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Cervical facet joint kinematics during bilateral facet dislocation.  


Previous biomechanical models of cervical bilateral facet dislocation (BFD) are limited to quasi-static loading or manual ligament transection. The goal of the present study was to determine the facet joint kinematics during high-speed BFD. Dislocation was simulated using ten cervical functional spinal units with muscle force replication by frontal impact of the lower vertebra, tilted posteriorly by 42.5 degrees. Average peak rotations and anterior sliding (displacement of upper articulating facet surface along the lower), separation and compression (displacement of upper facet away from and towards the lower), and lateral shear were determined at the anterior and posterior edges of the right and left facets and statistically compared (P < 0.05). First, peak facet separation occurred, and was significantly greater at the left posterior facet edge, as compared to the anterior edges. Next, peak flexion rotation and anterior facet sliding occurred, followed by peak facet compression. The highest average facet translation peaks were 22.0 mm for anterior sliding, 7.9 mm for separation, 9.9 mm for compression and 3.6 mm for lateral shear. The highest average rotation of 63 degrees occurred in flexion, significantly greater than all other directions. These events occurred, on average, within 0.29 s following impact. During BFD, the main sagittal motions included facet separation, flexion rotation, anterior sliding, followed by compression, however, non-sagittal motions also existed. These motions indicated that unilateral dislocation may precede bilateral dislocation. PMID:17566792

Panjabi, Manohar M; Simpson, Andrew K; Ivancic, Paul C; Pearson, Adam M; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Yue, James J



Image-guided facet joint injection  

PubMed Central

Chronic spine pain poses a peculiar diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to multiple pain sources, overlapping clinical features and nonspecific radiological findings. Facet joint injection is an interventional pain management tool for facet-related spinal pain that can be effectively administered by a radiologist. This technique is the gold standard for identifying facet joints as the source of spinal pain. The major indications for facet injections include strong clinical suspicion of the facet syndrome, focal tenderness over the facet joints, low back pain with normal radiological findings, post-laminectomy syndrome with no evidence of arachnoiditis or recurrent disc disease, and persistent low back pain after spinal fusion. The contraindications are more ancillary, with none being absolute. Like any synovial joint degeneration, inflammation and injury can lead to pain on motion, initiating a vicious cycle of physical deconditioning, irritation of facet innervations and muscle spasm. Image-guided injection of local anesthetic and steroid into or around the facet joint aims to break this vicious cycle and thereby provide pain relief. This outpatient procedure has high diagnostic accuracy, safety and reproducibility but the therapeutic outcome is variable. PMID:21655113

Peh, WCG



Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of lumbar zygapophysial (facet) joint pain.  


Lumbar zygapophysial joint arthropathy is a challenging condition affecting up to 15% of patients with chronic low back pain. The onset of lumbar facet joint pain is usually insidious, with predisposing factors including spondylolisthesis, degenerative disc pathology, and old age. Despite previous reports of a "facet syndrome," the existing literature does not support the use of historic or physical examination findings to diagnose lumbar zygapophysial joint pain. The most accepted method for diagnosing pain arising from the lumbar facet joints is with low-volume intraarticular or medial branch blocks, both of which are associated with high false-positive rates. Standard treatment modalities for lumbar zygapophysial joint pain include intraarticular steroid injections and radiofrequency denervation of the medial branches innervating the joints, but the evidence supporting both of these is conflicting. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy, biomechanics, and function of the lumbar zygapophysial joints, along with a systematic analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of facet joint pain. PMID:17325518

Cohen, Steven P; Raja, Srinivasa N



Three-dimensional evaluation of the facet joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging nave revolurionalized analysis of vertebral anatomy and pathology. Further advances with 3-dimensional imaging have recently become an important adjunct for diagnosis and treatment in structural abnormalities. Facets are intimately related to their surrounding musculature and malalignment may cause pain directly or indirectly. High resolution 3-dimensional reformations of CT Scans give us new insight on structure and function of facet joints, since their motion and architecture are ever complex. It is well documented in the literature that facet joint biomecnanics is a partial contributor to the myriad at causes of low back The term "facet Joint syndrome" was coined in 1933 by GhorMley.3 The osteopathic lesion complex is well defined by LeRoy and McCole and comparison of roentgenographic findings before and after manipulation has teen described by Long and Lioyd.4,5 since alterations in facet biamechanics are an important aspect of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OT), 3-dimensional hign resolution imaging will prove to be a great asset in osteopathic research. Rotating the spine allows for different viewing perspectives to provide optimal and consistent measurements of the facet joint. Rotations are performed on the X, Y and 7, axis and measurements pre and post-manipulation are performed and compared on matching axis and perspectives. Rotation about the X, Y and Z axis help appreciate the 3-dimensionality of the vertebral column to project to the viewer a feeling that the spine is floating in space before them. This does give the viewer a 3-D understanding of the object however, only at a perspective at a Lime.

Folio, Les R.



Quantitative ultrasound assessment of the facet joint in the lumbar spine: a feasibility study.  


This study was designed to determine the feasibility and accuracy of a sonographic approach to assessment of facet joints of the lumbar spine in healthy populations. Five facet joints (L1-S1) on each side of 30 volunteers, for a total of 300 facet joints, were examined and evaluated by sonography and computed tomography. Parameters of the facet joints (height and width) were established to assess the facet joint in the parasagittal and transverse planes on all volunteers. Differences between means of continuous variables including age, height, weight, body surface area, body mass index and joint parameters were evaluated with Student's t-test. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between the mean values of facet joint parameters and age, height, body surface area and body mass index. In general, sonography revealed that facet joints had a clear and smooth border. There were no significant differences in width and height between the left and right facet joints at the same level by sonography. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that body mass index and age (p < 0.05) were the only independent factors modulating height of the facet joint. Facet joint width was independently influenced by age (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between ultrasound and computed tomography in mean measurements of height (1.23 ± 0.15 vs. 1.25 ± 0.07, p > 0.05) and width (0.17 ± 0.08 vs. 0.18 ± 0.07, p > 0.05) of the facet joint, respectively. In this article, we describe a feasible, accurate and simple technique for identification and depiction of facet joints of the lumbar spine in healthy populations. PMID:25638321

Liu, Da; Huang, Ying; Tian, Dan; Yin, Jing



Percutaneous CT-Guided Treatment of Lumbar Facet Joint Synovial Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptomatic intraspinal lumbar facet joint synovial cysts can be managed both conservatively and surgically. Diagnosis of\\u000a the lumbar facet joint cyst is made through cross-sectional imaging of the spine, either by computerized tomography (CT) scan,\\u000a myelography, or most commonly magnetic resonance imaging. Conservative treatment by facet joint injection can be performed\\u000a under fluoroscopic or CT guidance, although only CT guidance

Anthony Chang



Association between facet joint osteoarthritis and the Oswestry Disability Index  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the correlation of facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) at lumbar levels L4/L5 and L5/S1 and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). METHODS: The study involved lumbar MRIs of 591 patients with a mean age of 47.3 years. The MRIs of the lumbar spine were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner (Magnetom® Avanto, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) using a dedicated receive only spine coil. After initial blinding, each dataset was evaluated by 2 board certified radiologist with more than 5 years experience in musculoskeletal imaging. In total 2364 facet joints were graded. Degenerative changes of the facet joints were evaluated according to the 4-point scale as proposed by Weishaupt et al Functional status was assessed using the ODI. The index is scored from 0 to 100 and interpreted as follows: 0%-20%, minimal disability; 20%-40%, moderate disability; 40%-60%, severe disability; 60%-80%, crippled; 80%-100%, patients are bedbound. Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation was used for statistical analysis, with significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: In total 2364 facet joints at lumbar levels L4/5 and L5/S1 were analysed in 591 individuals. FJOA was present in 97% (L4/L5) and 98% (L5/S1). At level L4/5 (left/right) 17/15 (2.9%/2.5%) were described as grade 0, 146/147 (24.7%/24.9%) as grade 1, 290/302 (49.1%/51.1%) as grade 2 and 138/127 (23.4%/21.5%) as grade 3. At level L5/S1 (left/right) 10/11 (1.7%/1.9%) were described as grade 0, 136/136 (23.0%/23.0%) as grade 1, 318/325 (53.8%/55.0%) as grade 2 and 127/119 (21.5%/20.1%) as grade 3. Regarding the ODI scores, patients’ disability had a minimum of 0% and a maximum of 91.11% with an arithmetic mean of 32.77% ± 17.02%. The majority of patients (48.39%) had moderate functional disability (21%-40%). There was no significant correlation between FJOA and ODI on both sides of lumbar level L4/5 and on the left side of lumbar level L5/S1. A weak positive correlation was evaluated between ODI and FJOA on the right side of lumbar level L5/S1. CONCLUSION: The missing correlation of FJOA and ODI confirms our clinical experience that imaging alone is an insufficient approach explaining low back pain. Clinical correlation is imperative for an adequate diagnostic advance in patients with low back pain. PMID:25431643

Maataoui, Adel; Vogl, Thomas J; Middendorp, Marcus; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M Fawad



Cervical spine vertebral and facet joint kinematics under whiplash.  


Whiplash injuries sustained during a rear-end automobile collision have significant societal impact. The scientific literature on whiplash loading is both diverse and confusing. Definitive studies are lacking to describe the local mechanisms of injury that induce either acute or chronic pain symptoms. A methodology has been presented to quantify the kinematics of the cervical spine components by inducing controlled whiplash-type forces to intact human head-neck complexes. The localized facet joint kinematics and the overall segmental motions of the cervical spine are presented. It is anticipated that the use of this methodology will assist in a better delineation of the localized mechanisms of injury leading to whiplash pain. PMID:10412396

Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Klienberger, M



Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. METHODS: Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The

Laxmaiah Manchikanti; Mark V Boswell; Vijay Singh; Vidyasagar Pampati; Kim S Damron; Carla D Beyer



The relationship between lower neck shear force and facet joint kinematics during automotive rear impacts.  


A primary goal of biomechanical safety research is the definition of localized injury thresholds in terms of quantities that are repeatable and easily measureable during experimentation. Recent biomechanical experimentation using human cadavers has highlighted the role of lower cervical facet joints in the injury mechanism resulting from low-speed automotive rear impacts. The present study was conducted to correlate lower neck forces and moments with facet joint motions during simulated rear impacts in an effort to define facet joint injury tolerance thresholds that can be used to assess automobile safety. Four male and four female intact head-neck complexes were obtained from cadaveric specimens and subjected to simulated automotive rear impacts using a pendulum-minisled device. Cervical spine segmental angulations and localized facet joint kinematics were correlated to shear and axial forces, and bending moments at the cervico-thoracic junction using linear regression. R(2) coefficients indicated that spinal kinematics correlated well with lower neck shear force and bending moment. Correlation slope was steeper in female specimens, indicating greater facet joint motions for a given loading magnitude. This study demonstrated that lower neck loads can be used to predict lower cervical facet joint kinematics during automotive rear impacts. Higher correlation slope in female specimens corresponds to higher injury susceptibility in that population. Although lower neck shear force and bending moment demonstrated adequate correlation with lower cervical facet joint motions, shear force is likely the better predictor due to similarity in the timing of peak magnitudes with regard to maximum facet joint motions. PMID:21433081

Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J



Material Properties of the Human Lumbar Facet Joint Capsule  

PubMed Central

The human facet joint capsule is one of the structures in the lumbar spine that constrains motions of vertebrae during global spine loading (e.g., physiological flexion). Computational models of the spine have not been able to include accurate nonlinear and viscoelastic material properties, as they have not previously been measured. Capsules were tested using a uniaxial ramp-hold protocol or a haversine displacement protocol using a commercially available materials testing device. Plane strain was measured optically. Capsules were tested both parallel and perpendicular to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers in the capsules. Viscoelastic material properties were determined. Parallel to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers, the complex modulus of elasticity was E* = 1.63MPa, with a storage modulus of E? = 1.25MPa and a loss modulus of: E? = 0.39MPa. The mean stress relaxation rates for static and dynamic loading were best fit with first-order polynomials: B (?) = 0.1110 ? ? 0.0733 and B (?) = ?0.1249? 11794-8181 +0.0190, respectively. Perpendicular to the collagen fiber orientation, the viscous and elastic secant moduli were 1.81 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The mean stress relaxation rate for static loading was best fit with a first-order polynomial: B (?) = ? 0.04? ? 0.06. Capsule strength parallel and perpendicular to collagen fiber orientation was 1.90 and 0.95 MPa, respectively, and extensibility was 0.65 and 0.60, respectively. Poisson’s ratio parallel and perpendicular to fiber orientation was 0.299 and 0.488, respectively. The elasticity moduli were nonlinear and anisotropic, and capsule strength was larger aligned parallel to the collagen fibers. The phase lag between stress and strain increased with haversine frequency, but the storage modulus remained large relative to the complex modulus. The stress relaxation rate was strain dependent parallel to the collagen fibers, but was strain independent perpendicularly. PMID:15868784

Little, Jesse S.; Khalsa, Partap S.



Contact characteristics of the subtalar joint: load distribution between the anterior and posterior facets.  


The pressure distribution properties of the normal talocalcaneal joint were studied in 13 fresh cadaver specimens using pressure-sensitive film. The film was inserted into the joint through a posterior approach for the posterior facet and an anteromedial approach for the anterior/middle facet. Specimens, comprising the distal half of the tibia and fibula and the intact ankle and foot, were positioned in neutral in the sagittal plane. In the coronal plane, specimens were positioned in neutral, inversion, or eversion, and the contact characteristics were determined in varying positions, with and without loading the fibula, under axial loads of 350 N, 700 N, 1,050 N, and 1,400 N. The transducers were video imaged for quantitative analysis of area and pressure. The contact/joint area ratio increased significantly with applied load in the posterior facet [e.g., in eversion from 0.336 (SD = 0.195) at 350 N to 0.631 (SD = 0.225) at 700 N], as did the proportion of the contact area greater than 6 MPa, indicating an increase in contact pressure. The contact/joint area ratio was significantly lower in inversion than in any other position of the foot; however, high-pressure zones were similar, indicating that higher pressures occur in inversion. In the anterior/middle facets both contact/joint area ratio and high pressure/contact area ratios increased significantly to 700 N, but not with further load increase. At 350 N the anterior/middle facet contact area was 31% that of the posterior facet, yet it carried 63.3% of the load of the posterior facet, so its mean contact pressure was 1.44 MPa compared with 0.93 MPa for the posterior facet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1613627

Wagner, U A; Sangeorzan, B J; Harrington, R M; Tencer, A F



The Effects of Lumbar Facet Dowels on Joint Stiffness: A Biomechanical Study  

PubMed Central

Background Facet joint arthrosis may play a significant role in low back pain generation. The placement of facet dowels is a percutaneous treatment that aims to fuse the facets and increase joint stiffness. In this cadaveric study, we evaluated spine stiffness after facet dowel insertion in combination with several surgical procedures and determined which motions promote dowel migration. Methods Six fresh frozen lumbar spines were tested in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Spine stiffness was determined for the intact specimens, after L4 laminectomy, and after bilateral L4-L5 facet dowel placement, respectively. One specimen underwent a unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) construct and another underwent extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) graft (22 mm) placement, followed by placement of facet dowels. Afterwards, the specimens were subjected to 10,000 cycles of fatigue testing in flexion-extension or axial rotation. Results The overall decrease in stiffness after laminectomy was 4.6%. Facet dowel placement increased overall stiffness by 7.2%. The greatest increase was seen with axial rotation (13%), compared to flexion, extension, and lateral bending (9.5%, 2.3%, and 5.6%, respectively). The TLIF and XLIF plus dowel construct increased specimen stiffness to 266% and 163% of baseline, respectively. After fatigue testing, dowel migration was detected by computed tomography in the 2 uninstrumented specimens undergoing axial rotation cycling. Conclusion Facet dowels increase the stiffness of the motion segment to which they are applied and can be used in conjunction with laminectomy procedures to increase the stiffness of the joint. However, dowel migration can occur after axial rotation movements. Hybrid TLIF or XLIF plus facet dowel constructs have significantly higher stiffness than noninstrumented ones and may prevent dowel migration. PMID:24688332

Trahan, Jayme; Morales, Eric; Richter, Erich O.; Tender, Gabriel C.



Presence of NGF and its receptor TrkA in degenerative lumbar facet joint specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preliminary study, the recurrent presence of nervous terminations was demonstrated with optical microscopy in several\\u000a slides of degenerative lumbar facet joints and surrounding soft tissues. The purpose of this study was to prove the presence\\u000a of NGF (nerve growth factor) and its receptor TrkA (tyrosine kinase receptor) with immunofluorescence. The peri\\/articular\\u000a tissues were harvested from the lumbar facet

M. F. Surace; D. Prestamburgo; M. Campagnolo; A. Fagetti; L. Murena



The lumbar facet joint: a review of current knowledge: Part II: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the second article in a two-part review on lumbar facet joint pathology. In this review, we discuss the current\\u000a concepts and controversies regarding the proper diagnosis and management of patients presenting with presumed facet-mediated\\u000a lower back pain. All efforts were made to include the most relevant literature from the fields of radiology, orthopaedics,\\u000a physiatry, and pain management.

Gerard P. Varlotta; Todd R. Lefkowitz; Mark Schweitzer; Thomas J. Errico; Jeffrey Spivak; John A. Bendo; Leon Rybak



Osteochondroma arising from a lumbar facet joint in a 16-year-old.  


Osteochondromas are benign tumours of bony or cartilaginous origin, which may be solitary or multiple. They are rare in the axial skeleton and have previously been reported to arise from facet joints only in four cases in the English literature. We report the case of a 16-year-old girl who presented with a palpable bony lump and a short history of back pain. Imaging showed a bony lesion arising from a left-sided facet joint in the lumbar spine. Following excision biopsy, there was complete resolution of symptoms. The literature on the origin and management of spinal osteochondromas is discussed. PMID:25811920

Hancock, Graeme E; Mariathas, Chrishan; Fernandes, James A; Breakwell, Lee M; Cole, Ashley A; Michael, Antony L R



A Novel Modality for Facet Joint Denervation: Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation for Lumbar Facet Syndrome. A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background While cooled radiofrequency ablation (C-RFA) appears to be a promising technology for joint denervation, outcomes of this technique for the treatment of lumbar facet syndrome have not been described. We report clinical outcomes in a case series of patients treated with C-RFA for lumbar facet syndrome. Methods Consecutive patients aged 18-60 years diagnosed with lumbar facet syndrome, confirmed by ?75% symptom relief with at least one set of diagnostic medial branch nerve blocks, who underwent C-RFA between January 2007 and December 2013 in an urban academic pain center were included. The respective proportions of participants who reported ?50% improvement in pain and in function were calculated. Change in median NRS score, daily morphine equivalent consumption (DME), and medication quantification scale III (MQS III) score were measured. Results Twelve patients underwent C-RFA; three were lost to follow-up. The median and 25%-75% interquartile range (IQR) for age was 44 years (35, 54). The median duration of follow-up was 34 months, IQR (21, 55). The percentage and 95% confidence interval (CI) of patients who reported ?50% improvement in pain was 33% CI (12%, 64%) and in function was 78%, CI (41%, 96%). There was no significant change in DME or MSQ III score. Approximately 50% of patients sought additional healthcare by long-term follow-up. No complications were reported. Conclusions This case series suggests that C-RFA may improve function and to a lesser degree pain at long-term follow-up. A randomized, controlled trial is warranted.

McCormick, Zachary L; Walker, Jeremy; Marshall, Benjamin; McCarthy, Robert; Walega, David R



Finite element modeling approaches of human cervical spine facet joint capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human cervical spine facet joint capsule was modeled using four nonlinear finite element approaches: slideline, contact surface, hyperelastic, and fluid models. Slideline elements and contact surface definitions were used in the first two models to simulate the synovial fluid between the articulating cartilages. Incompressible solid elements approximated the synovial fluid in the hyperelastic model. Hydrostatic fluid elements idealized the

Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A Pintar



Determination of spinal facet joint loads from extra articular strains--a theoretical validation.  


Loads on the facet joints of the lumbar spine may play a role in low back pain. Abnormal loading of the facets, either primarily or as a consequence of disc degeneration, may accelerate their degeneration. Study of these phenomena is difficult, since here are few methods for a direct measure of facet forces occurring in vivo. The authors developed a method for the direct measure of facet forces in a canine animal model of spine disease using strain gages. The method used empirical calibration of the strain gages, which was used to reduce experimental strain output to facet force during function. In this Technical Note, a theoretical model is formulated, solved and validated which gives a theoretical basis for the data reduction method. The facet is modeled as a cantilevered plate and deformations, as function of applied normal load, solved for using a finite difference method. The model is validated by comparison with two experiments with strain-gaged facets. Results from the model show that a minimum of three strain gages is required to determine uniquely the location and magnitude of an applied load to the facet, and that at least two gages should be placed in the region where the cranial articular process joins the pedicle with the gage axis parallel to that of the process. Plate surface strains were found to be insensitive to changes in the area of the applied loads, for a given resultant force magnitude. The method may be useful in other applications in which resultant force magnitude and location need to be measured on plate-like structures. PMID:9147975

Luo, Z P; Buttermann, G R; Lewis, J L



Neuronal hyperexcitability in the dorsal horn after painful facet joint injury  

PubMed Central

Excessive cervical facet capsular ligament stretch has been implicated as a cause of whiplash-associated disorders following rear-end impacts, but the pathophysiological mechanisms that produce chronic pain in these cases remain unclear. Using a rat model of C6/C7 cervical facet joint capsule stretch that produces sustained mechanical hyperalgesia, the presence of neuronal hyperexcitability was characterized 7 days after joint loading. Extracellular recordings of spinal dorsal horn neuronal activity between C6 and C8 (117 neurons) were obtained from anesthetized rats, with both painful and non-painful behavioral outcomes established by the magnitude of capsule stretch. The frequency of neuronal firing during noxious pinch (p<0.0182) and von Frey filaments applications (4–26 g) to the forepaw was increased (p<0.0156) in the painful group compared to the non-painful and sham groups. In addition, the incidence and frequency of spontaneous and afterdischarge firing were greater in the painful group (p<0.0307) relative to sham. The proportion of cells in the deep laminae that responded as wide dynamic range neurons also was increased in the painful group relative to non-painful or sham groups (p<0.0348). These findings suggest that excessive facet capsule stretch, while not producing visible tearing, can produce functional plasticity of dorsal horn neuronal activity. The increase in neuronal firing across a range of stimulus magnitudes observed at day 7 post-injury provides the first direct evidence of neuronal modulation in the spinal cord following facet joint loading, and suggests that facet-mediated chronic pain following whiplash injury is driven, at least in part, by central sensitization. PMID:20739124

Quinn, Kyle P.; Dong, Ling; Golder, Francis J.; Winkelstein, Beth A.



Spinal neuronal plasticity is evident within 1 day after a painful cervical facet joint injury  

PubMed Central

Excessive stretch of the cervical facet capsular ligament induces persistent pain and spinal plasticity at later time points. Yet, it is not known when such spinal modifications are initiated following this painful injury. This study investigates the development of hyperalgesia and neuronal hyperexcitability in the spinal cord after a facet joint injury. Behavioral sensitivity was measured in a model of painful C6/C7 facet joint injury in the rat, and neuronal hyperexcitability in the spinal cord was evaluated at 6 hours and 1 day after injury or a sham procedure, in separate groups. Extracellular recordings of C6/C7 dorsal horn neuronal activity (229 neurons) were used to quantify spontaneous and evoked firing. Rats exhibited no change in sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the forepaw at 6 hours, but did exhibit increased sensitivity at 1 day after injury (p=0.012). At 6 hours, both spontaneous neuronal activity and firing evoked by light brushing, pinch, and von Frey filaments (1.4–26g) applied at the forepaw were not different between sham and injury. At 1 day, spontaneous firing was noted in a greater number of neurons after injury than sham (p<0.04). Evoked firing was also increased 1 day after injury compared to normal and sham (p<0.03). Dorsal horn hyperexcitability and increased spontaneous firing developed between 6 and 24 hours after painful facet injury, suggesting that the development of hyperalgesia parallels dorsal horn hyperexcitability following mechanical facet joint injury, and these spinal mechanisms are initiated as early as 1 day after injury. PMID:23523644

Crosby, Nathan D.; Weisshaar, Christine L.; Winkelstein, Beth A.



Finite element modeling approaches of human cervical spine facet joint capsule.  


The human cervical spine facet joint capsule was modeled using four nonlinear finite element approaches: slideline, contact surface, hyperelastic, and fluid models. Slideline elements and contact surface definitions were used in the first two models to simulate the synovial fluid between the articulating cartilages. Incompressible solid elements approximated the synovial fluid in the hyperelastic model. Hydrostatic fluid elements idealized the synovial fluid in the fluid model. The finite element analysis incorporated geometric, material and contact nonlinearities. All models were subjected to compression, flexion, extension, and lateral bending. The fluid model idealization better approximates the actual facet joint anatomy and its behavior than the gap assumption in the slideline and contact surface models, and the solid element simulation in the hyperelastic model. PMID:9672091

Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A



Axial head rotation increases facet joint capsular ligament strains in automotive rear impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axial head rotation prior to low speed automotive rear impacts has been clinically identified to increase morbidity and symptom\\u000a duration. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of axial head rotation on facet joint capsule strains during\\u000a simulated rear impacts. The study was conducted using a validated intact head to first thoracic vertebra (T1) computational\\u000a model. Parametric analysis

Steven G. Storvik; Brian D. Stemper



Congenital absence of lumbosacral articular facet joint associated with conjoined nerve root: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a rare case of congenital absence of the L5-S1 facet joint, which was associated with a conjoined nerve root. Combination\\u000a of these two anomalies has been quite rarely reported in the literature. A 39-year-old man presented with acute low back pain\\u000a and right leg radiating pain. Muscle weakness and sensory disturbance of the right leg were also apparent

Shinji Yoshioka; Koichi Sairyo; Toshinori Sakai; Natsuo Yasui



Pigmented villonodular synovitis originating from the lumbar facet joint: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors successfully treated a rare case of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) that originated from the lumbar facet\\u000a joint (L4-5). A 43-year-old man presented with a complaint of left severe sciatica causing difficulty in walking. Magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an extradural mass on the left side at L4 and the mass compressed the dural tube and\\u000a was continuous with

Kenichi Oe; Kunihiko Sasai; Yugo Yoshida; Hiroyuki Ohnari; Hirokazu Iida; Noriko Sakaida; Yoshiko Uemura



CT-Guided Transfacet Pedicle Screw Fixation in Facet Joint Syndrome: A Novel Approach.  


Axial microinstability secondary to disc degeneration and consequent chronic facet joint syndrome (CFJS) is a well-known pathological entity, usually responsible for low back pain (LBP). Although posterior lumbar fixation (PIF) has been widely used for lumbar spine instability and LBP, complications related to wrong screw introduction, perineural scars and extensive muscle dissection leading to muscle dysfunction have been described. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of facet joints zygapophyseal nerves conventionally used for pain treatment fails in approximately 21% of patients. We investigated a "covert-surgery" minimal invasive technique to treat local spinal instability and LBP, using a novel fully CT-guided approach in patients with axial instability complicated by CFJS resistant to radioablation, by introducing direct fully or partially threaded transfacet screws (transfacet fixation - TFF), to acquire solid arthrodesis, reducing instability and LBP. The CT-guided procedure was well tolerated by all patients in simple analogue sedation, and mean operative time was approximately 45 minutes. All eight patients treated underwent clinical and CT study follow-up at two months, revealing LBP disappearance in six patients, and a significant reduction of lumbar pain in two. In conclusion, CT-guided TFF is a fast and safe technique when facet posterior fixation is needed. PMID:25363265

Manfré, Luigi



An experimental method for measuring force on the spinal facet joint: description and application of the method.  


A technique is described for measuring load magnitude and resultant load contact location in the facet joint in response to applied loads and moments, and the technique applied to the canine lumbar spine motion segment. Due to the cantilever beam geometry of the cranial articular process, facet joint loads result in surface strains on the lateral aspect of the cranial articular process. Strains were quantified by four strain gages cemented to the bony surface of the process. Strain measured at any one gage depended on the loading site on the articular surface of the caudal facet and on the magnitude of the facet load. Determination of facet loads during in vitro motion segment testing required calibration of the strains to known loads of various magnitudes applied to multiple sites on the caudal facet. The technique is described in detail, including placement of the strain gages. There is good repeatability of strains to applied facet loads and the strains appear independent of load distribution area. Error in the technique depends on the location of the applied facet loads, but is only significant in nonphysiologic locations. The technique was validated by two independent methods in axial torsion. Application of the technique to five in vitro canine L2-3 motion segments testing resulted in facet loads (in newtons, N) of 74+ / -23 N (mean + / -STD) in 2 newton-meter, Nm, extension, to unloaded in flexion. Lateral bending resulted in loads in the right facet of 40+ / -32 N for 1 Nm right lateral bending and 54+ / -29 N for 1 Nm left lateral bending. 4 Nm Torsion with and without 100 N axial compression resulted in facet loads of 92+ / -27 N and 69+ / -19 N, respectively. The technique is applicable to dynamic and in vivo studies. PMID:1762433

Buttermann, G R; Kahmann, R D; Lewis, J L; Bradford, D S



A New Technique to Treat Facet Joint Pain With Pulsed Radiofrequency  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Facet joint pain affects 5% to 15% of the population with low back pain and the prevalence increases with age due to progression of arthritis. While conservative treatments are often unsuccessful, the scientific evidence on minimally invasive therapies such as intra-articular steroid infiltration and continuous and pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) of the medial branches is contradictory. Since PRF has recently been reported to successfully treat joint pain, a new application of this method is proposed for facetogenic lumbar pain via an intra-articular subcapsular approach. Here we reported two cases with successful treatment. Case Presentation: A 71-year-old patient presented because of persisting pain in the left gluteal region radiating to the lateral thigh and calf when standing. Anti-inflammatory drugs produced only short-lasting insufficient relief. A 52-year-old employee was admitted in June 2012 because of axial lower lumbar pain with intermittent diffuse radiation to the right lower extremity that worsened during walking and lying down despite receiving analgesics and physiotherapy. Conclusions: A new approach to treat lumbar facet joint pain with PRF is simple to perform and without serious complications. In view of the good long-lasting results obtained with the two reported cases, randomized control trials are necessary to validate this new approach.

Schianchi, Pietro Martino



Effectiveness of Repeated Radiofrequency Neurotomy for Facet joint Syndrome after Microscopic Discectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective Postoperative facet joint syndrome requiring radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) is a relatively common problem following microscopic discectomy. However, the efficacy of repeated RFN after microscopic discectomy has not been clearly documented. The purpose of this study was to determine the success rate and symptom-free duration of repeated RFN for facet joint syndrome after microscopic discectomy. Methods Medical records from 56 patients, who had undergone successful initial RFN following microscopic discectomy, experienced recurrence of pain, and subsequently had repeated RFN, were reviewed and evaluated. Responses of repeated RFN were compared with initial radiofrequency neurotomy for success rates and duration of relief. The criterion for RFN to be successful was defined as greater than 50% relief from pain and sufficient satisfaction of patients with prior RFN to have repeated RFN. Results Fifty-six patients (41 women and 15 men; mean age=48 years) had repeated RFNs, which were successful in all except three patients. RFN denervated three bilateral segments (L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1) in all patients. Mean duration of relief after initial RFN was 9.2 months (range 3-14). The mean duration of relief after secondary RFN in 53 patients was 9.0 months (range 4-14). The success rates and duration of relief remained consistent after subsequent RFNs. Conclusion Repeated RFN for lumbar facet joint pain after microscopic discectomy is an effective palliative treatment. It provided a mean duration of relief of 9.0 months and >94% success rate. PMID:25620983

Kim, Myung Hoon; Kim, Seok Won; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Dong Min



Septic arthritis of a lumbar facet joint: Detection with bone SPECT imaging  

SciTech Connect

We present a rare case of septic arthritis of a lumbar facet joint with an associated epidural abscess resulting from Staphylococcus aureus. The infection was initially detected with planar bone scintigraphy and precisely localized with single photon emission computed tomography bone scintigraphy, despite an initially negative radiologic evaluation that included radiographs of the lumbar spine, lumbar myelography, and a postmyelography x-ray computed tomography scan. In the appropriate clinical setting, a bone scan demonstrating unilateral increased activity within the spine should raise the suspicion of inflammatory involvement of the posterior elements.

Swayne, L.C.; Dorsky, S.; Caruana, V.; Kaplan, I.L. (Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (USA))



Morphological and biomechanical analyses of the subchondral mineralized zone in human sacral facet joints: Application to improved diagnosis of osteoarthritis.  


The anatomy of the facet joint subchondral mineralized zone (SMZ) is the main parameter used in diagnosing osteoarthritis. Usually, a single CT scan slice is used to measure the thickness, but the measurement is highly location-dependent. Bone mineral density (BMD) and porosity could be more reliable than thickness for detecting SMZ sclerosis, and linking them to stiffness can provide insights into the mechanism of osteoarthritis progression. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1) to assess spatial heterogeneity in thickness, BMD, and porosity within the non-pathological human facet joint SMZ; (2) to correlate these measurements with the static modulus of elasticity (MOEsta ). Four non-pathological facet joints were excised and imaged using micro-computed tomography (µCT) to measure SMZ thickness, BMD, and porosity. A total of eight parallelepiped SMZ samples were similarly analyzed and then mechanically tested. The mean SMZ BMD, porosity, and thickness (± Standard Deviation) of the whole facet joints were 611 ± 35 mgHA/cc, 9.8 ± 1.3%, and 1.39 ± 0.41 mm, respectively. The mean BMD, porosity, and MOEsta of the eight SMZ samples were 479 ± 23 mgHA/cc, 12 ± 0.01%, and 387 ± 138 MPa, respectively, with a positive rank correlation between BMD and porosity. BMD and porosity were more homogeneous within the facet joint than thickness and they could be more reliable parameters than thickness for detecting SMZ sclerosis. The values for the physiological SMZ and MOEsta of human facets joints obtained here were independent of BMD. SMZ BMD and porosity were related to each other. Clin. Anat. 28:538-544, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25716678

Berteau, Jean-Philippe; Mielke, Gabriela; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd




PubMed Central

Study Design This study implemented immunohistochemistry to assay prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP2 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats after painful cervical facet joint injury. Objective The objective of this study was to identify if inflammatory cascades are induced in association with cervical facet joint distraction-induced pain by investigating the time course of EP2 expression in the DRG. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint is a common source of neck pain and non-physiological stretch of the facet capsular ligament can initiate pain from the facet joint via mechanical injury. PGE2 levels are elevated in painful inflamed and arthritic joints, and PGE2 sensitizes joint afferents to mechanical stimulation. Although in vitro studies suggest the EP2 receptor subtype contributes to painful joint disease the EP2 response has not been investigated for any association with painful mechanical joint injury. Methods Separate groups of male Holtzman rats underwent either a painful cervical facet joint distraction injury or sham procedure. Bilateral forepaw mechanical allodynia was assessed, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify EP2 expression in the DRG at days 1 and 7. Results Facet joint distraction induced mechanical allodynia that was significant (p<0.024) at all time points. Painful joint injury also significantly elevated total EP2 expression in the DRG at day 1 (p=0.009), which was maintained also at day 7 (p<0.001). Neuronal expression of EP2 in the DRG was only increased over sham levels at day 1 (p=0.013). Conclusions Painful cervical facet joint distraction induces an immediate and sustained increase of EP2 expression in the DRG, implicating peripheral inflammation in the initiation and maintenance of facet joint pain. The transient increase in neuronal EP2 suggests, as in other painful joint conditions, that after joint injury non-neuronal cells may migrate to the DRG, some of which likely express EP2. PMID:22789984

Kras, Jeffrey V.; Dong, Ling; Winkelstein, Beth A.



Percutaneous Procedures for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Lower Back Pain: Diskography, Facet-Joint Injection, and Epidural Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the indications, techniques, complica- tions, and results of three percutaneous procedures used to evaluate and treat lower back pain: diskography, facet-joint injec- tion, and epidural injection. Diskography, performed by injection of contrast medium into the nucleus pulposus, is a technique used to determine the cause of lower back pain in patients in whom findings on other imaging

Georges Y. El-Khoury; Donald L. Renfrew


Diagnostic Value of Lumbar Facet Joint Injection: A Prospective Triple Cross-Over Study  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis “lumbar facet syndrome” is common and often indicates severe lumbar spine surgery procedures. It is doubtful whether a painful facet joint (FJ) can be identified by a single FJ block. The aim of this study was to clarify the validity of a single and placebo controlled bilateral FJ blocks using local anesthetics. A prospective single blinded triple cross-over study was performed. 60 patients (31 f, 29 m, mean age 53.2 yrs (22–73)) with chronic low back pain (mean pain persistance 31 months, 6 months of conservative treatment without success) admitted to a local orthopaedic department for surgical or conservative therapy of chronic LBP, were included in the study. Effect on pain reduction (10 point rating scale) was measured. The 60 subjects were divided into six groups with three defined sequences of fluoroscopically guided bilateral monosegmental lumbar FJ test injections in “oblique needle” technique: verum-(local anaesthetic-), placebo-(sodium chloride-) and sham-injection. Carry-over and periodic effects were evaluated and a descriptive and statistical analysis regarding the effectiveness, difference and equality of the FJ injections and the different responses was performed. The results show a high rate of non-response, which documents the lack of reliable and valid predictors for a positive response towards FJ blocks. There was a high rate of placebo reactions noted, including subjects who previously or later reacted positively to verum injections. Equivalence was shown among verum vs. placebo and partly vs. sham also. With regard to test validity criteria, a single intraarticular FJ block with local anesthetics is not useful to detect the pain-responsible FJ and therefore is no valid and reliable diagostic tool to specify indication of lumbar spine surgery. Comparative FJ blocks with local anesthetics and placebo-controls have to be interpretated carefully also, because they solely give no proper diagnosis on FJ being main pain generator. PMID:22140497

Schütz, Uwe; Cakir, Balkan; Dreinhöfer, Karsten; Richter, Marcus; Koepp, Holger



Incorporation of Lower Neck Shear Forces to Predict Facet Joint Injury Risk in Low-Speed Automotive Rear Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower neck shear force remains a viable candidate for a low-velocity automotive rear-impact injury criterion. Data were previously reported to demonstrate high correlations between the magnitude of lower neck shear force and lower cervical spine facet joint motions. The present study determined the ability of lower neck shear force to predict soft-tissue injury risk in simulated automotive rear impacts. Rear-impact

Brian D. Stemper; Steven G. Storvik




PubMed Central

Study Design This study used immunohistochemistry and an enzyme immunoassay to quantify interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and prostaglanding E2 (PGE2) levels in the spinal cord of rats at one day after painful cervical facet joint injury. Objective The objective of this study was to determine to what extent spinal inflammation is initiated early after a painful loading-induced injury of the C6/C7 facet joint in a rat model. Summary of Background Data A common source of neck pain, the cervical facet joint is susceptible to loading-induced injury, which can lead to persistent pain. IL-1? and PGE2 are associated with joint inflammation and pain, both locally in the joint and centrally in the spinal cord. Joint inflammation has been shown to contribute to pain after facet joint injury. Although spinal neuronal hyperactivity is evident within one day of painful facet injury, it is unknown if inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1? and PGE2, are also induced early after painful injury. Methods Rats underwent either a painful C6/C7 facet joint distraction or sham procedure. Mechanical sensitivity was assessed, and immunohistochemical and enzyme immunoassay techniques were utilized to quantify IL-1? and PGE2 expression in the spinal cord at day 1. Results Both IL-1? and PGE2 were significantly elevated (p?0.04) at day 1 after painful injury. Moreover, although both spinal IL-1? and PGE2 levels were correlated with the withdrawal threshold in response to mechanical stimulation of the forepaw, this correlation was only significant (p=0.01) for PGE2. Conclusions The increased expression of two inflammatory markers in the spinal cord at one day after painful joint injury suggest that spinal inflammation may contribute to the initiation of pain after cervical facet joint injury. Further studies will help identify functional roles of both spinal IL-1? and PGE2 in loading-induced joint pain. PMID:24253784

Kras, Jeffrey V.; Dong, Ling; Winkelstein, Beth A.



