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Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections  


... arthritis) in the facet joints may contribute to low back pain and may be visualized on diagnostic imaging. However, ... sometimes called “block”) may be performed. If the low back pain pain is reduced or relieved after an anesthetic ...


Cervical facet joint kinematics during bilateral facet dislocation  

PubMed Central

Previous biomechanical models of cervical bilateral facet dislocation (BFD) are limited to quasi-static loading or manual ligament transection. The goal of the present study was to determine the facet joint kinematics during high-speed BFD. Dislocation was simulated using ten cervical functional spinal units with muscle force replication by frontal impact of the lower vertebra, tilted posteriorly by 42.5°. Average peak rotations and anterior sliding (displacement of upper articulating facet surface along the lower), separation and compression (displacement of upper facet away from and towards the lower), and lateral shear were determined at the anterior and posterior edges of the right and left facets and statistically compared (P < 0.05). First, peak facet separation occurred, and was significantly greater at the left posterior facet edge, as compared to the anterior edges. Next, peak flexion rotation and anterior facet sliding occurred, followed by peak facet compression. The highest average facet translation peaks were 22.0 mm for anterior sliding, 7.9 mm for separation, 9.9 mm for compression and 3.6 mm for lateral shear. The highest average rotation of 63° occurred in flexion, significantly greater than all other directions. These events occurred, on average, within 0.29 s following impact. During BFD, the main sagittal motions included facet separation, flexion rotation, anterior sliding, followed by compression, however, non-sagittal motions also existed. These motions indicated that unilateral dislocation may precede bilateral dislocation.

Panjabi, Manohar M.; Simpson, Andrew K.; Pearson, Adam M.; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Yue, James J.



Cervical facet joint kinematics during bilateral facet dislocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous biomechanical models of cervical bilateral facet dislocation (BFD) are limited to quasi-static loading or manual\\u000a ligament transection. The goal of the present study was to determine the facet joint kinematics during high-speed BFD. Dislocation\\u000a was simulated using ten cervical functional spinal units with muscle force replication by frontal impact of the lower vertebra,\\u000a tilted posteriorly by 42.5°. Average peak

Manohar M. Panjabi; Andrew K. Simpson; Paul C. Ivancic; Adam M. Pearson; Yasuhiro Tominaga; James J. Yue



Image-guided facet joint injection  

PubMed Central

Chronic spine pain poses a peculiar diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to multiple pain sources, overlapping clinical features and nonspecific radiological findings. Facet joint injection is an interventional pain management tool for facet-related spinal pain that can be effectively administered by a radiologist. This technique is the gold standard for identifying facet joints as the source of spinal pain. The major indications for facet injections include strong clinical suspicion of the facet syndrome, focal tenderness over the facet joints, low back pain with normal radiological findings, post-laminectomy syndrome with no evidence of arachnoiditis or recurrent disc disease, and persistent low back pain after spinal fusion. The contraindications are more ancillary, with none being absolute. Like any synovial joint degeneration, inflammation and injury can lead to pain on motion, initiating a vicious cycle of physical deconditioning, irritation of facet innervations and muscle spasm. Image-guided injection of local anesthetic and steroid into or around the facet joint aims to break this vicious cycle and thereby provide pain relief. This outpatient procedure has high diagnostic accuracy, safety and reproducibility but the therapeutic outcome is variable.

Peh, WCG



[Lumbosacral facet syndrome: functional and organic disorders of lumbosacral facet joints].  


Disorders of lumbosacral (LS) facet joints are manifested by low back pain with or without referred leg pain and decreased mobility of the LS spine (LS facet syndrome). The most frequent causes of LS facet syndrome are functional disorders (functional blockade or dysfunction of facet joint=reversible restriction of facet joint movements caused by meniscoid entrapment) and degenerative changes of facet joints while the others are less frequent (spondyloarthropathies, infection, tuberculosis, synovial cyst, injury). Although it has been proven that the facet joints are one of the most frequent sources of chronic low back pain (15-45%), the fact is that the facet syndrome has been frequently overlooked in patients with chronic low back pain. Following are the main reasons for explaining why the facet syndrome has been overlooked in patients with chronic low back pain: 1. Facet joints disorders are manifested by non-specific clinical picture, 2.Diagnosis of facet syndrome cannot be established by either the conventional clinical examination or radiological examinations, 3. A very small number of doctors are practicing manual functional examination which can establish the diagnosis of facet joint dysfunction and 4. Diagnostic anesthetic block which can confirm the facet syndrome diagnosis is not a widely accessible method. There is a lack of research in frequency of facet syndrome in patients with acute low back pain. Chronic mechanical low back pain caused by dysfunction of several structurally unchanged facet joints can have the same features as the inflammatory pain which can result in misdiagnosis of spondyloarthropathy. Acute LS facet syndrome caused by dysfunction of facet joints responds very well to manual therapy. The most important therapeutic options in patients with chronic LS facet syndrome caused by degenerative changes and/or dysfunction of facet joints are manual therapy, kinesiotherapy (flexion exercises), therapeutic blocks and radiofrequency denervation. The article describes etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and therapy of LS facet syndrome with emphasis on functional disorders of facet joints that can cause particular diagnostic and therapeutic problems. PMID:22165083

Grgi?, Vjekoslav


Hypertrophic Synovitis of the Facet Joint Causing Root Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritic changes in the facet joints are common in the presence of degenerative disc disease. Changes in the joint capsule accompany changes in the articular surfaces. Intraspinal synovial cysts that cause radicular pain, cauda equina syndrome, and myelopathy have been reported; however, there have been few reports in orthopedic or neurosurgical literature regarding hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint presenting

Koichi Iwatsuki; Toshiki Yoshimine; Masanori Aoki; Kazuhiro Yoshimura



Biomechanical characterisation of ovine spinal facet joint cartilage.  


The spinal facet joints are known to be an important component in the kinematics and the load transmission of the spine. The articular cartilage in the facet joint is prone to degenerative changes which lead to back pain and treatments for the condition have had limited long term success. There is currently a lack of information on the basic biomechanical properties of the facet joint cartilage which is needed to develop tissue substitution or regenerative interventions. In the present study, the thickness and biphasic properties of ovine facet cartilage were determined using a combination of indentation tests and computational modelling. The equilibrium biphasic Young's modulus and permeability were derived to be 0.76±0.35 MPa and 1.61±1.10×10?¹? m?/(Ns) respectively, which were within the range of cartilage properties characterised from the human synovial joints. The average thickness of the ovine facet cartilage was 0.52±0.10 mm, which was measured using a needle indentation test. These properties could potentially be used for the development of substitution or tissue engineering interventions and for computational modelling of the facet joint. Furthermore, the developed method to characterise the facet cartilage could be used for other animals or human donors. PMID:22483055

Abd Latif, Mohd Juzaila; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth K



Innervation of cervical ventral facet joint capsule: Histological evidence  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the presence of nerves in ventral facet joint capsules as facet capsules are generally implicated in neck pain. METHODS: Twenty-four ventral cervical facet joint capsules were harvested from 3 unembalmed cadavers. Paraffin sections from these capsules were processed to identify neurofilament and substance P immunoreactive fibers. Nerve fiber presence was also verified by a silver impregnation method. RESULTS: Neurofilament reactive fibers were observed in sections from 9 capsules. They were observed in areas with collagen fibers and areas with irregular connective tissue. Substance P reactive nerve fibers were found in sections from 7 capsules in similar areas. Silver impregnation also revealed the presence of nerve fibers. The nerve fibers were also found as bundles in the lateral margins of the capsule. A Pacinian corpuscle-like ending was also observed in one specimen. CONCLUSION: Nerve fibers revealed by neurofilament immunoreactivity and silver staining support innervation of the ventral aspect of the facet joint capsule. The presence of substance P reactive fibers supports the potential role of these elements in mediating pain. The presence of a Pacinian-like ending implicates a potential role in joint movement.

Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Li, Yan; Chen, Chaoyang; Cavanaugh, John M



Arthritis of the subtalar joint associated with sustentaculum tali facet configuration.  

PubMed Central

The articular facets of the sustentaculum tali have a variety of configurations that are generally viewed as nonmetric traits of little functional significance. Bruckner (1987), in contrast, has hypothesised that sustentaculum tali facet variations are functionally important because they influence subtalar joint stability. To test this hypothesis, 191 calcanei were analysed for correlations between sustentaculum tali facet morphology and osteoarthritis of the subtalar joint. Calcanei with 2 separate sustentaculum tali facets had a lower frequency of arthritic changes associated with joint instability than calcanei with other facet configurations. This finding supports Bruckner's hypothesis that subtalar joint facet configuration is a factor in foot mobility.

Drayer-Verhagen, F



Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar facet joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical Principle\\u000a \\u000a Posterior fusion of one or two levels of the lumbar spine with arthrodesis of the facet joints using screws. The technique\\u000a has been developed by one of us (Magerl [10–13]). It constitutes an improvement of a technique of transarticular screw fixation\\u000a first described by King in 1944 [7, 8] and modified by Boucher [3] (Figures 1a to 1c).

Bernard Jeanneret; Frank Kleinstiick; Friedrich Magerl



Facet joint laser radiation: tissue effects of a new clinical laser application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronic unilateral and bilateral back pain with pseudoradicular symptoms, is a common clinical syndrome, which in many cases can be related to the facet joint syndrome. The pain is caused by mechanical affection of synovial and capsular nerve terminals. Therefore, current therapeutical attempts including physical therapy, intra-articular injection of local anesthetics and steroids and thermocoagulation of the facet joint with a thermocoagulator, are performed. We confirmed laser coagulation of the facet joint. Porcine cadaveric spines were treated immediately after death by intra-articular facet joint laser radiation. With the pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) altogether 600 J were applied in three different places 4 mm apart at the top of the facet joint. The results showed that facet joint laser radiation leads to a small (about 1 - 2 mm diameter) lesion restricted to the facet joint cavity and its synovia. Histologically, we found a central carbonization zone and necrosis, including almost the whole cartilage and approximately 0.2 mm of the adjacent bone. These changes are similar to Nd:Yag-laser applications in other skeletal regions. It is suggested that these changes may lead to facet joint denervation by coagulation of the synovial nerve terminals. Cicatration of the laser lesion might cause ankylosis of this joint. In sum, facet joint laser radiation could be an alternative therapeutical tool for lower back pain of the facet joint syndrome type. Therefore, future clinical application of this technique seems to be very promising.

Werkmann, Klaus; Thal, Dietmar R.



[Joint-preserving surgical options in osteoarthritis].  


Joint-preserving surgery aims to correct the mechanical disbalances leading to the inhomogenous load distribution across joint lines, potentially leading to osteoarthritis. The possibilities of axial corrections at the knee have been known for years. A better pathophysiologic understanding of the disbalances leading to coxarthrosis has, more recently, allowed for the development of joint-preserving approaches, for instance in situations of excessive (impingement) or insufficient (dysplastic) femoro-acetabular coverage. On the opposite, in the absence of a mechanical defect, or if osteoarthritis is already present, joint-preserving surgery has little chances of success. PMID:22455151

Peter, R; Christofilopoulos, P



Vascular Disease is Associated with Facet Joint Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Epidemologic studies have demonstrated associations between vascular disease and spinal degeneration. We sought to examine whether vascular disease was associated with lumbar spine facet joint osteoarthritis (OA) in a community-based population. Design 441 participants from the Framingham Heart Study multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) Study were included in this ancillary study. We used a quantitative summary measure of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) from the parent study as a marker for vascular disease. AAC was categorized into tertiles of ‘no’ (reference), ‘low’, and ‘high’ calcification. Facet joint (FJ) OA was evaluated on CT scans using a 4-grade scale. For analytic purposes, FJ OA was dichotomized as moderate FJ OA of at least one joint from L2-S1 vs. no moderate FJ OA. We examined the association of AAC and FJ OA using logistic regression before and after adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Furthermore, we examined the independent effect of AAC on FJ OA after including the known cardiovascular risk factors diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking. Results Low AAC (OR 3.84 [2.33-6.34]; p=<0.0001) and high AAC (9.84 [5.29-18.3]; =<0.0001) were strongly associated with FJ OA, compared with the reference group. After adjusting for age, sex, and BMI, the association with FJ OA was attenuated for both low AAC (1.81 [1.01-3.27]; p=0.05) and high AAC (2.63 [0.99-5.23]; p=0.05). BMI and age were independently and significantly associated with FJ OA. The addition of cardiovascular risk factors to the model did not substantially change parameter estimates for either AAC tertile. Conclusions Abdominal aortic calcifications were associated with FJ OA in this community-based population, when adjusting for epidemiologic factors associated with spinal degeneration, and cardiovascular risk factors. Potentially modifiable risk factors for facet degeneration unrelated to conventional biomechanical paradigms may exist. This study is limited by cross-sectional design; longitudinal studies are needed.

Suri, Pradeep; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Rainville, James; Kalichman, Leonid; Guermazi, Ali; Hunter, David J



Posterolateral lumbar fusion using facet joint fixation with biodegradable rods: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) was used to assess whether there is a potential for biodegradable rods crossing the denuded facet joints to increase the stability and healing rate of lumbar posterolateral fusions. Eleven consecutive patients with lumbosacral disc\\/facet joint degeneration had a posterolateral fusion augmented with 2- or 3.2-mm biodegradable rods passing perpendicularly through the center of the denuded facet

R. Johnsson; P. Axelsson; B. Strömgvist



Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. METHODS: Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The

Laxmaiah Manchikanti; Mark V Boswell; Vijay Singh; Vidyasagar Pampati; Kim S Damron; Carla D Beyer



A prospective morphological study of facet joint integrity following intervertebral disc replacement with the CHARITÉ ™ Artificial Disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

In degenerative disc disease (DDD), increased loading in the posterior column increases facet joint subchondral bone density and may lead to facet joint degeneration. While spinal fusion is commonly used to treat patients with symptomatic DDD, increased stress at the levels adjacent to fusion may accelerate facet joint and adjacent segment degeneration. Artificial disc replacements have been developed as an

Hans Trouillier; P. Kern; H. J. Refior; M. Müller-Gerbl



Cranial facet joint violations by percutaneously placed pedicle screws adjacent to a minimally invasive lumbar spinal fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextProtecting cranial facet joint is a modifiable risk factor that may decrease the incidence of adjacent segment disease after lumbar spinal fusion. Percutaneously instrumented screws may more frequently violate cranial facet joints because of the potential limitation of screw entry site selection. To our knowledge, however, there is no study that has evaluated the cranial facet joint violations adjacent

Yung Park; Joong Won Ha; Yun Tae Lee; Na Young Sung



Paraspinal abscess complicated by endocarditis following a facet joint injection.  


Infectious complications secondary to lumbar facet injections are exceedingly rare, follow an indolent course, and local sequelae include abscess spread or infections of the central nervous system. We present the case of the development of a facet abscess and infective endocarditis, which developed shortly after a lumbar facet injection. With the increase in interventional pain procedures, physicians must be aware of potential infectious complications. PMID:17606390

Hoelzer, Bryan C; Weingarten, Toby N; Hooten, W Michael; Wright, R Scott; Wilson, Walter R; Wilson, Peter R



Fracture and contralateral dislocation of the twin facet joints of the lower cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The combination of a facet fracture and a contralateral facet dislocation at the same intervertebral level of the cervical\\u000a spine (a fracture and contralateral dislocation of the twin facet joints) has not been described in detail. The aims of this\\u000a study are to report a series of 11 patients with this injury, to clarify the clinical features and to discuss

Ly Minh Ngo; Toshimi Aizawa; Takeshi Hoshikawa; Yasuhisa Tanaka; Tetsuro Sato; Yushin Ishii; Shoichi Kokubun


Facet Joints Arthrosis in Normal and Stenotic Lumbar Spines.  


ABSTRACT: Study Design. A descriptive CT study of lumbar facet joint (FJ) arthrosis in general and spinal stenosis populations.Objective. To reveal the prevalence of FJ arthrosis in general and stenosis populations and to establish its relationship to age and gender.Summary of Background Data. FJ arthrosis is a common radiographic finding and has been suggested as a cause of low back and lower extremity pain. It is also considered a dominant player in the genesis of lumbar spinal stenosis. Although it is well accepted that FJ arthrosis is an age dependent phenomenon, controversies still exist as to its association with gender and its prevalence at different spine levels. Additionally, data on FJ arthrosis frequency in spinal stenosis population are missing.Methods. Two groups were studied. The first included 65 individuals with LSS (mean age 66 ± 10 years) and the second, 150 individuals (mean age 52 ± 19 years) without LSS related symptoms. Both left and right FJ arthrosis for each vertebral level (L3 to S1) were evaluated on CT images (Brilliance 64, Philips Medical System, Cleveland Ohio). Chi-Square, Linear-by-Linear Association and McNemar test were carried out to reveal the correlation between FJ arthrosis and demographic factors (age, gender) and prevalence at different lumbar levels in both stenosis and non-stenosis groups. Additionally, a 2-way ANOVA was used to determine the association between BMI and FJ arthrosis.Results. The rate of FJ arthrosis at L3-4 and L4-5 were significantly higher (P<0.001) in the stenotic group compared to the control. In the control group the prevalence of FJ arthrosis increases cephalo-caudally (L3-L4 = 16%, L4-L5 = 28%, L5-S1 = 55%), whereas in the stenotic group there is a sharp increase from L3-4 (27%) to L4-5 (58%), but not from L4-5 to L5-S1 (55%). No association between FJ arthrosis and gender was noted. Although, mean BMI was significantly smaller in the control group compared to the stenotic group, no association between BMI and facet arthrosis was found. In the general population the prevalence of FJ arthrosis at all three levels was greater for the right side; however, significant difference (P = 0.004) was obtained only for L3-4. In all joints studied, the prevalence of FJ arthrosis increases considerably from the young age cohort (18-39) to the old age cohort (>60). Nevertheless, 10% of the young individuals (18-39) have already manifested FJ arthrosis at L5-S1. No arthrosis at that age was observed at L3-4.Conclusion. FJ arthrosis is an age-dependent and BMI and gender-independent phenomenon. In the general population, the prevalence of FJ arthrosis increases cephalo-caudally with the highest frequency at L5-S1. In the stenotic group, the highest frequency was observed at the two caudal levels; L4-5 and L5-S1. The prevalence of FJ arthrosis was greater for the right side. PMID:21270678

J, Abbas; K, Hamoud; S, Peleg; H, May; Y, Masharawi; H, Cohen; N, Peled; I, Hershkovitz



Human lumbar facet joint capsule strains: II. Alteration of strains subsequent to anterior interbody fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextIn cases of low back pain associated with biomechanical lumbar instability, anterior interbody fixation can be used as a surgical treatment, but its affect on facet joint capsule strains is unknown.

Jesse S. Little; Allyson Ianuzzi; Jonathan B. Chiu; Avi Baitner; Partap S. Khalsa



Material Properties of the Human Lumbar Facet Joint Capsule  

PubMed Central

The human facet joint capsule is one of the structures in the lumbar spine that constrains motions of vertebrae during global spine loading (e.g., physiological flexion). Computational models of the spine have not been able to include accurate nonlinear and viscoelastic material properties, as they have not previously been measured. Capsules were tested using a uniaxial ramp-hold protocol or a haversine displacement protocol using a commercially available materials testing device. Plane strain was measured optically. Capsules were tested both parallel and perpendicular to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers in the capsules. Viscoelastic material properties were determined. Parallel to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers, the complex modulus of elasticity was E* = 1.63MPa, with a storage modulus of E? = 1.25MPa and a loss modulus of: E? = 0.39MPa. The mean stress relaxation rates for static and dynamic loading were best fit with first-order polynomials: B (?) = 0.1110 ? ? 0.0733 and B (?) = ?0.1249? 11794-8181 +0.0190, respectively. Perpendicular to the collagen fiber orientation, the viscous and elastic secant moduli were 1.81 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The mean stress relaxation rate for static loading was best fit with a first-order polynomial: B (?) = ? 0.04? ? 0.06. Capsule strength parallel and perpendicular to collagen fiber orientation was 1.90 and 0.95 MPa, respectively, and extensibility was 0.65 and 0.60, respectively. Poisson’s ratio parallel and perpendicular to fiber orientation was 0.299 and 0.488, respectively. The elasticity moduli were nonlinear and anisotropic, and capsule strength was larger aligned parallel to the collagen fibers. The phase lag between stress and strain increased with haversine frequency, but the storage modulus remained large relative to the complex modulus. The stress relaxation rate was strain dependent parallel to the collagen fibers, but was strain independent perpendicularly.

Little, Jesse S.; Khalsa, Partap S.



Encapsulated Ruffini-like endings in human lumbar facet joints  

PubMed Central

The innervation of the human lumbar facet joint capsule was studied by light and electron microscopy. Small numbers of encapsulated corpuscular endings were identified in the dense fibrous layer. Clusters of 2 types of endings were found: small cylindrical corpuscles (type 1) and large fusiform corpuscles (type 2). The corpuscles were classified structurally as Ruffini-type endings. The 1st type was predominant and characterised by a compartmentalised receptor complex, a thin perineurial capsule and a narrow subcapsular space. The 2nd type was characterised by a thicker perineurial capsule, a ‘spindle-like’ receptive complex, and an extensive subcapsular space with capillaries and concentrically oriented fibroblast-like cells. Both types of endings were innervated mainly by thinly myelinated group III (A delta) and unmyelinated group IV (C) nerve fibres that branched and terminated in the receptor complex. Their sensory endings were intimately related to the collagen fibre bundles as multiple enlarged axonal segments (‘beads’) with ultrastructural features which were characteristic of receptive sites: an accumulation of mitochondria and vesicles, and ‘bare’ areas of axolemma lacking a Schwann cell investment but covered by a thin basal lamina. Some beads in the 2nd type of ending contained granular vesicles, 30–60 mm in diameter, resembling sympathetic nerve endings. Small diameter collagen fibrils situated within multilayered basal laminae were found among the multiple receptive sites in the receptive complex in both types of ending. Their possible functional significance in mechanoreception is discussed. Particular attention has been given to their apparent variable orientation to the mechanoreceptive site.




Desmoid Type Fibromatosis in the Facet Joint of Lumbar Spine: Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Desmoid type fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic tumor arising from the fascia or musculoaponeurosis. It may occur in various locations, but most commonly in the shoulder girdle and neck; to our knowledge, there has been no reported case originating from a facet joint of the spine. We report CT and MR imaging findings of a desmoid type fibromatosis, involving the facet joint of the L3-4 spine with bone involvement.

Kim, So Jung; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun



The lumbar facet joint: a review of current knowledge: part 1: anatomy, biomechanics, and grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a two-part review article on the current state of knowledge of lumbar facet joint pathology. This first article\\u000a discusses the functional anatomy, biomechanics, and radiological grading systems currently in use in clinical practice and\\u000a academic medicine. Facet joint degeneration is presented within the larger context of degenerative disc disease to enable\\u000a the reader to better understand the anatomical

Gerard P. Varlotta; Todd R. Lefkowitz; Mark Schweitzer; Thomas J. Errico; Jeffrey Spivak; John A. Bendo; Leon Rybak



The relationship between lower neck shear force and facet joint kinematics during automotive rear impacts.  


A primary goal of biomechanical safety research is the definition of localized injury thresholds in terms of quantities that are repeatable and easily measureable during experimentation. Recent biomechanical experimentation using human cadavers has highlighted the role of lower cervical facet joints in the injury mechanism resulting from low-speed automotive rear impacts. The present study was conducted to correlate lower neck forces and moments with facet joint motions during simulated rear impacts in an effort to define facet joint injury tolerance thresholds that can be used to assess automobile safety. Four male and four female intact head-neck complexes were obtained from cadaveric specimens and subjected to simulated automotive rear impacts using a pendulum-minisled device. Cervical spine segmental angulations and localized facet joint kinematics were correlated to shear and axial forces, and bending moments at the cervico-thoracic junction using linear regression. R(2) coefficients indicated that spinal kinematics correlated well with lower neck shear force and bending moment. Correlation slope was steeper in female specimens, indicating greater facet joint motions for a given loading magnitude. This study demonstrated that lower neck loads can be used to predict lower cervical facet joint kinematics during automotive rear impacts. Higher correlation slope in female specimens corresponds to higher injury susceptibility in that population. Although lower neck shear force and bending moment demonstrated adequate correlation with lower cervical facet joint motions, shear force is likely the better predictor due to similarity in the timing of peak magnitudes with regard to maximum facet joint motions. PMID:21433081

Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J



Neuronal hyperexcitability in the dorsal horn after painful facet joint injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive cervical facet capsular ligament stretch has been implicated as a cause of whiplash-associated disorders following rear-end impacts, but the pathophysiological mechanisms that produce chronic pain in these cases remain unclear. Using a rat model of C6–C7 cervical facet joint capsule stretch that produces sustained mechanical hyperalgesia, the presence of neuronal hyperexcitability was characterized 7days after joint loading. Extracellular recordings

Kyle P. Quinn; Ling Dong; Francis J. Golder; Beth A. Winkelstein



Intra-articular injection of collagenase induced experimental osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joint in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to establish an animal model to investigate primary osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joints after collagenase injection\\u000a in rats and its effects on chondrocyte apoptosis. We hypothesized that osteoarthritic-like changes would be induced by collagenase\\u000a injection and that apoptosis of chondrocytes would increase. Collagenase (1, 10, or 50 U) or saline (control) was injected\\u000a into the lumbar facet joints.

Tsu-Te Yeh; Zhi-Hong Wen; Herng-Sheng Lee; Chian-Her Lee; Zhi Yang; Yen-Hsuan Jean; Shing-Sheng Wu; Marcel E. Nimni; Bo Han



Material properties of the human lumbar facet joint capsule.  


