are usually attributed to equilibrium stabilization by GB stress. We report calculations for an aluminum twin GB using density functional theory, the embedded-atom method, and continuum elasticity theory. These methods show that GB stress is much too small to stabilize finite facets, suggesting that the usual explanation is incorrect. PMID:12857204

Hamilton, J C; Siegel, Donald J; Daruka, Istvan; Léonard, François

2003-06-20

111

FACET Tolerances for Static and Dynamic Misalignments  

SciTech Connect

The Facility for AdvancedAccelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is designed to deliver a beam with a transverse spot size on the order of 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m in a new beamline constructed at the two kilometer point of the SLAC linac. Commissioning the beamline requires mitigating alignment errors and their effects, which can be significant and result in spot sizes orders of magnitude larger. Sextupole and quadrupole alignment errors in particular can introduce errors in focusing, steering, and dispersion which can result in spot size growth, beta mismatch, and waist movement. Alignment errors due to static misalignments, mechanical jitter, energy jitter, and other physical processes can be analyzed to determine the level of accuracy and precision that the beamline requires. It is important to recognize these effects and their tolerances in order to deliver a beam as designed.

Federico, Joel

2012-07-13

112

Artificial Dendritic Cells: Multi-faceted Perspectives  

E-print Network

Dendritic cells are the crime scene investigators of the human immune system. Their function is to correlate potentially anomalous invading entities with observed damage to the body. The detection of such invaders by dendritic cells results in the activation of the adaptive immune system, eventually leading to the removal of the invader from the host body. This mechanism has provided inspiration for the development of a novel bio-inspired algorithm, the Dendritic Cell Algorithm. This algorithm processes information at multiple levels of resolution, resulting in the creation of information granules of variable structure. In this chapter we examine the multi-faceted nature of immunology and how research in this field has shaped the function of the resulting Dendritic Cell Algorithm. A brief overview of the algorithm is given in combination with the details of the processes used for its development. The chapter is concluded with a discussion of the parallels between our understanding of the human immune system a...

Greensmith, Julie

2009-01-01

113

Role of chemical potential in relaxation of faceted crystal structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Below the roughening transition, crystal surfaces have macroscopic plateaus, facets, whose evolution is driven by the microscale dynamics of steps. A long-standing puzzle was how to reconcile discrete effects in facet motion with fully continuum approaches. We propose a resolution of this issue via connecting, through a jump condition, the continuum-scale surface chemical potential away from the facet, characterized by variations of the continuum surface free energy, with a chemical potential originating from the decay of atomic steps on top of the facet. The proposed condition accounts for step flow inside a discrete boundary layer near the facet. To validate this approach, we implement in a radial geometry a hybrid discrete-continuum scheme in which the continuum theory is coupled with only a few, minimally three, steps in diffusion-limited kinetics with conical initial data.

Schneider, Joshua P.; Nakamura, Kanna; Margetis, Dionisios

2014-06-01

114

Ultra-steep side facets in multi-faceted SiGe/Si(001) Stranski-Krastanow islands.  

PubMed

For the prototypical Ge/Si(001) system, we show that at high growth temperature a new type of Stranski-Krastanow islands is formed with side facets steeper than {111} and high aspect ratio. Nano-goniometric analysis of the island shapes reveals the presence of six new facet groups in addition to those previously found for dome or barn-shaped islands. Due to the highly multi-faceted island shape and high aspect ratio, the new island types are named "cupola" islands and their steepest {12 5 3} side facet is inclined by 68°to the substrate surface. Assessing the relative stability of the new facets from surface area analysis, we find that their stability is similar to that of {113} and {15 3 23} facets of dome islands. The comparison of the different island shapes shows that they form a hierarchical class of geometrical structures, in which the lower aspect ratio islands of barns, domes and pyramids are directly derived from the cupola islands by successive truncation of the pedestal bases without facet rearrangements. The results underline the key role of surface faceting in the process of island formation, which is as crucial for understanding the island's growth evolution as it is important for device applications. PMID:21711579

Brehm, Moritz; Lichtenberger, Herbert; Fromherz, Thomas; Springholz, Gunther

2011-01-01

115

Joint Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

116

Cheilectomy, chondroplasty, and sagittal "Z" osteotomy: a preliminary report on an alternative joint preservation approach to hallux limitus.  

PubMed

The surgical correction of hallux limitus can be most rewarding for both patient and surgeon when marked degenerative changes exist in older individuals. Many foot and ankle surgeons would perform an implant arthroplasty in a patient over 60 years of age with hallux limitus or rigidus. In a patient without gross first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrosis, but with limitation in range of motion, the literature is replete with biomechanically sound surgical options. However, surgical repair of the moderate-to-severe arthritic first metatarsophalangeal joint in younger individuals remains quite a challenge. The authors present the use of a sagittal plane "Z" osteotomy of the proximal phalanx along with cheilectomy and chondroplasty for the treatment of hallux limitus and rigidus in the young, active patient. PMID:7550198

Kissel, C G; Mistretta, R P; Unroe, B J

1995-01-01

117

Facette : using facets to improve tag-based bookmarking  

E-print Network

Facette is a web service that uses facets to enhance the organizational capabilities of tag-based bookmarking systems. As with other bookmarking services, Facette allows users to associate tags with bookmarks to assist the ...

Lai, Peter (Peter J.)

2009-01-01

118

Dependence of surface facet period on the diameter of nanowires.  

PubMed

Axial heterostructured silicon nanowires with varying n- and p-doping were synthesized using a vapor-liquid-solid approach. The nanowire sidewalls exhibit periodic nanofaceting in the silicon deposited directly on the sidewalls when diborane dopant gas is introduced during growth. For such nanofaceting, a model predicting the distance between facets (the facet period) is developed. For a nanowire structure, an extra energy cost term arising from the formation of apexes between facets is considered, and the facet size is predicted to decrease as the wire diameter increases. It is found that the model fits the experimental data well, and the fitted parameters in the model lie within the ranges of their expected values. PMID:20112964

Li, Fang; Nellist, Peter D; Lang, Christian; Cockayne, David J H

2010-02-23

119

Etched-angled-facet superluminescent diodes for improved mode locking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When conventional superluminescent diodes are mode locked in an external cavity to mitigate nonlinearities and dispersion, the residual reflectivity at the diode's facet creates a detrimental compound cavity. This compound cavity modulates the spectrum of the round trip gain, and this modulation strongly hinders the complete locking of modes. Such lasers produce longer pulses, pulses with undesirable temporal structure or multiple pulses. Prior work has shown some success with using etched angled facets to divert the modal reflection away from the waveguide. In this dissertation, a new microfabrication process is developed to produce superluminescent diodes with the combination of low facet reflectivity, bias-controlled saturable absorption and CW operation without noticeable degradation. An improved etching process reduces the roughness of the angled facet to reduce reflectivity due to backscattering. The process uses reactive ion etching (RIE) to pattern the silicon dioxide etch mask, and chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) to pattern the aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) epitaxial structure. The smoothness of the etched facets correlates with etching conditions. As measured by atomic force microscopy, the facets are as smooth as 4 nm R.M.S. The reflectivity of these angled facets is on the order of 10-5, inferred from measurements of CW superluminescence spectra. This low reflectivity is broadband. Passive mode locking of these diodes in a simple external cavity produces single pulses of 4 ps duration (without compression). The mode-locked optical spectra are smooth and symmetric, with a full width of 2.4 nm to 3.0 nm. The laser operation exhibits bistability with respect to both the absorber bias and the gain current. The operation is repeatable. In the present devices, the pulse widths and spectral widths are limited only by the insufficient length of the saturable absorber section, 30 ?m. The very low reflectivity of the etched angled facet allows for good mode locking with a very simple cavity and simple DC bias.

Pesarcik, Scott Frederick

1998-10-01

120

Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the FACETS project (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) was to provide a multiphysics, parallel framework application (FACETS) that will enable whole-device modeling for the U.S. fusion program, to provide the modeling infrastructure needed for ITER, the next step fusion confinement device. Through use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, FACETS is able to switch from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics in a flexible manner. This enables use of simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that can take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS does so in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the application execute in parallel by utilizing task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and applicable. ParaTools, Inc. was tasked with supporting the performance analysis and tuning of the FACETS components and framework in order to achieve the parallel scaling goals of the project. The TAU Performance System�������������������������������® was used for instrumentation, measurement, archiving, and profile / tracing analysis. ParaTools, Inc. also assisted in FACETS performance engineering efforts. Through the use of the TAU Performance System, ParaTools provided instrumentation, measurement, analysis and archival support for the FACETS project. Performance optimization of key components has yielded significant performance speedups. TAU was integrated into the FACETS build for both the full coupled application and the UEDGE component. The performance database provided archival storage of the performance regression testing data generated by the project, and helped to track improvements in the software development.

Dr. Allen D. Malony; Dr. Sameer S. Shende; Dr. Kevin A. Huck; Mr. Alan Morris, and Mr. Wyatt Spear

2012-03-14

121

Analysis on linac quadrupole misalignment in FACET commissioning 2012  

SciTech Connect

In this note, the analysis on linac quadrupole misalignment is presented for the FACET linac section LI05-09 plus LI11-19. The effectiveness of the beam-based alignment technique is preliminarily confirmed by the measurement. Beam-based alignment technique was adopted at SLAC linac since SLC time. Here the beam-based alignment algorithms are further developed and applied in the FACET commissioning during 2012 run.

Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

2012-07-05

122

Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in…

Niu, Xi

2012-01-01

123

Structural Equation Modelling of Multiple Facet Data: Extending Models for Multitrait-Multimethod Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is about the structural equation modelling of quantitative measures that are obtained from a multiple facet design. A facet is simply a set consisting of a finite number of elements. It is assumed that measures are obtained by combining each element of each facet. Methods and traits are two such facets, and a multitrait-multimethod…

Bechger, Timo M.; Maris, Gunter

2004-01-01

124

Surgical treatment of Rockwood grade-V acromioclavicular joint dislocations  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Long-term outcome after surgery for grade-V acromioclavicular joint dislocation has not been reported. We performed a retrospective analysis of functional and radiographic outcome 15–22 years after surgery. Patients and methods We examined 50 patients who were treated at our hospital between April 1985 and December 1993. Various methods of stabilization were used: K-wires (n = 36), 4.5-mm screw (n = 12), or biodegradable screw (n = 2). Osteosynthesis material was removed after 6–8 weeks. Mean follow-up time was 18 (15–22) years. Outcomes were assessed with the Constant shoulder (CS) score, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score, the simple shoulder test (SST), the Copeland shoulder impingement test, the cross-arm test, pain, stability of the AC joint, and complications. From radiographs, we evaluated AC and glenohumeral (GH) arthrosis, osteolysis of the lateral clavicle, and alignment of the clavicle with the acromion. Results Mean values were 90 (75–100) in CS score, 5.1 (0–41) in DASH score, and 11 (2–12) in SST. There was no statistically significant difference in CS score between the injured shoulder and the uninjured shoulder. The AC joint was clinically stable in 42 patients. In 38 patients, the clavicle alignment with the acromion was normal in radiographs. Lateral clavicle osteolysis (10 patients) appeared to be associated with permanent AC joint dislocation. Interpretation Surgery with a temporary fixation for acute grade-V AC joint dislocation leads to successful long-term functional results. Only minor disability occurred in some patients. PMID:23409813

2013-01-01

125

Faceted visualization of three dimensional neuroanatomy by combining ontology with faceted search.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a faceted-search based approach for visualization of anatomy by combining a three dimensional digital atlas with an anatomy ontology. Specifically, our approach provides a drill-down search interface that exposes the relevant pieces of information (obtained by searching the ontology) for a user query. Hence, the user can produce visualizations starting with minimally specified queries. Furthermore, by automatically translating the user queries into the controlled terminology our approach eliminates the need for the user to use controlled terminology. We demonstrate the scalability of our approach using an abdominal atlas and the same ontology. We implemented our visualization tool on the opensource 3D Slicer software. We present results of our visualization approach by combining a modified Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) ontology with the Surgical Planning Laboratory (SPL) Brain 3D digital atlas, and geometric models specific to patients computed using the SPL brain tumor dataset. PMID:24006207

Veeraraghavan, Harini; Miller, James V

2014-04-01

126

Ceramic joints  

DOEpatents

Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

Miller, Bradley J. (Worcester, MA); Patten, Jr., Donald O. (Sterling, MA)

1991-01-01

127

Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

2012-01-01

128

Mapping Mindfulness Facets onto Dimensions of Anxiety and Depression  

PubMed Central

Background Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Methods Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Results Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress -anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Conclusions Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these specific aspects of mindfulness in interventions for anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:23768665

Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

2014-01-01

129

Unilateral axis facet hypertrophy--a rare case of irreducible rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Fixed atlantoaxial dislocations are difficult to treat and there is no consensus in the treatment protocol. Unilateral enlargement of the atlas-axis facet complex in fixed atlantoaxial dislocations is a very rare condition. These pathologies are usually quite unstable and surgical treatment is necessary in unreductable cases. A 52-year-old woman with a diagnosis of irreducible-fixed rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation presented with acute onset of dizziness, loss of balance, and tetraparesis. She was under 8 years of conservative follow-up. Review of radiology revealed unilateral C2 superior facet hypertrophy compressing the medulla and obstructing the vertebral artery. To treat this condition, we have used a posterior midline approach and removed the lateral portions of the posterior rim of the foramen magnum and the assimilated posterior arch of C1. The V3 segments of the vertebral arteries were exposed bilaterally. The atlantoaxial joint complex on the left was hypertrophied compressing V3. We have removed hypertrophied lateral mass of the atlas and the hypertrophic superior articular facet of C2 for decompression. Patency of both vertebral arteries were checked intraoperatively by Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. We have fixated craniocervical junction on the same session. Patient was neurologically intact and she had confirmed fusion on the surgical site after three years of follow-up. This is a rare case of unilateral hypertrophy of the C2 superior articular facet in a fixed atlantoaxial rotatory dislocation. Progressive compression of medulla and the left vertebral artery leaded to clinical worsening of neurology in this case after 8 years of follow-up. Surgical treatment was necessary for neurological decompression and to establish stability. PMID:23903713

Atalay, Basar; Türe, Ugur

2014-04-01

130

Mambo: a facet-based zoomable music browser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current mobile music players and managers rely on scrolling long and hierarchically structured lists of items. They do not scale well to various screen sizes. As a solution, this paper introduces Mambo for browsing personal music collections on mobile and other devices. Songs, albums, or artists can be browsed and filtered according to different hierarchical metadata facets such as time,

Raimund Dachselt; Mathias Frisch

2007-01-01

131

Specifying Valid Compound Terms in Interrelated Faceted Taxonomies  

E-print Network

Tzitzikas1,2 , and Nicolas Spyratos3 1 Institute of Computer Science, FORTH-ICS, Greece 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Crete, Greece 3 Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique, Universite de to these pages according to three facets: the Location of the hotels, the Sports facilities they offer

Tzitzikas, Yannis

132

Topic Sentiment Mixture: Modeling Facets and Opinions in Weblogs  

E-print Network

Topic Sentiment Mixture: Modeling Facets and Opinions in Weblogs Qiaozhu Mei , Xu Ling , Matthew-Champaign Department of EECS Vanderbilt University ABSTRACT In this paper, we define the problem of topic-sentiment and sentiments simultaneously. The proposed Topic-Sentiment Mixture (TSM) model can reveal the latent topical

Zhai, ChengXiang

133

Exploratory Patent Search with Faceted Search and Configurable Entity Mining  

E-print Network

Exploratory Patent Search with Faceted Search and Configurable Entity Mining Pavlos Fafalios1 Searching for patents is usually a recall-oriented problem and depending on the patent search type, quite. We propose an exploratory strategy for patent search that exploits the metadata already available

Tzitzikas, Yannis

134

Etched-angled-facet superluminescent diodes for improved mode locking  

Microsoft Academic Search

When conventional superluminescent diodes are mode locked in an external cavity to mitigate nonlinearities and dispersion, the residual reflectivity at the diode's facet creates a detrimental compound cavity. This compound cavity modulates the spectrum of the round trip gain, and this modulation strongly hinders the complete locking of modes. Such lasers produce longer pulses, pulses with undesirable temporal structure or

Scott Frederick Pesarcik

1998-01-01

135

Personality Facets and RIASEC Interests: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining links between personality and interest have typically focused on links between measures of the five factor model and Holland's RIASEC types. However, the five factor model of personality can be divided in to a larger set of narrow domain personality scales measuring facets of the "big five" traits. Research in a number of fields…

Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Anthoney, Sarah Fetter

2009-01-01

136

Empirical Identification of the Major Facets of Conscientiousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conscientiousness is often found to predict academic outcomes, but is defined differently by different models of personality. High school students (N = 291) completed a large number of Conscientiousness items from different models and the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the items uncovered eight facets:…

MacCann, Carolyn; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Roberts, Richard D.

2009-01-01

137

The Cool and Belkin Faceted Classification of Information Interactions Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The complexity of human information activity is a challenge for both practice and research in information sciences and information management. Literature presents a wealth of approaches to analytically structure and make sense of human information activity including a faceted classification model of information interactions published…

Huvila, Isto

2010-01-01

138

Beyond Conflict: Functional Facets of the Work-Family Interplay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper deals with three positive facets of the work-family interplay, i.e., transfer of competencies, transfer of positive mood, and cross-domain compensation. The latter refers to the experience that engagement in one domain helps dealing with failures in the other domain. In two correlational studies (N[subscript 1] = 107 working…

Wiese, Bettina S.; Seiger, Christine P.; Schmid, Christian M.; Freund, Alexandra M.

2010-01-01

139

Examining Student Rating of Teaching Effectiveness Using FACETS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' evaluations of teaching staff can be considered high-stakes, as they are often used to determine promotion, reappointment, and merit pay to academics. Using Facets, the reliability and validity of one student rating questionnaire is analysed. A total of 13,940 respondents of the Human Science Division of International Islamic University…

Mat Daud, Nuraihan; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide

2011-01-01

140

Working memory capacity — facets of a cognitive ability construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory capacity is differentiated theoretically along two dimensions: contents and functions. The resulting 3×3 matrix was operationalized by 23 tasks sampled from the literature. Data for these tasks from 128 participants were analyzed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Regarding the content facet, spatial working memory was clearly distinct from the other two content categories. A distinction between verbal

Klaus Oberauer; H.-M. Süß; R. Schulze; O. Wilhelm; W. W. Wittmann

2000-01-01

141

Conceptualizing Educational Leadership: Does Exploring Macro-Level Facets Matters?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present review attempts to examine the present status of educational leadership highlighting the role of macro-level facets in Asian Pacific context. The conceptualization of educational leadership among researchers so far had been found to vary according to different contexts and situations. Theoretical perspectives associated with…

Sinha, Chetan

2013-01-01

142

Terahertz Light Source and User Area at FACET  

SciTech Connect

FACET at SLAC provides high charge, high peak current, low emittance electron beam that is bunched at THz wavelength scale during its normal operation. A THz light source based coherent transition radiation (CTR) from this beam would potentially be the brightest short-pulse THz source ever constructed. Efforts have been put into building this photon source together with a user area, to provide a platform to utilize this unique THz radiation for novel nonlinear and ultrafast phenomena researches and experiments. Being a long-time underutilized portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz (100 GHz {approx} 10 THz) spectral range is experiencing a renaissance in recent years, with broad interests from chemical and biological imaging, material science, telecommunication, semiconductor and superconductor research, etc. Nevertheless, the paucity of THz sources especially strong THz radiation hinders both its commercial applications and nonlinear processes research. FACET - Facilities for Accelerator science and Experimental Test beams at SLAC - provides 23 GeV electron beam with peak currents of {approx} 20 kA that can be focused down to 100 {mu}m{sup 2} transversely. Such an intense electron beam, when compressed to sub-picosecond longitudinal bunch length, coherently radiates high intensity EM fields well within THz frequency range that are orders of magnitude stronger than those available from laboratory tabletop THz sources, which will enable a wide variety of THz related research opportunities. Together with a description of the FACET beamline and electron beam parameters, this paper will report FACET THz radiation generation via coherent transition radiation and calculated photon yield and power spectrum. A user table is being set up along the THz radiation extraction sites, and equipped with various signal diagnostics including THz power detector, Michelson interferometer, sample stages, and sets of motorized optical components. This setup will also be presented. Potential THz research areas including studies of magnetism, ferroelectric switching dynamics, semiconductor devices and chemical reaction controls have already been proposed for the FACET THz area.

Wu, Z.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Fisher, A.D.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

2011-11-08

143

FACeTOR: Cost-Driven Exploration of Faceted Query Results Faceted navigation is being increasingly employed as an effective  

E-print Network

present two intuitive heuristics employed by FACeTOR. Our user study at Amazon Mechanical Turk shows that FACeTOR reduces the user navigation time compared to the cutting edge commercial and academic faceted web" [5], exposing a wide range of content including product catalogs (e.g. Amazon, e

Petropoulos, Michalis

144

OBIT DEVELOPMENT MEMO SERIES NO. 15 1 Multi-facet CLEANing in Obit  

E-print Network

of the standard solutions to the "W" problem, that images are flat but the sky isn't (see [1] for details deconvolution is limited to one facet per major cycle. The serial CLEANing of facets has a number of drawbacks. First, it is computationally inefficient, each facet CLEANed requires a pass through the data to make

Groppi, Christopher

145

Exploiting Coherence for the Simultaneous Discovery of Latent Facets and associated Sentiments  

E-print Network

Exploiting Coherence for the Simultaneous Discovery of Latent Facets and associated Sentiments-based sentiment analysis involves discovering the latent facets, sentiments and their associations. Traditional facet-based sentiment analysis algorithms typically perform the various tasks in sequence, and fail

Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib

146

Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2  

E-print Network

Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2 and Anastasia Analyti2 1 of managing (faceted) taxonomy-based in- formation sources. Specifically, we discuss (i) the seman- tic description of faceted taxonomies, based on the Com- pound Term Composition Algebra (CTCA), (ii) the revision

Analyti, Anastasia

147

Joint Projects / Joint Seminars October 2013  

E-print Network

Joint Projects / Joint Seminars October 2013 Information Sheet Bilateral Programs (MoU) ­ Joint Projects (JP) / Joint Seminars (JS) FWF has signed bilateral agreements ­ so called "Memorandums of Understanding" (MoU) ­ with several international partner organisations. These agreements usually aim at jointly

Fuchs, Clemens

148

Joint Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... shoulder joint. About 30% of older people have tears in their rotator cuff muscles and tendons, but many have no symptoms. Carpal tunnel syndrome is pressure on a nerve in the wrist and may cause tingling, numbness and pain in the hand. It ... Updated: March 2012 Posted: March 2012

149

Using Facet Clusters to Map Learner Modes of Reasoning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Physics and the School of Education at Seattle Pacific University, together with FACET Innovations, LLC, are beginning the second year of a five-year NSF TPC project, Improving the Effectiveness of Teacher Diagnostic Skills and Tools. We are working in partnership with school districts in Washington State to use formative assessment as a means to helping teachers and precollege students deepen their understanding of foundational topics in physical science. We utilize a theoretical framework of knowledge-in-pieces to identify and categorize widespread productive and unproductive modes of reasoning in the topical areas of Properties of Matter, Heat and Temperature, and Physical and Chemical Changes. In this talk, we describe the development and iterative refinement of certain facet clusters of student ideas, as well as the usefulness and limitations of such a mapping scheme. * Supported in part by NSF grant #ESI-0455796, The Boeing Corporation, and the SPU Science Initiative.

Vokos, Stamatis; DeWater, L. S.; Seeley, L.; Kraus, P.

2006-12-01

150

Guided vortex motion in Nb films on facetted substrate surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anisotropy of the pinning force in a superconductor can cause a guiding effect on the vortices, which leads to the appearance of new components in the galvanomagnetic quantities of the sample. In this case one can observe an additional odd magnetoresistive component with respect to magnetic field reversal. Furthermore, an even contribution to the Hall voltage is observed. Guided motion of vortices in Nb films on facetted ?-Al2O3(1 0 1¯ 0) was found by measuring the longitudinal and transversal resistivities of three films with transport current directed parallel, perpendicular and at an angle of 45° with respect to the facet ridges. Field inversion was used to separate the even and odd components of the measured magnetoresistivities and thus to obtain the contributions caused by the guided vortex motion.

Soroka, Oleksiy K.; Huth, Michael; Shklovskij, Valerij A.; Oster, Jens; Adrian, Hermann

2003-05-01

151

Symmetry, topology and faceting in bicontinuous lyotropic crystals.  

PubMed

Phase diagrams of phytantriol/ethanol/water and phytantriol/DSPG/ethanol/water systems are explored and experiments on facetings of Pn3m-in-L1 and Im3m-in-L1 crystals are performed. Observed crystal habits do not agree with the Friedel-Donnay-Harker rules. We argue that this paradox can be explained in terms of constraints imposed on Pn3m/L1 and Im3m/L1 interfaces by the bicontinuous topology of the cubic phases. We point out that when free edges of the surfactant bilayer are prohibited at these interfaces, the two labyrinthes separated by the bilayer cannot anymore be equivalent. The corresponding [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] symmetry breakings are unveiled by the abnormal facetings. PMID:23933989

Latypova, L; Gó?d?, W; Pieranski, P

2013-08-01

152

LEEM Investigation of the Faceting of the Pt Covered W (111) Surface  

SciTech Connect

A low energy electron microscope (LEEM) has been used to investigate the faceting of W(111) as induced by Pt. The atomically rough W(111) surface, when fully covered with a monolayer film of Pt and annealed to temperatures higher than {approximately} 750 K, experiences a significant morphological restructuring: the initially planar surface undergoes a faceting transition and forms three-sided pyramids with {211} faces. The experiments demonstrate the capability of LEEM for imaging both the fully and partially faceted surface. In addition, we have observed the formation of the facets in real time, when Pt is dosed onto the heated surface. We find that the transition from planar surface, to partially faceted surface, and to fully faceted surface proceeds through the nucleation and growth of spatially separated faceted regions.

Hannon, J.B.; Kellogg, G.L.; Madey, T.E.; Pelhos, K.

1999-01-20

153

Compact nonimaging lens with totally internally reflecting facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact non-imaging lens is described and analyzed: the Totally Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens. It constitutes a major class of optical devices distinct from reflectors and Fresnel lenses. It is a transmissive device that redirects light passing through it via the action of a multiplicity of prismatic facets basically acting as annular Harting-Dove prisms that rotationally `wash-out' image structure. They

William A. Parkyn; David G. Pelka

1991-01-01

154

Multibeam Altimeter Navigation Update Using Faceted Shape Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of incorporating information, acquired by a multibeam laser or radar altimeter system, pertaining to the distance and direction between the system and a nearby target body, into an estimate of the state of a vehicle upon which the system is mounted, involves the use of a faceted model to represent the shape of the target body. Fundamentally, what one seeks to measure is the distance from the vehicle to the target body.

Bayard, David S.; Brugarolas, Paul; Broschart, Steve

2008-01-01

155

Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods  

SciTech Connect

The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2008-12-18

156

Coverage-dependent faceting of Au chains on Si(557)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and electronic phase diagrams of Au on Si(557) are established using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission. Five phases consisting of altogether seven facets are observed in the submonolayer regime. With increasing Au coverage one observes Si(111)7×7+Si(112) , Si(557)-Au, Si(111)5×2-Au+Si(335)-Au , Si(111)3×3-Au+Si(335)-Au , and Si(111)3×3-Au+Si(5511)-Au . The relative surface areas of the five phases and seven facets are determined accurately by depositing a Au wedge ranging from 0 to 0.7 monolayer and performing automatic pattern recognition on large-scale STM images. Angle-resolved photoemission spectra are decomposed into contributions from the five phases. The Fermi wave vectors and the band filling of various facets are identified. Using Si(557)-Au as reference we find a coverage of three Au chains per unit cell for the frequently studied Si(111)5×2-Au surface (instead of the widely used value of two Au chains). Likewise a coverage of two Au chains per unit cell is found for Si(553)-Au (instead of one Au chain), in agreement with x-ray diffraction. A structural model with three Au rows per unit cell is developed for Si(111)5×2-Au using density-functional-theory calculations.

Barke, I.; Zheng, F.; Bockenhauer, S.; Sell, K.; Oeynhausen, V. V.; Meiwes-Broer, K. H.; Erwin, S. C.; Himpsel, F. J.

2009-04-01

157

Coverage-Dependent Faceting of Au Chains on Si(557)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and electronic phase diagram of Au on Si(557) is established using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES). Five phases consisting of altogether seven facets are observed in the sub-monolayer regime. Four of them consist of two coexisting structures. In order of increasing Au coverage the five phases are: Si(111)7x7 + Si(112), Si(557)1x2-Au, Si(111)5x2-Au + Si(335)-Au, Si(111)?3x?3-Au + Si(335)-Au, and Si(111)?3x?3-Au + Si(5 5 11)-Au. The relative surface areas of the five phases and seven facets are determined accurately by depositing a Au wedge ranging from 0 to 0.8 monolayer and performing automatic pattern recognition on large-scale STM images. Angle-resolved photoemission spectra are decomposed into contributions from the five phases. The Fermi wave vectors of various facets are identified. Using Si(557)1x2-Au as reference we find a coverage of 3 Au chains per unit cell for the frequently-studied Si(111)5x2-Au surface (instead of the widely-used value of 2 Au chains). The impact of this finding on structural models is discussed.