Effect of changing lumbar stiffness by single facet joint dysfunction on the responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to vertebral movement  

PubMed Central

Objective: Individuals experiencing low back pain often present clinically with intervertebral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether relative changes in stiffness at a single spinal joint alters neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. Methods: Muscle spindle discharge was recorded in response to 1mm L6 ramp and hold movements (0.5mm/s) in the same animal for lumbar laminectomy-only (n=23), laminectomy & L5/6 facet screw (n=19), laminectomy & L5/6 facetectomy (n=5) conditions. Mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) was calculated for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down and post-ramp phases during each joint condition. Results: Mean MIFs were not significantly different between the laminectomy-only and the other two types of joint dysfunction for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down, or post-ramp phases. Conclusion: Stiffness changes caused by single facet joint dysfunction failed to alter spindle responses during slow 1mm ramp and hold movements of the L6 vertebra. PMID:24932020

Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Long, Cynthia R.



Effects of anterior lumbar spinal fusion on the distribution of nerve endings and mechanoreceptors in the rabbit facet joint: quantitative histological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the density and distribution of neural endings in rabbit lumbar facet joints after anterior spinal fusion and to evaluate the effects of intervertebral immobilization. An extraperitoneal approach was applied, and L5\\/6 was fixed with a plate and screws. Bilateral L4\\/5, L5\\/6, and L6\\/7 facet joint capsules were harvested from the rabbits 4,

Takeshi Onodera; Yasumasa Shirai; Masabumi Miyamoto; Yoshikazu Genbun



[Joint-preserving osteotomy of malunited ankle and pilon fractures].  


Malunion and nonunion after ankle and pilon fractures regularly lead to the development of painful functional impairment even in cases of only mild axial deviation or residual joint incongruity. Involvement of the tibial pilon results in rapid progression of posttraumatic ankle arthritis. Corrective osteotomy with joint preservation aims at secondary anatomical reconstruction with functional rehabilitation. This requires a careful preoperative analysis and will be possible in carefully selected cases only. Prerequisites for successful reconstruction are intact cartilage, sufficient bone quality, residual joint function and good patient compliance. Since the works of B. G. Weber, joint-sparing osteotomy is an established treatment option for malunited malleolar fractures with reliable long-term results and low rates of complications and secondary fusions. Key to success is the re-establishment of the length of the distal fibula and repositioning into the tibial incisura in cases of syndesmotic instability. Corrections of the medial malleolus and posterior tibial fragment are less frequent. Corrective intra-articular osteotomies for malunited pilon fractures are rarely feasible because of manifest arthritis at the time of patient presentation in most cases. Besides case reports there is only one series of 14 patients available in the literature. At 5-year follow-up, a good to excellent result was seen in 10 cases and secondary ankle fusion was done in 2 patients with a poor result. Anatomical reconstruction of malunited tibial pilon fractures appears to be a viable treatment option besides arthroplasty and fusion in carefully selected patients. PMID:23975052

Rammelt, S; Marti, R K; Zwipp, H



Establishment of a rat model of lumbar facet joint osteoarthritis using intraarticular injection of urinary plasminogen activator.  


Lumbar facet joint (LFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is an important etiology of low back pain. Several animal models of LFJ OA have been established using intraarticular injection of various chemicals. This study aimed to establish a rat model of LFJ OA using urinary plasminogen activator (uPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with intraarticular injection in the L5-L6 facet joints with uPA (OA group, n = 40) or normal saline (vehicle group, n = 40). Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hind paws were evaluated using von Frey hairs and a thermoalgesia instrument, respectively. Toluidine blue staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemical examination of the LFJ was performed. Treatment with uPA induced cartilage damage, synovitis, and proliferation of synovial cells in the fact joints. The OA group showed significantly higher hyperalgesia in the hind paws in comparison with the vehicle group and normal controls (P < 0.05). Expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, and iNOS in the LFJ cartilage in the OA group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). A rat model of LFJ OA was successfully established using intraarticular injection of uPA. This animal model is convenient and shows good resemblance to human OA pathology. PMID:25892493

Shuang, Feng; Hou, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Jia-Liang; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Li; Tang, Jia-Guang



The Prevalence of Lumbar Spine Facet Joint Osteoarthritis and Its Association with Low Back Pain in Selected Korean Populations  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to evaluate the association of lumbar spine facet joint osteoarthritis (LSFJOA) identified by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) with age and low back pain (LBP) in an adult community-based population in Korea. Methods A sample of 472 participants (age range, 20 to 84 years) who underwent MDCT imaging for abdominal or urological lesions, not for chief complaints of LBP, were included in this study. LSFJOA based on MDCT findings was characterized using four grades of osteoarthritis of the facet joints. The prevalence of LSFJOA according to age group (below 40 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, and above 70 years), gender, and spinal level was analyzed using chi-square tests and the association between LBP and LSFJOA adjusting for age, gender, and spine level was analyzed using multiple binary logistic regression test. Results Eighty-three study subjects (17.58%) had LSFJOA (grade ? 2). The prevalence of LSFJOA was not associated with gender (p = 0.092). The prevalence of LSFJOA increased with age (p = 0.015). The highest prevalence of LSFJOA was observed at L4-5 in men (p = 0.001) and at L5-S1 in women (p = 0.003), and at L5-S1 in the overall population (p = 0.000). LSFJOA was not associated with LBP in men (p = 0.093) but was associated with LBP in women (p = 0.003), especially at L3-4 (p = 0.018) and L5-S1 (p = 0.026). Conclusions The prevalence of LSFJOA based on the computed tomography imaging was 17.58% in the adult community Korean population. The prevalence of LSFJOA increased with age, and the highest prevalence was noted at L5-S1. LSFJOA was not associated with LBP at any spinal level and age except at L3-4 and L5-S1 in women. PMID:25436061

Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Lee, Sangwook; Lee, Jaekun; Chang, Hojin



Increased pelvic incidence may lead to arthritis and sagittal orientation of the facet joints at the lower lumbar spine  

PubMed Central

Background Correct sagittal alignment with a balanced pelvis and spine is crucial in the management of spinal disorders. The pelvic incidence (PI) describes the sagittal pelvic alignment and is position-independent. It has barely been investigated on CT scans. Furthermore, no studies have focused on the association between PI and facet joint (FJ) arthritis and orientation. Therefore, our goal was to clarify the remaining issues about PI in regard to (1) physiologic values, (2) age, (3) gender, (4) lumbar lordosis (LL) and (5) FJ arthritis and orientation using CT scans. Methods We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of 620 individuals, with a mean age of 43 years, who presented to our traumatology department and underwent a whole body CT scan, between 2008 and 2010. The PI was determined on sagittal CT planes of the pelvis by measuring the angle between the hip axis to an orthogonal line originating at the center of the superior end plate axis of the first sacral vertebra. We also evaluated LL, FJ arthritis and orientation of the lumbar spine. Results 596 individuals yielded results for (1) PI with a mean of 50.8°. There was no significant difference for PI and (2) age, nor (3) gender. PI was significantly and linearly correlated with (4) LL (p?=?< 0.0001). Interestingly, PI and (5) FJ arthritis displayed a significant and linear correlation (p?=?0.0062) with a cut-off point at 50°. An increased PI was also significantly associated with more sagitally oriented FJs at L5/S1 (p?=?0.01). Conclusion PI is not correlated with age nor gender. However, this is the first report showing that PI is significantly and linearly associated with LL, FJ arthritis and more sagittal FJ orientation at the lower lumbar spine. This may be caused by a higher contact force on the lower lumbar FJs by an increased PI. Once symptomatic or in the event of spinal trauma, patients with increased PI and LL could benefit from corrective surgery and spondylodesis. PMID:24188071



Glenohumeral joint preservation: current options for managing articular cartilage lesions in young, active patients.  


This is a review of joint-preservation techniques for the shoulder. Whereas the management of diffuse articular cartilage loss in the glenohumeral joints of elderly and less active patients by total shoulder arthroplasty is well accepted, significant controversy persists in selecting and refining successful operative techniques to repair symptomatic glenohumeral cartilage lesions in the shoulders of young, active patients. The principal causes of focal and diffuse articular cartilage damage in the glenohumeral joint, including previous surgery, trauma, acute or recurrent dislocation, osteonecrosis, infection, chondrolysis, osteochondritis dissecans, inflammatory arthritides, rotator cuff arthropathy, and osteoarthritis, are discussed. Focal cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint are often difficult to diagnose and require a refined and focused physical examination as well as carefully selected imaging studies. This review offers a concise guide to surgical decision making and up-to-date summaries of the current techniques available to treat both focal chondral defects and more massive structural osteochondral defects. These techniques include microfracture, osteoarticular transplantation (OATS [Osteochondral Autograft Transfer System]; Arthrex, Naples, FL), autologous chondrocyte implantation, bulk allograft reconstruction, and biologic resurfacing. As new approaches to glenohumeral cartilage repair and shoulder joint preservation evolve, there continues to be a heightened need for collaborative research and well-designed outcomes analysis to facilitate successful patient care. PMID:20434669

Elser, Florian; Braun, Sepp; Dewing, Christopher B; Millett, Peter J



Unusual presentation of giant cell tumor originating from a facet joint of the thoracic spine in a child: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Giant cell tumor of the synovium is a common benign lesion that frequently occurs at the tendon sheaths in the hand; it is usually found in adults over 30 years old. It is related to pigmented villonodular synovitis. Giant cell tumor of the synovium or pigmented villonodular synovitis has been described rarely in the axial skeleton especially in the thoracic vertebrae of a child. Case presentation A previously healthy 7-year-old Thai girl presented with back pain and progressive paraparesis and was unable to walk for 1 month. She had weakness and hyperreflexia of both lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined homogeneously and intensely enhanced extradural mass with cord compression at T4 to T7 levels. The patient underwent laminectomy at T4 through to T7 and total tumor removal. Permanent histopathologic sections and immunostains revealed a giant cell tumor of the synovium. Postoperative neurological status recovered to grade V. Magnetic resonance imaging at the 1-year follow-up showed no recurrence and there was no clinical recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion We report an extremely rare case of giant cell tumor in the epidural space that extended from a thoracic facet joint. The tumor was removed successfully through laminectomies. Although giant cell tumor of a facet joint of the thoracic spine is very rare, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis for masses occurring in the epidural space in a child. Total tumor removal is the best treatment. Careful monitoring of recurrence can achieve a good clinical outcome. PMID:23830026



Joint preserving surgery versus arthrodesis in operative treatment of patients with neuromuscular polyneuropathy: questionnaire assessment.  


The purpose of the paper was to present the results of surgical treatment of foot deformities in peripheral neuropathies using bone procedures: both joint preserving and with joint arthrodesis. The study included 26 patients, 14 males and 12 females (43 feet). The age of the patients at surgery ranged from 5 to 55 years (average 23 years). The follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 15 years (average 4.3 years). Seventeen patients presented Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, three Friedreich's ataxia and six peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies of undetermined nature. Sixteen patients had bilateral procedures. Four patients had to be re-operated during the follow-up. The patients were divided into four groups depending on the age and the surgical technique applied. The groups I and II (9 children, 17 feet) included patients with growth plate still present in the foot just before surgery. In the groups III and IV (17 adults, 26 feet), bone growth was completed. The assessment of all patients based on a modified AOFAS scale ranged from 44 to 105 points (mean 83.7; SD 17.5). The assessment on the subjective scale ranged from 3 to 10 points (mean 7.4; SD 2.1). The assessment of quality of life on the WOMAC scale ranged from 0 to 41 points (mean 15.7; SD 13.2). All patients stated that they would decide to undergo the treatment again. For groups I and II, joint preserving surgeries gave better results; however, the results could not be statistically confirmed. The results for the groups III and IV were inconclusive as to which surgical techniques should be preferred, arthrodesis or joint preserving. The results show that none of the surgical techniques used for correction of foot deformities in motor-sensory polyneuropathies seems to be preferable. PMID:24968792

Napiontek, Marek; Pietrzak, Krzysztof



A Comparison of the Degree of Lateral Recess and Foraminal Enlargement With Facet Preservation in the Treatment of Lumbar Stenosis With Standard Surgical Tools Versus a Novel Powered Filing Instrument: A Cadaver Study  

PubMed Central

Background The SurgiFile (SurgiFile, Inc., Carlsbad, California) is a specialized tool designed for the treatment of lateral recess and foraminal stenosis that allows surgeons to internally expand and decompress the entire length of the neural foramen while preserving the integrity of the overlying facet complex. Methods We used two cadaveric specimens in this study. After they removed the lamina and spinous processes of L2, L3, L4, and L5 from the dorsal spine, fellowship-trained spinal surgeons used the standard tools and the SurgiFile to the best of their experience and ability on alternating sides of each level to decompress the lateral recess and neural foramen while still preserving at least 50% of the dorsal facet complex. Using preoperative and postoperative fine-cut CT scans with axial and sagittal reconstructions, we evaluated the degree of decompression and the amount of preserved facet complex using analytical tests and recording the measurements. Results The difference between the proximal recess and lateral foramen of the groups was statistically significant in the axial CT images. On sagittal reconstruction CT images, the difference between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon) only for the lateral foramen. Although a strong trend toward better area change was evident for the proximal recess measurements in the experimental tool sides, this did not achieve statistical significance. Macroscopic and CT scans measurements showed that the amount of facetectomy for adequate decompression with the SurgiFile was less than the amount achieved with the standard tools. Conclusions For the treatment of spinal stenosis, this novel powered-file instrument provides surgeons with a new means of decompressing the lateral recess and neural foramina. In this cadaveric study, procedures performed with the SurgiFile tool showed a statistically superior degree of decompression as compared with the standard surgical instruments and techniques.

Khoo, Larry T.; Yeung, Christopher A.; Yeung, Anthony T.



Cervical facet injections in the management of cervicogenic headaches.  


Cervicogenic headache is defined as headaches originating from cervical spine structures including cervical facet joints, cervical intervertebral discs, skeletal muscles, connective tissues, and neurovascular structures. Cervical facet injections with steroids have been used to alleviate cervicogenic headache secondary to cervical facet arthropathy. In this article, we will review the cervical spine anatomy, cervical facet injections, and the efficacy of cervical facet injections as a treatment for cervicogenic headache. PMID:25795156

Ng, Andrew; Wang, Dajie



Facets: Ersatz, Resource and Tag  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Faceted classification appears to be of utmost importance. Ersatz facets, resource faceting and tag faceting: The distinctions are drawn between facets and ersatz facets, and between faceted resources and faceted tags. Single tag resource faceting and multiple tag information object faceting: The basic features are explored of single…

Frické, Martin H.



Ligament Preserving Technique for a Locked Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Index Finger  

PubMed Central

Background Locking of metacarpophalangeal joint (MPJ) of the index finger occurs when volar radial osteophytes of the metacarpal head catch the accessory collateral ligament. We devised a ligament-preserving approach to quickly restore the MPJ motion while protecting the radial collateral ligament. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the results of nine patients treated for a locked MPJ of the index finger. In three patients, closed reduction was successful. In six cases, volar radial osteophytes were excised from the metacarpal head using a ligament-preserving technique through a longitudinal incision on the radial side. We analyzed osteophyte shape and height as demonstrated by X-ray and computed tomography (CT). Function was evaluated by examining the range of motion, recurrence, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, and MPJ stability based on the key pinch strength. One male and eight female patients were followed for an average of 33 months (range, 12 to 65 months); the average age of patients was 41 years (range, 34 to 47 years). The average duration of locking of the MPJ was 23 days (range, 1 to 53 days). Results The sharp type of osteophytes was identified in six patients and the blunt type of osteophytes was indentified in three patients. The average height of radial osteophytes on the index finger metacarpal was 4.6 ± 0.4 mm in the axial CT image. At the final follow-up, the average extension limitation decreased from 26° (range, 10° to 45°) to 0°, and further flexion increased from 83° (range, 80° to 90°) to 86°. There was no recurrent locking after surgery. The DASH score improved from 24.3 to 7.2. Key pinch strength improved from 67.3% to 90.4%. Conclusions We obtained satisfactory outcomes in irreducible locking of the MPJ of the index finger by excising volar radial osteophytes of the metacarpal head using a ligament-preserving approach. PMID:25729526

Park, Kang Hee; Park, Sung Yong; Yu, Ji Soo; Kim, Young Hwan



Aging effects on joint proprioception: the role of physical activity in proprioception preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the human life span the functions of several physiological systems dramatically change, including proprioception.\\u000a Impaired proprioception leads to less accurate detection of body position changes increasing the risk of fall, and to abnormal\\u000a joint biomechanics during functional activities so, over a period of time, degenerative joint disease may result. Altered\\u000a neuromuscular control of the lower limb and consequently poor

Fernando Ribeiro; José Oliveira




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hinge joints move only in one direction, ball-and-socket joints are free to rotate in all directions, and gliding joints are able to move forward, backward, and side to side, but do not rotate freely.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)



Controlled medial branch anesthetic block in the diagnosis of chronic lumbar facet joint pain: the value of a three-month follow-up  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To verify the incidence of facetary and low back pain after a controlled medial branch anesthetic block in a three-month follow-up and to verify the correlation between the positive results and the demographic variables. METHODS: Patients with chronic lumbar pain underwent a sham blockade (with a saline injection) and then a controlled medial branch block. Their symptoms were evaluated before and after the sham injection and after the real controlled medial branch block; the symptoms were reevaluated after one day and one week, as well as after one, two and three months using the visual analog scale. We searched for an association between the positive results and the demographic characteristics of the patients. RESULTS: A total of 104 controlled medial branch blocks were performed and 54 patients (52%) demonstrated >50% improvements in pain after the blockade. After three months, lumbar pain returned in only 18 individuals, with visual analogue scale scores >4. Therefore, these patients were diagnosed with chronic facet low back pain. The three-months of follow-up after the controlled medial branch block excluded 36 patients (67%) with false positive results. The results of the controlled medial branch block were not correlated to sex, age, pain duration or work disability but were correlated with patient age (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patient diagnosis with a controlled medial branch block proved to be effective but was not associated with any demographic variables. A three-month follow-up is required to avoid a high number of false positives. PMID:25141111

da Rocha, Ivan Dias; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa



SLAC All Access: FACET  


SLAC's Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests, or FACET, is a test-bed where researchers are developing the technologies required for particle accelerators of the future. Scientists from all over the world come to explore ways of improving the power and efficiency of the particle accelerators used in basic research, medicine, industry and other areas important to society. In this video, Mark Hogan, head of SLAC's Advanced Accelerator Research Department, offers a glimpse into FACET, which uses part of SLAC's historic two-mile-long linear accelerator.

Hogan, Mark



Facets of Robust Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing concepts of robustness and to identify promising directions for\\u000a coping with uncertainty and risks surrounding on-going global changes. Unlike statistical robustness, general decision problems\\u000a may have rather different facets of robustness. In particular, a key issue is the sensitivity of decisions with respect to\\u000a low-probability catastrophic events. That

Y. Ermoliev; L. Hordijk


FACET Emittance Growth  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC



MRI of cervical facet dislocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MRI examinations of eight patients with cervical vertebral dislocation demonstrated by conventional radiography were\\u000a reviewed. All patients had axial and sagittal T 1- and T 2-weighted imaging on a 1.5-T unit. This revealed unilateral partial\\u000a facet dislocation (in two patients), bilateral partial facet dislocation (in two), unilateral complete dislocation (in two)\\u000a and bilateral complete facet dislocation (in two). In

C. C. Leite; B. E. Escobar; J. Randy Jinkins



The clinical aspects of the acute facet syndrome: results from a structured discussion among European chiropractors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The term 'acute facet syndrome' is widely used and accepted amongst chiropractors, but poorly described in the literature, as most of the present literature relates to chronic facet joint pain. Therefore, research into the degree of consensus on the subject amongst a large group of chiropractic practitioners was seen to be a useful contribution. METHODS: During the annual congress

Lise Hestbaek; Alice Kongsted; Tue Secher Jensen; Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde



Backward highlighting: enhancing faceted search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directional faceted browsers, such as the popular column browser iTunes, let a person pick an instance from any col- umn-facet to start their search for music. The expected ef- fect is that any columns to the right are filtered. In keeping with this directional filtering from left to right, however, the unexpected effect is that the columns to the left

Max L. Wilson; Paul André; M. C. Schraefel



An anatomical investigation of the human cervical facet capsule, quantifying muscle insertion area  

PubMed Central

Facet capsule injury has been hypothesised as a mechanism for neck pain. While qualitative studies have demonstrated the proximity of neck muscles to the cervical facet capsule, the magnitude of their forces remains unknown owing to a lack of quantitative muscle geometry. In this study, histological techniques were employed to quantify muscle insertions on the human cervical facet capsule. Computerised image analysis of slides stained with Masson's trichrome was performed to characterise the geometry of the cervical facet capsule and determine the total insertion area of muscle fibres into the facet capsule for the C4–C5 and C5–C6 joints. Muscle insertions were found to cover 22·4±9·6 % of the capsule area for these cervical levels, corresponding to a mean muscle insertion area of 47·6±21·8 mm2. The magnitude of loading to the cervical facet capsule due to eccentric muscle contraction is estimated to be as high as 51 N. When taken in conjunction with the forces acting on the capsular ligament due to vertebral motions, these forces can be as high as 66 N. In that regard, these anatomical data provide quantitative evidence of substantial muscle insertions into the cervical facet capsular ligament and provide a possible mechanism for injury to this ligament and the facet joint as a whole. PMID:11327207




Bony Fusion in a Chronic Cervical Bilateral Facet Dislocation  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 60 Final Diagnosis: Bilateral cervical facet dislocation Symptoms: Neck pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurosurgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Cervical facet dislocation injuries typically present shortly after occurrence due to the pain and neurologic deficit that can be associated with this injury. Bilateral dislocations of the facet joint require prompt evaluation, reduction, and surgical intervention. Rare case reports present bilateral dislocations presenting in a delayed fashion. Case Report: We report the case of a 60-year-old male who presented with mild neck pain 1 year after initial injury. Computed topography of the cervical spine showed healing with bony fusion of a bilateral C6–7 facet dislocation. Given the chronic healed nature of the injury and minimal symptoms, the patient is being followed without intervention. Conclusions: Although most bilateral facet dislocations present and are treated immediately after injury; this case illustrates that some may be missed during initial evaluation. Once healed, these injuries may be stable without surgical intervention. PMID:25702178

Bodman, Alexa; Chin, Lawrence



L5 – S1 Segmental Kinematics After Facet Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background Facet arthroplasty is a motion restoring procedure. It is normally suggested as an alternative to rigid fixation after destabilizing decompression procedures in the posterior lumbar spine. While previous studies have reported successful results in reproducing normal spine kinematics after facet replacement at L4-5 and L3-4, there are no data on the viability of facet replacement at the lumbosacral joint. The anatomy of posterior elements and the resulting kinematics at L5-S1 are distinctly different from those at superior levels, making the task of facet replacement at the lumbosacral level challenging. This study evaluated the kinematics of facet replacement at L5-S1. Methods Six human cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1, 46.7 ± 13.0 years) were tested in the following sequence: (1) intact (L1-S1), (2) complete laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy at L5-S1, and (3) implantation of TFAS-LS (Lumbosacral Total Facet Arthroplasty System, Archus Orthopedics, Redmond, Washington) at L5-S1 using pedicle screws. Specimens were tested in flexion (8Nm), extension (6Nm), lateral bending (LB, ± 6Nm), and axial rotation (AR, ± 5Nm). The level of significance was ? = .017 after Bonferroni correction for three comparisons: (1) intact vs. destabilized, (2) destabilized vs. reconstructed, and (3) intact vs. reconstructed. Results Laminectomy-facetectomy at L5-S1 increased the L5-S1 angular range of motion (ROM) in all directions. Flexion-extension (F-E) ROM increased from 15.3 ± 2.9 to 18.7 ± 3.5 degrees (P < .017), LB from 8.2 ± 1.8 to 9.3 ± 1.6 degrees (P < .017), and AR from 3.7 ± 2.0 to 5.9 ± 1.8 degrees (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system decreased ROM compared to the laminectomy-facetectomy condition in all tested directions (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system restored the L5-S1 ROM to its intact levels in LB and AR (P > .017). F-E ROM after the facet arthroplasty system implantation was smaller than the intact value (10.1 ± 2.2 vs. 15.3 ± 2.9 degrees, P < .017). The load-displacement curves after the facet arthroplasty system implantation at L5-S1 were sigmoidal, and quality of motion measures were similar to intact, demonstrating graded resistance to angular motion in F-E, LB and AR. Conclusions The facet arthroplasty system was able to restore stability to the lumbosacral segment after complete laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy, while also allowing near-normal kinematics in all planes. While F-E ROM after the facet arthroplasty system implantation was smaller than the intact value, it was within the physiologic norms for L5-S1. These results are consistent with previous studies of facet arthroplasty at L3-L4 and L4-L5 and demonstrate that TFAS technology can be adapted to the lumbosacral joint with functionality comparable to its application in superior lumbar levels.

Voronov, Leonard I.; Havey, Robert M.; Rosler, David M.; Sjovold, Simon G.; Rogers, Susan L.; Carandang, Gerard; Ochoa, Jorge A.; Yuan, Hansen; Webb, Scott



Changing Paradigms in the Treatment of Radial Club Hand: Microvascular Joint Transfer for Correction of Radial Deviation and Preservation of Long-term Growth  

PubMed Central

Radial longitudinal deficiency, also known as radial club hand, is a congenital deformity of the upper extremity which can present with a spectrum of upper limb deficiencies. The typical hand and forearm deformity in such cases consists of significant forearm shortening, radial deviation of the wrist and hypoplasia or absence of a thumb. Treatment goals focus on the creation of stable centralized and functionally hand, maintenance of a mobile and stable wrist and preservation of longitudinal forearm growth. Historically centralization procedures have been the most common treatment method for this condition; unfortunately centralization procedures are associated with a high recurrence rate and have the potential for injury to the distal ulnar physis resulting in a further decrease in forearm growth. Here we advocate for the use of a vascularized second metatarsophalangeal joint transfer for stabilization of the carpus and prevention of recurrent radial deformity and subluxation of the wrist. This technique was originally described by the senior author in 1992 and he has subsequently been performed in 24 cases with an average of 11-year follow-up. In this paper we present an overview of the technique and review the expected outcomes for this method of treatment of radial longitudinal deficiency. PMID:22379554

de Jong, Johanna P.; Vilkki, Simo K.



Changing paradigms in the treatment of radial club hand: microvascular joint transfer for correction of radial deviation and preservation of long-term growth.  


Radial longitudinal deficiency, also known as radial club hand, is a congenital deformity of the upper extremity which can present with a spectrum of upper limb deficiencies. The typical hand and forearm deformity in such cases consists of significant forearm shortening, radial deviation of the wrist and hypoplasia or absence of a thumb. Treatment goals focus on the creation of stable centralized and functionally hand, maintenance of a mobile and stable wrist and preservation of longitudinal forearm growth. Historically centralization procedures have been the most common treatment method for this condition; unfortunately centralization procedures are associated with a high recurrence rate and have the potential for injury to the distal ulnar physis resulting in a further decrease in forearm growth. Here we advocate for the use of a vascularized second metatarsophalangeal joint transfer for stabilization of the carpus and prevention of recurrent radial deformity and subluxation of the wrist. This technique was originally described by the senior author in 1992 and he has subsequently been performed in 24 cases with an average of 11-year follow-up. In this paper we present an overview of the technique and review the expected outcomes for this method of treatment of radial longitudinal deficiency. PMID:22379554

de Jong, Johanna P; Moran, Steven L; Vilkki, Simo K



Extending Faceted Navigation for RDF Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the Semantic Web is semi-structured and does not follow one fixed schema. Faceted browsing (23) is a natural technique for navigating such data, partitioning the information space into or- thogonal conceptual dimensions. Current faceted interfaces are manu- ally constructed and have limited query expressiveness. We develop an expressive faceted interface for semi-structured data and formally show the improvement

Eyal Oren; Renaud Delbru; Stefan Decker



Design of a lattice-based faceted classification system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a software reuse architecture supporting component retrieval by facet classes. The facets are organized into a lattice of facet sets and facet n-tuples. The query mechanism supports precise retrieval and flexible browsing.

Eichmann, David A.; Atkins, John



Functional facets for nonlinear crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a new optical device allowing to efficiently add desired functionalities to a nonlinear interaction. This is achieved by focused ion beam patterning of a nano-layer of gold sputtered at the exit facet of a nonlinear crystal. The functionality is experimentally demonstrated with three examples: spatial filtering where a fundamental beam with a poor mode quality and its' frequency-doubled beam are filtered thereby providing high mode quality beams, focusing of a generated second harmonic beam and beam shaping where a fundamental Gaussian beam is transformed into any arbitrary desired frequency-doubled beam. For the latter two examples, the functional facet also provides angular separation of the fundamental and second harmonic beams.

Shapira, Asia; Libster, Ana; Lilach, Yigal; Arie, Ady



Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major focus of this investigation is to study the fundamentals of layer spreading mechanisms during growth of doped Ge (a facet forming material), and to determine the conditions for morphological instability of vicinal solid-liquid interfaces. The investigation will also lead to the determination of the effect of dopants on the layer growth kinetics, step free energy, and dopant capture by the advancing ledges. The theoretical treatment of growth of faceted interfaces indicates that the kinetics of a step on a growing vicinal interface considerably depends on its angle of inclination, the melt concentration, and characteristics of flow currents in the melt. The morphological stability of the interface also depends on these parameters, as well as on the density and spreading velocity of the steps. However, the treatment of the instability of the interface by the layer growth mechanism is rather difficult because it requires exact knowledge of the thermal and solutal fields, hydrodynamics of the melt, and supercooling at the interface. The results of recent space experiments of the principal investigator involving directional solidification of faceted Bi-Sn alloys have shown that the morphological stability of various crystallographic orientations is significantly affected by the anistropy in interfacial properties of the faceted alloy in general, and the interface kinetics in particular. These findings have also raised many important and fundamental questions, particularly with respect to the behavior of interfacial steps, which need to be addressed via additional groundbased and microgravity experiments. For the present investigation we will use a novel crystal growth technique which provides axial heat flux close to the solid-liquid boundary. The Axial Heat Processing (AHP) technique allows for precise control and determination of the heat and mass transfer close to the crystallization front, and the establishment of a planar interface over the entire cross-section of the growing crystal.

Abbaschian, Reza; Golyshev, V. D.; Gonik, M.; Tsvetivsky, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.



Gabapentin alleviates facet-mediated pain in the rat through reduced neuronal hyperexcitability and astrocytic activation in the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Although joint pain is common, its mechanism(s) remain undefined, with little known about the spinal neuronal responses that contribute to this type of pain. Afferent activity and sustained spinal neuronal hyperexcitability correlate to facet joint loading and the extent of behavioral sensitivity induced after painful facet injury, suggesting spinal neuronal plasticity is induced in association with facet-mediated pain. This study used a rat model of painful C6/C7 facet joint stretch, together with intrathecal administration of gabapentin, to investigate the effects of one aspect of spinal neuronal function on joint pain. Gabapentin or saline vehicle was given via lumbar puncture prior to and at 1 day after painful joint distraction. Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured in the forepaw for 7 days. Extracellular recordings of neuronal activity and astrocytic and microglial activation in the cervical spinal cord were evaluated at day 7. Gabapentin significantly (p=0.0001) attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia and the frequency of evoked neuronal firing also significantly decreased (p<0.047) with gabapentin treatment. Gabapentin also decreased (p<0.04) spinal GFAP expression. Although spinal Iba1 expression was doubled over sham, gabapentin did not reduce it. Facet joint-mediated pain appears to be sustained through spinal neuronal modifications that are also associated with astrocytic activation. PMID:24094695

Dong, Ling; Crosby, Nathan D.; Winkelstein, Beth A.



Kinematics of total facet replacement (TFAS-TL) with total disc replacement  

PubMed Central

Background Total disc replacement (TDR) and total facet replacement (TFR) have been the focus of recent kinematics evaluations. Yet their concurrent function as a total joint replacement of the lumbar spine's 3-joint complex has not been comprehensively reported. This study evaluated the effect of a TFR specifically designed to replace the natural facets and supplement the function with the natural disc and with TDR. The ability to replace degenerated facets to complement a pre-existing or simultaneously implanted TDR may allow surgeons to completely address degenerative pathologies of the 3-joint complex of the lumbar spine. We hypothesized that TFR would reproduce the biomechanical function of the natural facets when implanted in conjunction with TDR. Methods Lumbar spines (L1-5, 51.3 ± 14.2 years, N = 6) were tested sequentially as follows: (1) intact, (2) after TDR implantation, and (3) after TFR implantation in conjunction with TDR, all at L3-4. Specimens were tested in flexion-extension (+ 8 Nm to ? 6 Nm), lateral bending (± 6 Nm), and axial rotation (± 5 Nm). A 400 N compressive follower preload was applied during flexion-extension tests. Three-dimensional segmental motion was recorded and analyzed using analysis of variance in Systat (Systat Software Inc., Chicago, Illinois) and multiple comparisons with Bonferroni correction. Results The TDR implantation (TDR + natural facets) allowed similar lateral bending (P = .66), but it generally increased flexion-extension (P = .06) and axial rotation (P < .05) range of motion (ROM) at the implanted level compared to intact. The TFR + TDR (following replacement of the natural facets with TFR) decreased ROM to levels similar to intact in lateral bending (P = .70) and axial rotation (P = .23). The TFR + TDR flexion-extension ROM was reduced in comparison to intact and TDR + natural facets (P < .05). Conclusions The TFR with TDR was able to restore stability to the lumbar segment after bilateral facetectomy, while allowing near-normal motions in all planes.

Voronov, Leonard I.; Havey, Robert M.; Sjovold, Simon G.; Funk, Michael; Carandang, Gerard; Zindrick, Daniel; Rosler, David M.; Patwardhan, Avinash G.



New developments in facet design and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In multivariate research design the systematic definition of the set of variables in terms of more basic sets, the facets, leads to the prediction of the empirical interrelationship among the variables. 2 principles are suggested for predicting the results from the facet structure of the variables: the principle of contiguity and the semantic principal components. The principle of contiguity simply

Uriel G. Foa



Long-Term Information Preservation and Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.…

Song, Sang Chul



FACET: SLAC___s New User Facility  

SciTech Connect

FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests) is a new User Facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The first User Run started in spring 2012 with 20 GeV, 3 nC electron beams. The facility is designed to provide short (20 {micro}m) bunches and small (20 {micro}m wide) spot sizes, producing uniquely high power beams. FACET supports studies from many fields but in particular those of Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and Dielectric Wakefield Acceleration. The creation of drive and witness bunches and shaped bunch profiles is possible with 'Notch' Collimation. FACET is also a source of THz radiation for material studies. Positrons will be available at FACET in future user runs. We present the User Facility and the available tools and opportunities for future experiments.

Clarke, C.I.; Decker, F.-J.; England, R.J.; Erickson, R.A.; Hast, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.D.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seeman, J.T.; Sheppard, J.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC



Posterior Epidural Migration of an Extruded Lumbar Disc Mimicking a Facet Cyst: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Dorsal extradural migration of extruded disc material is clinically uncommon. We report a rare case of posterior epidural migration of an extruded lumbar disc mimicking a facet cyst. A 32-year-old man was admitted to our institute with a 2-week history of severe low back pain and radiating pain in the left leg. The magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed a dorsally located, left-sided extradural cystic mass at the L2-3 level. The initial diagnosis was an epidural facet cyst because of the high signal intensity on MR images and its location adjacent to the facet joint. Intraoperatively, an encapsulated mass of soft tissue adherent to the dural sac was observed and excised. The pathological diagnosis was degenerated disc material. After surgery, the patient experienced complete relief from leg pain.

Yoo, Young Sun; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Dong Min



DRIFTS Evidence for Facet-Dependent Adsorption of Gaseous Toluene on TiO2 with Relative Photocatalytic Properties.  


Effective adsorption is of great importance to the photocatalytic degradation of volatile organic compounds. Herein, we succeeded in the preparation of anatase TiO2 with clean dominant {001} and {101} facets. By using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) equipped with a homemade reaction system and a coupling gas-dosing system, we found that TiO2 with dominant {001} facets exhibits higher toluene adsorption capacity than TiO2 with dominant {101} facets, which may be attributed to the different number of unsaturated 5c-Ti capable of forming the main active adsorption sites (terminal Ti-OH species). TiO2 with dominant {001} facets shows a significantly high photocatalytic degradation performance, with its degradation rate being 6 times higher than that of dominant {101} facets. Combined with simulation results, it is suggested that the synergetic effects of the formation of specific active adsorption sites, the low adsorption energy for toluene, and preservation of the free molecularly adsorbed water on the surface promote the degradation of gaseous toluene on the dominant {001} facets. This study exemplifies that the facet-dependent adsorption of volatile organic compounds is one of the most important factors to effectively engineer photocatalysts for air purification. PMID:25602129

Wang, Mengjiao; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Xiaodi; Qi, Zeming; Hong, Bin; Ding, Jianjun; Bao, Jun; Sun, Song; Gao, Chen



Anatomic Facet Replacement System (AFRS) Restoration of Lumbar Segment Mechanics to Intact: A Finite Element Study and In Vitro Cadaver Investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Many decompression procedures involve complete or partial facetectomy. Spinal fusion usually stabilizes the motion segment after complete facetectomies. However, problems with fusion, such as adjacent-level degeneration, have increased interest in motion- preservation technologies. Facet arthroplasty may become an important posterior motion-preservation device, but its biomechanical literature is sparse. Methods We conducted an in vitro investigation and finite element study to compare the biomechanical effects of an artificial facet system to the intact spine. In the in vitro study, we tested human osteo-ligamentous segments (L3-S1) in intact, injured, and artificial facet–repaired conditions. For the finite element study, we used a 3-dimensional ligamentous L3-S1 segment model. We simulated destabilization in the intact model by removing the facets across the L4-L5 functional unit, then repaired it with appropriately sized facet implants and compared the ranges of motion, facet loads, disc pressures, and device loads. We also analyzed a finite element model with a rigid posterior pedicle-rod fixation system. We subjected the cadaveric specimens and the models to 400 N of follower load plus a 10 Nm moment in extension, flexion, bending, and rotation. We used a novel technique to apply the follower load in the finite element models such that preload induced minimal vertebral rotation during the range of motion. Results The predicted ranges of motion for the intact and implanted models were consistent with cadaver data. After destabilization and facet replacement, the artificial facet system restored motion in all loading modes to intact values. The implant facet loads were similar to intact facet loads in extension and axial rotation, but less in lateral bending. The intradiscal pressure at the implanted level for the facet replacement device was similar to the intact pressure, whereas with the rigid system the intradiscal pressure was up to 70% less than the intact pressure. The maximum von-Mises stress predicted in the facet replacement construct was 85 MPa in extension at the bone–pedicle screw interface, compared with 174 MPa in the rigid system. Contact stresses at implant mating surfaces were minimal. Conclusions The artificial facet system replicated natural facet kinematics. The cadaveric ranges of motion and the predicted finite element–based data indicated that the implant can “restore” the normal function of the segment after artificial facet replacement. Clinical Relevance Compared to rigid posterior pedicle-rod fixation, the artificial facet system restored the intact mechanics at the implanted level and may prevent adjacent-level degeneration.

Mehta, Ankit; Jangra, Jayant; Faizan, Ahmed; Kiapour, Ali; Hoy, Robert W.; Fauth, Andrew R.



Finite-element evaluation of contact loads on facets of an L2-L3 lumbar segment in complex loads.  


In this study, the contact loads and regions on facets of a lumbar motion segment are quantitatively determined. The analysis accounts for both material and geometric nonlinearities and treats the facet articulation as a frictionless, nonlinear, moving contact problem. The loadings consist of axial torque and lateral bending acting alone or in combination with axial compression force. Complex loadings simulating symmetric and nonsymmetric liftings are also considered. Under identical magnitude of rotation, axial torque generates the largest contact forces, followed by extension, flexion, and lateral bending. Contact forces under loads simulating heavy symmetric lifting are as, or even larger than, those under large extension and axial torque loadings. The presence of axial and lateral rotations during forward flexion significantly increases the loads transmitted through the compression facet. The tension facet, in this case, became nearly unloaded. The large loads on the facets, predicted especially under nonsymmetric, combined flexion loadings, are likely to play a role in the observed disorders of the facet joints. Under various loadings, the transfer of forces from one facet to the adjacent one occurs through three distinct areas, namely, extension-type, flexion-type, and torsion-type contact areas. The relative magnitude of different components of the transmitted forces are also predicted to vary considerably, depending on these regions of contact. PMID:2052996

Shirazi-Adl, A



Preservation Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Persons with a penchant for preservation will find that this clearinghouse website is a top-notch resource for materials on historic preservation, preservation-based tourism, and downtown revitalization projects across the United States and Canada. The site was created in 1999 by Tim Cannan, a native of the Finger Lakes region with a professional and academic background in historic and cultural preservation. The materials on the site are divided into topical areas that include "Preservation Events & Conferences", "Grants & Funding Sources" and nine other headings. Visitors who might be less familiar with the world of historic preservation will want to look over the "Video Library". Here they will find clips of restoration projects in progress, preservation walking tours, and endangered places. Also, it is worth noting that the site contains listings and links for over 7000 history museums, 1000 downtown and main street groups, and 4500 historical societies in North America.