The human facet joint capsule is one of the structures in the lumbar spine that constrains motions of vertebrae during global spine loading (e.g., physiological flexion). Computational models of the spine have not been able to include accurate nonlinear and viscoelastic material properties, as they have not previously been measured. Capsules were tested using a uniaxial ramp-hold protocol or a haversine displacement protocol using a commercially available materials testing device. Plane strain was measured optically. Capsules were tested both parallel and perpendicular to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers in the capsules. Viscoelastic material properties were determined. Parallel to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers, the complex modulus of elasticity was E*=1.63MPa, with a storage modulus of E'=1.25MPa and a loss modulus of: E" =0.39MPa. The mean stress relaxation rates for static and dynamic loading were best fit with first-order polynomials: B(epsilon) = 0.1110epsilon-0.0733 and B(epsilon)= -0.1249epsilon + 0.0190, respectively. Perpendicular to the collagen fiber orientation, the viscous and elastic secant moduli were 1.81 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The mean stress relaxation rate for static loading was best fit with a first-order polynomial: B (epsilon) = -0.04epsilon - 0.06. Capsule strength parallel and perpendicular to collagen fiber orientation was 1.90 and 0.95 MPa, respectively, and extensibility was 0.65 and 0.60, respectively. Poisson's ratio parallel and perpendicular to fiber orientation was 0.299 and 0.488, respectively. The elasticity moduli were nonlinear and anisotropic, and capsule strength was larger aligned parallel to the collagen fibers. The phase lag between stress and strain increased with haversine frequency, but the storage modulus remained large relative to the complex modulus. The stress relaxation rate was strain dependent parallel to the collagen fibers, but was strain independent perpendicularly. PMID:15868784

Little, Jesse S; Khalsa, Partap S



Relationships between joint motion and facet joint capsule strain during cat and human lumbar spinal motions  

PubMed Central

Objective The lumbar facet joint capsule (FJC) is innervated with mechanically sensitive neurons and is thought to contribute to proprioception and pain. Biomechanical investigations of the FJC have commonly used human cadaveric spines, while combined biomechanical and neurophysiological studies have typically used non-human animal models. The purpose of this study was develop mathematical relationships describing vertebral kinematics and facet joint capsule strain in cat and human lumbar spine specimens during physiological spinal motions in order to facilitate future efforts at understanding the mechanosensory role of the FJC. Methods Cat lumbar spine specimens were tested during extension, flexion and lateral bending. Joint kinematics and FJC principal strain were measured optically. FJC strain-intervertebral angle (IVA) regression relationships were established for the three most caudal lumbar joints using cat (current study) and human (prior study) data. FJC strain-IVA relationships were utilized to estimate cat and human spine kinematics that corresponded to published sensory neuron response thresholds for low threshold mechanoreceptors (5% and 10%). Results Significant linear relationships between IVA and strain were observed for both human and cat during motions that produced tension in the FJCs (p<0.01). During motions that produced tension in the FJCs, the models predicted that FJC strain magnitudes corresponding to published sensory neuron response thresholds would be produced by IVA magnitudes within the physiological range of lumbar motion. Conclusions Data from the current study support the proprioceptive role of lumbar spine FJC and low threshold mechanoreceptive afferents, and can be utilized in interpreting combined neurophysiological and biomechanical studies of cat lumbar spines.

Ianuzzi, Allyson; Pickar, Joel G; Khalsa, Partap S



Axial head rotation increases facet joint capsular ligament strains in automotive rear impact.  


Axial head rotation prior to low speed automotive rear impacts has been clinically identified to increase morbidity and symptom duration. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of axial head rotation on facet joint capsule strains during simulated rear impacts. The study was conducted using a validated intact head to first thoracic vertebra (T1) computational model. Parametric analysis was used to assess effects of increasing axial head rotation between 0 and 60° and increasing impact severity between 8 and 24 km/h on facet joint capsule strains. Rear impacts were simulated by horizontally accelerating the T1 vertebra. Characteristics of the acceleration pulse were based on the horizontal T1 acceleration pulse from a series of simulated rear impact experiments using full-body post mortem human subjects. Joint capsule strain magnitudes were greatest in ipsilateral facet joints for all simulations incorporating axial head rotation (i.e., head rotation to the left caused higher ligament strain at the left facet joint capsule). Strain magnitudes increased by 47-196% in simulations with 60° head rotation compared to forward facing simulations. These findings indicate that axial head rotation prior to rear impact increases the risk of facet joint injury. PMID:20878550

Storvik, Steven G; Stemper, Brian D



Pigmented villonodular synovitis of thoracic facet joint presenting as rapidly progressive paraplegia.  


Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane of uncertain etiology. It commonly affects synovial joints of the appendicular skeleton and rarely affects the spine. We present the case of a young man presenting with a rapidly progressive myelopathy due to spinal cord compression by PVNS arising from a thoracic facet joint, which finally resulted in paraplegia.The spinal location of PVNS has been seldom emphasized in the rheumatologic literature. PVNS should be considered as a possible cause of soft tissue masses arising from the facet joints, with variable degrees of nerve root or spinal cord compression. PMID:19955996

del Carmen Baena-Ocampo, Leticia; Rosales Olivares, Luis M; Arriaga, Norma Marín; Izaguirre, Aldo; Pineda, Carlos



Contact pressure in the facet joint during sagittal bending of the cadaveric cervical spine.  


The facet joint contributes to the normal biomechanical function of the spine by transmitting loads and limiting motions via articular contact. However, little is known about the contact pressure response for this joint. Such information can provide a quantitative measure of the facet joint's local environment. The objective of this study was to measure facet pressure during physiologic bending in the cervical spine, using a joint capsule-sparing technique. Flexion and extension bending moments were applied to six human cadaveric cervical spines. Global motions (C2-T1) were defined using infra-red cameras to track markers on each vertebra. Contact pressure in the C5-C6 facet was also measured using a tip-mounted pressure transducer inserted into the joint space through a hole in the postero-inferior region of the C5 lateral mass. Facet contact pressure increased by 67.6 ± 26.9 kPa under a 2.4 Nm extension moment and decreased by 10.3 ± 9.7 kPa under a 2.7 Nm flexion moment. The mean rotation of the overall cervical specimen motion segments was 9.6 ± 0.8° and was 1.6 ± 0.7° for the C5-C6 joint, respectively, for extension. The change in pressure during extension was linearly related to both the change in moment (51.4 ± 42.6 kPa/Nm) and the change in C5-C6 angle (18.0 ± 108.9 kPa/deg). Contact pressure in the inferior region of the cervical facet joint increases during extension as the articular surfaces come in contact, and decreases in flexion as the joint opens, similar to reports in the lumbar spine despite the difference in facet orientation in those spinal regions. Joint contact pressure is linearly related to both sagittal moment and spinal rotation. Cartilage degeneration and the presence of meniscoids may account for the variation in the pressure profiles measured during physiologic sagittal bending. This study shows that cervical facet contact pressure can be directly measured with minimal disruption to the joint and is the first to provide local pressure values for the cervical joint in a cadaveric model. PMID:21823743

Jaumard, Nicolas V; Bauman, Joel A; Weisshaar, Christine L; Guarino, Benjamin B; Welch, William C; Winkelstein, Beth A



The relations between morphology, asymmetry of mutual articular facets, and range of movement, in the human hand joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface area measurements were performed on the articular facets in the human hand joints in order to calculate the area-asymmetry\\u000a (incongruency) between mutual articular facets in every one of the hand joints, and to learn about the relations between the\\u000a asymmetry in the joint, the joint's morphology, and the range of movement exhibited by it.\\u000a \\u000a Several different trials have led

Y. Nagar; Y. Rak



Severe Facet Joint Arthrosis Caused C7/T1 Myelopathy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Cervical myelopathy is caused by degenerative processes of the spine including intervertebral disc herniation and posterior spur usually developing at C3/4 to C5/6. C7/T1 single level myelopathy is very rare because of the anatomical characteristics. Facet joint arthrosis can be a cause of cervical myelopathy but only a few cases have been reported. The authors report an extremely rare case of C7/T1 myelopathy caused by facet joint arthrosis. A 58-year-old male presented with hand and gait clumsiness. The radiological examinations revealed severe C7/T1 facet joint arthrosis with bony spur extending into the spinal canal, which compressed the spinal cord laterally. The T1 spinous process indicated nonunion of a “clay-shoveler's” fracture, which suggested that his cervico-thoracic spine had been frequently moved, and thus severe arthrosis had occurred in the facet joints. A right hemilaminectomy of C7 and C7/T1 facetectomy with single level spinal fusion led to complete neurological improvement.

Aizawa, Toshimi; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Kusakabe, Takashi; Itoi, Eiji



Comparison of Ultrasonography- and Fluoroscopy-Guided Facet Joint Block in the Lumbar Spine  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose Facet joint block is performed for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes and generally carried out under computerd tomography (CT) or radiologic fluoroscopy guidance. Ultrasonography-guided facet block has recently been attempted. So, we compared the results of ultrasonography-guided facet joint block with the results of fluoroscopy-guided facet joint block. Overview of Literature Because fluoroscopic or CT guided facet joint block has been reported side effects, we performed spinal facet block using a fluoroscopy-guided method. Methods We selected 133 patients who had lumbar pain or referred pain. They were diagnosed as having spinal stenosis and hospitalized from January 2008 to June 2008. As the subjects, we selected 105 patients who had been follow-up for more than 6 months and carried out a prospective study. Twenty six subjects were male and 25 were female in the fluoroscopy group (group 1) and their mean age was 56.1 years (range, 45 to 79 years). Twenty one were male and 33 were female in the ultrasonography-guided group (group 2). Their mean age was 58.3 years (range, 47 to 83 years). We studied the average time of the procedures, complications, the difference of the therapeutic cost between the two groups. We also evaluated the visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the Oswestry disability index. Results The procedure in group 2 averaged 4 minutes and 25 seconds, and in group 1, 4 minutes and 7 seconds. The coast was an average of 38,000 won in group 2 and 25,000 won in group 1. The VAS score was improved from an average of 7.5 (range, 5 to 9) to 2.8 (range, 2 to 6) in group 2 and from 7.8 (range, 4 to 10) to 2.7 (range, 2 to 5) in group 1. The Oswestry disability index was improved from an average of 32.3 (range, 28 to 41) to 23.5 (range, 17 to 26) in group 2 and from 34.2 (range, 29 to 43) to 24.8 (range, 18 to 28) in group 1. As for complications, worsening of lumbar pain, paresthesia, headache and allergic reaction were detected in 5 cases of group 2 and in 3 of group 1. Those symptoms were improved within several hours. One case of superficial infection that developed in group 2 was improved within several days. Conclusions We should consider that ultrasonography-guided facet joint block is a minimal invasive procedure that is easily carried out without radiation exposure.

Ha, Dae Ho; Shim, Dae Moo; Kim, Tae Kyun; Choi, Sang Su



Intra-articular injection of collagenase induced experimental osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joint in rats.  


We aimed to establish an animal model to investigate primary osteoarthritis of the lumbar facet joints after collagenase injection in rats and its effects on chondrocyte apoptosis. We hypothesized that osteoarthritic-like changes would be induced by collagenase injection and that apoptosis of chondrocytes would increase. Collagenase (1, 10, or 50 U) or saline (control) was injected into the lumbar facet joints. The histology and histochemistry of cartilage, synovium, and subchondral bone were examined at 1, 3, and 6 weeks after surgery. Apoptotic cells induced by 1 U of collagenase were quantified using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Degeneration of the cartilage and changes to the synovium and subchondral bone were dependent on both the doses of collagenase and the time after surgery. There were significantly more apoptotic chondrocytes in collagenase-treated joints than in control (P < 0.001 at 1 and 3 weeks and P < 0.05 at 6 weeks). Thus, lumbar facet joints subjected to collagenase developed osteoarthritic-like changes that could be quantified and compared. This model provides a useful tool for further study on the effects of compounds that have the potential to inhibit enzyme-associated damage to cartilage. PMID:18224353

Yeh, Tsu-Te; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Lee, Chian-Her; Yang, Zhi; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wu, Shing-Sheng; Nimni, Marcel E; Han, Bo



Neuronal hyperexcitability in the dorsal horn after painful facet joint injury  

PubMed Central

Excessive cervical facet capsular ligament stretch has been implicated as a cause of whiplash-associated disorders following rear-end impacts, but the pathophysiological mechanisms that produce chronic pain in these cases remain unclear. Using a rat model of C6/C7 cervical facet joint capsule stretch that produces sustained mechanical hyperalgesia, the presence of neuronal hyperexcitability was characterized 7 days after joint loading. Extracellular recordings of spinal dorsal horn neuronal activity between C6 and C8 (117 neurons) were obtained from anesthetized rats, with both painful and non-painful behavioral outcomes established by the magnitude of capsule stretch. The frequency of neuronal firing during noxious pinch (p<0.0182) and von Frey filaments applications (4–26 g) to the forepaw was increased (p<0.0156) in the painful group compared to the non-painful and sham groups. In addition, the incidence and frequency of spontaneous and afterdischarge firing were greater in the painful group (p<0.0307) relative to sham. The proportion of cells in the deep laminae that responded as wide dynamic range neurons also was increased in the painful group relative to non-painful or sham groups (p<0.0348). These findings suggest that excessive facet capsule stretch, while not producing visible tearing, can produce functional plasticity of dorsal horn neuronal activity. The increase in neuronal firing across a range of stimulus magnitudes observed at day 7 post-injury provides the first direct evidence of neuronal modulation in the spinal cord following facet joint loading, and suggests that facet-mediated chronic pain following whiplash injury is driven, at least in part, by central sensitization.

Quinn, Kyle P.; Dong, Ling; Golder, Francis J.; Winkelstein, Beth A.



Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive sensory DRG neurons innervating the lumbar facet joints in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat L5\\/6 facet joint is innervated from L1 to L5 dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) multisegmentally. Sensory fibers from L1 and L2 DRGs were reported to innervate nonsegmentally through the paravertebral sympathetic trunks, while those from L3 to L5 DRGs segmentally innervate the L5\\/6 facet joint. The presence of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactive (ir) nerve

Seiji Ohtori; Kazuhisa Takahashi; Tanemichi Chiba; Masatune Yamagata; Hiroaki Sameda; Hideshige Moriya



Technical factors related to the incidence of adjacent superior segment facet joint violation after transpedicular instrumentation in the lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segmental pedicle screw fixation is rapidly becoming a popular method of spinal instrumentation. Few studies have investigated\\u000a the rates of adjacent superior segment facet joint violation. The purpose of our study were to investigate the incidence of\\u000a superior segment facet joint violation after pedicle screw instrumentation in the lumbar spine and to evaluate technical factors\\u000a related to the incidence. A

Zhiming Chen; Jie Zhao; Hao Xu; Aigang Liu; Jiandong Yuan; Cong Wang



Geometry of the articular facets of the lateral atlanto-axial joints in the case of occipitalization.  


This study investigates if atlanto-occipital fusion affects the size and geometrical configuration of the articular facets of the atlanto-axial joint. Morphometric analysis was performed on the male adult skull, the occipital bone of which is assimilated with the first cervical vertebrae (the atlas). The perimeter, Feret's diameter, surface area, and circularity of the inferior articular fa-cets were measured. However, we did not observe significant bilateral differences in size of the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas compared to normal first cervical vertebrae. Geometrical conformation of the articular facets of the atlas and axis was assessed using a coordinate measuring machine (PMM - 12106, Leitz). The results obtained from this machine indicated that the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas presented asymmetrical orientation compared to the normal anatomy of the atlas. Hence, in the case of occipitalization, the gap between the articulating facets of the atlas and the axis was measured to be greater than in the normal atlanto-axial joint. Computer assisted tomography was applied to visualise the anatomical relationship between the inferior articular facets of the assimilated atlas and the corresponding facets located on the axis. In this case, radiographic examination revealed that the bilaterally articulating facets (inferior and superior) showed disproportion in their adjustment within the lateral atlanto-axial joints. Thus, we concluded that the fusion of the atlas with the occipital bone altered the geometry of the inferior articular facets of the atlas and influenced the orientation of the superior articular facets of the axis. PMID:21154284

Ryniewicz, A M; Skrzat, J; Ryniewicz, A; Ryniewicz, W; Walocha, J



Long-term lumbar facet joint changes in spinal fracture patients treated with Harrington rods.  


Reports in the literature have questioned the practice of using Harrington distraction rods spanning unfused spinal segments for internal fixation of the fractured thoracolumbar spine. However, the long-term incidence of facet joint osteoarthritis has not been reported. This is the report on a retrospective analysis of 20 of these patients with an average follow-up period of 8.0 years. Eighty-five percent of the patients received a classification of good to excellent regarding back pain and 90% returned to their preinjury occupation. Of significance, of 75 lumbar facets traversed by rods but not fused, only two were classified as "closed" or autofused. It remains to be seen if some pedicular systems are superior to this technique in trained hands. However, multisegmental instrumentation with unisegmental fusion is possible without obtaining the severe osteoarthritic changes that animal studies have demonstrated. PMID:2402687

Gardner, V O; Armstrong, G W



Biomechanical analysis of the lumbar spine on facet joint force and intradiscal pressure - a finite element study  

PubMed Central

Background Finite element analysis results will show significant differences if the model used is performed under various material properties, geometries, loading modes or other conditions. This study adopted an FE model, taking into account the possible asymmetry inherently existing in the spine with respect to the sagittal plane, with a more geometrically realistic outline to analyze and compare the biomechanical behaviour of the lumbar spine with regard to the facet force and intradiscal pressure, which are associated with low back pain symptoms and other spinal disorders. Dealing carefully with the contact surfaces of the facet joints at various levels of the lumbar spine can potentially help us further ascertain physiological behaviour concerning the frictional effects of facet joints under separate loadings or the responses to the compressive loads in the discs. Methods A lumbar spine model was constructed from processes including smoothing the bony outline of each scan image, stacking the boundary lines into a smooth surface model, and subsequent further processing in order to conform with the purpose of effective finite element analysis performance. For simplicity, most spinal components were modelled as isotropic and linear materials with the exception of spinal ligaments (bilinear). The contact behaviour of the facet joints and changes of the intradiscal pressure with different postures were analyzed. Results The results revealed that asymmetric responses of the facet joint forces exist in various postures and that such effect is amplified with larger loadings. In axial rotation, the facet joint forces were relatively larger in the contralateral facet joints than in the ipsilateral ones at the same level. Although the effect of the preloads on facet joint forces was not apparent, intradiscal pressure did increase with preload, and its magnitude increased more markedly in flexion than in extension and axial rotation. Conclusions Disc pressures showed a significant increase with preload and changed more noticeably in flexion than in extension or in axial rotation. Compared with the applied preloads, the postures played a more important role, especially in axial rotation; the facet joint forces were increased in the contralateral facet joints as compared to the ipsilateral ones at the same level of the lumbar spine.



Factors determining the success of radiofrequency denervation in lumbar facet joint pain: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  Radiofrequency denervation (RF) of the lumbar facet joints has been shown to be effective in well-selected patients. However,\\u000a long-term success varies between studies. We evaluated the influence of selected psychosocial and constitutional factors on\\u000a the outcome of RF, expressed as the duration of pain relief.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This prospective observational study included 44 patients who received RF denervations at the

Konrad Streitberger; Tina Müller; Urs Eichenberger; Sven Trelle; Michele Curatolo


Septic arthritis of a lumbar facet joint: Detection with bone SPECT imaging  

SciTech Connect

We present a rare case of septic arthritis of a lumbar facet joint with an associated epidural abscess resulting from Staphylococcus aureus. The infection was initially detected with planar bone scintigraphy and precisely localized with single photon emission computed tomography bone scintigraphy, despite an initially negative radiologic evaluation that included radiographs of the lumbar spine, lumbar myelography, and a postmyelography x-ray computed tomography scan. In the appropriate clinical setting, a bone scan demonstrating unilateral increased activity within the spine should raise the suspicion of inflammatory involvement of the posterior elements.

Swayne, L.C.; Dorsky, S.; Caruana, V.; Kaplan, I.L. (Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (USA))



Discectomy combined with isolated facet joint fusion—as an alternative fusion technique. Our clinical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose of the present study is to present our experience and clinical results with surgical technique of discectomy and\\u000a facet joint fusion. Our goal was to achieve pain free and stable back (segmental stability) after lumbar disc surgery and\\u000a to assess the status of fusion and its relationship with clinical results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Study design  The proposed study is a prospective clinical

Sudeep Jain; Devdatta Suhas Neogi; Baldeep Singh; Saurabh Singh; Ramesh Kumar; Sudhir K. Kapoor



[Radiofrequency denervation of intervertebral joints in management of facet pain syndrome].  


Back pain is very widespread and represents a socially significant problem of modern health care. During lifetime 90% of population experiences 1 or more episodes of back pain. This study focuses on assessment of effectiveness of radiofrequency denervation of intervertebral joints in management of patients with low back pain caused by facet pain syndrome. From 2007 till 2008 124 patients were examined in spinal clinic "Axiso". In 112 (80%) patients pain regressed. Clinical series was analyzed using the scale for assessment of severity of lumbosacral spinal degenerative disease developed in Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute (Moscow, Russia). The performed study confirmed effectiveness of the assessed technique which allowed including of radiofrequency denervation of intervertebral joints in the algorithm of management of patients with degenerative changes in the lumbosacral spine as the surgical method used in case of ineffectiveness of conservative treatment. PMID:21793296

Konovalov, N A; Proshutinski?, S D; Nazarenko, A G; Korolishin, V A



Joint denervation and neuroma surgery as joint-preserving therapy for ankle pain.  


Partial joint denervation or surgical neuroma therapy are alternative concepts to treat pain around the ankle joint that preserve joint function and relieve pain by interrupting neural pathways that transmit pain impulses from the joint to the brain. This review article summarizes the indication, anatomic background, operative techniques, and clinical results of joint denervation or neuroma surgery, which, although rarely reported and used, may provide a valuable alternative treatment in selected patients with neurogenous problems around the ankle. PMID:24008220

Gohritz, Andreas; Dellon, A Lee; Kalbermatten, Daniel; Fulco, Ilario; Tremp, Mathias; Schaefer, Dirk J



Pigmented villonodular synovitis originating from the lumbar facet joint: a case report  

PubMed Central

The authors successfully treated a rare case of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) that originated from the lumbar facet joint (L4-5). A 43-year-old man presented with a complaint of left severe sciatica causing difficulty in walking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an extradural mass on the left side at L4 and the mass compressed the dural tube and was continuous with the left L4-5 facet joint. A computed tomography myelogram revealed an extradural defect of contrast medium at the L4 level and an erosion of the L4 lamina. A total synovectomy with unilateral osteoplastic laminectomy was performed. The histological findings were a diagnosis of PVNS. The patient’s symptoms resolved completely and the MRI at postoperative 3 years demonstrated no recurrence of PVNS. It is important to totally remove the synovium, which is the origin of PVNS in order to prevent the recurrence. We think that our procedure is reasonable and adequate for lumbar PVNS.

Oe, Kenichi; Yoshida, Yugo; Ohnari, Hiroyuki; Iida, Hirokazu; Sakaida, Noriko; Uemura, Yoshiko



Audit of conservative management of chronic low back pain in a secondary care setting – part I: facet joint and sacroiliac joint interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of a chronic back pain service in secondary care in the West Midlands is reported. The service offers acupuncture, spinal injection procedures, osteopathy and a range of other interventions for patients whose back pain has not responded to conservative management. This section of the report focuses on injection procedures for lumbar facet joint and sacroiliac joint pain, which

Robin Chakraverty; Richard Dias



Delayed surgical treatment for a traumatic bilateral cervical facet joint dislocation using a posterior-anterior approach: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction There have been few reports of patients with bilateral cervical facet dislocations that remain untreated for eight weeks or more. We report the case of a 76-year-old man with an old bilateral cervical facet joint dislocation fracture that was treated by posterior-anterior reduction and fixation. Case presentation A 76-year-old Asian man was involved in a road traffic accident. He presented with neck pain and arm pain on his right side, but motor weakness and paralysis were not observed. He was treated conservatively; however, instability and spondylolisthesis at the C5 to C6 joint increased eight weeks after the injury. We performed a posterior-anterior reduction and fixation. After surgery, bony union was achieved, and his neck pain and arm pain disappeared. Conclusion We recommend reduction and fixation surgery if a patient has an old bilateral facet joint dislocation fracture in the cervical spine.



Lumbar Facet Joint Synovial Cysts: Does T2 Signal Intensity Predict Outcomes after Percutaneous Rupture?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Lumbar facet synovial cysts are a cause of back pain and radiculopathy with facet joint degeneration, the most common cause for cyst formation. Typically, LFSCs are T2 hyperintense on MR imaging, but the signal intensity is variable. Treatment options include percutaneous rupture and surgical resection. This study evaluates the relationship between LFSC signal intensity on MR imaging and outcomes as it relates to percutaneous rupture success and need for subsequent surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review of 110 patients who underwent CT fluoroscopic-guided rupture of symptomatic LFSCs was performed. The LFSCs were characterized by their T2 signal intensity on MR imaging and divided into 3 groups: high, intermediate, and low T2 signal intensity. The rates of successful cyst rupture and need for subsequent surgery were recorded. RESULTS Percutaneous LFSC rupture was technically successful in 87% of all cases. Cyst rupture was successful in 89% and 90% of high and intermediate signal intensity cysts, respectively, and in 65% of low signal intensity cysts (P = .017, .030). High signal intensity cysts had lower postprocedural surgical rates (29%) when compared with intermediate and low signal cyst as a group (P = .045). CONCLUSIONS T2 hyperintense and intermediate signal intensity LFSCs are easier to rupture, perhaps because the cysts contain a higher proportion of fluid and are less gelatinous or calcified than T2 hypointense cysts. Patients with T2 hyperintense LFSCs are less likely to need surgery.

Cambron, S.C.; McIntyre, J.J.; Guerin, S.J.; Li, Z.; Pastel, D.A.



Influences on the fusimotor-muscle spindle system from chemosensitive nerve endings in cervical facet joints in the cat: possible implications for whiplash induced disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to establish if there exists reflex connections from ligamentous structures in cervical facet joints and the fusimotor system of dorsal neck muscles. In seven cats, anaesthetized with ?-chloralose, bradykinin (BK) of concentrations between 12 and 50 ?g was injected into the facet joint between C1 and C2. Recordings were made from single muscle

Johan Thunberg; Fredrik Hellström; Per Sjölander; Mikael Bergenheim; Britt-Inger Wenngren; Håkan Johansson



Chronic Low Back Pain of Facet (Zygapophysial) Joint Origin: Is There a Difference Based on Involvement of Single or Multiple Spinal Regions? An Original Contribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facet (zygapophysial) joint pain can be diagnosed by anesthetization of the me- dial branch divisions of the dorsal rami. In accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain, lumbar facet (zygapophysial) joints have been implicated as the source of chron- ic pain in 15% to 45% of the patients with chronic low back pain.