Himpsel, F. J.; Barke, I.; Zheng, F.; Bockenhauer, S.; Sell, K.; Oeynhausen, V. V.; Meiwes-Broer, K. H.

2009-03-01

158

Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)  

SciTech Connect

The FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) project of Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program was aimed at providing a high-fidelity whole-tokamak modeling for the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program and ITER through coupling separate components for each of the core region, edge region, and wall, with realistic plasma particles and power sources and turbulent transport simulation. The project also aimed at developing advanced numerical algorithms, efficient implicit coupling methods, and software tools utilizing the leadership class computing facilities under Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The FACETS project was conducted by a multi-discipline, multi-institutional teams, the Lead PI was J.R. Cary (Tech-X Corp.). In the FACETS project, the Applied Plasma Theory Group at the MAE Department of UCSD developed the Wall and Plasma-Surface Interaction (WALLPSI) module, performed its validation against experimental data, and integrated it into the developed framework. WALLPSI is a one-dimensional, coarse grained, reaction/advection/diffusion code applied to each material boundary cell in the common modeling domain for a tokamak. It incorporates an advanced model for plasma particle transport and retention in the solid matter of plasma facing components, simulation of plasma heat power load handling, calculation of erosion/deposition, and simulation of synergistic effects in strong plasma-wall coupling.

Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Pigarov, Alexander

2011-10-15

159

Effects of unilateral facet fixation and facetectomy on muscle spindle responsiveness during simulated spinal manipulation in an animal model  

PubMed Central

Objectives Manual therapy practitioners commonly assess lumbar intervertebral mobility before deciding treatment regimens. Changes in mechanoreceptor activity during the manipulative thrust are theorized to be an underlying mechanism of spinal manipulation (SM) efficacy. The objective of this study was to determine if facet fixation or facetectomy at a single lumbar level alters muscle spindle activity during 5 SM thrust durations in an animal model. Methods Spinal stiffness was determined using the slope of a force-displacement curve. Changes in the mean instantaneous frequency of spindle discharge were measured during simulated SM of the L6 vertebra in the same 20 afferents for laminectomy-only, 19 laminectomy & facet screw conditions; only 5 also had data for the laminectomy & facetectomy condition. Neural responses were compared across conditions and five thrust durations (? 250ms) using linear mixed models. Results Significant decreases in afferent activity between the laminectomy-only and laminectomy & facet screw conditions were seen during 75ms (P<.001), 100ms (P=.04) and 150ms (P=.02) SM thrust durations. Significant increases in spindle activity between the laminectomy-only and laminectomy & facetectomy conditions were seen during the 75ms (P<.001) and 100ms (P<.001) thrust durations. Conclusion Intervertebral mobility at a single segmental level alters paraspinal sensory response during clinically relevant high velocity low amplitude SM thrust durations (?150ms). The relationship between intervertebral joint mobility and alterations of primary afferent activity during and following various manual therapy interventions may be used to help to identify patient subpopulations who respond to different types of manual therapy and better inform practitioners (eg, chiropractic, osteopathic) delivering the therapeutic intervention. PMID:24161386

Reed, William R.; Long, Cynthia R.; Pickar, Joel G.

2013-01-01

160

Autologous adipose stem cells and polylactide discs in the replacement of the rabbit temporomandibular joint disc.  

PubMed

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc lacks functional replacement after discectomy. We investigated tissue-engineered bilayer polylactide (PLA) discs and autologous adipose stem cells (ASCs) as a potential replacement for the TMJ disc. These ASC discs were pre-cultured either in control or in differentiation medium, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 for one week. Prior to implantation, expression of fibrocartilaginous genes was measured by qRT-PCR. The control and differentiated ASC discs were implanted, respectively, in the right and left TMJs of rabbits for six (n = 5) and 12 months (n = 5). Thereafter, the excised TMJ areas were examined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and histology. No signs of infection, inflammation or foreign body reactions were detected at histology, whereas chronic arthrosis and considerable condylar hypertrophy were observed in all operated joints at CBCT. The left condyle treated with the differentiated ASC discs appeared consistently smoother and more sclerotic than the right condyle. The ASC disc replacement resulted in dislocation and morphological changes in the rabbit TMJ. The ASC discs pre-treated with TGF-?1 enhanced the condylar integrity. While adverse tissue reactions were not shown, the authors suggest that with improved attachment and design, the PLA disc and biomaterial itself would hold potential for TMJ disc replacement. PMID:23720535

Ahtiainen, Katja; Mauno, Jari; Ellä, Ville; Hagström, Jaana; Lindqvist, Christian; Miettinen, Susanna; Ylikomi, Timo; Kellomäki, Minna; Seppänen, Riitta

2013-08-01

161

Sub-Facet Heterogeneity of the Urban Surface Energy Budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM) and observational data are combined to understand the influence of urban sub-facet heterogeneity, and the associated influence of material properties, on the urban surface energy budget. This heterogeneity is related to the different surfaces and materials (asphalt, concrete, grass, black roofs, green roofs, etc.) that are typically found within one urban facet (roof, wall, and ground). Of particular interest is the role of water storage and evaporation from urban surfaces in modulating the energy budget. The PUCM is evaluated at sites of various urban densities. Subsequently, one densely-built site is selected for in-depth analysis and the model is applied, with sub-facet resolution, to simulate the water and energy budgets. Our analyses show that while all built surfaces convert most of the incoming energy into sensible rather than latent heat, sensible heat fluxes from asphalt and non-reflective rooftops are twice as high as those from concrete surfaces and light colored roofs. Another important and commonly observed characteristic of urban areas- the shift in peak time of sensible heat compared to rural areas, is shown to be mainly linked to concrete's high heat storage capacity. Our results also indicate that while evaporation from built surfaces is discontinuous and intermittent, overall, these surfaces accounted for nearly 16% of latent heat fluxes (LE) at the study site during the study period. More importantly, this contribution is mainly concentrated during the 48 hours following a rain event and thus its accurate representation is critical to our understanding of the urban surface energy budget during wet periods.

Ramamurthy, P.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Smith, J. A.; Baeck, M. L.; Welty, C.

2013-12-01

162

Automated quantitative 3D analysis of faceting of particles in tomographic datasets.  

PubMed

Characterization of facets of particles is a common problem. In this paper an algorithm is presented which allows automated quantitative 3D analysis of facets of many particles within tomographic datasets. The algorithm is based on the analysis of probability distributions of the orientations of triangle normals of mesh representations. The result consists of lists containing number of detected facets, their size, global orientation and the interplanar angles between facets for each analyzed particle. Characterization of each particle according to any of these facet properties is then possible, e.g. statistics about different crystal shapes or removal of particles that do not show significant faceting. Analyses of a 3D dataset obtained by focused ion beam (FIB) tomography of a sample containing spinel particles are presented. PMID:23010665

Grothausmann, Roman; Fiechter, Sebastian; Beare, Richard; Lehmann, Gaëtan; Kropf, Holger; Vinod Kumar, Goarke Sanjeeviah; Manke, Ingo; Banhart, John

2012-11-01

163

Optimization of spherical facets for parabolic solar concentrators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar concentrator designs which employ deployable hexagonal panels are being developed for space power systems. An offset optical configuration has been developed which offers significant system level advantages over previously proposed collector designs for space applications. Optical analyses have been performed which show offset reflector intercept factors to be only slightly lower than those for symmetric reflectors with the same slope error. Fluxes on the receiver walls are asymmetric but manageable by varying the tilt angle of the receiver. Greater producibility is achieved by subdividing the hexagonal panels into triangular mirror facets of spherical contour. Optical analysis has been performed upon these to yield near-optimum sizes and radii.

White, J. E.; Erikson, R. J.; Sturgis, J. D.; Elfe, T. B.

1986-01-01

164

Using Facet Clusters to Guide Teacher Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Physics and the School of Education at Seattle Pacific University, together with FACET Innovations, LLC, are beginning the second year of a five-year NSF TPC project, Improving the Effectiveness of Teacher Diagnostic Skills and Tools. We are working in partnership with school districts in Washington State to help teachers make their classrooms into better diagnostic learning environments. In this talk, we describe initial efforts to construct content-rich professional development courses for teachers, which are infused with diagnostic assessment that target the fine structure of student ideas in specific topical areas. * Supported in part by NSF grant #ESI-0455796, The Boeing Corporation, and the SPU Science Initiative.

Seeley, Lane; DeWater, L. S.; Vokos, S.; Kraus, P.

2006-12-01

165

Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation of facet reflection through parallel computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise evaluation of the facet reflection is highly desirable in design and simulation of optoelectronic devices such as super-luminescent light emitting diodes (SLEDs) and semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) where ultra low facet reflection must be achieved. In this paper, the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been implemented on a parallel computing algorithm for the calculation of facet reflection

D. Labukhin; Xun Li

2004-01-01

166

Comparing Linkage Designs Based on Land Facets to Linkage Designs Based on Focal Species  

PubMed Central

Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5–16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches. PMID:23152831

Brost, Brian M.; Beier, Paul

2012-01-01

167

Method of adjusting faceted heliostats by a self-collimation method  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed for adjusting heliostat facets by means of selfcollimation theodolite. As a rule, heliostats are assembled from individual elements - facets, each of which is positioned so as to form the equivalent of a single mirror. The positioning and adjustment of the facets is complex and laborious. This is because the heliostat is a dynamic system, and in the course of operation the adjustment of the reflecting surfaces is disrupted over time.

Abdurakhmanov, A.A.; Khammadov, I.I.; Zakhidov, R.A.

1984-01-01

168

Testing of the SAIC facets on the stretched-membrane dish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dish structure sized for a 25 kW electric dish\\/generator system has been installed at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The dish is used as an optical test bed for prototype stretched-membrane facets. Sandia procured twelve (12) stretched-membrane facets from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for installation on the dish structure. Individual facet optical performance was measured using

J. W. Grossman; W. W. Erdman; R. M. Houser; R. Davenport

1994-01-01

169

Facet degradation and passivation of InGaAsP/InP lasers  

SciTech Connect

Formation of oxide on mirror facets was observed by Auger electron spectroscopy in InGaAsP/ InP buried heterostructure lasers. The oxide on the mirror facets caused increase of threshold current and leakage current, and decrease of differential quantum efficiency. Such phenomena were observed under nonlasing high current density operation as well as under high optical output power operation. The degradation of lasers due to the mirror facet oxidation is shown to be suppressed by coating the mirror facet with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

Fukuda, M.; Takahei, K.; Iwane, G.; Ikegami, T.

1982-07-01

170

Plasmas, Dielectrics and the Ultrafast: First Science and Operational Experience at FACET  

SciTech Connect

FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests) is an accelerator R&D test facility that has been recently constructed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The facility provides 20 GeV, 3 nC electron beams, short (20 {micro}m) bunches and small (20 {micro}m wide) spot sizes, producing uniquely high power beams. FACET supports studies from many fields but in particular those of Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and Dielectric Wakefield Acceleration. FACET is also a source of THz radiation for material studies. We present the FACET design, initial operating experience and first science from the facility.

Clarke, C.I.; Adli, E.; Corde, S.; Decker, F.J.; England, R.J.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.; Gessner, S.; Hast, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Li, S.Z.; Lipkowitz, N.; Litos, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seeman, J.; Sheppard, J.C.; Tudosa, I.; White, G.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Wu, Z.; /SLAC /UCLA

2012-09-14

171

Nonlinear elastic model for faceting of vesicles with soft grain boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use an elastic model to explore faceting of solid-wall vesicles with elastic heterogeneities. We show that faceting occurs in regions where the vesicle wall is softer, such as areas of reduced wall thicknesses or concentrated in crystalline defects. The elastic heterogeneities are modeled as a second component with reduced elastic parameters. Using simulated annealing Monte Carlo simulations we obtain the vesicle shape by optimizing the distributions of facets and boundaries. Our model allows us to reduce the effects of the residual stress generated by crystalline defects, and reveals a robust faceting mechanism into polyhedra other than the icosahedron.

Sknepnek, Rastko; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

2012-05-01

172

FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns  

SciTech Connect

The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.

2000-06-30

173

Knee joint replacement  

MedlinePLUS

Knee joint replacement is surgery to replace a knee joint with a man-made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis . ... cartilage and bone are removed from the knee joint. Man-made pieces are then placed in the ...

174

On the convergence between PSY-5 domains and PID-5 domains and facets: implications for assessment of DSM-5 personality traits.  

PubMed

The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup and their consultants have developed the 220-item, self-report Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) for direct assessment of the proposed personality trait system for DSM-5; however, most practicing clinical psychologists will likely continue to rely on separate omnibus measures to index symptoms and traits associated with psychopathology. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is one such measure and assesses the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) domains, which are conceptual cognates of the DSM-5 trait domains. The current study examined the associations between the MMPI-2-RF PSY-5 scales and the DSM-5 trait domains and facets indexed by the PID-5. A clear pattern of convergence was found indicating that each of the PSY-5 scales was most highly correlated with its conceptually expected PID-5 counterpart (rs = .44-.67; Mdn r = .53) and facet correlations generally showed the same pattern. Similarly, when each of the PSY-5 scales was regressed onto the PID-5 domains, the conceptually expected pattern of associations emerged even more clearly. Finally, a joint exploratory factor analysis with the PSY-5 and PID-5 trait facet scales indicated a five-factor solution that clearly resembled both of the PSY-5/DSM-5 trait domains. These results show clear evidence that the MMPI-2-RF has utility in the assessment of dimensional personality traits proposed for the upcoming DSM-5. PMID:23297369

Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R Michael; Quilty, Lena C; Veltri, Carlo O C; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

2013-06-01

175

Numerical computations of faceted pattern formation in snow crystal growth.  

PubMed

Faceted growth of snow crystals leads to a rich diversity of forms with remarkable sixfold symmetry. Snow crystal structures result from diffusion-limited crystal growth in the presence of anisotropic surface energy and anisotropic attachment kinetics. It is by now well understood that the morphological stability of ice crystals strongly depends on supersaturation, crystal size, and temperature. Until very recently it was very difficult to perform numerical simulations of this highly anisotropic crystal growth. In particular, obtaining facet growth in combination with dendritic branching is a challenging task. We present numerical simulations of snow crystal growth in two and three spacial dimensions using a computational method recently introduced by the present authors. We present both qualitative and quantitative computations. In particular, a linear relationship between tip velocity and supersaturation is observed. In our computations, surface energy effects, although small, have a pronounced effect on crystal growth. We compute solid plates, solid prisms, hollow columns, needles, dendrites, capped columns, and scrolls on plates. Although all these forms appear in nature, it is a significant challenge to reproduce them with the help of numerical simulations for a continuum model. PMID:23005427

Barrett, John W; Garcke, Harald; Nürnberg, Robert

2012-07-01

176

Modification of flux profiles using a faceted concentrator  

SciTech Connect

The use of a faceted solar concentrator allows for some flexibility in aiming strategy and in the intensity of the resulting flux profile at the target. This can be an advantage when considering applications that do not necessarily require maximum concentration, particularly emerging, new applications in solar processed advanced materials. This paper will describe both an analysis of predicted flux profiles for several different aiming strategies using the SOLFUR computer code and experiments to characterize the actual flux profiles realized with a selected aiming strategy. The SOLFUR code models each of the furnace components explicitly. Aim points for each facet can be specified. Thus many strategies for adjusting aim points can be easily explored. One strategy calls for creating as uniform a flux over as large an area as possible. We explored this strategy analytically and experimentally. The experimental data consist of flux maps generated by a video imaging system calibrated against absolute flux measurements taken with circular foil calorimeters. Results from the analytical study and a comparison with the experimental data indicate that uniform profiles can be produced over fairly large areas.

Lewandowski, A; Scholl, K; Bingham, C

1993-01-01

177

Interactive exploration of implicit and explicit relations in faceted datasets.  

PubMed

Many datasets, such as scientific literature collections, contain multiple heterogeneous facets which derive implicit relations, as well as explicit relational references between data items. The exploration of this data is challenging not only because of large data scales but also the complexity of resource structures and semantics. In this paper, we present PivotSlice, an interactive visualization technique which provides efficient faceted browsing as well as flexible capabilities to discover data relationships. With the metaphor of direct manipulation, PivotSlice allows the user to visually and logically construct a series of dynamic queries over the data, based on a multi-focus and multi-scale tabular view that subdivides the entire dataset into several meaningful parts with customized semantics. PivotSlice further facilitates the visual exploration and sensemaking process through features including live search and integration of online data, graphical interaction histories and smoothly animated visual state transitions. We evaluated PivotSlice through a qualitative lab study with university researchers and report the findings from our observations and interviews. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of PivotSlice using a scenario of exploring a repository of information visualization literature. PMID:24051774

Zhao, Jian; Collins, Christopher; Chevalier, Fanny; Balakrishnan, Ravin

2013-12-01

178

Intensity Effects of the FACET Beam in the SLAC Linac  

SciTech Connect

The beam for FACET (Facility for Advanced aCcelerator Experimental Tests) at SLAC requires an energy-time correlation ('chirp') along the linac, so it can be compressed in two chicanes, one at the midpoint in sector 10 and one W-shaped chicane just before the FACET experimental area. The induced correlation has the opposite sign to the typical used for BNS damping, and therefore any orbit variations away from the center kick the tail of the beam more than the head, causing a shear in the beam and emittance growth. Any dispersion created along the linac has similar effects due to the high (>1.2% rms) energy spread necessary for compression. The initial huge emittances could be reduced by a factor of 10, but were still bigger than expected by a factor of 2-3. Normalized emittance of 3 {micro}m-rad in Sector 2 blew up to 150 {micro}m-rad in Sector 11 but could be reduced to about 6-12 {micro}m-rad, for the vertical plane although the results were not very stable. Investigating possible root causes for this, we found locations where up to 10 mm dispersion was created along the linac, which were finally verified with strong steering and up to 7 mm settling of the linac accelerator at these locations.

Decker, F.-J.; Lipkowitz, N.; Sheppard, J.; White, G.R.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

2012-07-03

179

Joint x-ray  

MedlinePLUS

X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

180

JOINT SEMINAR FINAL REPORT  

E-print Network

JOINT SEMINAR FINAL REPORT Project number Name of applicant at FWF: __________________________________ Title of the Joint Seminar: ____________________________________________________ Name of the partner): ____________________________________________________ Name of applicant at partner organisation: _______________________ Date and place of Joint Seminar

Fuchs, Clemens

181

Temporomandibular Joint Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... news feeds delivered directly to your desktop! more... Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Article Chapters Temporomandibular Joint Disorder What ... men. Updated: November 2008 Previous Next Related Articles: Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMD) Are You Biting Off More ...

182

Friction in Total Hip Joint Prosthesis Measured In Vivo during Walking  

PubMed Central

Friction-induced moments and subsequent cup loosening can be the reason for total hip joint replacement failure. The aim of this study was to measure the in vivo contact forces and friction moments during walking. Instrumented hip implants with Al2O3 ceramic head and an XPE inlay were used. In vivo measurements were taken 3 months post operatively in 8 subjects. The coefficient of friction was calculated in 3D throughout the whole gait cycle, and average values of the friction-induced power dissipation in the joint were determined. On average, peak contact forces of 248% of the bodyweight and peak friction moments of 0.26% bodyweight times meter were determined. However, contact forces and friction moments varied greatly between individuals. The friction moment increased during the extension phase of the joint. The average coefficient of friction also increased during this period, from 0.04 (0.03 to 0.06) at contralateral toe off to 0.06 (0.04 to 0.08) at contralateral heel strike. During the flexion phase, the coefficient of friction increased further to 0.14 (0.09 to 0.23) at toe off. The average friction-induced power throughout the whole gait cycle was 2.3 W (1.4 W to 3.8 W). Although more parameters than only the synovia determine the friction, the wide ranges of friction coefficients and power dissipation indicate that the lubricating properties of synovia are individually very different. However, such differences may also exist in natural joints and may influence the progression of arthrosis. Furthermore, subjects with very high power dissipation may be at risk of thermally induced implant loosening. The large increase of the friction coefficient during each step could be caused by the synovia being squeezed out under load. PMID:24260114

Damm, Philipp; Dymke, Joern; Ackermann, Robert; Bender, Alwina; Graichen, Friedmar; Halder, Andreas; Beier, Alexander; Bergmann, Georg

2013-01-01

183

Facet-Dependent Photoelectrochemical Performance of TiO2 Nanostructures: An Experimental and Computational Study.  

PubMed

The behavior of crystalline nanoparticles depends strongly on which facets are exposed. Some facets are more active than others, but it is difficult to selectively isolate particular facets. This study provides fundamental insights into photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performance of three types of TiO2 nanoparticles with predominantly exposed {101}, {010}, or {001} facets, where 86-99% of the surface area is the desired facet. Photodegradation of methyl orange reveals that {001}-TiO2 has 1.79 and 3.22 times higher photocatalytic activity than {010} and {101}-TiO2, respectively. This suggests that the photochemical performance is highly correlated with the surface energy and the number of under-coordinated surface atoms. In contrast, the photoelectrochemical performance of the faceted TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized with the commercially available MK-2 dye was highest with {010}-TiO2 which yielded an overall cell efficiency of 6.1%, compared to 3.2% for {101}-TiO2 and 2.6% for {001}-TiO2 prepared under analogous conditions. Measurement of desorption kinetics and accompanying computational modeling suggests a stronger covalent interaction of the dye with the {010} and {101} facets compared with the {001} facet. Time-resolved THz spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy measure faster electron injection dynamics when MK-2 is bound to {010} compared to other facets, consistent with extensive computational simulations which indicate that the {010} facet provides the most efficient and direct pathway for interfacial electron transfer. Our experimental and computational results establish for the first time that photoelectrochemical performance is dependent upon the binding energy of the dye as well as the crystalline structure of the facet, as opposed to surface energy alone. PMID:25563343

Li, Chuanhao; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Ding, Wendu; Rudshteyn, Benjamin; Yang, Ke R; Regan, Kevin P; Konezny, Steven J; Batista, Victor S; Brudvig, Gary W; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Kim, Jae-Hong

2015-02-01

184

Spacesuit mobility joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Joints for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit which have low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are described. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics. Linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli are featured. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

Vykukal, H. C. (inventor)

1978-01-01

185

Aerodynamics Investigation of Faceted Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The desire and demand to fly farther and faster has progressively integrated the concept of optimization with airfoil design, resulting in increasingly complex numerical tools pursuing efficiency often at diminishing returns; while the costs and difficulty associated with fabrication increases with design complexity. Such efficiencies may often be necessary due to the power density limitations of certain aircraft such as small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs). This research, however, focuses on reducing the complexity of airfoils for applications where aerodynamic performance is less important than the efficiency of manufacturing; in this case a Hybrid Projectile. By employing faceted sections to approximate traditional contoured wing sections it may be possible to expedite manufacturing and reduce costs. We applied this method to the development of a low Reynolds number, disposable Hybrid Projectile requiring a 4.5:1 glide ratio, resulting in a series of airfoils which are geometric approximations to highly contoured cross-sections called ShopFoils. This series of airfoils both numerically and experimentally perform within a 10% margin of the SD6060 airfoil at low Re. Additionally, flow visualization has been conducted to qualitatively determine what mechanisms, if any, are responsible for the similarity in performance between the faceted ShopFoil sections and the SD6060. The data obtained by these experiments did not conclusively reveal how the faceted surfaces may influence low Re flow but did indicate that the ShopFoil s did not maintain flow attachment at higher angles of attack than the SD6060. Two reasons are provided for the unexpected performance of the ShopFoil: one is related to downwash effects, which are suspected of placing the outer portion of the span at an effective angle of attack where the ShopFoils outperform the SD6060; the other is the influence of the tip vortex on separation near the wing tips, which possibly provides a 'comparative advantage' to the ShopFoil because it has more to gain from a reduction in its pressure drag component.

Napolillo, Zachary G.

186

Testing of the SAIC facets on the stretched-membrane dish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dish structure sized for a 25 kW electric dish/generator system has been installed at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The dish is used as an optical test bed for prototype stretched-membrane facets. Sandia procured twelve (12) stretched-membrane facets from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for installation on the dish structure. Individual facet optical performance was measured using the 2f test method under development at Sandia. Four facets were tested on-sun using the test truss at the NSTTF prior to installation on the dish structure. During the final stages of the structure assembly, the facets were installed for testing. A distant light source alignment technique was used to align the facets to a 9 meter focal length. The alignment and focus were optimized with on-sun measurements of individual facet characteristics. On-sun flux maps of the image were made using the Beam Characterization System. Calorimetry tests were performed using a cold water calorimeter. This data was used to create a power intercept curve and predict the power inside apertures of different sizes. The focal plane was moved to 9.95 meters and the alignment, optimization, and on-sun tests repeated. This paper presents the results of the testing on the individual facets as well as the results of testing the dish system. The effects of the change in focal length on the optical performance of the dish are shown in the results.

Grossman, J. W.; Erdman, W. W.; Houser, R. M.; Davenport, R.

1994-04-01

187

In situ observation of facet-dependent oxidation of graphene on platinum in an environmental TEM.  

PubMed

We performed a direct observation of a crystal facet-dependent oxidation of graphene layers on platinum nanocrystals at atomic resolution in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Combined with density functional theory calculations, our work provides a novel approach for the dynamical exploration of the facet-dependent reactions at the atomic level. PMID:25407230

Yuan, Wentao; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Yong; Kattel, Shyam; Zhang, Zhengfei; Chou, Lien-Yang; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Wei, Xiao; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Guofeng; Mao, Scott X; Zhang, Ze

2015-01-01

188

Scattering matrix calculated in geometric optics approximation for semitransparent particles faceted with various shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new computer model of light scattering by semitransparent particles with arbitrary shape is presented. The model allows calculations of scattering angle dependences of all elements of scattering matrix Fik in geometric optics approximation. Scattering properties of faceted spheres with a number of the facets less than 10,000 differ significantly from those of the perfect spherical particles. The scattering angle

Ye. Grynko; Yu. Shkuratov

2003-01-01

189

Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanorice Enclosed by High- Index Facets and Its Application for CO Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

A facile method for generating Au nanorice enclosed by high-index facets in high purity. The nanorice shows much higher catalytic activity for CO oxidation than multiply twinned particles of Au enclosed by {l_brace}111{r_brace} facets at temperatures below 300 C.

Zheng, Y.; Tao, J.; Liu, H.; Zeng, J.; Yu, T.; Ma, Y.; Moran, C.; Wu, L.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, J.; Xia, Y.

2011-06-01

190

Examining Rater Errors in the Assessment of Written Composition with a Many-Faceted Rasch Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rater errors (rater severity, halo effect, central tendency, and restriction of range) are described, and criteria are presented for evaluating rating quality based on a many-faceted Rasch (FACETS) model. Ratings of 264 compositions from the Eighth Grade Writing Test in Georgia by 15 raters illustrate the discussion. (SLD)

Engelhard, George, Jr.

1994-01-01

191

Nitrogen-induced reconstruction and faceting of Re(112{sup ¯}1)  

SciTech Connect

The surface morphology of Re(112{sup ¯}1), tailored on the nanometer scale by kinetic control of nitrogen, has been investigated using low energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) in combination with the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics approach. Experiments show that when exposing to NH{sub 3} (>0.5 L) at 300 K followed by annealing in ultra-high vacuum at 700 K or 900 K, the initially planar Re(112{sup ¯}1) surface becomes (2 × 1) reconstructed or partially faceted, respectively. Upon annealing in 100 L NH{sub 3} at 900 K, Re(112{sup ¯}1) becomes fully faceted and covered by N. The fully faceted surface consists of two-sided ridges formed by (134{sup ¯}2) and (314{sup ¯}2) facets. The (2 × 1) reconstruction may serve as a precursor state for faceting of Re(112{sup ¯}1). The DFT calculations provide an atomistic understanding of facet formation in terms of binding sites and energies of N on Re surfaces of the substrate and facets as well as the corresponding surface phase diagram. The N-covered faceted Re(112{sup ¯}1) surfaces are promising nanoscale model catalysts and nanotemplates. Our findings should be of importance for the design and development of Re-based heterogeneous catalysts operating under nitrogen-rich conditions.