Facet development for a faceted stretched-membrane dish by Solar Kinetics, Inc  

SciTech Connect

A 3.6-meter diameter stretched-membrane optical facet for a parabolic dish has been successfully designed and demonstrated under contract with Sandia National Laboratories. Twelve facets identical to them will be used to make the lightweight reflector of the dish. The project goal of 2.5-mrad surface accuracy was met with each of the two full-sized prototypes, and accuracies of as low as 1.1 mrad were achieved. The facet weight is 11.7 kg/m{sup 2} (2.4lbs/ft{sup 2}). The facet is similar in construction to the successful stretched-membrane heliostat; it has two thin metal membranes attached to a ring. However, the front membrane for this facet is plastically formed at the factor in order to achieve a shorter facet f/D (approximately 3.0). A passive tether restrains the from membrane when not in operation, that is, when the stabilizing vacuum is off. The optical surface is achieved with a silvered-acrylic film laminated to the metal membrane. The facet is expected to cost $55.40/m{sup 2} at a production rate of 10,000 facets per year and $115, 000/m{sup 2}-at a production rate of 500 facets a year. Several key issues have been resolved. Stress concentrations due to seams in the reflective laminate did not cause membrane rupture during forming as they have for dishes with lower focal length-to-diameter ratios. The laminate survived the forming process and simulated operation without deterioration. The optical effect of the tether on the membrane was tested and found to be very small. Most important, highly accurate shapes were obtained using a simple forming procedure. Additional tests are needed to demonstrate process repeatablility and facet performance in typical operating conditions. 18 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

Schertz, P.T.; Brown, D.C.; Konnerth, A. III (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)) [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)



Laser ionized preformed plasma at FACET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC installed a 10-TW Ti?:?sapphire laser system for pre-ionized plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. High energy (500 mJ), short (50 fs) pulses of 800 nm laser light at 1 Hz are used at the FACET experimental area to produce a plasma column. The laser pulses are stretched to 250 fs before injection into a vapor cell, where the laser is focused by an axicon lens to form a plasma column that can be sustained over the desired radius and length. A 20 GeV electron bunch interacts with this preformed plasma to generate a non-linear wakefield, thus accelerating a trailing witness bunch with gradients on the order of several GV m-1. The experimental setup and the methods for producing the pre-ionized plasma for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments performed at FACET are described.

Green, S. Z.; Adli, E.; Clarke, C. I.; Corde, S.; Edstrom, S. A.; Fisher, A. S.; Frederico, J.; Frisch, J. C.; Gessner, S.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, P.; Hogan, M. J.; Jobe, R. K.; Litos, M.; May, J. E.; Walz, D. R.; Yakimenko, V.; Clayton, C. E.; Joshi, C.; Marsh, K. A.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Muggli, P.



Preserving the Posttrapeziectomy Space with a Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Spacer: A Pilot Case Series of Patients with Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background: Advanced thumb carpometacarpal arthritis is widely treated with trapeziectomy and tendon interposition despite donor-site morbidities. Trapeziectomy alone leaves a postresection space, leading to proximal metacarpal migration and scaphoid/trapezoid impingement. Prosthetic implants have been unsuccessful due to particulate debris, silicone synovitis, osteolysis, and migration. Recent studies have shown successful use of allograft for interposition material in the posttrapeziectomy space both in animal and human models. To obviate the need for autologous tissue, maintain thumb length, and reduce the risk of scaphoid impingement, the senior author developed an interposition arthroplasty technique using a spacer constructed from human acellular dermal matrix (HADM). Methods: Sixteen patients with Eaton stage III–IV thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis received the above procedure from the 2 senior authors. HADM was imbricated to fill the posttrapeziectomy space and secured to the volar capsule and metacarpal base. Pre- and postoperative trapezial space on radiograph, pain scores, and grip strength were recorded. Results: Six months postoperatively, radiographs showed an average joint space loss of 11%. Heights postoperatively were not significantly different from immediate postoperative heights (P ? 0.01). At 6 months, patients had improved pain and grip strength (P ? 0.01). No infections, foreign body reactions, or other complications occurred. Conclusions: HADM has been used extensively in other forms of reconstruction and has been shown to incorporate into surrounding tissues through neovascularization. Our early results illustrate that HADM can safely fill the dead space left by trapeziectomy. PMID:25289260

Yao, Caroline A.; Ellis, Chandra V.; Cohen, Myles J.



15 CFR 922.192 - Joint Management Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint Management Committee. 922.192 Section...Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve § 922.192 Joint Management Committee. (a) A state/federal Joint Management Committee shall be...



Problem of time: facets and Machian strategy.  


The problem of time is that "time" in each of ordinary quantum theory and general relativity are mutually incompatible notions. This causes difficulties in trying to put these two theories together to form a theory of quantum gravity. The problem of time has eight facets in canonical approaches. I clarify that all but one of these facets already occur at the classical level, and reconceptualize and re-name some of these facets as follows. The frozen formalism problem becomes temporal relationalism, the thin sandwich problem becomes configurational relationalism, via the notion of best matching. The problem of observables becomes the problem of beables, and the functional evolution problem becomes the constraint closure problem. I also outline how each of the global and multiple-choice problems of time have their own plurality of facets. This article additionally contains a local resolution to the problem of time at the conceptual level and which is actually realizable for the relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution is, moreover, Machian, and has three levels: classical, semiclassical, and a combined semiclassical-histories-timeless records scheme. I end by delineating the current frontiers of this program toward resolution of the problem of time in the cases of full general relativity and of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology. PMID:25266113

Anderson, Edward



Multiple facets of macrophages in renal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple facets of macrophages in renal injury.Macrophage infiltration is a common feature of renal disease and their presence has been synonymous with tissue damage and progressive renal failure. More recently work has focused on the heterogeneity of macrophage activation and in particular their ability to curtail inflammation and restore normal function. This has led to the view that it is




Problem of Time: Facets and Machian Strategy  

E-print Network

The Problem of Time is that `time' in each of ordinary quantum theory and general relativity are mutually incompatible notions. This causes difficulties in trying to put these two theories together to form a theory of Quantum Gravity. The Problem of Time has 8 facets in canonical approaches. I clarify that all but one of these facets already occur at the classical level, and reconceptualize and re-name some of these facets as follows.The Frozen Formalism Problem becomes Temporal Relationalism, the Thin Sandwich Problem becomes Configurational Relationalism, via the notion of Best Matching. The Problem of Observables becomes the Problem of Beables, and the Functional Evolution Problem becomes the Constraint Closure Problem. I also outline how each of the Global and Multiple-Choice Problems of Time have their own plurality of facets. This article additionally contains a local resolution to the Problem of Time at the conceptual level and which is actually realizable for the relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution is, moreover, Machian, and has three levels: classical, semiclassical and a combined semiclassical-histories-timeless records scheme. I end by delineating the current frontiers of this program toward resolution of the Problem of Time in the cases of full GR and of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology.

Edward Anderson



Preservation Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-term preservation of digital entities requires mechanisms to manage the authenticity of massive data collections that are written to archival storage systems. Preservation environments impose authenticity constraints and manage the evolution of the storage system technology by building infrastructure independent solutions. This seeming paradox, the need for large archives, while avoiding dependence upon vendor specific solutions, is resolved through use of data grid technology. Data grids provide the storage repository abstractions that make it possible to migrate collections between vendor specific products, while ensuring the authenticity of the archived data. Data grids provide the software infrastructure that interfaces vendor-specific storage archives to preservation environments.

Moore, Reagan W.



Preservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Trust for Historic Preservation has received a number of awards for its magazine, Preservation, and their online version is well worth a look. The site is quite nice, and it contains brief profiles of current preservation stories written especially for this website. Recent stories have included profiles of neon signs in Los Angeles, brewery renovations in Milwaukee, and a list of the ten most endangered Civil War battlefields. The site is rounded out by an online archive which allows visitors to search back issues from 1992 to 2006.


Bone scans are reliable for the identification of lumbar disk and facet pathology.  


Study Design?Surgeon survey. Objective?To evaluate the reliability of bone single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) versus bone SPECT images co-registered with computed tomography (bone SPECT-CT) by analyzing interobserver agreement for identification of the anatomical location of technetium(99m)-labeled oxidronate uptake in the lumbar disk and/or facet joint. Methods?Seven spine surgeons interpreted 20 bone scans: 10 conventional black-and-white tomograms (bone SPECT) and 10 color-graded bone SPECT-CT scans. Each surgeon was asked to identify the location of any diagnostically relevant uptake in the disk and/or facet joint between L1 and S1. Reliability was evaluated using the free-marginal kappa statistic, and the level of agreement was assessed using the Landis and Koch interpretation. Results?Conventional bone SPECT scans and bone SPECT-CT scans were reliable for the identification of diagnostically relevant uptake, with bone SPECT-CT having higher reliability (kappa?=?0.72) than bone SPECT alone (0.59). Bone SPECT and bone SPECT-CT were also reliable in identifying disk pathology, with kappa values of 0.72 and 0.81, respectively. However, bone SPECT-CT was more reliable (0.81) than bone SPECT (0.60) when identifying facet disease. Conclusions?For the identification of disk pathology, it is reasonable to use either conventional bone SPECT or bone SPECT-CT; however, bone SPECT-CT is more reliable for facet joint pathology. PMID:25648168

Malham, Gregory M; Parker, Rhiannon M; Ballok, Zita E; Goss, Ben; Diwan, Ashish D; Uribe, Juan S



Bone Scans Are Reliable for the Identification of Lumbar Disk and Facet Pathology  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Surgeon survey. Objective?To evaluate the reliability of bone single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) versus bone SPECT images co-registered with computed tomography (bone SPECT-CT) by analyzing interobserver agreement for identification of the anatomical location of technetium99m-labeled oxidronate uptake in the lumbar disk and/or facet joint. Methods?Seven spine surgeons interpreted 20 bone scans: 10 conventional black-and-white tomograms (bone SPECT) and 10 color-graded bone SPECT-CT scans. Each surgeon was asked to identify the location of any diagnostically relevant uptake in the disk and/or facet joint between L1 and S1. Reliability was evaluated using the free-marginal kappa statistic, and the level of agreement was assessed using the Landis and Koch interpretation. Results?Conventional bone SPECT scans and bone SPECT-CT scans were reliable for the identification of diagnostically relevant uptake, with bone SPECT-CT having higher reliability (kappa?=?0.72) than bone SPECT alone (0.59). Bone SPECT and bone SPECT-CT were also reliable in identifying disk pathology, with kappa values of 0.72 and 0.81, respectively. However, bone SPECT-CT was more reliable (0.81) than bone SPECT (0.60) when identifying facet disease. Conclusions?For the identification of disk pathology, it is reasonable to use either conventional bone SPECT or bone SPECT-CT; however, bone SPECT-CT is more reliable for facet joint pathology. PMID:25648168

Malham, Gregory M.; Parker, Rhiannon M.; Ballok, Zita E.; Goss, Ben; Diwan, Ashish D.; Uribe, Juan S.



Facets for Discovery and Exploration in Text Collections  

SciTech Connect

Faceted classifications of text collections provide a useful means of partitioning documents into related groups, however traditional approaches of faceting text collections rely on comprehensive analysis of the subject area or annotated general attributes. In this paper we show the application of basic principles for facet analysis to the development of computational methods for facet classification of text collections. Integration with a visual analytics system is described with summaries of user experiences.

Rose, Stuart J.; Roberts, Ian E.; Cramer, Nicholas O.



Heritage Preservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Heritage Preservation: The National Institute for Conservation is a 30-year-old non-profit in Washington, DC, that is concerned with preserving the treasures of the United States that are already in institutions, such as museums, historical societies, and libraries, as well as those historical treasures that are in people's homes, basements, and attics. Their website is comprehensive, and lists the programs they run to help accomplish this monumental task. Under the "Programs" tab visitors will find links to the "Conservation Assessment Program" and "Heritage Emergency National Task Force", which is like FEMA for historical objects. "Rescue Public Murals" and "Save Outdoor Sculpture!" are also programs the Heritage Preservation runs. Visitors can see photographs of "Murals That Have Been Lost" and "Murals That Have Been Saved". Finally, the link under "Programs" to the "Heritage Health Index" provides a full online report of the "first comprehensive survey to assess the condition and preservation needs of U.S. collections".


Discriminant Validity of NEO-PIR Facet Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two analyses were conducted to examine the discriminant validity of 30 facet scales from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PIR). To examine cross-observer validity of specific variance in the facet scales, partial correlations between self-reports and peer (N = 250) and spouse (N = 68) ratings on the facets were calculated, controlling for the five common factors. All 60 convergent

Robert R. McCrae; Paul T. Costa



FACET: The New User Facility at SLAC  

SciTech Connect

FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests) is a new User Facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Its high power electron and positron beams make it a unique facility, ideal for beam-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration studies. The first 2 km of the SLAC linac produce 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron and positron beams with short bunch lengths of 20 {mu}m. A final focusing system can produce beam spots 10 {mu}m wide. User-aided Commissioning took place in summer 2011 and FACET will formally come online in early 2012. We present the User Facility, the current features, planned upgrades and the opportunities for further experiments. Accelerators are our primary tool for discovering the fundamental laws to the universe. Each new frontier we probe requires a new, more powerful method. Accelerators are therefore increasing in size and cost. The future of this field requires new accelerating techniques that can reach the high energies required over shorter distances. New concepts for high gradient acceleration include utilizing the wakes in plasma and dielectric and metallic structures. FACET was built to provide a test bed for novel accelerating concepts with its high charge and highly compressed beams. As a test facility unlike any other, it has also attracted groups interested in beam diagnostic techniques and terahertz studies. The first phase of the construction was completed in May 2011. Beam commissioning began in June and was interleaved with the installation of five experiments. Users were invited to aid with the commissioning for the month of August during which time experimental hardware and software were checked out and some first measurements were taken. FACET is currently in the process of becoming a Department of Energy User Facility for High Energy Physics.

Clarke, C.I.; Decker, F.J.; Erikson, R.; Hast, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Li, S.Z.; Nosochkov, Y.; Phinney, N.; Sheppard, J.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC; Seryi, A.; /Oxford U., JAI; Wittmer, W.; /Michigan State U.



Thrombospondin-4 and excitatory synaptogenesis promote spinal sensitization after painful mechanical joint injury.  


Facet joint injury induces persistent pain that may be maintained by structural plasticity in the spinal cord. Astrocyte-derived thrombospondins, especially thrombospondin-4 (TSP4), have been implicated in synaptogenesis and spinal sensitization in neuropathic pain, but the TSP4 response and its relationship to synaptic changes in the spinal cord have not been investigated for painful joint injury. This study investigates the role of TSP4 in the development and maintenance of persistent pain following injurious facet joint distraction in rats and tests the hypothesis that excitatory synaptogenesis contributes to such pain. Painful facet joint loading induces dorsal horn excitatory synaptogenesis along with decreased TSP4 in the DRG and increased astrocytic release of TSP4 in the spinal cord, all of which parallel the time course of sustained tactile allodynia. Blocking injury-induced spinal TSP4 expression with antisense oligonucleotides or reducing TSP4 activity at its neuronal receptor in the spinal cord with gabapentin treatment both attenuate the allodynia and dorsal horn synaptogenesis that develop after painful facet joint loading. Increased spinal TSP4 also facilitates the development of allodynia and spinal hyperexcitability, even after non-painful physiological loading of the facet joint. These results suggest that spinal TSP4 plays an important role in the development and maintenance of persistent joint-mediated pain by inducing excitatory synaptogenesis and facilitating the transduction of mechanical loading of the facet joint that leads to spinal hyperexcitability. PMID:25483397

Crosby, Nathan D; Zaucke, Frank; Kras, Jeffrey V; Dong, Ling; Luo, Z David; Winkelstein, Beth A



Roughness metrics of prismatic facets of ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a surface normal roughness metric for mesoscopically rough ice facets and present methods for inferring its value from variable pressure scanning electron micrographs. The methods rely on the anisotropic morphology of roughening in the prismatic plane, in which nearly all the variation in surface height occurs in the direction of the main symmetry axis of hexagonal-habit ice prisms. Because of this symmetry, roughening appears at boundaries between prismatic facets in a way that readily permits quantitative analysis. Prismatic surfaces of four ice crystals grown between -45 and -30°C are found to have mean surface normal roughness values of 0.04-0.1, a range that corresponds to Cox-Munk roughness scale parameters 0.3-0.5. The distribution of tilt angles also suggests a Weibull shape parameter smaller than unity, a result that compares favorably with field observations. Shortwave scattering calculations of hexagonal polyhedra with surface morphologies derived from these observations indicate substantial retention of the well-known 22° halo, despite a large (4-6%) reduction in the asymmetry parameter compared to smooth-surface counterparts. We argue that this signature is a generic outcome of the symmetry of the roughening, which in turn originates in the anisotropic surface self-diffusivity of these facets.

Neshyba, S. P.; Lowen, B.; Benning, M.; Lawson, A.; Rowe, P. M.



A new device used in the restoration of kinematics after total facet arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Facet degeneration can lead to spinal stenosis and instability, and often requires stabilization. Interbody fusion is commonly performed, but it can lead to adjacent-segment disease. Dynamic posterior stabilization was performed using a total facet arthroplasty system. The total facet arthroplasty system was originally intended to restore the natural motion of the posterior stabilizers, but follow-up studies are lacking due to limited clinical use. We studied the first 14 cases (long-term follow-up) treated with this new device in our clinic. All patients were diagnosed with lumbar stenosis due to hypertrophy of the articular facets on one to three levels (maximum). Disk space was of normal height. The design of this implant allows its use only at levels L3–L4 and L4–L5. We implanted nine patients at the L4–L5 level and four patients at level L3–L4. Postoperative follow-up of the patients was obtained for an average of 3.7 years. All patients reported persistent improvement of symptoms, visual analog scale score, and Oswestry Disability Index score. Functional scores and dynamic radiographic imaging demonstrated the functional efficacy of this new implant, which represents an alternative technique and a new approach to dynamic stabilization of the vertebral column after interventions for spine decompression. The total facet arthroplasty system represents a viable option for dynamic posterior stabilization after spinal decompression. For the observed follow-up, it preserved motion without significant complications or apparent intradisk or adjacent-disk degeneration. PMID:24926203

Vermesan, D; Prejbeanu, R; Daliborca, C Vlad; Haragus, H; Magureanu, M; Marrelli, M; Promenzio, L; Caprio, M; Cagiano, R; Tatullo, M



High Stability of Faceted Nanotubes and Fullerenes of Multiphase Layered Phosphorus: A Computational Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a paradigm in constructing very stable, faceted nanotube and fullerene structures by laterally joining nanoribbons or patches of different planar phosphorene phases. Our ab initio density functional calculations indicate that these phases may form very stable, nonplanar joints. Unlike fullerenes and nanotubes obtained by deforming a single-phase planar monolayer at substantial energy penalty, we find faceted fullerenes and nanotubes to be nearly as stable as the planar single-phase monolayers. The resulting rich variety of polymorphs allows us to tune the electronic properties of phosphorene nanotubes and fullerenes not only by the chiral index but also by the combination of different phosphorene phases. In selected phosphorene nanotubes, a metal-insulator transition may be induced by strain or by changing the number of walls.

Guan, Jie; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David



Interventional radiology in bone and joint  

SciTech Connect

Recent radiologic procedures in bone and joints, some of which eliminate the need for surgery are exposed, including: trephine biopsies of the thoracic and lumbar spine, sacro-iliac joints, peripheral bones synovial membrane and soft tissues, using either fluoroscopic echographic or CT guidance - chemonucleolysis - vascular embolization of skeletal tumors and management of vertebral hemangiomas - selective steroid injection in a broad spectrum of diseases including vertebral facet syndrome, cervicobrachial nerve root pain, rotator cuff calcium deposit, bone cysts.

Bard, M.; Laredo, J.D.



Preserving Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of National Geographic's Xpeditions Hall and includes lesson plans and activities related to the topic of biodiversity. The site covers ecosystems, endangered species, why preserving biodiversity is necessary, and how captive breeding has been used to try and save some species from extinction. These lesson plans were written by educators and have been tested in the classroom.


Preservation Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One must undertake multi-institutional efforts that include universities, archives, museums, libraries and community-based arts organizations and the artists to preserve Latino art history. Arts infrastructure can be strengthened by various Chicano Studies Research Center projects that are concerned with archive building and scholarship, and with…

Noriega, Chon A.



Records Preservation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Older materials and recently arrived items in the Field Records Collection are in various states of preservation and documentation. In the current reorganization project, items are inventoried for content, transferred to archival storage containers, and archived as shelf items (notebooks and file fo...


Fabrication of faceted nanopores in magnesium  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, we showed the fabrication of faceted nanopores with various shapes in magnesium by focused electron beam (e-beam). The characteristics of nanopore shapes and the crystallographic planes corresponding to the edges of the nanopores were discussed in detail. Interestingly, by manipulating the e-beam (e.g., irradiation direction and duration), the nanopore shape and size could be effectively controlled along different directions. Our results provide important insight into the nanopore patterning in metallic materials and are of fundamental importance concerning the relevant applications, such as nanopore-based sensor, etc.

Wu, Shujing; Cao, Fan; Zheng, He; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Chun; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Dongshan; Wang, Jianbo, E-mail: [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)] [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)



Prezygapophyseal articular facet shape in the catarrhine thoracolumbar vertebral column.  


Two contrasting patterns of lumbar vertebral morphology generally characterize anthropoids. "Long-backed" monkeys are distinguished from "short-backed" apes [Benton: The baboon in medical research, Vol. 2 (1967:201)] with respect to several vertebral features thought to afford greater spinal flexibility in the former and spinal rigidity in the latter. Yet, discussions of spinal mobility are lacking important functional insight that can be gained by analysis of the zygapophyses, the spine's synovial joints responsible for allowing and resisting intervertebral movements. Here, prezygapophyseal articular facet (PAF) shape in the thoracolumbar spine of Papio, Hylobates, Pongo, Gorilla, and Pan is evaluated in the context of the "long-backed" versus "short-backed" model. A three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach is used to examine how PAF shape changes along the thoracolumbar vertebral column of each taxon and how PAF shape varies across taxa at corresponding vertebral levels. The thoracolumbar transition in PAF shape differs between Papio and the hominoids, between Hylobates and the great apes, and to a lesser extent, among great apes. At the level of the first lumbar vertebra, the PAF shape of Papio is distinguished from that of hominoids. At the level of the second lumbar vertebra, there is variation to some extent among all taxa. These findings suggest that morphological and functional distinctions in primate vertebral anatomy may be more complex than suggested by a "long-backed" versus "short-backed" dichotomy. PMID:20310062

Russo, Gabrielle A



An Integrated Facet-Based Library for Arbitrary Software Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reuse is an important means of reducing costs and effort during the development of complex software systems. A major challenge is to find suitable components in a large library with reasonable effort. This becomes even harder in today's development practice where a variety of artefacts such as models and documents play an equally important role as source code. Thus, different types of heterogeneous components exist and require consideration in a component search process. One flexible approach to structure (software component) libraries is faceted classification. Faceted classifications and in particular faceted browsing are nowadays widely used in online systems. This paper takes a fresh approach towards using faceted classification in heterogeneous software component libraries by transferring faceted browsing concepts from the web to software component libraries. It presents an architecture and implementation of such a library. This implementation is used to evaluate the applicability of facets in the context of an industry-driven case study.

Schmidt, Matthias; Polowinski, Jan; Johannes, Jendrik; Fernández, Miguel A.


Preliminary design of large reflectors with flat facets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for approximating curved antenna surfaces using flat facets is discussed. A preliminary design technique for determining the size of the reflector surface facets necessary to meet antenna surface accuracy requirements is presented. A proposed large Microwave Radiometer Satellite is selected as an application, and the far field electromagnetic response of a faceted reflector surface is compared with that from a spherical reflector surface.

Agrawal, P. K.; Anderson, M. S.; Card, M. F.



On the facets of the simple plant location packing polytope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce new classes of facet-defining inequalities for the polytope Ppd associated with the set packing formulation of the simple plant location problem (SPLP) with p plants and d destinations. The inequalities are obtained by identifying subgraphs of the intersection graph G(p,d) of SPLP that are facet-defining, and lifting their associated facets if it is necessary. To this end, we

Lázaro Cánovas; Mercedes Landete; Alfredo Mar??n



Faceted ceramic fibers, tapes or ribbons and epitaxial devices therefrom  


A crystalline article includes a single-crystal ceramic fiber, tape or ribbon. The fiber, tape or ribbon has at least one crystallographic facet along its length, which is generally at least one meter long. In the case of sapphire, the facets are R-plane, M-plane, C-plane or A-plane facets. Epitaxial articles, including superconducting articles, can be formed on the fiber, tape or ribbon.

Goyal, Amit



Faceted ceramic fibers, tapes or ribbons and epitaxial devices therefrom  

SciTech Connect

A crystalline article includes a single-crystal ceramic fiber, tape or ribbon. The fiber, tape or ribbon has at least one crystallographic facet along its length, which is generally at least one meter long. In the case of sapphire, the facets are R-plane, M-plane, C-plane or A-plane facets. Epitaxial articles, including superconducting articles, can be formed on the fiber, tape or ribbon.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)



Disorders of the distal radioulnar joint.  


The distal radioulnar joint is responsible for stable forearm rotation. Injury to this joint can occur following a variety of mechanisms, including wrist fractures, ligamentous damage, or degenerative wear. Accurate diagnosis requires a clear understanding of the anatomy and mechanics of the ulnar aspect of the wrist. Injuries can be divided into three major categories for diagnostic purposes, and these include pain without joint instability, pain with joint instability, and joint arthritis. New advancements in imaging and surgical technique can allow for earlier detection of injuries, potentially preserving joint function. In this article, the authors review the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, and major abnormality involving the distal radioulnar joint. PMID:25285686

Houdek, Matthew T; Wagner, Eric R; Moran, Steven L; Berger, Richard A



Faceted needle crystals: an analytical approach Mokhtar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faceted dendrites have been observed in some crystal growth experiments. It has previously been proposed that these diffusion-limitéd growing shapes obey the classical equations of dendritic growth with modified boundary conditions on the interface. We analyse this new set of equations when capillary effects are neglected on the rough parts. In this limit, we find that it is not possible to require both a tangential matching of the rough and faceted parts and the saine melting temperature on the front and trailing rough interface. An exact solution is obtained when one of these physical constraints is relaxed. The conséquences of this result for the full problem are considered and an approximate solution is proposed. Des dendrites facettées ont été observées dans quelques expériences de croissance cristalline. Il a été antérieurement proposé de décrire ces nouvelles formes de croissance limitée par la diffusion au moyen des équations classiques de la croissance dendritique en utilisant des conditions aux limites modifiées sur l'interface. Nous analysons ce nouvel ensemble d'équations en négligeant la tension de surface sur les parties rugueuses. Dans cette limite, nous trouvons qu'il n'est pas possible d'imposer à la fois un raccord tangentiel des parties rugueuses et facettées et de maintenir les interfaces rugueuses avant et arrière à la même temperature de fusion. Une solution exacte est obtenue en relâchant une de ces conditions physiques. Nous discutons les conséquences de ce résultat pour le problème complet et une solution approchée en est proposée.

Adda-Bedia; Hakim, Vincent



Postero-Lateral Disc Prosthesis Combined With a Unilateral Facet Replacement Device Maintains Quantity and Quality of Motion at a Single Lumbar Level  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanically replacing one or more pain generating articulations in the functional spinal unit (FSU) may be a motion preservation alternative to arthrodesis at the affected level. Baseline biomechanical data elucidating the quantity and quality of motion in such arthroplasty constructs is non-existent. Purpose The purpose of the study was to quantify the motion-preserving effect of a posterior total disc replacement (PDR) combined with a unilateral facet replacement (FR) system at a single lumbar level (L4-L5). We hypothesized that reinforcement of the FSU with unilateral FR to replace the resected, native facet joint following PDR implantation would restore quality and quantity of motion and additionally not change biomechanics at the adjacent levels. Study Design In-vitro study using human cadaveric lumbar spines. Methods Six (n = 6) cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1) were evaluated using a pure-moment stability testing protocol (±7.5 Nm) in flexion-extension (F/E), lateral bending (LB) and axial rotation (AR). Each specimen was tested in: (1) intact; (2) unilateral FR; and (3) unilateral FR + PDR conditions. Index and adjacent level ROM (using hybrid protocol) were determined opto-electronically. Interpedicular travel (IPT) and instantaneous center of rotation (ICR) at the index level were radiographically determined for each condition. ROM, ICR, and IPT measurements were compared (repeated measures ANOVA) between the three conditions. Results Compared to the intact spine, no significant changes in F/E, LB or AR ROM were identified as a result of unilateral FR or unilateral FR + PDR. No significant changes in adjacent L3-L4 or L5-S1 ROM were identified in any loading mode. No significant differences in IPT were identified between the three test conditions in F/E, LB or AR at the L4-L5 level. The ICRs qualitatively were similar for the intact and unilateral FR conditions and appeared to follow placement (along the anterior-posterior (AP) direction) of the PDR in the disc space Conclusion Biomechanically, quantity and quality of motion are maintained with combined unilateral FR + PDR at a single lumbar spinal level. PMID:25694929

Nayak, Aniruddh N.; Doarn, Michael C.; Gaskins, Roger B.; James, Chris R.; Cabezas, Andres F.; Castellvi, Antonio E.



Psychopathy and instrumental violence: facet level relationships.  


The relationship between psychopathy and violence is well established. However, the extent to which psychopathy is related to different types of violent behavior warrants further study. We examined the relationship between instrumental violence, psychopathy, and psychopathic traits among 248 European American and African American adult male county jail inmates. We assessed instrumentality based on subjective motivations for respondent-identified acts of violence. Psychopathy was assessed using the PCL-R based on interview and file review. We controlled for potentially important covariates, namely IQ and prior violence. Results were in part consistent with findings from studies with adolescents, in that we identified a positive relationship between instrumentality of violence and manipulative interpersonal style. Results differed from youth studies with regard to relationships between instrumentality and other facets of psychopathy. The implications of our study are discussed with regard to treatment and the developmental stability of the relationship between psychopathic traits and instrumental violence. PMID:19663661

Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T; Kosson, David S



FACET Tolerances for Static and Dynamic Misalignments  

SciTech Connect

The Facility for AdvancedAccelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is designed to deliver a beam with a transverse spot size on the order of 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m in a new beamline constructed at the two kilometer point of the SLAC linac. Commissioning the beamline requires mitigating alignment errors and their effects, which can be significant and result in spot sizes orders of magnitude larger. Sextupole and quadrupole alignment errors in particular can introduce errors in focusing, steering, and dispersion which can result in spot size growth, beta mismatch, and waist movement. Alignment errors due to static misalignments, mechanical jitter, energy jitter, and other physical processes can be analyzed to determine the level of accuracy and precision that the beamline requires. It is important to recognize these effects and their tolerances in order to deliver a beam as designed.

Federico, Joel



Mamillo-accessory notch and foramen: distribution patterns and correlation with superior lumbar facet structure.  


The mamillary (MP) and the accessory (AP) processes are two important anatomical landmarks in the lumbar vertebral morphology. These two processes form the mamillo-accessory notch (MAN) between them. In the living, the MP and the AP are connected together by the mamillo-accessory ligament (MAL). The medial branches of lumbar dorsal rami pass underneath the MAL. The MAL often undergoes varied degrees of ossification with diverse notching at the junction of these two processes, often with formation of a discrete foramen (MAF). Reports on the distribution of these notches (MAN) and foramina (MAF) are very few and most of them do not discuss such ossification in context of morphology of adjoining structures in the vertebrae. Lumbar vertebral and sacral specimens were screened for three different categories of narrowing at the mamillo-accessory junction: firstly >1/2 notch, secondly ¾ notch, and thirdly MAF and their distribution patterns were mapped along the lumbar spine. Transverse dimensions of superior facet articulating surfaces [length (a)] and widths of MPs [length (b)] were recorded. Relative widths of the MPs were calculated as index M (a/b). Results suggest associations between the degrees of assimilation of the MPs into the facet joints, the index M values, and the different types of mamillo-accessory junctional anatomy. This study may help to understand if MAN and MAF related dorsal rami entrapment neuropathies arise merely due to osteoarthritic ossification of the MAL or could also be accounted for by facet dimensions or degree of MP-facet fusions that abut close to the mamillo-accessory junctions. PMID:24889272

Mahato, N K



15 CFR 922.192 - Joint Management Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint Management Committee. 922.192 Section 922...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM...Underwater Preserve § 922.192 Joint Management Committee. (a) A...



Search Interface Design Using Faceted Indexing for Web Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experimental system designed to organize and provide access to Web documents using a faceted pre-coordinate indexing system based on the Deep Structure Indexing System (DSIS) derived from POPSI (Postulate based Permuted Subject Indexing) of Bhattacharyya, and the facet analysis and chain indexing system of Ranganathan. (AEF)

Devadason, Francis; Intaraksa, Neelawat; Patamawongjariya, Pornprapa; Desai, Kavita



Facet Stability in Oxygen-Induced Nanofaceting of  

E-print Network

Facet Stability in Oxygen-Induced Nanofaceting of Re(123¯1) Hao Wang, Ally S. Y. Chan,,§ Wenhua of metal surfaces focus mainly on body-centered cubic or face-centered cubic metals, such as W(111),1,2 Mo- agonal close-packed (hcp) metal, little is known about its faceting behavior although it is an important


Faceted grating prism for a computed tomographic imaging spectrometer  

E-print Network

Faceted grating prism for a computed tomographic imaging spectrometer Michael W. Kudenov Julia:// on 02/04/2013 Terms of Use: #12;Faceted grating prism for a computed tomographic disperser based on a 2-D grating prism and a division of aperture approach. Included is an optical design

Dereniak, Eustace L.


Two Facets of Competitiveness and Their Influence on Psychological Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to explore the influence of competitiveness as a personality trait on psychological adjustment. Competitiveness was differentiated into two distinct facets referred to as superiority competitiveness and mastery competitiveness. In terms of psychological adjustment, the effects of these facets of competitiveness on depression, loneliness, self-esteem, anxiety, and eating patterns were examined. Questionnaires were used to assess the




Platinum nanocrystals selectively shaped using facet-specific peptide sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of a nanocrystal are heavily influenced by its shape. Shape control of a colloidal nanocrystal is believed to be a kinetic process, with high-energy facets growing faster then vanishing, leading to nanocrystals enclosed by low-energy facets. Identifying a surfactant that can specifically bind to a particular crystal facet is critical, but has proved challenging to date. Biomolecules have exquisite specific molecular recognition properties that can be explored for the precise engineering of nanostructured materials. Here, we report the use of facet-specific peptide sequences as regulating agents for the predictable synthesis of platinum nanocrystals with selectively exposed crystal surfaces and particular shapes. The formation of platinum nanocubes and nanotetrahedrons are demonstrated with Pt-{100} and Pt-{111} binding peptides, respectively. Our studies unambiguously demonstrate the abilities of facet-selective binding peptides in determining nanocrystal shape, representing a critical step forward in the use of biomolecules for programmable synthesis of nanostructures.

Chiu, Chin-Yi; Li, Yujing; Ruan, Lingyan; Ye, Xingchen; Murray, Christopher B.; Huang, Yu



Prosthetic Joint Infection  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

Tande, Aaron J.



Prosthetic joint infection.  


Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin



Hip joints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The human hips are an example of a ball-and-socket joint. Ball-and-socket joints have the ability to rotate in a circular motion. The joint where the arm connects to the shoulder is also a type of ball-and-socket joint.

Connie Raab (National Institutes of Health; )



Hydrothermal growth of multi-facet anatase spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titania with various nanostructures can be synthesized by several F --mediated procedures. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a novel multi-facet microsphere consisting of etched single-crystalline anatase by simply immersing metallic Ti plates in an HF aqueous solution under hydrothermal conditions. The etched multi-facet sphere was found to grow through the nucleation and growth of truncated bipyramids on a previously precipitated one to assemble a microsphere, and its subsequent etching by HF to expose the thermodynamic stable {1 0 1} facets. The photocatalytic activity of such etched multi-facet sphere thin films was evaluated utilizing rhodamine B and sulfonic salicylic acid in water as target molecules and compared with commercial Degussa P25 titania nanoparticles.

Wu, Jin-Ming; Song, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Lu-Yao; Wei, Xiao-Dan



Cervical Facet Arthropathy and Occipital Neuralgia: Headache Culprits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervicogenic headache (CH) is pain referred from the neck. Two common causes are cervical facet arthropathy and occipital\\u000a neuralgia. Clinical diagnosis is difficult because of the overlying features between primary headaches such as migraine, tension-type\\u000a headache, and CH. Interventional pain physicians have focused on supporting the clinical diagnosis of CH with confirmatory\\u000a blocks. The treatment of cervical facet arthropathy as

J. D. Hoppenfeld



Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the FACETS project (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) was to provide a multiphysics, parallel framework application (FACETS) that will enable whole-device modeling for the U.S. fusion program, to provide the modeling infrastructure needed for ITER, the next step fusion confinement device. Through use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, FACETS is able to switch from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics in a flexible manner. This enables use of simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that can take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS does so in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the application execute in parallel by utilizing task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and applicable. ParaTools, Inc. was tasked with supporting the performance analysis and tuning of the FACETS components and framework in order to achieve the parallel scaling goals of the project. The TAU Performance System�������������������������������® was used for instrumentation, measurement, archiving, and profile / tracing analysis. ParaTools, Inc. also assisted in FACETS performance engineering efforts. Through the use of the TAU Performance System, ParaTools provided instrumentation, measurement, analysis and archival support for the FACETS project. Performance optimization of key components has yielded significant performance speedups. TAU was integrated into the FACETS build for both the full coupled application and the UEDGE component. The performance database provided archival storage of the performance regression testing data generated by the project, and helped to track improvements in the software development.

Dr. Allen D. Malony; Dr. Sameer S. Shende; Dr. Kevin A. Huck; Mr. Alan Morris, and Mr. Wyatt Spear



Mean-field theory for coarsening faceted surfaces.  


A mean-field theory is developed for the scale-invariant length distributions observed during the coarsening of generic one-dimensional faceted surfaces. This theory closely follows the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory of Ostwald ripening in two-phase systems, but the mechanism of coarsening in faceted surfaces requires the addition of convolution terms recalling work on particle coalescence, and induces an unexpected coupling between the convolution and the rate of facet loss. As a generic framework, the theory concisely illustrates how the universal processes of facet removal and neighbor merger are moderated by the system-specific mean-field velocity describing average rates of length change. For a simple, example facet dynamics associated with the directional solidification of a binary alloy, agreement between the predicted scaling state and that observed after direct numerical simulation of 40,000,000 facets is reasonable given the limiting assumption of noncorrelation between neighbors; relaxing this assumption is a clear path forward toward improved quantitative agreement with data in the future. PMID:22463224

Norris, Scott A; Watson, Stephen J



Structural Equation Modelling of Multiple Facet Data: Extending Models for Multitrait-Multimethod Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is about the structural equation modelling of quantitative measures that are obtained from a multiple facet design. A facet is simply a set consisting of a finite number of elements. It is assumed that measures are obtained by combining each element of each facet. Methods and traits are two such facets, and a multitrait-multimethod…

Bechger, Timo M.; Maris, Gunter



Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in…

Niu, Xi



Linguistic Facets for Genre and Text Type Identification: A Description of Linguistically-Motivated Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we propose a new set of features for automatic genre and text type identification: linguistic facets. The label linguistic facet has been created to stress the fact that each of the features in this new set highlights a facet, i.e. an aspect in the communicative context that is reflected in the use of language. Linguistic facets subsume

Marina Santini


High-Index Facets in Gold Nanocrystals Elucidated by Coherent Electron Diffraction  

PubMed Central

Characterization of high index facets in noble metal nanocrystals for plasmonics and catalysis has been a challenge due to their small sizes and complex shapes. Here, we present an approach to determine the high index facets of nanocrystals using streaked Bragg reflections in coherent electron diffraction patterns, and provide a comparison of high index facets on unusual nanostructures such as trisoctahedra. We report new high index facets in trisoctahedra and previous unappreciated diversity in facet sharpness. PMID:23484620

Shah, Amish B.; Sivapalan, Sean T.; DeVetter, Brent M.; Yang, Timothy K.; Wen, Jianguo; Bhargava, Rohit; Murphy, Catherine J.; Zuo, Jian-Min



Reduction of rms-error in shallow faceted large space antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the potential for reducing root-mean-square surface error in shallow faceted reflectors by replacing flat facets with membrane facets. Exact solutions are obtained for the small lateral deflections of equilateral triangular and rectangular membranes subject to isotropic tension and parabolic edge deflections. These solutions are used to minimize the rms-error between a facet of a shallow paraboloidal surface and its approximating membrane facet. The resulting optimum placements and edge curvatures yield membrane facets which have significantly lower rms-errors than the corresponding best-fit flat facets. The rms-error reductions are about 55 percent for equilateral triangles and 25 percent to 93 percent for rectangles, depending on aspect ratio. The results suggest that the use of membrane facets conforming to curved structural members could yield reflectors with lower rms-error, or comparable error with larger facets and, hence, fewer structural members.