Laxmaiah Manchikanti; Joshua A. Hirsch; Vidyasagar Pampati


Human Lumbar Spine Creep during Cyclic and Static Flexion: Creep Rate, Biomechanics, and Facet Joint Capsule Strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a high incidence of low back pain (LBP) associated with occupations requiring sustained and\\/or repetitive lumbar flexion (SLF and RLF, respectively), which cause creep of the viscoelastic tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of creep on lumbar biomechanics and facet joint capsule (FJC) strain. Specimens were flexed for 10 cycles, to a maximum

Jesse S. Little; Partap S. Khalsa



Percutaneous Procedures for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Lower Back Pain: Diskography, Facet-Joint Injection, and Epidural Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the indications, techniques, complica- tions, and results of three percutaneous procedures used to evaluate and treat lower back pain: diskography, facet-joint injec- tion, and epidural injection. Diskography, performed by injection of contrast medium into the nucleus pulposus, is a technique used to determine the cause of lower back pain in patients in whom findings on other imaging

Georges Y. El-Khoury; Donald L. Renfrew


Cervical spine injuries associated with lateral mass and facet joint fractures: New classification and surgical treatment with pedicle screw fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the injury pattern, initial spinal instability, degree of discoligamentous injuries in cervical lateral mass and facet joint fractures, we retrospectively analyzed radiological parameters and introduced a new classification for these injuries. Surgical treatment was performed with cervical pedicle screw fixation (CPS), and overall neurological and radiological outcome was evaluated with a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. Lateral mass

Yoshihisa Kotani; Kuniyoshi Abumi; Manabu Ito; Akio Minami



Explosive growth of facet joint interventions in the medicare population in the United States: a comparative evaluation of 1997, 2002, and 2006 data  

PubMed Central

Background The Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services (OIG-DHHS) issued a report which showed explosive growth and also raised questions of lack of medical necessity and/or indications for facet joint injection services in 2006. The purpose of the study was to determine trends of frequency and cost of facet joint interventions in managing spinal pain. Methods This analysis was performed to determine trends of frequency and cost of facet joint Interventions in managing spinal pain, utilizing the annual 5% national sample of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for 1997, 2002, and 2006. Outcome measures included overall characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries receiving facet joint interventions, utilization of facet joint interventions by place of service, by specialty, reimbursement characteristics, and other variables. Results From 1997 to 2006, the number of patients receiving facet joint interventions per 100,000 Medicare population increased 386%, facet joint visits increased 446%, and facet joint interventions increased 543%. The increases were higher in patients aged less than 65 years compared to those 65 or older with patients increasing 504% vs. 355%, visits increasing 587% vs. 404%, and services increasing 683% vs. 498%. Total expenditures for facet joint interventions in the Medicare population increased from over $229 million in 2002 to over $511 million in 2006, with an overall increase of 123%. In 2006, there was a 26.8-fold difference in utilization of facet joint intervention services in Florida compared to the state with the lowest utilization - Hawaii. There was an annual increase of 277.3% in the utilization of facet joint interventions by general physicians, whereas a 99.5% annual increase was seen for nurse practitioners (NPs) and certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) from 2002 to 2006. Further, in Florida, 47% of facet joint interventions were performed by general physicians. Conclusions The reported explosive growth of facet joint interventions in managing spinal pain in certain regions and by certain specialties may result in increased regulations and scrutiny with reduced access.



Audit of conservative management of chronic low back pain in a secondary care setting--part I: facet joint and sacroiliac joint interventions.  


The work of a chronic back pain service in secondary care in the West Midlands is reported. The service offers acupuncture, spinal injection procedures, osteopathy and a range of other interventions for patients whose back pain has not responded to conservative management. This section of the report focuses on injection procedures for lumbar facet joint and sacroiliac joint pain, which have been shown to be the cause of chronic low back pain in 16-40% and 13-19% of patients respectively. Diagnosis relies on the use of intra-articular or sensory nerve block injections with local anaesthetic. Possible treatments following diagnosis include intra-articular corticosteroid, radiofrequency denervation (for facet joint pain) or ligament prolotherapy injections (for sacroiliac joint pain). The results of several hospital audits are reported. At six month follow up, 50% of 38 patients undergoing radiofrequency denervation following diagnostic blocks for facet joint pain had improved by more than 50%, compared to 29% of 34 patients treated with intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Sixty three per cent of 19 patients undergoing prolotherapy following diagnostic block injection for sacroiliac joint pain had improved at six months, compared to 33% of 33 who had intra-articular corticosteroid. Both radiofrequency denervation and sacroiliac prolotherapy showed good long-term outcomes at one year. PMID:15628778

Chakraverty, Robin; Dias, Richard



Comparison of human lumbar facet joint capsule strains during simulated high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation versus physiological motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextSpinal manipulation (SM) is an effective treatment for low back pain (LBP), and it has been theorized that SM induces a beneficial neurophysiological effect by stimulating mechanically sensitive neurons in the lumbar facet joint capsule (FJC).

Allyson Ianuzzi; Partap S. Khalsa



Facet joint violation during pedicle screw insertion: a cadaveric study of the adult lumbosacral spine comparing the two pedicle screw insertion techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the incidence of facet joint violation by pedicle screws inserted via the two most commonly used techniques,\\u000a intersection and mammillary. Pedicle screws were inserted on each side of fresh-frozen human cadevaric specimen lumbosacral\\u000a spines using the two techniques. All facet joints which were violated were found to be on the right side, where the mamillary\\u000a process technique

Kook Jin Chung; Seung Woo Suh; Keny Swapnil; Jae Hyuk Yang; Hae Ryong Song



Evans osteotomy and risk to subtalar joint articular facets and sustentaculum tali: a cadaver study.  


The Evans lateral column lengthening procedure allows correction of abduction, improved talar head coverage, decreased forefoot and rearfoot valgus, and improvement of medial column arch height. However, identifying the structures at risk when performing this osteotomy has proved difficult in vivo. Using 10 cadaveric lower limbs, we performed the Evans calcaneal osteotomy and determined whether violation of the calcaneal facets and the sustentaculum tali occurred. Based on our findings, we recommend directing the osteotomy from posterolateral to anteromedial. PMID:23602718

Bussewitz, Bradly W; DeVries, J George; Hyer, Christopher F



Fluoroscopic caudal epidural injections in managing chronic axial low back pain without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic low back pain without disc herniation is common. Various modalities of treatments are utilized in managing this condition, including epidural injections. However, there is continued debate on the effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity of any treatment modality utilized for managing axial or discogenic pain, including epidural injections. Methods A randomized, double-blind, actively controlled trial was conducted. The objective was to evaluate the ability to assess the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for managing chronic low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, facet joints, or sacroiliac joints. A total of 120 patients were randomized to two groups; one group did not receive steroids (group 1) and the other group did (group 2). There were 60 patients in each group. The primary outcome measure was at least 50% improvement in Numeric Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary outcome measures were employment status and opioid intake. These measures were assessed at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Results Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (primary outcome) defined as a 50% or more reduction in scores from baseline, were observed in 54% of patients in group 1 and 60% of patients in group 2 at 24 months. In contrast, 84% of patients in group 1 and 73% in group 2 saw significant pain relief and functional status improvement in the successful groups at 24 months. Conclusion Caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids are effective in patients with chronic axial low back pain of discogenic origin without facet joint pain, disc herniation, and/or radiculitis.

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; McManus, Carla D; Pampati, Vidyasagar



Human Lumbar Spine Creep during Cyclic and Static Flexion: Creep Rate, Biomechanics, and Facet Joint Capsule Strain  

PubMed Central

There is a high incidence of low back pain (LBP) associated with occupations requiring sustained and/or repetitive lumbar flexion (SLF and RLF, respectively), which cause creep of the viscoelastic tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of creep on lumbar biomechanics and facet joint capsule (FJC) strain. Specimens were flexed for 10 cycles, to a maximum 10 Nm moment at L5-S1, before, immediately after, and 20 min after a 20-min sustained flexion at the same moment magnitude. The creep rates of SLF and RLF were also measured during each phase and compared to the creep rate predicted by the moment relaxation rate function of the lumbar spine. Both SLF and RLF resulted in significantly increased intervertebral motion, as well as significantly increased FJC strains at the L3-4 to L5-S1 joint levels. These parameters remained increased after the 20-min recovery. Creep during SLF occurred significantly faster than creep during RLF. The moment relaxation rate function was able to accurately predict the creep rate of the lumbar spine at the single moment tested. The data suggest that SLF and RLF result in immediate and residual laxity of the joint and stretch of the FJC, which could increase the potential for LBP.

Little, Jesse S.; Khalsa, Partap S.



Effect of Medial Branch Block in Chronic Facet Joint Pain for Osteoporotic Compression Fracture: One Year Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the outcomes of medial branch block in facet joint pain for osteoporotic compression fracture and utilize multiple regression, the relationship between their impact on treatment outcome and other factor, such as the radiologic finding, clinical parameters was analyze. Methods Fifty-three patients with axial back pain from osteoporotic compression fracture were enrolled. The clinical outcomes were measured by Verbal Numeric Rating Scale (VNS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before treatment, 2 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after the medial branch block. Radiographic analysis included measurement of overall sagittal alignment, collapsed vertebral height, and vertebral kyphotic angle. After 12 months, patients' satisfaction was classified to five categories: excellent, good, fair, poor or fail. Statistical analysis of both radiographic and clinical parameters along with treatment outcome was performed to determine any significant correlations between the two. Results VNS and ODI was improved 2 weeks after the injection and continued to improve until 12 months. Significant improvement with significant pain relief (>40%), functional improvement (>20%), and the patients rated their satisfaction level as "excellent" or "good" at 12 months after the first injection were observed in 78.9%. The radiographic and clinical parameters were not significantly correlated with treatment outcome. Conclusion Our retrospective study demonstrated that the medial branch block provided significant pain relief and functional recovery to the patients with osteoporotic spinal compression fractures complaining of continuous facet joint pain after vertebroplasty or conservative treatment. A placebo-controlled prospective randomized double-blind study should be conducted in the future to evaluate the treatment effects.

Park, Ki Deok; Jee, Haemi; Nam, Hee Seung; Cho, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lim, Oh Kyung



Translaminar Facet Screw Fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

significantly longer than that used by both Boucher and King due to an entry point at the base of the contralateral spinous process. This improves the technique by increasing the ef- fective working length of the screw on both sides of the facet joint resulting in increased strength of the fixation. This review focuses on the advantages of translaminar facet

Rick C. Sasso; Natalie M. Best


Facet Problems: A Surgical Indication?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The apophyseal facet joints of the spine are typical diarthrodial joints located in the posterior aspect of the functional\\u000a spinal unit or “three-joint complex”. They provide motion and stability and protect the neural structures. Indeed, facet problems\\u000a are a surgical indication, mainly after acute trauma with facet dislocation. However, in the absence of “red flags”, surgical\\u000a indications are less clear.

F. Pellisé


Glenohumeral Joint Preservation: Current Options for Managing Articular Cartilage Lesions in Young, Active Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of joint-preservation techniques for the shoulder. Whereas the management of diffuse articular cartilage loss in the glenohumeral joints of elderly and less active patients by total shoulder arthroplasty is well accepted, significant controversy persists in selecting and refining successful operative techniques to repair symptomatic glenohumeral cartilage lesions in the shoulders of young, active patients. The principal

Florian Elser; Sepp Braun; Christopher B. Dewing; Peter J. Millett



Incorporation of lower neck shear forces to predict facet joint injury risk in low-speed automotive rear impacts.  


Lower neck shear force remains a viable candidate for a low-velocity automotive rear-impact injury criterion. Data were previously reported to demonstrate high correlations between the magnitude of lower neck shear force and lower cervical spine facet joint motions. The present study determined the ability of lower neck shear force to predict soft-tissue injury risk in simulated automotive rear impacts. Rear-impact tests were conducted at two velocities and with two seatback orientations using a Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and stock automobile seats from 2007 model year vehicles. Higher velocities and more vertical seatback orientations were associated with higher injury risk based on computational modeling simulations performed in this study. Six cervical spine injury criteria including NIC, Nij, Nkm, LNL, and lower neck shear force and bending moment, increased with impact velocity. NIC, Nij, and shear force were most sensitive to changes in impact velocity. Four metrics, including Nkm, LNL, and lower neck shear force and bending moment, increased for tests with more vertical seatback orientations. Shear force was most sensitive to changes in seatback orientation. Peak values for shear force, NIC, and Nij occurred approximately at the time of head restraint contact for all four test conditions. Therefore, of the six investigated metrics, lower neck shear force was the only metric to demonstrate consistency with regard to injury risk and timing of peak magnitudes. These results demonstrate the ability of lower neck shear force to predict injury risk during low velocity automotive rear impacts and warrant continued investigation into the sensitivity and applicability of this metric for other rear-impact conditions. PMID:20544575

Stemper, Brian D; Storvik, Steven G



Glenohumeral Joint Preservation: A Review of Management Options for Young, Active Patients with Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

The management of osteoarthritis of the shoulder in young, active patients is a challenge, and the optimal treatment has yet to be completely established. Many of these patients wish to maintain a high level of activity, and arthroplasty may not be a practical treatment option. It is these patients who may be excellent candidates for joint-preservation procedures in an effort to avoid or delay joint replacement. Several palliative and restorative techniques are currently optional. Joint debridement has shown good results and a combination of arthroscopic debridement with a capsular release, humeral osteoplasty, and transcapsular axillary nerve decompression seems promising when humeral osteophytes are present. Currently, microfracture seems the most studied reparative treatment modality available. Other techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral transfers, have reportedly shown potential but are currently mainly still investigational procedures. This paper gives an overview of the currently available joint preserving surgical techniques for glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

van der Meijden, Olivier A.; Gaskill, Trevor R.; Millett, Peter J.



Bone-preserving arthroscopic options for treatment of thumb basilar joint arthritis.  


While trapeziectomy with or without interposition arthroplasty and ligament reconstruction or suspensionplasty have been demonstrated to have a high rate of satisfactory outcomes, recent interest has focused on arthroscopy because of its perceived limited invasive nature as well as its versatility. In addition, using the arthroscope, other options are available that preserve all or part of the trapezium to limit subsidence of the thumb axis, preserve grip and pinch strength, and retain later options for joint reconstruction, should that become necessary. PMID:21871359

Adams, Julie E; Steinmann, Scott P; Culp, Randall W



Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is upregulated in the cervical dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord and contributes to the maintenance of pain from facet joint injury in the rat.  


The facet joint is commonly associated with neck and low back pain and is susceptible to loading-induced injury. Although tensile loading of the cervical facet joint has been associated with inflammation and neuronal hyperexcitability, the mechanisms of joint loading-induced pain remain unknown. Altered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are associated with a host of painful conditions, but the role of BDNF in loading-induced joint pain remains undefined. Separate groups of rats underwent a painful cervical facet joint distraction or a sham procedure. Bilateral forepaw mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed and BDNF mRNA and protein levels were quantified in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord at days 1 and 7. Facet joint distraction induced significant (P?joint distraction did not alter BDNF mRNA in the DRG compared with sham levels but did significantly increase (P?joint distraction and reduced pERK in the spinal cord at day 7 (P?facet joint injury and the effect of spinal BDNF sequestration in partially reducing pain suggest that BDNF signaling contributes to the maintenance of loading-induced facet pain but that additional cellular responses are also likely involved. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23918351

Kras, Jeffrey V; Weisshaar, Christine L; Quindlen, Julia; Winkelstein, Beth A



Fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or disc-related neck pain without disc herniation, facet joint pain, or radiculitis  

PubMed Central

Background While chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population, with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30%–50%, there is a lack of consensus regarding its causes and treatment. Despite limited evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic neck pain. Methods A randomized, double-blind, active, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of chronic neck pain with or without upper extremity pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Results One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, ie, injection of local anesthetic only (group 1) or local anesthetic mixed with nonparticulate betamethasone (group 2). The primary outcome of significant pain relief and improvement in functional status (?50%) was demonstrated in 72% of group 1 and 68% of group 2. The overall average number of procedures per year was 3.6 in both groups with an average total relief per year of 37–39 weeks in the successful group over a period of 52 weeks. Conclusion Cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be effective in patients with chronic function-limiting discogenic or axial pain.

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh



Unusual presentation of giant cell tumor originating from a facet joint of the thoracic spine in a child: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Giant cell tumor of the synovium is a common benign lesion that frequently occurs at the tendon sheaths in the hand; it is usually found in adults over 30 years old. It is related to pigmented villonodular synovitis. Giant cell tumor of the synovium or pigmented villonodular synovitis has been described rarely in the axial skeleton especially in the thoracic vertebrae of a child. Case presentation A previously healthy 7-year-old Thai girl presented with back pain and progressive paraparesis and was unable to walk for 1 month. She had weakness and hyperreflexia of both lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined homogeneously and intensely enhanced extradural mass with cord compression at T4 to T7 levels. The patient underwent laminectomy at T4 through to T7 and total tumor removal. Permanent histopathologic sections and immunostains revealed a giant cell tumor of the synovium. Postoperative neurological status recovered to grade V. Magnetic resonance imaging at the 1-year follow-up showed no recurrence and there was no clinical recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion We report an extremely rare case of giant cell tumor in the epidural space that extended from a thoracic facet joint. The tumor was removed successfully through laminectomies. Although giant cell tumor of a facet joint of the thoracic spine is very rare, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis for masses occurring in the epidural space in a child. Total tumor removal is the best treatment. Careful monitoring of recurrence can achieve a good clinical outcome.



Transverse Process and Needles of Medial Branch Block to Facet Joint as Landmarks for Ultrasound-Guided Selective Nerve Root Block  

PubMed Central

Background Selective lumbar nerve root block (SNRB) is generally accepted as an effective treatment method for back pain with sciatica. However, it requires devices producing radioactive materials such as C-arm fluoroscopy. This study evaluated the usefulness of the longitudinal view of transverse process and needles for medial branch block as landmarks under ultrasonography. Methods We performed selective nerve root block for 96 nerve roots in 61 patients under the guidance of ultrasound. A curved probe was used to identify the facet joints and transverse processes. Identifying the lumbar nerve roots under the skin surface and ultrasound landmarks, the cephalad and caudal medial branch blocks were undertaken under the transverse view of sonogram first. A needle for nerve root block was inserted between the two transverse processes under longitudinal view, while estimating the depth with the needle for medial branch block. We then injected 1.0 mL of contrast medium and checked the distribution of the nerve root with C-arm fluoroscopy to evaluate the accuracy. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to access the clinical results. Results Seven SNRBs were performed for the L2 nerve root, 15 for L3, 49 for L4, and 25 for L5, respectively. Eighty-six SNRBs (89.5%) showed successful positioning of the needles. We failed in the following cases: 1 case for the L2 nerve root; 2 for L3; 3 for L4; and 4 for L5. The failed needles were positioned at wrong leveled segments in 4 cases and inappropriate place in 6 cases. VAS was improved from 7.6 ± 0.6 to 3.5 ± 1.3 after the procedure. Conclusions For SNRB in lumbar spine, the transverse processes under longitudinal view as the ultrasound landmark and the needles of medial branch block to the facet joint can be a promising guidance.

Kim, Daehee; Choi, Donghyuk; Kim, Chungyoung; Kim, Jeongseok



Feature-preserving optimization for noisy mesh using joint bilateral filter and constrained Laplacian smoothing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced 3D optical and laser scanners can generate mesh models with high-resolution details, while inevitably introducing noises from various sources and mesh irregularity due to inconsistent sampling. Noises and irregularity of a scanned model prohibit its use in practical applications where high quality models are required. However, optimizing a noisy mesh while preserving its geometric features is a challenging task. We present a robust two-step approach to meet the challenges of noisy mesh optimization. In the first step, we propose a joint bilateral filter to remove noises on a mesh while maintaining its volume and preserving its features. In the second step, we develop a constrained Laplacian smoothing scheme by adding two kinds of constraints into the original Laplacian equation. As most noises have been removed in the first step, we can easily detect feature edges from the model and add them as constraints in the Laplacian smoothing. As a result, the constrained scheme can simultaneously preserve sharp features and avoid volume shrinkage during mesh smoothing. By integrating these two steps, our approach can effectively remove noises, maintain features, improve regularity for a noisy mesh, as well as avoid side-effects such as volume shrinkage. Extensive qualitative and quantitative experiments have been performed on meshes with synthetic and raw noises to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach.

Wei, Mingqiang; Shen, Wuyao; Qin, Jing; Wu, Jianhuang; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Heng, Pheng-Ann



[Anatomic reconstruction of hip joint biomechanics with the bone preserving silent micro hip™ prosthesis].  


Background: The design and the surgical technique of the Silent Micro Hip™ are different compared to other hip stems due to a conical shape for fixation within the metaphyseal femur. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate hip joint biomechanics of the Silent Micro Hip™ in comparison to other implants. Implant-specific differences are highlighted. Material and Method: 150 consecutive patients (each group 50 Silent Micro Hip™, Nanos™ and SL-Plus™ MIA) were analysed retrospectively. For evaluation of biomechanical parameters pre- and postoperative X-rays (pelvic AP views) were used. Results: The horizontal femoral offset and the limb length showed no significant difference between the Silent Micro Hip™ and the Nanos™ or SL-Plus™ MIA stem at the reconstructed hip. An almost anatomic reconstruction of hip joint biomechanics was reached with all three types of implants.Conclusions: The Silent Micro Hip™ allows for almost anatomic reconstruction of hip joint biomechanics. Short-term results support the bone-preserving reconstruction with a proximal femoral load transfer. Further studies on the mid- and long-term outcomes are ongoing. PMID:24129720

Ries, C; Schopf, W; Dietrich, F; Franke, S; Jakubowitz, E; Sobau, C; Heisel, C



Muscular response to physiologic tensile stretch of the caprine c5/6 facet joint capsule: dynamic recruitment thresholds and latencies.  


This study examined the cervical muscle response to physiologic, high-rate (100 mm/s) tensile facet joint capsule (FJC) stretch. Six in-vivo caprine C5/6 FJC preparations were subjected to an incremental tensile loading paradigm. EMG activity was recorded from the right trapezius (TR) and multifidus (MF) muscle groups at the C5 and C6 levels; and from the sternomastoid (SM) and longus colli (LC) muscle groups bilaterally at the C5/6 level; during FJC stretch. Capsule load during the displacement applications was recorded via a miniature load cell, and 3D capsule strains (based on stereoimaging of an array of markers on the capsule surface) were reconstructed using finite element methods. EMG traces from each muscle were examined for onset of muscular activity. Capsule strains and loads at the time of EMG onset were recorded for each muscle, as was the time from the onset of FJC stretch to the onset of muscle activity. All muscles were responsive to physiologic high-rate FJC stretch. The deep muscles (MF and LC) were recruited at significantly smaller capsule loads and onset latencies than the superficial muscles (TR and SM). MF activation strain was significantly smaller than LC and TR activation strains. These data were also compared to previously published low-rate data. MF was the first muscle group to be recruited regardless of the activation criterion under consideration (i.e. strain, load, or latency) or the rate of FJC stretch. LC recruitment occurred significantly sooner under high-rate vs. low-rate FJC stretch. The results of this study provide further evidence of extensive ligamento-muscular reflex pathways between the FJC and the cervical musculature, which are responsive to both low-rate and high-rate FJC stretch. These data add to our knowledge of the dynamic response of paraspinal muscles relative to facet joint motion and provide a unique contribution to enhance the precision of computer-simulated impacts. PMID:22869317

Azar, Nadia R; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Chen, Chaoyang; Cavanaugh, John M



Radiographic criteria for placement of translaminar facet screws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextScrew fixation of the facet joint has been reported to stabilize the lumbar spine and facilitate spinal fusion. Accurate placement of translaminar facet screws (TLFSs) requires identification of the posterior spinal elements, and the facet joints in particular, which may be facilitated by intra-operative fluoroscopy.

Frank M Phillips; Erling Ho; Benjamin W Cunningham



5. Cervical facet pain.  


More than 50% of patients presenting to a pain clinic with neck pain may suffer from facet-related pain. The most common symptom is unilateral pain without radiation to the arm. Rotation and retroflexion are frequently painful or limited. The history should exclude risk factors for serious underlying pathology (red flags). Radiculopathy may be excluded with neurologic testing. Direct correlation between degenerative changes observed with plain radiography, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging and pain has not been proven. Conservative treatment options for cervical facet pain such as physiotherapy, manipulation, and mobilization, although supported by little evidence, are frequently applied before considering interventional treatments. Interventional pain management techniques, including intra-articular steroid injections, medial branch blocks, and radiofrequency treatment, may be considered (0). At present, there is no evidence to support cervical intra-articular corticosteroid injection. When applied, this should be done in the context of a study. Therapeutic repetitive medial branch blocks, with or without corticosteroid added to the local anesthetic, result in a comparable short-term pain relief (2 B+). Radiofrequency treatment of the ramus medialis of the cervical ramus dorsalis (facet) may be considered. The evidence to support its use in the management of degenerative cervical facet joint pain is derived from observational studies (2 C+). PMID:20415728

van Eerd, Maarten; Patijn, Jacob; Lataster, Arno; Rosenquist, Richard W; van Kleef, Maarten; Mekhail, Nagy; Van Zundert, Jan



Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Preservatives are common ingredients indicated in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Health care practitioners should familiarize\\u000a themselves with those most frequently used in cosmetics, drugs, and occupational exposure so that they can provide adequate\\u000a care and education to affected patients. This chapter summarizes the preservatives used in the Standard Series Patch Test,\\u000a which are also common causes of ACD. We also

Sara Flores; Howard Maibach


Vacuum facet phenomenon: a computed tomographic sign of degenerative spondylolisthesis  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum facet phenomenon, seen on computed tomography as a lens-shaped lucency within a lumbar facet joint, was observed as a consequence of degenerative spondylolisthesis. The significance of this finding is discussed.

Lefkowitz, D.M.; Quencer, D.M.