Wang, Hao; Chen, Wenhua; Bartynski, Robert A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Kaghazchi, Payam; Jacob, Timo [Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

2014-01-14

192

Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2  

E-print Network

Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2 and Anastasia Analyti2 1) taxonomy-based information sources. Specifically, we discuss (i) the semantic descrip- tion of faceted taxonomies, based on the Compound Term Composition Algebra (CTCA), (ii) the revision of CTCA ex- pressions

Tzitzikas, Yannis

193

Exploring Local Item Dependence Using a Random-Effects Facet Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The random-effects facet model that deals with local item dependence in many-facet contexts is presented. It can be viewed as a special case of the multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model (MRCMLM) so that the estimation procedures for the MRCMLM can be directly applied. Simulations were conducted to examine parameter recovery…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark

2005-01-01

194

Extended Faceted Taxonomies For Web Catalogs by Yannis Tzitzikas, Nicolas Spyratos, Panos Constantopoulos and Anastasia Analyti  

E-print Network

Constantopoulos and Anastasia Analyti What do you prefer to remember: 1000 individual terms or 3 facets of 10 terms each? One way of designing a taxonomy for a knowledge domain is by identifying a number, called facets, where a taxonomy is a set of terms structured by a specialization/generalization relation

Analyti, Anastasia

195

Integration of Plasmonic Antenna on Quantum Cascade Laser Facets for Chip-scale Molecular Sensing  

E-print Network

Integration of Plasmonic Antenna on Quantum Cascade Laser Facets for Chip-scale Molecular Sensing on the facet of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating in the mid-infrared region of the optical spectrum. INTRODUCTION Since its first demonstration [1] in 1994, Quantum cascade laser (QCL) has shown path breaking

Mohseni, Hooman

196

High-index-contrast ridge waveguide laser with thermally oxidised etched facet and  

E-print Network

). Laser ridges are then deeply etched, through the active region and into the lower cladding, usingHigh-index-contrast ridge waveguide laser with thermally oxidised etched facet and metal reflector heterostructure laser is demonstrated, which features an etched and wet thermally oxidised rear facet

197

Giant photoluminescence emission in crystalline faceted Si grains  

PubMed Central

Empowering an indirect band-gap material like Si with optical functionalities, firstly light emission, represents a huge advancement constantly pursued in the realization of any integrated photonic device. We report the demonstration of giant photoluminescence (PL) emission by a newly synthesized material consisting of crystalline faceted Si grains (fg-Si), a hundred nanometer in size, assembled in a porous and columnar configuration, without any post processing. A laser beam with wavelength 632.8?nm locally produce such a high temperature, determined on layers of a given thickness by Raman spectra, to induce giant PL radiation emission. The optical gain reaches the highest value ever, 0.14?cm/W, representing an increase of 3 orders of magnitude with respect to comparable data recently obtained in nanocrystals. Giant emission has been obtained from fg-Si deposited either on glass or on flexible, low cost, polymeric substrate opening the possibility to fabricate new devices. PMID:24056300

Faraci, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Agata R.; Alberti, Alessandra; Ruggeri, Rosa; Mannino, Giovanni

2013-01-01

198

Examining student rating of teaching effectiveness using FACETS.  

PubMed

Students' evaluations of teaching staff can be considered high-stakes, as they are often used to determine promotion, reappointment, and merit pay to academics. Using Facets, the reliability and validity of one student rating questionnaire is analyzed. A total of 13,940 respondents of the Human Science Division of International Islamic University Malaysia were involved in the study. The analysis shows that the student rating questionnaire used was valid and reliable, and it allows identification of staff for the institution's prestigious teaching excellence awards, and those needing in-service training. It was found that there was no significant difference in terms of rank, age and gender of the staff. The study also shows that the majority of staff have problems keeping the class interested and getting students to participate in class activities. Faculty also hardly discussed common errors in assignments and tests. PMID:22089510

Mat Daud, Nuraihan; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide

2011-01-01

199

Evolution of (001) and (111) facets for selective epitaxial growth inside submicron trenches  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of (001) and (111) facets for the epitaxial growth inside submicron trenches is systematically studied in this report. The analysis with the method of “Lagrange multiplier” indicates the equilibrium crystal shape. In the case of non-equilibrium without external fluxes, we employed the “weighted mean curvature” method to mathematically model the inter-facet migration rate for two extreme kinetic cases: “surface diffusion limited” and “surface attachment/detachment limited.” Coupled with external supply of atoms, the self-limited behavior of facet size is theoretically predicted. Moreover, we find that the self-limited stable facet size in trenches of different widths has a specific relationship determined by the surface energy ratio, kinetic rate ratio, and isolated growth rate difference. The two limited cases could be discriminated according to the mathematical fitting of one exponent in this relationship based on the stable facet size in trenches of different widths.

Jiang, S., E-mail: jiang@imec.be; Heyns, M., E-mail: marc.heyns@imec.be [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44-bus 2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Merckling, C.; Guo, W.; Waldron, N.; Caymax, M. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Vandervorst, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KULeuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D-bus 2418, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Seefeldt, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44-bus 2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2014-01-14

200

Measured and predicted root-mean-square errors in square and triangular antenna mesh facets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deflection shapes of square and equilateral triangular facets of two tricot-knit, gold plated molybdenum wire mesh antenna materials were measured and compared, on the basis of root mean square (rms) differences, with deflection shapes predicted by linear membrane theory, for several cases of biaxial mesh tension. The two mesh materials contained approximately 10 and 16 holes per linear inch, measured diagonally with respect to the course and wale directions. The deflection measurement system employed a non-contact eddy current proximity probe and an electromagnetic distance sensing probe in conjunction with a precision optical level. Despite experimental uncertainties, rms differences between measured and predicted deflection shapes suggest the following conclusions: that replacing flat antenna facets with facets conforming to parabolically curved structural members yields smaller rms surface error; that potential accuracy gains are greater for equilateral triangular facets than for square facets; and that linear membrane theory can be a useful tool in the design of tricot knit wire mesh antennas.

Fichter, W. B.

1989-01-01

201

Quantum cascade lasers with a tilted facet utilizing the inherent polarization purity.  

PubMed

We report on quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with a tilted facet utilizing their polarization property. Contrary to diode lasers, QCLs generate purely TM polarized light due to the intersubband selection rules. This property enables the utilization of reflectivity in terms of only TM polarized light (TM reflectivity). The TM reflectivity is reduced by tilting the front facet, resulting in enhanced light output power from the tilted facet. The peak output power of a QCL with a facet angle of 12° are increased by 31 %. The slope efficiency of a QCL with a facet angle of 17° are increased by 43 %. Additionally, a peculiar property of TM reflectivity, the Brewster angle, is investigated by using COMSOL simulations to find its availability in QCLs. PMID:25401662

Ahn, Sangil; Ristanic, Daniela; Gansch, Roman; Reininger, Peter; Schwarzer, Clemens; MacFarland, Donald C; Detz, Hermann; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

2014-10-20

202

Evolution of (001) and (111) facets for selective epitaxial growth inside submicron trenches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of (001) and (111) facets for the epitaxial growth inside submicron trenches is systematically studied in this report. The analysis with the method of "Lagrange multiplier" indicates the equilibrium crystal shape. In the case of non-equilibrium without external fluxes, we employed the "weighted mean curvature" method to mathematically model the inter-facet migration rate for two extreme kinetic cases: "surface diffusion limited" and "surface attachment/detachment limited." Coupled with external supply of atoms, the self-limited behavior of facet size is theoretically predicted. Moreover, we find that the self-limited stable facet size in trenches of different widths has a specific relationship determined by the surface energy ratio, kinetic rate ratio, and isolated growth rate difference. The two limited cases could be discriminated according to the mathematical fitting of one exponent in this relationship based on the stable facet size in trenches of different widths.

Jiang, S.; Merckling, C.; Guo, W.; Waldron, N.; Caymax, M.; Vandervorst, W.; Seefeldt, M.; Heyns, M.

2014-01-01

203

The peroneocuboid joint: morphogenesis and anatomical study.  

PubMed

The peroneocuboid joint, between the peroneus longus tendon and the cuboid bone, has not been anatomically well-defined and no embryological study has been published. Furthermore, the ossification of the os peroneum (a sesamoid inside the peroneus longus tendon) and its associated pathology has been considered to be generated by orthostatic and/or mechanical loads. A light microscopy analysis of serially sectioned human embryonic and fetal feet, the analysis of human adult feet by means of standard macroscopic dissection, X-ray and histological techniques have been carried out. The peroneus longus tendon was fully visible until its insertion in the 1st metatarsal bone already at embryonic stage 23 (56-57 days). The peroneocuboid joint cavity appeared at the transition of the embryonic to the fetal period (8-9th week of gestation) and was independent of the proximal synovial sheath. The joint cavity extended from the level of the calcaneocuboid joint all the way to the insertion of the peroneus longus tendon in the 1st metatarsal bone. The frenular ligaments, fixing the peroneus longus tendon to the 5th metatarsal bone or the long calcaneocuboid ligament, developed in the embryonic period. The peroneus longus tendon presented a thickening in the area surrounding the cuboid bone as early as the fetal period. This thickening may be considered the precursor of the os peroneum and was similar in shape and in size relation to the tendon, to the os peroneum observed in adults. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the os peroneum, articular facets of the peroneus longus tendon and cuboid bone, the peroneocuboid joint and the frenular ligaments appear during the embryonic/fetal development period and therefore they can not be generated exclusively by orthostatic and mechanical forces or pathological processes. PMID:25384452

Guimerá, V; Lafuente, A; Zambrana, L; Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M; Sañudo, J R; Vazquez, T

2015-01-01

204

Joint ownership and alienability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most legal traditions view individual ownership as paradigmatic. Yet most property is jointly owned. This paper analyzes how joint ownership affects alienability by focusing on two fundamental issues raised by joint ownership—the nature of the class of those who may benefit from a joint asset and the nature of the process for making decisions about such an asset. I identify

Clifford G. Holderness

2003-01-01

205

Photocatalytic and dye-sensitized solar cell performances of {010}-faceted and [111]-faceted anatase TiO? nanocrystals synthesized from tetratitanate nanoribbons.  

PubMed

The morphology and exposed facet of the anatase-type TiO2 are very important to improve the photocatalytic activity and photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, we report the synthesis and the photocatalytic and dye-sensitized solar cell performances of anatase-type TiO2 single nanocrystals with exposed {010}- and [111]-facets and with various morphologies by using exfoliated tetratitanate nanoribbons as precursors. The precursor nanoribbons were prepared from the exfoliation of the protonated and, subsequently, tetramethylammonium/H(+) ion-exchanged K2Ti4O9. The colloidal suspension containing the nanoribbons was hydrothermally heated with a microwave-assistance at temperatures from 120 to 190 °C after pH was adjusted to 0.5-14. The dependence of the crystalline phases on temperature and pH indicated that anatase single phase can be obtained at pH 3-13 whereas temperatures higher than 160 °C. The [111]-faceted nanorod-shaped anatase nanocrystals were formed preferentially at pH ? 3, whereas the {010}-faceted anatase nanocrystals with morphologies of rhombic, cuboid, and spindle were preferentially at pH ?5. The morphology observation revealed that the nanoribbons were transformed to anatase nanocrystals mainly by the topotactic structural transformation reaction accompanied by an Ostwald ripening reaction, and pH of the reaction solution took a critical role in the crystal morphology change. At pH ?1, the mixture of anatase, rutile, and brookite were obtained at higher temperature conditions. The photocatalytic activity and photovoltaic performance were enhanced in an order of surface without a specific facet < [111]-faceted surface < {010}-faceted surface. PMID:25158319

Du, Yi-en; Feng, Qi; Chen, Changdong; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yang, Xiaojing

2014-09-24

206

Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

2013-01-01

207

Obtaining Content Weights for Test Specifications from Job Analysis Task Surveys: An Application of the Many-Facets Rasch Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the use of the Many-Facets Rasch Model, via the FACETS computer program (Linacre, 2006a), to scale job/practice analysis survey data as well as to combine multiple rating scales into single composite weights representing the tasks' relative importance. Results from the Many-Facets Rasch Model are compared with those…

Wang, Ning; Stahl, John

2012-01-01

208

Thermal and shape stability of high-index-faceted rhodium nanoparticles: a molecular dynamics investigation.  

PubMed

Nanosized noble metallic particles enclosed by high-index facets exhibit superior catalytic activity because of their high density of low-coordinated step atoms at the surface, and thus have attracted growing interest over the past decade. In this article, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermodynamic evolution of tetrahexahedral Rh nanoparticles respectively covered by {210}, {310}, and {830} facets during the heating process. Our results reveal that the {210} faceted nanoparticle exhibits better thermal and shape stability than the {310} and {830} faceted ones. Meanwhile, because the {830} facet consists of {210} and {310} subfacets, the stability of the {830} faceted Rh nanoparticle is dominated by the {310} subfacet, which possesses a relatively poor stability. Furthermore, the shape transformation of these nanoparticles occurs much earlier than their melting. Further analyses indicate that surface atoms with higher coordination numbers display lower surface diffusivity, and are thus more helpful for stabilizing the particle shape. This study offers an atomistic understanding of the thermodynamic behaviors of high-index-faceted Rh nanoparticles. PMID:25628229

Zeng, Xiang-Ming; Huang, Rao; Wen, Yu-Hua; Sun, Shi-Gang

2015-02-10

209

Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

2009-10-30

210

Facets of smectic A droplets I. Shape measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured profiles of smectic A droplets in air as a function of temperature for several different materials. When small droplets are cooled below the nematic-smectic A transition temperature T_AN , they show a single facet whose radius is proportional to (T_AN-T)^?. The exponent ? differs for different materials but is consistent with that measured for the layer compression modulus B. In addition, we measure the shape of curved regions of the surface adjacent to the facet. A power-law fit gives an exponent that varies with both temperature and material and in any case is different from the universal value of 3/2. We also study how droplet shapes relax to equilibrium and find that while the relaxation time for shape changes upon cooling is less than one minute, that for heating ranges from hours to days, depending on T_AN. An estimate of the energy barrier to nucleating now layers suggests that process is forbidden and that another explanation of the relaxation-rate asymmetry must be found. Nous avons mesuré des profils de gouttelettes smectique A en fonction de la température pour des matériaux diff?ents. Quand de petites gouttelettes sont refroidies en dessous de la température de transition smectique A-nématique T_AN, une facette unique dont le rayon est proportionnal à (T_AN-T)^? apparaît. L'exposant ? est différent suivant les matériaux mais est compatible avec celui qui est mesuré pour le module de compression des couches B. De plus, nous avons mesuré la forme des régions courbées adjacentes à la facette. Un ajustement avec une loi puissance donne un exposant qui varie avec la température et le matériau et qui, dans tous les cas, est différent de la valeur universelle 3/2. Nous avons aussi étudié comment la forme des gouttelettes relaxe vers l'équilibre et avons trouvé que le temps de relaxation est inférieur à une minute en refroidissant tandis qu'il varie entre quelques heures et quelques jours en chauffant, suivant la valeur de (T_AN-T). Une estimation de la barrière d'énergie nécessaire pour nucléer de nouvelles couches suggère que ce processus est interdit et qu'il faut chercher une autre explication à l'asymétrie du taux de relaxation.

Bechhoefer, John; Lejcek, Lubor; Oswald, Patrick

1992-01-01

211

{116} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays: facile synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performances.  

PubMed

Single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheet arrays were synthesized on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with a unique one-step alcohol-thermal process. The nanosheets were nearly vertically grown on the FTO substrate along their <11?0> zone, and they were dominated by {116} facets. The as-fabricated {116} faceted single-crystalline anatase nanosheet arrays exhibit a much higher reduction capacity and a much better electrochemical reversibility than both {001} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays and P25 film. The results indicate a promising application potential for the new material in the photoelectrochemical field. PMID:25247926

Li, Feng; Li, Xiaoning; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Yang, Shangfeng; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin

2014-11-01

212

Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations): C.S. SAP  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Computer Science Scientific Application Partnership (C.S. SAP) at LLNL is to develop and apply leading-edge scientific component technology to FACETS software. Contributions from LLNL's fusion energy program staff towards the underlying physics modules are described in a separate report. FACETS uses component technology to combine selectively multiple physics and solver software modules written in different languages by different institutions together in an tightly-integrated, parallel computing framework for Tokamak reactor modeling. In the past fiscal year, the C.S. SAP has focused on two primary tasks: applying Babel to connect UEDGE into the FACETS framework through UEDGE's existing Python interface and developing a next generation componentization strategy for UEDGE which avoids the use of Python. The FACETS project uses Babel to solve its language interoperability challenges. Specific accomplishments for the year include: (1) Refined SIDL interfaces for UEDGE to meet satisfy the standard interfaces required by FACETS for all physics modules. This required consensus building between framework and UEDGE developers. (2) Wrote prototype C++ driver for UEDGE to demonstrate how UEDGE can be called from C++ using Babel. (3) Supported the FACETS project by adding new features to Babel such as release number tagging, porting to new machines, and adding new configuration options. Babel modifications were delivered to FACETS by testing and publishing development snapshots in the projects software repository. (4) Assisted Tech-X Corporation in testing and debugging of a high level build system for the complete FACETS tool chain--the complete list of third-party software libraries that FACETS depends on directly or indirectly (e.g., MPI, HDF5, PACT, etc.). (5) Designed and implemented a new approach to wrapping UEDGE as a FACETS component without requiring Python. To get simulation results as soon as possible, our initial connection from the FACETS framework to UEDGE uses a Forthon-generated Python layer that sits on top of the UEDGE Fortran code. To run on leadership class machines that do not support shared libraries such as Franklin (NERSCS) and Jaguar (ORNL), FACETS requires a more direct connection to the UEDGE Fortran that eliminates the Python layer. We designed and developed an extension for Forthon to provide a direct connection from C++ to the UEDGE Fortran using Babel. This also required added annotations to the Forthon '.v' input files to indicate how function parameters are used.

Epperly, T W

2008-10-01

213

Facets of personality linked to underweight and overweight  

PubMed Central

Objective Personality traits underlie maladaptive behaviors, and cognitive and emotional disturbances that contribute to major preventable causes of global disease burden. This study examines detailed personality profiles of underweight, normal, and overweight individuals to provide insights into the causes and treatments of abnormal weight. Methods More than half of the population from four towns in Sardinia, Italy (N=5,693; aged 14-94; M=43; SD=17), were assessed on multiple anthropometric measures and 30 facets that comprehensively cover the five major dimensions of personality, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Results High Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness were associated with being underweight and obese, respectively. High Impulsiveness (specifically eating-behavior items) and low Order were associated with BMI categories of overweight and obese, and with measures of abdominal adiposity (waist and hip circumference). Those scoring in the top 10% of Impulsiveness were about 4 Kg heavier than those in the bottom 10%, an effect independent and larger than the FTO genetic variant. Prospective analyses confirmed that Impulsiveness and Order were significant predictors of general and central measures of adiposity assessed 3 years later. Conclusions Overweight and obese individuals have difficulty resisting cravings and lack methodical and organized behaviors that might influence diet and weight control. While individuals’ traits have limited impact on the current obesogenic epidemic, personality traits can improve clinical assessment, suggest points of intervention, and help tailor prevention and treatment approaches. PMID:19414622

Terracciano, Antonio; Sutin, Angelina R.; McCrae, Robert R.; Deiana, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Costa, Paul T.

2009-01-01

214

Design of a solar concentrator with hexagonal facets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present the optical design of a solar concentrator for an High-Flux solar furnace of a solar laboratory, these concentrator is compound for an aspheric mirror surface sectioned in 121 hexagonal facets to simplify the construction process, its total diameter is 6.6 m and a focal length is 3.68 m, also was developed the corresponding algorithm to determine the correct position and orientation of each hexagonal section that compound the arrangement. We present the results of the focused energy of this configuration and we propose a modification on the original position of the mirrors for optimizing the focusing of energy by the sun furnace. These modifications produces an increment on the energy focused on a small area in a remarkable way similar to used a parabolic mirror. The algorithm before mentioned was programmed in MathCAD and it calculates the modification of the original position of each hexagonal mirror giving us a file that ZEMAX can read. This file contains the information of each 121 mirrors from the arrangement and also the correct form, position and direction, simplifying the traditional input process one by one.

Herrera Vázquez, Joel; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio

2007-09-01

215

Effects of CeO2 Support Facets on VOx/CeO2 Catalysts in Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol  

SciTech Connect

CeO2 supports with dominating facets, i.e., low index (100), (110) and (111) facets, are prepared. The facet effects on the structure and catalytic performance of supported vanadium oxide catalysts are investigated using oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol as a model reaction. In the presence of mixed facets, Infrared and Raman characterizations demonstrate that surface vanadia species preferentially deposit on CeO2 (100) facets, presumably because of its higher surface energy. At the same surface vanadium densities, VOx species on (100) facets show better dispersion, followed by (110) and (111) facets. The VOx species on CeO2 nanorods with (110) and (100) facets display higher activity and lower apparent activation energies compared to that on CeO2 nanopolyhedras with dominating (111) facets and CeO2 nanocubes with dominating (100) facets. The higher activity for VOx/CeO2(110) might be related to the more abundant oxygen vacancies present on the (110) facets, evidenced from Raman spectroscopic measurements.

Li, Yan; Wei, Zhehao; Gao, Feng; Kovarik, Libor; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong

2014-05-13

216

Atlantoaxial manual realignment in a patient with traumatic atlantoaxial joint disruption.  

PubMed

We report a patient with complex traumatic translatory atlantoaxial dislocation, who we treated by joint exposure and reduction of the dislocation by facet manipulation and subsequent plate and screw atlantoaxial fixation. A 28-year-old male had fallen 7.6m (25 feet), and following the fall had severe neck pain but no neurological deficit. Investigations revealed a fracture at the base of the odontoid process and posterior displacement of the entire atlas over the axis, resulting in a translatory atlantoaxial dislocation. Head traction failed as he developed severe vertigo following its application. The patient was operated upon in a prone position. We opened the atlantoaxial joint and realigned the facets using distraction and manipulation techniques and secured the joint using a plate and screw interarticular method. The patient tolerated the treatment well and was symptom-free after 28 months. Postoperative images showed good craniovertebral alignment. Although technically challenging, direct manipulation of the facets of the atlas and axis can result in excellent craniovertebral realignment. PMID:20223670

Goel, Atul; Figueiredo, Antonio; Maheshwari, Shradha; Shah, Abhidha

2010-05-01

217

Island formation and faceting in the SiGe/Si( 0 0 1 ) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and evolution of coherently strained three-dimensional islands during epitaxial growth of SiGe on Si(0 0 1) was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. Si 1- xGe x layers a few nanometers thick were grown by magnetron sputter epitaxy at a substrate temperature of about 600 °C in a composition range x between 0.3 and 1. Islands first appear as shallow unfaceted mounds on a rough wetting layer. Subsequently, small {1 0 5} facets are introduced close to the regions of steepest slope on each mound. The {1 0 5} facets then expand, leading the mounds to gradually transform into truncated pyramids and eventually into completely faceted pyramids or slightly elongated hut-clusters bounded by four {1 0 5} facets. Trenches surround large pyramids. Islands at different stages of their evolution are observed to coexist and to ripen during growth or post-growth annealing at 600 °C.

Rastelli, Armando; von Känel, Hans

2003-06-01

218

Pathological eating behaviors, BMI, and facet-level traits: the roles of conscientiousness, neuroticism, and impulsivity.  

PubMed

The current study examined the bivariate and multivariate associations of personality with Body Mass Index (BMI) and several eating behavior inventories, focusing on facets of Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Impulsivity. Simultaneous multiple regressions showed that the facets Traditionalism, Urgency, and low Vulnerability were significant predictors of BMI. A factor analysis of the eating behavior scales revealed two dimensions: (a) Food and Body Preoccupation and (b) Cued Eating; Neuroticism, low Conscientiousness, and Perfectionism were significant predictors of both eating behavior factors. In addition, the Depression facet predicted Food and Body Preoccupation, and low Temperance predicted Cued Eating. Implications are discussed for the structure of eating pathology and the specificity of facet traits to eating behaviors and obesity. PMID:24183129

Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David

2013-12-01

219

Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions  

PubMed Central

We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes. PMID:24097175

Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

2013-01-01

220

PathVisio-Faceted Search: an exploration tool for multi-dimensional navigation of large pathways  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The PathVisio-Faceted Search plugin helps users explore and understand complex pathways by overlaying experimental data and data from webservices, such as Ensembl BioMart, onto diagrams drawn using formalized notations in PathVisio. The plugin then provides a filtering mechanism, known as a faceted search, to find and highlight diagram nodes (e.g. genes and proteins) of interest based on imported data. The tool additionally provides a flexible scripting mechanism to handle complex queries. Availability: The PathVisio-Faceted Search plugin is compatible with PathVisio 3.0 and above. PathVisio is compatible with Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. The plugin, documentation, example diagrams and Groovy scripts are available at http://PathVisio.org/wiki/PathVisioFacetedSearchHelp. The plugin is free, open-source and licensed by the Apache 2.0 License. Contact: augustin@mail.nih.gov or jakeyfried@gmail.com PMID:23547033

Fried, Jake Y.; Luna, Augustin

2013-01-01

221

Faceted design of channels for low-dispersion electrokinetic flows in microfluidic systems.  

PubMed

A novel methodology for designing microfluidic channels for low-dispersion, electrokinetic flows is presented. The technique relies on trigonometric relations that apply for ideal electrokinetic flows, allowing faceted channels to be designed using common drafting software and a hand calculator. Flows are rotated and stretched along the abrupt interface between adjacent regions having differing specific permeability--a quantity with dimensions of length that we introduce to derive the governing equations. Two-interface systems are used to eliminate hydrodynamic rotation of bands injected into channels. Regions bounded by interfaces form faceted flow "prisms" with uniform velocity fields that can be combined with other prisms to obtain a wide range of turning angles and expansion ratios. Lengths of faceted prisms can be varied arbitrarily, simplifying chip layout and allowing the ability to reduce unwanted effects such as transverse diffusion and Joule heating for a given faceted prism. Designs are demonstrated using two-dimensional numerical solutions of the Laplace equation. PMID:14674450

Fiechtner, Gregory J; Cummings, Eric B

2003-09-15

222

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to the side of your head. When it works well, it enables you to ... For people with TMJ dysfunction, problems with the joint and muscles around it may cause Pain that ...

223

Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)  

MedlinePLUS

... JIA, formerly called rheumatoid arthritis, or JRA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Lyme disease. Joint aspiration is ... Lyme Disease Risk Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Living With Lupus Bones, Muscles, and Joints Lyme Disease Arthritis Word! ...

224

Large displacement spherical joint  

DOEpatents

A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

225

Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

226

Three-Dimensional Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation of Facet Reflection Through Parallel Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise evaluation of facet reflection is highly desirable in the design and simulation of optoelectronic devices such as super-luminescent light emitting diodes (SLEDs) and semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). In this study, the Three-Dimensional (3D) Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method was implemented on a parallel computing algorithm for the calculation of facet reflection in optical waveguides. The FDTD provides the versatility necessary

Dmitry Labukhin; Xun Li

2005-01-01

227

Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC  

ScienceCinema

Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

Andrei Seryi

2010-01-08

228

Lumbar segmental rigidity: Can its identification with facet injections and stretching exercises be useful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mayer TG, Robinson R, Pegues P, Kohles S, Gatchel RJ. Lumbar segmental rigidity: can its identification with facet injections and stretching exercises be useful? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:1143-50. Objectives: To describe a method for observing lumbar segmental rigidity and to show how motion measurements and pain\\/disability questionnaires can be used to evaluate outcomes of combined facet injections and stretching

Tom G. Mayer; Richard Robinson; Pauline Pegues; Sheri Kohles; Robert J. Gatchel

2000-01-01

229

Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC  

SciTech Connect

Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

Andrei Seryi

2009-09-09

230

Facet-selective platinum electrodeposition at free-standing polycrystalline boron-doped diamond films.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, electrochemical deposition of platinum particles was carried out on boron doped diamond (BDD) films by using cyclic voltammetry at different potential sweep rates while maintaining the Pt concentration and number of potential cycles during the deposition as constant for all samples. The BDD film surfaces were studied using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electrochemical microscopy. The deposited particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy dispersive analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry before and after methanol oxidation. The platinum nanoparticles are found to be selectively electrodeposited on the (111) facets of the BDD. In addition, the location of the Pt particles on the diamond facets was affected by the potential sweep rate. For higher sweep rates, the particle size was dependent on the facet on which the particles are electrodeposited with smooth (110) facets exhibiting a smaller number of particles but with a larger particle diameter. After methanol oxidation studies using cyclic voltammetry and controlled potential electrolysis for several hours, the platinum particles remained attached to the (111) facets of the BDD, while the particles on the (110) facets of the BDD became agglomerated along grain boundaries. Functional groups present on the (111) facet of the diamond surface play an important role on the stability of the particles attached to the diamond surface. After methanol oxidation, the particles deposited on other facets appeared to lose their adhesion leading to agglomeration on the grain boundaries. BDD appears to be a promising electrocatalyst support material that can help to resist platinum nanoparticle agglomeration in direct methanol and other low temperature fuel cell applications. PMID:19634868

González-González, Ileana; Fachini, Estevão Rosim; Scibioh, M Aulice; Tryk, Donald A; Tague, Michele; Abruña, Héctor D; Cabrera, Carlos R

2009-09-01

231

Titanium alloy fatigue fracture facet investigation by selected area electron channeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flat regions (facets) found on fracture surfaces caused by initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks through the titanium\\u000a alloys IMI-685 tested with and without a 5 min load dwell and Ti-11 have been examined using selected area electron channeling.\\u000a The crystallographic planes of the facets have been identified as being near basal for the IMI-685 and more random for the

D. L. Davidson; D. Eylon

1980-01-01

232

Porous single-crystalline palladium nanoflowers with enriched {100} facets for highly enhanced ethanol oxidation.  