Fichter, W. B.



Mapping mindfulness facets onto dimensions of anxiety and depression.  


Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression, with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress-anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these specific aspects of mindfulness in interventions for anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:23768665

Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan



Development of an improved mirror facet for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fabrication technique was successfully developed for a metallic aluminum honeycomb, high-accuracy, lightweight, and long-life solar concentrator (mirror) for Advanced Solar Dynamic Space Power Systems. The program scope was limited to the development, fabrication, evaluation, and delivery of a solar concentrator facet (petal) that was sized for a 2-meter deployable solar concentrator. A surface accuracy of 1.0 mrad was achieved. The development incorporated tooling design, material selection, facet forming, adhesive selection, testing, and analysis. Techniques for applying levelizing, reflective, and protective optical coatings were also developed.

Schertz, Paul; Saifee, Shabbar; Lammert, Luke



The Silver Creek Preserve  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Before The Nature Conservancy established the Silver Creek Preserve, the watershed had been degraded by years of livestock grazing and overfishing. Preserve managers have been concerned about sedimentation, increasing stream temperatures, and invasive species. To measure the effectiveness of their ...


A History Worth Preserving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved

Cynthia Kelly



Preservation--Everybody's Job.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines concepts essential for library material preservation. Describes the following components of a formal preservation program: (1) environmental control; (2) repair; (3) binding; (4) deacidification; (5) reformatting; (6) disaster preparedness; (7) education; and (8) administration. Suggests that libraries can improve their preservation

Schobernd, Elizabeth M.




E-print Network

, divisor class group, cryptography, elliptic curves. 1 #12; 2 P. GAUDRY, F. HESS, AND N.P. SMART We shallCONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FACETS OF WEIL DESCENT ON ELLIPTIC CURVES P. GAUDRY, F. HESS, AND N and Smart for producing curves in the Weil restriction of an elliptic curve over a finite field

Gaudry, Pierrick



E-print Network

, divisor class group, cryptography, elliptic curves. 1 #12;2 P. GAUDRY, F. HESS, AND N.P. SMART We shallCONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE FACETS OF WEIL DESCENT ON ELLIPTIC CURVES P. GAUDRY, F. HESS, AND N and Smart for producing curves in the Weil restriction of an elliptic curve over a finite field

Hess, Florian


Exploratory Patent Search with Faceted Search and Configurable Entity Mining  

E-print Network

Exploratory Patent Search with Faceted Search and Configurable Entity Mining Pavlos Fafalios1 Searching for patents is usually a recall-oriented problem and depending on the patent search type, quite. We propose an exploratory strategy for patent search that exploits the metadata already available

Tzitzikas, Yannis


Beyond Conflict: Functional Facets of the Work-Family Interplay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper deals with three positive facets of the work-family interplay, i.e., transfer of competencies, transfer of positive mood, and cross-domain compensation. The latter refers to the experience that engagement in one domain helps dealing with failures in the other domain. In two correlational studies (N[subscript 1] = 107 working…

Wiese, Bettina S.; Seiger, Christine P.; Schmid, Christian M.; Freund, Alexandra M.



Facet: Streaming over Videoconferencing for Censorship Circumvention University of Minnesota  

E-print Network

Facet: Streaming over Videoconferencing for Censorship Circumvention Shuai Li University Keywords censorship resistance, video conferencing, traffic analysis 1. INTRODUCTION As the Internet has to the tools designed to circumvent this censorship, such as Tor [13] and other proxy services. These tools

Minnesota, University of


On vector quantization for fast facet edge detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents an approach for performing edge detection which builds on prior work in fast facet edge detection using tree-structured vector quantization (TSVQ). The authors first extend the approach by using larger image vectors to reduce computational complexity by performing edge detection on multiple pixels at once. They then reduce the computational complexity of the edge detector without sacrificing performance by

M. Y. Jaisimha; Jill R. Goldschneider; Alexander E. Mohr; Eve A. Riskin; Robert M. Haralick




EPA Science Inventory

This student-generated proposal presents a multi-faceted program for sustainable stewardship of the natural areas south of the built campus of Ithaca College. Our challenge is to use student research and class projects to enhance biodiversity, support education and research, and...


Conceptualizing Educational Leadership: Does Exploring Macro-Level Facets Matters?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present review attempts to examine the present status of educational leadership highlighting the role of macro-level facets in Asian Pacific context. The conceptualization of educational leadership among researchers so far had been found to vary according to different contexts and situations. Theoretical perspectives associated with…

Sinha, Chetan



Pervasive Social Computing: Augmenting Five Facets of Human Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive Social Computing is a novel collective paradigm, derived from pervasive computing, social media, social networking, social signal processing, etc. This paper reviews Pervasive Social Computing as an integrated computing environment, which promises to augment five facets of human intelligence in physical environment awareness, behavior awareness, community awareness, interaction awareness, and content awareness. Reviews of related studies are given and

Jiehan Zhou; Junzhao Sun; Kumaripaba Athukorala; Dinesh Wijekoon



Examining Student Rating of Teaching Effectiveness Using FACETS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' evaluations of teaching staff can be considered high-stakes, as they are often used to determine promotion, reappointment, and merit pay to academics. Using Facets, the reliability and validity of one student rating questionnaire is analysed. A total of 13,940 respondents of the Human Science Division of International Islamic University…

Mat Daud, Nuraihan; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide



Interactive Retrieval Based on Faceted Feedback Lanbo Zhang, Yi Zhang  

E-print Network

search interface in e-commerce, this paper investigates interactive relevance feedback mechanism based results show that the Boolean filtering approach, which is widely used in faceted search in e-commerce search has gained great success in e-commerce domain over the past years, and most popular online retail

Zhang, Yi


Personality Facets and RIASEC Interests: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining links between personality and interest have typically focused on links between measures of the five factor model and Holland's RIASEC types. However, the five factor model of personality can be divided in to a larger set of narrow domain personality scales measuring facets of the "big five" traits. Research in a number of fields…

Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Anthoney, Sarah Fetter



Depression in the work of British health visitors: Clinical facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary health care setting has been established as a key venue for identifying and working with depression. Despite this, and the high risk of depression experienced by women in the post-natal period, maternal depression has been little examined in the work of health visitors. This study focuses on clinical facets of this work, including the rate and content of

Michael Sheppard



Terahertz Light Source and User Area at FACET  

SciTech Connect

FACET at SLAC provides high charge, high peak current, low emittance electron beam that is bunched at THz wavelength scale during its normal operation. A THz light source based coherent transition radiation (CTR) from this beam would potentially be the brightest short-pulse THz source ever constructed. Efforts have been put into building this photon source together with a user area, to provide a platform to utilize this unique THz radiation for novel nonlinear and ultrafast phenomena researches and experiments. Being a long-time underutilized portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz (100 GHz {approx} 10 THz) spectral range is experiencing a renaissance in recent years, with broad interests from chemical and biological imaging, material science, telecommunication, semiconductor and superconductor research, etc. Nevertheless, the paucity of THz sources especially strong THz radiation hinders both its commercial applications and nonlinear processes research. FACET - Facilities for Accelerator science and Experimental Test beams at SLAC - provides 23 GeV electron beam with peak currents of {approx} 20 kA that can be focused down to 100 {mu}m{sup 2} transversely. Such an intense electron beam, when compressed to sub-picosecond longitudinal bunch length, coherently radiates high intensity EM fields well within THz frequency range that are orders of magnitude stronger than those available from laboratory tabletop THz sources, which will enable a wide variety of THz related research opportunities. Together with a description of the FACET beamline and electron beam parameters, this paper will report FACET THz radiation generation via coherent transition radiation and calculated photon yield and power spectrum. A user table is being set up along the THz radiation extraction sites, and equipped with various signal diagnostics including THz power detector, Michelson interferometer, sample stages, and sets of motorized optical components. This setup will also be presented. Potential THz research areas including studies of magnetism, ferroelectric switching dynamics, semiconductor devices and chemical reaction controls have already been proposed for the FACET THz area.

Wu, Z.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Fisher, A.D.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC



Morphological Traits Around Patellofemoral Joint in Indian Femora and their Implications  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Knowledge of structural variations around patellofemoral joint has helped to understand postural behavior patterns of various population groups. The biomechanical impact of postures may lead to certain skeletal modifications which may contribute to knee pathologies like patellofemoral arthritis, patellar subluxation and trochlear dysplasia. This study was conducted to report the incidence of skeletal non-metric markers on femur in Indian population and to understand their correlation with some pathologies of patellofemoral joint. The traits studied were Martin’s facet, Peritrochlear groove and Supratrochlear facet. Materials and Methods: The study material was a collection of 152 adult femora from osteology museum in Department of Anatomy, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India, with equal percentage of bones from each side and gender. All bones were evaluated for the above mentioned traits and results were obtained as percentage of incidence and Chi-Square test using SPSS version 17. Results: The data showed that Martin’s facet and Peritrochlear groove showed a higher occurrence in male femora. However, Supratrochlear facet was more commonly found in female bones. Martin’s facet had an equal incidence on femora of each side while peritrochlear groove and supratrochlear facet had higher percentage of occurrence on right side. Supratrochlear facet revealed significant side variation. Conclusion: These data suggest that casual or occupational postures may impose structural adaptations around patell- ofemoral joint. The stress of these postures may have causal,consequential or co-incidental relationship with joint pathologies. The gender, special occupations like sports and genetic predisposition may possibly have a role to play. PMID:25302179

Ghosh, Suchismita; Vasudeva, Neelam



Study of Traditional Chinese Wood Structure Joints with an Experiment Considering Regional Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese ancient timber structures are famous worldwide. They are connected with unique joints known as mortise and tenon. Since there are few studies into the structure of these joints, preserving these structures is difficult. Recent studies based on one kind of joint - the wedged acquired its semi-rigid property. But there are many more different joints to be studied. The

Zhi Yue



Contribution of double interaction between edges and facets to monostatic RCS of complex targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to calculate the effect of double interaction between edges and plane facets is presented. The calculation is made by combining the equivalent currents method and geometrical optics. The results are well suited to be added at the physical optics fields scattered by plane facets. The scheme is efficient for programming on computers together with a facets-edges model of

M. Domingo; R. P. Torres; M. F. Catedra



Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2  

E-print Network

Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2 and Anastasia Analyti2 1 of managing (faceted) taxonomy-based in- formation sources. Specifically, we discuss (i) the seman- tic description of faceted taxonomies, based on the Com- pound Term Composition Algebra (CTCA), (ii) the revision

Analyti, Anastasia


Compliant joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compliant joint is provided for prosthetic and robotic devices which permits rotation in three different planes. The joint provides for the controlled use of cable under motion. Perpendicular outer mounting frames are joined by swaged cables that interlock at a center block. Ball bearings allow for the free rotation of the second mounting frame relative to the first mounting frame within a predetermined angular rotation that is controlled by two stop devices. The cables allow for compliance at the stops and the cables allow for compliance in six degrees of freedom enabling the duplication or simulation of the rotational movement and flexibility of a natural hip or knee joint, as well as the simulation of a joint designed for a specific robotic component for predetermined design parameters.

Eklund, Wayne D. (inventor); Kerley, James J. (inventor)



Facet-controlled {100}Rh-Pt and {100}Pt-Pt dendritic nanostructures by transferring the {100} facet nature of the core nanocube to the branch nanocubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facet-controlled dendritic nanostructures are expected to exhibit excellent catalytic properties because both aggregation-free nature and controlled facet-originated activity and selectivity can be accomplished. However, such examples are extremely rare due to the incompatibility of the dendrite formation process with the usage of surface-stabilizing moieties, which are typically used to control facets. Herein, we demonstrate that regiospecific growth on a facet-controlled core nanoparticle can induce the facet-control of the branch nanoparticles. Specifically, facet-controlled dendritic nanostructures of {100}Rh-Pt and {100}Pt-Pt can be conveniently prepared by transferring the crystallographic behaviour of the {100}Pt dendritic core nanocube to the {100}Rh or {100}Pt branch nanocubes.Facet-controlled dendritic nanostructures are expected to exhibit excellent catalytic properties because both aggregation-free nature and controlled facet-originated activity and selectivity can be accomplished. However, such examples are extremely rare due to the incompatibility of the dendrite formation process with the usage of surface-stabilizing moieties, which are typically used to control facets. Herein, we demonstrate that regiospecific growth on a facet-controlled core nanoparticle can induce the facet-control of the branch nanoparticles. Specifically, facet-controlled dendritic nanostructures of {100}Rh-Pt and {100}Pt-Pt can be conveniently prepared by transferring the crystallographic behaviour of the {100}Pt dendritic core nanocube to the {100}Rh or {100}Pt branch nanocubes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07049f

Khi, Nguyen Tien; Park, Jongsik; Baik, Hionsuck; Lee, Hyunkyung; Sohn, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Kwangyeol



Development and Validation of a Synthetic Lumbar Facet Joint and its Load Bearing Characteristics  

E-print Network

There is a substantial need in the spine research community for an anatomical and mechanically correct synthetic model of the human lumbar spine. This model could be used in nearly every aspect of spinal research including the design of implants...

Mar, Damon



Preservation Management of Digital Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Wide Web gives us an unprecedented opportunity to provide people around the globe with access to significant historical and cultural works. However, the Web, by its very nature, requires those works to be in some electronically transmittable form before they can be made available, and most historical documents, by their very nature, are in a form well-removed from the computerized world of today. So how can this gap be bridged? And once a bridge is built, how can we be assured that it will stand over the decades and centuries to come? Preservation Management of Digital Materials, published by the UK's Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), provides in-depth coverage of the procedures and issues encountered in the course of creating and storing digital documents. This publication provides easily-accessible information that should be of increasing interest to anyone involved with digital publication and archiving of existing works.


[Preservatives in ophthalmology].  


Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear. PMID:23179809

Messmer, E M



Symmetry, topology and faceting in bicontinuous lyotropic crystals.  


Phase diagrams of phytantriol/ethanol/water and phytantriol/DSPG/ethanol/water systems are explored and experiments on facetings of Pn3m-in-L1 and Im3m-in-L1 crystals are performed. Observed crystal habits do not agree with the Friedel-Donnay-Harker rules. We argue that this paradox can be explained in terms of constraints imposed on Pn3m/L1 and Im3m/L1 interfaces by the bicontinuous topology of the cubic phases. We point out that when free edges of the surfactant bilayer are prohibited at these interfaces, the two labyrinthes separated by the bilayer cannot anymore be equivalent. The corresponding [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] symmetry breakings are unveiled by the abnormal facetings. PMID:23933989

Latypova, L; Gó?d?, W; Pieranski, P



National Film Preservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the United States Congress, the National Film Preservation Foundation provides nationwide support to the preservation of American films of cultural and historical significance, along with improving film access for study, education, and exhibition. Located in San Francisco, the Foundation also awards grants to various film archives and preservations agencies who are also dedicated to preserving important landmarks in American cinematic history. Information on the site includes Preservation Basics, which talks about the importance of film preservation and the nature and chemistry of film decay. A grants and projects section offers information about applying for a film preservation grant from the Foundation and about ongoing preservation projects, like the Saving the Silents: The American Silent Fiction Film Project. In addition, the site contains a complete listing (by title, date, and archive) of the 500 films helped preserved by the Foundation. Film researchers and scholars will find a map of the United States that lists existing film archives and study centers around the country both helpful and a useful tool for determining the direction of their research.


Selective facet reactivity during cation exchange in cadmium sulfide nanorods.  


The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper(I) (Cu(+)) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu(2)S) grows inward from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver(I) (Ag(+)) exchange in CdS nanorods where nonselective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag(2)S) occurs (Robinson, R. D.; Sadtler, B.; Demchenko, D. O.; Erdonmez, C. K.; Wang, L.-W.; Alivisatos, A. P. Science 2007, 317, 355-358). From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxial connections between CdS and Cu(2)S or Ag(2)S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu(2)S or Ag(2)S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial attachments of Cu(2)S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. Additionally, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced. PMID:19351206

Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven M; Merkle, Maxwell G; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A Paul



Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods  

SciTech Connect

The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul



Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)  

SciTech Connect

The FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) project of Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program was aimed at providing a high-fidelity whole-tokamak modeling for the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program and ITER through coupling separate components for each of the core region, edge region, and wall, with realistic plasma particles and power sources and turbulent transport simulation. The project also aimed at developing advanced numerical algorithms, efficient implicit coupling methods, and software tools utilizing the leadership class computing facilities under Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The FACETS project was conducted by a multi-discipline, multi-institutional teams, the Lead PI was J.R. Cary (Tech-X Corp.). In the FACETS project, the Applied Plasma Theory Group at the MAE Department of UCSD developed the Wall and Plasma-Surface Interaction (WALLPSI) module, performed its validation against experimental data, and integrated it into the developed framework. WALLPSI is a one-dimensional, coarse grained, reaction/advection/diffusion code applied to each material boundary cell in the common modeling domain for a tokamak. It incorporates an advanced model for plasma particle transport and retention in the solid matter of plasma facing components, simulation of plasma heat power load handling, calculation of erosion/deposition, and simulation of synergistic effects in strong plasma-wall coupling.

Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Pigarov, Alexander



LEEM Investigation of the Faceting of the Pt Covered W (111) Surface  

SciTech Connect

A low energy electron microscope (LEEM) has been used to investigate the faceting of W(111) as induced by Pt. The atomically rough W(111) surface, when fully covered with a monolayer film of Pt and annealed to temperatures higher than {approximately} 750 K, experiences a significant morphological restructuring: the initially planar surface undergoes a faceting transition and forms three-sided pyramids with {211} faces. The experiments demonstrate the capability of LEEM for imaging both the fully and partially faceted surface. In addition, we have observed the formation of the facets in real time, when Pt is dosed onto the heated surface. We find that the transition from planar surface, to partially faceted surface, and to fully faceted surface proceeds through the nucleation and growth of spatially separated faceted regions.

Hannon, J.B.; Kellogg, G.L.; Madey, T.E.; Pelhos, K.



Simulated Whiplash Modulates Expression of the Glutamatergic System in the Spinal Cord Suggesting Spinal Plasticity Is Associated with Painful Dynamic Cervical Facet Loading  

PubMed Central

Abstract The cervical facet joint and its capsule have been reported to be injured during whiplash scenarios and are a common source of chronic neck pain from whiplash. Both the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and the excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) have pivotal roles in chronic pain. In this study, spinal mGluR5 and EAAC1 were quantified following painful facet joint distraction in a rat model of facet-mediated painful loading and were evaluated for their correlation with the severity of capsule loading. Rats underwent either a dynamic C6/C7 joint distraction simulating loading experienced during whiplash (distraction; n?=?12) or no distraction (sham; n?=?6) to serve as control. The severity of capsular loading was quantified using strain metrics, and mechanical allodynia was assessed after surgery. Spinal cord tissue was harvested at day 7 and the expression of mGluR5 and EAAC1 were quantified using Western blot analysis. Mechanical allodynia following distraction was significantly (p?joint loading; chronic whiplash pain may be alleviated by blocking mGluR5 expression and/or enhancing glutamate transport through the neuronal transporter EAAC1. PMID:19772459

Dong, Ling



Joint chondrolysis.  


Although the disease was first described in the hip, reports of chondrolysis in nearly all diarthrodial joints have since emerged with considerable variations in the literature.Despite speculation among clinicians and researchers about the implicit causal pathways and etiologic contributors associated with chondrolysis, definitive answers remain elusive.The term chondrolysis has been applied to varied levels of joint cartilage destruction from focal chondral defects to diffuse cartilage loss, revealing a lack of consistency in the application of diagnostic criteria to guide differential disease classification.Differentiating between the various potential etiologies associated with chondrolysis provides opportunities for the prevention of the disease. PMID:22048100

Provencher, Matthew T; Navaie, Maryam; Solomon, Daniel J; Smith, Jessica C; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J



Locality Preserving Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many problems in information processing involve some form of dimen- sionality reduction. In this paper, we introduce Locality Preserving Pro- jections (LPP). These are linear projective maps that arise by solving a variational problem that optimally preserves the neighborhood structure of the data set. LPP should be seen as an alternative to Principal Com- ponent Analysis (PCA) - a classical

Xiaofei He; Partha Niyogi



The Preservation of Ephemera  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outline for the storage and preservation of ephemera is provided, including criteria for determining artifactual and intrinsic value; steps to be taken in the assessment of the condition of collections; and various preservation strategies, such as reformatting, microforms, photography, and digital imaging.

Lois Olcott Price



Conservation, Preservation, and Digitization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital technologies should be considered a method of preservation for library materials. Current conservation strategies of restoration, deacidification, and microfilming are expensive, and they limit access. Digitization offers improved access while preserving materials and reflects a change in the library role from depository of printed…

Lynch, Clifford A.; Brownrigg, Edwin B.



Why Preserve Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan stresses the importance of maintaining ecosystems and explores the various arguments in favor of preserving the biodiversity of Earth. Students will view photos of endangered species and discuss why these animals are threatened and why they should be protected; learn the meaning of biodiversity, ecosystem, and extinction; explain why all members of an ecosystem are important; list the reasons why biodiversity should be preserved; read articles on various arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity; and write essays in which they explain what they feel are the most compelling reasons for preserving biodiversity and also describe the arguments they think would be most likely to convince the general public that biodiversity should be preserved.


Hip joint replacement  


... made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis . ... thromboembolic disease in patients undergoing elective hip and ... joint arthroplasties: current concepts of patient outcomes after ...


Use of computed tomography-single-photon emission computed tomography fusion for diagnosing painful facet arthropathy. Technical note.  


Facet disease is believed to play a major role in axial low-back pain and may prove in the future to be an important indication for posterior dynamic stabilization. However, the lack of good diagnostic tests and imaging methods for identifying this condition have made this entity obscure. Although single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is a highly sensitive and specific test, the images frequently lack adequate resolution, whereas computed tomography (CT) provides excellent resolution but lacks specificity. Thirty-seven patients with back pain clinically attributable to facet disease underwent CT-SPECT fusion imaging of the lumbar spine. The SPECT images were obtained using a dual-head gamma camera equipped with VXGP high-resolution collimators using a 20% energy window centered at 140 keV and a 360 degrees rotation totaling 128 projections at 16 seconds each. Transaxial CT images were transferred in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format to provide proper image overlay in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. Scanning for both modalities was performed using standard patient positioning. Patients with concordant images and symptoms then underwent joint injection and/or rhizotomy, which was performed by an independent physician. Image fusion was successfully performed in all patients, and the image quality allowed definitive localization of the "hot" lesion in all cases, in contrast to conventional high-resolution SPECT scanning, which often led to problems differentiating L4/5 and L5/S1. In patients with solitary lesions, injection led to definitive pain resolution, even if temporary, in all cases with anesthetic blockade. The CT-SPECT scanning modality combines the virtues of functional and anatomical imaging, aiding the clinician in making the diagnosis of painful facet arthropathy. This modality may prove useful for the selection of patients who are candidates for posterior dynamic stabilization. PMID:17608336

McDonald, Matthew; Cooper, Robert; Wang, Michael Y



Metadata For Digital Preservation: The Cedars Outline Specification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cedars Project, a Higher Education initiative funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee, based at Oxford, Cambridge, and the University of Leeds, has posted online its "outline specification for metadata to ensure long-term preservation for digital materials." The 33-page .pdf document details the Project's approach to preserving data as part of the Cedars Demonstrator Project and serves "to contribute on a strategic level to the international collaborative development of a standard specification for digital preservation metadata." This draft version has been made available for public commentary; the final version is due out this summer.


Mojave National Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service site contains sections on: desert ecology, with explanations of the desert types (rain shadow deserts, coastal deserts, and remote interior basins), and data on desert population growth; desert plants and animals; history of the preserve including Mojave Indian and Black homesteaders history; recreational information; education, with a list of rangers to call or email for curriculum programs; management issues, including a Final Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan; and maps of the preserve. There is also an online story book for kids about desert tortoises and links to information on the geology (as well as geological maps) of the preserve.


Locality Preserving Discriminant Projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new manifold learning algorithm called locality preserving discriminant projections (LPDP) is proposed by adding between-class scatter matrix and within-class scatter matrix into locality preserving projections (LPP). LPDP can preserve locality and utilize label information in the projection. It is shown that the LPDP can successfully find the subspace which has better discrimination between different pattern classes. The subspace obtained by LPDP has more discriminant power than LPP, and is more suitable for recognition tasks. The proposed method was applied to USPS handwriting database and compared with LPP. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Gui, Jie; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Ling


Status of Plasma Electron Hose Instability Studies in FACET  

SciTech Connect

In the FACET plasma-wakefield acceleration experiment a dense 23 GeV electron beam will interact with lithium and cesium plasmas, leading to plasma ion-channel formation. The interaction between the electron beam and the plasma sheath-electrons may lead to a fast growing electron hose instability. By using optics dispersion knobs to induce a controlled z-x tilt along the beam entering the plasma, we investigate the transverse behavior of the beam in the plasma as function of the tilt. We seek to quantify limits on the instability in order to further explore potential limitations on future plasma wakefield accelerators due to the electron hose instability. The FACET plasma-wakefield experiment at SLAC will study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. A dense 23 GeV electron beam will interact with lithium or cesium plasma, leading to plasma ion-channel formation. The interaction between the electron beam and the plasma sheath-electrons drives the electron hose instability, as first studied by Whittum. While Ref. [2] indicates the possibility of a large instability growth rate for typical beam and plasma parameters, other studies including have shown that several physical effects may mitigate the hosing growth rate substantially. So far there has been no quantitative benchmarking of experimentally observed hosing in previous experiments. At FACET we aim to perform such benchmarking by for example inducing a controlled z-x tilt along the beamentering the plasma, and observing the transverse behavior of the beam in the plasma as function. The long-term objective of these studies is to quantify potential limitations on future plasma wakefield accelerators due to the electron hose instability.

Adli, Erik; /U. Oslo; England, Robert Joel; Frederico, Joel; Hogan, Mark; Li, Selina Zhao; Litos, Michael Dennis; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC; An, Weiming; Mori, Warren; /UCLA



Sub-Facet Heterogeneity of the Urban Surface Energy Budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM) and observational data are combined to understand the influence of urban sub-facet heterogeneity, and the associated influence of material properties, on the urban surface energy budget. This heterogeneity is related to the different surfaces and materials (asphalt, concrete, grass, black roofs, green roofs, etc.) that are typically found within one urban facet (roof, wall, and ground). Of particular interest is the role of water storage and evaporation from urban surfaces in modulating the energy budget. The PUCM is evaluated at sites of various urban densities. Subsequently, one densely-built site is selected for in-depth analysis and the model is applied, with sub-facet resolution, to simulate the water and energy budgets. Our analyses show that while all built surfaces convert most of the incoming energy into sensible rather than latent heat, sensible heat fluxes from asphalt and non-reflective rooftops are twice as high as those from concrete surfaces and light colored roofs. Another important and commonly observed characteristic of urban areas- the shift in peak time of sensible heat compared to rural areas, is shown to be mainly linked to concrete's high heat storage capacity. Our results also indicate that while evaporation from built surfaces is discontinuous and intermittent, overall, these surfaces accounted for nearly 16% of latent heat fluxes (LE) at the study site during the study period. More importantly, this contribution is mainly concentrated during the 48 hours following a rain event and thus its accurate representation is critical to our understanding of the urban surface energy budget during wet periods.

Ramamurthy, P.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Smith, J. A.; Baeck, M. L.; Welty, C.



Posterior Dynamic Stabilization as a Salvage Procedure for Lumbar Facet Degeneration Following Total Disc Arthroplasty: Case report  

PubMed Central

Following an L5–S1 SB Charité disc III implantation, a 37-year-old female patient developed intractable radicular pain in the left L5 distribution. The patient underwent a minimally invasive foraminotomy, and her symptoms improved significantly. However, following recurrence of radicular pain, she showed signs of an L5–S1 facet degeneration and recurrent nerve root compression from hypertrophied synovium. A partial facetectomy was then performed to completely decompress the L5 root with supplemental posterior dynamic stabilization using a pedicle-based flexible titanium rod system. To date, the patient remains free of symptoms. Although posterolateral fusion would have been a viable option, the application of a posterior dynamic system permitted segmental motion preservation.

Wang, Michael Y.



Model for reflection and transmission matrices of nanowire end facets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanowires show a large potential for various electro-optical devices, such as light emitting diodes, solar cells, and nanowire lasers. We present a method developed to calculate the modal reflection and transmission matrix at the end facets of a waveguide of arbitrary cross-section, resulting in a generalized version of the Fresnel equations. The reflection can be conveniently computed using fast Fourier transforms once the waveguide modes are known. We demonstrate that the reflection coefficient is qualitatively described by two main parameters: the modal field confinement and the average Fresnel reflection of the plane waves constituting the waveguide mode.

Svendsen, Guro K.; Weman, Helge; Skaar, Johannes



Optimization of spherical facets for parabolic solar concentrators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar concentrator designs which employ deployable hexagonal panels are being developed for space power systems. An offset optical configuration has been developed which offers significant system level advantages over previously proposed collector designs for space applications. Optical analyses have been performed which show offset reflector intercept factors to be only slightly lower than those for symmetric reflectors with the same slope error. Fluxes on the receiver walls are asymmetric but manageable by varying the tilt angle of the receiver. Greater producibility is achieved by subdividing the hexagonal panels into triangular mirror facets of spherical contour. Optical analysis has been performed upon these to yield near-optimum sizes and radii.

White, J. E.; Erikson, R. J.; Sturgis, J. D.; Elfe, T. B.



Reverse Epitaxy of Ge: Ordered and Faceted Surface Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal incidence ion irradiation at elevated temperatures, when amorphization is prevented, induces novel nanoscale patterns of crystalline structures on elemental semiconductors by a reverse epitaxial growth mechanism: on Ge surfaces irradiation at temperatures above the recrystallization temperature of 250°C leads to self-organized patterns of inverse pyramids. Checkerboard patterns with fourfold symmetry evolve on the Ge (100) surface, whereas on the Ge (111) surface, isotropic patterns with a sixfold symmetry emerge. After high-fluence irradiations, these patterns exhibit well-developed facets. A deterministic nonlinear continuum equation accounting for the effective surface currents due to an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier for diffusing vacancies reproduces remarkably well our experimental observations.

Ou, Xin; Keller, Adrian; Helm, Manfred; Fassbender, Jürgen; Facsko, Stefan



Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC and its Radiological Considerations  

SciTech Connect

Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) in SLAC will be used to study plasma wakefield acceleration. FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to design a maze wall to separate FACET project and LCLS project to allow persons working in FACET side during LCLS operation. Also FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to design the shielding for FACET dump to get optimum design for shielding both prompt and residual doses, as well as reducing environmental impact. FACET will be an experimental facility that provides short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons to excite plasma wakefields and study a variety of critical issues associated with plasma wakefield acceleration [1]. This paper describes the FACET beam parameters, the lay-out and its radiological issues.

Mao, X.S.; Leitner, M.Santana; Vollaire, J.



Joint assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)



Mechanism of entanglement preservation  

SciTech Connect

We study the entanglement preservation of two qubits locally interacting with their reservoirs. We show that the existence of a bound state of the qubit and its reservoir and the non-Markovian effect are two essential ingredients and their interplay plays a crucial role in preserving the entanglement in the steady state. When the non-Markovian effect is neglected, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is reproduced. On the other hand, when the non-Markovian is significantly strong but the bound state is absent, the phenomenon of the ESD and its revival is recovered. Our formulation presents a unified picture about the entanglement preservation and provides a clear clue on how to preserve the entanglement in quantum information processing.

Tong Qingjun [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Modern Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); An Junhong [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Luo Honggang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Oh, C. H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)



Preservation Map of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an effort to stimulate international information exchange, cooperative projects, and research, the European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA) has created an online directory of European organizations working in the preservation field. This directory is based on a survey conducted over the past year. For each of the twenty-five countries currently listed there is a section on national policy as it relates to preservation in libraries and archives, followed by background information on individual organizations, projects, and training courses. Background information includes contacts, email or web access if available, and a brief description of activities. Users can search the preservation map database by organization name, project focus, training availability, or by keyword.


Shape Preserving Spline Interpolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rational spline solution to the problem of shape preserving interpolation is discussed. The rational spline is represented in terms of first derivative values at the knots and provides an alternative to the spline-under-tension. The idea of making the shape control parameters dependent on the first derivative unknowns is then explored. The monotonic or convex shape of the interpolation data can then be preserved automatically through the solution of the resulting non-linear consistency equations of the spline.

Gregory, J. A.



Testing of the SAIC facets on the stretched-membrane dish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dish structure sized for a 25 kW electric dish\\/generator system has been installed at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The dish is used as an optical test bed for prototype stretched-membrane facets. Sandia procured twelve (12) stretched-membrane facets from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for installation on the dish structure. Individual facet optical performance was measured using

J. W. Grossman; W. W. Erdman; R. M. Houser; R. Davenport



GaN-based LEDs with Al-deposited V-shaped sapphire facet mirror  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with V-shaped sapphire facet reflector was fabricated using the double transferred scheme and sapphire chemical wet etching. The {1-102} R-plane V-shaped facet reflector with a 57° against {0001} C-axis has the superior capability for enhancing the light extraction efficiency. The light output power of the V-shaped sapphire facet reflector LED was 1.4 times higher than

Y. J. Lee; J. M. Hwang; T. C. Hsu; M. H. Hsieh; M. J. Jou; B. J. Lee; T. C. Lu; H. C. Kuo; S. C. Wang



Comparing Linkage Designs Based on Land Facets to Linkage Designs Based on Focal Species  

PubMed Central

Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5–16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches. PMID:23152831

Brost, Brian M.; Beier, Paul



Interactive exploration of implicit and explicit relations in faceted datasets.  


Many datasets, such as scientific literature collections, contain multiple heterogeneous facets which derive implicit relations, as well as explicit relational references between data items. The exploration of this data is challenging not only because of large data scales but also the complexity of resource structures and semantics. In this paper, we present PivotSlice, an interactive visualization technique which provides efficient faceted browsing as well as flexible capabilities to discover data relationships. With the metaphor of direct manipulation, PivotSlice allows the user to visually and logically construct a series of dynamic queries over the data, based on a multi-focus and multi-scale tabular view that subdivides the entire dataset into several meaningful parts with customized semantics. PivotSlice further facilitates the visual exploration and sensemaking process through features including live search and integration of online data, graphical interaction histories and smoothly animated visual state transitions. We evaluated PivotSlice through a qualitative lab study with university researchers and report the findings from our observations and interviews. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of PivotSlice using a scenario of exploring a repository of information visualization literature. PMID:24051774

Zhao, Jian; Collins, Christopher; Chevalier, Fanny; Balakrishnan, Ravin



Intensity Effects of the FACET Beam in the SLAC Linac  

SciTech Connect

The beam for FACET (Facility for Advanced aCcelerator Experimental Tests) at SLAC requires an energy-time correlation ('chirp') along the linac, so it can be compressed in two chicanes, one at the midpoint in sector 10 and one W-shaped chicane just before the FACET experimental area. The induced correlation has the opposite sign to the typical used for BNS damping, and therefore any orbit variations away from the center kick the tail of the beam more than the head, causing a shear in the beam and emittance growth. Any dispersion created along the linac has similar effects due to the high (>1.2% rms) energy spread necessary for compression. The initial huge emittances could be reduced by a factor of 10, but were still bigger than expected by a factor of 2-3. Normalized emittance of 3 {micro}m-rad in Sector 2 blew up to 150 {micro}m-rad in Sector 11 but could be reduced to about 6-12 {micro}m-rad, for the vertical plane although the results were not very stable. Investigating possible root causes for this, we found locations where up to 10 mm dispersion was created along the linac, which were finally verified with strong steering and up to 7 mm settling of the linac accelerator at these locations.

Decker, F.-J.; Lipkowitz, N.; Sheppard, J.; White, G.R.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC



FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns  

SciTech Connect

The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.



Arthroscopy of the subtalar joint: an experimental approach.  


Talocalcaneal articulations are relatively complex and functionally very important because they play a major role in the movements of inversion and eversion of the foot. Few reports on arthrography of the subtalar joints are available in the literature, and, similarly, little attention has been paid by arthroscopists to these joints. This preliminary study briefly defines the normal anatomy of the subtalar joints and describes a new technique of arthroscopic examination of the posterior subtalar joint. The distal lower extremities of six fresh cadavers were used in these experiments. All the subtalar joints were supple. A 2.7-mm arthroscope was used to carry out arthroscopic and anatomic examinations. A technique of examination with one anterior portal and one posterior portal is described in detail. When the anterior portal was used, the egress needle was placed posteriorly; when the posterior portal was used, the converse was true. By using the two portals, the following intraarticular structures could be visualized: a major part of the convex posterior calcaneal facet of the talus and the posterior talar facet of the calcaneus; the synovial lining laterally and posteriorly; the posterior aspect of the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament; and the posterior recess of the joint. The results of this experimental study indicate that arthroscopy of the posterior subtalar joint is technically feasible. Clinically, the possible indications for arthroscopy would include state of the articular cartilage in suspected cases of degenerative arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and infection; visualization of the joint after intraarticular fracture to evaluate chronic pain syndrome in the hindfoot; biopsy; management of sinus tarsi syndrome; loose body removal. PMID:4091910

Parisien, J S; Vangsness, T



Facet-Dependent Photoelectrochemical Performance of TiO2 Nanostructures: An Experimental and Computational Study.  


The behavior of crystalline nanoparticles depends strongly on which facets are exposed. Some facets are more active than others, but it is difficult to selectively isolate particular facets. This study provides fundamental insights into photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performance of three types of TiO2 nanoparticles with predominantly exposed {101}, {010}, or {001} facets, where 86-99% of the surface area is the desired facet. Photodegradation of methyl orange reveals that {001}-TiO2 has 1.79 and 3.22 times higher photocatalytic activity than {010} and {101}-TiO2, respectively. This suggests that the photochemical performance is highly correlated with the surface energy and the number of under-coordinated surface atoms. In contrast, the photoelectrochemical performance of the faceted TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized with the commercially available MK-2 dye was highest with {010}-TiO2 which yielded an overall cell efficiency of 6.1%, compared to 3.2% for {101}-TiO2 and 2.6% for {001}-TiO2 prepared under analogous conditions. Measurement of desorption kinetics and accompanying computational modeling suggests a stronger covalent interaction of the dye with the {010} and {101} facets compared with the {001} facet. Time-resolved THz spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy measure faster electron injection dynamics when MK-2 is bound to {010} compared to other facets, consistent with extensive computational simulations which indicate that the {010} facet provides the most efficient and direct pathway for interfacial electron transfer. Our experimental and computational results establish for the first time that photoelectrochemical performance is dependent upon the binding energy of the dye as well as the crystalline structure of the facet, as opposed to surface energy alone. PMID:25563343

Li, Chuanhao; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Ding, Wendu; Rudshteyn, Benjamin; Yang, Ke R; Regan, Kevin P; Konezny, Steven J; Batista, Victor S; Brudvig, Gary W; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Kim, Jae-Hong



Orthopaedic Surgery Center of Joint Preservation and Replacement  

E-print Network

straight/full extension (Fig. 1) (no space between the back of your knee and the table) and you should you accomplish full flexibility of your knee(s) in the appropriate time frame: · Use commercial breaks the commercial time or for two minutes if you're a book reader. Then relax until next commercial or chapter break

Oliver, Douglas L.