Comparison of human lumbar facet joint capsule strains during simulated high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation versus physiological motions  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Spinal manipulation (SM) is a n effective treatment for low back pain (LBP), and it has been theorized that SM induces a beneficial neurophysiological effect by stimulating mechanically sensitive neurons in the lumbar facet joint capsule (FJC). PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine whether human lumbar FJC strains during simulated SM were different from those that occur during physiological motions. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING Lumbar FJC strains were measured in human cadaveric spine specimens during physiological motions and simulated SM in a laboratory setting. METHODS Specimens were tested during displacement-controlled physiological motions of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotations. SM was simulated using combinations of manipulation site (L3, L4, and L5), impulse speed (5, 20, and 50 mm/s), and pre-torque magnitude (applied at T12 to simulate patient position; 0, 5, 10 Nm). FJC strains and vertebral motions (using six degrees of freedom) were measured during both loading protocols. RESULTS During SM, the applied loads were within the range measured during SM in vivo. Vertebral translations occurred primarily in the direction of the applied load, and were similar in magnitude regardless of manipulation site. Vertebral rotations and FJC strain magnitudes during SM were within the range that occurred during physiological motions. At a given FJC, manipulations delivered distally induced capsule strains similar in magnitude to those that occurred when the manipulation was applied proximally. CONCLUSIONS FJC strain magnitudes during SM were within the physiological range, suggesting that SM is biomechanically safe. Successful treatment of patients with LBP using SM may not require precise segmental specificity, because the strain magnitudes at a given FJC during SM do not depend upon manipulation site.

Ianuzzi, Allyson; Khalsa, Partap S.



Authorship, Dominance, and the Captive Collaborator: Preserving the Rights of Joint Authors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For copyright purposes, determining whether a work has a single author or joint authors is important for a variety of reasons. Perhaps the most significant legal consequence of joint authorship is joint ownership, under which the authors enjoy equal and undivided ownership of the copyright, allowing each to exploit the work freely, subject to a duty to account to the

Mary LaFrance



Morphometric analyses of the cervical superior facets and implications for facet dislocation.  


The articular facets of the cervical spine have been well addressed; however, little information is available on the relationship of the superior facets of the cervical spine to traumatic dislocation in the literature. Morphometric analyses of the superior facets of 30 dried cervical spines from C3 to C7 were performed to determine any morphological differences. The angle of the superior facet with respect to the transverse plane was also measured on computed tomography (CT) scans of 30 patients having neck injury without fracture/dislocation. The vertical and surface lengths of the superior facet were significantly lower (P < 0.01) at C6-C7 levels than at C3-5 levels. The anteroposterior diameter of the superior facet was smaller (P < 0.05) at C6 and C7 levels compared to C3-5 levels. Although the superior facet joint surface is in a more coronal orientation in lower cervical vertebrae, the inclination of the superior facet is more horizontal relative to the transverse plane when measured in vivo. A combination of lower height, smaller anteroposterior diameter of the superior facet, and a more horizontally oriented superior facet at C6 and C7 levels in vivo may explain the predilection of translation relative to one another in the lower cervical spine. PMID:17111154

Ebraheim, Nabil A; Patil, Vishwas; Liu, Jiayong; Haman, Steve P; Yeasting, Richard A



Aging effects on joint proprioception: the role of physical activity in proprioception preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the human life span the functions of several physiological systems dramatically change, including proprioception.\\u000a Impaired proprioception leads to less accurate detection of body position changes increasing the risk of fall, and to abnormal\\u000a joint biomechanics during functional activities so, over a period of time, degenerative joint disease may result. Altered\\u000a neuromuscular control of the lower limb and consequently poor

Fernando Ribeiro; José Oliveira




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hinge joints move only in one direction, ball-and-socket joints are free to rotate in all directions, and gliding joints are able to move forward, backward, and side to side, but do not rotate freely.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)



Exploring websites through contextual facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present contextual facets, a novel user interface technique for navigating websites that publish large collections of semi-structured data. Contextual facets extend traditional faceted navigation techniques by transforming webpage elements into user interface components for filtering and retrieving related webpages. To investigate users' reactions to contextual facets, we built FacetPatch, a web browser that automatically generates contextual facet interfaces. As

Yevgeniy Eugene Medynskiy; Mira Dontcheva; Steven M. Drucker



Facet-sparing lumbar decompression with a minimally invasive flexible MicroBlade Shaver® versus traditional decompression: quantitative radiographic assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Laminectomy/laminotomy and foraminotomy are well established surgical techniques for treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. However, these procedures have significant limitations, including limited access to lateral and foraminal compression and postoperative instability. The purpose of this cadaver study was to compare bone, ligament, and soft tissue morphology following lumbar decompression using a minimally invasive MicroBlade Shaver® instrument versus hemilaminotomy with foraminotomy (HL). Methods The iO-Flex® system utilizes a flexible over-the-wire MicroBlade Shaver instrument designed for facet-sparing, minimally invasive “inside-out” decompression of the lumbar spine. Unilateral decompression was performed at 36 levels in nine human cadaver specimens, six with age-appropriate degenerative changes and three with radiographically confirmed multilevel stenosis. The iO-Flex system was utilized on alternating sides from L2/3 to L5/S1, and HL was performed on the opposite side at each level by the same investigator. Spinal canal, facet joint, lateral recess, and foraminal morphology were assessed using computed tomography. Results Similar increases in soft tissue canal area and decreases in ligamentum flavum area were noted in nondiseased specimens, although HL required removal of 83% more laminar area (P < 0.01) and 95% more bone resection, including the pars interarticularis and facet joints (P < 0.001), compared with the iO-Flex system. Similar increases in lateral recess diameter were noted in nondiseased specimens using each procedure. In stenotic specimens, the increase in lateral recess diameter was significantly (P = 0.02) greater following use of the iO-Flex system (43%) versus HL (7%). The iO-Flex system resulted in greater facet joint preservation in nondiseased and stenotic specimens. In stenotic specimens, the iO-Flex system resulted in a significantly greater increase in foraminal width compared with HL (24% versus 4%, P = 0.01), with facet joint preservation. Conclusion The iO-Flex system resulted in significantly better decompression of the lateral recess and foraminal areas compared with HL, while preserving posterior spinal elements, including the facet joint.

Lauryssen, Carl; Berven, Sigurd; Mimran, Ronnie; Summa, Christopher; Sheinberg, Michael; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E



The use of allograft in joint-preserving surgery for ankle osteochondral lesions and osteoarthritis.  


The surgical management of young patients with large osteochondral lesions of the talus or end-stage osteoarthritis of the ankle joint presents a challenge to the orthopedic surgeon because these are well-recognized sources of pain and dysfunction. Procedures designed to address these disorders either have a limited role because of poor success rates or have significant implications, such as with the total ankle arthroplasty. Fresh osteochondral allografts allow defective tissue to be anatomically matched and reconstructed through transplantation. This article presents an overview of fresh osteochondral allografts, as well as potential concerns with their use, and summarizes the current literature. PMID:24008217

Winters, Brian S; Raikin, Steven M



Below-knee amputation: is the effort to preserve the knee joint justified?  


The records of 50 patients (31 men and 19 women, ranging in age from 49 to 89 years) undergoing definitive below-knee amputation for ischemia from May 1971 to May 1979 were reviewed. Forty-three (86%) had ulceration or necrosis involving the foot or toes. Seven had rest pain without tissue loss. Overall healing rate was 86%. Seven patients (14%) failed to heal and required reamputation above the knee; the functional status of the remaining 43 patients was graded preoperatively and at the time of late follow-up (mean, 3.4 years). Twenty-five of 35 (71%) unilateral below-knee amputees could walk with a prosthesis; ten could not. Seventeen patients (34%) either required an additional, higher amputation or did not use the knee joint to increase mobility. The patient with marginal circulation and marked preoperative functional limitations may have the above-knee level as the chosen site for amputation. PMID:7425829

Castronuovo, J J; Deane, L M; Deterling, R A; O'Donnell, T F; O'Toole, D M; Callow, A D



Nanoscale properties of planar and faceted iridium(210)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of a thin layer of adsorbed oxygen, the Ir(210) surface exhibits morphological instability and, upon annealing, becomes covered with nanometer-sized pyramids with facets of {311} and (110) crystallographic orientation. Electron diffraction and temperature programmed desorption experiments show that complete faceting requires 0.5 monolayers of oxygen coverage and annealing temperature of 600 K. For lower temperatures and coverages, faceted and planar surfaces coexist. Oxygen desorption above 950 K causes irreversible facet destruction. In previous adsorbate-induced faceting studies, it has not been possible to remove the adsorbate while preserving the faceted structure. We have accomplished this for O/Ir(210) via two low-temperature chemical methods: catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation and water formation. The clean faceted surface is an excellent substrate for model catalytic studies; it is stable for temperatures below 600 K and irreversibly reverts to planar above 600 K. Real-time low energy electron microscopy shows uniform facet nucleation and growth on the oxygen-covered Ir(210) surface and facet relaxation of the clean faceted surface. Planar and faceted structures coexist between 850 K and 1150 K in the presence of gaseous oxygen. Atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy shows that {311} facets are atomically smooth. The (110) facets consist of unreconstructed terraces separated by steps and of a complicated superstructure formed on the same facet. The facet atomic structure is consistent with models based bulk iridium properties and with first-principle simulations. Facets grow with annealing temperature increase, their average size ranging from 5 nm to 14 nm. Acetylene and ammonia decomposition exhibit structure sensitivity over the planar and faceted surface. Ammonia decomposition additionally exhibits size effects in experiments on faceted surfaces with different average facet size. Subtle differences in core-level high resolution soft x-ray spectra suggest that surface morphology, rather than electronic structure changes, is responsible for the structure and size effects. This work is the first adsorbate-induced faceting study where the preparation of a clean elemental faceted substrate has been accomplished. It paves the way for revealing the mechanisms of substantial mass transport in surface transformations, and is an excellent substrate for the study of structure sensitivity and size effects in catalytic reactions.

Ermanoski, Ivan


Mid-term results of joint-preserving procedures by a modified Mann method for big toe deformities in rheumatoid patients undergoing forefoot surgeries.  


This study aimed to evaluate joint-preserving procedures by a modified Mann method for rheumatoid forefoot deformities and their functional outcomes in the mid-term. Eleven feet in seven patients underwent forefoot surgery using a modified Mann method for the big toe, combined with offset osteotomy or resection arthroplasty of the lesser toes. The mean follow-up period was 3.6 years. The mean score on the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot scale for rheumatoid arthritis foot and ankle joints improved from 44.0 to 72.0. The mean hallux valgus angle improved from 39.4 degrees to 20.5 degrees and the mean M1M5 angle improved from 31.1 degrees to 25.8 degrees . However, deformities involving a hallux valgus angle of more than 25.0 degrees recurred in three feet at the latest follow-up, although the patients did not complain of any symptoms from the recurrence. Improvement in the Sharp score for joint space narrowing was observed in the big toe, indicating better congruity of the metatarsophalangeal joint. For restraint of rheumatoid forefoot deformities, a modified Mann method, combined with offset osteotomy or resection arthroplasty, was satisfactory for not only improving the foot function, but also preserving the metatarsophalangeal joint mobility. PMID:20012459

Takakubo, Yuya; Takagi, Michiaki; Tamaki, Yasunobu; Sasaki, Akiko; Nakano, Haruki; Orui, Hiroshi; Ogino, Toshihiko



Do all wurtzite nanotubes prefer faceted ones?  


First-principles computations have been preformed to investigate the stability of one-dimensional (1D) crystalline nanowires, faceted nanotubes, and conventional single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) with various sizes, as well as the two-dimensional infinitely single layers for several wurtzite materials. Regardless of the diameters, the SWNTs are more stable than sp(3)-dominated faceted nanotubes and nanowires for BN and C, while for AlN, GaN, ZnO, ZnS, and Si, the faceted nanotubes and nanowires are always more preferred energetically than SWNTs. However, the stability of SiC SWNTs relative to other 1D nanostructures is diameter-dependent: the SiC SWNTs are more stable than thinner faceted nanotubes and nanowires, but less stable than thick ones. This indicates that SiC SWNTs and faceted nanotubes/nanowires preserving wurtzite configuration can coexist in nanoscale. The different stabilities for various nanostructures are attributed to the competition between sp(2) and sp(3) hybridization of the atoms in wurtzite materials associated with the difference in the atomic radius and electronegativity of the elements involved. PMID:19485474

Li, Yafei; Zhou, Zhen; Chen, Yongsheng; Chen, Zhongfang



Midterm results of joint-preserving procedures by a modified Mann method for big toe deformities in rheumatoid patients undergoing forefoot surgeries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate joint-preserving procedures by a modified Mann method for rheumatoid forefoot deformities and\\u000a their functional outcomes in the mid-term. Eleven feet in seven patients underwent forefoot surgery using a modified Mann\\u000a method for the big toe, combined with offset osteotomy or resection arthroplasty of the lesser toes. The mean follow-up period\\u000a was 3.6 years. The mean score

Yuya Takakubo; Michiaki Takagi; Yasunobu Tamaki; Akiko Sasaki; Haruki Nakano; Hiroshi Orui; Toshihiko Ogino



First Beam to FACET  

SciTech Connect

The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been reconfigured to provide a beam of electrons to the new Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) while simultaneously providing an electron beam to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). On June 23, 2011, the first electron beam was transported through this new facility. Commissioning of FACET is in progress. On June 23, 2011, an electron beam was successfully transported through the new FACET system to a dump in Sector 20 in the linac tunnel. This was achieved while the last third of the linac, operating from the same control room, but with a separate injector system, was providing an electron beam to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), demonstrating that concurrent operation of the two facilities is practical. With the initial checkout of the new transport line essentially complete, attention is now turning toward compressing the electron bunches longitudinally and focusing them transversely to support a variety of accelerator science experiments.

Erickson, R.; Clarke, C.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.; Kalsi, S.; Lipkowitz, N.; Nelson, J.; Phinney, N.; Schuh, P.; Sheppard, J.; Smith, H.; Smith, T.; Stanek, M.; Turner, J.; Warren, J.; Weathersby, S.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC



High-index faceted noble metal nanocrystals.  


The formation of novel and complex structures with specific morphologies from nanocrystals via a direct assembly of atoms or ions remains challenging. In recent years, researchers have focused their attention on nanocrystals of noble metals and their controlled synthesis, characterization, and potential applications. Although the synthesis of various noble metal nanocrystals with different morphologies has been reported, most studies are limited to low-index facet-terminated nanocrystals. High-index facets, denoted by a set of Miller indices {hkl} with at least one index greater than unity, possess a high density of low-coordinated atoms, steps, edges, and kinks within these structures and serve as more active catalytic sites. With the potential for enhanced catalytic performance, researchers have used the insights from shape-controlled nanocrystal synthesis to construct noble metal nanocrystals bounded with high-index facets. Since the report of Pt tetrahexahedral nanocrystals, researchers have achieved significant progress and have prepared nanocrystals with various high-index facets. Because of the general order of surface energy for noble metals, high-index facets typically vanish faster in a crystal growth stage and are difficult to preserve on the surface of the final nanocrystals. Therefore researchers have had limited opportunities to examine high-indexed noble metal nanocrystals with a controlled morphology and investigate their resultant behaviors in depth. In this Account, we thoroughly discuss the basic concepts and state-of-the-art morphology control of some noble metal nanocrystals enclosed with high-index facets. We briefly introduce high-index facets from both crystallographic and geometrical points of view, both of which serve as methods to classify these high-index facets. Then, we summarize various typical noble metal nanocrystals terminated by different types of high-index facets, including {hk0} (h > k > 0), {hhl} (h > l > 0), {hkk} (h > k > 0), and {hkl} (h > k > l > 0). In each type, we describe several distinct morphologies including convex, concave, and other irregular shapes in detail. Based on these remarks, we discuss key factors that may induce the variations of Miller indices in each class, such as organic capping ligands and metallic cationic species. In a look at applications, we review several typical high-indexed noble metal nanocrystals showing enhanced electrocatalytic or chemical catalytic activities. PMID:22587943

Quan, Zewei; Wang, Yuxuan; Fang, Jiye



Optics Design for FACET  

SciTech Connect

FACET is a proposed facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. It will provide high energy, tightly focused and compressed electron and positron bunches for beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration research and other experiments. FACET will be built in the SLAC linac sector 20, where it will be separated from the LCLS located immediately downstream and will take advantage of the upstream 2 km linac for up to 23 GeV beam acceleration. FACET will also include an upgrade to linac sector 10, where a new e+ compressor chicane will be installed. The sector 20 will contain a new optics consisting of two chicanes for e+ and ebunch length compression, a final focus and an experimental line with a dump. The e+ and e- chicanes will allow the transport of e+ and ebunches together, their compression and proper positioning of e+ witness bunch behind the e- drive bunch at the plasma Interaction Point. The new optics will mostly use the existing SLAC magnets to minimize the project cost. Details of the FACET optics design and results of particle tracking simulations are presented.

Nosochkov, Y.; Bane, K.; Bentson, L.; Erickson, R.; Hogan, M.J.; Li, N.; Seeman, J.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Wittmer, W.; /SLAC



Facets of Subjectification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Subjectification, as the diachronic facet of subjectivity, has raised in the last two decades a number of interesting questions in grammaticalization and semantic change theory. In this paper I shall reflect on the nature and construal of subjectification, focusing on the question, formulated by Traugott (2010a, p. 58), "whether it is possible to…

Visconti, Jacqueline



FACET Emittance Growth  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC



Optics Tuning Knobs for Facet  

SciTech Connect

FACET is a new facility under construction at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The FACET beam line is designed to provide 23 GeV tightly focused and compressed electron and positron bunches for beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration research and other experiments. Achieving optimal beam parameters for various experimental conditions requires the optics capability for tuning in a sufficiently wide range. This will be achieved by using optics tuning systems (knobs). Design of such systems for FACET is discussed.

Nosochkov, Yuri; Hogan, Mark J.; Wittmer, Walter; /SLAC



The clinical aspects of the acute facet syndrome: results from a structured discussion among European chiropractors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The term 'acute facet syndrome' is widely used and accepted amongst chiropractors, but poorly described in the literature, as most of the present literature relates to chronic facet joint pain. Therefore, research into the degree of consensus on the subject amongst a large group of chiropractic practitioners was seen to be a useful contribution. METHODS: During the annual congress

Lise Hestbaek; Alice Kongsted; Tue Secher Jensen; Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde



Facets of Hydrology II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The editor states that this book should have a wide appeal to the research hydrologist, to operational hydrologists, and to those who have only a limited knowledge or are beginners in the study of hydrology. I agree with the editor that this publication should appeal to a large cross section of people whose interests lie in the various facets of hydrology.This publication takes a look at the newest interpretational tools available to hydrologists, such as environmental satellites. It considers a diverse menu of topics, such as sediment load of rivers, water resource systems, water quality monitoring, and the physical aspects of lakes. The volume also presents a look at international organizations that are concerned with worldwide water problems. The quality, quantity, and distribution of water over the globe is covered unde the topic headings “Large Scale Water Transfers,” “Technology Transfer in Hydrology,” and “The Organization of Hydrologic Services.”

Smigielski, Frank J.


Oxygen induced nano-faceting of Ir(210)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of oxygen and the nanometer-scale faceting induced by oxygen have been studied on Ir(210) (I. Ermanoski, K. Pelhos, W. Chen, J. S. Quinton and T. E. Madey, Surface Science (2003) in press). Oxygen is found to chemisorb dissociatively on Ir(210) at room temperature and desorb molecularly at temperatures between 625K and 1500K. Using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), pyramid-shaped facets with 311 and (110) crystallographic orientations are found to form on the oxygen-covered Ir(210) surface when annealed to T>600K. The surface remains faceted for T<850 K. For T>850K, the substrate structure reverts to the oxygen-covered (210) planar state and does so reversibly, provided that oxygen is not lost due to desorption or via chemical reactions upon which the planar (210) structure remains. A clean faceted surface is prepared through the use of low temperature surface cleaning methods: Using CO oxidation, or reaction of hydrogen to form water, oxygen can be removed from the surface while preserving (freezing) the faceted structure. The resulting clean faceted surface remains stable for T<600K. For higher temperatures, the surface irreversibly relaxes to the planar state.

Ermanoski, Ivan; Chen, Wenhua; Madey, Theodore



SLAC Linac Preparations for FACET  

SciTech Connect

The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been cut at the two-thirds point to provide beams to two independent programs. The last third provides the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), leaving the first two-thirds available for FACET, the new experimental facility for accelerator science and test beams. In this paper, we describe this separation and projects to prepare the linac for the FACET experimental program.

Erickson, R.; Bentson, L.; Kharakh, D.; Owens, A.; Schuh, P.; Seeman, J.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stanek, M.; Wittmer, W.; Yocky, G.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC



Faceting and roughening in quasicrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question whether quasi-crystal shapes should be faceted is studied in a simple model of quasi-crystalline order. At T = 0, the model is proved to yield a completely faceted equilibrium shape in both two and three dimensions. At T greater than 0, an interface model is derived for a two-dimensional Penrose tiling. By mapping it onto a one-dimensional quasi-periodic Schroedinger equation, it is shown that the roughness exponent varies continuously with T at low T.

Garg, Anupam; Levine, Dov



Faceting of twin tips in polysilicon films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The faceting of tips of twin plates in the interior of grains under annealing in phosphorus-doped polysilicon films, produced by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that the facet types and number of facets depend on the annealing temperature. The stability diagram for the different facet types has been constructed. Three kinds of faceting transitions that take place on the twin tips have been studied. The transformation of curved grain boundary into a grain boundary facet with increasing temperature has been observed for the first time.

Nakhodkin, N. G.; Kulish, N. P.; Rodionova, T. V.



Planar and High-Resolution SPECT Bone Imaging in the Diagnosis of Facet Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study's goals were to determine the appearance of poten tially symptomatic facet joints on planar and high-resolution SPECT radionuclide bone imaging, relate the relative sensitivity of the two techniques and assess the predictive value in a clinical setting. Methods: Fifty-eightconsecutive patients referredwith a diagnosis of possible facet syndrome were imaged during the same visit using both a well-established planar

Lawrence E. Holder; Jane L. Machin; Paul L. Asdourian; Jonathan M. Links; Carlton C. Sexton


Plasma Wakefield Experiments at FACET  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to {approx}20{micro}m long and focused to {approx}10{micro}m wide. The intense fields of the FACET bunches will be used to field ionize neutral lithium or cesium vapor produced in a heat pipe oven. Previous experiments at the SLAC FFTB facility demonstrated 50GeV/m gradients in an 85cm field ionized lithium plasma where the interaction distance was limited by head erosion. Simulations indicate the lower ionization potential of cesium will decrease the rate of head erosion and increase single stage performance. The initial experimental program will compare the performance of lithium and cesium plasma sources with single and double bunches. Later experiments will investigate improved performance with a pre-ionized cesium plasma. The status of the experiments and expected performance are reviewed. The FACET Facility is being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The facility will begin commissioning in summer 2011 and conduct an experimental program over the coming five years to study electron and positron beam driven plasma acceleration with strong wake loading in the non-linear regime. The FACET experiments aim to demonstrate high-gradient acceleration of electron and positron beams with high efficiency and negligible emittance growth.

Hogan, M.J.; England, R.J.; Frederico, J.; Hast, C.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; An, W.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Tochitsky, S.; /UCLA; Muggli, P.; Pinkerton, S.; Shi, Y.; /Southern California U.



Extending Faceted Navigation for RDF Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the Semantic Web is semi-structured and does not follow one fixed schema. Faceted browsing (23) is a natural technique for navigating such data, partitioning the information space into or- thogonal conceptual dimensions. Current faceted interfaces are manu- ally constructed and have limited query expressiveness. We develop an expressive faceted interface for semi-structured data and formally show the improvement

Eyal Oren; Renaud Delbru; Stefan Decker



Growth of faceted needle crystals: theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needle crystals have been observed to be faceted at low velocities of growth. This can be explained by the theory of diffusion-limited growth with the addition of a supplementary condition fixing the shape of the facet depending on the average temperature on it. This leads to a relation between the size of the facet and the growth velocity in a

M. Ben Amar; Y. Pomeau



Facet orientation in the thoracolumbar spine: three-dimensional anatomic and biomechanical analysis.  


STUDY DESIGN: Thoracolumbar facet orientations were measured and analyzed. OBJECTIVES: To establish a comprehensive database for facet orientation in the thoracolumbar vertebrae and to determine the normal human condition. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Most studies on facet orientation have based their conclusions on two-dimensional measurements, in small samples or isolated vertebrae. The amount of normal asymmetry in facet orientation is poorly addressed. METHODS: Transverse and longitudinal facet angles were measured directly from 240 human vertebral columns (males/females, blacks/whites). The specimens' osteologic material is part of the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection housed at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (Cleveland, OH). A total of 4,080 vertebrae (T1-L5) from the vertebral columns of individuals 20 to 80 years of age were measured, using a Microscribe three-dimensional apparatus (Immersion Co., San Jose, CA). Data were recorded directly on computer software. Statistical analysis included paired t tests and analysis of variance. RESULTS.: Facet orientation is independent of gender, age, and ethnic group. Asymmetry in facet orientation is found in the thorax. All thoracolumbar facets are positioned in an oblique plane. In the transverse plane, all facets from T1 to T11 are positioned with an anterior inclination of approximately 25 degrees to 30 degrees from the frontal plane. The facets of T12-L2 are oriented closer to the midsagittal plane of the vertebral body (mean range, 25.89 degrees-33.87 degrees), while the facets of L3-L5 are oriented away from that plane (mean range, 40.40 degrees-56.30 degrees). Facet transverse orientation at the thoracolumbar junction is highly variable (approximately 80% with approximately 101 degrees and approximately 20% with 35 degrees). All facets are oriented more vertically from T1 (approximately 150 degrees) to L5 (approximately 170 degrees). The facet sagittal orientations of the lumbar zygoapophyseal joints are not equivalent. CONCLUSIONS.: Asymmetry in facet orientation is a normal characteristic in the thorax. PMID:15303019

Masharawi, Youssef; Rothschild, Bruce; Dar, Gali; Peleg, Smadar; Robinson, Dror; Been, Ella; Hershkovitz, Israel



Efficacy of Ultrasonography-Guided Injections in Patients with Facet Syndrome of the Low Lumbar Spine  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the efficacy of ultrasonography (US)-guided injections in patients with low lumbar facet syndrome, compared with that in patients who received fluoroscopy (FS)-guided injections. Method Fifty-seven subjects with facet syndrome of the lumbar spine of the L4-5 and L5-S1 levels were randomly divided into two groups to receive intraarticular injections into the facet joint. One group received FS-guided facet joint injections and the other group received US-guided facet joint injections. Treatment effectiveness was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), physician's and patient's global assessment (PhyGA, PaGA), and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (MODI). All parameters were evaluated four times: before injections, and at a week, a month, and three months after injections. We also measured, in both groups, how long it took to complete the whole procedure. Results Each group showed significant improvement from the facet joint injections on the VAS, PhyGA, PaGA, and MODI (p<0.05). However at a week, a month, and three months after injections, no significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to VAS, PhyGA, PaGA, and MODI (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences in procedure time were observed between groups (FS: 248.7±6.5 sec; US: 263.4±5.9 sec; p=0.023). Conclusion US-guided injections in patients with lumbar facet syndrome are as effective as FS-guided injections for pain relief and improving activities of daily living.

Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinn Man; Choi, Seong He; Hwang, Dae Gyu



Al-induced faceting of Si(113)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of Al on a Si(113) substrate at elevated temperatures causes a faceting transition of the initially flat surface. The (113) surface decomposes into a quasi-periodic sequence of Al terminated (115)- and (112)-facets. The resulting surface morphology is characterized in-situ by reciprocal space maps obtained with in-situ spot profile analyzing low-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ atomic force microscopy. The periodicity length of the faceted surface increases with adsorption temperature from 7 nm at 650 °C to 80 nm at 800 °C. The stability of the Al terminated Si(112) surface is the driving force for the faceting transition.

Klein, Claudius; Heidmann, Inga; Nabbefeld, Tobias; Speckmann, Moritz; Schmidt, Thomas; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.; Falta, Jens; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael



Relationship of Facet Tropism with Degeneration and Stability of Functional Spinal Unit  

PubMed Central

Purpose The authors investigated the effect of lumbar facet tropism (FT) on intervertebral disc degeneration (DD), facet joint degeneration (FJD), and segmental translational motion. Materials and Methods Using kinetic MRI (KMRI), lumbar FT, which was defined as a difference in symmetry of more than 7° between the orientations of the facet joints, was investigated in 900 functional spinal units (300 subjects) in flexion, neutral, and extension postures. Each segment at L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 was assessed based on the extent of DD (grade I-V) and FJD (grade 1-4). According to the presence of FT, they were classified into two groups; one with FT and one with facet symmetry. For each group, demographics, DD, FJD and translational segmental motion were compared. Results The incidence of FT was 34.5% at L3-L4, 35.1% at L4-L5, and 35.2% at L5-S1. Age and gender did not show any significant relationship with FT. Additionally, no correlation was observed between DD and FT. FT, however, wasfound to be associated with a higher incidence of highly degenerated facet joints at L4-L5 when compared to patients without FT (p < 0.01). Finally, FT was not observed to have any effects upon translational segmental motion. Conclusion No significant correlation was observed between lumbar FT and DD or translational segmental motion. However, FT was shown to be associated significantly with the presence of high grades of FJD at L4-L5. This suggests that at active sites of segmental motion, FT may predispose to the development of facet joint degeneration.

He, Wubing; Tsai, Yu-Duan; Chen, Nan-Fu; Keorochana, Gun; Do, Duc H.; Wang, Jeffrey C.



Solitary Epidural Lipoma with Ipsilateral Facet Arthritis Causing Lumbar Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old obese man (body mass index, 31.6 kg/m2) presented radiating pain and motor weakness in the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass posterior to the L5 vertebral body, which was isosignal to subcutaneous fat and it asymmetrically compressed the left side of the cauda equina and the exiting left L5 nerve root on the axial T1 weighted images. Severe arthritis of the left facet joint and edema of the bone marrow regarding the left pedicle were also found. As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning a solitary epidural lipoma combined with ipsilateral facet arthorsis causing lumbar radiculopathy. Solitary epidural lipoma with ipsilateral facet arthritis causing lumbar radiculopathy was removed after the failure of conservative treatment. After decompression, the neurologic deficit was relieved. At a 2 year follow-up, motor weakness had completely recovered and the patient was satisfied with the result. We recommend that a solitary epidural lipoma causing neurologic deficit should be excised at the time of diagnosis.

Kim, Hong Kyun; Koh, Sung Hye



Articular facets syndrome: diagnostic grading and treatment options  

PubMed Central

Approximately 80% of the adult population suffers from chronic lumbar pain with episodes of acute back pain. The aetiology of this disorder can be very extensive: degenerative scoliosis, spondiloarthritis, disc hernia, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis and, in the most serious cases, neoplastic or infectious diseases. For several years, the attention of surgeons was focused on the articular facets syndrome (Lilius et al. in J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 71-B:681–684, 1998), characterised clinically by back pain and selective pressure soreness at the level of the facets involved. The instrumental framework highlights widespread zigoapophysary arthritis and hypertrophy/degeneration of articular facets due to a functional overload. This retrospective study analyses the patients who arrived at our observation and were treated with a neuroablation using a pulsed radiofrequency procedure, after a CT-guided infiltration test with anaesthetic and cortisone. From the data collected, it would seem that this procedure allows a satisfactory remission of the clinical symptoms, leaving the patient free from pain; furthermore, this method can be repeated in time.

Gallazzi, M.; Colombo, M.; Ferraro, M.



Naturalism and the Tale of Two Facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams and DeSteno (2010) and Gladkova (2010) question the validity, utility, and theoretical support for the bifurcation of pride into hubristic and authentic facets. Though these commentators highlight unanswered questions and important directions for future research, we argue that the broad, evolutionarily informed framework for the two facets, presented in our target article nonetheless provides the best fit and explanation

Azim F. Shariff; Jessica L. Tracy; Joey T. Cheng



Automatic Discovery of Useful Facet Terms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Databases of text and text-annotated data constitute a significant fraction of the information available in electronic form. Searching and browsing are the typical ways that users locate items of inter- est in such databases. Faceted interfaces represent a new powerful paradigm which has been proven to be a successful complement to keyword searching. Thus far, the generation of faceted interfaces

Wisam Dakka; Rishabh Dayal; Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis


Modeling facet heating in ridge lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical self-consistent model to study facet heating in semiconductor lasers is presented. The model consists of the solutions of the 3D heat equation and the 1D longitudinal carrier and photon rate equations. The model is used to investigate facet heating in a ridge laser structure and the results are compared with the predictions of similar models using lower dimensional

G. Romo; T. Smy; D. Walkey; B. Reid



Long-Term Information Preservation and Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An unprecedented amount of information encompassing almost every facet of human activities across the world is generated daily in the form of zeros and ones, and that is often the only form in which such information is recorded. A good fraction of this information needs to be preserved for periods of time ranging from a few years to centuries.…

Song, Sang Chul



Distinctive Fluctuations of Facet Edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spurred by theoretical predictions of distinctive static scaling of the step bounding a facet, we extend the results to dynamic scaling, also rederiving the static results heuristically and we measure this behavior using STM line scans. The correlation functions go as t^0.15 ±0.03 decidedly different from the t^0.26 ±0.02 behavior for fluctuations of isolated steps. From the exponents, we categorize the universality, confirming the prediction that the non-linear term of the KPZ equation, long known to play a central role in non-equilibrium phenomena, can also arise from the curvature or potential-asymmetry contribution to the step free energy. We study a simple model with Monte Carlo simulations to illustrate the novel scaling of fluctuations in an asymmetric potential. P.L. Ferrari et al., Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 035102(R) A. Pimpinelli et al., Surf. Sci. Lett. 598 (2005) L355 M. Degawa et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 080601 (2006)

Degawa, M.; Stasevich, T. J.; Cullen, W. G.; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Einstein, T. L.; Williams, E. D.



Testing of the prototype facets for the stretched-membrane faceted dish  

SciTech Connect

The Faceted Stretched-Membrane Dish Program is part of a DOE-sponsored effort to develop a commercial 25 kWe dish/Stirling system employing a twelve-facet dish concentrator. The facets will utilize the stretched-membrane technology originated in the heliostat development program. Each facet is constructed with a thin metal membrane stretched over both sides of a steel ring. When a small vacuum is induced between the membranes they assume a parabolic contour capable of concentrating sunlight at a predetermined focal length. A reflective polymer film is attached to the face of the facet of the facet to enhance the optical performance. During Phase II of the Faceted Stretched-Membrane Dish Program, Science Applications International Corp. and Solar Kinetics, Inc., constructed prototype 3.5-meter facets utilizing different design approaches to demonstrate their manufacturability and optical performance. Sandia engaged in a program to determine the on-sun performance of the facets (for f/Ds of 2.7 to 3.0). A uniformly distributed slope error was used as the basis for comparison. Flux arrays based on slope error from a computer model were compared to a measured flux array for each facet. The slope error for the facet was determined by the value that would produce a modeled array with the minimum mean square difference to the measured array. The facet produced by SAIC demonstrated uniform slope errors of 2.2 to 3.0 milliradians with peak flux intesities of 334 to 416 kW/m{sup 2}. The SKI facet had slope errors of 1.6 to 1.9 milliradians with peak flux intesities of 543 to 1186 kW/m{sup 2}.

Grossman, J.W.; Houser, R.M.; Erdman, W.W.



Scalable Faceted Ranking in Tagging Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, web collaborative tagging systems which allow users to upload, comment on and recommend contents, are growing. Such systems can be represented as graphs where nodes correspond to users and tagged-links to recommendations. In this paper we analyze the problem of computing a ranking of users with respect to a facet described as a set of tags. A straightforward solution is to compute a PageRank-like algorithm on a facet-related graph, but it is not feasible for online computation. We propose an alternative: (i) a ranking for each tag is computed offline on the basis of tag-related subgraphs; (ii) a faceted order is generated online by merging rankings corresponding to all the tags in the facet. Based on the graph analysis of YouTube and Flickr, we show that step (i) is scalable. We also present efficient algorithms for step (ii), which are evaluated by comparing their results with two gold standards.

Orlicki, José I.; Alvarez-Hamelin, J. Ignacio; Fierens, Pablo I.


Categories and Facets in Integrative Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facets and general categories used in bibliographic classification have been based on a disciplinary organization of knowledge.\\u000a However, facets and categories of phenomena independent from disciplines can be identified similarly. Phenomena can be classified\\u000a according to a series of integrative levels (layers), which in turn can be grouped into the major strata of form, matter,\\u000a life, mind, society and culture,

Claudio Gnoli



Finite-element evaluation of contact loads on facets of an L2-L3 lumbar segment in complex loads.  


In this study, the contact loads and regions on facets of a lumbar motion segment are quantitatively determined. The analysis accounts for both material and geometric nonlinearities and treats the facet articulation as a frictionless, nonlinear, moving contact problem. The loadings consist of axial torque and lateral bending acting alone or in combination with axial compression force. Complex loadings simulating symmetric and nonsymmetric liftings are also considered. Under identical magnitude of rotation, axial torque generates the largest contact forces, followed by extension, flexion, and lateral bending. Contact forces under loads simulating heavy symmetric lifting are as, or even larger than, those under large extension and axial torque loadings. The presence of axial and lateral rotations during forward flexion significantly increases the loads transmitted through the compression facet. The tension facet, in this case, became nearly unloaded. The large loads on the facets, predicted especially under nonsymmetric, combined flexion loadings, are likely to play a role in the observed disorders of the facet joints. Under various loadings, the transfer of forces from one facet to the adjacent one occurs through three distinct areas, namely, extension-type, flexion-type, and torsion-type contact areas. The relative magnitude of different components of the transmitted forces are also predicted to vary considerably, depending on these regions of contact. PMID:2052996

Shirazi-Adl, A



Facet engineering of high power single emitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ever increasing demand for high-power, high-reliability operation of single emitters at 9xx nm wavelengths requires the development of laser diodes with improved facet regions immune to both catastrophic and wear-out failure modes. In our study, we have evaluated several laser facet definition technologies in application to 90 micron aperture single emitters in asymmetric design (In)GaAs/AlGaAs based material emitting at 915, 925 and 980nm. A common epitaxy and emitter design makes for a straightforward comparison of the facet technologies investigated. Our study corroborates a clear trend of increasing difficulty in obtaining reliable laser operation from 980nm down to 915nm. At 980nm, one can employ dielectric facet passivation with a pre-clean cycle delivering a device lifetime in excess of 3,000 hours at increasing current steps. At 925nm, quantum-well intermixing can be used to define non-absorbing mirrors giving good device reliability, albeit with a large efficiency penalty. Vacuum cleaved emitters have delivered excellent reliability at 915nm, and can be expected to perform just as well at 925 and 980nm. Epitaxial regrowth of laser facets is under development and has yet to demonstrate an appreciable reliability improvement. Only a weak correlation between start-of-life catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) levels and reliability was established. The optimized facet design has delivered maximum powers in excess of 19 MW/ (rollover limited) and product-grade 980nm single emitters with a slope efficiency of >1 W/A and a peak efficiency of >60%. The devices have accumulated over 1,500 hours of CW operation at 11W. A fiber-coupled device emits 10W ex-fiber with 47% efficiency.

Yanson, Dan; Levi, Moshe; Shamay, Moshe; Tesler, Renana; Rappaport, Noam; Don, Yaroslav; Karni, Yoram; Schnitzer, Itzhak; Sicron, Noam; Shusterman, Sergey



Oracy: Social Facets of Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers and educators have developed an interest in language development. Their studies focused on the cultural context in which language is learned and developed and its relationship to cognitive development. This article reviews the researchers' definitions on oracy and its social facets of language learning. Specifically, it reviews…

Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard



Schizotypy Facets, Cognitive Control, and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined whether facets of schizotypy were differentially related to cognitive control and emotion-processing traits. In a confirmatory factor analysis (N = 261), a 3-factor model of schizotypy exhibited good fit and fit significantly better than a 2-factor model. In addition, only disorganized schizotypy was associated with poor cognitive control (specifically, prepotent inhibition). Moreover, disorganized but not positive schizotypy

John G. Kerns



Multiple facets of macrophages in renal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple facets of macrophages in renal injury.Macrophage infiltration is a common feature of renal disease and their presence has been synonymous with tissue damage and progressive renal failure. More recently work has focused on the heterogeneity of macrophage activation and in particular their ability to curtail inflammation and restore normal function. This has led to the view that it is




Oracy: social facets of language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers and educators have developed an interest in language development. Their studies focused on the cultural context in which language is learned and developed and its relationship to cognitive development. This article reviews the researchers’ definitions on oracy and its social facets of language learning. Specifically, it reviews studies that describe (1) how language develops, beginning at birth and throughout

Olivia N. Saracho; Bernard Spodek



Vertical Reduction Using Atlantoaxial Facet Spacer in Basilar Invagination with Atlantoaxial Instability  

PubMed Central

Although posterior segmental fixation technique is becoming increasingly popular, surgical treatment of craniovertebral junctional disorders is still challenging because of its complex anatomy and surrounding critical neurovascular structures. Basilar invagination is major pathology of craniovertebral junction that has been a subject of clinical interest because of its various clinical presentations and difficulty of treatment. Most authors recommend a posterior occipitocervical fixation following transoral decompression or posterior decompression and occipitocervical fixation. However, both surgical modalities inadvertently sacrifice C0-1 and C1-2 joint motion. We report two cases of basilar invagination reduced by the vertical distraction between C1-2 facet joint. We reduced the C1-2 joint in an anatomical position and fused the joint with iliac bone graft and C1-2 segmental fixation using the polyaxial screws and rods C-1 lateral mass and the C-2 pedicle.

Kim, Il Sup; Sung, Jae Hoon; Byun, Jae Hoon



Vertical reduction using atlantoaxial facet spacer in basilar invagination with atlantoaxial instability.  


Although posterior segmental fixation technique is becoming increasingly popular, surgical treatment of craniovertebral junctional disorders is still challenging because of its complex anatomy and surrounding critical neurovascular structures. Basilar invagination is major pathology of craniovertebral junction that has been a subject of clinical interest because of its various clinical presentations and difficulty of treatment. Most authors recommend a posterior occipitocervical fixation following transoral decompression or posterior decompression and occipitocervical fixation. However, both surgical modalities inadvertently sacrifice C0-1 and C1-2 joint motion. We report two cases of basilar invagination reduced by the vertical distraction between C1-2 facet joint. We reduced the C1-2 joint in an anatomical position and fused the joint with iliac bone graft and C1-2 segmental fixation using the polyaxial screws and rods C-1 lateral mass and the C-2 pedicle. PMID:22323942

Kim, Il Sup; Hong, Jae Taek; Sung, Jae Hoon; Byun, Jae Hoon



Facets for Discovery and Exploration in Text Collections  

SciTech Connect

Faceted classifications of text collections provide a useful means of partitioning documents into related groups, however traditional approaches of faceting text collections rely on comprehensive analysis of the subject area or annotated general attributes. In this paper we show the application of basic principles for facet analysis to the development of computational methods for facet classification of text collections. Integration with a visual analytics system is described with summaries of user experiences.

Rose, Stuart J.; Roberts, Ian E.; Cramer, Nicholas O.



Structural changes in the cervical facet capsular ligament: potential contributions to pain following subfailure loading.  


While studies have demonstrated the cervical facet capsule is at risk for tensile injury during whiplash, the relationship between joint loading, changes in the capsule's structure, and pain is not yet fully characterized. Complementary approaches were employed to investigate the capsule's structure-function relationship in the context of painful joint loading. Isolated C6/C7 facet joints (n=8) underwent tensile mechanical loading, and measures of structural modification were compared for two distraction magnitudes: 300 m (PV) and 700 m (SV). In a matched in vivo study, C6/C7 facet joints (n=4) were harvested after the same SV distraction and the tissue was sectioned to analyze collagen fiber organization using polarized light microscopy. Laxity following SV distraction (7.30+/-3.01%) was significantly greater (p<0.001) than that produced following PV distraction (0.99+/-0.44%). Also, SV distractions produced significantly higher maximum principal strain (p<0.001) in the capsule and resulted in significantly greater decreases in stiffness (p=0.002) when compared to PV distraction. After SV distraction in vivo, mean angular deviation of the fiber direction (16.8+/-2.6 degrees) was significantly increased (p=0.004) relative to naive samples in the lateral region of the capsule, indicating collagen fiber disorganization. These findings demonstrate that certain subfailure loading conditions are associated with altered joint mechanics and collagen fiber disorganization and imply ligament damage. Damage in the capsule has the potential to both directly modulate nerve fiber signaling and produce sustained physiologic modifications that may initiate persistent pain. PMID:18278597

Quinn, Kyle P; Lee, Kathryn E; Ahaghotu, Chukwunyere C; Winkelstein, Beth A



Formulation and Application of the Generalized Multilevel Facets Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors develop a generalized multilevel facets model, which is not only a multilevel and two-parameter generalization of the facets model, but also a multilevel and facet generalization of the generalized partial credit model. Because the new model is formulated within a framework of nonlinear mixed models, no efforts are…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Liu, Chih-Yu



Results from Plasma Wakefield Experiments at FACET  

SciTech Connect

We report initial results of the Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) Experiments performed at FACET - Facility for Advanced aCcelertor Experimental Tests at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. At FACET a 23 GeV electron beam with 1.8 x 10{sup 10} electrons is compressed to 20 {mu}m longitudinally and focused down to 10 {mu}m x 10 {mu}m transverse spot size for user driven experiments. Construction of the FACET facility completed in May 2011 with a first run of user assisted commissioning throughout the summer. The first PWFA experiments will use single electron bunches combined with a high density lithium plasma to produce accelerating gradients > 10 GeV/m benchmarking the FACET beam and the newly installed experimental hardware. Future plans for further study of plasma wakefield acceleration will be reviewed. The experimental hardware and operation of the plasma heat-pipe oven have been successfully commissioned. Plasma wakefield acceleration was not observed because the electron bunch density was insufficient to ionize the lithium vapor. The remaining commissioning time in summer 2011 will be dedicated to delivering the FACET design parameters for the experimental programs which will begin in early 2012. PWFA experiments require the shorter bunches and smaller transverse sizes to create the plasma and drive large amplitude wakefields. Low emittance and high energy will minimize head erosion which was found to be a limiting factor in acceleration distance and energy gain. We will run the PWFA experiments with the design single bunch conditions in early 2012. Future PWFA experiments at FACET are discussed in [5][6] and include drive and witness bunch production for high energy beam manipulation, ramped bunch to optimize tranformer ratio, field-ionized cesium plasma, preionized plasmas, positron acceleration, etc.. We will install a notch collimator for two-bunch operation as well as new beam diagnostics such as the X-band TCAV [7] to resolve the two bunches. With these new instruments and desired beam parameters in place next year, we will be able to complete the studies of plasma wakefield acceleration in the next few years.

Li, S.Z.; Clarke, C.I.; England, R.J.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.; Litos, M.D.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Muggli, P.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; An, W.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Tochitsky, S.; /UCLA; Adli, E.; /U. Oslo



Facets of Emotional Clarity and Suspiciousness  

PubMed Central

In a college student sample, we explored the relations between individual differences in facets of emotional clarity and suspiciousness. Previous theory and research has treated emotional clarity as a one-dimensional construct. Boden and Berenbaum (2011) proposed that a second facet of emotional clarity, source awareness (a general understanding of the cause of their emotions), could be distinguished from type awareness (a general understanding of the type of emotions [anger, fear] experienced). We found that source and type awareness were incrementally, inversely associated with suspiciousness when statistically accounting for the extent to which emotions are attended to, and gender. Additionally, source awareness significantly predicted suspiciousness after accounting for anger, anxious arousal, and social anxiety, whereas type awareness did not. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that, among individuals with low source and type awareness, suspicious beliefs are formed to make sense of and explain emotional arousal.

Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard



Preserving Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of National Geographic's Xpeditions Hall and includes lesson plans and activities related to the topic of biodiversity. The site covers ecosystems, endangered species, why preserving biodiversity is necessary, and how captive breeding has been used to try and save some species from extinction. These lesson plans were written by educators and have been tested in the classroom.


Digitizing Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of digital imaging technology focuses on its potential use for preservation of library materials. Topics addressed include converting microfilm to digital; the high cost of conversion from paper or microfilm; quality; indexing; database management issues; incompatibility among imaging systems; longevity; cooperative pilot projects; and…

Conway, Paul



Records Preservation  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Older materials and recently arrived items in the Field Records Collection are in various states of preservation and documentation. In the current reorganization project, items are inventoried for content, transferred to archival storage containers, and archived as shelf items (notebooks and file fo...



FACET: The New User Facility at SLAC  

SciTech Connect

FACET (Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests) is a new User Facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Its high power electron and positron beams make it a unique facility, ideal for beam-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration studies. The first 2 km of the SLAC linac produce 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron and positron beams with short bunch lengths of 20 {mu}m. A final focusing system can produce beam spots 10 {mu}m wide. User-aided Commissioning took place in summer 2011 and FACET will formally come online in early 2012. We present the User Facility, the current features, planned upgrades and the opportunities for further experiments. Accelerators are our primary tool for discovering the fundamental laws to the universe. Each new frontier we probe requires a new, more powerful method. Accelerators are therefore increasing in size and cost. The future of this field requires new accelerating techniques that can reach the high energies required over shorter distances. New concepts for high gradient acceleration include utilizing the wakes in plasma and dielectric and metallic structures. FACET was built to provide a test bed for novel accelerating concepts with its high charge and highly compressed beams. As a test facility unlike any other, it has also attracted groups interested in beam diagnostic techniques and terahertz studies. The first phase of the construction was completed in May 2011. Beam commissioning began in June and was interleaved with the installation of five experiments. Users were invited to aid with the commissioning for the month of August during which time experimental hardware and software were checked out and some first measurements were taken. FACET is currently in the process of becoming a Department of Energy User Facility for High Energy Physics.

Clarke, C.I.; Decker, F.J.; Erikson, R.; Hast, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Li, S.Z.; Nosochkov, Y.; Phinney, N.; Sheppard, J.; Wienands, U.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC; Seryi, A.; /Oxford U., JAI; Wittmer, W.; /Michigan State U.



Faceted Preference Matching in Recommender Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recommender system assists customers in product selection by matching client preferences to suitable items. This paper describes\\u000a a preference matching technique for products categorized by a faceted feature classification scheme. Individual ratings of\\u000a features and products are used to identify a customer’s predictive neighborhood. A recommendation is obtained by an inferred\\u000a ranking of candidate products drawn from the neighborhood.

Fred N. Loney



Energetics of oxygen-induced faceting on Cu(115)  

SciTech Connect

We have used surface x-ray diffraction to observe the oxygen-induced faceting of the Cu(115) surface in real time. We find that the surface morphological evolution is driven by the formation of O/Cu(104) facets: O exposure induces spinodal decomposition of the (115) surface into (104) and (014) facets, which form spontaneously, and also stepped facets, whose orientation gradually changes from (115) to (113) as the (104) facets grow. We identify three temperature regimes that have qualitatively different faceting processes, allowing us to determine the temperature-dependent equilibrium crystal shape for part of the O/Cu system. Semiquantitative explanations are given in terms of the Wulff construction. During the faceting process, the time evolution follows a slow dynamic scaling, consistent with either a logarithmic or power-law behavior, driven by the rate of incorporation of O onto the surface.

Walko, D. A.; Robinson, I. K.



Interventional radiology in bone and joint  

SciTech Connect

Recent radiologic procedures in bone and joints, some of which eliminate the need for surgery are exposed, including: trephine biopsies of the thoracic and lumbar spine, sacro-iliac joints, peripheral bones synovial membrane and soft tissues, using either fluoroscopic echographic or CT guidance - chemonucleolysis - vascular embolization of skeletal tumors and management of vertebral hemangiomas - selective steroid injection in a broad spectrum of diseases including vertebral facet syndrome, cervicobrachial nerve root pain, rotator cuff calcium deposit, bone cysts.

Bard, M.; Laredo, J.D.