PubMed

Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black. PMID:25370157

Qi, Kun; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Xiaoqiang

2014-12-21

233

A preliminary report: proximal facet analysis and the recovery of trace restorative materials from unrestored teeth.  

PubMed

A small sample of unrestored teeth with wear facets on the proximal surfaces was examined using a scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDS) analysis. Initial results indicate the potential of this technique for detection of residual restorative materials in these facet areas, and its resulting capability to determine the existence and composition of unrecovered adjacent restorations. The potential value of this technique in the identification of incomplete dental remains is discussed. PMID:2391478

Smith, B C

1990-07-01

234

Gratitude predicts psychological well-being above the Big Five facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests whether gratitude predicts psychological well-being above both the domains and facets of the five factor model. Participants (N=201) completed the NEO PI-R measure of the 30 facets of the Big Five, the GQ-6 measure of trait gratitude, and the scales of psychological well-being. Gratitude had small correlations with autonomy (r=.17), and medium to large correlations with environmental

Alex M. Wood; Stephen Joseph; John Maltby

2009-01-01

235

Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

1999-11-13

236

Optimization of facet coating for highly strained InGaAs quantum well lasers operating at 1200 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical output power of a laser diode can be enhanced by anti-reflection (AR) and high-reflection (HR) facet coatings, respectively, at the front and back facet. AR and HR coatings also serve the purpose of protection and passivation of laser diode facets. In this work, we have designed and optimized a single layer ?\\/4 thick Al2O3 film for the AR

V. A. Kheraj; C. J. Panchal; P. K. Patel; B. M. Arora; T. K. Sharma

2007-01-01

237

Morphologically-tunable TiO2 nanorod film with high energy facets: green synthesis, growth mechanism and photocatalytic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel green synthesis strategy was developed to synthesize a film photocatalyst containing anatase TiO2 nanorods wholly dominated with {100} and {101} facets by employing a simple hydrothermal reaction in the presence of NaCl solution and hydrogen titanate nanosheet array film. The formation mechanism of the anatase TiO2 nanorods was deduced from X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations, which revealed that the highly reactive {100} facets were derived from the enhanced structural stability of hydrogen titanate induced by Na+ and selective adsorption of Cl- on the {100} facets of anatase TiO2 crystals. Photocatalytic performance has indicated that the TiO2 nanorods with {100} facet exposure exhibit much higher activities than that of rhombic nanoparticles with {101} facet exposure for the degradation of organic contaminants, which may be primarily ascribed to the high surface energy of {100} facets.A novel green synthesis strategy was developed to synthesize a film photocatalyst containing anatase TiO2 nanorods wholly dominated with {100} and {101} facets by employing a simple hydrothermal reaction in the presence of NaCl solution and hydrogen titanate nanosheet array film. The formation mechanism of the anatase TiO2 nanorods was deduced from X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations, which revealed that the highly reactive {100} facets were derived from the enhanced structural stability of hydrogen titanate induced by Na+ and selective adsorption of Cl- on the {100} facets of anatase TiO2 crystals. Photocatalytic performance has indicated that the TiO2 nanorods with {100} facet exposure exhibit much higher activities than that of rhombic nanoparticles with {101} facet exposure for the degradation of organic contaminants, which may be primarily ascribed to the high surface energy of {100} facets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31127e

Wang, Changhua; Zhang, Xintong; Zhang, Yanli; Jia, Yan; Yuan, Bo; Yang, Jikai; Sun, Panpan; Liu, Yichun

2012-07-01

238

Asymmetric anatase TiO? nanocrystals with exposed high-index facets and their excellent lithium storage properties.  

PubMed

In this work, we demonstrate a unique organic solvent system to synthesize asymmetric anatase TiO(2) nanocrystals with a bipyramidal structure, where the upper pyramid is bound by (201) facets, and the lower pyramid is bound by (401) surfaces. Due to the high surface energy of these (401) high-index facets, the nanocrystals tend to assemble on these facets to minimize the free energy, leading to the formation of a dandelion-like hierarchical structure. PMID:21892504

Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Lou, Xiong Wen David; Hng, Huey Hoon

2011-10-01

239

Neurologically Intact Patient Following Bilateral Facet Dislocation: Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Background Complete spinal cord lesions and quadriplegia occur in 50%-84% of patients with bilateral facet dislocation. We present a patient who suffered both bilateral facet dislocation and bilateral pedicle fractures while remaining neurologically intact. Based on this case and our literature review, we hypothesize that bilateral facet dislocations without neurological deficits are accompanied by significant associated fractures that facilitate the maintenance of cervical spine canal patency. Case Report After a fall down a flight of stairs, an 86-year-old woman presented to the hospital complaining of neck pain. She denied numbness and weakness of her extremities. On physical examination she was neurologically intact without focal sensory or motor deficits and with normal reflexes throughout. Computed tomography (CT) of her neck demonstrated bilateral C5-C6 facet dislocation with locking of the C6 superior articular process dorsal to the C5 inferior articular process, as well as corresponding bilateral C6 pedicle fractures. Additional acute fractures were identified on the thoracic CT. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no spinal cord compression, edema, or hemorrhage. The patient had a C6-C7 anterior cervical discectomy and allograft fusion and a C5-T1 anterior cervical plate with screw fixation. Conclusion Because bilateral facet dislocations without neurological deficits are rare, the most appropriate surgical intervention is not evident. We believe the best choice as a first step is an anterior cervical discectomy and allograft fusion with plating. PMID:24688342

Chakravarthy, Vikram; Mullin, Jeffrey P.; Abbott, E. Emily; Anderson, James; Benzel, Edward C.

2014-01-01

240

Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations)  

SciTech Connect

This role of this computer science SAP is to facilitate FACETS design and development by contributing CCA component technology and new application-specific technology. From a software perspective, the FACETS project is a very complex project. It is a combination of legacy software written in Fortran, Python, and C++ by various coding groups along with new software modules being written from scratch. The FACETS team is spread among 11 organizations and is geographically distributed from coast to coast. The fusion physics modules to be incorporated vary in terms of the model dimensions, typical time scale, and type of interactions with other components. Because FACETS is a complex project, it requires a component-based framework to facilitate the definition and composition of scientific applications from a suite of available fusion physics components. Component architectures have proven themselves in the business world and more recently in the scientific computing world. The CS SAP contributes fundamental tools like Babel to the FACETS framework and helps develop application-specific interfaces appropriate for the fusion physics modules.

Epperly, T W

2009-04-20

241

Mechanics of Suture Joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological sutures are joints which connect two stiff skeletal or skeletal-like components. These joints possess a wavy geometry with a thin organic layer providing adhesion. Examples of biological sutures include mammalian skulls, the pelvic assembly of the armored fish Gasterosteus aculeatus (the three-spined stickleback), and the suture joints in the shell of the red-eared slider turtle. Biological sutures allow for movement and compliance, control stress concentrations, transmit loads, reduce fatigue stress and absorb energy. In this investigation, the mechanics of the role of suture geometry in providing a naturally optimized joint is explored. In particular, analytical and numerical micromechanical models of the suture joint are constructed. The anisotropic mechanical stiffness and strength are studied as a function of suture wavelength, amplitude and the material properties of the skeletal and organic components, revealing key insights into the optimized nature of these ubiquitous natural joints.

Li, Yaning; Song, Juha; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary

2011-03-01

242

Sacroiliac joint pain.  

PubMed

The sacroiliac joint is a source of pain in the lower back and buttocks in approximately 15% of the population. Diagnosing sacroiliac joint-mediated pain is difficult because the presenting complaints are similar to those of other causes of back pain. Patients with sacroiliac joint-mediated pain rarely report pain above L5; most localize their pain to the area around the posterior superior iliac spine. Radiographic and laboratory tests primarily help exclude other sources of low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and bone scans of the sacroiliac joint cannot reliably determine whether the joint is the source of the pain. Controlled analgesic injections of the sacroiliac joint are the most important tool in the diagnosis. Treatment modalities include medications, physical therapy, bracing, manual therapy, injections, radiofrequency denervation, and arthrodesis; however, no published prospective data compare the efficacy of these modalities. PMID:15473677

Dreyfuss, Paul; Dreyer, Susan J; Cole, Andrew; Mayo, Keith

2004-01-01

243

Molecular simulation of the influence of interface faceting on the shock sensitivity of a model plastic bonded explosive.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations are used to model the shock loading of an interface with various degrees of nanometer scale faceting between an inert binder and an energetic crystal. The facets create regions of local compression that induce exothermic reaction that leads to local hotspots and an increased shock sensitivity to detonation. Two mechanisms for compression and hotspot formation are identified that depend on the shock impedance mismatch between the binder and energetic crystal, namely shock focusing and local compression of the facets. These results provide a possible explanation for why spherical RDX crystals in cast polymer-bonded explosives appear less shock sensitive than RDX with more faceted morphologies. PMID:18973371

Shi, Yunfeng; Brenner, Donald W

2008-11-27

244

Do as You’re Told! Facets of Agreeableness and Early Adult Outcomes for Inner-City Boys  

PubMed Central

With data from the middle cohort of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective longitudinal study of inner-city boys, we examined whether Big Five agreeableness facets could be reliably recovered in this sample, and whether facets predicted educational, occupational, social, and antisocial life outcomes assessed a decade later. Caregivers described their adolescent boys’ personalities using the Common California Q-Set; twelve years later, participants were interviewed and court records were obtained. Factor analyses recovered two facets: compliance and compassion. Compliance predicted more schooling and lower risk of unemployment, teenage fatherhood, and crime; compassion related to longer committed relationships. Findings highlight the value of studying personality at the facet level. PMID:24311824

Kern, Margaret L.; Duckworth, Angela L.; Urzúa, Sergio; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Lynam, Donald R.

2013-01-01

245

Systematic review of tests to identify the disc, SIJ or facet joint as the source of low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical practice guidelines state that the tissue source of low back pain cannot be specified in the majority of patients.\\u000a However, there has been no systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests used to identify the source of low back pain.\\u000a The aim of this systematic review was therefore to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tests available to clinicians

M. J. Hancock; C. G. Maher; J. Latimer; M. F. Spindler; J. H. McAuley; M. Laslett; N. Bogduk

2007-01-01

246

Highly ordered self-assembled nanoscale periodic faceting in GaAs(631) homoepitaxial growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the self-assembly of large-order-correlated nanoscale faceting on GaAs(631)A substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The surface morphology of the grown samples as a function of the growth temperature and the As-beam equivalent pressure was studied using atomic force microscopy. A two-dimensional autocorrelation function analysis was performed in order to quantitatively determine the uniformity of the surface corrugation. By optimizing the growth conditions, correlated faceted areas as large as 1.7 × 1.7 ?m2 are obtained. The highly ordered surface corrugation discussed here provides useful insights to prepare highly ordered facet planes for the self organized growth of quantum wires.

Cruz-Hernández, E.; Shimomura, S.; Méndez-García, V. H.

2012-08-01

247

Shapes, Sizes, and Faceting of Nanoscale Metal Particles for Applications in Catalysis  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to reduce the world's dependence on fossil fuels, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are commonly considered as a prime candidate for alternative energy sources. The efficiency of fuel cells is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which is driven by platinum based catalysts. Numerous methods have been developed to synthesize particles which contain more active surfaces by tuning shapes, sizes and facets. Here, we will present a study of a well known wet chemical reduction method targeting specific morphologies and the resulting electrochemical activity. Studying the relationship between Pt facets at the bulk phase single crystal level versus the nanoscale correlates the effects of faceting on activities. Studying the formation of crystals during the course of the synthesis via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) provides mechanistic insight on growth, while electrochemical studies correlate physical properties to performance.

Strand, M. B.; Leong, G. J.; Dinh, H. N.; Richards, R. M.

2013-01-01

248

Mesoporous NiO crystals with dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets for ultrafast lithium storage  

PubMed Central

Faceted crystals with exposed highly reactive planes have attracted intensive investigations for applications such as hydrogen production, enhanced catalytic activity, and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Herein, we report the synthesis of mesoporous NiO crystals with dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets by the thermal conversion of hexagonal Ni(OH)2 nanoplatelets. When applied as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous NiO crystals exhibit a high reversible lithium storage capacity of 700?mAh g?1 at 1 C rate in 100?cycles and an excellent cyclability. In particular, the dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets and mesoporous nanostructure of NiO crystals lead to ultrafast lithium storage, which mimics the high power delivery of supercapacitors. PMID:23226591

Su, Dawei; Ford, Mike; Wang, Guoxiu

2012-01-01

249

Linear-phase approximation in the triangular facet near-field physical optics computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses of reflector antenna surfaces use a computer program based on a discrete approximation of the radiation integral. The calculation replaces the actual surface with a triangular facet representation; the physical optics current is assumed to be constant over each facet. Described here is a method of calculation using linear-phase approximation of the surface currents of parabolas, ellipses, and shaped subreflectors and compares results with a previous program that used a constant-phase approximation of the triangular facets. The results show that the linear-phase approximation is a significant improvement over the constant-phase approximation, and enables computation of 100 to 1,000 lambda reflectors within a reasonable time on a Cray computer.

Imbriale, W. A.; Hodges, R. E.

1990-01-01

250

Rotary encoding device using polygonal mirror with diffraction gratings on each facet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a monochromatic light beam is directed towards the facets. The facets of the polygonal mirror each have a low line density diffraction grating to diffract the monochromatic light beam into a number of diffracted light beams such that a number of light spots are created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spots on the linear array detector means. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spots and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

Leviton, Douglas B. (inventor)

1993-01-01

251

Faceting and coarsening dynamics in the complex Swift-Hohenberg equation.  

PubMed

The complex Swift-Hohenberg equation models pattern formation arising from an oscillatory instability with a finite wave number at onset and finds applications in lasers, optical parametric oscillators, and photorefractive oscillators. We show that with real coefficients this equation exhibits two classes of localized states: localized in amplitude only or localized in both amplitude and phase. The latter are associated with phase-winding states in which the real and imaginary parts of the order parameter oscillate periodically but with a constant phase difference between them. The localized states take the form of defects connecting phase-winding states with equal and opposite phase lag, and can be stable over a wide range of parameters. The formation of these defects leads to faceting of states with initially spatially uniform phase. Depending on parameters these facets may either coarsen indefinitely, as described by a Cahn-Hilliard equation, or the coarsening ceases leading to a frozen faceted structure. PMID:19905429

Gelens, Lendert; Knobloch, Edgar

2009-10-01

252

Interferometric technique for faceted microstructure metrology using an index matching liquid  

SciTech Connect

Microstructured optical products are becoming more widespread due to advances in manufacturing. Many of these structures contain faceted surfaces with steep slopes. Adequate metrology for such surfaces is lacking. We describe an interferometric technique that combines plane wave illumination with an index matching liquid to achieve high quality, high speed measurements of such faceted microstructures. We account for refraction at the interfaces, rather than consider only optical path length changes due to the index liquid, and this significantly improves the facet angle measurement. We demonstrate the technique with the measurement of an array of micropyramids and show that our results are in good agreement with measurements taken on a contact profilometer. We also extend the technique to measure opaque microcorner cubes by implementing an intermediate replication step.

Purcell, Daryl; Suratkar, Amit; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo

2010-02-01

253

Validity of six openness facets in predicting work behaviors: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To illustrate the importance of facet-level investigations in predicting organizational outcomes and the need for more primary studies on this topic, we conducted a meta-analysis that took an exploratory look at differential relationships among 7 organizational criteria and Openness traits varying in breadth. Nine Openness predictors--the global dimension, 2 aspects (intellect and culture), and 6 facets (intellectual efficiency, ingenuity, curiosity, aesthetics, tolerance, and depth)--were examined in relations with various organizational criteria such as traditional performance outcomes (task performance, contextual performance, counterproductive work behavior), turnover, leadership effectiveness, training performance, and adaptive performance. Our results support the idea that Openness facets could exhibit differential validity for many organizational outcomes. PMID:23795997

Woo, Sang Eun; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S; Stark, Stephen E; Conz, Gabriella

2014-01-01

254

{116} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays: facile synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheet arrays were synthesized on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with a unique one-step alcohol-thermal process. The nanosheets were nearly vertically grown on the FTO substrate along their <11&cmb.macr;0> zone, and they were dominated by {116} facets. The as-fabricated {116} faceted single-crystalline anatase nanosheet arrays exhibit a much higher reduction capacity and a much better electrochemical reversibility than both {001} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays and P25 film. The results indicate a promising application potential for the new material in the photoelectrochemical field.Single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheet arrays were synthesized on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with a unique one-step alcohol-thermal process. The nanosheets were nearly vertically grown on the FTO substrate along their <11&cmb.macr;0> zone, and they were dominated by {116} facets. The as-fabricated {116} faceted single-crystalline anatase nanosheet arrays exhibit a much higher reduction capacity and a much better electrochemical reversibility than both {001} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays and P25 film. The results indicate a promising application potential for the new material in the photoelectrochemical field. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Photo of the large area STNA-116, FESEM images of STNA-001 and STNA-116 with a series of growth time, the enlarged XRD pattern, the simulated SAED pattern, the reflectance spectra, the cyclic voltammograms of P25 on the FTO substrate. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04248d

Li, Feng; Li, Xiaoning; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Yang, Shangfeng; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin

2014-10-01

255

Interactions between grain boundary faceting, migration and grain rotation: Color group and molecular dynamics simulation approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Color group theory and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the faceting and rotation of grains in nanocrystalline materials and their interactions. Color group arguments were used to determine symmetry-dictated extrema with respect to misorientation of the grains and with respect to grain boundary normal orientations. MD simulations were used to study the evolution of the system and to elucidate the interactions between grain rotation and faceting in nano-scale systems. The systems of study were fcc bicrystalline systems with two grains sharing their [110] directions. Two geometric parameters were studied: the misorientation between two grains with a common rotation axis in the [110] direction of both grains, and the grain boundary normal orientation of fcc (110) tilt grain boundaries. The symmetry-dictated extremum (SDE) with respect to misorientation around both grains' [110] direction is 90 degrees. The SDE with respect to GB normal orientations for (110) tilt GBs are located on top of the color and classical mirror planes of their dichromatic patterns. By using periodic boundary conditions and a cylindrical embedded grain structure in our simulations, grains are only free to vary the misorientation between grains around the common [110] direction, and the normal of the grain boundaries are always perpendicular to both grains [110] direction. All SDE studied in our simulation are observed to be local energy minimum states. We observed the systems reducing their excess energy through three main modes: forming facets at the boundaries, rotating between the two grains, and reduction of grain boundary area through grain shrinkage. Facets are formed in low-energy grain boundaries and oscillating rotation occurred when the initial misorientation was not a SDE. A new algorithm was developed to quantitatively measure the grain rotation. The ovsered rotations are not rigid-body rotations and have strong interaction with faceting. Systems with lower energy facets rotate less. Low energy facets are also impede the continuous rotation and shrinkage of the grains. Embedded grains with higher energy facets shrink faster. Grains shrink layer by layer through formation of stacking faults and movement of dislocations.

Huang, Yue

256

Investigation of joint disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and management of the major arthropathies is critically reviewed, with particular reference to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid and similar forms of arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, non-specific back pain, gout, the neuropathic joint, avascular necrosis, infection and the consequences of prosthetic joint insertion. Attention is drawn both to practical applications and deficiencies in current techniques and

M. V. Merrick

1992-01-01

257

Joint Newspaper Operating Agreements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of competing daily newspapers in American cities has dwindled until only about 50 cities boast two papers. Of the newspapers in those cities, 23 now maintain separate editorial operations but have joint printing, advertising, and circulation departments. The concept of joint operation is 50 years old, dating from the Depression years…

Parsons, Marie

258

Soils and geomorphic evolution of bedrock facets on a tectonically active mountain front, western Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil profiles, colluvial stratigraphy, and detailed hillslope morphology are key elements used for geomorphic interpretations of the form and long-term evolution of triangular facets on a 1200 m high, tectonically active mountain front. The facets are developed on Precambrian gneisses and Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks along a complexly segmented, active normal-fault zone in the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico. The detailed morphologies of 20- to 350 m high facets are defined by statistical and time-series analyses of 40 field transects that were keyed to observations of colluvium, bedrock, microtopography, and vegetation. The undissected parts of most facets are transport-limited hillslopes mantled with varying thicknesses (0.1 to > 1 m thick) of sand and gravel colluvium between generally sparse (?10-30%) bedrock outcrops. Facet soils range from (a) thin (? 0.2 m) weakly developed soils with cumulic silty A or transitional A/B epipedons above Cox horizons in bedrock or colluvium, to (b) deep (?0.5-1 m) moderately to strongly developed profiles containing thick cambic (Bw) and/or argillic (Bt) horizons that commonly extend into highly weathered saprolitic bedrock. The presence of strongly weathered profiles and thick colluvium suggests that rates of colluvial transport and hillslope erosion are less than or equal to rates of soil development over at least a large part of the Holocene. The catenary variation of soils and colluvium on selected facet transects indicate that the degree of soil development generally increases and the thickness of colluvium decreases upslope on most facets. This overall pattern is commonly disrupted on large facet hillslopes by irregular secondary soil variations linked to intermediate-scale (20-60 + m long) concave slope elements. These features are interpreted to reflect discontinuous transport and erosion of colluvium down-slope below bedrock outcrops. The degree of weathering in subsurface bedrock commonly increases more systematically upslope on most facets than colluvial soils. This pattern is consistent with an increase in age with height on these fault-generated facet hillslopes. The characteristic range of internal variation in soils and colluvial deposits on a given facet also varies greatly among facets with differing overall morphologies and external environments. Deep cumulic soils and thick colluvium occur consistently on steep (? 30°), high, and relatively undissected facets above the narrow central sections of fault segments. Much thinner and less weathered colluvium and soils overlie saprolitic bedrock at shallow depths on low, highly dissected, gently sloping (? 20°) facets above complex fault segment boundaries. Parametric and nonparametric analyses of variance indicate that these large-scale contrasts in facet morphology correlate primarily with a few facet subgroups related, in decreasing importance, to variations in range-front faulting, bedrock lithology, and piedmont dissection or aggradation. These factors are related to facet morphology, drainage evolution, and hillslope-soil stratigraphy in a general geomorphic model for fault-generated facets. In this model, segmentation-related changes in the geometry and/or rates of faulting most strongly affect facet size, slope gradient, the thickness of colluvium and soil development, and drainage patterns. Facets of varying heights have similar hillslope forms at the same position on the range front; these characteristic morphologies are established under prevailing tectonic and nontectonic conditions on facets as bedrock is initially exposed from beneath alluvial-covered fault scarps above a height threshold of 15-35 m.

Menges, Christopher M.

1990-09-01

259

MISR JOINT_AS Data  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

Joint Aerosol Product (JOINT_AS) The MISR Level 3 Products are global or regional ... field campaigns at daily and monthly time scales. The Joint Aerosol product provides a monthly global statistical summary of MISR ...

2014-07-21

260

JOINT APPENDICES 2005 BUILDING ENERGY  

E-print Network

JOINT APPENDICES CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION for the 2005 BUILDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS, Deputy Director ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND DEMAND ANALYSIS DIVISION #12;NOTICE This version of the 2005 Joint. #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Joint Appendix I ­ Glossary ........................................... Pages

261

Joint Infection (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... medications. Artificial joint infection symptoms — People who develop infections immediately after joint replacement surgery typically have pain, redness, and swelling at the joint or drainage from the wound. Those who develop infections later usually notice a ...

262

Violence Risk Assessment and Facet 4 of the Psychopathy Checklist: Predicting Institutional and Community Aggression in Two Forensic Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL/PCL-R) were used to predict institutional aggression and community violence in two groups of forensic patients. Results showed that Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL/PCL-R or one of its parcels consistently achieved incremental validity relative to the first three facets, whereas the…

Walters, Glenn D.; Heilbrun, Kirk

2010-01-01

263

Effect of faceting on pore geometry in texturally equilibrated rocks: implications for low permeability at low porosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pore geometry of texturally equilibrated rocks is controlled by the interfacial energy ratio between grain boundaries and solid–liquid boundaries. Faceting at pore walls, which is a common feature of pore networks in rocks, strongly affects the liquid distribution. We investigated the effects of faceting on the equilibrium pore geometries based on image analysis of several systems with various degrees

Takashi Yoshino; Jonathan D. Price; David A. Wark; E. Bruce Watson

2006-01-01

264

Green synthesis of shape-defined anatase TiO2 nanocrystals wholly exposed with {001} and {100} facets.  

PubMed

Anatase TiO(2) nanocuboids wholly exposed with high-energy {001} and {100} facets were successfully synthesized by a novel, environmentally benign synthetic strategy using acid-delaminated vermiculite (DVMT) and tetramethylammonium hydroxide as synergistic morphology-controlling reagents, where the DVMT layers act as effective hard template selectively stabilizing the {001} facets of TiO(2). PMID:23041712

Wang, Lan; Zang, Ling; Zhao, Jincai; Wang, Chuanyi

2012-12-14

265

Prediction of Job Satisfaction Based on Workplace Facets for Adjunct Business Faculty at Four-Year Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the job satisfaction of adjuncts in the curriculum area of business at four-year universities and to determine the roles that individual job facets play in creating overall job satisfaction. To explore which job facets and demographics predict job satisfaction for the population, participants were asked to…

Lewis, Vance Johnson

2012-01-01

266

An Examination of Pay Facets and Referent Groups for Assessing Pay Satisfaction of Male Elementary School Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pay satisfaction was assessed according to different facets (pay level, benefits, pay structure, and pay raises) and potential referent groups (teachers and elementary school principals) for a random sample of male elementary school principals. A structural model approach was used that considers facets of the pay process, potential others as…

Young, I. Phillip; Young, Karen Holsey; Okhremtchouk, Irina; Castaneda, Jose Moreno

2009-01-01

267

The different facets of ice have different hydrophilicities: Friction at water / ice-I$_\\mathrm{h}$ interfaces  

E-print Network

We present evidence that the prismatic and secondary prism facets of ice-I$_\\mathrm{h}$ crystals possess structural features that can reduce the effective hydrophilicity of the ice/water interface. The spreading dynamics of liquid water droplets on ice facets exhibits long-time behavior that differs for the prismatic $\\{10\\bar{1}0\\}$ and secondary prism $\\{11\\bar{2}0\\}$ facets when compared with the basal $\\{0001\\}$ and pyramidal $\\{20\\bar{2}1\\}$ facets. We also present the results of simulations of solid-liquid friction of the same four crystal facets being drawn through liquid water, and find that the two prismatic facets exhibit roughly half the solid-liquid friction of the basal and pyramidal facets. These simulations provide evidence that the two prismatic faces have a significantly smaller effective surface area in contact with the liquid water. The ice / water interfacial widths for all four crystal facets are similar (using both structural and dynamic measures), and were found to be independent of the...

Louden, Patrick B

2015-01-01

268

An investigation into the effect of joint frequency and spatial positioning on pre-splitting  

SciTech Connect

Pre-splitting is now widely used to minimize overbreak and to protect final surface rock excavation profiles in large scale civil construction projects, open pit mining and quarrying. Jointing has been shown to affect the success of pre-splitting and the smoothness and integrity of the resulting rock face. Many facets of jointing have been investigated in detail, including the inclination of joints with respect to the desired pre-split plane, the effects of various filling materials, etc. However, the effects of joint frequency and spatial positioning has been paid little attention. The paper addresses this issue. The results of experimental model testing carried out in concrete blocks are presented. The program consisted of modeling closed joints with varying frequency between two 3/8 inch boreholes, drilled in 12 x 9 x 6 inch concrete blocks charged with 15 grains per foot PETN cord. It was found that by increasing the joint frequency from zero to two between boreholes decreases the maximum successful split-hole spacing. However, with increasing joint frequency the trend is reversed. These results are attributed to the overall rock mass being weakened by the slabs between the discontinuities becoming thinner with increasing discontinuity frequency. It was also revealed that the spatial positioning of discontinuities plays an important role in pre-split formation and integrity.

Tariq, S.M.; Worsey, P.N. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

269

An investigation into the effect of varying joint aperture and nature of surface on pre-splitting  

SciTech Connect

Presplitting is now a universally accepted perimeter control technique in rock excavation. The success of presplitting and the smoothness and integrity of the resulting perimeter is largely dependent on the nature of joints in any given formation. Many facets of jointing have been previously investigated. The results of the effects of joints frequency and spatial positioning were presented by the authors at the ISEE annual meeting last year. This paper includes the results of further research into the mechanism of presplit blasting being carried out at the Rock Mechanics and Explosives Research Center of the University of Missouri-Rolla. The results of experimental model testing carried out in concrete blocks are presented. The research comprised of modeling both closed and open joints between 3/8 inch blastholes loaded with 15-grain per foot PETN detonating cord. The closed joints were (a) simple (rough) machine-cut and (b) surface ground (smooth-matching). The precision ground joints were modeled to simulate tight fractures as found in real rock mass. Precision spacers of varying thicknesses were used to create opening between the joint surfaces. It was found that precision ground joints have no significant effect on the maximum blasthole spacing up to two joints, and act like a continuous medium. This is because ground surfaces provide a relatively perfect match thereby transmitting most of the energy through the joint. However beyond two ground joints, the effects of attenuation is evident and the maximum blasthole spacing has to be reduced to obtain a presplit plane. A simple machine cut joint, on the other hand, has some undulations that results in loss of energy, making it necessary to bring the blastholes closer to achieve a presplit plane (for up to two joints). It was observed that a ground joint with spacer thickness of 0.012 inch behaves like a free surface.