Aerodynamics Investigation of Faceted Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The desire and demand to fly farther and faster has progressively integrated the concept of optimization with airfoil design, resulting in increasingly complex numerical tools pursuing efficiency often at diminishing returns; while the costs and difficulty associated with fabrication increases with design complexity. Such efficiencies may often be necessary due to the power density limitations of certain aircraft such as small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs). This research, however, focuses on reducing the complexity of airfoils for applications where aerodynamic performance is less important than the efficiency of manufacturing; in this case a Hybrid Projectile. By employing faceted sections to approximate traditional contoured wing sections it may be possible to expedite manufacturing and reduce costs. We applied this method to the development of a low Reynolds number, disposable Hybrid Projectile requiring a 4.5:1 glide ratio, resulting in a series of airfoils which are geometric approximations to highly contoured cross-sections called ShopFoils. This series of airfoils both numerically and experimentally perform within a 10% margin of the SD6060 airfoil at low Re. Additionally, flow visualization has been conducted to qualitatively determine what mechanisms, if any, are responsible for the similarity in performance between the faceted ShopFoil sections and the SD6060. The data obtained by these experiments did not conclusively reveal how the faceted surfaces may influence low Re flow but did indicate that the ShopFoil s did not maintain flow attachment at higher angles of attack than the SD6060. Two reasons are provided for the unexpected performance of the ShopFoil: one is related to downwash effects, which are suspected of placing the outer portion of the span at an effective angle of attack where the ShopFoils outperform the SD6060; the other is the influence of the tip vortex on separation near the wing tips, which possibly provides a 'comparative advantage' to the ShopFoil because it has more to gain from a reduction in its pressure drag component.

Napolillo, Zachary G.


Intra-articular calcaneal fractures: effect of open reduction and internal fixation on the contact characteristics of the subtalar joint.  


Intra-articular calcaneal fractures are associated with significant long-term morbidity, and considerable controversy exists regarding the optimum method of treating them. The contact characteristics in the intact subtalar joint were determined at known loads and for different positions of the ankle and subtalar joint, using pressure-sensitive film (Super Low; Fuji, Itochu Canada Ltd, Montreal, Quebec). We measured the contact area to joint area ratio (pressure > 5 kg force/cm2 [kgf/cm2]) which normalizes for differences in joint size and the ratio of high pressure zone (>20 kgf/cm2) as a reflection of overall increase in joint pressure. Three simulated fracture patterns were then created and stabilized with either 1 or 2 mm of articular incongruity. Eight specimens were prepared with a primary fracture line through the posterior facet, eight with a joint depression-type fracture, and six with a central joint depression fracture. A measure of 1 to 2 mm of incongruity in the posterior facet for all three fracture patterns produced significant unloading of the depressed fragment, with a redistribution of the overall pattern of pressure distribution to parts of the facet that were previously unloaded. PMID:9872472

Mulcahy, D M; McCormack, D M; Stephens, M M



National Preservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Preservation Institute (NPI) "offers continuing education and professional training for those involved in the management, preservation, and stewardship of cultural heritage." The NPI website is a treasure trove of material for people interested in such matters, along with information on scholarships, online resources, and the Institute's upcoming seminars. The Resources area includes a set of useful links to Internet resources and a very nice set of tools for cultural resource managers. These tools include technical documents designed to be used in the formal transfer of historic properties, along with key documents about the National Environmental Policy Act. In the Scholarships area, visitors can learn about scholarships offered by the NPI and the National Endowment for the Arts dealing with historic preservation. Additionally, visitors can sign up for the NPI mailing list and learn more about seminars on cultural and natural resources management.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet allows many interested communities that may be spread across great distances to share information, and PreserveNet is just such a community. Since 1994, preservationists have had a fine resource to draw on at the PreserveNet website. The site has been redesigned several times since its creation, and currently visitors to the site can find out about funding sources for projects, employment opportunities, and upcoming conferences and related events. Along with these sections, visitors may also wish to take a look through the “Legal” section, which offers links to summaries of court cases related to historic preservation and also to the codes of federal regulation. Finally, the site also has a links area, which contains numerous links categorized by theme, such as cultural studies, sprawl, and maritime resources.


Preservation North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preservation North Carolina was created in 1939, and works to promote and protect the buildings and landscape of the Tarheel State. The organization has five regional offices across the state and visitors can learn about their ambitious mission and work on this well-designed site. Here visitors can make their way through Events, In the News, and Features. This last area offers visitors insights into recent projects completed by the organization, along with instructive lessons for others involved in historic preservation, architecture, and urban design projects. The Get Answers area is a real gem, as it contains answers to questions like "How do I repair my old house?" "How can I protect my neighborhood?" and "Is preservation good for the environment?"



A History Worth Preserving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has been made in preserving some properties of the Manhattan Project? The presentation will share the handful of remaining properties that we believe are needed to tell the story of the Manhattan Project. It will share our successes, what is still at risk, and the on-going struggle to preserve this history.

Kelly, Cynthia



Do Different Facets of Impulsivity Predict Different Types of Aggression?  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the relations between impulsivity-related traits (as assessed by the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale) and aggressive behaviors. Results indicated that UPPS-P Lack of Premeditation and Sensation Seeking were important in predicting general violence. In contrast, UPPS-P Urgency was most useful in predicting intimate partner violence. To further explore relations between intimate partner violence and Urgency, a measure of autonomic response to pleasant and aversive stimuli and facets of Neuroticism from the NEO PI-R were used as control variables. Autonomic responsivity was correlated with intimate partner violence at the zero-order level, and predicted significant variance in intimate partner violence in regression equations. However, UPPS-P Urgency was able to account for unique variance in intimate partner violence above and beyond measures of Neuroticism and arousal. Implications regarding the use of a multifaceted conceptualization of impulsivity in the prediction of different types of violent behavior are discussed. PMID:21259270

Derefinko, Karen; DeWall, C. Nathan; Metze, Amanda V.; Walsh, Erin C.; Lynam, Donald R.



Micro-Facet Scattering Model for Pulse Polarization Ranging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the shape, material and orientation of nano-sats (satellites too small to image from the ground) requires new sensing approaches. Pulse Polarization Ranging (PPR) is one such approach that uses the polarization and shape characteristics of laser pulses reflected from satellites to determine satellite shape, orientation and material. We use an innovative approach to relate PPR measurements to actual satellite characteristics (shape, material and orientation), requiring that we have an accurate physical and dynamical model of the satellite. In particular, to determine the polarization characteristics (depolarization, birefringence, diattenuation) of the reflected pulses we need an accurate model of light scattering from real (complex) surfaces. To do this, we have extended the micro-facet model of Ashikhmin et al. to include retro-reflection and multiple scattering effects. In this presentation, we describe the scattering model and its efficient implementation using graphical processing units (GPUs).

Stryjewski, J.; Roggemann, M.; Tyler, D.; Hand, D.


Examining student rating of teaching effectiveness using FACETS.  


Students' evaluations of teaching staff can be considered high-stakes, as they are often used to determine promotion, reappointment, and merit pay to academics. Using Facets, the reliability and validity of one student rating questionnaire is analyzed. A total of 13,940 respondents of the Human Science Division of International Islamic University Malaysia were involved in the study. The analysis shows that the student rating questionnaire used was valid and reliable, and it allows identification of staff for the institution's prestigious teaching excellence awards, and those needing in-service training. It was found that there was no significant difference in terms of rank, age and gender of the staff. The study also shows that the majority of staff have problems keeping the class interested and getting students to participate in class activities. Faculty also hardly discussed common errors in assignments and tests. PMID:22089510

Mat Daud, Nuraihan; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide



Replicable Facets of Positive Emotionality and Their Relations to Psychopathology.  


General individual differences in positive emotionality are negatively related to depression, social anxiety, and schizotypy/schizophrenia, and positively related to mania. However, the structure of positive emotionality remains unclear at the facet level, as there are significant disparities in the types of content assessed across emotionality measures. This study analyzed the lower order structure of positive emotionality in two samples, finding evidence for a replicable two-factor structure of Joviality and Experience Seeking. These factors demonstrated a markedly different pattern of relations in both direction and magnitude with internalizing, externalizing, and schizotypal symptoms. Joviality seems to represent an adaptive variant of positive emotionality, as it showed strong positive relations with well-being and moderate negative relations with measures of depression, social anxiety, and social anhedonia. In contrast, Experience Seeking appears to be somewhat maladaptive. It generally related positively to psychopathology, correlating most strongly with indicators of manic and externalizing symptoms. PMID:25260942

Stanton, Kasey; Watson, David



Giant photoluminescence emission in crystalline faceted Si grains  

PubMed Central

Empowering an indirect band-gap material like Si with optical functionalities, firstly light emission, represents a huge advancement constantly pursued in the realization of any integrated photonic device. We report the demonstration of giant photoluminescence (PL) emission by a newly synthesized material consisting of crystalline faceted Si grains (fg-Si), a hundred nanometer in size, assembled in a porous and columnar configuration, without any post processing. A laser beam with wavelength 632.8?nm locally produce such a high temperature, determined on layers of a given thickness by Raman spectra, to induce giant PL radiation emission. The optical gain reaches the highest value ever, 0.14?cm/W, representing an increase of 3 orders of magnitude with respect to comparable data recently obtained in nanocrystals. Giant emission has been obtained from fg-Si deposited either on glass or on flexible, low cost, polymeric substrate opening the possibility to fabricate new devices. PMID:24056300

Faraci, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Agata R.; Alberti, Alessandra; Ruggeri, Rosa; Mannino, Giovanni



Soft tissue injuries associated with traumatic locked facets in the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical, radiological and operative findings in 10 consecutive patients with cervical spine trauma presenting with locked facets (bilaterally in nine patients) are reported. The treatment was cervical traction until reduction of the locked facets was achieved, followed by anterior surgical decompression and ostheosynthesis. Intervertebral disc herniation was present in nine of the patients, and ruptured calcified posterior longitudinal ligament

A C Moraes; A Serdeira; A Pereira Filho; E Zardo; J Deitos



Faceted Ranking of Egos in Collaborative Tagging Systems Jose I. Orlicki(1,2)  

E-print Network

Faceted Ranking of Egos in Collaborative Tagging Systems Jose I. Orlicki(1,2) , Pablo I. Fierens(2 as folksonomies. Faceted web ranking has been proved a reasonable alternative to a single ranking which does not take into account a personalized context. In this paper we analyze the online computation of rankings

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Facile synthesis of AgBr nanoplates with exposed {111} facets and enhanced photocatalytic properties.  


AgBr nanoplates with exposed {111} facets have been synthesized in high yield by a facile precipitation reaction, and the as-prepared nanoplates exhibited greatly enhanced photocatalytic properties for the degradation of organic pollutants, which may be primarily ascribed to the relatively higher surface energy of {111} facets. PMID:22105717

Wang, Hua; Gao, Jian; Guo, Tianqi; Wang, Rongming; Guo, Lin; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong



Scattering from long prisms computed using ray tracing combined with diffraction on facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model suitable for rapid computation of scattering on faceted dielectric objects such as ice crystals is presented. It combines ray tracing with diffraction on flat facets. The model allows retaining the ray nature of the internal field by calculating the diffraction component using an approximation for the far field direction of the Poynting vector. While this approach is

Evelyn Hesse; Zbigniew Ulanowski



Nitrogen-induced reconstruction and faceting of Re(112{sup ¯}1)  

SciTech Connect

The surface morphology of Re(112{sup ¯}1), tailored on the nanometer scale by kinetic control of nitrogen, has been investigated using low energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) in combination with the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics approach. Experiments show that when exposing to NH{sub 3} (>0.5 L) at 300 K followed by annealing in ultra-high vacuum at 700 K or 900 K, the initially planar Re(112{sup ¯}1) surface becomes (2 × 1) reconstructed or partially faceted, respectively. Upon annealing in 100 L NH{sub 3} at 900 K, Re(112{sup ¯}1) becomes fully faceted and covered by N. The fully faceted surface consists of two-sided ridges formed by (134{sup ¯}2) and (314{sup ¯}2) facets. The (2 × 1) reconstruction may serve as a precursor state for faceting of Re(112{sup ¯}1). The DFT calculations provide an atomistic understanding of facet formation in terms of binding sites and energies of N on Re surfaces of the substrate and facets as well as the corresponding surface phase diagram. The N-covered faceted Re(112{sup ¯}1) surfaces are promising nanoscale model catalysts and nanotemplates. Our findings should be of importance for the design and development of Re-based heterogeneous catalysts operating under nitrogen-rich conditions.

Wang, Hao; Chen, Wenhua; Bartynski, Robert A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Kaghazchi, Payam; Jacob, Timo [Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)] [Institute of Electrochemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)



An experimental approach to evaluate the correspondence between wear facet position and occlusal movements.  


The position of dental wear facets depends on crown morphology, antagonistic relation, and occlusal movements. The correspondence between specific directions of movements and the position of wear facets cannot be easily evaluated in vivo and has never been tested experimentally. An experimental analysis was carried out to provide evidence that explicit occlusal movements are responsible for the spatial position of wears facets. Unworn dental stone replicas of modern human prosthetic molar were mounted in a physical dental articulator, and the upper dental arch was ground against the lowers to create a wear facet pattern. The relief guided movements were constrained sequentially by means of three different condyle box setups: (1) experienced-based mean values for sagittal condyle inclination, lateroretrusion, Benett angle, and transversal condyle inclination were used; (2) pure retrusion and immediate side shift movements were added; (3) retrusion and immediate side shift were increased. Finally, the upper and lower first molars were surface scanned and macrowear facets were quantified in four wear stages. The results show that a wear facet pattern was created similar to what is seen on human molars in vivo occlusion. Some facets only developed if specific directions of movement were carried out. Therefore, we posit that an analysis of wear facet patterns is useful in recreating the individual occlusal movements. This information can be used not only to guide reproducible functional reconstructions of crown relief and dental arches but also to deduce jaw movements when, for example, isolated primate teeth are discovered in paleontological contexts. PMID:22419654

Kullmer, Ottmar; Schulz, Dieter; Benazzi, Stefano



Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2  

E-print Network

Faceted Taxonomy-based Information Management Yannis Tzitzikas1,2 and Anastasia Analyti2 1) taxonomy-based information sources. Specifically, we discuss (i) the semantic descrip- tion of faceted taxonomies, based on the Compound Term Composition Algebra (CTCA), (ii) the revision of CTCA ex- pressions

Tzitzikas, Yannis


Factors Influencing the Success of Organizational Learning Implementation: A Policy Facet Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a cumulative tradition of over 50 years, the organizational learning (OL) literature contains very little research on its implementation into practice. Because OL is a multidisciplinary topic and consequently has a myriad of diverse definitions, research on getting organizational members to adopt its tenets has been scarce. Using the policy facet of the theoretical multi-faceted model (MFM) of OL,

G. Stephen Taylor; Gary F. Templeton; LaKami T. Baker



Testing of the SAIC facets on the stretched-membrane dish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dish structure sized for a 25 kW electric dish/generator system has been installed at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The dish is used as an optical test bed for prototype stretched-membrane facets. Sandia procured twelve (12) stretched-membrane facets from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for installation on the dish structure. Individual facet optical performance was measured using the 2f test method under development at Sandia. Four facets were tested on-sun using the test truss at the NSTTF prior to installation on the dish structure. During the final stages of the structure assembly, the facets were installed for testing. A distant light source alignment technique was used to align the facets to a 9 meter focal length. The alignment and focus were optimized with on-sun measurements of individual facet characteristics. On-sun flux maps of the image were made using the Beam Characterization System. Calorimetry tests were performed using a cold water calorimeter. This data was used to create a power intercept curve and predict the power inside apertures of different sizes. The focal plane was moved to 9.95 meters and the alignment, optimization, and on-sun tests repeated. This paper presents the results of the testing on the individual facets as well as the results of testing the dish system. The effects of the change in focal length on the optical performance of the dish are shown in the results.

Grossman, J. W.; Erdman, W. W.; Houser, R. M.; Davenport, R.



Testing of the SAIC facets on the stretched-membrane dish  

SciTech Connect

A dish structure sized for a 25 kW electric dish/generator system has been installed at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The dish is used as an optical test bed for prototype stretched-membrane facets. Sandia procured twelve (12) stretched-membrane facets from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for installation on the dish structure. Individual facet optical performance was measured using the 2f test method under development at Sandia. Four facets were tested on-sun using the test truss at the NSTTF prior to installation on the dish structure. During the final stages of the structure assembly, the facets were installed for testing. A distant light source alignment technique was used to align the facets to a 9 meter focal length. The alignment and focus were optimized with on-sun measurements of individual facet characteristics. On-sun flux maps of the image were made using the Beam Characterization System. Calorimetry tests were performed using a cold water calorimeter. This data was used to create a power intercept curve and predict the power inside apertures of different sizes. The focal plane was moved to 9.95 meters and the alignment, optimization, and on-sun tests were repeated. This paper presents the results of the testing on the individual facets as well as the results of testing the dish system. Improvements in optical performance of the dish from the change in focal length are shown in the results.

Grossman, J.W.; Erdman, W.W.; Houser, R.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davenport, R.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States)



Global Self-Esteem: Its Relation to Weighted Averages of Specific Facets of Self-Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory and common sense posit that the effect of a specific facet of self-concept on Global Esteem will vary with the importance placed on that facet, but no support for this interactive hypothesis was found. Unweighted averages of 12 distinct dimensions of self-concept from the Self Description Questionnaire III correlated about .7 with Global…

Marsh, Herbert W.


FACETS Report for Jan-May, 2007 1. Project summary and management  

E-print Network

1 FACETS Report for Jan-May, 2007 1. Project summary and management The FACETS project/O is done through an abstract API that is independent of the actual underlying library used. A concrete that prevents circular dependencies. A component/coupler system allows coupled multi-physics simulations. Each


The Importance of Conveying Inter-Facet Relationships for Making Sense of Unfamiliar Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of online retail environments has improved significantly by including features such as faceted navigation, which provide meta-data to users as a means to apply constraints over the available products. The position held in this paper, and supported by a growing body of evidence, is that the specific implementation of such faceted experiences can increase the support for more

Max L. Wilson


Measured and predicted root-mean-square errors in square and triangular antenna mesh facets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deflection shapes of square and equilateral triangular facets of two tricot-knit, gold plated molybdenum wire mesh antenna materials were measured and compared, on the basis of root mean square (rms) differences, with deflection shapes predicted by linear membrane theory, for several cases of biaxial mesh tension. The two mesh materials contained approximately 10 and 16 holes per linear inch, measured diagonally with respect to the course and wale directions. The deflection measurement system employed a non-contact eddy current proximity probe and an electromagnetic distance sensing probe in conjunction with a precision optical level. Despite experimental uncertainties, rms differences between measured and predicted deflection shapes suggest the following conclusions: that replacing flat antenna facets with facets conforming to parabolically curved structural members yields smaller rms surface error; that potential accuracy gains are greater for equilateral triangular facets than for square facets; and that linear membrane theory can be a useful tool in the design of tricot knit wire mesh antennas.

Fichter, W. B.



Quantum cascade lasers with a tilted facet utilizing the inherent polarization purity.  


We report on quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with a tilted facet utilizing their polarization property. Contrary to diode lasers, QCLs generate purely TM polarized light due to the intersubband selection rules. This property enables the utilization of reflectivity in terms of only TM polarized light (TM reflectivity). The TM reflectivity is reduced by tilting the front facet, resulting in enhanced light output power from the tilted facet. The peak output power of a QCL with a facet angle of 12° are increased by 31 %. The slope efficiency of a QCL with a facet angle of 17° are increased by 43 %. Additionally, a peculiar property of TM reflectivity, the Brewster angle, is investigated by using COMSOL simulations to find its availability in QCLs. PMID:25401662

Ahn, Sangil; Ristanic, Daniela; Gansch, Roman; Reininger, Peter; Schwarzer, Clemens; MacFarland, Donald C; Detz, Hermann; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried



Preservation vs Conservation...  

E-print Network

Preservation vs Conservation... real life #12;As a result of Muir, Pinchot, and later Leopold Materials Transportation Act · 1976 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) · 1976 - Toxic · 1978 - National Energy Conservation Policy Act Between 1970-1977, Congress adopts 14 major new statutes

Callender, Craig


Privacy Preserving Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the issue of privacy preserving data mining. Specifically, we consider a scenario in which two parties owning confidential databases wish to run a data mining algorithm on the union of their databases, without revealing any unnecessary information. Our work is motivated by the need to both protect privileged information and enable its use for research

Yehuda Lindell; Benny Pinkas



Preserving digital local news  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much local news -- important documentation of local history -- is being lost. The fact that a lot of news media is now available digitally, presents new opportunities but also new challenges for such preservation. We explore issues and approaches for collection and management of born digital local news. Purpose Design\\/methodology\\/approach\\/findings We examine several specific bottlenecks for implementing this project.

Robert B. Allen; Kirsten A. Johnson



Additives to preservation solutions.  


As the impact of ischemia reperfusion injury on graft outcome is now well defined, efforts are made towards decreasing these lesions, typically through the improvement of preservation techniques. The use of pharmacological supplements which could be compatible with any preservation solution used by the transplant center and target specific pathways of IR is an interesting strategy to improve graft quality. However, the extensive number of studies showing the benefits a molecule in an animal model of IR without thorough mechanistic determination of the effects of this agent make it difficult to opt for specific pharmaceutical intervention. Herein we expose studies which demonstrate the benefits of several molecules relying on a thorough mechanical analysis of the events occurring during preservation, both at the cellular and the systemic levels. We believe this approach is the most appropriate to truly understand the potential benefits of a molecule and particularly to design a comprehensive pharmaceutical regiment, with several agents acting synergistically against IR, to improve organ preservation and graft outcome. PMID:24950930

Saint Yves, T; Delpech, P-O; Giraud, S; Thuillier, R; Hauet, T



Preservation: Issues and Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library…

Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.


Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

Burgin, Ramond



Sharing the Preservation Burden  

SciTech Connect

Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where appropriate. Based on these fundamental ideas about digital preservation, a number of components, tools and techniques are being created in order to provide a broadly applicable infrastructure to allow the spreading of the burden of preserving the understandability and usability of digitally encoded information. In the process the limits of the applicability of these OAIS concepts are themselves being tested. Most importantly a number of validation metrics have been produced. Further details are available from the CASPAR web site (authors)

Giaretta, D. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)



Facet-dependent catalytic activity of MnO electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions.  


This Communication highlights the facet-dependent electrocatalytic activity of MnO nanocrystals for OERs/ORRs. The MnO(100) facets with higher adsorption energy of O species can largely promote the electrocatalytic activity. PMID:25736247

Kuo, Chung-Hao; Mosa, Islam M; Thanneeru, Srinivas; Sharma, Vinit; Zhang, Lichun; Biswas, Sourav; Aindow, Mark; Pamir Alpay, S; Rusling, James F; Suib, Steven L; He, Jie



Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi



Obtaining Content Weights for Test Specifications from Job Analysis Task Surveys: An Application of the Many-Facets Rasch Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the use of the Many-Facets Rasch Model, via the FACETS computer program (Linacre, 2006a), to scale job/practice analysis survey data as well as to combine multiple rating scales into single composite weights representing the tasks' relative importance. Results from the Many-Facets Rasch Model are compared with those…

Wang, Ning; Stahl, John



Temperature-Sensitive Mutations in Drosophila melanogaster, IV. A Mutation Affecting Eye Facet Arrangement in a Polarized Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila melanogaster females heterozygous for the mutation N60g11 have wild type eyes when raised at 29 degrees C but a disrupted arrangement of facets and extra bristles at 21 degrees C. Shifts of cultures from one temperature to the other at different stages in development revealed that facet arrangement is altered by temperature during the third larval instar. The facet

Geoffrey G. Foster; David T. Suzuki



Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.



Preserving Nuclear Grade Knowledge  

SciTech Connect

When people think of the government they think of the President, or Congress, or the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), but there are thousands of people in government-related jobs doing things most don’t really notice everyday. You can find them everywhere, from the space science folks at NASA, to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) watching out for the bad guys. There are Rangers, and Social Workers, Nurses and Agricultural Managers. They are people working to keep the many facets of the USA rolling. One very diverse bunch is The Department of Energy (DOE) , a group who is expanding the ways we make and save energy to power our cars, homes, and businesses. Tucked away under the DOE is the National Nuclear Security Administration, the NNSA is an agency that maintains the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. It works to reduce global danger from weapons of mass destruction. It provides the U.S. Navy with safe nuclear propulsion, and it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad, and it supports efforts in science and technology*. (* DOE/NNSA/KCP website info)

Lange, Bob



Tree preserving embedding  

PubMed Central

The goal of dimensionality reduction is to embed high-dimensional data in a low-dimensional space while preserving structure in the data relevant to exploratory data analysis such as clusters. However, existing dimensionality reduction methods often either fail to separate clusters due to the crowding problem or can only separate clusters at a single resolution. We develop a new approach to dimensionality reduction: tree preserving embedding. Our approach uses the topological notion of connectedness to separate clusters at all resolutions. We provide a formal guarantee of cluster separation for our approach that holds for finite samples. Our approach requires no parameters and can handle general types of data, making it easy to use in practice and suggesting new strategies for robust data visualization. PMID:21949369

Shieh, Albert D.; Hashimoto, Tatsunori B.; Airoldi, Edoardo M.



National Film Preservation Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do The Big Sleep, The Great Dictator, Harold and Maude, Knute Rockne, All American, and Wings have in common? They, along with 20 other films, have been selected to the National Film Registry of the National Film Preservation Board. The NFPB is a "public advisory group to the Librarian of to ensure the survival, conservation and increased public availability of America's film heritage, including: advising the Librarian on the annual selection of films to the National Film Registry." In addition to the 1997 list, users can find a comprehensive list of titles added to the registry between 1989-1997, a list of NFPB members, and links from the 1989-96 National Film Registry to their credits as they appear in the Internet Movie Database. The NFPB also recently released a report and three public testimonies on the state of television and video preservation.


Thermal and shape stability of high-index-faceted rhodium nanoparticles: a molecular dynamics investigation.  


Nanosized noble metallic particles enclosed by high-index facets exhibit superior catalytic activity because of their high density of low-coordinated step atoms at the surface, and thus have attracted growing interest over the past decade. In this article, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermodynamic evolution of tetrahexahedral Rh nanoparticles respectively covered by {210}, {310}, and {830} facets during the heating process. Our results reveal that the {210} faceted nanoparticle exhibits better thermal and shape stability than the {310} and {830} faceted ones. Meanwhile, because the {830} facet consists of {210} and {310} subfacets, the stability of the {830} faceted Rh nanoparticle is dominated by the {310} subfacet, which possesses a relatively poor stability. Furthermore, the shape transformation of these nanoparticles occurs much earlier than their melting. Further analyses indicate that surface atoms with higher coordination numbers display lower surface diffusivity, and are thus more helpful for stabilizing the particle shape. This study offers an atomistic understanding of the thermodynamic behaviors of high-index-faceted Rh nanoparticles. PMID:25628229

Zeng, Xiang-Ming; Huang, Rao; Wen, Yu-Hua; Sun, Shi-Gang



Specific oriented metal-organic framework membranes and their facet-tuned separation performance.  


Modulating the crystal morphology, or the exposed crystal facets, of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) expands their potential applications in catalysis, adsorption, and separation. In this article, by immobilizing the citrate modulators on Au nanoparticles and subsequently being fixed on solid copper hydroxide nanostrands, a well-intergrown and oriented HKUST-1 cube crystal membrane was formed at room temperature. In contrast, in the absence of Au nanoparticles, well-intergrown and oriented cuboctahedron and octahedron membranes were formed in water/ethanol and ethanol, respectively. The gas separation performances of these HKUST-1 membranes were tuned via their exposed facets with defined pore sizes. The HKUST-1 cube membrane with exposed {001} facets demonstrated the highest permeance but lowest gas binary separation factors, while the octahedron membrane with exposed {111} facets presented the highest separation factors but lowest permeance, since the window size of {111} facets is 0.46 nm which is smaller than 0.9 nm of {001} facets. Separation of 0.38 nm CO2 from 0.55 nm SF6 was realized by the HKUST-1 octahedron membrane. As a proof of concept, this will open a new way to design MOF-related separation membranes by facet controlling. PMID:25184955

Mao, Yiyin; Su, Binbin; Cao, Wei; Li, Junwei; Ying, Yulong; Ying, Wen; Hou, Yajun; Sun, Luwei; Peng, Xinsheng



Treatment-related changes in behavioral outcomes of psychopathy facets in adolescent offenders.  


This study examines the association between the facets of psychopathy embedded in the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth et al., Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version, 2003), and changes in institutional behavior and post-treatment violent and general offending in a sample of juvenile delinquent males treated in the Mendota Juvenile Treatment Center (MJTC), an intensive treatment program. Affective, Interpersonal, Behavioral and Antisocial facet scale scores were calculated from items of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth et al., 2003). Data on daily institutional behavior were collected from treatment records. In order to analyze re-offense patterns, the number and type of new criminal charges were collected over a mean follow-up of 54 months (range = 24-79 months), after the youth was released from custody. The Interpersonal facet of the PCL:YV was significantly related to admission behavior problems, while other facet scores were not. Youth with elevated Interpersonal facet scores showed the greatest improvement in institutional behavior during treatment. Treatment was also associated with a significant decrease in general and violent offending for each facet. The Interpersonal facet of the PCL:YV was found to play a key role in institutional and community violence in this study. Treatment appeared to disrupt the link between institutional and community violence and psychopathy features in this population. PMID:20658262

Caldwell, Michael F



Privacy-preserving data mining  

E-print Network

, design principles, and implementation techniques for privacy-preserving data mining systems. We then discuss the key components of privacy-preserving data mining systems which include three protocols: data collection, inference control, and information...

Zhang, Nan



Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC



Plato: A Preservation Planning Tool Integrating Preservation Action Services  

E-print Network

Abstract. The creation of a concrete plan for preserving a collection of digital objects of a specific institution necessitates the evaluation of available solutions against clearly defined and measurable criteria. This process is called preservation planning and aids in the decision making process to find the most suitable preservation strategy considering the institution’s requirements, the planning context and available actions applicable to the objects contained in the repository. Performed manually, this evaluation promises to be hard and tedious work, inasmuch as there exist numerous potential preservation action tools of different quality. In this demonstration, we present Plato [4], an interactive software tool aimed at creating preservation plans.

Hannes Kulovits; Christoph Becker; Michael Kraxner; Florian Motlik; Kevin Stadler; Andreas Rauber


The many facets of PPAR?: novel insights for the skeleton  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor that functions as a master transcriptional regulator of adipocyte conversion. During PPAR? transactivation, multiple signaling pathways interact with one another, leading to the differentiation of both white and brown adipose tissue. Ligand activation of the PPAR?-RXR heterodimer complex also enhances insulin sensitivity, and this property has been heavily exploited to develop effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PPAR? is also expressed in stem cells and plays a critical role in mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation and lineage determination events. The many facets of PPAR? activity within the bone marrow niche where adipocytes, osteoblasts, and hematopoietic cells reside make this molecule an attractive target for pharmacological investigation. Additional findings that osteoblasts can alter energy metabolism by influencing adiposity and insulin sensitivity, and observations of decreased bone turnover in diabetic subjects, underscore the contribution of the skeleton to systemic energy requirements. Studies into the role of PPAR? in skeletal acquisition and maintenance may lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing stromal cell differentiation in the mesenchyme compartment and whether PPAR? activity can be manipulated to benefit skeletal remodeling events and energy metabolism. PMID:20407009

Kawai, Masanobu; Sousa, Kyle M.; MacDougald, Ormond A.



The experimental-numerical investigation of instability of faceted Ge doped by Sb growth on the base of AHP method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An antimony-doped germanium single crystal was grown by the Axial Heat Processing (AHP) method from the melt to study the influence of facets on the morphological stability of a solid/liquid interface. It is shown that the faceted portion of the interface remains more stable than the non-faceted portion. In addition, instability of the faceted region occurs at a higher solute concentration with larger cell spacing. A mathematical model, accounting for the presence of facet, predicted the solute profile and morphological features of the grown crystal are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Bykova, Sveta V.; Golyshev, Vladimir D.; Gonik, Michael A.; Tsvetovsky, Vladimir B.; Balikci, Ercan; Deal, Andrew; Abbaschian, Reza; Marchenko, Marina P.; Frjazinov, Igor. V.; Vlasov, Vladimir N.; Serebrjakov, Jury A.



Proprioception and joint stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper the current clinical knowledge about proprioception is given for the shoulder, knee, ankle, elbow and the radiocarpal joint. Proprioceptive capabilities are decreased after joint injuries such as ACL or meniscus tears, shoulder dislocation, ankle sprain and in joints with degenerative joint disease. Some surgical procedures seem to restore the proprioceptive abilities; others do not. Elastic knee

J. Jerosch; M. Prymka



Joint Infection (Beyond the Basics)  


... Infection of an artificial joint is known as prosthetic joint infection. GONOCOCCAL JOINT INFECTION Gonococcal joint infection ... cases, it is not possible to replace the prosthetic joint, and surgery to fuse the bones is ...


Iteration of order preserving subhomogeneous maps on a cone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the iterative behaviour of continuous order preserving subhomogeneous maps f: K {->} K, where K is a polyhedral cone in a finite dimensional vector space. We show that each bounded orbit of f converges to a periodic orbit and, moreover, the period of each periodic point of f is bounded by [ beta_N = max_{q+r+s=N}frac{N!}{q!r!s!}= frac{N!}{biglfloorfrac{N}{3}bigrfloor!biglfloorfrac{N {+} 1}{3}bigrfloor! biglfloorfrac{N {+} 2}{3}bigrfloor!}sim frac{3^{N+1}sqrt{3}}{2pi N}, ] where N is the number of facets of the polyhedral cone. By constructing examples on the standard positive cone in mathbb{R}(n) , we show that the upper bound is asymptotically sharp.

Akian, Marianne; Gaubert, Stéphane; Lemmens, Bas; Nussbaum, Roger



Effects of CeO2 Support Facets on VOx/CeO2 Catalysts in Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol  

SciTech Connect

CeO2 supports with dominating facets, i.e., low index (100), (110) and (111) facets, are prepared. The facet effects on the structure and catalytic performance of supported vanadium oxide catalysts are investigated using oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol as a model reaction. In the presence of mixed facets, Infrared and Raman characterizations demonstrate that surface vanadia species preferentially deposit on CeO2 (100) facets, presumably because of its higher surface energy. At the same surface vanadium densities, VOx species on (100) facets show better dispersion, followed by (110) and (111) facets. The VOx species on CeO2 nanorods with (110) and (100) facets display higher activity and lower apparent activation energies compared to that on CeO2 nanopolyhedras with dominating (111) facets and CeO2 nanocubes with dominating (100) facets. The higher activity for VOx/CeO2(110) might be related to the more abundant oxygen vacancies present on the (110) facets, evidenced from Raman spectroscopic measurements.

Li, Yan; Wei, Zhehao; Gao, Feng; Kovarik, Libor; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong



Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions  

PubMed Central

We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes. PMID:24097175

Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu



Organizational culture, creative behavior, and information and communication technology (ICT) usage: a facet analysis.  


Despite the prominence of organizational culture (OC), this concept is controversial and its structure has yet to be systematically analyzed. This study develops a three-pronged formal definitional framework on the basis of facet theory (FT) and explores behavior modality, referent, and object. This facet analysis (FA) of OC accounts successfully for variation in both creative behavior at work and the usage of information and communication technologies (ICTs). An analysis of data collected from 230 employees in the financial industry indicates that a radex structure was obtained for work and ICT. The behavior modality facet ordered the space from center to periphery, and referents facet relates to the direction angles away from the origin. PMID:18422410

Carmeli, Abraham; Sternberg, Akiva; Elizur, D



Consensually Defined Facets of Personality as Prospective Predictors of Change in Depression Symptoms.  


Depression has robust associations with personality, showing a strong relation with neuroticism and more moderate associations with extraversion and conscientiousness. In addition, each Big Five domain can be decomposed into narrower facets. However, we currently lack consensus as to the contents of Big Five facets, with idiosyncrasies across instruments; moreover, few studies have examined associations with depression. In the current study, community participants completed six omnibus personality inventories; self-reported depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 5 years later. Exploratory factor analyses suggested three to five facets in each domain, and these facets served as prospective predictors of depression in hierarchical regressions, after accounting for baseline and trait depression. In these analyses, high anger (from neuroticism), low positive emotionality (extraversion), low conventionality (conscientiousness), and low culture (openness to experiences) were significant prospective predictors of depression. Results are discussed in regard to personality structure and assessment, as well as personality-psychopathology associations. PMID:24671734

Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David



Openness to Experience and Mortality in Men: Analysis of Trait and Facets  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined whether specific facets are more robust predictors of mortality risk than overall trait openness in a sample of older men. Methods The current investigation used data from 1,349 men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. From 1990–1991 to 2008, 547 (41%) had died. We used exploratory factor analysis to extract facets of openness, followed by proportional hazards modeling to examine 18-year mortality risk. Results Two facets emerged from the openness adjectives: intellect and creativity. In the fully adjusted model, only creativity predicted mortality risk. A 1-SD increase in creativity was associated with a 12% decrease in mortality risk. Discussion The study demonstrated that consideration of facets allows for a more precise understanding of the personality–health association. Higher levels of creativity predict longer survival in a sample of older men which provides preliminary support of the protective role creativity has on health even at advanced ages. PMID:22219209

Turiano, Nicholas A.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.



Facet-Specific Assembly of Proteins on SrTiO3 Polyhedral Nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precisely controlling the protein-nanomaterial interactions at selective sites is crucial in engineering biomolecule composite architectures with tailored nanostructures and functions for a variety of biomedical applications. This strategy, however, is only beginning to be explored. Here, we demonstrate the facet-specific assembly of proteins, such as albumin, immunoglobulin and protamine, on {100} facets of SrTiO3 polyhedral nanocrystals, while none on {110} facets. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate the immobile surface hydration layer might play a barrier role to effectively prevent proteins adsorption on specific {110} facets. This work thus provides new insights into the fundamentally understanding of protein-nanomaterial interactions, and open a novel, general and facile route to control the selective adsorption of various proteins on various nanocrystals.

Dong, Lingqing; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Kui; Shi, Hui; Wang, Qi; Weng, Wenjian; Han, Wei-Qiang



Sparsely Faceted Arrays: A Mechanism Supporting Parallel Allocation, Communication, and Garbage Collection  

E-print Network

Conventional parallel computer architectures do not provide support for non-uniformly distributed objects. In this thesis, I introduce sparsely faceted arrays (SFAs), a new low-level mechanism for naming regions of memory, ...

Brown, Jeremy Hanford



Sparsely faceted arrays : a mechanism supporting the parallel allocation, communication, and garbage collection  

E-print Network

Conventional parallel computer architectures do not provide support for non-uniformly distributed objects. In this thesis, I introduce sparsely faceted arrays (SFAs), a new low-level mechanism for naming regions of memory, ...

Brown, Jeremy Hanford, 1972-



Crystal-facet-dependent metallization in electrolyte-gated rutile TiO2 single crystals.  


The electric-field-induced metallization of insulating oxides is a powerful means of exploring and creating exotic electronic states. Here we show by the use of ionic liquid gating that two distinct facets of rutile TiO2, namely, (101) and (001), show clear evidence of metallization, with a disorder-induced metal-insulator transition at low temperatures, whereas two other facets, (110) and (100), show no substantial effects. This facet-dependent metallization can be correlated with the surface energy of the respective crystal facet and, thus, is consistent with oxygen vacancy formation and diffusion that results from the electric fields generated within the electric double layers at the ionic liquid/TiO2 interface. These effects take place at even relatively modest gate voltages. PMID:23962081

Schladt, Thomas D; Graf, Tanja; Aetukuri, Nagaphani B; Li, Mingyang; Fantini, Andrea; Jiang, Xin; Samant, Mahesh G; Parkin, Stuart S P



Domains and Facets: Hierarchical Personality Assessment Using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality traits are organized hierarchically, with narrow, specific traits com- bining to define broad, global factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992c) assesses personality at bo1.h levels, with six specific facet scales in each of five broad domains. This article describes conceptual issues in specifying facets of a domain and reports evidence on the validity of

Paul T. Costa; Robert R. McCrae



The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in a non-clinical\\u000a student sample. The Chinese FFMQ demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and the test-retest reliability. Confirmatory\\u000a factor analysis provided support for the five-factor model. Four of these facets (describing, acting with awareness, non-judging\\u000a and non-reacting) were shown to have incremental validity in the prediction

Yu-Qin Deng; Xing-Hua Liu; Marcus A. Rodriguez; Chun-Yan Xia



Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC  


Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

Andrei Seryi



Fabrication of dry etched and subsequently passivated laser facets in GaAs/AlGaAs  

SciTech Connect

The aging behavior of edge emitting laser diodes based on GaAs/AlGaAs is investigated by comparing devices with facets that are alternatively cleaved or dry etched and consecutively treated with H{sub 2}S. In this work we demonstrate that an in situ exposure to H{sub 2}S gas is not sufficient to prevent ageing but an additional plasma treatment is rather required to obtain comparable ageing results to lasers with cleaved facets.