Preserving Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Negative impact of modern cancer treatment methods on human reproduction has been recognized. In this chapter, we first summarize\\u000a the facts about cancer and treatment-related adverse outcomes in female reproductive function, then discuss the needs, and\\u000a outline the current strategies and the future directions of fertility preservation and ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation\\u000a in adult and adolescent female patients whose fertility

Kutluk Oktay; Ozgur Oktem


Gamete Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the increase in survivorship following cancer for women in their reproductive years, as well as an increase in survivorship\\u000a with childhood cancers, there is a demand for perfecting current fertility preservation methods and generating new options\\u000a for patients who are unable to pursue the conventional course of fertility treatments. Cryopreservation using a slow-cooling\\u000a method for embryos is currently the

Susan L. Barrett; Teresa K. Woodruff


Sealing Faceted Surfaces to Achieve Watertight CAD Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Solid modeling engines are capable of faceting CAD models but may facet each face independent of adjacent faces. Regions of\\u000a the resulting model have gaps between faces of their boundaries. An algorithm is described to seal faceted CAD models such\\u000a that the boundary of neighboring faces has the same discretization along their shared edges. The algorithm works by sealing\\u000a skin

Brandon M. Smith; Timothy J. Tautges; Paul P. H. Wilson


Transverse effects in plasma wakefield acceleration at FACET - Simulation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate transverse effects in the plasma-wakefield acceleration experiments planned and ongoing at FACET. We use PIC simulation tools, mainly QuickPIC, to simulate the interaction of the drive electron beam and the plasma. In FACET a number of beam dynamics knobs, including dispersion and bunch length knobs, can be used to vary the beam transverse characteristics in the plasma. We present simulation results and the status of the FACET experimental searches.

Adli, E.; Hogan, M.; Frederico, J.; Litos, M. D.; An, W.; Mori, W.



Faceted ceramic fibers, tapes or ribbons and epitaxial devices therefrom  

SciTech Connect

A crystalline article includes a single-crystal ceramic fiber, tape or ribbon. The fiber, tape or ribbon has at least one crystallographic facet along its length, which is generally at least one meter long. In the case of sapphire, the facets are R-plane, M-plane, C-plane or A-plane facets. Epitaxial articles, including superconducting articles, can be formed on the fiber, tape or ribbon.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)



Facets of Loneliness and Depression Among Chinese Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the relation among different facets of loneliness and depression in a sample of 6,356 Chinese children and adolescents from Grades 4–9. Loneliness and depression were closely related among the primary (Grades 4–6) and secondary (Grades 7–9) students, both boys and girls. Although the different facets of loneliness were predictive of the various facets of depression, peer-related loneliness

Sing Lau; Dennis W. K. Chan; Patrick S. Y. Lau



Accommodation of angular incompatibilities between interfacial facets during precipitate growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitate growth in a duplex stainless steel and a titanium aluminide alloy has been studied using transmission electron microscopy. Particles with similar crystallography and acicular form arise in both cases, and are bounded by two principal facets. One facet, designated C, is based on a commensurate singular interface structure, and the coherency strains are accommodated by interfacial defects. The other facet, designated I, is based on a singular configuration that is incommensurate in one dimension. The orientation relationship (OR) between the particle and the matrix for the singular C structure is Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S), whereas that for the I facet is Pitsch. The angular incompatibility between these two types of facets must be accommodated to minimize the displacement field as particles grow. The present observations suggest that this is accomplished through the generation of crystal dislocations at facet junctions and their subsequent climb along the facets. The total density of defects needed to accommodate the angular discrepancy is fixed, but the partitioning of these dislocations between C and I facets is not. The actual partitioning determines the observed OR for a particle, and is determined by the kinetics of climb, which is likely to be different in the two facets. In the stainless steel, the observations are consistent with climb occurring in both the C and I facets, but faster in the I facet, leading to a distribution of observed ORs that is skewed away from Pitsch toward K-S. In the titanium aluminide alloy, no climb into the C facets was found, so a unique OR close to K-S arises.

Pond, R. C.; Jiao, H.; Zhang, L. C.; Aindow, M.



Transverse effects in plasma wakefield acceleration at FACET - Simulation studies  

SciTech Connect

We investigate transverse effects in the plasma-wakefield acceleration experiments planned and ongoing at FACET. We use PIC simulation tools, mainly QuickPIC, to simulate the interaction of the drive electron beam and the plasma. In FACET a number of beam dynamics knobs, including dispersion and bunch length knobs, can be used to vary the beam transverse characteristics in the plasma. We present simulation results and the status of the FACET experimental searches.

Adli, E.; Hogan, M.; Frederico, J.; Litos, M. D.; An, W.; Mori, W. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)



Global faceting behavior of strained Ge islands on Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of crystallographic facets of strained heteroepitaxial Ge islands on Si is investigated. Islands growing on Si(001), (111), (110) and (113) are bound by an equilibrium set of facets that includes only shared stable surfaces between bulk Si and Ge—{105}, {113}, {15 3 23} and {111}. The formation of a stereographic map from these indices facilitates the prediction of Ge faceted-island shapes on any Si substrate at different stages of growth. The analysis presented here can be applied to other heteroepitaxial islanding systems where a finite set of shared equilibrium facets exists for the bulk starting materials.

Robinson, Jeremy T.; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver; Dubon, Oscar D.



Adaptive ultrasonic speckle reduction based on the slope-facet model.  


The flat-facet model has been implicitly assumed for the structure of the image surface by most conventional speckle-reduction algorithms. However, this model is rarely found in a real ultrasound (US) image. To preserve the higher order structures and to capture the spatially variant property of the speckle, a new adaptive speckle-reduction algorithm, called the symmetrical speckle-reduction filter (SSRF), was developed based on the slope-facet model. The basic idea of the SSRF was to estimate the uncorrupted signal on the largest symmetrical slope facet centered at each target pixel. The symmetry constraint ensured the correctness of the mean value. An empirical speckle model was incorporated to account for the nature of the speckle in US image. A two-stage despeckling strategy was employed to enhance the statistical reliability of each estimate by forming a union of a set of symmetrical despeckling windows. The proposed SSRF algorithm was compared with two filtered-based and one wavelet-based approaches and the experimental results showed that the proposed SSRF outperformed these three previous approaches in both the synthetic images and the clinical US images tested in this study. PMID:12946519

Huang, Huan-Chao; Chen, Jau-Yuen; Wang, Sheng-De; Chen, Chung-Ming



The first tarsometatarsal joint and its association with hallux valgus  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aetiology of hallux valgus is almost certainly multifactoral. The biomechanics of the first ray is a common factor to most. There is very little literature examining the anatomy of the proximal metatarsal articular surface and its relationship to hallux valgus deformity. Methods We examined 42 feet from 23 specimens in this anatomical dissection study. Results This analysis revealed three distinct articular subtypes. Type 1 had one single facet, type 2 had two distinct articular facets, and type 3 had three articular facets one of which was a lateral inferior facet elevated from the first. Type 1 joints occurred exclusively in the hallux valgus specimens, while type 3 joints occurred exclusively in normal specimens. Type 2 joints occurred in both hallux valgus and normal specimens. Another consistent finding in regards to the proximal articular surface of the first metatarsal was the lateral plantar prominence. This prominence possessed its own articular surface in type 3 joints and was significantly flatter in specimens with hallux valgus (p < 0.001) and the angle with the joint was significantly more obtuse (p < 0.001). Conclusions We believe the size and acute angle of this prominence gives structural mechanical impedance to movement at the tarsometatarsal joint and thus improves the stability.

Mason, L. W.; Tanaka, H.



Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

Reiweger, I.; Schweizer, J.



15 CFR 922.192 - Joint Management Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint Management Committee. 922.192 Section 922...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM...Underwater Preserve § 922.192 Joint Management Committee. (a) A...



Automatic Extraction of Useful Facet Hierarchies from Text Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Databases of text and text-annotated data constitute a significant fraction of the information available in electronic form. Searching and browsing are the typical ways that users locate items of interest in such databases. Faceted interfaces represent a new powerful paradigm that proved to be a successful complement to keyword searching. Thus far, the identification of the facets was either a

Wisam Dakka; Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis



Facet Identification for the Symmetric Traveling Salesman Polytope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several procedures for the identification of facet inducing inequalities for the symmetric traveling salesman polytope are given. An identification procedure accepts as input the support graph of a point which does not belong to the polytope, and returns as output some of the facet inducing inequalities violated by the point. A procedure which always accomplishes this task is calledexact, otherwise

Manfred Padberg; Giovanni Rinaldi



Faceting of curved tungsten surface induced by palladium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a palladium adlayer on the surface topography of a needle-shaped tungsten crystal is studied using field ion microscopy. When the curved surface is covered by palladium and annealed at 1000–1200 K, both macroscopic faceting and steplike microfaceting is observed. The macroscopic {110} and {211} crystal facets increase in size, {211} steplike microfacets are formed around ?111? poles,

A. Szczepkowicz; A Ciszewski



FTIR Spectra of faceted diamonds and diamond simulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

FTIR spectra of faceted diamonds and diamond simulants collected by diffuse reflectance, transflectance, and specular reflection techniques were compared. The transflectance technique exploited total internal reflection phenomenon within the faceted diamond for the spectral acquisition. The transflectance spectra were similar to the well-accepted diffuse reflectance spectra with equal or better spectral qualities. Based on the observed spectral features of the

Pimthong Thongnopkun; Sanong Ekgasit



Grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth in nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation between grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth has been observed in recrystallized polycrystalline Ni at varying annealing temperatures, with or without C added. Carburized Ni specimens deformed to 50 pct show faceted grain boundaries and abnormal grain growth when annealed at temperatures below 0.7 T m, where T m is the melting point of Ni in absolute

Sung Bo Lee; Nong Moon Hwang; Duk Yong Yoon; Michael F. Henry



The hamate facet of the lunate: a radiographic study in an Arab population from Bahrain.  


Based on the presence of a facet for the hamate two types of lunate bone have been described in the wrist; type I is without a facet for the hamate while type II bears a facet on the medial surface for articulation with the proximal pole of the hamate. Compared to type I lunates, type II lunates have been shown to have different kinematics, are more prone to clinically relevant degenerative changes in the hamato-lunate joint and may cause ulnar-sided wrist pain. The incidence of type II lunates seems to vary in different populations. Postero-anterior (PA) view of plain radiographs of the hand was studied in Arab subjects from Bahrain (n=381; 307 males and 74 females) to determine the incidence of type I and type II lunates. The mean age of the subjects was 31.1 years, the range being 18-80 years. In the population studied, only 148 (38.8%) of the 381 wrists showed type II lunate; 121 (31.7%) were found in males and 27 (7.1%) in females. There was no significant difference in the mean age of subjects with type I or type II lunates (P=0.16). There was no correlation between side and gender with the presence or absence of a hamate facet on the lunate. The incidence of type II lunate was much lower than reports in the literature of populations from the Western world, which could be attributed to a genetic variation in the Arab population in Bahrain. These data indicate that osteoarthritis of the hamate or lunate is less likely to be a cause of ulnar-sided wrist pain in Bahraini Arabs. PMID:16362229

Dharap, A S; Al-Hashimi, H; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M F



Identification of Genes That Interact With Drosophila liquid facets  

PubMed Central

We have performed mutagenesis screens of the Drosophila X chromosome and the autosomes for dominant enhancers of the rough eye resulting from overexpression of liquid facets. The liquid facets gene encodes the homolog of vertebrate endocytic Epsin, an endocytic adapter protein. In Drosophila, Liquid facets is a core component of the Notch signaling pathway required in the signaling cells for ligand endocytosis and signaling. Why ligand internalization by the signaling cells is essential for signaling is a mystery. The requirement for Liquid facets is a hint at the answer, and the genes identified in this screen provide further clues. Mutant alleles of clathrin heavy chain, Rala, split ends, and auxilin were identified as enhancers. We describe the mutant alleles and mutant phenotypes of Rala and aux. We discuss the relevance of all of these genetic interactions to the function of Liquid facets in Notch signaling.

Eun, Suk Ho; Lea, Kristi; Overstreet, Erin; Stevens, Samuel; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Fischer, Janice A.



Evolution of triangular topographic facets along active normal faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triangular shaped facets, which are generally formed by the erosion of fault - bounded mountain ranges, are arguably one of the most prominent geomorphic features on active normal fault scarps. Some previous studies of triangular facet development have suggested that facet size and slope exhibit a strong linear dependency on fault slip rate, thus linking their growth directly to the kinematics of fault initiation and linkage. Other studies, however, generally conclude that there is no variation in triangular facet geometry (height and slope) with fault slip rate. The landscape of the northeastern Basin and Range Province of the western United States provides an opportunity for addressing this problem. This is due to the presence of well developed triangular facets along active normal faults, as well as spatial variations in fault scale and slip rate. In addition, the Holocene climatic record for this region suggests a dominant tectonic regime, as the faulted landscape shows little evidence of precipitation gradients associated with tectonic uplift. Using GIS-based analyses of USGS 30 m digital elevation data (DEMs) for east - central Idaho and southwestern Montana, we analyze triangular facet geometries along fault systems of varying number of constituent segments. This approach allows us to link these geometries with established patterns of along - strike slip rate variation. For this study, we consider major watersheds to include only catchments with upstream and downstream boundaries extending from the drainage divide to the mapped fault trace, respectively. In order to maintain consistency in the selection criteria for the analyzed triangular facets, only facets bounded on opposite sides by major watersheds were considered. Our preliminary observations reflect a general along - strike increase in the surface area, average slope, and relief of triangular facets from the tips of the fault towards the center. We attribute anomalies in the along - strike geometric measurements of the triangular facets to represent possible locations of fault segment linkage associated with normal fault evolution.

Balogun, A.; Dawers, N. H.; Gasparini, N. M.; Giachetta, E.



Osteological and Morphometric Observations on Intervertebral Joints in the Canine Pre-diaphragmatic Thoracic Spine (Th1–Th9)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of facet aplasia was investigated in three groups of pure-bred dogs. We examined large breeds (Rough Collies, Doberman Pinschers, Rottweilers, Bernese Mountain Dogs, German Shepherd Dogs), chondrodystrophic breeds (Dachshunds, Pekinese dogs), and small breeds (Yorkshire Terriers, Maltese dogs). Uni- or bilateral aplasia of zygapophyseal (facet) joints was exclusively found in juvenile and adult small dogs, in which the

S. Breit



Ultra-steep side facets in multi-faceted SiGe/Si(001) Stranski-Krastanow islands  

PubMed Central

For the prototypical Ge/Si(001) system, we show that at high growth temperature a new type of Stranski-Krastanow islands is formed with side facets steeper than {111} and high aspect ratio. Nano-goniometric analysis of the island shapes reveals the presence of six new facet groups in addition to those previously found for dome or barn-shaped islands. Due to the highly multi-faceted island shape and high aspect ratio, the new island types are named "cupola" islands and their steepest {12 5 3} side facet is inclined by 68°to the substrate surface. Assessing the relative stability of the new facets from surface area analysis, we find that their stability is similar to that of {113} and {15 3 23} facets of dome islands. The comparison of the different island shapes shows that they form a hierarchical class of geometrical structures, in which the lower aspect ratio islands of barns, domes and pyramids are directly derived from the cupola islands by successive truncation of the pedestal bases without facet rearrangements. The results underline the key role of surface faceting in the process of island formation, which is as crucial for understanding the island's growth evolution as it is important for device applications.



Population variation in the incidence of the medial (hamate) facet of the carpal bone lunate.  


Studies on the wrist joint have shown two types of the carpal bone lunate. In type II lunate there is a facet on the medial side of the lunate for articulation with the proximal pole of the hamate; such a facet is absent in type I lunate. Type II lunates have different kinematics, are more prone to clinically relevant degenerative changes in the hamato-lunate joint and are an uncommon cause of ulnar-sided wrist pain. Ninety plain radiographs showing postero-anterior views of the wrist (52 right and 38 left wrists) were studied in a population of Malays from Malaysia (mean age 48 years; age range 23 to 67 years) to determine the incidence of type I and type II lunates. Our findings were compared with those in other reports in the literature. In Malays, only 24 wrists (26.7%) showed a type II lunate compared to a reported incidence of 50% or more in populations from the Western world. Such a low incidence of type II lunate has not been reported before and may represent a genetic variation in Malays. Consequently, osteoarthritis of the hamate or lunate may play a less significant role in causing ulnar-sided wrist pain in Malays. In conclusion, the prevalence of type II lunate might vary in different population groups and further studies could be necessary to confirm this observation. PMID:16623089

Dharap, Amol S; Lutfi, Ibrahim; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan F



Preservation of Digital Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)|

Galloway, Patricia



Forces on lumbo-vertebral facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forces acting on the human lumbar vertebrae in a variety of postures are analyzed using the principles of engineering\\u000a statistics. It is concluded that the pressures exerted on the interarticular joints can be at least as large as the pressures\\u000a on the intervertebral discs when lifting heavy weights in flexion. Since 1934, the ruptured disc has been the focus

Godfrey T. Fiorini; David McCammond



[Facet blockade, peridural and periradicular pain therapy].  


More than 80% of vertebrogenic lumbar pain is unspecific and can only be attributed to a specific anatomic structure with difficulty. The pain can emanate from the intervertebral discs, intervertebral and sacroiliac (SI) joints, musculature, and ligaments. In a maximum of 7% of cases, the pain is radicular (4% due to intervertebral discs and 3% caused by stenoses). In 7-15% of cases, the pain's origin is located in the region of the vertebral joints and in up to 15% in the region of the SI joint. Although the overwhelming majority of pain has no clear structural cause, infiltrations of medications and nerve blockades are frequently employed. The efficacy of these procedures has however not been verified in controlled studies with the exception of epidural injection of corticosteroids for radicular pain. Epidural and epiradicular application of corticosteroids appear to be effective for radicular pain, at least on a short-term basis, although controlled studies have yielded controversial results. The difficulty lies partly in the exact placement at the affected root for applying the medication. This is hardly possible with a caudal injection, while with a lumbar peridural injection and periradicular injections it is only possible under X-ray control or even better CT guidance. PMID:16786389

Waggershauser, T; Schwarzkopf, S; Reiser, M



Influence of a Temperature Gradient on Crystal Faceting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Crystals which grow in a faceted manner in an isothermal environment will grow nonfaceted in the presence of a sufficiently large temperature gradient. This behavior is viewed from several different standpoints. From equilibrium considerations one predict...

W. R. Wilcox



Resource Use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a baseline description of resource use in the Dry Bay area, which in 1981 became Glacier Bay National Preserve. The study involved the joint cooperation of the NPS and the Subsistence Division of the Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game. The main p...

G. Gmelch



Collections: Their Development, Management, Preservation, and Sharing. Papers from the Joint Meeting of the Association of Research Libraries and the Standing Conference of National and University Libraries (York, England, September 19-22, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papers from the joint meeting are assembled in this document. Each of the meeting's five program sessions featured presentations by a Standing Conference of National and Universal Libraries (SCONUL) director and an Association of Research Libraries (ARL) director. The presentations highlight perspectives from both sides of the Atlantic and are…

Daval, Nicola, Ed.


Adsorbate-induced nanoscale faceting of rhenium surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, we report the first systematic study of adsorbate-induced faceting of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metal surfaces. Focusing on two atomically rough rhenium surfaces: Re(1231) and Re(11 21), we reveal the dependence of their surface morphology on adsorbate coverage and species by means of low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HRSXPS) based on synchrotron radiation. Re(1231) becomes completely faceted when oxygen coverage is greater than 0.7 monolayer (ML) and the surface is annealed at T > 700K. As oxygen coverage further increases, the surface morphology evolves from long ridges formed by (01 1 0) and (11 21) facets, to truncated ridges due to sequential emergence of (10 1 0) and (01 1 1), and eventually to complex structures formed by (01 1 0) (0 1 0) (01 1 1) and (10 1 1) facets. All facets disappear when the surface is annealed at T > 1300K due to oxygen desorption and the surface reverts to planar. Drastic differences have also been found between oxygen and nitrogen-induced faceting of Re(11 21). For O/Re(11 21), the morphology evolves as a function of oxygen coverage from a partially faceted surface with zigzag chains formed by (01 1 0) and (10 1 0) to a completely faceted surface with four-sided pyramids formed by (01 1 0) (10 1 0) (01 1 1) and (10 1 1). Two metastable facets, (3364) and (2x1) reconstructed (1122) are also observed in the evolution process. In contrast, for N/Re(11 21), a fully faceted surface shows ridges formed by (13 42) and (3142) facets upon exposure to ammonia at 800-900K; ammonia dissociates on Re and only nitrogen remains on the surface at T > 600K. A (2x1) reconstructed N/Re(11 21) surface is also observed in LEED when the surface is annealed at 600-700K. Temperature-pressure phase diagrams from first principles calculations are consistent with the experimental results. Our work has implications for Re-based catalysts that operate under oxygen or nitrogen-rich conditions because the structure of the catalysts often affects their performance. The results show great promise of tailoring the surface morphology at the nanometer scale by choosing appropriate adsorbate-substrate combinations, adsorbate coverages and annealing conditions.

Wang, Hao


Analysis on linac quadrupole misalignment in FACET commissioning 2012  

SciTech Connect

In this note, the analysis on linac quadrupole misalignment is presented for the FACET linac section LI05-09 plus LI11-19. The effectiveness of the beam-based alignment technique is preliminarily confirmed by the measurement. Beam-based alignment technique was adopted at SLAC linac since SLC time. Here the beam-based alignment algorithms are further developed and applied in the FACET commissioning during 2012 run.

Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC



Concave cubic gold nanocrystals with high-index facets.  


A new class of gold nanostructures, concave nanocubes, enclosed by 24 high-index {720} facets, have been prepared in a monodisperse fashion by a modified seed-mediated synthetic method. The Cl(-) counterion in the surfactant plays an essential role in controlling the concave morphology of the final product. The concave nanocubes exhibit higher chemical activities compared with low-index {111}-faceted octahedra. PMID:20853848

Zhang, Jian; Langille, Mark R; Personick, Michelle L; Zhang, Ke; Li, Shuyou; Mirkin, Chad A



Etched-angled-facet superluminescent diodes for improved mode locking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When conventional superluminescent diodes are mode locked in an external cavity to mitigate nonlinearities and dispersion, the residual reflectivity at the diode's facet creates a detrimental compound cavity. This compound cavity modulates the spectrum of the round trip gain, and this modulation strongly hinders the complete locking of modes. Such lasers produce longer pulses, pulses with undesirable temporal structure or multiple pulses. Prior work has shown some success with using etched angled facets to divert the modal reflection away from the waveguide. In this dissertation, a new microfabrication process is developed to produce superluminescent diodes with the combination of low facet reflectivity, bias-controlled saturable absorption and CW operation without noticeable degradation. An improved etching process reduces the roughness of the angled facet to reduce reflectivity due to backscattering. The process uses reactive ion etching (RIE) to pattern the silicon dioxide etch mask, and chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) to pattern the aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) epitaxial structure. The smoothness of the etched facets correlates with etching conditions. As measured by atomic force microscopy, the facets are as smooth as 4 nm R.M.S. The reflectivity of these angled facets is on the order of 10-5, inferred from measurements of CW superluminescence spectra. This low reflectivity is broadband. Passive mode locking of these diodes in a simple external cavity produces single pulses of 4 ps duration (without compression). The mode-locked optical spectra are smooth and symmetric, with a full width of 2.4 nm to 3.0 nm. The laser operation exhibits bistability with respect to both the absorber bias and the gain current. The operation is repeatable. In the present devices, the pulse widths and spectral widths are limited only by the insufficient length of the saturable absorber section, 30 ?m. The very low reflectivity of the etched angled facet allows for good mode locking with a very simple cavity and simple DC bias.

Pesarcik, Scott Frederick



Oxygen-induced faceting of NiAl(111)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research is focused on the adsorption of oxygen and oxygen-induced faceting of NiAl(111), as studied by means of LEED, AES, SEM, AFM and high-resolution soft XPS (HRSXPS, using synchrotron radiation at NSLS). The atomically rough NiAl(111) surface remains planar at room temperature when exposed to oxygen. However, the surface changes its morphology and becomes faceted upon annealing at 1100K

E. Loginova; W. Chen; N. M. Jisrawi; F. Cosandey; T. E. Madey



Grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth in nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation between grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth has been observed in recrystallized polycrystalline\\u000a Ni at varying annealing temperatures, with or without C added. Carburized Ni specimens deformed to 50 pct show faceted grain\\u000a boundaries and abnormal grain growth when annealed at temperatures below 0.7 T\\u000a m, where T\\u000a m is the melting point of Ni in absolute

Sung Bo Lee; Nong Moon Hwang; Duk Yong Yoon; Michael F. Henry



Mean-field theory for coarsening faceted surfaces.  


A mean-field theory is developed for the scale-invariant length distributions observed during the coarsening of generic one-dimensional faceted surfaces. This theory closely follows the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory of Ostwald ripening in two-phase systems, but the mechanism of coarsening in faceted surfaces requires the addition of convolution terms recalling work on particle coalescence, and induces an unexpected coupling between the convolution and the rate of facet loss. As a generic framework, the theory concisely illustrates how the universal processes of facet removal and neighbor merger are moderated by the system-specific mean-field velocity describing average rates of length change. For a simple, example facet dynamics associated with the directional solidification of a binary alloy, agreement between the predicted scaling state and that observed after direct numerical simulation of 40,000,000 facets is reasonable given the limiting assumption of noncorrelation between neighbors; relaxing this assumption is a clear path forward toward improved quantitative agreement with data in the future. PMID:22463224

Norris, Scott A; Watson, Stephen J



Simulation of facet heating in high-power red lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional self-consistent laser model has been used for the simulation of the facet heating of red emitting AlGaInP lasers. It solves in the steady-state the complete semiconductor optoelectronic and thermal equations in the epitaxial and longitudinal directions and takes into account the population of different conduction band valleys. The model considers the possibility of two independent mechanisms contributing to the facet heating: recombination at surface traps and optical absorption at the facet. The simulation parameters have been calibrated by comparison with measurements of the temperature dependence of the threshold current and slope efficiency of broad-area lasers. Facet temperature has been measured by micro-Raman spectrometry in devices with standard and non absorbing mirrors evidencing an effective decrease of the facet heating due to the non absorbing mirrors. A good agreement between experimental values and calculations is obtained for both devices when a certain amount of surface traps and optical absorption is assumed. A simulation analysis of the effect of non absorbing mirrors in the reduction of facet heating in terms of temperature, carrier density, material gain and Shockly-Read-Hall recombination rate profiles is provided.

Tijero, J. M. G.; Odriozola, H.; Esquivias, I.; Martin-Minguez, A.; Borruel, L.; Gomez-Iglesias, A.; Reufer, M.; Bou-Sanayeh, M.; Brick, P.; Linder, N.; Ziegler, M.; Tomm, J. W.