Tariq, S.M.; Worsey, P.N. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1996-12-01

270

Facet-Dependent Catalytic Activity of Platinum Nanocrystals for Triiodide Reduction in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

Platinum (Pt) nanocrystals have demonstrated to be an effective catalyst in many heterogeneous catalytic processes. However, pioneer facets with highest activity have been reported differently for various reaction systems. Although Pt has been the most important counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), suitable atomic arrangement on the exposed crystal facet of Pt for triiodide reduction is still inexplicable. Using density functional theory, we have investigated the catalytic reaction processes of triiodide reduction over {100}, {111} and {411} facets, indicating that the activity follows the order of Pt(111) > Pt(411) > Pt(100). Further, Pt nanocrystals mainly bounded by {100}, {111} and {411} facets were synthesized and used as counter electrode materials for DSCs. The highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency of Pt(111) in DSCs confirms the predictions of the theoretical study. These findings have deepened the understanding of the mechanism of triiodide reduction at Pt surfaces and further screened the best facet for DSCs successfully. PMID:23670438

Zhang, Bo; Wang, Dong; Hou, Yu; Yang, Shuang; Yang, Xiao Hua; Zhong, Ju Hua; Liu, Jian; Wang, Hai Feng; Hu, P.; Zhao, Hui Jun; Yang, Hua Gui

2013-01-01

271

JOINT ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING AND  

E-print Network

JOINT ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING AND PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM "Speckle Statistics, Coherence confirmation of the increase in the well- defined polarization state of the output radiation. In the joint

272

Pressure vessel flex joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

Kahn, Jon B. (inventor)

1992-01-01

273

Patterns of Astragalar Fibular Facet Orientation in Extant and Fossil Primates and Their Evolutionary  

E-print Network

Sciences Center T-8, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8081 KEY WORDS astragalus; talus; fibula; haplorhine of the astragalus (5talus) has been proposed as one of few osteological synapomorphies of strepsirrhine primates" lemuri- form and lorisiform primates). The slope of the fibular facet of the astragalus has received

Boyer, Doug M.

274

Optimization of tin dioxide nanosticks faceting for the improvement of palladium nanocluster epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semispherical palladium nanoclusters have been epitaxed on {110} facets of tin dioxide nanosticks. The synthesis of tin dioxide nanoparticles has been optimized to obtain a crystallite shape with a maximum surface area lying on the rutile structure {110} planes, which are the most active for gas sensing. For this purpose, we describe a microwave method, which allowed us to obtain

J. Arbiol; A. Cirera; F. Peiró; A. Cornet; J. R. Morante; J. J. Delgado; J. J. Calvino

2002-01-01

275

Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2014-01-01

276

Using Self-Report Assessment Methods to Explore Facets of Mindfulness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the facet structure of mindfulness using five recently developed mindfulness questionnaires. Two large samples of undergraduate students completed mindfulness questionnaires and measures of other constructs. Psychometric properties of the mindfulness questionnaires were examined, including internal consistency and convergent and discriminant relationships with other variables. Factor analyses of the combined pool of items from the mindfulness questionnaires suggested

Ruth A. Baer; Gregory T. Smith; Jaclyn Hopkins; Jennifer Krietemeyer; Leslie Toney

2006-01-01

277

Psychometric and Structural Analysis of the MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Facet Subscales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) is a model of personality psychopathology assessed in adult populations with a set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales. The authors examine the reliability and validity of recently developed lower-order facet subscales for each of these five domains, with an emphasis on…

Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

2007-01-01

278

All the Facets of the Six Point Hamming Cone School of Computer Science  

E-print Network

All the Facets of the Six Point Hamming Cone David Avis Mutt School of Computer Science Mc if it can be expressed as a non­ negative combination of Hamming semimetrics. The cone of such semimetrics is called the Hamming cone. A finite semimetric is called hypermetric if it satisfies the (2k + 1) - gonal

Avis, David

279

A Complete Description of Cones and Polytopes Including Hypervolumes of All Facets of a Polytope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper methods and algorithms for identifying the main elements (edges and facets of any dimension) of a cone and a polytope, and calculating the corresponding hypervolumes are presented. The cones and polytopes are supposed to be given as the non-negative linear combination and the convex hull generated by a, not necessarily minimal, set…

Jubete, F.; Castillo, E.

2007-01-01

280

Project Report on a Korean Science & Technology Thesaurus with Conceptual\\/Relational Facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our project has a long-term plan to construct a Korean science & technology thesaurus from 2005 to 2010. For designing an elaborated the- saurus, we introduce conceptual and relational facets which are excluded or partially included in WordNet, Core-Net, and other thesauri con- structed by Chung et al. (2002) and Lee et al. (2000).

Hanmin Jung; Won-Kyung Sung; Dong-In Park

281

THE ANALYSIS OF DIAGNOSTIC EFFECTIVENESS OF A FACET DESIGN BATTERY OF ACHIEVEMENT AND ANALYTICAL ABILITY TEST.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A BATTERY OF ACHIEVEMENT AND INTELLIGENCE TESTS WAS ANALYZED TO ENHANCE THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF THE BATTERY. CONSTRUCTION OF THE ACHIEVEMENT AND INTELLIGENCE TESTS WAS GUIDED BY A FACET DESIGN. THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESES WERE THAT--(1) STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT AND ACHIEVEMENT IN THE VARIOUS AREAS TESTED IN THE BATTERY EXIST,…

GUTTMAN, LOUIS; SCHLESINGER, I.M.

282

NaCl on vicinal Cu surfaces: layer growth versus adsorbate-induced faceting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NaCl growth on vicinal Cu surfaces was studied by high-resolution electron diffraction and STM. The substrates used are Cu(221) which consists of (111) terraces and intrinsic (11\\overline1) steps, and Cu(532) which is a kinked (211) surface with (111) terraces and intrinsic (100) steps. On Cu(221) NaCl grows epitaxially on the flat substrate surface and forms (100)-terminated films. The polar [110] in-plane direction of the adlayer is aligned with the intrinsic Cu steps. Submonolayer deposition of NaCl on Cu(532) at 500 K to 600 K, on the other hand, induces two-dimensional substrate surface faceting. The new structure consists of nanopyramids with (111)-, (311)-, and (531)-oriented facets. NaCl grows selectively in its energetically favorable (100) termination as a single monolayer on the (311) and (531) facets, whereas the (111) facet remains uncovered. The overall growth behavior confirms that the orientational relationships observed are governed by Coulomb interactions between the ionic charges in the film and electrostatic dipoles located at steps and kinks of the vicinal metal template [1]. [1] J. Repp, S. Fölsch, G. Meyer, K.H. Rieder, Phys. Rev. Lett. (in print)

Riemann, A.; Fölsch, S.; Repp, J.; Meyer, G.; Rieder, K. H.

2001-03-01

283

FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

Christiansen, J. H.

2000-06-02

284

Centrifugal Shape Sorting of Faceted Gold Nanoparticles Using an Atomic Plane-Selective Surfactant  

E-print Network

Centrifugal Shape Sorting of Faceted Gold Nanoparticles Using an Atomic Plane-Selective Surfactant control or postsynthetic processing that relies on centrifugal sedimentation-based sorting schemes whereNPs possessing different shapes that would otherwise be virtually indistinguishable during centrifugal

Gao, Hongjun

285

A hybrid approach to software repository retrieval: Blending faceted classification and type signatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a user interface for software reuse repository that relies both on the informal semantics of faceted classification and the formal semantics of type signatures for abstract data types. The result is an interface providing both structural and qualitative feedback to a software reuser.

Eichmann, David A.

1992-01-01

286

Evaluating the Diagnostic Validity of a Facet-Based Formative Assessment System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes methods for an alignment study and psychometric analyses of a formative assessment system, Diagnoser Tools for physics. Diagnoser Tools begin with facet clusters as the interpretive framework for designing questions and instructional activities. Thus each question in the diagnostic assessments includes distractors that…

DeBarger, Angela Haydel; DiBello, Louis; Minstrell, Jim; Feng, Mingyu; Stout, William; Pellegrino, James; Haertel, Geneva; Harris, Christopher; Ructinger, Liliana

2011-01-01

287

Construct Validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Meditating and Nonmeditating Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on assessment of mindfulness by self-report suggests that it may include five component skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, and nonreactivity to inner experience. These elements of mindfulness can be measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The authors…

Baer, Ruth A.; Smith, Gregory T.; Lykins, Emily; Button, Daniel; Krietemeyer, Jennifer; Sauer, Shannon; Walsh, Erin; Duggan, Danielle; Williams, J. Mark G.

2008-01-01

288

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF QUINCLORAC (FACET) IN AIR SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Quinclorac (Facet) is a herbicide used on rice crops. Tomato farmers were concerned that aerial spraying of this herbicide was damaging their crops. The University of Arkansas initiated a study of air, soil, and plant material to see if this herbicide had entered these tomato f...

289

Analysis of Rater Severity on Written Expression Exam Using Many Faceted Rasch Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how a Many Faceted Rasch Measurement (MFRM) approach can be applied to performance assessment focusing on rater analysis. The article provides an introduction to MFRM, a description of MFRM analysis procedures, and an example to illustrate how to examine the effects of various sources of variability on test takers'…

Prieto, Gerardo; Nieto, Eloísa

2014-01-01

290

Simulations of Two-Bunch Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Experiments at FACET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulation results of possible upcoming Plasma Wakefield Accelerator (PWFA) experiments at FACET are presented. In a two-bunch scenario, the second (accelerated) electron bunch can have multi-GeV energy gain and a small energy spread after less than 1 meter of propagation in a Cs plasma column.

An, Weiming; Lu, Wei; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren B.; Huang, Chengkun; Hogan, Mark J.; Martins, Samuel F.; Silva, Luís O.

2010-11-01

291

Mind Your Words: Positive and Negative Items Create Method Effects on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mindfulness, a construct that entails moment-to-moment effort to be aware of present experiences and positive attitudinal features, has become integrated into the sciences. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), one popular measure of mindfulness, exhibits different responses to positively and negatively worded items in nonmeditating…

Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Hobkirk, Andrea L.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Earleywine, Mitch

2012-01-01

292

Exploring the Relationship between Workaholism Facets and Personality Traits: A Replication in American Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we further explored whether any of the dimensions in the five-factor model of personality (i.e., openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) were related to facets of workaholism (i.e., work involvement, work drive, and work enjoyment) in a sample of American workers in various…

Aziz, Shahnaz; Tronzo, Casie L.

2011-01-01

293

Using Self-Report Assessment Methods to Explore Facets of Mindfulness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examine the facet structure of mindfulness using five recently developed mindfulness questionnaires. Two large samples of undergraduate students completed mindfulness questionnaires and measures of other constructs. Psychometric properties of the mindfulness questionnaires were examined, including internal consistency and convergent…

Baer, Ruth A.; Smith, Gregory T.; Hopkins, Jaclyn; Krietemeyer, Jennifer; Toney, Leslie

2006-01-01

294

Porous single-crystalline palladium nanoflowers with enriched {100} facets for highly enhanced ethanol oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black.Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05761a

Qi, Kun; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Xiaoqiang

2014-11-01

295

Facets of Impulsivity Are Differentially Linked to Insomnia: Evidence From an Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between insomnia and four facets of impulsivity as distinguished by Whiteside and Lynam (2001): urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking. A sample of 233 university students completed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index, and a short questionnaire on sleep-related mentation. Correlational analyses revealed that urgency was related to

Ralph E. Schmidt; Philippe Gay; Martial Van der Linden

2008-01-01

296

Many-Facet Rasch Based Analysis of Communicative Language Testing Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This highly technical, data-rich paper examines how the Many-Facet Rasch Measurement Model can be applied to communicative language test data analyses and how beneficial the model is to language teachers. The results for a 20-item conversational response test and a 15-item sociolinguistic test of oral communication ability in English for 30…

Nakamura, Yuji

2000-01-01

297

Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire assesses three facets of emotional expressivity: negative  

E-print Network

: Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (1997). Revealing feelings: Facets of emotional expressivity in self include: Gross, J.J. (2000). The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire. In J. Maltby, C.A. Lewis, & A Mellen Press. Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (1998). Mapping the domain of expressivity: Multi-method evidence

Gross, James J.

298

A Multi-Faceted Formative Assessment Approach: Better Recognising the Learning Needs of Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are increasingly subject to a series of learning pressures that prevent effective engagement in assessment. Thus, the aim of this study was to create a multi-faceted formative assessment approach that better enabled students to engage in the assessment process. A formative assessment approach, consisting of six key initiatives, is…

Jenkins, James O.

2010-01-01

299

Charge transfer, surface charging, and overlayer-induced faceting J. G. Che* and C. T. Chan  

E-print Network

Charge transfer, surface charging, and overlayer-induced faceting J. G. Che* and C. T. Chan to analyze the change of surface energy of metallic surfaces upon surface charging. We then studied surface charging is main driving mechanism in view of such an empirical correlation. Our results show

Che, Jingguang

300

An Examination of Blue- versus White-Collar Workers' Conceptualizations of Job Satisfaction Facets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degree to which blue- versus white-collar workers differentially conceptualize various job facets, namely the work itself, co-workers, supervisors, and pay. To examine these potential differences, we conducted a series of analyses on job satisfaction ratings from two samples of university workers. Consistent with the study…

Hu, Xiaoxiao; Kaplan, Seth; Dalal, Reeshad S.

2010-01-01

301

TOOL-ASSISTED MULTI-FACET ANALYSIS OF FORMAL SPECIFICATIONS (USING ATELIER-B AND PROB)  

E-print Network

TOOL-ASSISTED MULTI-FACET ANALYSIS OF FORMAL SPECIFICATIONS (USING ATELIER-B AND PROB) Christian specification. The B method and the Atelier-B tool are used for formal specifications, for safety property to discover errors and therefore to improve the former specifications. KEY WORDS Formal Analysis, B Method

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

302

Consistently Orienting Facets in Polygon Meshes by Minimizing the Dirichlet Energy of Generalized Winding Numbers  

E-print Network

orienting facets in polygon meshes by minimizing the Dirichlet energy of generalized winding numbers. While based on the Dirichlet energy of the generalized winding number. Our motivation came from the fact Dirichlet energy of the corresponding generalized winding number. 2 Method 2.1 Patch extraction

Plotkin, Joshua B.

303

Construct Validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Meditating and Nonmeditating Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on assessment of mindfulness by self-report suggests that it may include five component skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, and nonreactivity to inner experience. These elements of mindfulness can be measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The authors investigated several aspects of the construct validity of the FFMQ in experienced meditators and

Ruth A. Baer; Gregory T. Smith; Emily Lykins; Daniel Button; Jennifer Krietemeyer; Shannon Sauer; Erin Walsh; Danielle Duggan; J. Mark G. Williams

2008-01-01

304

Crystal Overgrowth on Gold Nanorods: Tuning the Shape, Facet, Aspect Ratio, and Composition of the Nanorods  

E-print Network

of new synthetic methodologies (e.g., reverse micelle templating, seed-medi- ated growth, crystal growthCrystal Overgrowth on Gold Nanorods: Tuning the Shape, Facet, Aspect Ratio, and Composition to the formation of gold nanowires with diameters of several tens nanometers. More recently, a seeded growth

Yang, Peidong

305

In situ observation and simulation of growth process of faceted RE123 crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To clarify the growth mechanism of faceted REBa 2Cu 3O 7-? (RE123, RE = Sm, Y) crystals, the growth process of the crystals was observed in situ by using a high temperature microscope. The growth rate of each faceted interface of a crystal growing from the liquid + 211 phases under an undercooling was obtained from the relationship between the position of each interface and growth time. It was observed that some of the faceted interfaces of a growing crystal stopped growing after a period of time, while other interfaces continued to grow with a growth rate approximated by a function of the undercooling. The above stoppage of the growth was observed in situ for the first time, and this fact could give powerful support to the mechanism for a similar phenomenon in REBCO films which were fabricated by the trifluoroacetates metal organic deposition method: growing microstructures of RE123 crystals in the film were revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for quenched specimens. Some very thin a-axis grains were formed by a change in c-axis growth rate. Furthermore, we showed the above growth and stop phenomena of faceted interfaces of REBCO crystal grains using numerical simulations.

Mori, N.; Maebatake, T.; Teranishi, R.; Yamada, K.; Mukaida, M.; Miura, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.

2010-11-01

306

Towards an Understanding of Facets and Exemplars of Big Data Applications Geoffrey C.Fox1  

E-print Network

Towards an Understanding of Facets and Exemplars of Big Data Applications Geoffrey C.Fox1 Big Data applications from a variety of research and commercial areas and suggest a set Big Data properties, and then to understand applications with those properties. There are many

307

Diffraction and external reflection by dielectric faceted particles Lei Bi a,, Ping Yang b  

E-print Network

Diffraction and external reflection by dielectric faceted particles Lei Bi a,Ã?, Ping Yang b February 2010 Keywords: Diffraction External reflection Scattering Hexagonal ice crystal a b s t r a c to diffraction, external reflection and outgoing refracted waves. This paper focuses on diffraction and external

Baum, Bryan A.

308

First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis.  

PubMed

Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) is used primarily for end-stage hallux rigidus whereby pain, crepitus, and limitation of motion is noted at the joint. Arthrodesis at the first MTPJ also has it uses as a primary procedure for rheumatoid arthritis when severe deformity is present, as well as for salvage procedures for failed joint arthroplasties with or without implant, fractures with intra-articular extension, avascular necrosis, and infection management. A first MTPJ arthrodesis should provide stable fixation, attain suitable positioning for a reasonable gait, maintain adequate length, and create a stable platform for a plantigrade foot type. PMID:22243568

Rajczy, Robert M; McDonald, Patrick R; Shapiro, Howard S; Boc, Steven F

2012-01-01

309

Compliant Joints For Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compliant joints devised to accommodate misalignments of tools and/or workpieces with respect to robotic manipulators. Has characteristics and appearance of both universal-joint and cable-spring-type flexible shaft coupling. Compliance derived from elastic properties of short pieces of cable. Compliance of joint determined by lengths, distances between, relative orientations, thickness of strands, number of strands, material, amount of pretwist, and number of short pieces of cable. Worm-drive mechanism used to adjust lengths to vary compliance as needed during operation.

Kerley, James J., Jr.

1990-01-01

310

Precursor salt assisted syntheses of high-index faceted concave hexagon and nanorod-like polyoxometalates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(ii) and NH4+ ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(ii) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets.This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(ii) and NH4+ ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(ii) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details about chemicals, analytical instruments, HRTEM, BET surface area, SAED patterns, EDX, area mapping analysis, recyclability test and a schematic representation for MHT method. XRD, TEM, FESEM images, HRTEM images, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm, SAED patterns, EDX and area mapping analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06309k

Pal, Jaya; Ganguly, Mainak; Mondal, Chanchal; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar

2014-12-01

311

Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Tie Bar, & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Medora Bridge, Spanning East Fork of White River at State Route 235, Medora, Jackson County, IN

312

Joint Special Operations University  

E-print Network

The Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) provides its publications to contribute toward expanding the body of knowledge about joint special operations. JSOU publications advance the insights and recommendations of national security professionals and the Special Operations Forces (SOF) students and leaders for consideration by the SOF community and defense leadership. JSOU is the educational component of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. The JSOU mission is to educate SOF executive, senior, and intermediate leaders and selected other national and international security decision makers, both military and civilian, through teaching, outreach, and research in the science and art of joint special operations. JSOU provides education to the men and women of SOF and to those who enable the SOF mission in a joint and interagency environment. JSOU conducts research through its Strategic Studies Department where

Brian A. Maher; Ed. D; William S. Wildrick; U. S. Navy; Ret Resident; Senior Fellows; John B. Alexander; Roby C. Barrett, Ph.D.; Joseph D. Celeski; Chuck Cunningham

313

Joint fluid Gram stain  

MedlinePLUS

Gram stain of joint fluid ... result means no bacteria are present on the Gram stain. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a ...

314

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... jaw joint. TMJ disorders can cause headaches, ear pain, bite problems, clicking sounds, locked jaws, and other ... three main categories: Muscle Disorders These disorders include pain in the muscles that control jaw function, as ...

315

New plastic joints for plastic orthoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic joints for orthoses have more advantages than metal joints. They are lightweight, noiseless comfortable to use, rust proof, corrosion free, and radiolucent. Two types of plastic joints were developed by the authors, one for the ankle joint and the other for the knee joint, elbow joint or hip joint. Polypropylene was chosen as the joint material because of its

H. WATANABE; T. KUTSUNA; H. MORINAGA; T. OKABE

316

Bullet in Hip Joint  

PubMed Central

Recently, hip arthroscopy has become more popular in the diagnosis and extraction of intraarticular foreign bodies compared to open surgery. If a foreign object such as a bullet is not extracted from the hip joint, it may cause mechanical arthritis, infection and systemic lead toxicity. We present the arthroscopic excision of a bullet from the hip joint of a 33-year-old male patient who sustained a gunshot injury.

Kaya, Ibrahim; Ugras, Akin; Saglam, Necdet; Sungur, Ibrahim; Cetinus, Ercan

2013-01-01

317

Competing Research Joint Ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development (R&D) competition among firms has recently been extended to R&D competition involving research joint ventures. It was previously shown that in an industry conducting cost-reducing R&D followed by competition in the product market, if all firms both fully share R&D information and coordinate investments to maximize joint profits, final products prices are lower, and firms' profits are

Morton I. Kamien; Israel Zang

1993-01-01

318

Role of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and other sterically protecting polymers in selective stabilization of {111} and {100} facets in pentagonally twinned silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The role of PVP in the selective formation of pentagonally twinned silver nanoparticle morphologies and the corresponding selective facet stabilization is elucidated. Both for decahedral and pentagonal rod nanoparticles, PVP does not promote specific facet selection but is instrumental in colloidal stabilization and facet preservation through steric protection. PMID:24336687

Murshid, Nimer; Kitaev, Vladimir

2014-02-01

319

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOEpatents

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

1993-11-30

320

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOEpatents

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

1993-01-01

321

DRIFTS Evidence for Facet-Dependent Adsorption of Gaseous Toluene on TiO2 with Relative Photocatalytic Properties.  

PubMed

Effective adsorption is of great importance to the photocatalytic degradation of volatile organic compounds. Herein, we succeeded in the preparation of anatase TiO2 with clean dominant {001} and {101} facets. By using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) equipped with a homemade reaction system and a coupling gas-dosing system, we found that TiO2 with dominant {001} facets exhibits higher toluene adsorption capacity than TiO2 with dominant {101} facets, which may be attributed to the different number of unsaturated 5c-Ti capable of forming the main active adsorption sites (terminal Ti-OH species). TiO2 with dominant {001} facets shows a significantly high photocatalytic degradation performance, with its degradation rate being 6 times higher than that of dominant {101} facets. Combined with simulation results, it is suggested that the synergetic effects of the formation of specific active adsorption sites, the low adsorption energy for toluene, and preservation of the free molecularly adsorbed water on the surface promote the degradation of gaseous toluene on the dominant {001} facets. This study exemplifies that the facet-dependent adsorption of volatile organic compounds is one of the most important factors to effectively engineer photocatalysts for air purification. PMID:25602129

Wang, Mengjiao; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Xiaodi; Qi, Zeming; Hong, Bin; Ding, Jianjun; Bao, Jun; Sun, Song; Gao, Chen

2015-02-10

322

Highly reactive {001} facets of TiO2-based composites: synthesis, formation mechanism and characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides due to its extraordinary surface, electronic and catalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and massive recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic and photovoltaic efficiency. Therefore, increasing research attention is now being directed towards engineering the surface structure of TiO2 at the most fundamental and atomic level namely morphological control of {001} facets in the range of microscale and nanoscale to fine-tune its physicochemical properties, which could ultimately lead to the optimization of its selectivity and reactivity. The synthesis of {001}-faceted TiO2 is currently one of the most active interdisciplinary research areas and demonstrations of catalytic enhancement are abundant. Modifications such as metal and non-metal doping have also been extensively studied to extend its band gap to the visible light region. This steady progress has demonstrated that TiO2-based composites with {001} facets are playing and will continue to play an indispensable role in the environmental remediation and in the search for clean and renewable energy technologies. This review encompasses the state-of-the-art research activities and latest advancements in the design of highly reactive {001} facet-dominated TiO2via various strategies, including hydrothermal/solvothermal, high temperature gas phase reactions and non-hydrolytic alcoholysis methods. The stabilization of {001} facets using fluorine-containing species and fluorine-free capping agents is also critically discussed in this review. To overcome the large band gap of TiO2 and rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, modifications are carried out to manipulate its electronic band structure, including transition metal doping, noble metal doping, non-metal doping and incorporating graphene as a two-dimensional (2D) catalyst support. The advancements made in these aspects are thoroughly examined, with additional insights related to the charge transfer events for each strategy of the modified-TiO2 composites. Finally, we offer a summary and some invigorating perspectives on the major challenges and new research directions for future exploitation in this emerging frontier, which we hope will advance us to rationally harness the outstanding structural and electronic properties of {001} facets for various environmental and energy-related applications.

Ong, Wee-Jun; Tan, Lling-Lling; Chai, Siang-Piao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

2014-01-01

323

Formation of Ge nanoripples on vicinal Si (1110): from Stranski-Krastanow seeds to a perfectly faceted wetting layer.  

PubMed

Ge growth on high-indexed Si (1110) is shown to result in the spontaneous formation of a perfectly {105} faceted one-dimensional nanoripple structure. This evolution differs from the usual Stranski-Krastanow growth mode because from initial ripple seeds a faceted Ge layer is formed that extends down to the heterointerface. Ab initio calculations reveal that ripple formation is mainly driven by lowering of surface energy rather than by elastic strain relief and the onset is governed by the edge energy of the ripple facets. Wavelike ripple replication is identified as an effective kinetic pathway for the transformation process. PMID:22400940

Chen, G; Sanduijav, B; Matei, D; Springholz, G; Scopece, D; Beck, M J; Montalenti, F; Miglio, L

2012-02-01

324

Enhanced photocatalytic CO?-reduction activity of anatase TiO? by coexposed {001} and {101} facets.  

PubMed

Control of TiO2 crystal facets has attracted enormous interest due to the fascinating shape-dependent photocatalytic activity of this material. In this work, the effect of the ratio of {001} and {101} facets on the photocatalytic CO2-reduction performance of anatase TiO2 is reported. A new "surface heterojunction" concept is proposed on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT) calculations to explain the difference in the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 with coexposed {001} and {101} facets. PMID:24918628

Yu, Jiaguo; Low, Jingxiang; Xiao, Wei; Zhou, Peng; Jaroniec, Mietek

2014-06-25

325

High-power, low-lateral divergence broad area quantum cascade lasers with a tilted front facet  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a simple technique to improve the beam quality of broad area quantum cascade lasers. Moderately tilted front facets of the laser provide suppression of higher order lateral waveguide modes. A device with a width of 60??m and a front facet angle of 17° shows a nearly diffraction limited beam profile. In addition, the peak output power and the slope efficiency of the device are increased since most of the light inside the cavity is emitted through the tilted front facet by an asymmetric light intensity distribution along the cavity.

Ahn, Sangil, E-mail: sangil.ahn@tuwien.ac.at; Schwarzer, Clemens; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald C.; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron M.; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

2014-02-03

326

Dissimilar metals joint evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dissimilar metals tubular joints between 2219-T851 aluminum alloy and 304L stainless steel were fabricated and tested to evaluate bonding processes. Joints were fabricated by four processes: (1) inertia (friction) weldings, where the metals are spun and forced together to create the weld; (2) explosive welding, where the metals are impacted together at high velocity; (3) co-extrusion, where the metals are extruded in contact at high temperature to promote diffusion; and (4) swaging, where residual stresses in the metals after a stretching operation maintain forced contact in mutual shear areas. Fifteen joints of each type were prepared and evaluated in a 6.35 cm (2.50 in.) O.D. size, with 0.32 cm (0.13 in.) wall thickness, and 7.6 cm (3.0 in) total length. The joints were tested to evaluate their ability to withstand pressure cycle, thermal cycle, galvanic corrosion and burst tests. Leakage tests and other non-destructive test techniques were used to evaluate the behavior of the joints, and the microstructure of the bond areas was analyzed.

Wakefield, M. E.; Apodaca, L. E.

1974-01-01

327

Reconstructing cultural behavior from dental wear studies: Is para-facets analysis approach scientifically valid?  