Deichsel, Eckard; Franz, Gerhard [University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Munich University of Applied Sciences, Munich, Bavaria (Germany)



Computing deep facet-defining disjunctive cuts for mixed-integer programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of separation is to find an affine hyperplane, or “cut”, that lies between the origin O and a given closed convex set Q in a Euclidean space. We study cuts which are deep in a well-defined geometrical sense, and facet-defining. The cases when\\u000a the deepest cut is decomposable as a combination of facet-defining cuts are characterized using the

Florent Cadoux



Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.



Combination of Pulsed Electric Fields with Other Preservation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a promising nonthermal treatment for liquid foods with antimicrobial activity at ambient temperature.\\u000a According to the hurdle concept, the combination of PEF with other preservation methods may enhance cell death. The joint\\u000a effect of PEF with the addition of antimicrobial compounds of natural origin, such as nisin, has received special attention,\\u000a although other emerging nonthermal

Olga Martín-Belloso; Angel Sobrino-López



Variations of anatomical elements contributing to subtalar joint stability: intrinsic risk factors for post-traumatic lateral instability of the ankle?  


Ankle sprains are frequently followed by chronic lateral instability, often with talar hypermobility. This might be due to subtalar instability. Among intrinsic risk factors, anatomical variants are generally overlooked. In the subtalar region, anatomical variation is particularly frequent. On the talus as well as on the calcaneus, the anterior articular facets may be missing or fused with the medial facets, giving rise to three subtalar joint configurations: a three-joint configuration, a fused configuration with a relatively large anteromedial joint, and a two-joint configuration without anterior joint. Osteometry was performed on these joint facets (134 calcanei, 122 tali), demonstrating significant differences in the surface of these configurations and the existence of a supplementary supporting surface with grossly transverse orientation in the three-joint configuration. There are also several variants of stabilizing ligaments within the sinus tarsi. Some of these configurations might expose to increased risk of associated subtalar lesions, resulting in subtalar instability. A systematic look for these variants is recommended in order to evaluate the associated risk factors, eventually resulting in a better understanding, prevention and cure of sequellae. PMID:11083150

Barbaix, E; Van Roy, P; Clarys, J P



Volume Correction Method Full Character Volume Preservation  

E-print Network

Volume Correction Method Full Character Volume Preservation Results Local Volume Preservation Pacific Graphics 2008, Tokyo, Japan D. Rohmer, S. Hahmann, M.-P. Cani Local Volume Preservation for Skinned Characters #12;Volume Correction Method Full Character Volume Preservation Results Motivations

Hahmann, Stefanie


A Widening Circle: Preservation Literature Review, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines preservation literature from 1992 that focused on the integration of preservation strategies within the organization. Highlights include foreign preservation programs; collection development and preservation; government programs; deacidification; paper requirements; disaster recovery techniques; mutilation; microform issues; nonbook…

Drewes, Jeanne M.



Butt Joint Tool Commissioning  

SciTech Connect

ITER Central Solenoid uses butt joints for connecting the pancakes in the CS module. The principles of the butt joining of the CICC were developed by the JAPT during CSMC project. The difference between the CSMC butt joint and the CS butt joint is that the CS butt joint is an in-line joint, while the CSMC is a double joint through a hairpin jumper. The CS butt joint has to carry the hoop load. The straight length of the joint is only 320 mm, and the vacuum chamber around the joint has to have a split in the clamp shell. These requirements are challenging. Fig.1 presents a CSMC joint, and Fig.2 shows a CS butt joint. The butt joint procedure was verified and demonstrated. The tool is capable of achieving all specified parameters. The vacuum in the end was a little higher than the target, which is not critical and readily correctable. We consider, tentatively that the procedure is established. Unexpectedly, we discover significant temperature nonuniformity in the joint cross section, which is not formally a violation of the specs, but is a point of concern. All testing parameters are recorded for QA purposes. We plan to modify the butt joining tool to improve its convenience of operation and provide all features necessary for production of butt joints by qualified personnel.

Martovetsky, N N



Are different facets of plant diversity well protected against climate and land cover changes? A test study in the French Alps  

PubMed Central

Climate and land cover changes are important drivers of the plant species distributions and diversity patterns in mountainous regions. Although the need for a multifaceted view of diversity based on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic dimensions is now commonly recognized, there are no complete risk assessments concerning their expected changes. In this paper, we used a range of species distribution models in an ensemble-forecasting framework together with regional climate and land cover projections by 2080 to analyze the potential threat for more than 2,500 plant species at high resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km) in the French Alps. We also decomposed taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity facets into ? and ? components and analyzed their expected changes by 2080. Overall, plant species threats from climate and land cover changes in the French Alps were expected to vary depending on the species’ preferred altitudinal vegetation zone, rarity, and conservation status. Indeed, rare species and species of conservation concern were the ones projected to experience less severe change, and also the ones being the most efficiently preserved by the current network of protected areas. Conversely, the three facets of plant diversity were also projected to experience drastic spatial re-shuffling by 2080. In general, the mean ?-diversity of the three facets was projected to increase to the detriment of regional ?-diversity, although the latter was projected to remain high at the montane-alpine transition zones. Our results show that, due to a high-altitude distribution, the current protection network is efficient for rare species, and species predicted to migrate upward. Although our modeling framework may not capture all possible mechanisms of species range shifts, our work illustrates that a comprehensive risk assessment on an entire floristic region combined with functional and phylogenetic information can help delimitate future scenarios of biodiversity and better design its protection. PMID:25722539

Thuiller, Wilfried; Guéguen, Maya; Georges, Damien; Bonet, Richard; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Garraud, Luc; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Van Es, Jérémie; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Lavergne, Sébastien



Epitaxial growth of a nanoscale, vertically faceted, one-dimensional, high-aspect ratio grating in III-V materials for integrated photonics  

E-print Network

Epitaxial growth of a nanoscale, vertically faceted, one-dimensional, high-aspect ratio grating-dimensional 1D grating with vertical facets is reported. For a pattern direction along 110 , the kinetics of faceting in selective molecular-beam epitaxy MBE induce 11¯0 -type facets vertical to a GaAs 001 substrate

New Mexico, University of


Format-Preserving Encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical format—for example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the “rank-then-encipher” approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till


Advances in corneal preservation.  

PubMed Central

The functional status of the endothelium and sustained corneal deturgescence after corneal preservation are of great clinical importance and have been primary goals in the development of corneal storage media. In our investigational studies we have specifically addressed the improvement of the quality of donor tissue after 4 degrees C storage, the extension of corneal preservation time, the enhancement of corneal wound healing, and the reduction of the normal progressive loss of endothelial cells postkeratoplasty. Specifically we have developed in vitro HCE cell and epithelial cell culture models that can accurately reflect the response of human corneal tissue in vivo. These models have been utilized to study the effects of growth factors and medium components in relation to their biocompatibility and efficacy in the development of improved corneal preservation solutions. Our laboratory investigated in vitro conditions that allowed human corneal endothelium to shift from a nonproliferative state, in which they remain viable and metabolically active, to a proliferative, mitotically active state. Isolation techniques developed in our laboratory have enabled the establishment of primary and subsequent subcultures of human corneal endothelium that retain the attributes of native endothelium. These in vitro conditions maintain HCE cells in a proliferative state, actively undergoing mitosis. A quantitative bioassay has been developed to determine the effects of various test medium in the stimulation or inhibition of DNA synthesis. In attempting to learn more about the events that occur during in vitro endothelial cell isolation, cell reattachment, extracellular matrix interaction and migrating during subculture, SEM was done on isolated HCE cells incubated in CSM. These studies suggest that the components of the extracellular matrix modulate the growth response of HCE cells, and play a role in regulating proliferation and migration. These observations are important in view of the fact that anterior chamber environment limits cell regeneration of the endothelium, and supports wound healing via cell migration. In vivo, it is the complex interaction of the HCE cell and the extracellular matrix that signal the cell to respond to cell loss in this manner. As our knowledge of human corneal endothelium has increased so has our anticipation of developing the "optimum" medium. Thus additional components have been added to this basic medium to address specific complications encountered with 4 degrees C corneal preservation. Antioxidants, additional energy sources, and other nutritive substrates have been used to supplement and further define a chondroitin sulfate-based medium. These changes have been a part of our new awareness that, even at 4 degrees C, the cornea is metabolically active.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D FIGURE 9 E FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 12 D FIGURE 12 E FIGURE 12 F FIGURE 13 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 18 C FIGURE 18 D FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 A FIGURE 23 B FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 24 C FIGURE 24 D FIGURE 24 E FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 33 A FIGURE 33 B PMID:1710084

Lindstrom, R L



Practical Preservation: The PREMIS Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and Research Libraries Group (RLG) established an international working group to develop a common, implementable core set of metadata ele-ments for digital preservation. Most published specifi cations for preservation-related metadata are either implementation specifi c or broadly theoretical. PREMIS (Preservation Metadata: Implementa-tion Strategies) was charged to defi ne a set of semantic

Priscilla Caplan; Rebecca Guenther



Risk Management Institute Joint Seminar Joint Seminar -  

E-print Network

around their use of leverage. Research on optimal leverage in the money management industry, howeverRisk Management Institute Joint Seminar Joint Seminar - Risk Management Institute And Department A (S14, #03-10) Speaker Prof. Wang Hefei University of Illinois, Chicago Title Leverage Management

Chaudhuri, Sanjay


Combined Fire Retardant and Wood Preservative Treatments for Outdoor Wood Applications – A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative Australian national project funded jointly by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation\\u000a and the Forest & Wood Products Research and Development Corporation has been undertaken to develop a ‘proof of concept’ for\\u000a a combined fire retardant\\/wood preservative treatment technology for P. radiata to satisfy the requirements of both the Australian Bushfire and Wood Preservation Standards. The focus

D. C. O. Marney; L. J. Russell



A push-pull distraction method for arthroscopic subtalar joint arthrodesis.  


Unlike ankle joint arthroscopy, distraction of the subtalar joint can be challenging. We introduce a powerful distraction method that can be used during an arthroscopic subtalar joint arthrodesis procedure using a "push-pull" technique. A fully threaded screw is used to push the talus while the calcaneus is pulled to distract the joint. The technique allows the surgeon to access the rather tight joint without disrupting a significant amount of the ligamentous and capsular structures. It also allows preservation of the vascular structures that supply the talus. The "push-pull" screw can also be converted to a second point of fixation at the end of the procedure. PMID:24785201

Shibuya, Naohiro; Smith, Rebecca S; Escobedo, Laura A; Agarwal, Monica R



Large-Scale Synthesis of Palladium Concave Nanocubes with High-Index Facets for Sustainable Enhanced Catalytic Performance  

PubMed Central

The catalytic activity of palladium (Pd) nanostructures highly relies on their size and morphology, especially enclosed with high-index facets, which provide more active sites so as to enhance their catalytic performance comparing with their low-index facet counterparts. Herein, Pd concave nanocubes enclosed with {730} facets by a one-pot scalable liquid method, with various high-index facets are synthesized via tuning reduction kinetics. Due to their high-index facets, the Pd concave nanocubes exhibit much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation than the Pd nanocubes enclosed by {100} facets and commercial Pd/C. Furthermore, we scale up synthesis of Pd concave nanocubes by expanding the volume of all species to fifty times with high-yield production. PMID:25686863

Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Pan, Zhengyin; Wang, Tingjun; Meng, Xiaoqing; Cai, Lintao



Large-Scale Synthesis of Palladium Concave Nanocubes with High-Index Facets for Sustainable Enhanced Catalytic Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catalytic activity of palladium (Pd) nanostructures highly relies on their size and morphology, especially enclosed with high-index facets, which provide more active sites so as to enhance their catalytic performance comparing with their low-index facet counterparts. Herein, Pd concave nanocubes enclosed with {730} facets by a one-pot scalable liquid method, with various high-index facets are synthesized via tuning reduction kinetics. Due to their high-index facets, the Pd concave nanocubes exhibit much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation than the Pd nanocubes enclosed by {100} facets and commercial Pd/C. Furthermore, we scale up synthesis of Pd concave nanocubes by expanding the volume of all species to fifty times with high-yield production.

Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Pan, Zhengyin; Wang, Tingjun; Meng, Xiaoqing; Cai, Lintao



Large-scale synthesis of palladium concave nanocubes with high-index facets for sustainable enhanced catalytic performance.  


The catalytic activity of palladium (Pd) nanostructures highly relies on their size and morphology, especially enclosed with high-index facets, which provide more active sites so as to enhance their catalytic performance comparing with their low-index facet counterparts. Herein, Pd concave nanocubes enclosed with {730} facets by a one-pot scalable liquid method, with various high-index facets are synthesized via tuning reduction kinetics. Due to their high-index facets, the Pd concave nanocubes exhibit much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation than the Pd nanocubes enclosed by {100} facets and commercial Pd/C. Furthermore, we scale up synthesis of Pd concave nanocubes by expanding the volume of all species to fifty times with high-yield production. PMID:25686863

Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Pan, Zhengyin; Wang, Tingjun; Meng, Xiaoqing; Cai, Lintao



Historic Preservation in Art Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Blue Grass Trust in Lexington, Kentucky sponsors the annual visual art contest for historic preservation, one of the many events they sponsor as part of the celebrations planned for Historic Preservation Month each May. When the announcement concerning the Blue Grass Trust visual art competition is released, area high school art teachers…

Guilfoil, Joanne K.



Fitting Preservation into Your Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic preservation information for serialists with little or no preservation experience is stressed. From serials issued in print format (particularly periodicals and newspapers) to those issued in microform, CD-ROM and electronic format, the major issues associated with prolonging the useful life of publications in these formats will be discussed. Topics include commercial binding, protective enclosures, selection of paper and microfilm,

F. Ann Dykas Recorder



A Black Hole Life Preserver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered

J. Richard Gott; Deborah L. Freedman



The Divine Library Function: Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of preservation as a priority for all librarians and explains the basics of controlling environmental factors, disaster planning, book repair, educating students, selection and preservation, ephemera, and library binding in the context of school libraries. Specific examples in the school library environment are included.…

Watson, Duane A.



Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation  

SciTech Connect

We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

Mundarain, D. [Departmento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)



Preferences, information and biodiversity preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the nature of preferences for the preservation of biodiversity, and the extent to which individuals are well-informed about biodiversity. We present evidence that the elicitation of monetary bids to pay for biodiversity preservation, as required for cost-benefit analysis, fails as a measure of welfare changes due to the prevalence of preferences which neoclassical economics defines as lexicographic.

Clive L. Spash; Nick Hanley



User Experience and Heritage Preservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan



Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides a method of preserving a liquid biological sample, comprising the step of: contacting said liquid biological sample with a preservative comprising, sodium benzoate in an amount of at least about 0.15% of the sample (weight/volume) and citric acid in an amount of at least about 0.025% of the sample (weight/volume).

Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara R. (Inventor)



Defeaturing CAD models using a geometry-based size field and facet-based reduction operators.  

SciTech Connect

We propose a method to automatically defeature a CAD model by detecting irrelevant features using a geometry-based size field and a method to remove the irrelevant features via facet-based operations on a discrete representation. A discrete B-Rep model is first created by obtaining a faceted representation of the CAD entities. The candidate facet entities are then marked for reduction by using a geometry-based size field. This is accomplished by estimating local mesh sizes based on geometric criteria. If the field value at a facet entity goes below a user specified threshold value then it is identified as an irrelevant feature and is marked for reduction. The reduction of marked facet entities is primarily performed using an edge collapse operator. Care is taken to retain a valid geometry and topology of the discrete model throughout the procedure. The original model is not altered as the defeaturing is performed on a separate discrete model. Associativity between the entities of the discrete model and that of original CAD model is maintained in order to decode the attributes and boundary conditions applied on the original CAD entities onto the mesh via the entities of the discrete model. Example models are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Quadros, William Roshan; Owen, Steven James



Neurologically Intact Patient Following Bilateral Facet Dislocation: Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Background Complete spinal cord lesions and quadriplegia occur in 50%-84% of patients with bilateral facet dislocation. We present a patient who suffered both bilateral facet dislocation and bilateral pedicle fractures while remaining neurologically intact. Based on this case and our literature review, we hypothesize that bilateral facet dislocations without neurological deficits are accompanied by significant associated fractures that facilitate the maintenance of cervical spine canal patency. Case Report After a fall down a flight of stairs, an 86-year-old woman presented to the hospital complaining of neck pain. She denied numbness and weakness of her extremities. On physical examination she was neurologically intact without focal sensory or motor deficits and with normal reflexes throughout. Computed tomography (CT) of her neck demonstrated bilateral C5-C6 facet dislocation with locking of the C6 superior articular process dorsal to the C5 inferior articular process, as well as corresponding bilateral C6 pedicle fractures. Additional acute fractures were identified on the thoracic CT. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no spinal cord compression, edema, or hemorrhage. The patient had a C6-C7 anterior cervical discectomy and allograft fusion and a C5-T1 anterior cervical plate with screw fixation. Conclusion Because bilateral facet dislocations without neurological deficits are rare, the most appropriate surgical intervention is not evident. We believe the best choice as a first step is an anterior cervical discectomy and allograft fusion with plating. PMID:24688342

Chakravarthy, Vikram; Mullin, Jeffrey P.; Abbott, E. Emily; Anderson, James; Benzel, Edward C.



Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations)  

SciTech Connect

This role of this computer science SAP is to facilitate FACETS design and development by contributing CCA component technology and new application-specific technology. From a software perspective, the FACETS project is a very complex project. It is a combination of legacy software written in Fortran, Python, and C++ by various coding groups along with new software modules being written from scratch. The FACETS team is spread among 11 organizations and is geographically distributed from coast to coast. The fusion physics modules to be incorporated vary in terms of the model dimensions, typical time scale, and type of interactions with other components. Because FACETS is a complex project, it requires a component-based framework to facilitate the definition and composition of scientific applications from a suite of available fusion physics components. Component architectures have proven themselves in the business world and more recently in the scientific computing world. The CS SAP contributes fundamental tools like Babel to the FACETS framework and helps develop application-specific interfaces appropriate for the fusion physics modules.

Epperly, T W



Facet-Dependent Electrical Conductivity Properties of Cu2O Crystals.  


It is interesting to examine facet-dependent electrical properties of single Cu2O crystals, because such study greatly advances our understanding of various facet effects exhibited by semiconductors. We show a Cu2O octahedron is highly conductive, a cube is moderately conductive, and a rhombic dodecahedron is nonconductive. The conductivity differences are ascribed to the presence of a thin surface layer having different degrees of band bending. When electrical connection was made on two different facets of a rhombicuboctahedron, a diode-like response was obtained, demonstrating the potential of using single polyhedral nanocrystals as functional electronic components. Density of state (DOS) plots for three layers of Cu2O (111), (100), and (110) planes show respective metallic, semimetal, and semiconducting band structures. By examining DOS plots for varying number of planes, the surface layer thicknesses responsible for the facet-dependent electrical properties of Cu2O crystals have been determined to be below 1.5 nm for these facets. PMID:25706855

Tan, Chih-Shan; Hsu, Shih-Chen; Ke, Wei-Hong; Chen, Lih-Juann; Huang, Michael H



Ridge preservation/decoronation.  


Dentoalveolar ankylosis of a tooth is a serious complication in growing individuals. The ankylosed root is continuously resorbed and replaced by bone, and an infraposition of the damaged tooth will develop. The normal alveolar development will be disrupted in this way, and prosthetic treatment will be compromised. Therefore, an ankylosed tooth should be removed before future orthodontic and/or prosthetic therapy is jeopardized. This article will present a method, decoronation, to remove an ankylosed tooth in such a way that the alveolar ridge is preserved and give guidelines for the timing to intervene. The decoronation method is described, and a possible explanation for the favorable outcome is discussed. Different aids to decide the time for intervention are presented. The alveolar ridge was maintained in buccal/palatinal direction, and the bone level increased after decoronation in patients treated before or during pubertal growth periods. The bone level also increased in those treated after this period but not at the same rate, and in a few patients it was unchanged. The clinical finding that decoronation can maintain or reestablish normal alveolar conditions is important for successful implant insertion later. PMID:23439048

Malmgren, Barbro



Ridge preservation/decoronation.  


Dentoalveolar ankylosis of a tooth is a serious complication in growing individuals. The ankylosed root is continuously resorbed and replaced by bone, and an infraposition of the damaged tooth will develop. The normal alveolar development will be disrupted in this way, and prosthetic treatment will be compromised. Therefore, an ankylosed tooth should be removed before future orthodontic and/or prosthetic therapy is jeopardized. This article will present a method, decoronation, to remove an ankylosed tooth in such a way that the alveolar ridge is preserved and give guidelines for the timing to intervene. The decoronation method is described, and a possible explanation for the favorable outcome is discussed. Different aids to decide the time for intervention are presented. The alveolar ridge was maintained in buccal/palatinal direction, and the bone level increased after decoronation in patients treated before or during pubertal growth periods. The bone level also increased in those treated after this period but not at the same rate, and in a few patients it was unchanged. The clinical finding that decoronation can maintain or reestablish normal alveolar conditions is important for successful implant insertion later. PMID:23635985

Malmgren, Barbro



UCLA Preserved Silent Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UCLA's film and television archive of animated silent films from the pre-1930s is relatively small, but considering the rarity of any silent films, it is still an impressive collection. Some of the films offered up on this website include "Felix the Cat", the "Inkwell Imps", and "Aesop's Film Fables". Visitors are lucky enough to be able to view online or download 11 animated films from the library's collection. While watching the films, visitors can listen to the preservation commentary, or listened to the music for each film composed by Michael D. Mortilla, who has played music for silent films for the Silent Society. Visitors can learn more about Michael D. Mortilla by reading the "About the Music" link. There are also film notes and an historical overview that visitors can read for each film. Researchers or interested parties will find a 15-page study guide of films and works about silent films available as a PDF. This helpful document is conveniently located at the bottom of the homepage.


Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.  


Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products. PMID:25207684

Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella



Pairwise sparsity preserving embedding for unsupervised subspace learning and classification.  


Two novel unsupervised dimensionality reduction techniques, termed sparse distance preserving embedding (SDPE) and sparse proximity preserving embedding (SPPE), are proposed for feature extraction and classification. SDPE and SPPE perform in the clean data space recovered by sparse representation and enhanced Euclidean distances over noise removed data are employed to measure pairwise similarities of points. In extracting informative features, SDPE and SPPE aim at preserving pairwise similarities between data points in addition to preserving the sparse characteristics. This paper calculates the sparsest representation of all vectors jointly by a convex optimization. The sparsest codes enable certain local information of data to be preserved, and can endow SDPE and SPPE a natural discriminating power, adaptive neighborhood and robust characteristic against noise and errors in delivering low-dimensional embeddings. We also mathematically show SDPE and SPPE can be effectively extended for discriminant learning in a supervised manner. The validity of SDPE and SPPE is examined by extensive simulations. Comparison with other related state-of-the-art unsupervised algorithms show that promising results are delivered by our techniques. PMID:23955747

Zhang, Zhao; Yan, Shuicheng; Zhao, Mingbo



A realistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of the faceting of a Pt(110) surface under reaction conditions.  


The faceting process on Pt(110) is studied with the help of a kinetic Monte Carlo model taking into account realistic Pt-Pt, Pt-CO, and Pt-O interactions. The activation energies of the allowed atomic steps are estimated using available computational and experimental data. The model well reproduces the region in the parameter space where faceting occurs. Under kinetic instability conditions, the simulated faceted pattern forms a periodic hill and valley structure with a lateral periodicity of approximately 140-170 A, which is comparable with experimental data. The simulations reproduce the development of faceting on a realistic time scale. PMID:15634090

Monine, M I; Pismen, L M; Imbihl, R



Do as You’re Told! Facets of Agreeableness and Early Adult Outcomes for Inner-City Boys  

PubMed Central

With data from the middle cohort of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective longitudinal study of inner-city boys, we examined whether Big Five agreeableness facets could be reliably recovered in this sample, and whether facets predicted educational, occupational, social, and antisocial life outcomes assessed a decade later. Caregivers described their adolescent boys’ personalities using the Common California Q-Set; twelve years later, participants were interviewed and court records were obtained. Factor analyses recovered two facets: compliance and compassion. Compliance predicted more schooling and lower risk of unemployment, teenage fatherhood, and crime; compassion related to longer committed relationships. Findings highlight the value of studying personality at the facet level. PMID:24311824

Kern, Margaret L.; Duckworth, Angela L.; Urzúa, Sergio; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Lynam, Donald R.



Systematic review of tests to identify the disc, SIJ or facet joint as the source of low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical practice guidelines state that the tissue source of low back pain cannot be specified in the majority of patients.\\u000a However, there has been no systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests used to identify the source of low back pain.\\u000a The aim of this systematic review was therefore to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tests available to clinicians

M. J. Hancock; C. G. Maher; J. Latimer; M. F. Spindler; J. H. McAuley; M. Laslett; N. Bogduk



Faceting and coarsening dynamics in the complex Swift-Hohenberg equation.  


The complex Swift-Hohenberg equation models pattern formation arising from an oscillatory instability with a finite wave number at onset and finds applications in lasers, optical parametric oscillators, and photorefractive oscillators. We show that with real coefficients this equation exhibits two classes of localized states: localized in amplitude only or localized in both amplitude and phase. The latter are associated with phase-winding states in which the real and imaginary parts of the order parameter oscillate periodically but with a constant phase difference between them. The localized states take the form of defects connecting phase-winding states with equal and opposite phase lag, and can be stable over a wide range of parameters. The formation of these defects leads to faceting of states with initially spatially uniform phase. Depending on parameters these facets may either coarsen indefinitely, as described by a Cahn-Hilliard equation, or the coarsening ceases leading to a frozen faceted structure. PMID:19905429

Gelens, Lendert; Knobloch, Edgar



Effect of antireflection facet coatings on the characteristics of a high-power red laser diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of antireflection (AR) coatings on the performance of high-power red laser diodes (LDs). The AR coating at the front facet and the high reflection (HR) coating at the rear facet were deposited on cleaved facets. As an AR coating, SiO2 or Si3N4 single layers with different thicknesses were employed. When the reflectivity of the AR coating was 25%, the best LD performance was obtained. The fitting to the threshold current density vs. effective optical length plot produced a transparent current density of 310 A/cm2. Under continuous wave (cw) operation at 15 °C, the operating current was 1.41 A, and the operating voltage was 2.33 V with an optical output of 280 mW. At an operating temperature of 0 °C, we observed the maximum output power of about 390 mW.

Kim, Chang Zoo; Choi, Je Hyuk; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Hogyoung



Charge separation in facet-engineered chalcogenide photocatalyst: a selective photocorrosion approach.  


Finding active sites for photocatalytic reduction and oxidation allows the mechanistic understanding of a given reaction, ensuring the rational design and fabrication of an efficient photocatalyst. Herein, using well-shaped Cu2WS4 decahedra as model photocatalysts, we demonstrated that photoinduced oxidative etching could be considered as an indication of the photooxidation reaction sites of chalcogenide photocatalyst as it only occurred on {101} facets of Cu2WS4 during photocatalytic hydrogen production. The photocatalytic reduction reaction, in contrast, was confined on its {001} facets. Based on this finding, the photocatalytic activity of Cu2WS4 decahedra could be further tailored by controlling the ratio of {001}/{101} facets. Thus, this work provides a general route to the determination of reactive sites on shaped chalcogenide photocatalysts. PMID:24993804

Li, Naixu; Liu, Maochang; Zhou, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiancheng; Sun, Yueming; Guo, Liejin



Shapes, Sizes, and Faceting of Nanoscale Metal Particles for Applications in Catalysis  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to reduce the world's dependence on fossil fuels, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are commonly considered as a prime candidate for alternative energy sources. The efficiency of fuel cells is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which is driven by platinum based catalysts. Numerous methods have been developed to synthesize particles which contain more active surfaces by tuning shapes, sizes and facets. Here, we will present a study of a well known wet chemical reduction method targeting specific morphologies and the resulting electrochemical activity. Studying the relationship between Pt facets at the bulk phase single crystal level versus the nanoscale correlates the effects of faceting on activities. Studying the formation of crystals during the course of the synthesis via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) provides mechanistic insight on growth, while electrochemical studies correlate physical properties to performance.

Strand, M. B.; Leong, G. J.; Dinh, H. N.; Richards, R. M.



Mesoporous NiO crystals with dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets for ultrafast lithium storage  

PubMed Central

Faceted crystals with exposed highly reactive planes have attracted intensive investigations for applications such as hydrogen production, enhanced catalytic activity, and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Herein, we report the synthesis of mesoporous NiO crystals with dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets by the thermal conversion of hexagonal Ni(OH)2 nanoplatelets. When applied as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous NiO crystals exhibit a high reversible lithium storage capacity of 700?mAh g?1 at 1 C rate in 100?cycles and an excellent cyclability. In particular, the dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets and mesoporous nanostructure of NiO crystals lead to ultrafast lithium storage, which mimics the high power delivery of supercapacitors. PMID:23226591

Su, Dawei; Ford, Mike; Wang, Guoxiu



{116} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays: facile synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheet arrays were synthesized on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with a unique one-step alcohol-thermal process. The nanosheets were nearly vertically grown on the FTO substrate along their <11&cmb.macr;0> zone, and they were dominated by {116} facets. The as-fabricated {116} faceted single-crystalline anatase nanosheet arrays exhibit a much higher reduction capacity and a much better electrochemical reversibility than both {001} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays and P25 film. The results indicate a promising application potential for the new material in the photoelectrochemical field.Single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheet arrays were synthesized on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with a unique one-step alcohol-thermal process. The nanosheets were nearly vertically grown on the FTO substrate along their <11&cmb.macr;0> zone, and they were dominated by {116} facets. The as-fabricated {116} faceted single-crystalline anatase nanosheet arrays exhibit a much higher reduction capacity and a much better electrochemical reversibility than both {001} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheet arrays and P25 film. The results indicate a promising application potential for the new material in the photoelectrochemical field. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Photo of the large area STNA-116, FESEM images of STNA-001 and STNA-116 with a series of growth time, the enlarged XRD pattern, the simulated SAED pattern, the reflectance spectra, the cyclic voltammograms of P25 on the FTO substrate. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04248d

Li, Feng; Li, Xiaoning; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Yang, Shangfeng; Fu, Zhengping; Lu, Yalin



Faceting of {sigma}3 and {sigma}9 grain boundaries in Cu-Bi alloys  

SciTech Connect

The faceting of {sigma}3 and {sigma}9 tilt grain boundaries (GBs) has been studied in bicrystals of pure Cu and Cu-Bi alloys containing 2.5 x 10{sup -3}, 10 x 10{sup -3} and 16 x 10{sup -3} at.% Bi. The {sigma}3(1 0 0), {sigma}9(1 0 0), {sigma}9(-1 1 0), and {sigma}9(-1 2 0) facets and non-CSL {sigma}3 82 deg 9R facet were observed, where {sigma} is the inverse density of coincidence sites. The ratio between GB energy, {sigma}{sub GB}, and surface energy, {sigma}{sub sur}, was measured by atomic force microscopy using the GB thermal-groove method. The GB energy and thermal-groove deepening rate increased slightly between 0 and 10 x 10{sup -3} at.% Bi for all facets studied. However, between 10 x 10{sup -3} and 16 x 10{sup -3} at.% Bi the GB energy increased dramatically [from a factor 2 for the {sigma}9(1 1 0) facet to 15 times larger for the {sigma}3(1 0 0) facet]. The thermal-groove deepening rate also increased by a factor of 10 in this concentration range. This change corresponds well with the GB solidus line (i.e., the formation of a stable layer of a liquid-like GB phase called GB prewetting) observed previously. Wulff diagrams were constructed using measured {sigma}{sub GB}/{sigma}{sub sur} values.

Straumal, B.B. [Laboratory of Interfaces in Metals, Institute of Solid State Physics, Institutskii prospect 15, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Polyakov, S.A. [Laboratory of Interfaces in Metals, Institute of Solid State Physics, Institutskii prospect 15, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung and Institut fuer Metallkunde, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bischoff, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung and Institut fuer Metallkunde, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Gust, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung and Institut fuer Metallkunde, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Baretzky, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung and Institut fuer Metallkunde, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)



Food Preservation and Home Canning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The harvest season is upon us, and home canning fever has begun. The following websites share resources and wisdom regarding home canning, food preservation, and accompanying safety measures. From Clemson University, the first site (1) is a Food Safety and Preservation section housed in the university's online Home and Garden Information Center. This site is stocked full of online and downloadable information sheets regarding canning, freezing, drying, pickling, food borne illnesses, and much more. The site even contains documents addressing food safety after hurricanes, tornados, fires, and power outages. The second website (2), from the University of Georgia, links to numerous food preservation publications like Canning Pumpkin Butter and Mashed or Pureed Squashes; Making Apple Cider; Preserving Food: Using Boiling Water Canners; and Preserving Food: Freezing Animal Products-just to name a few. Hosted by Michigan State University-Extension, the third site (3) contains a comprehensive, alphabetized database on freezing, canning, and drying food (that was based on the USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning). The fourth (4) site-hosted by the National Center for Home Food Preservation-contains the aforementioned USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning in downloadable units. From Penn State University, the fifth (5) site features a food preservation database, which connects site visitors to numerous links regarding safe home processing methods. The sixth site (6-) site contains a publication about home canning of fruit and fruit products. Notably, the publication provides processing times for different contents, amounts, and altitudes.


Separating Palaeoproductivity and Preservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding climate related changes in concentration and isotopic composition of the atmospheric carbon pool, is a prerequisite for understanding anthropogenic or natural climate forcing. The deep ocean includes the largest pool of carbon and has major influence on the atmosphere on decadal and longer time scales. Its carbon budget depends on export production rate and ventilation steered organic matter (OM) degradation. However, its influence over time is poorly quantified mainly since current proxies for productivity often suffer from modification e.g., dissolution, aerobic decay, or migration. This is often neglected, resulting in misleading interpretations and forcing-mechanism propositions. Separating diagenesis from productivity forms a key question in world-wide operating research programs such as IMAGES (International Marine Global Change Study), JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Studies) and WCRP (World Climate Research Program). Here we circumvent such modifications by using recognizable OM particles that remain at a stable position within the sediments and for which the degradation rates for various environments are known. Compilation of data on postdepositional aerobic OM degradation at natural oxidation fronts in sediments of the late Quaternary Madeira Abyssal Plain f-turbidite and the last eastern Mediterranean sapropel (S1) reveals a stable ranking of the OM components with respect to their degree of degradation. In contrast to previous work, which mainly emphasises the effects of decay, we use this to separate degradation from bioproductivity. Application of our method will be documented by a reconstruction of past export productivity and deep ocean ventilation of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean (Atlantic sector) since 145,000 BP. We will show that export productivity is regionally defined whereas ventilation and oxygen content variations of the deep ocean occur basin-wide. We indicate that a more active working "biological pump" as a cause for lower glacial atmospheric [CO2], might have been overestimated and address possible effects of ventilation changes and post depositional aerobic OM decay on the atmospheric \\Delta14C

Versteegh, G. J.; Zonneveld, K. A.



Finite Element Study of Matched Paired Posterior Disc Implant and Dynamic Stabilizer (360° Motion Preservation System)  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior lumbar disc replacements are used to restore spinal alignment and kinematics of a degenerated segment. Compared to fusion of the segment, disc replacements may prevent adjacent segment degeneration. To resolve some of the deficiencies of anterior lumbar arthroplasty, such as the approach itself, difficulty of revision, and postoperative facet pain, 360° motion preservation systems based on posterior disc and posterior dynamic system (PDS) designs are being pursued. These systems are easier to revise and address all the pain generators in a motion segment, including the nerves, facets, and disc. However, biomechanics of the 360° posterior motion preservation system, including the contributions of the 2 subsystems (disc and PDS), are sparsely reported in the literature.nds. Methods An experimentally validated 3-dimensional finite element model of the ligamentous L3-S1 segment was used to investigate the differences in biomechanical behavior of the lumbar spine. A single-level 360° posterior motion preservation system and its individual components in various orientations were simulated and compared with an intact model. Appropriate posterior surgical procedures were simulated. The PDS, a curved device with male and female components, was attached to the pedicle screws. The finite element models were subjected to 400 N of follower load plus 10Nm moment in extension and flexion. Results The PDS restored flexion/extension motion to normal. The artificial disc led to increases in range of motion (ROM) compared with the intact model. ROM for the 360° system at the implanted and adjacent levels were similar to those of the respective intact levels. ROM was similar whether the discs were placed (a) both parallel to the midsagittal plane, (b) both angled 20° to the midsagittal plane, and (c) one at 20° and one parallel to the midsagittal plane. However, the stresses were slightly higher in the nonparallel disc configuration than in the parallel disc configuration, both in flexion and extension modes. Conclusions Posterior disc replacement with PDS restored the kinematics of the spine at all levels to near normal. In addition, placing the discs in a nonparallel configuration with respect to the midsagittal plane does not affect the functionality of the discs compared with parallel placement. Posterior disc replacement alone is not sufficient to restore the segment biomechanics to normal levels. Clinical Relevance Finite element analysis results show that, unlike implants for fusion, PDS and posterior discs together (360° motion preservation system) are needed to preserve ROM. Such systems will prevent adjacent level degeneration and address pain from various spinal components, including facets.

Kiapour, Ali; Faizan, Ahmed; Krishna, Manoj; Friesem, Tai



Knowledge Preservation Techniques That Can Facilitate Intergroup Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed tools, social methods and software, for (1) acquiring technical knowledge from engineers and scientists, (2) preserving that knowledge, (3) making the totality of our stored knowledge rapidly searchable. Our motivation has been, mainly, to preserve rare knowledge of senior engineers who are near retirement. Historical value of such knowledge, and also of our tools, has been pointed out to us by historians. We now propose the application these tools to enhancing communication among groups that are working jointly on a project. Of most value will be projects having groups among whom communication is rare and incomplete. We propose that discussions among members of a group be recorded in audio and that both the actual audio and transcriptions of that audio, and optional other pieces be combined into electronic, webpage-like "books". These books can then be searched rapidly by interested people in other groups. At points of particular interest, a searcher can zoom in on the text and even on the original recordings to pick up nuances (e.g. to distinguish a utterance said in seriousness from one in sarcasm). In this matter, not only can potentially valuable technical details be preserved for the future, but communication be enhanced during the life of a joint undertaking.

Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John; Coffee, John; Noga, Donald F. (Technical Monitor)



76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Report No. 2936] Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES: Oppositions...In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, Broadband Industry Practices,...



Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives  

E-print Network

The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

Gezer, Engin Derya



Correctness-preserving program transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the predicate calculus formalization of the partial correctness properties of programs (Ki, Go) to include the preservation of correctness under program transformations. The general notion of \\

Susan L. Gerhart



Preserve Staff Help with Installation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

In 2013, installation of macroinvertebrate sampling devices at seven sites on the Silver Creek Preserve. The sampling devices provide artificial substrate that aquatic insects such as mayflies, caddisflies, and stoneflies can colonize....


Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

Barbaran, Francisco Ramon



Fertility preservation in cancer survivors.  


Due to the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, physicians of all specialties are confronted with the need to prevent side effects of the applied oncologic treatments. In the field of reproductive medicine fertility preservation has gained importance as most oncologic treatments have detrimental immediate or long-term impacts on male and female fertility. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, as well as the recently founded International Society for Fertility Preservation propose several established and investigational options for fertility preservation. This review aims to summarize currently available techniques for fertility preservation and future perspectives in this field, as well as to provide recommendations for patient follow-up after cancer and during pregnancy. PMID:25614989

Winkler-Crepaz, K; Ayuandari, S; Ziehr, S C; Hofer, S; Wildt, L



Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-print Network

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric...

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.


Montana State Historic Preservation Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Montana State Historic Preservation Office works with dozens of partners across Big Sky country to preserve the state's cultural and historic places. The website for the Office contains information about their staff, historic architecture, archaeological projects, and cultural records. Visitors can click on the State-owned Heritage Properties link, located at the bottom of the page, to find a list of historic properties owned and managed by Montana. They can also look over technical reports and documents about these properties. Visitors should not miss the report titled "Montana Modernism." This gem offers information and commentary on recently identified properties in Montana (such as the Safeway Grocery in Butte) built in the two decades after World War II. Finally, visitors with a interest in preservation policy can browse through the Preservation Law section.