Organizing Preservation Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide considers issues in the staffing and organization of preservation activities. It provides guidance in implementing a systematic preservation program and evaluates the structures of various types of preservation programs. The following articles complement the discussion of program models and implementation: (1) "Preservation

Cloonan, Michele


Beyond Text Queries and Ranked Lists: Faceted Search in Library Catalogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted library catalogs have gained popularity in many academic and public libraries. This dissertation seeks to understand whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and to understand ways that facets are used in…

Niu, Xi



Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD.

Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W



Titanium dioxide nanoswords with highly reactive, photocatalytic facets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely studied and important materials for catalysis, photovoltaics, and surface science applications, but the ability to consistently control the relative exposure of higher surface energy facets during synthesis remains challenging. Here, we present the repeatable synthesis of highly reactive, rutile {001} or {101} facets on broad, sword-shaped TiO2 nanostructures rapidly synthesized in minutes. Growth occurs along planes of lower surface energy, repeatedly yielding nanostructures with large, high energy facets. The quantitative photocatalytic reactivity of the nanoswords, demonstrated by the photoreduction of silver, is over an order of magnitude higher than reference low energy TiO2{110} substrates. Therefore, the higher surface energy dominated TiO2 nanoswords are ideal structures for characterizing the physicochemical properties of rutile TiO2, and may be used to enhance a variety of catalytic, optical, and clean-technology applications.

Sosnowchik, Brian D.; Chiamori, Heather C.; Ding, Yong; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Wang, Zhong Lin; Lin, Liwei



Facets of Parenting a Child with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to conceptualize the needs of parents of young children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) to provide a theoretical framework to inform the development of future parent interventions. Participants were parents and grandparents (n = 53) of 15 young children who had undergone the Sano surgical approach for HLHS. Analysis of recorded and transcribed single interviews with each participant was done as directed by interpretive description methodology. A model of five facets of parenting was conceptualized. These included survival parenting, “hands-off” parenting, expert parenting, uncertain parenting, and supported parenting. The facets of parenting delineated through this study provide a theoretical framework that can be used to guide the development and evaluation of interventions for parents of children with complex congenital heart disease and potentially other life-threatening conditions. Each facet constitutes a critical component for educational or psychosocial intervention for parents.

Rempel, Gwen R.; Rogers, Laura G.; Ravindran, Vinitha; Magill-Evans, Joyce



Facets of protein assembly on nanostructured titanium oxide surfaces.  


One key for the successful integration of implants into the human body is the control of protein adsorption by adjusting the surface properties at different length scales. This is particularly important for titanium oxide, one of the most common biomedical interfaces. As for titania (TiO(2)) the interface is largely defined by its crystal surface structure, it is crucial to understand how the surface crystallinity affects the structure, properties and function of protein layers mediating subsequent biological reactions. For rutile TiO(2) we demonstrate that the conformation and relative amount of human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) and the structure of adsorbed HPF layers depend on the crystal surface nanostructure by employing thermally etched multi-faceted TiO(2) surfaces. Thermal etching of polycrystalline TiO(2) facilitates a nanoscale crystal faceting and, thus, the creation of different surface nanostructures on a single specimen surface. Atomic force microscopy shows that HPF arranges into networks and thin globular layers on flat and irregular crystal grain surfaces, respectively. On a third, faceted category we observed an alternating conformation of HPF on neighboring facets. The bulk grain orientation obtained from electron backscatter diffraction and thermodynamic mechanisms of surface reconstruction during thermal etching suggest that the grain and facet surface-specific arrangement and relative amount of adsorbed proteins depend on the associated free crystal surface energy. The implications for potentially favorable TiO(2) crystal facets regarding the inflammatory response and hemostasis are discussed with a view to the advanced surface design of future implants. PMID:23142481

Keller, Thomas F; Reichert, Jörg; Thanh, Tam Pham; Adjiski, Ranko; Spiess, Lothar; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga; Jandt, Klaus D; Bossert, Jörg



Assessing Preservation Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes techniques for assessing the preservation needs of library collections and facilities to provide documentation for preservation program requests. The techniques described involve surveys of the physical facility, the storage environment, the condition of the collection, and preservation related incidents in the past. (nine references)…

Walker, Gay



A History Worth Preserving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved

Cynthia Kelly



Ceramic joints  


Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

Miller, Bradley J. (Worcester, MA); Patten, Jr., Donald O. (Sterling, MA)



Nonlinear wavelength selection in surface faceting under electromigration.  


We report on the control of the faceting of crystal surfaces by means of surface electromigration. When electromigration reinforces the faceting instability, we find perpetual coarsening with a wavelength increasing as t(1/2). For strongly stabilizing electromigration, the surface is stable. For weakly stabilizing electromigration, a cellular pattern is obtained, with a nonlinearly selected wavelength. The selection mechanism is not caused by an instability of steady states, as suggested by previous works in the literature. Instead, the dynamics is found to exhibit coarsening before reaching a continuous family of stable nonequilibrium steady states. PMID:23006189

Barakat, Fatima; Martens, Kirsten; Pierre-Louis, Olivier



Nonlinear Wavelength Selection in Surface Faceting under Electromigration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the control of the faceting of crystal surfaces by means of surface electromigration. When electromigration reinforces the faceting instability, we find perpetual coarsening with a wavelength increasing as t1/2. For strongly stabilizing electromigration, the surface is stable. For weakly stabilizing electromigration, a cellular pattern is obtained, with a nonlinearly selected wavelength. The selection mechanism is not caused by an instability of steady states, as suggested by previous works in the literature. Instead, the dynamics is found to exhibit coarsening before reaching a continuous family of stable nonequilibrium steady states.

Barakat, Fatima; Martens, Kirsten; Pierre-Louis, Olivier



Cervical facet arthropathy and occipital neuralgia: headache culprits.  


Cervicogenic headache (CH) is pain referred from the neck. Two common causes are cervical facet arthropathy and occipital neuralgia. Clinical diagnosis is difficult because of the overlying features between primary headaches such as migraine, tension-type headache, and CH. Interventional pain physicians have focused on supporting the clinical diagnosis of CH with confirmatory blocks. The treatment of cervical facet arthropathy as the source of CH is best approached with a multidimensional plan focusing on physical therapy and/or manual therapy. The effective management of occipital neuralgia remains challenging, but both injections and neuromodulation are promising options. PMID:20936382

Hoppenfeld, J D



Grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth in nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation between grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth has been observed in recrystallized polycrystalline\\u000a Ni at varying annealing temperatures, with or without C added. Carburized Ni specimens deformed to 50 pct show faceted grain\\u000a boundaries and abnormal grain growth when annealed at temperatures below 0.7 T\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a , where T\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a is the melting point of Ni in

Sung Bo Lee; Duk Yong Yoon; Nong Moon Hwang; Michael F. Henry



A new transducer for facet force measurement in the lumbar spine: benchmark and in vitro test results.  


A new transducer capable of direct measurement of time-dependent loads in human lumbar facet joints was developed and tested. The transducer was comprised of a force-sensitive resistor (FSR) in series with a pressure-sensitive film. A wide range of experiments revealed the performance attributes and limitations of the FSR. The output signal of the FSR is actually sensitive to both force and area of contact independently. Therefore, a pressure-sensitive film was used to quantify the contact area. At least two transformation equations were calculated for each FSR corresponding to known contact areas. Each equation was a linearization of the log of the FSR output vs the log of the applied ramp loads. Coefficients of determination (CD) were calculated for small (21 mm2) and large (32 mm2) contact areas, and were found to exceed 0.900 for all data. The average of nine cycles was nearly linear for some FSRs (CD of 0.999). FSR output signal and contact area were recorded in cadaveric lumbar facets under ramp load. The appropriate transformation equation was determined by a linear interpolation between benchmark equations based on the contact area measured in vitro. Facet force measurements compared well with those of other researchers. The transducer was found to be quite easy to use. PMID:1733985

Hedman, T P



The facet selectivity of inorganic ions on silver nanocrystals in etching reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The facet selectivity of the halide ions and chlorauric acid for several shaped silver nanocrystals is presented in this paper. Two inorganic ions show different representations when they are used for etching silver nanocrystals in the self-sacrificial template reaction. The morphological changes of the silver nanocrystals indicate that the halide ions prefer to etch the (110) facets of silver nanocrystals, while in the chlorauric acid etching reaction, gold first modifies the (110) facets and then lets chlorauric acid etch the (111) facets instead. The selective facet etching on individual nanoparticles in the solution phase has crucial significance in the control-synthesis of nanocrystals and the facet asymmetric reaction.

Xu, Shuping; Tang, Bin; Zheng, Xianliang; Zhou, Ji; An, Jing; Ning, Xiaohua; Xu, Weiqing



Exploring Facets of Personality and Escapism in Pathological Gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored facets of personality between pathological gamblers (n = 69) and nonpathological gamblers (n = 55) in a convenience sample in Los Angeles, California. Pathological gamblers were more prone to mood disturbance, impulsivity, feelings of frustration, interpersonal sensitivity, vulnerability to distress, and distrust of others as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Pathological gamblers also reported diminished competence

Rory C. Reid; Desiree S. Li; Jean Lopez; Michael Collard; Iman Parhami; Reef Karim; Timothy Fong



Annotations in Digital Libraries and Collaboratories – Facets, Models and Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our study regarding the different facets and ways of using annotations in both digital libraries and collaboratories. This study represents an innovative attempt at gathering methodological tools and synergies from both fields in order to effectively define a comprehensive model for annotations. Thus we propose a conceptual model for annotations in order to develop

Maristella Agosti; Nicola Ferro; Ingo Frommholz; Ulrich Thiel


Faceted Browsing over Large Databases of Text-Annotated Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a fully working system for multifaceted browsing over large collections of text-annotated data, such as annotated images, that are stored in relational databases. Typically, such databases can be browsed across multiple facets (by topic, genre, location, and so on) and previous user studies showed that multifaceted in- terfaces improve substantially the ability of users to iden- tify items

Wisam Dakka; Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis; Kenneth R. Wood



CUR 2000: The Many Facets of Undergraduate Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biennial Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) National Conference is designed for anyone interested in undertaking or promoting undergraduate research. It will help faculty members begin or remain active in a career that integrates teaching and research. The Many Facets of Undergraduate Research is the theme of the CUR Eighth National Conference, to be held at The College of Wooster,

Phoebe K. Dea



Pervasive Social Computing: Augmenting Five Facets of Human Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive Social Computing is a novel collective paradigm, derived from pervasive computing, social media, social networking, social signal processing, etc. This paper reviews Pervasive Social Computing as an integrated computing environment, which promises to augment five facets of human intelligence in physical environment awareness, behavior awareness, community awareness, interaction awareness, and content awareness. Reviews of related studies are given and

Jiehan Zhou; Junzhao Sun; Kumaripaba Athukorala; Dinesh Wijekoon



Personality Facets and RIASEC Interests: An Integrated Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research examining links between personality and interest have typically focused on links between measures of the five factor model and Holland's RIASEC types. However, the five factor model of personality can be divided in to a larger set of narrow domain personality scales measuring facets of the "big five" traits. Research in a number of…

Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Anthoney, Sarah Fetter



Calculation of farfield distortion for a tilted-facet SOA  

SciTech Connect

Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are very important elements for telecommunications, computer communications, and signal processing applications. For stable, low noise operation, the modal reflection into the guided SOA mode must be minimized; modal reflectivity typically has to be kept below about {minus}40 dB. This can be accomplished by antireflection (AR) coatings, or by tilting of the SOA end facet. The latter approach has been vigorously pursued recently, because effective AR coatings require very high tolerances and have polarization-dependent reflectivities. Consequently, there has been a great deal of theoretical effort aimed at calculating the modal reflectivity from tilted interfaces, using a variety of approaches. However, there has been little attention directed toward calculating the transmitted field of a tilted-facet SOA. This is a problem of considerable importance, because the coupling of the SOA light to an element such as an optical fiber depends critically on the field distribution at the entrance plane to the fiber. Moreover, experimental measurements of the farfield of tilted-facet SOAs have revealed a curious crescent-shaped intensity distribution. To improve coupling efficiency it is important to understand to what extent this phenomenon is due to the SOA modal field distribution and to what extent it is due to the tilted interface. The authors explain the crescent-shaped farfield intensity distribution of tilted-facet SOAs using vector wave optics, and discuss implications for coupling to other optical elements.

Ratowsky, R.P.; Dijaili, S.; Walker, J.; Patterson, F.; Kallman, J.; Deri, R.



Empirical Identification of the Major Facets of Conscientiousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conscientiousness is often found to predict academic outcomes, but is defined differently by different models of personality. High school students (N = 291) completed a large number of Conscientiousness items from different models and the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the items uncovered eight facets:…

MacCann, Carolyn; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Roberts, Richard D.



FACET: a CAE system for RF analogue simulation including layout  

Microsoft Academic Search

FACET, a CAE system for RF analogue simulation is described. Layout-dependent effects such as parasitic electromagnetic coupling are included. The method of analysis provides accurate electrical modelling of multilayer PCB structures with a large number of arbitrarily-oriented tracks and printed components, without excessive demands on CPU and memory. This is achieved by building in knowledge of the frequencies of interest

R. F. Milsom; K. J. Scott; S. G. Clark; J. C. McEntegart; S. Ahmed; F. N. Soper



The FACET Report. Toward 2001: An Odyssey of Excellence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1989, the Focus on Access, Community, and Excellence in Teaching (FACET) Commission was created at St. Petersburg Junior College (SPJC) to develop recommendations to guide the college into the 21st century. The Commission's work plan included the definition of SPJC's educational standards; open hearings to solicit ideas from students, faculty,…

Saint Petersburg Junior Coll., FL.


Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)  


... mean to have a “joint replacement” or an “artificial joint”? The abnormal bone and lining structures of ... When should joint replacement surgery NOT be done? Artificial joints should not be done when: There is ...


Terahertz Light Source and User Area at FACET  

SciTech Connect

FACET at SLAC provides high charge, high peak current, low emittance electron beam that is bunched at THz wavelength scale during its normal operation. A THz light source based coherent transition radiation (CTR) from this beam would potentially be the brightest short-pulse THz source ever constructed. Efforts have been put into building this photon source together with a user area, to provide a platform to utilize this unique THz radiation for novel nonlinear and ultrafast phenomena researches and experiments. Being a long-time underutilized portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz (100 GHz {approx} 10 THz) spectral range is experiencing a renaissance in recent years, with broad interests from chemical and biological imaging, material science, telecommunication, semiconductor and superconductor research, etc. Nevertheless, the paucity of THz sources especially strong THz radiation hinders both its commercial applications and nonlinear processes research. FACET - Facilities for Accelerator science and Experimental Test beams at SLAC - provides 23 GeV electron beam with peak currents of {approx} 20 kA that can be focused down to 100 {mu}m{sup 2} transversely. Such an intense electron beam, when compressed to sub-picosecond longitudinal bunch length, coherently radiates high intensity EM fields well within THz frequency range that are orders of magnitude stronger than those available from laboratory tabletop THz sources, which will enable a wide variety of THz related research opportunities. Together with a description of the FACET beamline and electron beam parameters, this paper will report FACET THz radiation generation via coherent transition radiation and calculated photon yield and power spectrum. A user table is being set up along the THz radiation extraction sites, and equipped with various signal diagnostics including THz power detector, Michelson interferometer, sample stages, and sets of motorized optical components. This setup will also be presented. Potential THz research areas including studies of magnetism, ferroelectric switching dynamics, semiconductor devices and chemical reaction controls have already been proposed for the FACET THz area.

Wu, Z.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Fisher, A.D.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC



Electrocatalysis on gold nanostructures: Is the {1 1 0} facet more active than the {1 1 1} facet?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anisotropic electrocatalytic properties of gold nanobelts and nanoplates enclosed by either {110} or {111} facets were studied. Different strategies were used to synthesize these materials. It was found that the {110} surface of gold does not necessarily show a higher electrocatalytic activity than the {111} surface. The {110} surface of gold is more active than the {111} surface for

Ying Chen; Wolfgang Schuhmann; Achim Walter Hassel



Growth of concave polyhedral pd nanocrystals with 32 facets through in?situ facet-selective etching.  


Facing the pyramids by etching forward: Concave palladium polyhedra have been successfully prepared by selectively etching the {100} facets in?situ by I(-) ions. Due to the presence of a high density of atomic steps and surface relaxation, the concave palladium polyhedra exhibit an enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. PMID:23765647

Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Nosheen, Farhat; Zhang, Jing-Chao; Yang, Yong; Wang, Peng-Peng; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun



Imaging of posterior element axial pain generators: facet joints, pedicles, spinous processes, sacroiliac joints, and transitional segments.  


The role of the posterior elements in generating axial back and neck pain is well established; the imaging detection of posterior element pain generators remains problematic. Morphologic imaging findings have proved to be nonspecific and are frequently present in asymptomatic patients. Edema, inflammation, and hypervascularity are more specific for sites of pain generation, but are often overlooked by imagers if physiologic imaging techniques such as fat-suppressed T2 or contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, radionuclide bone scanning with single-photon emission computed tomography (CT), or (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with CT are not used. PMID:22643392

Kotsenas, Amy L



Translaminar facet joint screws to enhance segmental fusion of the lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

De 1984 à 1988, 70 arthrodèses lombaires et lombo-sacrées renforcées par un vissage translamaire des articulations interapophysaires ont été réalisées consécutivement pour des atteintes dégénératives segmentaires du rachis. Vingt patients ont eu dans le m^eme temps une décompression partielle pour sténose centrale, 15 une discectomie et 19 une décompression radiculaire latérale. Le délai moyen de fusion a été de 4,5

D. G. Marchesi; N. Boos; K. Zuber; M. Aebi



Superior segment facet joint violation and cortical violation after minimally invasive pedicle screw placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextMinimally invasive approaches to the lumbar spine allow for pedicle screw placement through a muscle-splitting paraspinal approach. These techniques are highly dependent on fluoroscopy and do not allow for direct visualization of anatomic landmarks. The effect of this on the accuracy of pedicle screw placement is not well described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate

Jeffrey B. Knox; Joseph M. Dai; Joseph R. Orchowski



Psychopathy and ability emotional intelligence: Widespread or limited association among facets?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research is mixed with regard to the nature of the association between facets of psychopathy and ability emotional intelligence (AEI). Some studies find evidence of widespread association between facets, whereas other studies find limited association between facets. The present research sought to provide clarification regarding this empirical discrepancy by measuring both constructs in a demographically homogenous sample of participants

David A. Lishner; Emily R. Swim; Phan Y. Hong; Michael J. Vitacco



How Many Facets are Needed to Represent the Surface Energy Balance of an Urban Area?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the question of how many facets are needed to represent the energy balance of an urban area by developing simplified 3-, 2- and 1-facet versions of a 4-facet energy balance model of two-dimensional streets and buildings. The 3-facet model simplifies the 4-facet model by averaging over the canyon orientation, which results in similar net shortwave and longwave balances for both wall facets, but maintains the asymmetry in the heat fluxes within the street canyon. For the 2-facet model, on the assumption that the wall and road temperatures are equal, the road and wall facets can be combined mathematically into a single street-canyon facet with effective values of the heat transfer coefficient, albedo, emissivity and thermodynamic properties, without further approximation. The 1-facet model requires the additional assumption that the roof temperature is also equal to the road and wall temperatures. Idealised simulations show that the geometry and material properties of the walls and road lead to a large heat capacity of the combined street canyon, whereas the roof behaves like a flat surface with low heat capacity. This means that the magnitude of the diurnal temperature variation of the street-canyon facets are broadly similar and much smaller than the diurnal temperature variation of the roof facets. Consequently, the approximation that the street-canyon facets have similar temperatures is sound, and the road and walls can be combined into a single facet. The roof behaves very differently and a separate roof facet is required. Consequently, the 2-facet model performs similarly to the 4-facet model, while the 1-facet model does not. The models are compared with previously published observations collected in Mexico City. Although the 3- and 2-facet models perform better than the 1-facet model, the present models are unable to represent the phase of the sensible heat flux. This result is consistent with previous model comparisons, and we argue that this feature of the data cannot be produced by a single column model. We conclude that a 2-facet model is necessary, and for numerical weather prediction sufficient, to model an urban surface, and that this conclusion is robust and therefore applicable to more general geometries.

Porson, Aurore; Harman, Ian N.; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia I.; Belcher, Stephen E.



Cadaver preservation and dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postgraduate cadaver dissection is an unsurpassed method of maintaining and improving one's knowledge of anatomy. Since fresh cadavers are not always available, some form of preservation is often required especially for courses or workshops. A technique using glutaraldehyde is described and its pros and cons compared with the time honored formaldehyde-phenol technique. The method is particularly suitable for cadaver preservation

D. E. Tolhurst; J. Hart



Perfection-Preserving Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new graph composition, called the g-amalgam, is described, and it is proved that it is perfection preserving. This composition unifies and generalizes operations known to preserve perfection such as join and 2-join, clique identification, amalgam and 2-...

A. Zemirline



Milk Sample Preservation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium dichromate continues to be the most widely used milk sample pre- servative. Other such preservatives are discussed and the requirements for suitability are detailed. DISCUSSION The ideal means of preserving milk samples for several days prior to compositional analysis is refrigeration as near the freezing point as possible without freezing the milk. This prevents growth of bacteria and all

Manfred Kroger



Preservation of Fungal Sporophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

DRYING in the frozen state has been reported as a method of preserving animal tissues, and the fact that the fleshy sporophores of the higher fungi are not visibly destroyed by frost, but only collapse with the ensuing thaw, suggested it might be possible to preserve their morphological characters by quick freezing followed by drying while still in the frozen

W. Neilson Jones



A multi-facet XUV aluminum mirror for the FEL  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated a new concept in retro-reflectors for use in the extreme ultraviolet, namely, UHV aluminum coated, multi-facet, grazing-incidence mirrors. Our results indicate that this type of mirror, which utilizes total-external-reflectance, works very well in the wavelength range from 35 nm to 100 nm (89 +- 3% measured retroreflectance at 58.4 nm for a 9-facet mirror). However, the coated mirror surfaces must not be allowed to oxidize after deposition, which implies that the retro-reflector must be coated and used in situ or the oxide layer must be removed in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Scott, M.L.



Single-facet scanning subsystem for digital imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advances in the digital data processing and in design and manufacturing of high-performance single-facet scanning devices have made large scan-angle, high-speed/high-resolution digital imaging on cylindrical surfaces possible. Single facet deflectors operating at high speeds in open air tend to be noisy (70+ dBA at 30,000 rpm), collect contaminants (hence requiring frequent cleaning), and require high power to overcome the windage (hence high heat dissipation). For converging laser beam systems, flat and cylindrical window enclosures cannot be used as they induce astigmatism. A spherical window enclosure introduces power and spherical aberration. However, when a spherical window enclosure is used with a spherical lens before the deflector, power and spherical aberration can be eliminated.

Ketabchi, Mehrdad; Tiffany, Bryan L.; Vettese, Thomas J.



Why Preserve Biodiversity?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan stresses the importance of maintaining ecosystems and explores the various arguments in favor of preserving the biodiversity of Earth. Students will view photos of endangered species and discuss why these animals are threatened and why they should be protected; learn the meaning of biodiversity, ecosystem, and extinction; explain why all members of an ecosystem are important; list the reasons why biodiversity should be preserved; read articles on various arguments in favor of preserving biodiversity; and write essays in which they explain what they feel are the most compelling reasons for preserving biodiversity and also describe the arguments they think would be most likely to convince the general public that biodiversity should be preserved.


The facet method for plastic anisotropy of textured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Facet method is a new approach to implement the plastic anisotropic behaviour of polycrystalline materials in finite-element\\u000a models for simulating metal forming processes. It employs analytical expressions of plastic potentials in strain rate space\\u000a and\\/or stress space. The parameters in these expressions are obtained by fitting to the predictions of a multilevel model\\u000a for the plastic deformation of a

A. Van Bael; S. K. Yerra; P. Van Houtte



The synthesis of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets and their enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance.  


Nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high specific surface area and a high percentage of {001} facets were synthesized by a solvent-thermal process followed by the calcination with thiourea at an optimum heat treatment temperature. Under current experimental conditions, the optimum heat treatment temperature was found at 300°C, which successfully introduced nitrogen and sulfur dopants into the anatase lattice to replace a small portion of oxygen atoms while preserving the geometry of these anatase TiO2 nanocrystals to maintain a high percentage of {001} facets. These nitrogen/sulfur co-doped anatase TiO2 nanocrystals demonstrated a largely enhanced light absorption in the whole visible-light range and exhibited much higher photocatalytic performance than both P25 TiO2 nanoparticles and anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a high percentage of {001} facets under visible-light illumination. PMID:23095371

Shi, Wenjing; Yang, Weiyi; Li, Qi; Gao, Shian; Shang, Panju; Shang, Jian Ku



Effect of faceting on pore geometry in texturally equilibrated rocks: implications for permeability at low porosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Movement of fluid or melt may play a significant role in a variety of geological processes, including planetary differentiation, magma genesis, metasomatism, seismicity and heat transport. The permeability of rocks is strongly controlled by pore geometry. The pore geometry of texturally equilibrated rocks is controlled by the interfacial energy ratio between grain boundaries and solid-liquid boundaries. Faceting at pore walls, which is a common feature of pore networks in rocks, strongly affects the liquid distribution. We investigated the effects of faceting on the equilibrium pore geometries based on image analysis of several systems with various degrees of faceting and dihedral angles. The degree of faceting was assessed by the F value, which is the ratio of the flat interface length at the pore wall to the length of total interfacial boundary between solid and liquid. The F values tend to increase with increasing liquid volume fraction. Little-faceted systems show relatively homogeneous liquid distribution. Moderately-faceted systems with a higher dihedral angle (55 degrees) are characterized by development of large pores surrounded by faceted walls and complementary shrinkage of triple junction tubes, whereas strongly faceted systems with a low dihedral angle show no evidence of shrink of triple junction tubes, although most pores are surrounded by faceted pore walls. The faceted systems tend to produce more facet boundaries at the pore walls due to the difference of interfacial energies between the flat and curved surfaces. In the systems with the same degree of faceting, heterogeneity of liquid distribution tends to decrease with dihedral angle. For faceting systems, the permeability of texturally equilibrated rocks with low liquid fraction would be extremely decreased by the relative reduction of triple junction volumes or by closure of channels along grain edge due to the truncation of facet walls.

Yoshino, T.; Price, J. D.; Wark, D. A.; Watson, E. B.



Adjacency preserving mappings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a certain class of point-line geometries, called locally projective near polygons, which includes dual polar spaces and generalised 2n-gons, surjective adjacency preserving mappings are already collineations.