PubMed

It is common knowledge, that in archaic populations teeth were used as tools, this behavior can be studied by evaluating attrition patterns. Parafacets were defined as nonmasticatory wear areas that have no antagonist matching wear facets. The presence of the parafacets led to far-reaching conclusions regarding cultural interactions between Near Eastern Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans. This study was aimed to examine the identification of parafacets in some of the Qafzeh specimens. Based on findings of our research we suggest that the attrition facets mistakenly considered as parafacets are in fact the result of the static and dynamic occlusion. Therefore the observations induce much less dramatic interpretation. We here propose several guidelines that would be beneficial in that they aim to evaluate the parafacets with heightened accuracy. PMID:24767822

Sarig, Rachel; Tillier, Anne-marie

2014-06-01

328

An experiential thinking style: its facets and relations with objective and subjective criterion measures.  

PubMed

In Study 1, an experiential factor divided into the following 3 factors when 3 or more factors were extracted: intuition, emotionality, and imagination; whereas a rational factor retained its coherence. In Study 2, an experiential but not a rational thinking style was positively associated with performance measures of creativity, humor, aesthetic judgment, and intuition and with self-report measures of empathy and social popularity. A rational thinking style was associated with several measures of adjustment. Both thinking styles were positively related to personal growth. Support was provided from several sources for the discriminant validity of the experiential facets. In a third study, the independence of the 2 thinking styles and of gender differences in self-reported data were verified by observations by others of participants' thinking styles. The importance of identifying facets of an experiential thinking style and of discovering previously unrecognized favorable attributes of this thinking style was discussed. PMID:21241307

Norris, Paul; Epstein, Seymour

2011-10-01

329

It's in the mix: psychological distress differs between combinations of alexithymic facets  

PubMed Central

Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in identifying, describing, and communicating one's emotions. The aim of the present study is to examine the usefulness of a typological approach considering the interaction between distinct alexithymic features within a population of high-alexithymic German adults (N = 217). Latent profile analysis (LPA) was employed to test for possible underlying profiles. A 3-profile solution showed the best fit: The profiles can be described as (1) “low”: lower load on all facets of alexithymia, (2) “mixed”: specific problems on identifying emotions, and (3) “high”: higher load on all facets of alexithymia. Moreover, this study tested how these profiles differed in psychological distress. “Mixed” profile, with specific problems on identifying emotions showed the highest levels of psychological distress. The present study suggests the importance of a specific combination of alexithymic features, rather than total alexithymia scores, as a risk factor for psychological distress. PMID:25429275

Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Crayen, Claudia; Heuser, Isabella; Eid, Michael

2014-01-01

330

Facets of impulsivity are differentially linked to insomnia: evidence from an exploratory study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the association between insomnia and four facets of impulsivity as distinguished by Whiteside and Lynam (2001): urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking. A sample of 233 university students completed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index, and a short questionnaire on sleep-related mentation. Correlational analyses revealed that urgency was related to insomnia severity and insomnia-related impairments in daytime functioning, and that lack of perseverance was related to insomnia-related impairments in daytime functioning. Follow-up analyses showed that the frequency of disturbing thoughts and visions during the pre-sleep period partially mediated the relation between urgency and sleep-initiation problems, and that the frequency of disturbing dreams and nightmares partially mediated the relation between urgency and sleep-maintenance problems. These findings suggest that the facets of impulsivity are differentially linked to insomnia and that urgency is associated with sleep-interfering nighttime mentation. PMID:18629688

Schmidt, Ralph E; Gay, Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

2008-01-01

331

A Replication of the MMPI-A PSY-5 Scales and Development of Facet Subscales  

Microsoft Academic Search

McNulty, Harkness, Ben-Porath and Williams recently developed Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory– A (MMPI-A). This study examined these new scales in a sample of 545 adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment. Item-level principal components analyses were employed to determine the internal structure of each PSY-5 scale and to aid in the creation of facet subscales

P. Kevin Bolinskey; Randolph C. Arnau; Robert P. Archer; Richard W. Handel

2004-01-01

332

Psychometric and Structural Analysis of the MMPI2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Facet Subscales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) is a model of personality psychopathology assessed in adult populations with a set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2 (MMPI-2) scales. The authors examine the reliability and validity of recently developed lower-order facet subscales for each of these five domains, with an emphasis on structural invariance, using both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis

Lena C. Quilty; R. Michael Bagby

2007-01-01

333

Growth of Ag nanowires on Au-pre-facetted 4° vicinal Si(0 0 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the self-assembly of wire-shaped Ag islands at high temperature with low energy electron microscopy and photoemission electron microscopy. A Au-faceted vicinal Si(001) surface was used as a substrate. The initial Ag deposit at 600–620°C induces a surface phase change from the (5×3.2) reconstruction of the Au-covered (001) terraces, to a (3×2) reconstruction, but leaves the structure of the

Frank-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf; Kimberly L. Roos; Christian Wiethoff; Michael Horn-von Hoegen; Kelly R. Roos

2008-01-01

334

FACET – a “Flexible Artifact Correction and Evaluation Toolbox” for concurrently recorded EEG/fMRI data  

PubMed Central

Background In concurrent EEG/fMRI recordings, EEG data are impaired by the fMRI gradient artifacts which exceed the EEG signal by several orders of magnitude. While several algorithms exist to correct the EEG data, these algorithms lack the flexibility to either leave out or add new steps. The here presented open-source MATLAB toolbox FACET is a modular toolbox for the fast and flexible correction and evaluation of imaging artifacts from concurrently recorded EEG datasets. It consists of an Analysis, a Correction and an Evaluation framework allowing the user to choose from different artifact correction methods with various pre- and post-processing steps to form flexible combinations. The quality of the chosen correction approach can then be evaluated and compared to different settings. Results FACET was evaluated on a dataset provided with the FMRIB plugin for EEGLAB using two different correction approaches: Averaged Artifact Subtraction (AAS, Allen et al., NeuroImage 12(2):230–239, 2000) and the FMRI Artifact Slice Template Removal (FASTR, Niazy et al., NeuroImage 28(3):720–737, 2005). Evaluation of the obtained results were compared to the FASTR algorithm implemented in the EEGLAB plugin FMRIB. No differences were found between the FACET implementation of FASTR and the original algorithm across all gradient artifact relevant performance indices. Conclusion The FACET toolbox not only provides facilities for all three modalities: data analysis, artifact correction as well as evaluation and documentation of the results but it also offers an easily extendable framework for development and evaluation of new approaches. PMID:24206927

2013-01-01

335

A Multi-facet Requirement Assessment of Customer-Oriented Mobile Tourism Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a multi-facet requirement assessment approach for specifying and relating potential business-to-customer mobile tourism services. An integrated requirement model of mobile tourism services including search & notification, community, tour-guide, recommendation, auction, and transaction & payment services is formulated and validated. Three surveys are conducted to collect data from tourists, 3G operators, and travel agencies for assessing usefulness, importance,

Chien-Chih Yu; Hsiao-ping Chang

2008-01-01

336

Facet destabilization and macrostep dynamics at the smectic-A smectic-B interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the behavior in directional solidification of the faceted smectic-A smectic-B interface of 408 (butyloxybenzilidene octylaniline). Above the onset of instability, which is given by the classical constitutional-supercooling criterion, we observe the nucleation of macrosteps. Several mechanisms are possible, depending on the velocity. These macrosteps are always unstable and propagate along the macroscopic interface, changing shape continuously. We never

F. Melo; P. Oswald

1991-01-01

337

Traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation associated with C2 articular facet fracture in adult patient: Case report  

PubMed Central

Traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation is a very rare injury in adults which is often misdiagnosed initially. Its combination with C2 fractures is predominated by dens lesions. Therapeutic management is challenging because of the difficulty to achieve optimal reduction and permanent stability. We report a rare case of traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation in a 56-year-old women associated with C2 articular facet fracture successfully treated by conservative means after patient-awake manual reduction with optimal functional and radiographic outcome.

Bellil, Mehdi; Hadhri, Khaled; Sridi, Maamoun; Kooli, Mondher

2014-01-01

338

Facet-dependent disorder in pristine high-voltage lithium-manganese-rich cathode material.  

PubMed

Defects and surface reconstructions are thought to be crucial for the long-term stability of high-voltage lithium-manganese-rich cathodes. Unfortunately, many of these defects arise only after electrochemical cycling which occurs under harsh conditions, making it difficult to fully comprehend the role they play in degrading material performance. Recently, it has been observed that defects are present even in the pristine material. This study, therefore, focuses on examining the nature of the disorder observed in pristine Li1.2Ni0.175Mn0.525Co0.1O2 (LNMCO) particles. Using atomic-resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, we show that there is indeed a significant amount of antisite defects present in this material, with transition metals substituting on Li metal sites. Furthermore, we find a strong segregation tendency of these types of defects toward open facets (surfaces perpendicular to the layered arrangement of atoms) rather than closed facets (surfaces parallel to the layered arrangement of atoms). First-principles calculations identify antisite defect pairs of Ni swapping with Li ions as the predominant defect in the material. Furthermore, energetically favorable swapping of Ni on the Mn sites was observed to lead to Mn depletion at open facets. Relatively, low Ni migration barriers also support the notion that Ni is the predominant cause of disorder. These insights suggest that certain facets of the LNMCO particles may be more useful for inhibiting surface reconstruction and improving the stability of these materials through careful consideration of the exposed surface. PMID:25415876

Dixit, Hemant; Zhou, Wu; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Nanda, Jagjit; Cooper, Valentino R

2014-12-23

339

Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam  

SciTech Connect

Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

2011-08-19

340

Step free energies at faceted solid-liquid interfaces from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work a method is proposed for computing step free energies for faceted solid-liquid interfaces based on atomistic simulations. The method is demonstrated in an application to (111) interfaces in elemental Si, modeled with the classical Stillinger-Weber potential. The approach makes use of an adiabatic trapping procedure, and involves simulations of systems with coexisting solid and liquid phases separated by faceted interfaces containing islands with different sizes, for which the corresponding equilibrium temperatures are computed. We demonstrate that the calculated coexistence temperature is strongly affected by the geometry of the interface. We find that island radius is inversely proportional to superheating, allowing us to compute the step free energy by fitting simulation data within the formalism of classical nucleation theory. The step free energy value is computed to be ?st = 0.103 ± 0.005 × 10-10 J/m. The approach outlined in this work paves the way to the calculation of step free energies relevant to the solidification of faceted crystals from liquid mixtures, as encountered in nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism and in alloy casting. The present work also shows that at low undercoolings the Stillinger-Weber interatomic potential for Si tends to crystallize in the wurtzite, rather than the diamond-cubic structure.

Frolov, T.; Asta, M.

2012-12-01

341

Optical antenna arrays on a fiber facet for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection.  

PubMed

This paper reports a bidirectional fiber optic probe for the detection of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). One facet of the probe features an array of gold optical antennas designed to enhance Raman signals, while the other facet of the fiber is used for the input and collection of light. Simultaneous detection of benzenethiol and 2-[(E)-2-pyridin-4-ylethenyl]pyridine is demonstrated through a 35 cm long fiber. The array of nanoscale optical antennas was first defined by electron-beam lithography on a silicon wafer. The array was subsequently stripped from the wafer and then transferred to the facet of a fiber. Lithographic definition of the antennas provides a method for producing two-dimensional arrays with well-defined geometry, which allows (i) the optical response of the probe to be tuned and (ii) the density of "hot spots" generating the enhanced Raman signal to be controlled. It is difficult to determine the Raman signal enhancement factor (EF) of most fiber optic Raman sensors featuring hot spots because the geometry of the Raman enhancing nanostructures is poorly defined. The ability to control the size and spacing of the antennas enables the EF of the transferred array to be estimated. EF values estimated after focusing a laser directly onto the transferred array ranged from 2.6 x 10(5) to 5.1 x 10(5). PMID:19236032

Smythe, Elizabeth J; Dickey, Michael D; Bao, Jiming; Whitesides, George M; Capasso, Federico

2009-03-01

342

Initial oxidation and interfacial diffusion of Zn on faceted MgO(111) films.  

PubMed

The interaction of zinc and faceted MgO(111) thin films prepared on a Mo(110) substrate was investigated in situ by using various surface analysis techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction. The results revealed that three-dimensional Zn islands exist on the faceted MgO(111) films and that no chemical interaction takes place at the interface at room temperature. Initially, deposited Zn is stable at temperatures below 400 K and diffuses into MgO at temperatures above 425 K. A portion of Zn is oxidized at approximately 10 (-6) mbar O 2 at room temperature. An interfacial phase of Zn x Mg 1- x O was formed after Zn was exposed to approximately 10 (-6) mbar O 2 at temperatures >or=500 K. The faceted structure on the MgO(111) surface is of a disadvantage for the epitaxial growth of ZnO films. PMID:18624420

Xue, Mingshan; Guo, Qinlin; Wu, Kehui; Guo, Jiandong

2008-08-19

343

(100) facets of ?-Al2O3: the active surfaces for alcohol dehydration reactions  

SciTech Connect

Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on ?-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic active sites for alcohol dehydration reactions. Two high temperature (> 473 K) desorption features were observed following ethanol adsorption. Samples calcined at T?473 K displayed a desorption feature in the 523-533 K temperature range, while those calcined at T ? 673 K showed a single desorption feature at 498 K. The switch from the high to low temperature ethanol desorption correlated well with the dehydroxylation of the (100) facets of ?-Al2O3 that was predicted at 550 K DFT calculations. Theoretical DFT simulations of the mechanism of dehydration. on clean and hydroxylated ?-Al2O3(100) surfaces, find that a concerted elimination of ethylene from an ethanol molecule chemisorbed at an Al3+ pentacoordinated site is the rate limiting step for catalytic cycle on both surfaces. Furthermore, titration of the pentacoordinate Al3+ sites on the (100) facets of ?-Al2O3 by BaO completely turned off the methanol dehydration reaction activity. These results unambiguously demonstrate that only the (100) facets on ?-Al2O3 are the catalytic active surfaces for alcohol dehydration.

Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos

2011-05-01

344

Single crystalline nanostructures of topological crystalline insulator SnTe with distinct facets and morphologies.  

PubMed

Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) are a new class of topological materials that possess unique metallic surface states protected by crystalline mirror symmetry. Their topological surface properties are expected to strongly depend on the surface orientation. By combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations and synthesis experiments, we demonstrate the controlled growth of single crystalline nanostructures of the prototypical TCI SnTe with distinct facets and morphologies. Our calculations suggest that the excess energy of the {111} surfaces can be either higher or lower than that of the {100} surfaces, depending on the stoichiometry, while the {110} is always higher than the {100}. In our synthesis experiment, we qualitatively controlled the stoichiometry by tailoring the growth temperature and obtained two types of single crystalline nanowires: smooth nanowires dominated by {100} facets at high temperatures and zigzag nanowires composed of both {100} and {111} surfaces at low temperatures. Notably, there is no {110} facet in our nanostructures, strongly supporting the DFT calculations. Our device fabrication and electrical characterizations suggest that both types of nanowires are suitable for transport studies of topological surface states. PMID:24138562

Li, Z; Shao, S; Li, N; McCall, K; Wang, J; Zhang, S X

2013-01-01

345

Studies of the Facetting of the Polished (100) Face of CaF2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper deals with studies of the facetting of the polished (100) surface of CaF2 during annealing and growth in UHV using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). First morphological modifications of the polished surfaces become visible at temperatures of T = 874 K. Surfaces annealed at T = 974 K exhibit a micro-roughening with pyramidal protrusions and corresponding depressions. LEED studies indicate the evolution of {111} facets. Reflexes from the (100) surface are not seen. After growth of about 660 monolayers of CaF2 at T = 1093 K and a saturation ratio S = 33 from the vapor phase, larger pyramid-like or hip roof-like crystallites are developed. The results of AFM height profiles as well as of the LEED investigations indicate again the formation of {111} facets as proved by their angles of 54.7° with the base (100) surface. This shows that the crystallites are homoepitaxially grown on the underlying CaF2 substrate.

Dabringhaus, H.; Schick, M.; Wandelt, K.; Deuster, V.; Kayser, Th.; Klapper, H.

2003-12-01

346

Studies of the facetting of the polished (100) face of CaF 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper deals with studies of the facetting of the polished (1 0 0) surface of CaF 2 during annealing and growth in UHV using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). First morphological modifications of the polished surfaces become visible at temperatures of T=874 K. Surfaces annealed at T=974 K exhibit a micro-roughening with pyramidal protrusions and corresponding depressions. LEED studies indicate the evolution of {1 1 1} facets. Reflexes from the (1 0 0) surface are not seen. After growth of about 660 monolayers of CaF 2 at T=1093 K and a saturation ratio S=33 from the vapor phase, larger pyramid-like or hip roof-like crystallites are developed. The results of AFM height profiles as well as of the LEED investigations indicate again the formation of {1 1 1} facets as proved by their angles of 54.7 o with the base (1 0 0) surface. This shows that the crystallites are homoepitaxially grown on the underlying CaF 2 substrate.

Deuster, V.; Schick, M.; Kayser, Th.; Dabringhaus, H.; Klapper, H.; Wandelt, K.

2003-04-01

347

New Joint Sealants. Criteria, Design and Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contents include--(1) sealing concrete joints, (2) sealing glass and metal joints, (3) metal and glass joint sealants from a fabricator's viewpoint, (4) a theory of adhesion for joint sealants, (5) geometry of simple joint seals under strain, (6) joint sealant specifications from a manufacturer's viewpoint, (7) joint sealant requirements from an…

Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

348

Spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes among {010} and {110} crystal facets of BiVO4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge separation is crucial for increasing the activity of semiconductor-based photocatalysts, especially in water splitting reactions. Here we show, using monoclinic bismuth vanadate crystal as a model photocatalyst, that efficient charge separation can be achieved on different crystal facets, as evidenced by the reduction reaction with photogenerated electrons and oxidation reaction with photogenerated holes, which take place separately on the {010} and {110} facets under photo-irradiation. Based on this finding, the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts are selectively deposited on the {010} and {110} facets respectively, resulting in much higher activity in both photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation reactions, compared with the photocatalyst with randomly distributed cocatalysts. These results show that the photogenrated electrons and holes can be separated between the different facets of semiconductor crystals. This finding may be useful in semiconductor physics and chemistry to construct highly efficient solar energy conversion systems.

Li, Rengui; Zhang, Fuxiang; Wang, Donge; Yang, Jingxiu; Li, Mingrun; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Xin; Han, Hongxian; Li, Can

2013-02-01

349

Catastrophic optical degradation of the output facet of high-power single-transverse-mode diode lasers. 1. Physical model  

SciTech Connect

The physical model of catastrophic optical degradation (COD) of the output facet of high-power single- transverse-mode diode lasers is developed. The model excels other models both in completeness of the physical analysis of the processes leading to COD and in allowance for design feature of lasers used to increase the COD threshold - protective coating of the output facet and current limitations near it. (lasers)

Miftakhutdinov, D R; Bogatov, Alexandr P; Drakin, A E [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-09-10

350

Spontaneous resolution of symptoms associated with a facet synovial cyst in an adult female – a case report  

PubMed Central

Background: Facet cysts are implicated in neural compression in the lumbar spine. Surgery is the definitive treatment for symptomatic facet cysts since the failure rate for conservative treatment is quite high; however, the role of physical/manual medicine practitioners in the management of symptomatic facet cysts has not been well explored. This case report will add to the body of evidence of spontaneous resolution of symptoms associated with facet cysts in the chiropractic literature. Case: A 58 year old female presented with acute low back and right leg pain which she attributed to a series of exercise classes that involved frequent foot stomping. Physical examination did not elicit any objective evidence of radiculopathy but MRI and CT scans revealed a facet cyst impinging on the right L5 nerve root. Injections and surgery were recommended; however, the patient’s radicular symptoms completely resolved after three months without surgical intervention. Summary: There is currently a paucity of data in the literature regarding the chiropractor’s role in the management of symptomatic facet cysts. The case presented here has added to this literature and possible areas for future research have been explored. PMID:23483069

Ngo, Trung; Decina, Philip; Hsu, William

2013-01-01

351

Morphotectonic evolution of triangular facets and wine-glass valleys in the Noakoh anticline, Zagros, Iran: Implications for active tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Noakoh anticline is located in Kermanshah province and is part of the Simply Folded Belt of Zagros. Boundaries of 97 triangular facets and 67 wine-glass (W-G) valleys, which formed on anticline limbs, were delineated using Quickbird satellite imagery. The strata dip (D), area (A), base length (BL), topographic slope (S) of facets, the maximum width (M), outlet width (O) and ratio of maximum width to outlet width (W index) of W-G valleys were analysed in detail. Noakoh anticline was subdivided into 9 tectonic zones on the basis of dip, topographic slopes and width of limbs. Results show that there are strong positive correlations between means of D-BL and S-BL pairs. Poor positive correlations exist between means of D-A and S-A pairs. Among W-G valley metrics, the W index has strong relations with D and S parameters. Based on the results, steep facets with long bases and well developed W-G valleys with narrow outlets and wide upper parts are associated with more rotated limbs having steep slopes. Facets on the northeastern slope have more forest cover, micro-organism activity, karstic features and soil cover, whereas facets on relatively drier southwestern slope are characterized by physical weathering processes and minor karstic landforms. This study demonstrates that, apart from tectonic activity as a major control on the morphometry of facets and valleys, climate and slope aspect have also acted as secondary factors on the development of the studied landforms.

Bahrami, Shahram

2012-07-01

352

Joints in a Cornstarch Analog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Joints are very important to problems in applied geology (fluid flow, slope stability), but three-dimensional exposures of simple joint sets are not readily accessible from my campus. I developed this exercise based on the experiments of Miller (2001) to give students hands-on practice describing and interpreting joints. For the exercise, I prepare a cornstarch-water mixture a few days in advance and pour it into plastic petri dishes. I add a "flaw" to each dish (typically a small pebble). As the cornstarch dries, vertical joints develop. In class, each group of 3-4 students is provided a petri dish of desiccated cornstarch. Students are asked to draw a map of the joints, paying particular attention to intersection angles. (The joints curve to intersect at 90 degrees.) They determine relative ages of the joints using abutting relationships. (Typically 3-6 generations of joints.) Students next dissect the sample and describe the surface textures of the larger joints and the location of the flaw. The cornstarch produces beautiful plumose structure (hackles). Students then interpret the joint propagation direction from the surface textures, and note the origin of the joint. (Typically, a first- or second-generation joint initiates at the flaw.) Students discuss the role of flaws in the initiation of joints in their groups.

Crider, Juliet

353

Hip joint replacement  

MedlinePLUS

... Jones CA. Total joint arthroplasties: current concepts of patient outcomes after surgery. Rheum Dis Clin North Am . 2007;33(1):71-86. Schmalzried TP. Metal-metal bearing surfaces in hip arthroplasty. Orthopedics . 2009;32. Lindstrom D, Sadr Azodi O, Wladis ...

354

Dolphin Skeleton (Gliding Joint)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dolphin is built to be sleek. Its body is made of almost entirely backbone (a gliding joint) which makes it very flexible under water. The ribs protect the inner organs of the dolphin and the tail beats from side to side, thrusting the animal forward.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;)

2007-07-14

355

Clad metal joint closure  

SciTech Connect

A plasma arc spray overlay of cladding metals is used over joints between clad metal pieces to provide a continuous cladding metal surface. The technique permits applying an overlay of a high melting point cladding metal to a cladding metal surface without excessive heating of the backing metal.

Siebert, O.W.

1985-04-09

356

Final Report for Project "Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for the Colorado State University Component of the FACETS Project. FACETS was focused on the development of a multiphysics, parallel framework application that could provide the capability to enable whole-device fusion reactor modeling and, in the process, the development of the modeling infrastructure and computational understanding needed for ITER. It was intended that FACETS be highly flexible, through the use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, to facilitate switching from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics, and making it possible to use simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that will take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS was designed in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the application can take advantage through parallelism based on task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and applicable. As with all fusion simulations, an integral part of the FACETS project was treatment of the coupling of different physical processes at different scales interacting closely. A primary example for the FACETS project is the coupling of existing core and edge simulations, with the transport and wall interactions described by reduced models. However, core and edge simulations themselves involve significant coupling of different processes with large scale differences. Numerical treatment of coupling is impacted by a number of factors including, scale differences, form of information transferred between processes, implementation of solvers for different codes, and high performance computing concerns. Operator decomposition involving the computation of the individual processes individually using appropriate simulation codes and then linking/synchronizing the component simulations at regular points in space and time, is the defacto approach to high performance simulation of multiphysics, multiscale systems. Various forms of operator decomposition are used in nearly all fusion simulations. However, operator decomposition generally has a complex effect on accuracy and stability of numerical simulations. Yet, these effects can be difficult to detect. The Colorado State University component of the FACETS team led by P. I. D. Estep was focused on analyzing the effects of operator decomposition on fusion simulations. The approach was based on a posteriori error analysis employing adjoint problems, computable residuals, and variational analysis to produce accurate computational error estimates for quantities of interest. Computable residuals are used to quantify the effects of various discretization choices. The generalized Greens function satisfying the adjoint problem quantities the effects of stability. Technical issues to be addressed included: (1) defining appropriate adjoint operators for operator decomposition discretizations; (2) determining the appropriate residuals for the multifaceted aspects involved with multiphysics discretizations; (3) producing the estimates within the computational framework of existing fusion codes; (4) carrying out the analysis for discretizations used in fusion simulations; and (5) devising efficient approaches to mitigating the effects of discretization. This report provides a summary of the accomplished research and a detailed description of personnel, activities, outcomes and achievements.

Estep, Donald [Colorado State University] [Colorado State University

2014-01-17

357

Joint Institute Marine and Atmospheric  

E-print Network

Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research NATIONALOCEA NIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION Contribution 00-328 #12;ii This research is funded by Cooperative Agreement Number NA67RJ0154 between the Joint

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

358

Joint Seminar UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA  

E-print Network

Joint Seminar UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS DEPARTMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY longitudinal covariates are involved in the modeling of the survival data. A joint likelihood approach has been data. However, in the presence of left truncation, there are additional challenges for the joint

Wang, Lily

359

JOINT PERFORMANCE Guide for Optimum  

E-print Network

July 2012 JOINT PERFORMANCE Guide for Optimum of Concrete Pavements #12; #12;Guide for Optimum Joint Performance of Concrete Pavements i Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2. Report Date Guide for Optimum Joint Performance of Concrete Pavements July 2012 6. Performing

360

Double slotted socket spherical joint  

DOEpatents

A new class of spherical joints is disclosed. These spherical joints are capable of extremely large angular displacements (full cone angles in excess of 270.degree.), while exhibiting no singularities or dead spots in their range of motion. These joints can improve or simplify a wide range of mechanical devices.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-05-22

361

Joint Degrees & Promotion towards European Students  

E-print Network

Joint Degrees & Promotion towards European Students 26 June 2014 MATTEA CAPELLI & ALESSANDRA GALLERANO INTERNATIONAL OFFICE #12;Joint Degrees and Promotion towards European students Joint degrees guidelines and template for agreements Support to student participation Promotion of Joint Degrees towards

Di Pillo, Gianni

362

49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121 Transportation...SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise...

2012-10-01

363

49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121 Transportation...SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise...

2013-10-01

364

49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121 Transportation...SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise...

2011-10-01

365

49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121 Transportation...SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise...

2010-10-01

366

Finger Joint Injuries.  

PubMed

Finger joint dislocations and collateral ligament tears are common athletic hand injuries. Treatment of the athlete requires a focus on safe return to play and maximizing function. Certain dislocations, such as proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal volar dislocations, may be associated with tendon injuries and must be treated accordingly. Treatment of other dislocations is ultimately determined by postreduction stability, with many dislocations amenable to nonoperative treatment (ie, immobilization followed by rehabilitation). Protective splinting does not necessarily preclude athletic participation. Minor bone involvement typically does not affect the treatment plan, but significant articular surface involvement may necessitate surgical repair or stabilization. Percutaneous and internal fixation are the mainstays of surgical treatment. Treatment options that do not minimize recovery or allow the patient to return to protected play, such as external fixation, are generally avoided during the season of play. Undertreated joint injuries and unrecognized ligament injuries can result in long term disability. PMID:25455398

Prucz, Roni B; Friedrich, Jeffrey B

2015-01-01

367

Prosthetic elbow joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial, manually positionable elbow joint for use in an upper extremity, above-elbow, prosthetic is described. The prosthesis provides a locking feature that is easily controlled by the wearer. The instant elbow joint is very strong and durable enough to withstand the repeated heavy loadings encountered by a wearer who works in an industrial, construction, farming, or similar environment. The elbow joint of the present invention comprises a turntable, a frame, a forearm, and a locking assembly. The frame generally includes a housing for the locking assembly and two protruding ears. The forearm includes an elongated beam having a cup-shaped cylindrical member at one end and a locking wheel having a plurality of holes along a circular arc on its other end with a central bore for pivotal attachment to the protruding ears of the frame. The locking assembly includes a collar having a central opening with a plurality of internal grooves, a plurality of internal cam members each having a chamfered surface at one end and a V-shaped slot at its other end; an elongated locking pin having a crown wheel with cam surfaces and locking lugs secured thereto; two coiled compression springs; and a flexible filament attached to one end of the elongated locking pin and extending from the locking assembly for extending and retracting the locking pin into the holes in the locking wheel to permit selective adjustment of the forearm relative to the frame. In use, the turntable is affixed to the upper arm part of the prosthetic in the conventional manner, and the cup-shaped cylindrical member on one end of the forearm is affixed to the forearm piece of the prosthetic in the conventional manner. The elbow joint is easily adjusted and locked between maximum flex and extended positions.