SciTech Connect

The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

CHARTRAND, RICK [Los Alamos National Laboratory



A Black Hole Life Preserver  

E-print Network

Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered on a trip inside a black hole.

J. Richard Gott; Deborah L. Freedman



A Black Hole Life Preserver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong\\u000alife for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather\\u000alimited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you\\u000acan take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least)\\u000aagainst the tidal forces encountered

J. Richard Gott; Deborah L. Freedman



Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. It contains information about identifying animal tracks, including those of deer, elk, antelope, and mountain lions. Also, there is a helpful guide to preserving animal tracks by making track casts, including the procedure and materials needed. A recommended reading list is also presented to give visitors a starting point for more information.


Preservation of Liquid Biological Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention related to the preservation of a liquid biological sample. The biological sample is exposed to a preservative containing at least about 0.15 g of sodium benzoate and at least about 0.025 g of citric acid per 100 ml of sample. The biological sample may be collected in a vessel or an absorbent mass. The biological sample may also be exposed to a substrate and/or a vehicle.

Putcha, Lakshmi (Inventor); Nimmagudda, Ramalingeshwara (Inventor)



Temporomandibular joint dislocation.  


Dislocation of the temporomandibular joint is one of many pathophysiologic joint conditions that the oral and maxillofacial surgeon is challenged with managing. Managing a dislocated joint will inevitably be the challenge of most surgeons or physicians, whether in private or academic practice. Accordingly, this article addresses the pathophysiology associated with dislocation, in addition to treatment strategies aimed at managing acute, chronic, and recurrent dislocation. PMID:25483448

Liddell, Aaron; Perez, Daniel E



The different facets of ice have different hydrophilicities: Friction at water / ice-I$_\\mathrm{h}$ interfaces  

E-print Network

We present evidence that the prismatic and secondary prism facets of ice-I$_\\mathrm{h}$ crystals possess structural features that can reduce the effective hydrophilicity of the ice/water interface. The spreading dynamics of liquid water droplets on ice facets exhibits long-time behavior that differs for the prismatic $\\{10\\bar{1}0\\}$ and secondary prism $\\{11\\bar{2}0\\}$ facets when compared with the basal $\\{0001\\}$ and pyramidal $\\{20\\bar{2}1\\}$ facets. We also present the results of simulations of solid-liquid friction of the same four crystal facets being drawn through liquid water, and find that the two prismatic facets exhibit roughly half the solid-liquid friction of the basal and pyramidal facets. These simulations provide evidence that the two prismatic faces have a significantly smaller effective surface area in contact with the liquid water. The ice / water interfacial widths for all four crystal facets are similar (using both structural and dynamic measures), and were found to be independent of the...

Louden, Patrick B



Prediction of Job Satisfaction Based on Workplace Facets for Adjunct Business Faculty at Four-Year Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the job satisfaction of adjuncts in the curriculum area of business at four-year universities and to determine the roles that individual job facets play in creating overall job satisfaction. To explore which job facets and demographics predict job satisfaction for the population, participants were asked to…

Lewis, Vance Johnson



Violence Risk Assessment and Facet 4 of the Psychopathy Checklist: Predicting Institutional and Community Aggression in Two Forensic Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL/PCL-R) were used to predict institutional aggression and community violence in two groups of forensic patients. Results showed that Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL/PCL-R or one of its parcels consistently achieved incremental validity relative to the first three facets, whereas the…

Walters, Glenn D.; Heilbrun, Kirk



Raters and Single Prompt-to-Prompt Equating Using the FACETS Model in a Writing Performance Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The FACETS equating model meets the complex requirements for equating writing performance assessment across both raters and prompts. This study is based on an equating of the 1996 writing performance assessment in the Minneapolis Public Schools (Minnesota). Raters and prompts were equated simultaneously using the FACETS model. About 3,000 fifth…

Du, Yi; And Others


Traumatic unilateral lumbosacral jumped facet without fracture in a child – presentation of a safe treatment strategy for a rare injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of pediatric lumbosacral spondylolisthesis have developmental etiology. Of the very rare type of pediatric lumbosacral facet dislocations, there are only three reported cases of a pediatric unilateral jumped facet injury. All of these cases are associated with fracture dislocation of L5-S1. Hyperflexion with rotation is thought to provoke this uncommon type of spine injury. The authors report

Oszkar Szentirmai; Joshua Seinfeld; Kathryn Beauchamp; Vikas Patel



Field and Photofield Emission Spectroscopy of Silver and Sodium Adsorbed on (100) and (110) Facets of Tungsten  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver and sodium adatoms on W(100) and W(110) facets of microscopic size have been studied in field and photofield emission. New and interesting findings are reported concerning the growth and the electronic structure of silver and sodium overlayers on tungsten. On (100), silver adatoms form a homogeneous overlayer up to an exposure of 3 monolayers (ML), while the (110) facet

Ammar Derraa



Unique Relationships between Facets of Mindfulness and Eating Pathology among Female Smokers  

PubMed Central

Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study examined associations between facets of trait mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms in 112 college female smokers (83% Caucasian; mean age 20 years, SD = 1.69). After controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables, Describing and Nonjudging facets of mindfulness predicted lower bulimic symptoms and body dissatisfaction (ps < .05), while Acting with Awareness predicted lower bulimic and anorexic symptoms, ps < .05. Observing predicted higher anorexic symptoms, p < .05. These results suggest that specific mindfulness facets are related to lower eating disorder symptoms among smokers, whereas other facets are not associated or have a positive relationship with these symptoms. Mindfulness-based interventions focusing on Describing, Nonjudging, and Acting with Awareness may help to reduce eating pathology among female smokers, which could potentially improve smoking cessation rates in this population. PMID:23121795

Adams, Claire E.; McVay, Megan Apperson; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W.; Copeland, Amy L.



Analysis of Rater Severity on Written Expression Exam Using Many Faceted Rasch Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how a Many Faceted Rasch Measurement (MFRM) approach can be applied to performance assessment focusing on rater analysis. The article provides an introduction to MFRM, a description of MFRM analysis procedures, and an example to illustrate how to examine the effects of various sources of variability on test takers'…

Prieto, Gerardo; Nieto, Eloísa



Consistently Orienting Facets in Polygon Meshes by Minimizing the Dirichlet Energy of Generalized Winding Numbers  

E-print Network

orienting facets in polygon meshes by minimizing the Dirichlet energy of generalized winding numbers. While based on the Dirichlet energy of the generalized winding number. Our motivation came from the fact Dirichlet energy of the corresponding generalized winding number. 2 Method 2.1 Patch extraction

Plotkin, Joshua B.


A new chemical etching technique for formation of cavity facets of (GaAl)As lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new chemical etching technique which offers excellent cavity facets of Ga \\/SUB 1-x\\/ Al \\/SUB x\\/ As lasers is reported. This technique is based on our finding that the crystallographic anisotropy in the conventional etching process of Ga \\/SUB 1-x\\/ Al \\/SUB x\\/ As multilayers depends strongly on the AlAs mode fraction x in every layer. A suitable combination

M. Wada; K. Hamada; T. Shibutani; H. Shimizu; M. Kume; K. Itoh; G. Kano; I. Teramoto



Controlled synthesis and facets-dependent photocatalysis of TiO2 nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a wide band gap semiconductor that has been extensively used in several environmental applications including degradation of organic hazardous chemicals, water splitting to generate hydrogen, dye sensitized solar cells, self cleaning agents, and pigments. Herein we demonstrate the synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) with the shapes of ellipsoids, rods, cuboids, and sheets with different exposed facets using a noncorrosive and nontoxic chemical (i.e. diethanolamine) as the shape controlling agent, unlike hydrofluoric acid commonly used. The TiO2 NCs of diverse shapes with different exposed facets were tested for photocatalytic hydroxyl radical (OH•) formation, which determines their photocatalytic behavior and the results were compared with the standard P-25 Degussa. The formation rate of OH• per specific surface area was found to be >6 fold higher for rod-shaped TiO2 NCs than that of commercial Degussa P25 catalyst. The highest photocatalytic activity of rod-shaped TiO2 NCs is ascribed to the unique chemical environment of {010} exposed facets which facilitates the electron/hole separation in presence of {101} facets.

Roy, Nitish; Park, Yohan; Sohn, Youngku; Pradhan, Debabrata



Validity of Social, Moral and Emotional Facets of Self-Description Questionnaire II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies adopting a construct validity approach can be categorized into within- and between-network studies. Few studies have applied between-network approach and tested the correlations of the social (same-sex relations, opposite-sex relations, parent relations), moral (honesty-trustworthiness), and emotional (emotional stability) facets of the…

Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Abduljabbar, Adel S.



Optical characterization of the facets of a heliostat J. A. Avellaner  

E-print Network

the heliostat reflector panels (facets) of a central tower type solar power station from an optical point and concentrate the solar direct radiation onto a receiver, located on top of a tower, that transfers the radiant (1980) 169-173 FÃ?VRIER 1980, PAGE Classification Physics Abstracts 42.85 1. Introduction. - A solar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Polymer waveguide end facet roughness and optical input/output coupling loss for OPCB applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro-optical printed circuit board technology (EOCB) based on integrated planar polymer optical waveguides has been the subject of research and development for many years to provide a cost viable, fully integrated system embedded optical interconnect solution, however a number of constraints of this technology have yet to be overcome. Optical coupling loss at the input and output of the waveguides is one of the major issues and waveguide end facet roughness is one of the main sources of the coupling loss which is investigated in this paper. The results of a comprehensive investigation of the end facet roughness of multimode polymer waveguides, fabricated on FR4 printed circuit boards, PCBs, and its effect of optical loss are presented theoretically and experimentally. The waveguide end facet roughness was measured using an atomic force microscope, AFM, when the waveguides were cut using a milling router with various numbers of cutting edges called flutes. The optimized cutting parameters are derived and the optical coupling loss, between the laser source and the waveguide, due to the different roughness magnitudes is measured by experiment for the first time. To improve the surface quality and decrease the waveguide optical loss, a new fabrication technique for reducing the end facet roughness after cutting is proposed and demonstrated. The insertion loss was reduced by 2.60 dB +/- 1.3 dB which is more than that achieved by other conventional methods such as index matching fluid.

Baghsiahi, Hadi; Wang, Kai; Pitwon, Richard; Selviah, David R.



Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus



Exploring the Relationship between Workaholism Facets and Personality Traits: A Replication in American Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we further explored whether any of the dimensions in the five-factor model of personality (i.e., openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) were related to facets of workaholism (i.e., work involvement, work drive, and work enjoyment) in a sample of American workers in various…

Aziz, Shahnaz; Tronzo, Casie L.



Strain dependent facet stabilization in selective-area heteroepitaxial growth of GaN nanostructures  

E-print Network

Strain dependent facet stabilization in selective-area heteroepitaxial growth of GaN nanostructures of submicron GaN islands on GaN-sapphire, AlN-sapphire, and bare sapphire substrates. It is shown that strain due to the lattice mismatch between GaN and the underlying substrate has a significant influence

Sharma, Pradeep


Infinity as a Multi-Faceted Concept in History and in the Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the conceptualisation of infinity as a multi-faceted concept, discussing two examples. The first is from history and illustrates the work of Euler, when using infinity in an algebraic context. The second sketches an activity in a school context, namely students who approach the definite integral with symbolic-graphic…

Arzarello, Ferdinando; Bussi, Maria G., Bartolini; Robutti, Ornella



Analysis of Scatterometer Observations of Saharan Ergs Using A Simple Rough Facet Model  

E-print Network

Analysis of Scatterometer Observations of Saharan Ergs Using A Simple Rough Facet Model Haroon to the NSCAT and ESCAT observations over areas of known dune types in the Sahara. This analysis gives a unique of and , to study the sand surface geomorphology. The (, ) measurements over ergs from the Ku-band NASA

Long, David G.


Technology shapes every facet of modern life. Familiarity with the characteristics,  

E-print Network

Technology shapes every facet of modern life. Familiarity with the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of current and emerging technologies is indispen- sable to wise and effective decisions and address the problems that technology often presents. Technologi- cal developments are indeed re

Ge, Qiaode Jeff


Immediate open anterior reduction and antero-posterior fixation\\/fusion for bilateral cervical locked facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background. Bilateral cervical locked facets is a severe traumatic lesion, most frequently resulting in tetraplegia. The common treatment strategy has been an attempt of awake, closed reduction, adding general anesthesia, muscle relaxation and manual traction in difficult cases. In cases of failed closed reduction, open reduction has most commonly been performed by a posterior approach. Patients in the current



The multiple facets of c-aminobutyric acid dysfunction in epilepsy Yehezkel Ben-Aria  

E-print Network

REVIEW The multiple facets of c-aminobutyric acid dysfunction in epilepsy Yehezkel Ben inhibition to excitation in the developing brain and in epilepsies. This review deals with recent while inhibiting those of the mother. In epilepsies, recurrent seizures also lead to an accumulation

Cossart, Rosa


Motivation as a Facet of School Readiness in a Head Start Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The EZ-Yale Personality Motivation Questionnaire (EZPQ) was used to measure motivation as a facet of school readiness in a sample of 133 children during the spring of their final year of Head Start. Three motivational constructs assessed by the EZPQ, academic mastery motivation, negative reaction tendency, and outerdirectedness, were associated…

Henrich, Christopher C.; Wheeler, Crista M.; Zigler, Edward F.



Flamenco + Geo: extending a hierarchical faceted metadata search interface with geographic capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes initial work on developing a geographic information retrieval system that provides both spatial and text-based functionality. The system is an extension to Flamenco, an open source browse and search interface framework based on hierarchical faceted metadata.

Patricia L. Frontiera



Using Self-Report Assessment Methods to Explore Facets of Mindfulness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the facet structure of mindfulness using five recently developed mindfulness questionnaires. Two large samples of undergraduate students completed mindfulness questionnaires and measures of other constructs. Psychometric properties of the mindfulness questionnaires were examined, including internal consistency and convergent and discriminant relationships with other variables. Factor analyses of the combined pool of items from the mindfulness questionnaires suggested

Ruth A. Baer; Gregory T. Smith; Jaclyn Hopkins; Jennifer Krietemeyer; Leslie Toney



Diffraction and external reflection by dielectric faceted particles Lei Bi a,, Ping Yang b  

E-print Network

Diffraction and external reflection by dielectric faceted particles Lei Bi a,Ã?, Ping Yang b February 2010 Keywords: Diffraction External reflection Scattering Hexagonal ice crystal a b s t r a c to diffraction, external reflection and outgoing refracted waves. This paper focuses on diffraction and external

Baum, Bryan A.


When You're Lost for Words: Faceted Search with Autocompletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show how the autocompletion data struc- ture of (2) can be used to answer faceted-search queries e- ciently. Specically , we have built a fully-functional browser- based search engine that can index collections with arbi- trary category information and that, after each keystroke from the user, computes and displays the following infor- mation: (i) words or

Holger Bast; Ingmar Weber



Patterns of Astragalar Fibular Facet Orientation in Extant and Fossil Primates and Their Evolutionary  

E-print Network

Sciences Center T-8, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8081 KEY WORDS astragalus; talus; fibula; haplorhine of the astragalus (5talus) has been proposed as one of few osteological synapomorphies of strepsirrhine primates" lemuri- form and lorisiform primates). The slope of the fibular facet of the astragalus has received

Boyer, Doug M.


Perennial Dreams ognition is a complex, multi-faceted and multi-level phenomenon. Unraveling it,  

E-print Network

Prologue Perennial Dreams ognition is a complex, multi-faceted and multi-level phenomenon, and intellectual threads that can be best understood through the relationships among its components. AI is a dream -- a dream of the creation of things in the human image, a dream that reveals the human quest for immortality

Indiana University


Facets of Fairness: Equal Share, Equal Chance and Uniform Mechanisms Holger H. Hoos 1  

E-print Network

!1 Chapter ! Facets of Fairness: Equal Share, Equal Chance and Uniform Mechanisms ! Holger H. Hoos 1 I. Introduction Fairness is a notion of universal importance ­ whether we play, compete or trade with each other, we tend to strive for situations in which everyone feels treated fairly. Conversely, lack

Hoos, Holger H.


Analyzing Process Quality of Early Childhood Education with Many Facet Rash Measurement Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality of early childhood education institutions specifically, dimensions of process quality should be evaluated. Purpose of this study is to analyze process quality of early childhood education by using many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM). In this study, data were collected from twelve early childhood education institutions by four…

Basturk, Ramazan; Isikoglu, Nesrin



Interproximal wear facets and tooth associations in the Pa?alar hominoid sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interproximal wear facets were examined on hominoid teeth from the middle Miocene site at Pa?alar, Turkey. The aim was to find matches between adjacent premolar and molar teeth from single individuals that were collected in the field as isolated teeth and use them to reconstruct tooth rows. These were then used to investigate: (1) the wear gradient on the molar

Insaf Gençturk; Berna Alpagut; Peter Andrews



Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire assesses three facets of emotional expressivity: negative  

E-print Network

Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire assesses three facets-reports, peer ratings, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 435-448. Other references include: Gross, J.J. (2000). The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire. In J. Maltby, C.A. Lewis, & A

Gross, James J.


Unique and Common Facets of Religion and Spirituality: Both Are Important  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary describes a multidimensional approach that underlies much recent empirical research on religion and spirituality (RS) and health. Each faith tradition possesses its own particularities, and common facets shared with other traditions as a coherent resemblance. Taxonomies of RS dimensions vary from being coarse grained to fine grained. The most useful taxonomy depends upon the particular research question. Fine-grained

Doug Oman



An Examination of Blue- versus White-Collar Workers' Conceptualizations of Job Satisfaction Facets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degree to which blue- versus white-collar workers differentially conceptualize various job facets, namely the work itself, co-workers, supervisors, and pay. To examine these potential differences, we conducted a series of analyses on job satisfaction ratings from two samples of university workers. Consistent with the study…

Hu, Xiaoxiao; Kaplan, Seth; Dalal, Reeshad S.



Charge transfer, surface charging, and overlayer-induced faceting J. G. Che* and C. T. Chan  

E-print Network

Charge transfer, surface charging, and overlayer-induced faceting J. G. Che* and C. T. Chan to analyze the change of surface energy of metallic surfaces upon surface charging. We then studied surface charging is main driving mechanism in view of such an empirical correlation. Our results show

Che, Jingguang


A Complete Description of Cones and Polytopes Including Hypervolumes of All Facets of a Polytope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper methods and algorithms for identifying the main elements (edges and facets of any dimension) of a cone and a polytope, and calculating the corresponding hypervolumes are presented. The cones and polytopes are supposed to be given as the non-negative linear combination and the convex hull generated by a, not necessarily minimal, set…

Jubete, F.; Castillo, E.



Construct Validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Meditating and Nonmeditating Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on assessment of mindfulness by self-report suggests that it may include five component skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, and nonreactivity to inner experience. These elements of mindfulness can be measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The authors investigated several aspects of the construct validity of the FFMQ in experienced meditators and

Ruth A. Baer; Gregory T. Smith; Emily Lykins; Daniel Button; Jennifer Krietemeyer; Shannon Sauer; Erin Walsh; Danielle Duggan; J. Mark G. Williams



Construct Validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Meditating and Nonmeditating Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on assessment of mindfulness by self-report suggests that it may include five component skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, and nonreactivity to inner experience. These elements of mindfulness can be measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The authors…

Baer, Ruth A.; Smith, Gregory T.; Lykins, Emily; Button, Daniel; Krietemeyer, Jennifer; Sauer, Shannon; Walsh, Erin; Duggan, Danielle; Williams, J. Mark G.



High Stability of Faceted Nanotubes and Fullerenes of Multiphase Layered Phosphorus: A Computational Study  

E-print Network

phosphorus is considered superior to graphite for LIB applications [16,17], a similar benefit couldHigh Stability of Faceted Nanotubes and Fullerenes of Multiphase Layered Phosphorus compound of these carbon allotropes, the stable black phosphorus allotrope is a layered compound that can

Tománek, David


Mind Your Words: Positive and Negative Items Create Method Effects on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mindfulness, a construct that entails moment-to-moment effort to be aware of present experiences and positive attitudinal features, has become integrated into the sciences. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), one popular measure of mindfulness, exhibits different responses to positively and negatively worded items in nonmeditating…

Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Hobkirk, Andrea L.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Earleywine, Mitch



Towards an Understanding of Facets and Exemplars of Big Data Applications Geoffrey C.Fox1  

E-print Network

Towards an Understanding of Facets and Exemplars of Big Data Applications Geoffrey C.Fox1 Big Data applications from a variety of research and commercial areas and suggest a set Big Data properties, and then to understand applications with those properties. There are many


Beyond facets: Semantic roots and modifiers as elements of a conceptual morphology  

E-print Network

= Liver & Imaging & X-rays Hepatograph = Liver & Camera & X-rays Hepatogram = Liver & Image & X-rays The facets are body part (liver), process (imaging), apparatus (camera in the broad sense of any imaging Fermentable Solution (process) Solution (result) Dissolved Solvent Soluble Solubility Solubilize Cancer

Soergel, Dagobert


Discovery of columnar jointing on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia-Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.



Facet-Dependent Catalytic Activity of Platinum Nanocrystals for Triiodide Reduction in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

Platinum (Pt) nanocrystals have demonstrated to be an effective catalyst in many heterogeneous catalytic processes. However, pioneer facets with highest activity have been reported differently for various reaction systems. Although Pt has been the most important counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), suitable atomic arrangement on the exposed crystal facet of Pt for triiodide reduction is still inexplicable. Using density functional theory, we have investigated the catalytic reaction processes of triiodide reduction over {100}, {111} and {411} facets, indicating that the activity follows the order of Pt(111) > Pt(411) > Pt(100). Further, Pt nanocrystals mainly bounded by {100}, {111} and {411} facets were synthesized and used as counter electrode materials for DSCs. The highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency of Pt(111) in DSCs confirms the predictions of the theoretical study. These findings have deepened the understanding of the mechanism of triiodide reduction at Pt surfaces and further screened the best facet for DSCs successfully. PMID:23670438

Zhang, Bo; Wang, Dong; Hou, Yu; Yang, Shuang; Yang, Xiao Hua; Zhong, Ju Hua; Liu, Jian; Wang, Hai Feng; Hu, P.; Zhao, Hui Jun; Yang, Hua Gui



Precursor salt assisted syntheses of high-index faceted concave hexagon and nanorod-like polyoxometalates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(ii) and NH4+ ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(ii) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets.This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(ii) and NH4+ ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(ii) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details about chemicals, analytical instruments, HRTEM, BET surface area, SAED patterns, EDX, area mapping analysis, recyclability test and a schematic representation for MHT method. XRD, TEM, FESEM images, HRTEM images, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm, SAED patterns, EDX and area mapping analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06309k

Pal, Jaya; Ganguly, Mainak; Mondal, Chanchal; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar



Cryobiology: preservation of mammalian embryos.  


The preservation of mammalian embryos has become a routine procedure. Thousands of live offspring have been produced from frozen-thawed embryos transferred into recipient foster mothers. Species whose embryos have been successfully preserved include mouse, rat, rabbit, sheep, goat, cattle, horse, antelope, baboon, and human. During the past few years, novel procedures have been introduced that permit embryos to be frozen and thawed rapidly, and to be transferred into recipients under field conditions almost immediately upon thawing. Thus, the transfer of frozen-thawed embryos of domestic animals is becoming almost as efficient as is artificial insemination using frozen-thawed semen. Because of both the inherent fundamental interest and the practical applications of embryo freezing, a substantial understanding of the mechanisms responsible for freezing damage of embryos has been achieved. To survive freezing, embryos must be exposed to protective compounds; to function after thawing, embryos must be washed free of these compounds. Based on fundamental physiology, efficient methods to accomplish such washing have been developed. Furthermore, to survive freezing, embryos must be cooled under conditions in which intracellular ice does not form. This can be accomplished either by pretreating the embryo or by cooling it in such a way as to cause it to dehydrate during freezing. Maximum survival of embryos appears to be achieved when intracellular water does not crystallize during cooling or during warming. As a result of the growing efficiency of embryo preservation, this method is being applied to a variety of practical situations. For example, large banks of frozen embryos of laboratory animals are being established to preserve valuable research resources. The freezing of cattle embryos is being used with increasing frequency as an adjunct to commercial embryo transfer. Preservation of endangered species by embryo preservation is beginning. And finally, the preservation of human embryos is finding application in the field of in vitro fertilization. PMID:3707493

Leibo, S P



National Film Preservation Foundation: The Film Preservation Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No doubt many organizations and institutions have a canister of 16MM film lying around someplace and some diligent member of their organization might ask: "How can we preserve this item?" A very astute question, and this helpful guide from the National Film Preservation Foundation provides substantial guidance and assistance. The 121-page guide describes methods for handling, duplicating, making available, and storing film, which are practical for nonprofit and public organizations with limited resources. Visitors to this site can download all of the sections in this report, which include chapters like "Legal Context for Film Preservation" and "Understanding Film and How it Decays". The report also includes case studies, illustrations, charts, glossary, and a bibliography.


The biology of lubricin: near frictionless joint motion.  


Lubricin is a surface-active mucinous glycoprotein secreted in the synovial joint that plays an important role in cartilage integrity. In healthy joints, lubricin molecules coat the cartilage surface, providing boundary lubrication and preventing cell and protein adhesion. Arthropathy occurring in patients with joint trauma, inflammatory arthritis or genetically mediated lubricin deficiencies have insufficient lubricin to prevent damage to articular cartilage. Recent studies in lubricin null joints indicate that lubricin (Prg4) plays a role in preventing damage to the superficial zone and preservation of chondrocytes. Progress in the production of recombinant forms of lubricin and the successes of lubricin supplementation in small animal models identify rhPRG4 as a potential therapeutic for patients with transient lubricin deficiency in the setting of trauma or autoimmune arthritis. PMID:25172828

Jay, Gregory D; Waller, Kimberly A



Campylobacter Prosthetic Joint Infection  

PubMed Central

A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with probable Campylobacter jejuni prosthetic knee infection after a diarrheal illness. Joint aspirate and operative cultures were negative, but PCR of prosthesis sonicate fluid was positive, as was stool culture. Nineteen additional cases of Campylobacter prosthetic joint infection reported in the literature are reviewed. PMID:24523462

Vasoo, Shawn; Schwab, Jeramy J.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Robinson, Trisha J.; Cass, Joseph R.; Berbari, Elie F.; Walker, Randall C.; Osmon, Douglas R.



Behavior of jointed pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data on the axial, bending and torsional behavior of ductile cast iron pipes with rubber gasket joints is presented. Analytical expressions are provided which predict the resistance mechanisms and behavior of the joints. The bending mechanism is found to be quite different from the axial and torsional mechanism. By repeating the tests in a specially designed soil box, the




Wedge Joints for Trusses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structure assembled rapidly with simple hand tools. Proposed locking wedge joints enable rapid assembly of lightweight beams, towers, scaffolds, and other truss-type structures. Lightweight structure assembled from tubular struts joined at nodes by wedge pins fitting into mating slots. Joint assembled rapidly by seating wedge pin in V-shaped slots and deforming end of strut until primary pawl engages it.

Wood, Kenneth E.



The State of Preservation Programs in American College and Research Libraries: Building a Common Understanding and Action Agenda. Optimizing Collections and Services for Scholarly Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With funding from the Institute for Museum and Library Services, the Council on Library and Information Resources, ARL (Association of Research Libraries), the University Libraries Group, and the Regional Alliance for Preservation conducted a joint study in 2001 to examine the state of preservation programs in American academic libraries. The…

Kenney, Anne R.; Stam, Deirdre C.


Strategies for joint appointments.  


The structure and policies governing joint appointments discussed above, are developed primarily through cooperation and collaboration between nursing service and education institutions. The joint appointee participates in the process of negotiation of salary, benefits and role responsibilities and exploration of the implications of the appointment for personal career development. Implementation and maintenance of the appointment requires the collaborative efforts of the joint appointee with both contracting agencies. Factors influencing the functioning of joint appointees have been identified and strategies to facilitate functioning presented. The joint appointee must be independent in thought and action yet adaptable to work within the boundaries of two social systems with differing values and expectations. Nursing management, peers and students can provide the support needed to overcome the frustrations and to achieve the rewards inherent in successful implementation of an exciting and innovative role. PMID:3852805

Royle, J; Crooks, D L



Osteological and morphometric observations on intervertebral joints in the canine pre-diaphragmatic thoracic spine (Th1-Th9).  


The incidence of facet aplasia was investigated in three groups of pure-bred dogs. We examined large breeds (Rough Collies, Doberman Pinschers, Rottweilers, Bernese Mountain Dogs, German Shepherd Dogs), chondrodystrophic breeds (Dachshunds, Pekinese dogs), and small breeds (Yorkshire Terriers, Maltese dogs). Uni- or bilateral aplasia of zygapophyseal (facet) joints was exclusively found in juvenile and adult small dogs, in which the incidence of aplasia ranged from between 26% (Th1) and 63% (Th8). There was no evidence that aplasia of zygapophyseal joints increases the risk of developing intervertebral disc disease or deformative spondylosis in small breeds. By applying the findings of previous empirical studies on intervertebral disc geometry and its biomechanical behaviour on the present morphometric results, there was an indication that the intervertebral disc may well compensate for the functional loss of aplastic zygapophyseal joints in small dogs. Biomechanical factors and their potential role as inducing agents of facet aplasia in the pre-diaphragmatic thoracic spine are also discussed. PMID:12505394

Breit, S



Preservation Impacts on Educational Facilities Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the significance of facilities preservation for educational facilities planning and identifies various forms of facilities preservation applicable to educational facilities. It analyzes why educational facilities planners need to be aware of preservation considerations, reviews the relevant literature for preservation

Shultz, James A.


Asymmetric effect of (000bar{1}) and (0001) facets on surface and interface properties of CdS single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A different effect of (0001) and (000bar{1}) crystal facets of the cadmium sulfide (CdS) wurtzite structure terminated with Cd and S atoms, respectively, was observed in respect to the properties of the crystal surface and interface with metal or organic semiconductor contacts. In addition to the different surface morphology, a bare CdS single crystal showed different features in photoluminescence from the Cd- and S-terminated surfaces. Different adhesive behavior of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) films in respect to the Cd- and S-terminated facets of the crystal has also been found. Photovoltaic properties of hybrid CdS/PEDOT:PSS heterojunctions have been shown to be sensitive in respect to the crystal facet used. Thin films of aluminum (Al) equally deposited onto the opposite crystal facets revealed much smaller sheet resistance on the sulfur facet than on the cadmium one, which has been assigned to the difference in both chemical interaction with the surface atoms and surface morphology. Current-voltage characteristics of an apparently symmetric Al/CdS/Al structure with Al electrodes deposited onto the opposite crystal facets showed asymmetric behavior depending on the bias direction applied to the Cd or S-terminated facet, with the barrier for electrons at the Al/S-terminated interface, respectively.

Singaevsky, A. F.; Piryatinski, Y. P.; Grynko, D. O.; Dimitriev, O. P.



Development of big five domains and facets in adulthood: mean-level age trends and broadly versus narrowly acting mechanisms.  


Data from a cross-sectional sample (N?=?601 men and women) and a longitudinal sample (N?=?125 women) were used to test hypotheses about the development of Big Five domains and facets from early adulthood through middle age. Analyses of mean-level age trends indicated that overall Agreeableness and Conscientiousness increased with age and that several facets showed distinctive trends that replicated across the samples. Cross-sectional analyses of trait intercorrelations and covariances indicated that interrelations between the Big Five domains, and between their more specific facets, were quite similar at older versus younger ages. Finally, longitudinal analyses of individual-level changes indicated that (a) different people's personalities changed in markedly different ways; (b) these changes were predominantly independent, rather than correlated, across Big Five domains; and (c) the pattern of change correlations between Big Five facets could be explained by the facets' interrelations at the first assessment time. Taken together, these results suggest that a complete understanding of personality development requires consideration of facet-level traits and that adult personality development is predominantly influenced by narrowly acting mechanisms that each affect a single Big Five domain, or a small cluster of related facets, rather than by broadly acting mechanisms that simultaneously affect previously independent traits. PMID:22091969

Soto, Christopher J; John, Oliver P



Multi-wavelength light emission from three-dimensional AlGaN quantum wells fabricated on facet structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faceted three-dimensional (3D) AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with semipolar {1?101} and polar (0001) planes are fabricated by a regrowth technique based on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on trench-patterned AlN templates. Similar 3D microfacet structures with different height are formed on top of and at the bottom of the AlN trench. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are separately acquired at semipolar and (0001) facet QWs at room temperature (RT). The peak energies of {1?101} facet QWs and (0001) facet QWs on higher 3D structures are 5.42 and 5.43 eV, respectively, while that of (0001) facet QWs on lower 3D structures is 5.23eV. Through structural analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the peak energy difference between the {1?101} QWs and the lower (0001) QWs is ascribed mainly to suppressed internal electric fields in the {1?101} facet QWs. Furthermore, Al spatial distribution causes the peak energy difference between the (0001) facet QWs.

Kataoka, Ken; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Fukushima, Kensuke; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi



Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

Cook, Donald C.; And Others


Highly reactive {001} facets of TiO2-based composites: synthesis, formation mechanism and characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides due to its extraordinary surface, electronic and catalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and massive recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic and photovoltaic efficiency. Therefore, increasing research attention is now being directed towards engineering the surface structure of TiO2 at the most fundamental and atomic level namely morphological control of {001} facets in the range of microscale and nanoscale to fine-tune its physicochemical properties, which could ultimately lead to the optimization of its selectivity and reactivity. The synthesis of {001}-faceted TiO2 is currently one of the most active interdisciplinary research areas and demonstrations of catalytic enhancement are abundant. Modifications such as metal and non-metal doping have also been extensively studied to extend its band gap to the visible light region. This steady progress has demonstrated that TiO2-based composites with {001} facets are playing and will continue to play an indispensable role in the environmental remediation and in the search for clean and renewable energy technologies. This review encompasses the state-of-the-art research activities and latest advancements in the design of highly reactive {001} facet-dominated TiO2via various strategies, including hydrothermal/solvothermal, high temperature gas phase reactions and non-hydrolytic alcoholysis methods. The stabilization of {001} facets using fluorine-containing species and fluorine-free capping agents is also critically discussed in this review. To overcome the large band gap of TiO2 and rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, modifications are carried out to manipulate its electronic band structure, including transition metal doping, noble metal doping, non-metal doping and incorporating graphene as a two-dimensional (2D) catalyst support. The advancements made in these aspects are thoroughly examined, with additional insights related to the charge transfer events for each strategy of the modified-TiO2 composites. Finally, we offer a summary and some invigorating perspectives on the major challenges and new research directions for future exploitation in this emerging frontier, which we hope will advance us to rationally harness the outstanding structural and electronic properties of {001} facets for various environmental and energy-related applications.

Ong, Wee-Jun; Tan, Lling-Lling; Chai, Siang-Piao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman



Highly reactive {001} facets of TiO2-based composites: synthesis, formation mechanism and characterization.  


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides due to its extraordinary surface, electronic and catalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and massive recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic and photovoltaic efficiency. Therefore, increasing research attention is now being directed towards engineering the surface structure of TiO2 at the most fundamental and atomic level namely morphological control of {001} facets in the range of microscale and nanoscale to fine-tune its physicochemical properties, which could ultimately lead to the optimization of its selectivity and reactivity. The synthesis of {001}-faceted TiO2 is currently one of the most active interdisciplinary research areas and demonstrations of catalytic enhancement are abundant. Modifications such as metal and non-metal doping have also been extensively studied to extend its band gap to the visible light region. This steady progress has demonstrated that TiO2-based composites with {001} facets are playing and will continue to play an indispensable role in the environmental remediation and in the search for clean and renewable energy technologies. This review encompasses the state-of-the-art research activities and latest advancements in the design of highly reactive {001} facet-dominated TiO2via various strategies, including hydrothermal/solvothermal, high temperature gas phase reactions and non-hydrolytic alcoholysis methods. The stabilization of {001} facets using fluorine-containing species and fluorine-free capping agents is also critically discussed in this review. To overcome the large band gap of TiO2 and rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, modifications are carried out to manipulate its electronic band structure, including transition metal doping, noble metal doping, non-metal doping and incorporating graphene as a two-dimensional (2D) catalyst support. The advancements made in these aspects are thoroughly examined, with additional insights related to the charge transfer events for each strategy of the modified-TiO2 composites. Finally, we offer a summary and some invigorating perspectives on the major challenges and new research directions for future exploitation in this emerging frontier, which we hope will advance us to rationally harness the outstanding structural and electronic properties of {001} facets for various environmental and energy-related applications. PMID:24384624

Ong, Wee-Jun; Tan, Lling-Lling; Chai, Siang-Piao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman



Compliant Joints For Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compliant joints devised to accommodate misalignments of tools and/or workpieces with respect to robotic manipulators. Has characteristics and appearance of both universal-joint and cable-spring-type flexible shaft coupling. Compliance derived from elastic properties of short pieces of cable. Compliance of joint determined by lengths, distances between, relative orientations, thickness of strands, number of strands, material, amount of pretwist, and number of short pieces of cable. Worm-drive mechanism used to adjust lengths to vary compliance as needed during operation.

Kerley, James J., Jr.



Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

Francis, Sarah L.



Hemophilic joint disease - current perspective and potential future strategies.  


Recurrent hemarthroses can lead to hemophilic joint disease (HJD), which is one of the most disabling complications of these X-linked recessive disorders characterized by a deficiency of clotting factors VIII/IX. The pathogenesis of HJD is not well understood and there is evidence to suggest that iron may play a central role in the pathogenetic process causing changes at the molecular level and through the release of cytokines and perpetuation of a chronic inflammatory state. Also, there may be a role for angiogenesis in accelerating the joint damage begun by recurrent hemarthroses. Hemophilic joint disease can be diagnosed by MRI which provides information about the pathology of the synovium, articular cartilage and bone. However, it is expensive, and maybe cumbersome in young children who require sedation. Newer, cost-effective imaging tools such as ultrasonography need to be explored to facilitate diagnosis and monitoring of joint disease. Repeated bleeds into the joint could be prevented by reducing the number of bleeds by the prophylactic infusion of factor concentrates on a bi-weekly to alternate day schedule depending on the activity level and bleeding phenotype. However, the dose, schedule and timing of prophylaxis still remain unresolved despite some multi-center clinical studies proving its benefit in preserving joint function. Prohibitive costs and the need for venous access devices in delivering factor concentrates in younger children continue to complicate universal recommendations of prophylaxis. In those patients who fail or refuse prophylaxis, procedures such as isotopic synovectomy can provide relief from repeated joint bleeds, again the timing of which is not well-defined. Newer strategies to identify early joint disease through the use of serological markers are needed. Also, cost-effective imaging modalities are needed so that treatment strategies such as prophylaxis and isotopic synovectomy can be appropriately timed to reap maximum benefits. A combination of serological and imaging evidence of early joint disease might ultimately impact on the optimal management of hemophilic joint disease. PMID:18304874

Acharya, Suchitra S



UCI Ecological Preserve Published Papers  

E-print Network

UCI Ecological Preserve Published Papers Berschauer, D.P. 1992. Is the "Endangered Species Act" endangered? Southwestern University Law Review 21 (3): 991 ­ 1017. Bowler, P.A. 1990. Riparian Woodland: An Endangered Habitat in Southern California. Pp. 80-97 in Schoenherr, A. (Eds.). Endangered Plant Communities

Rose, Michael R.


Breast cancer and fertility preservation  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breast cancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breast cancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breast cancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment. PMID:21272867

Kim, S. Samuel; Klemp, Jennifer; Fabian, Carol




E-print Network

be obtained by finding the first positive zeros of a finite number of polynomial ... Euler method, the largest steplength threshold for invariance preserving can ... to derive valid thresholds of the steplength in terms of explicit form or ... general rational function type discretization methods, i.e., the coefficient .... The basic ideas.



The Preservation of Sound Recordings  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 130 years, our sounds have been recorded and those recordings have become vital to our collective history and memory. Much of this is not available commercially, and the only way for those recordings to be saved for future generations of researchers and scholars is for libraries and archives to make every effort to preserve them. History and

V. Elizabeth Hill



Art Education through Historic Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An art/historic preservation program involving elementary and junior high school students working with college students is described. Each year the students interpret and document a local architectural landmark. Students are involved in a number of activities, including research, oral history interviews, title searches, role playing, and…

Sensat, Lloyd; Cizek, Eugene D.