Weddendorf, Bruce C. (inventor)

1994-01-01

368

CoMAGC: a corpus with multi-faceted annotations of gene-cancer relations  

PubMed Central

Background In order to access the large amount of information in biomedical literature about genes implicated in various cancers both efficiently and accurately, the aid of text mining (TM) systems is invaluable. Current TM systems do target either gene-cancer relations or biological processes involving genes and cancers, but the former type produces information not comprehensive enough to explain how a gene affects a cancer, and the latter does not provide a concise summary of gene-cancer relations. Results In this paper, we present a corpus for the development of TM systems that are specifically targeting gene-cancer relations but are still able to capture complex information in biomedical sentences. We describe CoMAGC, a corpus with multi-faceted annotations of gene-cancer relations. In CoMAGC, a piece of annotation is composed of four semantically orthogonal concepts that together express 1) how a gene changes, 2) how a cancer changes and 3) the causality between the gene and the cancer. The multi-faceted annotations are shown to have high inter-annotator agreement. In addition, we show that the annotations in CoMAGC allow us to infer the prospective roles of genes in cancers and to classify the genes into three classes according to the inferred roles. We encode the mapping between multi-faceted annotations and gene classes into 10 inference rules. The inference rules produce results with high accuracy as measured against human annotations. CoMAGC consists of 821 sentences on prostate, breast and ovarian cancers. Currently, we deal with changes in gene expression levels among other types of gene changes. The corpus is available at http://biopathway.org/CoMAGCunder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0). Conclusions The corpus will be an important resource for the development of advanced TM systems on gene-cancer relations. PMID:24225062

2013-01-01

369

Laboratory characterization of rock joints  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory characterization of the Apache Leap tuff joints under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loads has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of dynamic joint shear behavior and to generate a complete data set that can be used for validation of existing rock-joint models. Study has indicated that available methods for determining joint roughness coefficient (JRC) significantly underestimate the roughness coefficient of the Apache Leap tuff joints, that will lead to an underestimation of the joint shear strength. The results of the direct shear tests have indicated that both under cyclic pseudostatic and dynamic loadings the joint resistance upon reverse shearing is smaller than that of forward shearing and the joint dilation resulting from forward shearing recovers during reverse shearing. Within the range of variation of shearing velocity used in these tests, the shearing velocity effect on rock-joint behavior seems to be minor, and no noticeable effect on the peak joint shear strength and the joint shear strength for the reverse shearing is observed.

Hsiung, S.M.; Kana, D.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.; Ghosh, A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

1994-05-01

370

Joint measurements and Bell inequalities  

E-print Network

Joint quantum measurements of non-commuting observables are possible, if one accepts an increase in the measured variances. A necessary condition for a joint measurement to be possible is that a joint probability distribution exists for the measurement. This fact suggests that there may be a link with Bell inequalities, as these will be satisfied if and only if a joint probability distribution for all involved observables exists. We investigate the connections between Bell inequalities and conditions for joint quantum measurements to be possible. Mermin's inequality for the three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state turns out to be equivalent to the condition for a joint measurement on two out of the three quantum systems to exist. Gisin's Bell inequality for three co-planar measurement directions, meanwhile, is shown to be less strict than the condition for the corresponding joint measurement.

Wonmin Son; Erika Andersson; Stephem M. Barnett; M. S. Kim

2005-09-20

371

Optimization of tin dioxide nanosticks faceting for the improvement of palladium nanocluster epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semispherical palladium nanoclusters have been epitaxed on {110} facets of tin dioxide nanosticks. The synthesis of tin dioxide nanoparticles has been optimized to obtain a crystallite shape with a maximum surface area lying on the rutile structure {110} planes, which are the most active for gas sensing. For this purpose, we describe a microwave method, which allowed us to obtain monocrystalline stick-like tin dioxide nanoparticles (so-called nanosticks) with rectangular prism shape. These nanosticks present long lateral {110} faces, squared cross-section 5-25 nm wide, and lengths of up to 0.5 ?m.

Arbiol, J.; Cirera, A.; Peiró, F.; Cornet, A.; Morante, J. R.; Delgado, J. J.; Calvino, J. J.

2002-01-01

372

Synthesis of a Large Diamond Crystal with a Smooth (100) Facet at its Top Through MPCVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large diamond crystal up to 500 ?m in diameter with a smooth (100) facet at its top has been synthesized on Mo substrate through microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). Its morphology and quality were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the growth mechanism was roughly illustrated from both macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints. It was found that morphological instabilities are a major factor resulting in synthesis of large diamond crystals, moreover, high microwave power density (MPD), high CH4 concentrations, high pressure, high substrate surface temperature and the addition of a small amount of O2 were also necessary for the synthesis of large diamond crystals.

Zhu, Jinfeng; Man, Weidong; Lv, Jilei; Tu, Xin; Wang, Jianhua

2013-11-01

373

Reflections on the four facets of symmetry: how physics exemplifies rational thinking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contemporary theoretical physics, the powerful notion of symmetry stands for a web of intricate meanings among which I identify four clusters associated with the notion of transformation, comprehension, invariance and projection. While their interrelations are examined closely these four facets of symmetry are scrutinised one after the other in great detail. This decomposition allows us to carefully examine the multiple different roles symmetry plays in many places in physics. Furthermore, some connections with other disciplines like neurobiology, epistemology, cognitive sciences and, not least, philosophy are proposed in an attempt to show that symmetry can be an organising principle also in these fields.

Mouchet, Amaury

2013-12-01

374

Final Report for the "Fusion Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"  

SciTech Connect

The FACETS project over its lifetime developed the first self-consistent core-edge coupled capabilities, a new transport solver for modeling core transport in tokamak cores, developed a new code for modeling wall physics over long time scales, and significantly improved the capabilities and performance of legacy components, UEDGE, NUBEAM, GLF23, GYRO, and BOUT++. These improved capabilities leveraged the team’s expertise in applied mathematics (solvers and algorithms) and computer science (performance improvements and language interoperability). The project pioneered new methods for tackling the complexity of simulating the concomitant complexity of tokamak experiments.

Cary, John R; Kruger, Scott

2014-10-02

375

Synthesis of Pt-Ni alloy nanocrystals with high-index facets and enhanced electrocatalytic properties.  

PubMed

The shape-controlled synthesis of multicomponent metal nanocrystals (NCs) bounded by high-index facets (HIFs) is of significant importance in the design and synthesis of high-activity catalysts. We report herein the preparation of Pt-Ni alloy NCs by tuning their shape from concave-nanocubic (CNC) to nanocubic and hexoctahedral (HOH). Owing to the synergy of the HIFs and the electronic effect of the Pt-Ni alloy, the as-prepared CNC and HOH Pt-Ni alloy NCs exhibited excellent catalytic properties for the electrooxidation of methanol and formic acid, as well as for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). PMID:25195668

Xu, Xiling; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Hui; Yang, Ying; Dai, Xiaoping; Gao, Jinsen; Li, Xueyong; Zhang, Pengfang; Wang, Hong-Hui; Yu, Neng-Fei; Sun, Shi-Gang

2014-11-10

376

CrysP: MultiFaceted Activity-Infused Presence in Emerging Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents Crystal Presence (CrysP) approach wher- e we fuse presence and activity in the realm of social networking.\\u000a CrysP functions on the basis of the activity-infused multi-faceted presence information. This information is derived from\\u000a user’s involvement in multiple activities at any point in time. We propose and develop the CrysP System (CrysPSys) to determine\\u000a CrysP from the user

Saguna; Arkady B. Zaslavsky; Dipanjan Chakraborty

2010-01-01

377

Measurement of gain characteristics of semiconductor lasers by amplified spontaneous emissions from dual facets.  

PubMed

In this letter, we describe a novel gain measurement approach for semiconductor edge-emitting lasers, with which TE and TM gain spectra can be easily obtained by collecting the amplified spontaneous emissions at dual facets of the device. An unstrained and continuously-operated GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well laser strip is used to illustrate this method. The measured gain spectra are compared with theoretical gain curves to analyze the gain polarization characteristics and the relevant subband structure in the valence band of the well using the measured gain spectra. PMID:23609743

Ma, M-L; Wu, J; Ning, Y-Q; Zhou, F; Yang, M; Zhang, X; Zhang, J; Shang, G-Y

2013-04-22

378

Raman and conductivity studies of boron doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond and cauliflower diamond films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present data showing how the electrical conductivity and Raman spectra of boron-doped CVD diamond films vary with both B content and crystallite size, for microcrystalline diamond (MCD), facetted nanocrystalline diamond (f-NCD) and 'cauliflower' diamond (c-NCD). The position of the Lorentzian contribution to the 500 cm -1 Raman feature was used to estimate the B content. This underestimated the SIMS concentration of B by a factor of ˜5 for the f-NCD and c-NCD films, but remained reasonably accurate for MCD films. One explanation for this is that most of the B incorporates at the grain boundaries and not in substitutional sites.

May, P. W.; Ludlow, W. J.; Hannaway, M.; Heard, P. J.; Smith, J. A.; Rosser, K. N.

2007-09-01

379

Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally-Involved Individuals  

PubMed Central

Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to 1) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and 2) self- and other-directed aggression, measured using the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed. PMID:22448731

2012-01-01

380

Highly exposed {001} facets of titanium dioxide modified with reduced graphene oxide for dopamine sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) with highly exposed {001} facets was synthesized through a facile solvo-thermal method and its surface was decorated by using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The morphology and chemical composition of the prepared rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite were examined by using suitable characterization techniques. The rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE), which showed higher electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA), when compared to unmodified GCE. The differential pulse voltammetric studies revealed good sensitivity and selectivity nature of the rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite modified GCE for the detection of DA in the presence of AA. The modified GCE exhibited a low electrochemical detection limit of 6 ?M over the linear range of 2-60 ?M. Overall, this work provides a simple platform for the development of GCE modified with rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite with highly exposed {001} facets for potential electrochemical sensing applications.

How, Gregory Thien Soon; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Ming, Huang Nay; Ngee, Lim Hong

2014-05-01

381

Unidirectionally aligned line patterns driven by entropic effects on faceted surfaces  

PubMed Central

A simple, versatile approach to the directed self-assembly of block copolymers into a macroscopic array of unidirectionally aligned cylindrical microdomains on reconstructed faceted single crystal surfaces or on flexible, inexpensive polymeric replicas was discovered. High fidelity transfer of the line pattern generated from the microdomains to a master mold is also shown. A single-grained line patterns over arbitrarily large surface areas without the use of top-down techniques is demonstrated, which has an order parameter typically in excess of 0.97 and a slope error of 1.1 deg. This degree of perfection, produced in a short time period, has yet to be achieved by any other methods. The exceptional alignment arises from entropic penalties of chain packing in the facets coupled with the bending modulus of the cylindrical microdomains. This is shown, theoretically, to be the lowest energy state. The atomic crystalline ordering of the substrate is transferred, over multiple length scales, to the block copolymer microdomains, opening avenues to large-scale roll-to-roll type and nanoimprint processing of perfectly patterned surfaces and as templates and scaffolds for magnetic storage media, polarizing devices, and nanowire arrays. PMID:22307591

Hong, Sung Woo; Huh, June; Gu, Xiaodan; Lee, Dong Hyun; Jo, Won Ho; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting; Russell, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

382

Highly exposed {001} facets of titanium dioxide modified with reduced graphene oxide for dopamine sensing  

PubMed Central

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) with highly exposed {001} facets was synthesized through a facile solvo-thermal method and its surface was decorated by using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The morphology and chemical composition of the prepared rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite were examined by using suitable characterization techniques. The rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE), which showed higher electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA), when compared to unmodified GCE. The differential pulse voltammetric studies revealed good sensitivity and selectivity nature of the rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite modified GCE for the detection of DA in the presence of AA. The modified GCE exhibited a low electrochemical detection limit of 6??M over the linear range of 2–60??M. Overall, this work provides a simple platform for the development of GCE modified with rGO/TiO2 {001} nanocomposite with highly exposed {001} facets for potential electrochemical sensing applications. PMID:24853929

How, Gregory Thien Soon; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Ming, Huang Nay; Ngee, Lim Hong

2014-01-01

383

Posttraumatic Temporomandibular Joint Disorders  

PubMed Central

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has many essential functions. None of its components are exempt from injury. Facial asymmetry, malocclusion, disturbances in growth, osteoarthritis, and ankylosis can manifest as complications from trauma to the TMJ. The goals of initial treatment include achievement of pretraumatic function, restoration of facial symmetry, and resolution of pain. These same objectives hold true for late repairs and reconstruction of the TMJ apparatus. Treatment is demanding, and with opposing approaches. The following article explores various treatment options for problems presenting as a result of a history of trauma to the TMJ. PMID:22110802

Giannakopoulos, Helen E.; Quinn, Peter D.; Granquist, Eric; Chou, Joli C.

2009-01-01

384

Osteoarthritis: The Peripheral Joints  

PubMed Central

Understanding of osteoarthritis has increased: the simplistic “wear and tear” concept no longer holds and this has positive clinical implications. A parallel development has taken place in treatment techniques: there is increasing expertise in the use of physical measures and in new orthopedic reconstructive surgical approaches to multiple joints. This gives the physician alternative approaches to the patient with painful and disabling osteoarthritis. The timing of these treatment options and some considerations which lead to orthopedic referral are considered in this general discussion. Imagesp285-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:20469342

Robinson, Harold S.

1981-01-01

385

Multi-facet concentrator of solar setup for irradiating the objects placed in a target plane with solar light  

DOEpatents

According to the proposed invention, this technical result is achieved so that many-facet concentrator of a solar setup for exposure of objects, placed in a target plane, to the action of solar radiation containing a supporting frame and facets differing by that the facets of the concentrator are chosen with spherical focusing reflective surfaces of equal focal lengths and with selective coatings reflecting a desired spectral fraction of solar radiation, and are arranged on the supporting frame symmetrically with respect to the common axis of the concentrator, their optical axes being directed to the single point on the optical axis of the concentrator located before the nominal focus point of the concentrator and determining the position of arranging the target plane.

Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Yampolskiy, Vladislav (Moscow, RU); Alekseev, Valerie (Moscow, RU); Son, Valentin (Moscow, RU)

2001-01-01

386

Metal to ceramic sealed joint  

DOEpatents

A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

1991-08-27

387

Metal to ceramic sealed joint  

DOEpatents

A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

Lasecki, John V. (Livonia, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1991-01-01

388

Strength of Welded Aircraft Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation is a continuation of work started in 1928 and described in NACA-TR-348 which shows that the insertion of gusset plates was the most satisfactory way of strengthening a joint. Additional tests of the present series show that joints of this type could be improved by cutting out the portion of the plate between the intersecting tubes. T and lattice joints in thin-walled tubing 1 1/2 by 0.020 inch have somewhat lower strengths than joints in tubing of greater wall thickness because of failure by local buckling. In welding the thin-walled tubing, the recently developed "carburizing flux" process was found to be the only method capable of producing joints free from cracks. The "magnetic powder" inspection was used to detect cracks in the joints and flaws in the tubing.

Brueggeman, W C

1937-01-01

389

Postero-Lateral Disc Prosthesis Combined With a Unilateral Facet Replacement Device Maintains Quantity and Quality of Motion at a Single Lumbar Level  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanically replacing one or more pain generating articulations in the functional spinal unit (FSU) may be a motion preservation alternative to arthrodesis at the affected level. Baseline biomechanical data elucidating the quantity and quality of motion in such arthroplasty constructs is non-existent. Purpose The purpose of the study was to quantify the motion-preserving effect of a posterior total disc replacement (PDR) combined with a unilateral facet replacement (FR) system at a single lumbar level (L4-L5). We hypothesized that reinforcement of the FSU with unilateral FR to replace the resected, native facet joint following PDR implantation would restore quality and quantity of motion and additionally not change biomechanics at the adjacent levels. Study Design In-vitro study using human cadaveric lumbar spines. Methods Six (n = 6) cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1) were evaluated using a pure-moment stability testing protocol (±7.5 Nm) in flexion-extension (F/E), lateral bending (LB) and axial rotation (AR). Each specimen was tested in: (1) intact; (2) unilateral FR; and (3) unilateral FR + PDR conditions. Index and adjacent level ROM (using hybrid protocol) were determined opto-electronically. Interpedicular travel (IPT) and instantaneous center of rotation (ICR) at the index level were radiographically determined for each condition. ROM, ICR, and IPT measurements were compared (repeated measures ANOVA) between the three conditions. Results Compared to the intact spine, no significant changes in F/E, LB or AR ROM were identified as a result of unilateral FR or unilateral FR + PDR. No significant changes in adjacent L3-L4 or L5-S1 ROM were identified in any loading mode. No significant differences in IPT were identified between the three test conditions in F/E, LB or AR at the L4-L5 level. The ICRs qualitatively were similar for the intact and unilateral FR conditions and appeared to follow placement (along the anterior-posterior (AP) direction) of the PDR in the disc space Conclusion Biomechanically, quantity and quality of motion are maintained with combined unilateral FR + PDR at a single lumbar spinal level.

Nayak, Aniruddh N.; Doarn, Michael C.; Gaskins, Roger B.; James, Chris R.; Cabezas, Andres F.; Castellvi, Antonio E.

2014-01-01

390

Early Developments in Joint Action  

PubMed Central

Joint action, critical to human social interaction and communication, has garnered increasing scholarly attention in many areas of inquiry, yet its development remains little explored. This paper reviews research on the growth of joint action over the first 2 years of life to show how children become progressively more able to engage deliberately, autonomously, and flexibly in joint action with adults and peers. It is suggested that a key mechanism underlying the dramatic changes in joint action over the second year of life is the ability to reflect consciously on oneself and one’s behavior and volition and correspondingly, on the behavior, goals, and intentions of others. PMID:23087769

Brownell, Celia A.

2012-01-01

391

Joint collaborative technology experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of unmanned systems is rapidly growing within the military and civilian sectors in a variety of roles including reconnaissance, surveillance, explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), and force-protection and perimeter security. As utilization of these systems grows at an ever increasing rate, the need for unmanned systems teaming and inter-system collaboration becomes apparent. Collaboration provides a means of enhancing individual system capabilities through relevant data exchange that contributes to cooperative behaviors between systems and enables new capabilities not possible if the systems operate independently. A collaborative networked approach to development holds the promise of adding mission capability while simultaneously reducing the workload of system operators. The Joint Collaborative Technology Experiment (JCTE) joins individual technology development efforts within the Air Force, Navy, and Army to demonstrate the potential benefits of interoperable multiple system collaboration in a force-protection application. JCTE participants are the Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Airbase Technologies Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRL/RXQF); the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center Software Engineering Directorate (AMRDEC SED); and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center - Pacific (SSC Pacific) Unmanned Systems Branch operating with funding provided by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE). This paper will describe the efforts to date in system development by the three partner organizations, development of collaborative behaviors and experimentation in the force-protection application, results and lessons learned at a technical demonstration, simulation results, and a path forward for future work.

Wills, Michael; Ciccimaro, Donny; Yee, See; Denewiler, Thomas; Stroumtsos, Nicholas; Messamore, John; Brown, Rodney; Skibba, Brian; Clapp, Daniel; Wit, Jeff; Shirts, Randy J.; Dion, Gary N.; Anselmo, Gary S.

2009-05-01

392

Jointly Sponsored Research Program  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40321 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) supported the performance of a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) with a minimum 50% nonfederal cost share to assist industry in commercializing and effectively applying highly efficient, nonpolluting energy systems that meet the nation's requirements for clean fuels, chemicals, and electricity in the 21st century. The EERC in partnership with its nonfederal partners jointly performed 131 JSRP projects for which the total DOE cost share was $22,716,634 (38%) and the nonfederal share was $36,776,573 (62%). Summaries of these projects are presented in this report for six program areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, and (6) advanced materials. The work performed under this agreement addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration; near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources.

Everett A. Sondreal; John G. Hendrikson; Thomas A. Erickson

2009-03-31

393

Glenohumeral Joint Injections  

PubMed Central

Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

2013-01-01

394

Ionic liquid-assisted fabrication of copper hydroxyphosphate nanocrystals with exposed {100} facets for enhanced photocatalytic activity.  

PubMed

Libethenite Cu2PO4OH nanocrystals with different morphologies were prepared by an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal route, and were further investigated as photocatalysts under visible-light irradiation. The Cu2PO4OH elongated truncated bipyramids exposing {100} facets exhibit superior photocatalytic activity compared to other particles, which can be attributed to the presence of 100% Cu5c atoms on {100} facets. It is highly expect this research can provide a useful fundamental understanding of shape-dependent photocatalytic performance of copper hydroxyphosphate. PMID:25549152

Duan, Xiaochuan; Xiao, Songhua; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Hui; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Wang, Taihong

2015-01-21

395

Ionic liquid-assisted fabrication of copper hydroxyphosphate nanocrystals with exposed {100} facets for enhanced photocatalytic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Libethenite Cu2PO4OH nanocrystals with different morphologies were prepared by an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal route, and were further investigated as photocatalysts under visible-light irradiation. The Cu2PO4OH elongated truncated bipyramids exposing {100} facets exhibit superior photocatalytic activity compared to other particles, which can be attributed to the presence of 100% Cu5c atoms on {100} facets. It is highly expect this research can provide a useful fundamental understanding of shape-dependent photocatalytic performance of copper hydroxyphosphate.

Duan, Xiaochuan; Xiao, Songhua; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Hui; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Wang, Taihong

2015-01-01

396

Joint Information CenterJoint Information Center Deepwater Horizon Response  

E-print Network

and it is determined to be within the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Re- sponse area, a wildlife response team is notified when they see the birds that have been impacted by the Deepwa- ter Horizon/BP oil spill. WhileJoint Information CenterJoint Information Center Deepwater Horizon Response Incident Command Post

397

Joint shape morphogenesis precedes cavitation of the developing hip joint.  

PubMed

The biology and mechanobiology of joint cavitation have undergone extensive investigation, but we have almost no understanding of the development of joint shape. Joint morphogenesis, the development of shape, has been identified as the 'least understood aspect of joint formation' (2005, Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 75, 237), despite the clinical relevance of shape morphogenesis to postnatal skeletal malformations such as developmental dysplasia of the hip. In this study, we characterise development of early hip joint shape in the embryonic chick using direct capture 3D imaging. Contrary to formerly held assumptions that cavitation precedes morphogenesis in joint development, we have found that the major anatomical features of the adult hip are present at Hamburger Hamilton (HH)32, a full day prior to cavitation of the joint at HH34. We also reveal that the pelvis undergoes significant changes in orientation with respect to the femur, despite the lack of a joint cavity between the rudiments. Furthermore, we have identified the appearance of the ischium and pubis several developmental stages earlier than was previously reported, illustrating the value and importance of direct capture 3D imaging. PMID:24266523

Nowlan, Niamh C; Sharpe, James

2014-04-01

398

Relationship between joint effusion, joint pain, and protein levels in joint lavage fluid of patients with internal derangement and osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of joint effusion, joint pain, and protein levels in joint lavage fluid (JL) of patients with internal derangement (ID) and osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight joints in 26 patients with ID and OA of the TMJ were studied. Magnetic resonance imaging

Tetsu Takahashi; Hirokazu Nagai; Hiroshi Seki; Masayuki Fukuda

1999-01-01

399

International Joint Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Joint Commission was created by Canada and the United States "because they recognized that each country is affected by the other's actions in lake and river systems along the border. The two countries cooperate to manage these waters wisely and to protect them for the benefit of today's citizens and future generations." Visitors to the site can read about great lakes water quality issues, great lakes exports, water levels, news releases, publications, view maps, and much more. One of the latest publications available on the site includes the proceeding from a workshop entitled Addressing Atmospheric Mercury: Science and Policy. This extensive site is well organized and written, giving anyone living near or interested in the great lakes a good source for timely and important information.

2008-08-27

400

International Joint Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Joint Commission was created by Canada and the United States "because they recognized that each country is affected by the other's actions in lake and river systems along the border. The two countries cooperate to manage these waters wisely and to protect them for the benefit of today's citizens and future generations." Visitors to the site can read about great lakes water quality issues, great lakes exports, water levels, news releases, publications, view maps, and much more. One of the latest publications available on the site includes the proceeding from a workshop entitled Addressing Atmospheric Mercury: Science and Policy. This extensive site is well organized and written, giving anyone living near or interested in the great lakes a good source for timely and important information.

401

Passive Ball Capture Joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive ball capture joint has a sleeve with a plurality of bores distributed about a circumference thereof and formed therethrough at an acute angle relative to the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A spring-loaded retainer is slidingly fitted in each bore and is biased such that, if allowed, will extend at least partially into the sleeve to retain a ball therein. A ring, rotatably mounted about the bores, has an interior wall defining a plurality of shaped races that bear against the spring-loaded retainers. A mechanized rotational force producer is coupled to the ring. The ring can be rotated from a first position (that presses the retainers into the sleeve to lock the ball in place) to a second position (that allows the retainers to springback out of the sleeve to release the ball).

Cloyd, Richard A. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

402

Corynebacterium Prosthetic Joint Infection  

PubMed Central

Identification of Corynebacterium species may be challenging. Corynebacterium species are occasional causes of prosthetic joint infection (PJI), but few data are available on the subject. Based on the literature, C. amycolatum, C. aurimucosum, C. jeikeium, and C. striatum are the most common Corynebacterium species that cause PJI. We designed a rapid PCR assay to detect the most common human Corynebacterium species, with a specific focus on PJI. A polyphosphate kinase gene identified using whole-genome sequence was targeted. The assay differentiates the antibiotic-resistant species C. jeikeium and C. urealyticum from other species in a single assay. The assay was applied to a collection of human Corynebacterium isolates from multiple clinical sources, and clinically relevant species were detected. The assay was then tested on Corynebacterium isolates specifically associated with PJI; all were detected. We also describe the first case of C. simulans PJI. PMID:22337986

Cazanave, Charles; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Hanssen, Arlen D.

2012-01-01

403

Exercise and the Knee Joint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report by the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports examines the effects of various forms of physical exercise on the knee joint which, because of its vulnerability, is especially subject to injury. Discussion centers around the physical characteristics of the joint, commonly used measurements for determining knee stability,…

Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

1976-01-01

404

Mechanism of interactions between CMC binder and Si single crystal facets.  

PubMed

Interactions of the active material particles with the binder are crucial in tailoring the properties of composite electrodes used in lithium-ion batteries. The dependency of the protonation degree of the carboxyl group in the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) structure on the pH value of the preparation solution was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Three different distinctive chemical states of CMC binder were chosen (protonated, deprotonated, and half-half), and their interactions with different silicon single crystal facets were investigated. The different Si surface orientations display distinct differences of strength of interactions with the CMC binder. The CMC/Si adhesion forces in solution and Si wettability of the silicon are also strongly dependent on the protonation degree of the CMC. This work provides an insight into the nature of these interactions, which determine the electrochemical performance of silicon composite electrodes. PMID:25109709

Vogl, U S; Das, P K; Weber, A Z; Winter, M; Kostecki, R; Lux, S F

2014-09-01

405

Preparation and characterization of ultraflat Pt facets by atom-height-resolved differential optical microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently demonstrated that improvements to our technique, laser confocal microscopy with differential interference microscopy (LCM-DIM), has rendered it fully capable of resolving monatomic steps with heights of ca. 0.25 nm on Au(111) and Pd(111) surfaces, even as low as 0.14 nm on Si(100), in aqueous solution. In this paper, we describe in detail a method to prepare and characterize, via atomic-layer-resolved LCM-DIM, ultraflat Pt(111) and Pt(100) facets over a wide surface area. The preparation of ultraflat surfaces is important in the characterization at the atomic scale of electrochemical processes under reaction conditions. To showcase the elegance of LCM-DIM, the anodic dissolution of Pt in aqueous HCl is briefly recounted.

Azhagurajan, M.; Wen, R.; Kim, Y. G.; Itoh, T.; Sashikata, K.; Itaya, K.

2015-01-01

406

On the facet-skeletal transition of snow crystals - Experiments in high and low gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory investigation of the influence of air velocity on the growth of columnar ice crystals from the vapor over the range -3 to -5 C shows that the linear growth velocity increases and that columns transform to sheath crystals or needles as air velocity increases from a few cm/s to 40 cm/s. Comparison with a similar transition of plates to dendrites shows that, macroscopically, in both cases the facets sprout rounded tips at a critical velocity which is lower for higher ambient supersaturation. Studies in low gravity show that chamber scale convection under normal gravity may have significant influence on growth even in the absence of an imposed air velocity. Falling snow crystals become more skeletal in shape as they grow and fall with increasing velocity. This development depends critically on temperature (+ or - 0.5 C) and demonstrates that the snow crystal shape is even more dependent on environmental growth conditions that previously thought.

Alena, T.; Hallett, J.; Saunders, C. P. R.

1990-01-01

407

A Report on CUR 2000: The Many Facets of Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eighth National Conference of the Council on Undergraduate Research, "The Many Facets of Undergraduate Research", was held at The College of Wooster in Wooster, Ohio, June 22-24, 2000. There were more than 600 participants. Conference co-chairs Charlotte Otto (University of Michigan-Dearborn) and Patricia DeWinstanley (Oberlin College), with College of Wooster local committee co-chairs Don Jacobs and Lori Bettison-Varga, assembled a variety of plenary sessions, workshops, poster sessions, and symposia to explore a rich array of themes. Institutionalization of undergraduate research, facility design and renovation, faculty development, funding opportunities, collaborative research, assessment of research activities, and interdisciplinary research were among the issues highlighted. More than 100 workshops given by 230 presenters provided opportunities for faculty and administrators to exchange ideas on undergraduate research and science education.

Karukstis, Kerry K.

2000-11-01

408

Multi-faceted titanium glycolate and titania structures from room-temperature polyol process.  

PubMed

Multi-faceted microstructures of titanium glycolate have been produced by room-temperature polyol process in which titanium alkoxide and polymethylene glycol were mixed rigorously and then the mixture was aged to settle down as white precipitate. Depending on types of titanium alkoxides and polymethylene glycols, stirring time, and composition, a variety of polygonal microrods were generated. Unlike unidentified structures produced from polyol process at elevated temperature, the titanium glycolate products obtained at room temperature revealed well-defined rod-like or plate-like structures with polygonal cross sections. Then, as-prepared titanium glycolate microstructures were transformed into higher refractive index titania of anatase or rutile phase by annealing. The characterization of as-prepared and annealed structures was conducted using scanning and transmission electron microscopes, X-ray diffractomer, and thermal analyzer for thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. PMID:17727874

Yu, Hyung Kyun; Eun, Tai Hee; Yi, Gi-Ra; Yang, Seung-Man

2007-12-01

409

Design of a Shape Memory Alloy deployment hinge for reflector facets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design concept for a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated hinge mechanism for deploying segmented facet-type reflector surfaces on antenna truss structures is presented. The mechanism uses nitinol, a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, as a displacement-force micro-actuator. An electrical current is used to resistively heat a 'plastically' elongated SMA actuator wire, causing it to contract in response to a thermally-induced phase transformation. The resulting tension creates a moment, imparting rotary motion between two adjacent panels. Mechanical stops are designed into the device to limit its range of motion and to establish positioning accuracy at the termination of deployment. The concept and its operation are discussed in detail, and an analytical dynamic simulation model is presented. The model has been used to perform nondimensionalized parametric design studies.

Anders, W. S.; Rogers, C. A.

1991-01-01

410

An interface facet driven Rayleigh instability in high-aspect-ratio bimetallic nanolayered composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One limitation hindering the structural and electrical applications of nanostructured metals is the loss of their nanostructure and strength under elevated temperatures. Nanostructured metals often have grain structures that contain a high density of triple junctions, where thermally induced instabilities commonly initiate. Prior work has resulted in fabrication of nanolayered two-phase composites that possess high-aspect ratio grains, a scarcity of triple junctions, and a thermally stable microstructure. In this work, transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate how these composites could eventually breakdown during heating. We reveal an unconventional thermal instability mechanism in this class of materials, which operates without the assistance of triple junctions. The mechanism can be rationalized by that thermally induced pinch off occurs as the result of bimetal interface faceting and can trigger a classic Rayleigh instability.

Zheng, Shijian; Carpenter, John S.; Wang, Jian; Mara, Nathan A.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

2014-09-01

411

Co3O4 nanocages with highly exposed {110} facets for high-performance lithium storage  

PubMed Central

Functional materials with both exposed highly reactive planes and hollow structures have attracted considerable attentions with respect to improved catalytic activity and enhanced electrochemical energy storage. Herein, we report the synthesis of unusual single-crystal Co3O4 nanocages with highly exposed {110} reactive facets via a one-step solution method. When tested as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, these Co3O4 nanocages deliver a high reversible lithium storage capacity of 864?mAh g?1 at 0.2C over 50 cycles and exhibit an excellent rate capability. The dominantly exposed {110} planes, a high density of atomic steps in nanocages, and the large void interiors lead to the regarded superior electrochemical performance. PMID:23995848

Liu, Dequan; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xuebin; Tian, Wei; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

2013-01-01

412

Coordinating the Development of Heat and Temperature Facet Clusters with Science Education Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Physics and the School of Education at Seattle Pacific University, together with FACET Innovations, LLC, have just completed the second year of a five-year NSF TPC project, Improving the Effectiveness of Teacher Diagnostic Skills and Tools. We are working in partnership with school districts in Washington State to use formative assessment as a means to help teachers and precollege students deepen their understanding of foundational topics in physical science. We utilize a theoretical framework of knowledge-in-pieces to identify and categorize common student modes of reasoning in the topical areas of Properties of Matter, Heat and Temperature and Physical and Chemical Changes. In this talk, we describe the development of some facet clusters of student ideas in Heat and Temperature. Part of optimizing these diagnostic tools is ensuring that they are consistent with national and state science standards, research on student learning, and assessment practices used in the science portion of the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). A strong unifying theme for these standards and assessments is transfers and transformations of energy in all processes of nature, whether they occur in physical, earth/space, or living systems. This approach brings the concepts of heat, temperature, and energy into a broader context than is usually explored in traditional treatments of these ideas in physics. We discuss some challenges in developing formative assessment tools that synthesize and respect these different perspectives. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.E1.2

Close, Hunter

2007-05-01

413

Space Station alpha joint bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

1987-01-01

414

Shock transmissibility of threaded joints  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with threaded joints that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration; drilling pipe strings that must survive rock-cutting, shock environments; and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact shock. This paper summarizes an analytical study and an experimental evaluation of compressive, one-dimensional, shock transmission through a threaded joint in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Thread geometries were scaled to simulate large diameter threaded joints with loadings parallel to the axis of the threads. Both strain and acceleration were evaluated with experimental measurements and analysis. Analytical results confirm the experimental conclusions that in this split Hopkinson bar configuration, the change in the one-dimensional shock wave by the threaded joint is localized to a length equal to a few diameters` length beyond the threaded joint.

Hansen, N.R.; Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.

1996-12-31

415

Effect of shape on the self-assembly of faceted patchy nanoplates with irregular shape into tiling patterns.  

PubMed

Recent reports of the synthesis and assembly of faceted nanoplates with a wide range of shapes and composition motivates the possibility of a new class of two-dimensional materials with specific patterns targeted for a host of exciting properties. Yet, studies of how nanoplate shape controls their assembly - knowledge necessary for their inverse design from target structures - has been performed for only a handful of systems. By constructing a general framework in which many known faceted nanoplates may be described in terms of four anisotropy dimensions, we discover design rules to guide future synthesis and assembly. We study via Monte Carlo simulations attractive polygons whose shape is altered systematically under the following four transformations: faceting, pinching, elongation and truncation. We report that (i) faceting leads to regular porous structures (ii) pinching stabilizes complex structures such as dodecagonal quasicrystals (iii) elongation leads to asymmetric phase behavior, where low and high aspect ratio nanoplates self-assemble completely different structures and (iv) low and high degrees of truncation transform a complex self-assembler into a disk-like assembler, providing design ideas that could lead to switchable structures. We provide important insight into how the shape and attractive interactions of a nanoplate can be exploited or designed to target specific classes of structures, including space-filling, porous, and complex tilings. PMID:25579173

Millan, Jaime A; Ortiz, Daniel; Glotzer, Sharon C

2015-02-01

416

Ionization potentials of (112) and (112¯) facet surfaces of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionization potentials of the faceted and nonfaceted (110) surfaces of CuInSe2 (CIS) and CuGaSe2 (CGS), which are key components of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells, are investigated using first-principles calculations based on a hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional theory approach. Slab models of the chalcopyrite (110) surface with both (112) and (112¯) facets on each surface of the slab are employed. Surface energy evaluations point out that two types of faceted surfaces with point defects, namely a combination of CuIn (CuGa) and InCu (GaCu) antisites and a combination of Cu vacancies and InCu (GaCu) antisites, are the most stable depending on the chemical potentials. The ionization potentials are evaluated with two definitions: One highly sensitive to and the other less sensitive to localized surface states. The latter varies by 0.4 eV in CIS and 0.5 eV in CGS with the surface structure. The ionization potentials are reduced by 0.2 eV for faceted surfaces with CuIn (CuGa) and InCu (GaCu) antisites when the effects of the localized surface states are considered. The values of both ionization potentials are similar between CIS and CGS with a difference of about 0.1 eV for the most stable surface structures.

Hinuma, Yoyo; Oba, Fumiyasu; Kumagai, Yu; Tanaka, Isao

2012-12-01

417

Assessing Achievement Motive of American and Israeli Managers: Design and Application of a Three-Facet Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire to assess the presence of achieve ment motive in various populations was developed and its structure analyzed. A facet definition of achievement motive was suggested which provided guidelines for the creation of items and the formu lation of hypotheses. The Achievement Motive Questionnaire was administered to 132 U.S. and 114 Israeli middle managers from various public and private

Dov Elizur

1979-01-01

418

The Structural Validity of the Perceived Traits of the "Ideal Student" Multi-Faceted Theory among Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents a multi-faceted theory of "ideal high school student" traits. The trait system, as defined by several theories, is a translation of the teachers' belief system into educational objectives. The study focused on Bloom's taxonomies and the structural validity of its principles, using Similarity Structure Analysis. Aware of the…

Maslovaty, Nava; Cohen, Arie; Furman, Sari

2008-01-01

419

Facet dependent binding and etching: ultra-sensitive colorimetric visualization of blood uric acid by unmodified silver nanoprisms.  

PubMed

By combination of experiments and density functional theory calculations, we present a simple but effective "facet dependent binding and etching" strategy for non-enzymatic and non-aggregated colorimetric sensing of blood uric acid (UA), using unmodified Ag nanoprisms as the signal readout. In the absence of UA, the triangular Ag nanoprisms are etched alongside (110) facets by H2O2 and form round nanodiscs, and a more than 160 nm surface plasmon resonance (SPR) blue shift is observed. Because of special affinity between UA and side facets of the Ag nanoprisms, pre-added UA can well protect the Ag nanoprisms from etching. Such protection effect can be used for well quantifying UA in the range of 10-3000 nM, based on the inverse proportion of the SPR blue shift with the added analyte. Due to very thin plate morphology (5 nm) and facet dependent binding/etching effects of the Ag nanoprisms, the sensing system has ultrahigh sensitivity. The detection limit is only 10nM, which is about 2 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of previous colorimetric sensing systems. In addition to accurate quantitation, the proposed strategy can conveniently discriminate the patient of hyperuricemia from normal person by naked eyes. So, the present simple, low-cost and visualized UA chemosensor has great potential in the applications for point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24732599

Tan, Kanghui; Yang, Guang; Chen, Huide; Shen, Pengfei; Huang, Yucheng; Xia, Yunsheng

2014-09-15

420

Sustainable molecular oxygen activation with oxygen vacancies on the {001} facets of BiOCl nanosheets under solar light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that oxygen vacancies on the {001} facets of BiOCl nanosheets can more sustainably activate molecular oxygen for organic pollutant removal under solar light than the TiO2 counterparts. The oxygen vacancies on the {001} facets of BiOCl nanosheets are effectively refreshed by UV light, and are also responsible for the efficient utilization of visible light to activate molecular oxygen, accounting for their long term stability and high efficiency.We demonstrate that oxygen vacancies on the {001} facets of BiOCl nanosheets can more sustainably activate molecular oxygen for organic pollutant removal under solar light than the TiO2 counterparts. The oxygen vacancies on the {001} facets of BiOCl nanosheets are effectively refreshed by UV light, and are also responsible for the efficient utilization of visible light to activate molecular oxygen, accounting for their long term stability and high efficiency. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04810e

Li, Hao; Shi, Jingu; Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Lizhi

2014-11-01

421

Job Satisfaction of Female and Male Superintendents: The Influence of Job Facets and Contextual Variables as Potential Predictors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A descriptive multiple regression approach was used to assess the job satisfaction of female and male public school superintendents taking part in a decennial survey conducted by AASA. Self-reported job satisfaction of public school superintendents was regressed on their affective reactions to specific job facets (supervision, co-workers, and…

Young, I. Phillip; Kowalski, Theodore J.; McCord, Robert S.; Petersen, George J.

2012-01-01

422

Psychometric Properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in a Meditating and a Non-Meditating Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factor structure, internal consistency, construct validity, and predictive validity of the Dutch version of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-NL) were studied in a sample of meditators (n = 288) and nonmeditators (n = 451). A five-factor structure was demonstrated in both samples, and the FFMQ-NL and its subscales were shown to…

de Bruin, Esther I.; Topper, Maurice; Muskens, Jan G. A. M.; Bogels, Susan M.; Kamphuis, Jan H.

2012-01-01

423

Differential Item Functioning on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire Is Minimal in Demographically Matched Meditators and Nonmeditators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire reported high levels of differential item functioning (DIF) for 18 of its 39 items in meditating and nonmeditating samples that were not demographically matched. In particular, meditators were more likely to endorse positively worded items whereas nonmeditators were more likely to deny…

Baer, Ruth A.; Samuel, Douglas B.; Lykins, Emily L. B.

2011-01-01

424

Developing a Measure of Therapist Adherence to Contingency Management: An Application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) is introduced as the preferred method for evaluating the psychometric properties of a measure of therapist adherence to Contingency Management (CM) treatment of adolescent substance use. The utility of psychometric methods based in Classical Test Theory was limited by complexities of the…

Chapman, Jason E.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

2008-01-01

425

Green synthesis of anatase TiO(2) nanocrystals with diverse shapes and their exposed facets-dependent photoredox activity.  

PubMed

The exposed facets of a crystal are known to be one of the key factors to its physical, chemical and electronic properties. Herein, we demonstrate the role of amines on the controlled synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) with diverse shapes and different exposed facets. The chemical, physical and electronic properties of the as-synthesized TiO2 NCs were evaluated and their photoredox activity was tested. It was found that the intrinsic photoredox activity of TiO2 NCs can be enhanced by controlling the chemical environment of the surface, i.e.; through morphology evolution. In particular, the rod shape TiO2 NCs with ?25% of {101} and ?75% of {100}/{010} exposed facets show 3.7 and 3.1 times higher photocatalytic activity than that of commercial Degussa P25 TiO2 toward the degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue, respectively. The higher activity of the rod shape TiO2 NCs is ascribed to the facetsphilic nature of the photogenerated carriers within the NCs. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NCs are found to be in the order of {101}+{100}/{010} (nanorods) > {101}+{001}+{100}/{010} (nanocuboids and nanocapsules) > {101} (nanoellipsoids) > {001} (nanosheets) providing the direct evidence of exposed facets-depended photocatalytic activity. PMID:25188808

Roy, Nitish; Park, Yohan; Sohn, Youngku; Leung, Kam Tong; Pradhan, Debabrata

2014-10-01

426

Evolution of the faceting, morphology and aspect ratio of gallium oxide nanowires grown by vapor-solid deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium oxide nanostructures with high aspect ratio and variable faceting were synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition method via vapor-solid growth mechanism. Systematic investigation of the growth conditions revealed that these nanowires can be produced under the conditions of high temperature and low precursor flow. The nanowires crystalize as the ?-phase Ga2O3, which has the monoclinic crystal structure. Preferred growth was along the [0 1 0] direction, as corroborated with lattice-resolved imaging and crystal plane models. The high degree of faceting is discussed in terms of the evolution of the nanowire cross section morphology, based on the growth rate of the facet boundaries relative to the nanowire surface planes. The obtained nanowires show intense blue emission, characterized by a broad-band photoluminescence spectrum with a maximum at 430 nm and long decay time. This emission arises from the defect-related donor-acceptor pair recombination mechanism, and depends on the nanostructure dimensionality and morphology. The possible influence of controlled nanowire faceting on the observed optical properties is also discussed. Owing to their morphology-dependent optical properties, these nanowires are promising building blocks for electronic and optoelectronic structures and devices.

Hosein, Ian D.; Hegde, Manu; Jones, Peter D.; Chirmanov, Vadim; Radovanovic, Pavle V.

2014-06-01

427

Psychometric Properties of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Depressed Adults and Development of a Short Form  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in therapies that include the learning of mindfulness skills. The 39-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) has been developed as a reliable and valid comprehensive instrument for assessing different aspects of mindfulness in community and student samples. In this study, the psychometric…

Bohlmeijer, Ernst; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Fledderus, Martine; Veehof, Martine; Baer, Ruth

2011-01-01

428

Faceted growth of primary Al{sub 2}Cu crystals during directional solidification in high magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The high magnetic field is widely used to modify the crystal morphology. In this work, the effect of the magnetic field on growing behavior of faceted crystals in the Al-40 wt. %Cu alloy was investigated using directional solidification technique. It was found that the faceted growth of primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase was degraded and the primary spacing was reduced upon applying the magnetic field. Additionally, the length of the mushy zone first decreased and then increased with increase of the magnetic field intensity. The quantitative analysis reveals that the shear stress induced by the fluid motion is insufficient to break the atom bonds at the solid-liquid interface. However, both of the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) and the thermoelectric magnetic force (TEMF) cause dendrites to fracture and reduce the primary spacing. The two effects also weaken the faceting growth. Moreover, the instability of the solid-liquid interface is generated by the TEMF, which further leads to degrade the faceted growth. The length of mushy zone was changed by the TEMC and reached the minimum in the magnetic field of 0.5 T, which is in good agreement with the predicted value (0.83 T)

Li, Chuanjun; Ren, Zhongming; Shen, Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Qiuliang; Dai, Yinming; Wang, Hui [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2013-10-21

429

Predictive Validity of the MMPI2 PSY-5 Scales and Facets for Law Enforcement Officer Employment Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales and facets showed small to medium levels of predictive validity in identifying law enforcement officer applicants who would later be forced to leave their agencies (n = 436 still employed, n = 164 forced to leave agency). The PSY-5 measures were moderately to strongly associated with measures of positive impression

Beth A. Caillouet; Marcus T. Boccaccini; Jorge G. Varela; Robert D. Davis; Cary D. Rostow

2010-01-01

430

Facet-Selective Epitaxial Growth of Heterogeneous Nanostructures of Semiconductor and Metal: ZnO Nanorods on Ag Nanocrystals  

E-print Network

of crystal structure. The various facets in a crystal may exhibit different physical and chemical properties of one nanomaterial on a specific crystal surface of the other material to afford novel heterogeneous the formation mechanism of these nanostructures. Ag-ZnO heterogeneous nanostructures were prepared by a seed

Wang, Zhong L.

431

Modeling and Analysis of Thrust Force and Torque in Drilling GFRP Composites by Multi-Facet Drill Using Fuzzy Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fiber reinforced plastics are finding increased applications in various engineering fields such as aerospace, automotive, electronics and other industries. Drilling is one of the most frequently practiced machining processes in industries owing to the need for component assembly in mechanical structures. In this work, experiments were conducted using 8 Facet Solid Carbide drills based on L27 Orthogonal Array. The

R. Vimal Sam Singh; B. Latha; V. S. Senthilkumar

432

11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint fundraising. 9034.8 Section 9034...MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.8 Joint fundraising. (a) General...funds under this subchapter may engage in joint fundraising with other candidates,...

2012-01-01

433

11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Joint fundraising. 9034.8 Section 9034...MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.8 Joint fundraising. (a) General...funds under this subchapter may engage in joint fundraising with other candidates,...

2013-01-01

434

29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Joint employment. 791.2 Section 791...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 § 791.2 Joint employment. (a) A single...

2010-07-01

435

29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Joint employment. 791.2 Section 791...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 § 791.2 Joint employment. (a) A single...

2013-07-01

436

24 CFR 570.308 - Joint requests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Joint requests. 570.308 Section 570.308 Housing...BLOCK GRANTS Entitlement Grants § 570.308 Joint requests. (a) Joint requests and cooperation agreements....

2014-04-01

437

11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint fundraising. 9034.8 Section 9034...MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.8 Joint fundraising. (a) General...funds under this subchapter may engage in joint fundraising with other candidates,...

2014-01-01

438

29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Joint employment. 791.2 Section 791...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 § 791.2 Joint employment. (a) A single...

2012-07-01

439

24 CFR 570.308 - Joint requests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Joint requests. 570.308 Section 570.308 Housing...BLOCK GRANTS Entitlement Grants § 570.308 Joint requests. (a) Joint requests and cooperation agreements....

2013-04-01

440

11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint fundraising. 9034.8 Section 9034...MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.8 Joint fundraising. (a) General...funds under this subchapter may engage in joint fundraising with other candidates,...

2011-01-01

441

29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Joint employment. 791.2 Section 791...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 § 791.2 Joint employment. (a) A single...

2014-07-01

442

24 CFR 570.308 - Joint requests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Joint requests. 570.308 Section 570.308 Housing...BLOCK GRANTS Entitlement Grants § 570.308 Joint requests. (a) Joint requests and cooperation agreements....

2012-04-01

443

11 CFR 9034.8 - Joint fundraising.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint fundraising. 9034.8 Section 9034...MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.8 Joint fundraising. (a) General...funds under this subchapter may engage in joint fundraising with other candidates,...

2010-01-01

444

24 CFR 570.308 - Joint requests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint requests. 570.308 Section 570.308 Housing...BLOCK GRANTS Entitlement Grants § 570.308 Joint requests. (a) Joint requests and cooperation agreements....

2010-04-01

445

24 CFR 570.308 - Joint requests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Joint requests. 570.308 Section 570.308 Housing...BLOCK GRANTS Entitlement Grants § 570.308 Joint requests. (a) Joint requests and cooperation agreements....

2011-04-01

446

29 CFR 791.2 - Joint employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Joint employment. 791.2 Section 791...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS JOINT EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP UNDER FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 § 791.2 Joint employment. (a) A single...

2011-07-01

447

22 CFR 228.34 - Joint ventures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Joint ventures. 228.34 Section 228.34 Foreign Relations...Services for USAID Financing § 228.34 Joint ventures. A joint venture or unincorporated association is eligible only...

2011-04-01

448

22 CFR 228.34 - Joint ventures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint ventures. 228.34 Section 228.34 Foreign Relations...Services for USAID Financing § 228.34 Joint ventures. A joint venture or unincorporated association is eligible only...

2010-04-01

449

Low frequency electromagnetic coupling through joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low frequency (quasi-static) penetration through joints is investigated numerically for a uniform joint and for local electrical contact joints. Overlapped joints improve greatly the shielding effectiveness of loaded aperture in comparison to an aperture bonded by non-overlapped junctions. The uniform joint results lead to the same results as Casey's formalism while the local electrical contact joints results show that shielding effectiveness reached constant value.

Sternberg, Marc; Gobin, Vincent; Issac, Francois

450

Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool (comBAT) is an Excel/VB-based bolted joint analysis/optimization program that lays out a systematic foundation for an inexperienced or seasoned analyst to determine fastener size, material, and assembly torque for a given design. Analysts are able to perform numerous what-if scenarios within minutes to arrive at an optimal solution. The program evaluates input design parameters, performs joint assembly checks, and steps through numerous calculations to arrive at several key margins of safety for each member in a joint. It also checks for joint gapping, provides fatigue calculations, and generates joint diagrams for a visual reference. Optimum fastener size and material, as well as correct torque, can then be provided. Analysis methodology, equations, and guidelines are provided throughout the solution sequence so that this program does not become a "black box:" for the analyst. There are built-in databases that reduce the legwork required by the analyst. Each step is clearly identified and results are provided in number format, as well as color-coded spelled-out words to draw user attention. The three key features of the software are robust technical content, innovative and user friendly I/O, and a large database. The program addresses every aspect of bolted joint analysis and proves to be an instructional tool at the same time. It saves analysis time, has intelligent messaging features, and catches operator errors in real time.

Imtiaz, Kauser

2011-01-01

451

Joint numerical ranges, quantum maps, and joint numerical shadows  

E-print Network

We associate with k hermitian N\\times N matrices a probability measure on R^k. It is supported on the joint numerical range of the k-tuple of matrices. We call this measure the joint numerical shadow of these matrices. Let k=2. A pair of hermitian N\\times N matrices defines a complex N\\times N matrix. The joint numerical range and the joint numerical shadow of the pair of hermitian matrices coincide with the numerical range and the numerical shadow, respectively, of this complex matrix. We study relationships between the dynamics of quantum maps on the set of quantum states, on one hand, and the numerical ranges, on the other hand. In particular, we show that under the identity resolution assumption on Kraus operators defining the quantum map, the dynamics shrinks numerical ranges.

Eugene Gutkin; Karol Zyczkowski

2012-07-05

452

The complexity of joint computation  

E-print Network

Joint computation is the ubiquitous scenario in which a computer is presented with not one, but many computational tasks to perform. A fundamental question arises: when can we cleverly combine computations, to perform them ...

Drucker, Andrew Donald

2012-01-01

453

JOINT NOTICE OF PRIVACY PRACTICES  

E-print Network

JOINT NOTICE OF PRIVACY PRACTICES THIS NOTICE DESCRIBES HOW MEDICAL INFORMATION ABOUT YOU MAY disclosure of your immunization data to the Wisconsin Immunization Registry. A request for restriction should

454

A simple nonlinear joint model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hertzian contact theory is applied to a butt joint with specially mismatched bearing surfaces to devise a simple mathematical model of nonlinear axial force-displacement behavior in jointed members. Normalized tangent stiffness-force plots, for several values of a joint imperfection parameter, are presented for the sample case of solid structural members of circular section. The results illustrate the potential problem of high joint compliance at low axial-force levels, as well as the generally desirable stiffening and linearizing effects of preload. A nonlinear oscillator problem based on the static model is also formulated and solved to illustrate the effect of amplitude on natural frequency. As expected, natural frequency is low when amplitude is small. The results call attention to the important roles that tight tolerances and preload are expected to play in the design and fabrication of deployable and erectable truss-type space structures.

Fichter, W. B.

1986-01-01

455

[Bone tissue metabolic features in tuberculous and nonspecific large joint lesions as evidenced by osteoscintigraphy].  

PubMed

Osteoscintigraphy was employed to study the bone tissue in 405 patients referred for tuberculous arthritis and its sequels or suspected tuberculosis. Tuberculous lesion was identified in 228 patients; there were nonspecific arthritides (n = 69), dystrophic diseases (n = 88), tumors (n = 8), and no bone involvement (n = 12). In active tuberculous ostitis, radiotracer hyperfixation (HF) was found to be marked and it was normal when the disease subsided. In tuberculous arthritis in the arthritic phase (synovitis and in full swing) HF was higher than that in arthrosis; in complicated forms (fistulas and abscesses) HF showed 5-to 15-fold increases in 19.5%. An insignificant HF was observed at the stage of subsidence. In nonspecific arthritis and dystrophic arthrosis, HF depended on the activity and stage of involvement. This procedure could provide an objective assessment of bone tissue changes, by substantially supplementing the basic X-ray study in both the examination of patients and the determination of further treatment policy. PMID:19227319

Savin, I B; Sovetova, N A; Serdobintsev, M S; Nakonechny?, G D

2008-01-01

456

A pain in the joints.  

PubMed

Arthralgia is a rare but recognised complication of meningococcal septicaemia. We report a case of a 29-year-old man presenting with a 24?h history of fever, joint swelling and subsequent development of a non-blanching, petechial rash. He was treated for probable meningococcal septicaemia and the causative pathogen was later identified as Neisseria meningitidis. He was treated with ceftriaxone and after 10?days the pain and swelling in his joints improved. PMID:25694633

Peters, Rosie; Virani, Farzana; Haddadin, Yazan; Baldowska, Helena

2015-01-01

457

Joint probabilities and quantum cognition  

E-print Network

In this paper we discuss the existence of joint probability distributions for quantum-like response computations in the brain. We do so by focusing on a contextual neural-oscillator model shown to reproduce the main features of behavioral stimulus-response theory. We then exhibit a simple example of contextual random variables not having a joint probability distribution, and describe how such variables can be obtained from neural oscillators, but not from a quantum observable algebra.

J. Acacio de Barros

2012-06-26

458

Joint probabilities and quantum cognition  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss the existence of joint probability distributions for quantumlike response computations in the brain. We do so by focusing on a contextual neural-oscillator model shown to reproduce the main features of behavioral stimulus-response theory. We then exhibit a simple example of contextual random variables not having a joint probability distribution, and describe how such variables can be obtained from neural oscillators, but not from a quantum observable algebra.

Acacio de Barros, J. [Liberal Studies, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)

2012-12-18

459

Young Children's Understanding of Joint Commitments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When adults make a joint commitment to act together, they feel an obligation to their partner. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether young children also understand joint commitments to act together. In the first study, when an adult orchestrated with the child a joint commitment to play a game together and then broke off from their joint

Grafenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2009-01-01

460

Joint Press Release TWELFTH ITER NEGOTIATION MEETING  

E-print Network

Joint Press Release TWELFTH ITER NEGOTIATION MEETING Jeju, Korea, 6 December th 2005 Delegations on an Agreement on the joint implementation of the ITER international fusion energy project. This was the first/6/05 1:21 PMDraft Joint News Release Page 1 of 2http://www.iter.org/N_12_Joint_Press_Release.htm #12