Digital Imagery, Preservation and Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two reports published by the Commission on Preservation and Access (CPA) include a comparison of digital and microfilm imagery, as well as discussions of chemical deacidification; ASCII (nonimage) files; and storage, conversion, and transmission considerations. A structured glossary of terms relating to media conversion and digital computer…

Lesk, Michael; Lynn, M. Stuart



Preservation of Library Materials: 1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the preservation literature of 1981, with specific sections devoted to general articles and literature guides, association activities, collection surveys, conferences and workshops, conservation techniques, deacidification, exhibits, grants, national and local programs, nonbook materials, and paper. A 135-item bibliography is included. (JL)

Byrnes, Margaret M.




EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this study is to evaluate chemical preservatives which can be added to the sample bottle before collection which will be effective in stabilizing the coliform density for not less than 48 hours using current methodology for detecting coliform organisms. T...


A Capital Assets Preservation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State officials have created an efficient capital planning system that is a prescribed set of procedures and actions within a program planning manual and two software modules. The program is a series of logical steps that school districts must take to successfully implement their preservation plans. (MLF)

Heiman, Ralph



Facets of impulsivity in the relationship between antisocial personality and abstinence.  


Most individuals who enter drug treatment programs are unable to maintain long-term abstinence. This problem is especially relevant for those presenting with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD). In examining potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between ASPD and abstinence, one factor that may be especially useful is the personality variable of impulsivity. Thus, the current study examined ASPD status in relation to longest abstinence attempt among 117 substance use treatment-seeking individuals, considering the mediating role of five facets of impulsivity: urgency, perseverance, premeditation, control, and delay discounting. Results indicated that individuals with ASPD evidenced shorter previous abstinence attempts and lower levels of perseverance and control than those without ASPD. Further, lower levels of control were associated with shorter abstinence attempts. Finally, control mediated the relationship between ASPD and longest quit attempt. These results suggest the potential value of multiple facets of impulsivity in efforts to understand relapse and subsequent treatment development efforts. PMID:22153489

Sargeant, Marsha N; Bornovalova, Marina A; Trotman, Adria J-M; Fishman, Shira; Lejuez, Carl W



The associations between two facets of narcissism and eating disorder symptoms.  


The current study sought to examine the relationships between two facets of narcissism (vulnerable and grandiose) and eating disorder symptoms. Based upon previous research (Davis, Claridge, & Cerullo, 1997), it was predicted that the vulnerable narcissism facet would be more strongly associated with eating disorder symptoms because of the tendency for vulnerable narcissists to base their self-worth on their appearance (Zeigler-Hill, Clark, & Picard, 2008). The hypotheses were tested cross-sectionally in a sample of 355 male and female undergraduate students. Results generally conformed to prediction, in that vulnerable narcissism tended to be positively correlated with eating disorder symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by self-worth that is contingent upon physical appearance. Our findings are consistent with the notion that vulnerable narcissism is a risk factor for eating disorder symptoms because it is associated with a drive to improve self-worth through the enhancement of physical appearance. PMID:20850065

Gordon, Kathryn H; Dombeck, Joseph J



It's in the mix: psychological distress differs between combinations of alexithymic facets  

PubMed Central

Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in identifying, describing, and communicating one's emotions. The aim of the present study is to examine the usefulness of a typological approach considering the interaction between distinct alexithymic features within a population of high-alexithymic German adults (N = 217). Latent profile analysis (LPA) was employed to test for possible underlying profiles. A 3-profile solution showed the best fit: The profiles can be described as (1) “low”: lower load on all facets of alexithymia, (2) “mixed”: specific problems on identifying emotions, and (3) “high”: higher load on all facets of alexithymia. Moreover, this study tested how these profiles differed in psychological distress. “Mixed” profile, with specific problems on identifying emotions showed the highest levels of psychological distress. The present study suggests the importance of a specific combination of alexithymic features, rather than total alexithymia scores, as a risk factor for psychological distress. PMID:25429275

Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Crayen, Claudia; Heuser, Isabella; Eid, Michael



Reconstructing cultural behavior from dental wear studies: Is para-facets analysis approach scientifically valid?  


It is common knowledge, that in archaic populations teeth were used as tools, this behavior can be studied by evaluating attrition patterns. Parafacets were defined as nonmasticatory wear areas that have no antagonist matching wear facets. The presence of the parafacets led to far-reaching conclusions regarding cultural interactions between Near Eastern Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans. This study was aimed to examine the identification of parafacets in some of the Qafzeh specimens. Based on findings of our research we suggest that the attrition facets mistakenly considered as parafacets are in fact the result of the static and dynamic occlusion. Therefore the observations induce much less dramatic interpretation. We here propose several guidelines that would be beneficial in that they aim to evaluate the parafacets with heightened accuracy. PMID:24767822

Sarig, Rachel; Tillier, Anne-marie



Dynamic digital traction for unstable comminuted intra-articular fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.  


Unstable intra-articular fracture-dislocations about the proximal interphalangeal joint present a formidable management dilemma. Fourteen patients with comminuted injuries of the proximal interphalangeal joint were treated with dynamic digital traction and followed for an average of 24 months. Dorsal fracture-dislocation and pilon-type injuries made up the majority of cases. Average proximal interphalangeal joint articular surface involvement was 80%. Immediate motion was instituted after traction application. The device was applied in the office with readily available materials. At final follow-up examination, active arc of motion averaged 89 degrees at the proximal interphalangeal joint and 95 degrees for patients sustaining isolated injuries. X-ray films revealed fracture union, joint remodeling, and preservation of joint space. Patient satisfaction was high, with return to previous levels of activity and excellent functional joint restoration. Dynamic digital traction is recommended for unstable proximal interphalangeal joint fractures with comminution, including those associated with subluxation or dislocation. PMID:7594279

Morgan, J P; Gordon, D A; Klug, M S; Perry, P E; Barre, P S



Culture - joint fluid  


Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If such microorganisms are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. For information on preparing for the removal of ...


Healthy Joints Matter  


... caused by a buildup of uric acid (YOOR-ic acid) crystals in the joints, most commonly in ... form of arthritis called psoriatic (sore-ee-AT-ic) arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis (ROO-muh-toid ar-THRY- ...


(113) Facets of Si-Ge/Si Islands; Atomic Scale Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied, by computer simulation, some static and vibrationnal proprieties of SiGe/Si islands. We have used a Valence Force Field combined to Monte Carlo technique to study the growth of Ge and SiGe on (001)Si substrates. We have focalised on the case of large pyramidal islands presenting (113) facets on the free (001)Si surface with various non uniform composition inside the islands. The deformation inside the islands and Raman spectroscopy are discussed.

Kassem, Hassan


Cognitive and emotional facets of test anxiety in African American school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to investigate whether test anxiety (TA) can be conceptualised as a bidimensional construct consisting of cognitive and emotional facets in 152 African American school children, ages 8 to 13 years, M=9.98 years (SD=1.13 years); 54% girls. A two-factor model was determined a priori by classifying items from the Test Anxiety Scale for Children

Rona Carter; Sandra Williams; Wendy K. Silverman



First results from core-edge parallel composition in the FACETS project.  

SciTech Connect

FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations), now in its second year, has achieved its first coupled core-edge transport simulations. In the process, a number of accompanying accomplishments were achieved. These include a new parallel core component, a new wall component, improvements in edge and source components, and the framework for coupling all of this together. These accomplishments were a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among computational physics, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians on the team.

Cary, J. R.; Candy, J.; Cohen, R. H.; Krasheninnikov, S.; McCune, D. C.; Estep, D. J.; Larson, J.; Malony, A. D.; Pankin, A.; Worley, P. H.; Carlsson, J. A.; Hakim, A. H.; Hamill, P.; Kruger, S.; Miah, M.; Muzsala, S.; Pletzer, A.; Shasharina, S.; Wade-Stein, D.; Wang, N.; Balay, S.; McInnes, L.; Zhang, H.; Casper, T.; Diachin, L. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Tech-X Corp.); (General Atomics); (LLNL); (Univ. of California at San Diego); (Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.); (Colorado State Univ.); (ParaTools Inc.); (Lehigh Univ.); (ORNL)



First results from core-edge parallel composition in the FACETS project  

SciTech Connect

FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations), now in its second year, has achieved its first coupled core-edge transport simulations. In the process, a number of accompanying accomplishments were achieved. These include a new parallel core component, a new wall component, improvements in edge and source components, and the framework for coupling all of this together. These accomplishments were a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among computational physics, computer scientists, and applied mathematicians on the team.

Cary, John R. [Tech-X Corporation; Candy, Jeff [General Atomics; Cohen, Ronald H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Krasheninnikov, Sergei [University of California, San Diego; McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Estep, Donald J [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Larson, Jay [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Malony, Allen [University of Oregon; Pankin, A. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Carlsson, Johann [Tech-X Corporation; Hakim, A H [Tech-X Corporation; Hamill, P [Tech-X Corporation; Kruger, Scott [Tech-X Corporation; Miah, Mahmood [Tech-X Corporation; Muzsala, S [Tech-X Corporation; Pletzer, Alexander [Tech-X Corporation; Shasharina, Svetlana [Tech-X Corporation; Wade-Stein, D [Tech-X Corporation; Wang, N [Tech-X Corporation; Balay, Satish [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); McInnes, Lois [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Zhang, Hong [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Casper, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Diachin, Lori [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Epperly, Thomas [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Fahey, Mark R [ORNL; Cobb, John W [ORNL; Morris, A [University of Oregon; Shende, Sameer [University of Oregon; Hammett, Greg [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Indireshkumar, K [Tech-X Corporation; Stotler, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Pigarov, A [University of California, San Diego



Adatom Ascending at Step Edges and Faceting on fcc Metal (110) Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Using first-principles total-energy calculations, we show that an adatom can easily climb up at monatomic-layer-high steps on several representative fcc metal (110) surfaces via a place exchange mechanism. Inclusion of such novel adatom ascending processes in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of Al(110) homoepitaxy as a prototypical model system can lead to the existence of an intriguing faceting instability, whose dynamical evolution and kinetic nature are explored in comparison with experimental observations.

Zhu, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; de Mongeot, F. B. [INFM-Unita di Genova and Dipartimento di Fisica, Italy; Valbusa, U. [INFM-Trinta di Genova and Dipartimento di Fisica, Italy; Wang, E. G. [International Center for Quantum Structures and Institute of Physics, China; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL



Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam  

SciTech Connect

Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC



Mass transport, faceting and behavior of dislocations in GaN  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of threading dislocations during mass transport of GaN was investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy. Mass transport occurred at the surface. Therefore, growing species are supplied from the in-plane direction. The behavior of threading dislocations was found to be strongly affected by the mass transport process as well as the high crystallographic anisotropy of the surface energy of the facets particular to GaN.

Nitta, S.; Kashima, T.; Kariya, M.; Yukawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.



Abnormal grain growth and grain boundary faceting in a model Ni-base superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal or abnormal grain growth in a model Ni-base superalloy is observed to depend on the grain boundary structure when heat-treated in a solid solution temperature range above the solvus temperature (1150°C) of the ?? phase. When heat-treated at 1200°C abnormal grain growth occurs and most of the grain boundaries are observed to be faceted by optical microscopy, transmission electron

S. B Lee; D. Y Yoon; M. F Henry



Space-time adaptive processing with a half-cylinder faceted conformal antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conformal antennas, which assumes the shape of the platform, have several advantages, like reduced weight and space; aerodynamic design and increased field of view.We are interested in detection of moving ground targets with air-borne radar with three antenna geometries: faceted or smooth vertical half-cylinder and plane forward-looking. We study important clutter properties for suppressing the clutter with STAP (Space-Time Adaptive

Svante Björklund



Theoretical analysis and fabrication of antireflection coatings on laser-diode facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflectivity of an antireflection-(AR) coated laser-diode (LD) facet is analyzed on the basis of a slab waveguide model and an angular spectrum approach. The reflectivities of single- and double-layer AR coatings on 1.55-?m GaInAsP\\/InP LD's are numerically calculated. Optimum film parameters, such as thickness and refractive index of single-layer AR coating films, are obtained as functions of the active layer

Tadashi Saitoh; Takaaki Mukai; Osamu Mikami



The dimensionality of self-esteem: II. Hierarchical facet model for revised measurement scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical facet model of self-esteem proposed by R. J. Shavelson et al was partially tested in a previous study by J. S. Fleming and W. A. Watts . Their 3 factors, which were labeled Self-Regard, Social Confidence, and School Abilities, corresponded to 3 of the 4 dimensions posited by Shavelson et al. Predictions of other individual-difference variables from these

James S. Fleming; Barbara E. Courtney



Fractional vertices, cuts and facets of the simple plant location problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the structure of the Integer Programming Polytope of an uncapacitated (simple) plant location problem.\\u000a One can describe families of fractional vertices and derive from them valid inequalities for the integer problem. Some of\\u000a these will actually be shown to be facets of the integer polytope. Also some families of SPLP with large duality gaps will\\u000a be described,

Monique Guignard


Facet-dependent disorder in pristine high-voltage lithium-manganese-rich cathode material.  


Defects and surface reconstructions are thought to be crucial for the long-term stability of high-voltage lithium-manganese-rich cathodes. Unfortunately, many of these defects arise only after electrochemical cycling which occurs under harsh conditions, making it difficult to fully comprehend the role they play in degrading material performance. Recently, it has been observed that defects are present even in the pristine material. This study, therefore, focuses on examining the nature of the disorder observed in pristine Li1.2Ni0.175Mn0.525Co0.1O2 (LNMCO) particles. Using atomic-resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, we show that there is indeed a significant amount of antisite defects present in this material, with transition metals substituting on Li metal sites. Furthermore, we find a strong segregation tendency of these types of defects toward open facets (surfaces perpendicular to the layered arrangement of atoms) rather than closed facets (surfaces parallel to the layered arrangement of atoms). First-principles calculations identify antisite defect pairs of Ni swapping with Li ions as the predominant defect in the material. Furthermore, energetically favorable swapping of Ni on the Mn sites was observed to lead to Mn depletion at open facets. Relatively, low Ni migration barriers also support the notion that Ni is the predominant cause of disorder. These insights suggest that certain facets of the LNMCO particles may be more useful for inhibiting surface reconstruction and improving the stability of these materials through careful consideration of the exposed surface. PMID:25415876

Dixit, Hemant; Zhou, Wu; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Nanda, Jagjit; Cooper, Valentino R



Optimization of bonded joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure for minimizing the elastic shear stress concentration in adhesive lap joints is presented. The proposed method is based upon tapering the adherends to achieve smooth stiffness transitions and uniform shear stresses. Both single and double lap splices are considered, but numerical examples are restricted to the case of double lap joints. Nonisotropic materials and nonoptimum design limitations, such as minimum and maximum thickness adherends, load-line eccentricity, and peel stresses are treated, and typical results are presented.

Ojalvo, I. U.



Joint Contact Stress  

PubMed Central

A joint's normal mechanical history contributes to the maintenance of articular cartilage and underlying bone. Loading facilitates the flow of nutrients into cartilage and waste products away, and additionally provides the mechanical signals essential for normal cell and tissue maintenance. Deleteriously low or high contact stresses have been presumed to result in joint deterioration, and particular aspects of the mechanical environment may facilitate repair of damaged cartilage. For decades, investigators have explored static joint contact stresses (under some more or less arbitrary condition) as a surrogate of the relevant mechanical history. Contact stresses have been estimated in vitro in many joints and in a number of species, although only rarely in vivo. Despite a number of widely varying techniques (and spatial resolutions) to measure these contact stresses, reported ranges of static peak normal stresses are relatively similar from joint to joint across species, and in the range of 0.5 to 5.0 MPa. This suggests vertebrate diarthrodial joints have evolved to achieve similar mechanical design criteria. Available evidence also suggests some disorders of cartilage deterioration are associated with somewhat higher peak pressures ranging from 1-20 MPa, but overlapping the range of normal pressures. Some evidence and considerable logic suggests static contact stresses per se do not predict cartilage responses, but rather temporal aspects of the contact stress history. Static contact stresses may therefore not be a reasonable surrogate for biomechanical studies. Rather, temporal and spatial aspects of the loading history undoubtedly induce beneficial and deleterious biological responses. Finally, since all articular cartilage experiences similar stresses, the concept of a "weight-bearing" versus a "non-weight-bearing" joint seems flawed, and should be abandoned. PMID:16089079

Brand, Richard A



Joint hypermobility syndrome pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) was initially defined as the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the presence of\\u000a joint laxity and hypermobility in otherwise healthy individuals. It is now perceived as a commonly overlooked, underdiagnosed,\\u000a multifaceted, and multisystemic heritable disorder of connective tissue (HDCT), which shares many of the phenotypic features\\u000a of other HDCTs such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Rodney Grahame



Facets of career satisfaction for women physicians in the United States: a systematic review.  


Women make up a growing proportion of the physician workforce, and their career satisfaction may affect their health. The authors hypothesized that many facets adversely affecting career satisfaction in women physicians were extrinsic, therefore, preventable or modifiable. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature in English published through February 2010 to examine facets of career satisfaction of U.S. women physicians. The authors used the women physician AND job satisfaction OR career satisfaction Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, and reviewed bibliographies of key articles to ensure inclusion of relevant studies. The authors used the "Strengthening the Reporting of Observation Studies in Epidemiology" quality tool. Of an initial 1,000 studies, only 30 met the inclusion criteria. Facets reported most frequently to influence career satisfaction for women physicians were income/prestige, practice characteristics, and personal/family characteristics. Overall, career satisfaction for women and men physicians was 73.4% (range = 56.4% to 90%) and 73.2% (range = 59% to 90%), respectively. When compared with men, women physicians were more concerned with perceived lack of time for relationships with patients, colleagues, and family; less satisfied with mentoring relationships and support from all sources; and less satisfied with career-advancement opportunities, recognition, and salary. Career satisfaction can affect health, as well as health and safety of patients. Many factors adversely affecting career satisfaction for women physicians are extrinsic and, therefore, modifiable. PMID:22591235

Rizvi, Rabab; Raymer, Lindsay; Kunik, Mark; Fisher, Joslyn



Coherent, focus-corrected imaging of optical fiber facets using a single-pixel detector.  


A novel imaging technique that produces accurate amplitude and phase images of an optical fiber facet using only a phase-only liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM) and a single-pixel detector is presented. The system can take images in two orthogonal polarizations and so provides a powerful tool for modal characterization of multimode fibers, which is of increasing importance due to their burgeoning use in telecommunications and medical applications. This technique first uses a simulated annealing algorithm to compute a hologram that collects light from a small region of the fiber facet. Next, the fiber facet is automatically brought into focus using adaptive aberration correction on the SLM. Finally, a common-path interferometer is created using the SLM, and the phase of the optical field at each pixel is determined. Finally, high-definition amplitude and phase images of a ring-core refractive index fiber are presented as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the technique. PMID:25361149

Gordon, George S D; Feng, Feng; Kang, Qiongyue; Jung, Yongmin; Sahu, Jayanta; Wilkinson, Timothy



(100) facets of ?-Al2O3: the active surfaces for alcohol dehydration reactions  

SciTech Connect

Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on ?-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic active sites for alcohol dehydration reactions. Two high temperature (> 473 K) desorption features were observed following ethanol adsorption. Samples calcined at T?473 K displayed a desorption feature in the 523-533 K temperature range, while those calcined at T ? 673 K showed a single desorption feature at 498 K. The switch from the high to low temperature ethanol desorption correlated well with the dehydroxylation of the (100) facets of ?-Al2O3 that was predicted at 550 K DFT calculations. Theoretical DFT simulations of the mechanism of dehydration. on clean and hydroxylated ?-Al2O3(100) surfaces, find that a concerted elimination of ethylene from an ethanol molecule chemisorbed at an Al3+ pentacoordinated site is the rate limiting step for catalytic cycle on both surfaces. Furthermore, titration of the pentacoordinate Al3+ sites on the (100) facets of ?-Al2O3 by BaO completely turned off the methanol dehydration reaction activity. These results unambiguously demonstrate that only the (100) facets on ?-Al2O3 are the catalytic active surfaces for alcohol dehydration.

Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos



Ga-polar GaN nanocolumn arrays with semipolar faceted tips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns (NCs) by molecular beam epitaxy on laser ablated pre-patterned GaN(0001) templates is shown to provide regular arrays of Ga-polar NCs. The Ga diffusion-assisted growth mechanism is analyzed and the experiments suggest that the effective growth conditions vary with the height of the NCs due to Ga diffusion on the mask and the NC sidewalls, ranging from N-rich up to stoichiometry. The obtained morphology with semipolar facets at the tip is discussed within the framework of equilibrium thermodynamics, which provides a consistent picture also for the growth of N-polar NCs with flat tips. The structural investigation reveals almost defect-free semipolar \\{1\\overline {1}02\\} GaN facets at the top of the NCs, which is known to be a promising way of producing templates for nanoscale semipolar GaN-based heterostructures. Almost no polarization discontinuity is expected for InxGa1-xN/GaN interfaces on such facets.

Urban, A.; Malindretos, J.; Klein-Wiele, J.-H.; Simon, P.; Rizzi, A.



Treating personality-relationship transactions with respect: narrow facets, advanced models, and extended time frames.  


Contrary to premises of dynamic transactionism, most studies investigating personality-relationship transaction only found personality effects on relationships but failed to find effects of relationship experiences on personality development. The current study reconsiders this issue in 3 ways. First, alongside the broad Big Five characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness), specific personality facets were considered to make comparisons with relationships more symmetric. Second, a recent extension of latent change modeling was applied allowing for a theoretically more appropriate model that compensates for the shortcomings of traditionally used cross-lagged panel or growth curve models. Third, personality-relationship transaction was studied from young adulthood to midlife using a 15-year longitudinal study with 654 German adults. Results showed patterns of personality-relationship transaction with the romantic partner, friends, kin, and other interaction partners. Specifically, the development of Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and their facets was closely interacting with partner and friend relationships, underlining the importance of these relationships for personality maturation during the adult years. We conclude that relationship effects have often been underestimated in previous studies. They are not bound to specific developmental periods, such as emerging adulthood, but their detection depends on the modeling approach and the analysis level (broad dimensions vs. facets). Relationship effects are most likely to occur in relationships that reflect self-selected life styles and circumstances. PMID:25090133

Mund, Marcus; Neyer, Franz J



High pressure ceramic joint  


Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.



Preserving Digital Media: Towards a Preservation Solution Evaluation Metric  

Microsoft Academic Search

http:\\/\\/\\/ifs\\/ Abstract. With an increasing amount of information being digitized or directly created and subsequently existing only electronically, and coupled with an ever increasing variety of file formats and integrated document functionalities, long- term preservation solutions become crucial. While different approaches, such as Emulation, Migration, or Computer Museums were developed, neither of them excels in all circumstances, and the selection

Carl Rauch; Andreas Rauber



Kinetically controlled synthesis of Pt-Cu alloy concave nanocubes with high-index facets for methanol electro-oxidation.  


Pt-Cu alloy concave nanocubes enclosed by high-index {511} facets were synthesized in high yields and exhibited substantially enhanced electrocatalytic properties for methanol oxidation relative to commercial Pt/C. PMID:24271020

Qi, Yue; Bian, Ting; Choi, Sang-Il; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Fu, Maoshen; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren



Hidden surface states at non-polar GaN 1010 facets: Intrinsic pinning of L. Lymperakis,1  

E-print Network

Hidden surface states at non-polar GaN ð1010Þ facets: Intrinsic pinning of nanowires L. Lymperakis on modified pseudopotentials find the upper (empty) surface state in the whole Brillouin zone (BZ) within

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.


Catastrophic optical degradation of the output facet of high-power single-transverse-mode diode lasers. 1. Physical model  

SciTech Connect

The physical model of catastrophic optical degradation (COD) of the output facet of high-power single- transverse-mode diode lasers is developed. The model excels other models both in completeness of the physical analysis of the processes leading to COD and in allowance for design feature of lasers used to increase the COD threshold - protective coating of the output facet and current limitations near it. (lasers)

Miftakhutdinov, D R; Bogatov, Alexandr P; Drakin, A E [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)



Phase control of GaN on Si by nanoscale faceting in metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase stability of GaN on (111)–(001) nanoscale faceted Si is investigated. Nanoscale faceting (nanofaceting) is accomplished on a Si(001) substrate with interferometric lithography and anisotropic wet etching. By relying on the nucleation and associated lateral growth depending on orientation and crystal structure, spatial separation of a cubic-phase region from hexagonal-phase GaN regions which initiate on the facing Si(111) sidewalls of

S. C. Lee; X. Y. Sun; S. D. Hersee; S. R. J. Brueck



Metal Grating Patterning on Fiber Facets by UV-Based Nano Imprint and Transfer Lithography Using Optical Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV-based nano imprint and transfer lithography (NITL) is proposed as a flexible, low cost and versatile approach for defining sub-micron metal patterns on optical fiber facets in a single-processing step. NITL relies on a specially prepared mold carrying the pattern that is to be transferred to the facet. The fiber's light-guiding properties allow control of the position of the metal

Stijn Scheerlinck; Peter Dubruel; Peter Bienstman; Etienne Schacht; Dries Van Thourhout; Roel Baets



Final Report for Project "Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for the Colorado State University Component of the FACETS Project. FACETS was focused on the development of a multiphysics, parallel framework application that could provide the capability to enable whole-device fusion reactor modeling and, in the process, the development of the modeling infrastructure and computational understanding needed for ITER. It was intended that FACETS be highly flexible, through the use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, to facilitate switching from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics, and making it possible to use simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that will take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS was designed in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the application can take advantage through parallelism based on task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and applicable. As with all fusion simulations, an integral part of the FACETS project was treatment of the coupling of different physical processes at different scales interacting closely. A primary example for the FACETS project is the coupling of existing core and edge simulations, with the transport and wall interactions described by reduced models. However, core and edge simulations themselves involve significant coupling of different processes with large scale differences. Numerical treatment of coupling is impacted by a number of factors including, scale differences, form of information transferred between processes, implementation of solvers for different codes, and high performance computing concerns. Operator decomposition involving the computation of the individual processes individually using appropriate simulation codes and then linking/synchronizing the component simulations at regular points in space and time, is the defacto approach to high performance simulation of multiphysics, multiscale systems. Various forms of operator decomposition are used in nearly all fusion simulations. However, operator decomposition generally has a complex effect on accuracy and stability of numerical simulations. Yet, these effects can be difficult to detect. The Colorado State University component of the FACETS team led by P. I. D. Estep was focused on analyzing the effects of operator decomposition on fusion simulations. The approach was based on a posteriori error analysis employing adjoint problems, computable residuals, and variational analysis to produce accurate computational error estimates for quantities of interest. Computable residuals are used to quantify the effects of various discretization choices. The generalized Greens function satisfying the adjoint problem quantities the effects of stability. Technical issues to be addressed included: (1) defining appropriate adjoint operators for operator decomposition discretizations; (2) determining the appropriate residuals for the multifaceted aspects involved with multiphysics discretizations; (3) producing the estimates within the computational framework of existing fusion codes; (4) carrying out the analysis for discretizations used in fusion simulations; and (5) devising efficient approaches to mitigating the effects of discretization. This report provides a summary of the accomplished research and a detailed description of personnel, activities, outcomes and achievements.

Estep, Donald [Colorado State University] [Colorado State University



Morphotectonic evolution of triangular facets and wine-glass valleys in the Noakoh anticline, Zagros, Iran: Implications for active tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Noakoh anticline is located in Kermanshah province and is part of the Simply Folded Belt of Zagros. Boundaries of 97 triangular facets and 67 wine-glass (W-G) valleys, which formed on anticline limbs, were delineated using Quickbird satellite imagery. The strata dip (D), area (A), base length (BL), topographic slope (S) of facets, the maximum width (M), outlet width (O) and ratio of maximum width to outlet width (W index) of W-G valleys were analysed in detail. Noakoh anticline was subdivided into 9 tectonic zones on the basis of dip, topographic slopes and width of limbs. Results show that there are strong positive correlations between means of D-BL and S-BL pairs. Poor positive correlations exist between means of D-A and S-A pairs. Among W-G valley metrics, the W index has strong relations with D and S parameters. Based on the results, steep facets with long bases and well developed W-G valleys with narrow outlets and wide upper parts are associated with more rotated limbs having steep slopes. Facets on the northeastern slope have more forest cover, micro-organism activity, karstic features and soil cover, whereas facets on relatively drier southwestern slope are characterized by physical weathering processes and minor karstic landforms. This study demonstrates that, apart from tectonic activity as a major control on the morphometry of facets and valleys, climate and slope aspect have also acted as secondary factors on the development of the studied landforms.

Bahrami, Shahram



Preservation and sterilization methods of the meniscal allografts: literature review.  


Nowadays, there are four types of meniscal allografts known: fresh, cryopreserved, deep-frozen and lyophilized ones but only two of them are widely used in clinical practice. Use of different types of meniscal allografts still remains controversial due to preparation method, their biomechanical properties as well as cost which is connected with processing and storage. The main aim of this review is to present the current status of knowledge concerning meniscal allograft preservation and sterilization, especially the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Authors wanted to show a broad spectrum of methods used and conceptions presented by other authors. The second aim is to gather available information about meniscal preservation and sterilization methods in one paper. Deep-frozen and cryopreserved meniscal allografts are the most frequently used ones in the clinical practice. The use of fresh grafts stays controversial but also has many followers. Lyophilized grafts in turn are not applied at present due to some serious drawbacks including reduction of tensile strength, poor rehydration, graft shrinkage and post-transplantation joint effusion as well as increased risk of meniscal size reduction. An application of sterilizing agents make the meniscal allograft free from the bacteria and viruses, but also it may cause serious structure changes. Therefore, choosing just one ideal method of meniscal allograft preservation and sterilization is complicated and should be based on broad knowledge and experience of surgeon performing the transplantation. PMID:23999650

Mickiewicz, Patrycja; Binkowski, Marcin; Bursig, Henryk; Wróbel, Zygmunt



Preserving Access to Digital Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing concern over how best to preserve information in digital form continues to be of special interest to a number of federal library systems around the world, and the National Library of Australia is no exception. On its Preserving Access to Digital Information homepage, interested parties will find a very diverse set of materials related to these challenges, and a fairly broad set of topics are also covered here, including digital libraries, data documentation, digitization, and content management. Clicking on any of these topics from the homepage reveals a brief topical essay, which is followed by a number of timely articles culled from various sources for general consideration. The site also offers a number of annotated resource lists which include coverage of glossaries, digital projects, and electronic mailing lists of note.


Bioencapsulation Technology in Meat Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation process has long been used as a method of meat preservation. In order to eliminate batch to batch variation\\u000a the fermentation process must be standardised. This, combined with problems associated with emerging pathogens such as enterohaemorrhagic\\u000a Escherichia coli has led to a re-examination of the process of fermented meat production in order to ensure the production of a

S. M. Cahill; M. E. Upton; A. J. Mcloughlin


Technical Information/Website Preservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

PintoRey, Christian R.



Security Preserving Amplification of Hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the task of transforming a weak one-way function (which may be easily inverted on all but a polynomial fraction of the range) into a strong one-way function (which can be easily inverted only on a negligible fraction of the range). The previous known transformation (Yao 82) does not preserve the security (i.e., the running-time of the inverting algorithm)

Oded Goldreich; Russell Impagliazzo; Leonid A. Levin; Ramarathnam Venkatesan; David Zuckerman



Quantum channels that preserve entanglement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let M and N be full matrix algebras. A unital completely positive (UCP) map $${\\\\phi:M\\\\to N}$$ is said to preserve entanglement if its inflation $${\\\\phi\\\\otimes {\\\\rm id}_N : M\\\\otimes N\\\\to N\\\\otimes N}$$ has the following property: for every maximally entangled pure state ? of $${N\\\\otimes N}$$, $${\\\\rho\\\\circ(\\\\phi\\\\otimes {\\\\rm id}_N)}$$ is an entangled state of $${M\\\\otimes N}$$ . We show that

William Arveson



Update on Dark Sky Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efforts to protect dark skies for astronomy and for the public are accelerating. An increasing number of cities and states are considering and enacting outdoor lighting control ordinances. Examples of such lighting codes and a model code are available from the International Dark-Sky Association's Web page, at There will be a major meeting on Preserving the Astronomical Environment,

D. L. Crawford



Privacy preserving mining of association rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for mining association rules from transactions consisting of categorical items where the data has been randomized to preserve privacy of individual transactions. While it is feasible to recover association rules and preserve privacy using a straightforward \\

Alexandre V. Evfimievski; Ramakrishnan Srikant; Rakesh Agrawal; Johannes Gehrke




EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...


76 FR 60754 - Preserving the Open Internet  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FCC 10-201] Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...establishing rules to preserve the open Internet. Inadvertently the wrong paragraph was...complaints alleging violations of the open Internet rules. Federal Communications...



Phase-preserved optical elevator  

PubMed Central

The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei



Dissimilar metals joint evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dissimilar metals tubular joints between 2219-T851 aluminum alloy and 304L stainless steel were fabricated and tested to evaluate bonding processes. Joints were fabricated by four processes: (1) inertia (friction) weldings, where the metals are spun and forced together to create the weld; (2) explosive welding, where the metals are impacted together at high velocity; (3) co-extrusion, where the metals are extruded in contact at high temperature to promote diffusion; and (4) swaging, where residual stresses in the metals after a stretching operation maintain forced contact in mutual shear areas. Fifteen joints of each type were prepared and evaluated in a 6.35 cm (2.50 in.) O.D. size, with 0.32 cm (0.13 in.) wall thickness, and 7.6 cm (3.0 in) total length. The joints were tested to evaluate their ability to withstand pressure cycle, thermal cycle, galvanic corrosion and burst tests. Leakage tests and other non-destructive test techniques were used to evaluate the behavior of the joints, and the microstructure of the bond areas was analyzed.

Wakefield, M. E.; Apodaca, L. E.



Acromioclavicular Joint Injuries  

PubMed Central

Objective: To discuss the anatomy and biomechanics of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint, along with the clinical evaluation and treatment of an athlete with an AC joint injury. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE from 1970 through 1999 under the key words “acromioclavicular joint,” “clavicle,” “acromioclavicular separation,” and “acromioclavicular dislocation.” Knowledge base was an additional source. Data Synthesis: AC joint injury is common in athletes and a source of significant morbidity, particularly for athletes in overhead sports. Because this injury can masquerade as other shoulder conditions, the examiner must understand the anatomy and biomechanics of the shoulder in order to perform a systematic clinical evaluation and identify the injury. Conclusions/Recommendations: Careful attention to the clinical evaluation allows the clinician to categorize the athlete's AC joint injury and institute appropriate treatment in a timely fashion, thus permitting the athlete to return to sport as quickly and safely as possible. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:16558638

Beim, Gloria M.



Distal radioulnar joint injuries  

PubMed Central

Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140

Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran



Reliability models for finger joint strength and stiffness properties in Douglas-fir visual laminating grades  

E-print Network

Laminating Grades. (May 1988) Allan Gerard Bur k, B. S. , Kansas State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Donald A. Bender Finger joint tensile strength and stiffness wer e modeled for three visual laminating grades of Douglas-fir lumber. Accur.... This approach preserved the statistical distributions of finger joint stiffness and tensile strength, as well as the correlation between the two. A model was also developed to simulate the length of boards in glued laminated beams, thus simulating finger...

Burk, Allan Gerard



Preservation of Library Materials. SPEC Kit 35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Association of Research Libraries (ARL) kit on preservation of library materials contains: (1) descriptions of preservation programs and objectives from Boston University, the University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin, and University of California at Los Angeles; (2) a description of the Library of Congress' National Preservation

Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.


7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer...the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced...



7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer...the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced...



7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer...the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced...



7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer...the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced...



7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782...End-Use Certificate Program § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer...the imported wheat shall preserve the identity of the Canadian-produced...



Privacy-preserving logistic regression Kamalika Chaudhuri  

E-print Network

Privacy-preserving logistic regression Kamalika Chaudhuri Information Theory and Applications on privacy-preserving logistic regression. First we apply an idea of Dwork et al. [6] to design a privacy-preserving logistic regression algorithm. This involves bound- ing the sensitivity of regularized logistic regression

Smith, Adam D.


Preservation Assessment and Disaster Response Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the preservation needs unique to small libraries, where the majority of special collections exist. A preservation survey of the Herrick Memorial Library (Wellington, OH) was conducted to ascertain the condition of its 45,000 holdings and develop a practical low-cost disaster plan. Using accepted preservation survey criteria,…

Wisdom, Mark


Preservation in New York State Public Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues facing New York State public libraries regarding preservation of materials are discussed. Much research has been conducted regarding preservation in research and academic libraries, but very little in the public library sector. The researchers examined what has been written in terms of the history, preservation methods, control of the library environment, education, organization, and government involvement. In order

Jean Pinckney; Marie McQuade; Dorothy Forde; Janine Williams; Lisa Kooper



Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 200405  

E-print Network

Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Annual Report 2004­05 #12;The mission of Jasper Ridge Biological, and protection of the preserve's resources. #12;1 T HIS IS THE BEGINNING of a new era for me and for Jasper Ridge. 2006 is the start of my fourth decade of association with the preserve. For 30 years, Jasper Ridge has


Local control of area-preserving maps  

E-print Network

We present a method of control of chaos in area-preserving maps. This method gives an explicit expression of a control term which is added to a given area-preserving map. The resulting controlled map which is a small and suitable modification of the original map, is again area-preserving and has an invariant curve whose equation is explicitly known.

Cristel Chandre; Michel Vittot; Guido Ciraolo



Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary record in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1996



The Preservation of Paper Collections in Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preservation methods used for paper collections in archives were studied through a survey of archives in the metropolitan Atlanta (Georgia) area. The preservation policy or program was studied, and the implications for conservators and preservation officers were noted. Twelve of 15 archives responded (response rate of 80 percent). Basic…

Adams, Cynthia Ann


Robotic Bladder Joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable, lightweight robotic joint suitable for variety of applications, actuated hydraulically, without need for heavy mechanical cylinders or gears on joint itself. Includes two members; first member rotates about pin at end of second member. Includes cam, over which tension line stretched. Ends of tension line anchored at end of second member opposite end that holds pin. Bladder placed on each side of second member, squeezed between second member and tension line. Pressures and/or amounts of fluid in bladders controlled by use of conventional equipment like pumps, valves, and reservoirs. Bladder on one side inflated more than on other side; greater inflation on one side causes greater stretching of tension line on that side. Greater tension pulls on cam, turning first member toward that side. Angle of joint controlled by controlling differential inflation of two bladders.

Robertson, Glen A.



Quick acting gimbal joint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an adjustable linkage assembly for selectively retaining the position of one member pivotable with respect to another member. More specifically, the invention relates to a linkage assembly commonly referred to as a gimbal joint, and particularly to a quick release or quick acting gimbal joint. The assembly is relatively simple in construction, compact in size, and has superior locking strength in any selected position. The device can be quickly and easily actuated, without separate tooling, by inexperienced personnel or by computer controlled equipment. It also is designed to prevent inadvertent actuation.

Wood, William B. (inventor); Krch, Gary D. (inventor)



Joint for deployable structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (inventors)



New Joint Sealants. Criteria, Design and Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contents include--(1) sealing concrete joints, (2) sealing glass and metal joints, (3) metal and glass joint sealants from a fabricator's viewpoint, (4) a theory of adhesion for joint sealants, (5) geometry of simple joint seals under strain, (6) joint sealant specifications from a manufacturer's viewpoint, (7) joint sealant requirements from an…

Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.


True Upward Adatom Diffusion and Faceting in fcc metal (110) homoepitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies of Ge heteroepitaxial growth on Si(100) have led to the discovery of an intriguing bimodal growth mode, characterised by the coexistence of smaller hut islands and much larger domes. Efforts aimed to understand the microscopic mechanisms involved have so far been focused predominantly on the role of the thermodynamic driving force associated with stress. Here we report on the observation of bimodal growth in an entirely unexpected system, homoepitaxial growth of Al on Al(110), characterised by the coexistence of smaller mound islands and tenfold taller nanocrystals with well-defined facets (the huts). Whereas the formation of the mounds results from kinetic roughening due to slow downward adatom diffusion at step edges, the formation of the huts demands atom extraction from the mounds and true upward diffusion of such atoms through the (110) terraces onto the facets serving as kinetic traps. A critical role in the faceting instability, is found to be played by the surprisingly low activation barriers for adatom ascent at step edges and island corners