Wen-ling Huang; Andreas E. Schroth



Preservative treatments for building components  


... ground or fully exposed to the weather, but preservatives containing boron or organic ... wood biodegradation, wood deterioration, wood preservatives, exposure, ... preservatives, building materials, service life, durability, resistance to decay, ...


Heat Preservation and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Of the various means of preserving foods, the use of heat finds very wide application. The simple acts of cooking, frying,\\u000a broiling, or otherwise heating foods prior to consumption are forms of food preservation. In addition to making foods more\\u000a tender and palatable, cooking destroys a large proportion of the microorganisms and natural enzymes in foods; thus, cooked\\u000a foods generally

Dennis R. Heldman


Appearance-Preserving Simplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new algorithm for appearance-preserving simplif i- cation. Not only does it generate a low-polygon-co unt approx i- mation of a model, but it also preserves the appearance. This is accomplished for a particular display resolution in the sense that we properly sample the surface position, curvature, and color attributes of the input surface. We convert the input

Jonathan D. Cohen; Marc Olano; Dinesh Manocha



Status of Plasma Electron Hose Instability Studies in FACET  

SciTech Connect

In the FACET plasma-wakefield acceleration experiment a dense 23 GeV electron beam will interact with lithium and cesium plasmas, leading to plasma ion-channel formation. The interaction between the electron beam and the plasma sheath-electrons may lead to a fast growing electron hose instability. By using optics dispersion knobs to induce a controlled z-x tilt along the beam entering the plasma, we investigate the transverse behavior of the beam in the plasma as function of the tilt. We seek to quantify limits on the instability in order to further explore potential limitations on future plasma wakefield accelerators due to the electron hose instability. The FACET plasma-wakefield experiment at SLAC will study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. A dense 23 GeV electron beam will interact with lithium or cesium plasma, leading to plasma ion-channel formation. The interaction between the electron beam and the plasma sheath-electrons drives the electron hose instability, as first studied by Whittum. While Ref. [2] indicates the possibility of a large instability growth rate for typical beam and plasma parameters, other studies including have shown that several physical effects may mitigate the hosing growth rate substantially. So far there has been no quantitative benchmarking of experimentally observed hosing in previous experiments. At FACET we aim to perform such benchmarking by for example inducing a controlled z-x tilt along the beamentering the plasma, and observing the transverse behavior of the beam in the plasma as function. The long-term objective of these studies is to quantify potential limitations on future plasma wakefield accelerators due to the electron hose instability.

Adli, Erik; /U. Oslo; England, Robert Joel; Frederico, Joel; Hogan, Mark; Li, Selina Zhao; Litos, Michael Dennis; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC; An, Weiming; Mori, Warren; /UCLA



Radioulnar joint fusion for distal radioulnar joint instability.  


Each one of this small group of patients illustrates a rare indication for the radioulnar joint fusion procedure in distal radioulnar joint instability. The case histories tell of a last ditch effort to salvage function in an extremity crippled by painful radioulnar instability after excision of the distal ulna. The fusions healed slowly and two required repeat surgery to achieve union. Today we would routinely add iliac bone graft to the fusion area to hasten healing. Rarely indicated, this is a salvage procedure that is done after failure of other procedures geared to preserve the rotation of the forearm. These patients all had successful salvage of their extremities for activities of daily living, but only one returned to his labor job. All were worker's compensation cases in physical jobs. Two patients had had prior radiocarpal fusions, making them even more restricted in function. This procedure should be kept in mind to be used in the rare cases of painful instability of the distal radioulnar joint when traditional motion-preserving procedures have failed. PMID:1880172

Schneider, L H; Imbriglia, J E



On the conservation of function of the Drosophila Fat facets deubiquitinating enzyme and Fam, its mouse homolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat facets is a Drosophila deubiquitinating enzyme required for eye development and early embryogenesis. Genetic evidence suggests that Fat facets deubiquitinates\\u000a and thereby prevents the proteasomal degradation of specific substrates. The Drosophila Liquid facets protein is implicated as the critical substrate of Fat facets in the eye. A mouse homolog of Fat facets, called\\u000a Fam, has been identified. The results

Xin Chen; Erin Overstreet; Stephen A. Wood; Janice A. Fischer



Hypertrophy of the sternoclavicular joint after functional neck dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sternoclavicular joint hypertrophy is anecdotally reported as a common sequela to radical neck dissection. It is postulated\\u000a that sternoclavicular joint hypertrophy is a result of a combination of spinal accessory nerve division and sternocleidomastoid\\u000a muscle resection during radical neck dissection. However, we noticed that sternoclavicular joint hypertrophy can occur following\\u000a functional neck dissection with preservation of the spinal accessory nerve,

Mohamed A. Ellabban; Greg O’Neill; Stephen Morley; David S. Soutar



Digital Preservation in the Context of Institutional Repositories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To discuss the issues and challenges of digital preservation facing institutional repositories and to illustrate the Joint Information Systems Committee's (JISC) view on institutional repositories and its key initiatives in helping UK institutions address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: A combination of published work and JISC…

Hockx-Yu, Helen



Singular orientations and faceted motion of dislocations in body-centered cubic crystals  

PubMed Central

Dislocation mobility is a fundamental material property that controls strength and ductility of crystals. An important measure of dislocation mobility is its Peierls stress, i.e., the minimal stress required to move a dislocation at zero temperature. Here we report that, in the body-centered cubic metal tantalum, the Peierls stress as a function of dislocation orientation exhibits fine structure with several singular orientations of high Peierls stress—stress spikes—surrounded by vicinal plateau regions. While the classical Peierls-Nabarro model captures the high Peierls stress of singular orientations, an extension that allows dislocations to bend is necessary to account for the plateau regions. Our results clarify the notion of dislocation kinks as meaningful only for orientations within the plateau regions vicinal to the Peierls stress spikes. These observations lead us to propose a Read-Shockley type classification of dislocation orientations into three distinct classes—special, vicinal, and general—with respect to their Peierls stress and motion mechanisms. We predict that dislocation loops expanding under stress at sufficiently low temperatures, should develop well defined facets corresponding to two special orientations of highest Peierls stress, the screw and the M111 orientations, both moving by kink mechanism. We propose that both the screw and the M111 dislocations are jointly responsible for the yield behavior of BCC metals at low temperatures.

Kang, Keonwook; Bulatov, Vasily V.; Cai, Wei



Energetic and kinetic aspects of the faceting transformation of a [Sigma]3 grain boundary in Cu  

SciTech Connect

Grain-boundary facets forming at the intersection between grain boundary and free surface in diffusion bonded Cu[Sigma]3 bicrystals during prolonged annealing have been characterized crystallographically by metallographic methods. The facet geometry is discussed with regard to the relevant (011) section of the inverse [gamma][sub b]-plot for [Sigma]3 grain boundaries which is constructed from earlier computer simulation data on [Sigma]3 grain boundary energies [gamma][sub b]. It is shown that the observed faceting reduces the total grain boundary energy by 15-20%. A faceting mechanism is proposed which is consistent with the experimentally observed facet geometry and with the atomistic structure of the facets.

Muschik, T.; Laub, W.; Wolf, U.; Finnis, M.W.; Gust, W. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany))



Personality disorders and the five-factor model: a test of facet-level predictions.  


We tested predicted relationships (Widiger, 1993; Widiger, Trull, Clarkin, Sanderson, & Costa, 1994) between personality disorder scores and facets of the five-factor model, and evaluated the relative benefits of facet-level analyses over domain-level analyses. Data from 614 undergraduates indicated: (a) 63% of the predicted facet relationships were significant, although many unpredicted relationships also emerged; (b) facet-level analyses did not yield substantially stronger effect sizes than domain-level analyses; but (c) facet-level analyses provided much better discrimination between personality disorders than domain-level analyses. Facets of the openness to experience domain also helped discriminate between personality disorders, which is in contrast to previous domain-level findings that openness is not important. PMID:9573518

Dyce, J A; O'Connor, B P



Acetabular Morphology: Implications for Joint-preserving Surgery  

PubMed Central

Appropriate anatomic concepts for surgery to treat femoroacetabular impingement require a precise appreciation of the native acetabular anatomy. We therefore determined (1) the spatial acetabular rim profile, (2) the topography of the articular lunate surface, and (3) the 3-D relationships of the acetabular opening plane comparing 66 bony acetabula from 33 pelves in female and male pelves. The acetabular rim profile had a constant and regular wave-like outline without gender differences. Three prominences anterosuperiorly, anteroinferiorly and posteroinferiorly extended just above hemispheric level. Two depressions were below hemispheric level, of 9° at the anterior wall and of 21° along the posterosuperior wall. In 94% of all acetabula, the deepest extent of the articular surface was within 30° of the anterosuperior acetabular sector. In 99% of men and in 91% of women, the depth of the articular surface was at least 55° along almost half of the upper acetabular cup. The articular surface was smaller in women than in men. The acetabular opening plane was orientated in 21° ± 5° for version, 48° ± 4° for inclination and 19° ± 6° for acetabular tilt with no gender differences. We defined tilt as forward rotation of the entire acetabular cup around its central axis; because of interindividual variability of acetabular tilt, descriptions of acetabular lesions during surgery, CT scanning and MRI should be defined and recorded in relation to the acetabular notch. Acetabular tilt and pelvic tilt should be separately identified. We believe this information important for surgeons performing rim trimming in FAI surgery or performing acetabular osteotomies.

Ganz, Reinhold; Impellizzeri, Franco M.; Leunig, Michael



Hip joint-preserving surgery: beyond the classic osteotomy.  


It has been postulated that hip osteoarthritis is often caused by developmental anatomic deformities. Recent studies have demonstrated that relatively subtle anatomic abnormalities such as acetabular retroversion, acetabular overcoverage, and decreased offset of the femoral head-neck junction also may lead to pain and osteoarthritis. Advances in surgical techniques such as the periacetabular osteotomy, safe surgical dislocation of the hip, and hip arthroscopy have provided the surgeon with effective and safe tools to correct these anatomic problems. Clinical and radiographic techniques are used to identify these anatomic abnormalities. PMID:16958447

Kim, Young-Jo; Ganz, Reinhold; Murphy, Stephen B; Buly, Robert L; Millis, Michael B



Muscle torque preservation and physical activity in individuals with stroke  

PubMed Central

Background A greater percent loss of concentric versus eccentric muscle torque (i.e., relative eccentric muscle torque preservation) has been reported in the paretic limb of individuals with stroke and has been attributed to hypertonia and/or co-contractions. Stroke provides a unique condition for examining mechanisms underlying eccentric muscle preservation because both limbs experience similar amounts of general physical activity, but the paretic side is impaired directly by the brain lesion. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine 1) whether eccentric preservation also exists in the nonparetic limb and 2) the relationship of eccentric or concentric torque preservation with physical activity in stroke. We hypothesized that the nonparetic muscles would demonstrate eccentric muscle preservation, which would suggest that non-neural mechanisms may also contribute to its relative preservation. Methods Eighteen stroke and 18 healthy control subjects (age and sex matched) completed a physical activity questionnaire. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric joint torques of the ankle, knee and hip flexors and extensors were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/s for the paretic and nonparetic muscles. Relative concentric and eccentric peak torque preservation were expressed as a percentage of control subject torque. Results Relative eccentric torque was higher (more preserved) than relative concentric torque for paretic, as well as nonparetic muscles. Physical activity correlated with paretic (r=0.640, p=0.001) and nonparetic concentric torque preservation (r=0.508, p=0.009), but not with eccentric torque preservation for either leg. Conclusions The relative preservation of eccentric torque in the nonparetic muscles suggest a role of non-neural mechanisms and could also explain the preservation observed in other chronic health conditions. Loss of concentric, but not eccentric muscle torque was related to physical inactivity in stroke.

Eng, Janice J.; Lomaglio, Melanie J.; MacIntyre, Donna L.



Comparative Analysis of Concept Derivation Using the Q-matrix Method and Facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a pioneering comparison between an expert- driven clustering technique called Facet Theory with the data-driven q-matrix technique for educational data mining. Both facets and q-matrices were created in order to assist instructors with diagnosing and correcting student errors, and each have been used to augment computer-assisted instructional systems with diagnostic information. However, facets are very specific aspects of

Tiffany Barnes; John Stamper; Tara Madhyastha


Driving forces for Ag-induced periodic faceting of vicinal Cu (1 1 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of submonolayer amounts of Ag on vicinal Cu(111) induces periodic faceting. The equilibrium structure is characterized by Ag-covered facets that alternate with clean Cu stripes. In the atomic scale, the driving force is the matching of Ag(111)-like packed rows with Cu(111) terraces underneath. This determines the preference for the facet orientation and the evolution of different phases as a

A. R. Bachmann; S. Speller; A. Mugarza; J. E. Ortega



Comparing Linkage Designs Based on Land Facets to Linkage Designs Based on Focal Species  

PubMed Central

Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5–16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches.

Brost, Brian M.; Beier, Paul



Method of adjusting faceted heliostats by a self-collimation method  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed for adjusting heliostat facets by means of selfcollimation theodolite. As a rule, heliostats are assembled from individual elements - facets, each of which is positioned so as to form the equivalent of a single mirror. The positioning and adjustment of the facets is complex and laborious. This is because the heliostat is a dynamic system, and in the course of operation the adjustment of the reflecting surfaces is disrupted over time.

Abdurakhmanov, A.A.; Khammadov, I.I.; Zakhidov, R.A.



Testing of the SAIC facets on the stretched-membrane dish  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dish structure sized for a 25 kW electric dish\\/generator system has been installed at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). The dish is used as an optical test bed for prototype stretched-membrane facets. Sandia procured twelve (12) stretched-membrane facets from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for installation on the dish structure. Individual facet optical performance was measured using

J. W. Grossman; W. W. Erdman; R. M. Houser; R. Davenport



Interactive exploration of implicit and explicit relations in faceted datasets.  


Many datasets, such as scientific literature collections, contain multiple heterogeneous facets which derive implicit relations, as well as explicit relational references between data items. The exploration of this data is challenging not only because of large data scales but also the complexity of resource structures and semantics. In this paper, we present PivotSlice, an interactive visualization technique which provides efficient faceted browsing as well as flexible capabilities to discover data relationships. With the metaphor of direct manipulation, PivotSlice allows the user to visually and logically construct a series of dynamic queries over the data, based on a multi-focus and multi-scale tabular view that subdivides the entire dataset into several meaningful parts with customized semantics. PivotSlice further facilitates the visual exploration and sensemaking process through features including live search and integration of online data, graphical interaction histories and smoothly animated visual state transitions. We evaluated PivotSlice through a qualitative lab study with university researchers and report the findings from our observations and interviews. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of PivotSlice using a scenario of exploring a repository of information visualization literature. PMID:24051774

Zhao, Jian; Collins, Christopher; Chevalier, Fanny; Balakrishnan, Ravin



Modification of flux profiles using a faceted concentrator  

SciTech Connect

The use of a faceted solar concentrator allows for some flexibility in aiming strategy and in the intensity of the resulting flux profile at the target. This can be an advantage when considering applications that do not necessarily require maximum concentration, particularly emerging, new applications in solar processed advanced materials. This paper will describe both an analysis of predicted flux profiles for several different aiming strategies using the SOLFUR computer code and experiments to characterize the actual flux profiles realized with a selected aiming strategy. The SOLFUR code models each of the furnace components explicitly. Aim points for each facet can be specified. Thus many strategies for adjusting aim points can be easily explored. One strategy calls for creating as uniform a flux over as large an area as possible. We explored this strategy analytically and experimentally. The experimental data consist of flux maps generated by a video imaging system calibrated against absolute flux measurements taken with circular foil calorimeters. Results from the analytical study and a comparison with the experimental data indicate that uniform profiles can be produced over fairly large areas.

Lewandowski, A.; Scholl, K.; Bingham, C.



Numerical computations of faceted pattern formation in snow crystal growth.  


Faceted growth of snow crystals leads to a rich diversity of forms with remarkable sixfold symmetry. Snow crystal structures result from diffusion-limited crystal growth in the presence of anisotropic surface energy and anisotropic attachment kinetics. It is by now well understood that the morphological stability of ice crystals strongly depends on supersaturation, crystal size, and temperature. Until very recently it was very difficult to perform numerical simulations of this highly anisotropic crystal growth. In particular, obtaining facet growth in combination with dendritic branching is a challenging task. We present numerical simulations of snow crystal growth in two and three spacial dimensions using a computational method recently introduced by the present authors. We present both qualitative and quantitative computations. In particular, a linear relationship between tip velocity and supersaturation is observed. In our computations, surface energy effects, although small, have a pronounced effect on crystal growth. We compute solid plates, solid prisms, hollow columns, needles, dendrites, capped columns, and scrolls on plates. Although all these forms appear in nature, it is a significant challenge to reproduce them with the help of numerical simulations for a continuum model. PMID:23005427

Barrett, John W; Garcke, Harald; Nürnberg, Robert




NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet allows many interested communities that may be spread across great distances to share information, and PreserveNet is just such a community. Since 1994, preservationists have had a fine resource to draw on at the PreserveNet website. The site has been redesigned several times since its creation, and currently visitors to the site can find out about funding sources for projects, employment opportunities, and upcoming conferences and related events. Along with these sections, visitors may also wish to take a look through the “Legal” section, which offers links to summaries of court cases related to historic preservation and also to the codes of federal regulation. Finally, the site also has a links area, which contains numerous links categorized by theme, such as cultural studies, sprawl, and maritime resources.


FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns  

SciTech Connect

The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.



Modern preservative materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

New preservative-stamping oil Volgol-131 has been developed by the company Volgokhimneft’. The oil can be used for the long-term\\u000a corrosion protection of cold-rolled electrogalvanized or hot-galvanized rolled products and for stamping parts. The oil can\\u000a be applied to the surface of metal by immersion, rubbing, or spraying-including electrostatic spraying. One of the latest\\u000a inventions of Volgokhimneft’ is water-soluble preservative Volgol-500,

T. A. Bliznetsov



A History Worth Preserving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has been made in preserving some properties of the Manhattan Project? The presentation will share the handful of remaining properties that we believe are needed to tell the story of the Manhattan Project. It will share our successes, what is still at risk, and the on-going struggle to preserve this history.

Kelly, Cynthia



Radiation preservation of spices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of gamma irradiation for preservation of red hot pepper has been explained in report, as it can kill the harmful organisms without altering the organolpetic properties. The sample were dried and reduced to pass through 20 mesh. The samples were ir...

A. Badshah A. Tasnim M. Khan A. Sattar I. Khan



Preserve a Snowflake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students capture snowflakes in a manner that preserves their shape. Afterwards, students can study the ice crystal shapes and then hang their snowflakes up as art. There is information about how snowflakes are formed and simple steps to conduct the activity.


Paints and Preservatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.


Preservation: Issues and Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A reference guide from leading experts in the field, this book covers the repair, maintenance, and preservation of library or archive collections, providing a definitive and authoritative analysis of how to plan for and ensure the long-term health of an institution's collection in this digital age. Chapters include: (1) "Defining the Library…

Banks, Paul N., Ed.; Pilette, Roberta, Ed.


Preservation of Sheep Pelt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some aspects of preserving sheep pelt are discussed. They include short term curing by air drying, and wet and dry salting methods. Preparation methods for tanning are also given, i.e., soaking, liming, de-liming, bating, degreasing, and pickling. Tanning...

R. Lungrin



Preserving Cultural Heritage: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Library Trends devoted its first issue to preservation (Tauber, 1956), the state-of-the-art term was conservation, and the articles dealt with binding, treatments, stack maintenance, and “discarding” (weeding). The focus was almost entirely on libraries, except for an article by Hummel and Barrow on treatment for library and archival material (Hummel & Barrow, 1956). The next Library Trends issue devoted

Michèle V. Cloonan; Ross Harvey


Historic Preservation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is Rhode Island's initial statewide plan for the preservation of its historic resources. It is based on previous historical inventories conducted in the state and on an extensive new survey still underway. The intent of the report is to fulfill...



The Preservation of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature preservation will be a central element of the exploration of the Solar System, whether this emphasis is initially planned for or not. Exploration of extraterrestrial environments will generate images and scientific information that will excite the imagination of the general public throughout the world and be supportive of more funding for exploration. However, damage to the environments visited, once

Eugene Hargrove



Paints and Preservatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.


Complications of small joint arthroplasty.  


Arthritis in the small joints of the hand can be treated with arthrodesis or arthroplasty. Arthrodesis has known risks of infection, pain, and nonunion. Distal interphalangeal (DIP) arthroplasty has been successful in preserving motion and alleviating pain for distal DIP, proximal interphalangeal, and metacarpophalangeal joints. Unfortunately, complications arise that limit the success of surgery. Silicone implants have been reliable for many years but still present with the risks of infection, implant breakage, stiffness, and pain. Newer implant designs may limit some of these complications, but present with unique problems such as dislocations and loosening. It is not yet clear as to which type of implant provides the most reliable results, although implant arthroplasty appears to give better function than arthrodesis. Silicone arthroplasty does not lead to silicone synovitis and is a reliable procedure. Pyrocarbon implants are showing some promise, particularly in the osteoarthritic patient. PMID:20494746

Drake, Matthew L; Segalman, Keith A



Giant photoluminescence emission in crystalline faceted Si grains.  


Empowering an indirect band-gap material like Si with optical functionalities, firstly light emission, represents a huge advancement constantly pursued in the realization of any integrated photonic device. We report the demonstration of giant photoluminescence (PL) emission by a newly synthesized material consisting of crystalline faceted Si grains (fg-Si), a hundred nanometer in size, assembled in a porous and columnar configuration, without any post processing. A laser beam with wavelength 632.8?nm locally produce such a high temperature, determined on layers of a given thickness by Raman spectra, to induce giant PL radiation emission. The optical gain reaches the highest value ever, 0.14?cm/W, representing an increase of 3 orders of magnitude with respect to comparable data recently obtained in nanocrystals. Giant emission has been obtained from fg-Si deposited either on glass or on flexible, low cost, polymeric substrate opening the possibility to fabricate new devices. PMID:24056300

Faraci, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Agata R; Alberti, Alessandra; Ruggeri, Rosa; Mannino, Giovanni



Examining student rating of teaching effectiveness using FACETS.  


Students' evaluations of teaching staff can be considered high-stakes, as they are often used to determine promotion, reappointment, and merit pay to academics. Using Facets, the reliability and validity of one student rating questionnaire is analyzed. A total of 13,940 respondents of the Human Science Division of International Islamic University Malaysia were involved in the study. The analysis shows that the student rating questionnaire used was valid and reliable, and it allows identification of staff for the institution's prestigious teaching excellence awards, and those needing in-service training. It was found that there was no significant difference in terms of rank, age and gender of the staff. The study also shows that the majority of staff have problems keeping the class interested and getting students to participate in class activities. Faculty also hardly discussed common errors in assignments and tests. PMID:22089510

Mat Daud, Nuraihan; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide



Giant photoluminescence emission in crystalline faceted Si grains  

PubMed Central

Empowering an indirect band-gap material like Si with optical functionalities, firstly light emission, represents a huge advancement constantly pursued in the realization of any integrated photonic device. We report the demonstration of giant photoluminescence (PL) emission by a newly synthesized material consisting of crystalline faceted Si grains (fg-Si), a hundred nanometer in size, assembled in a porous and columnar configuration, without any post processing. A laser beam with wavelength 632.8?nm locally produce such a high temperature, determined on layers of a given thickness by Raman spectra, to induce giant PL radiation emission. The optical gain reaches the highest value ever, 0.14?cm/W, representing an increase of 3 orders of magnitude with respect to comparable data recently obtained in nanocrystals. Giant emission has been obtained from fg-Si deposited either on glass or on flexible, low cost, polymeric substrate opening the possibility to fabricate new devices.

Faraci, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Agata R.; Alberti, Alessandra; Ruggeri, Rosa; Mannino, Giovanni



Genetic Interactions with Rap1 and Ras1 Reveal a Second Function for the Fat Facets Deubiquitinating Enzyme in Drosophila Eye Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila fat facets gene encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme that regulates a cell communication pathway essential very early in eye development, prior to facet assembly, to limit the number of photoreceptor cells in each facet of the compound eye to eight. The Fat facets protein facilitates the production of a signal in cells outside the developing facets that inhibits neural

Qinghong Li; Iswar K. Hariharan; Fangli Chen; Yongzhao Huang; Janice A. Fischer



Revealing feelings: Facets of emotional expressivity in self-reports, peer ratings, and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on an explicit model of emotion, we propose a multifaceted approach to emotional expressiv- ity, defined as the behavioral (e.g., facial, postural) changes associated with emotion. Study 1 shows that self-reported expressivity has 3 facets (Impulse Strength, Negative Expressivity, Positive Expressivity). Study 2 shows that the same 3 facets emerge in peer ratings and that there are robust relations

James J. Gross; Oliver P. John



Facet theory applied to the construction and validation of the Aachen Aphasia Test.  


The linguistic performance of 120 aphasic patients of the four standard syndromes assessed by the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT) is analyzed by a nonmetric (ordinal) multidimensional scaling procedure (Smallest Space Analysis, SSA1). The linguistic structure of the test items is characterized within the framework of L. Guttman's facet theory. Three systematic components (facets) are discerned: linguistic modality, unit, and regularity. Properties of the facets as well as their relations are assessed and tested empirically by analyzing the interrelations among different items or sets of items. The spatial configurations obtained by the scaling procedure fit only partially the expectations derived from the facet-theory model. The modality facet was found to have a strong overriding influence on the aphasic test performance. The facets unit and regularity were only found for the most rigorously designed subtests. Written Language and Comprehension. The results suggest the introduction of a new combined facet linguistic complexity which reflects the dependency of the facets regularity and unit. PMID:6839143

Willmes, K; Poeck, K; Weniger, D; Huber, W



Scattering matrix calculated in geometric optics approximation for semitransparent particles faceted with various shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new computer model of light scattering by semitransparent particles with arbitrary shape is presented. The model allows calculations of scattering angle dependences of all elements of scattering matrix Fik in geometric optics approximation. Scattering properties of faceted spheres with a number of the facets less than 10,000 differ significantly from those of the perfect spherical particles. The scattering angle

Ye. Grynko; Yu. Shkuratov



Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanorice Enclosed by High- Index Facets and Its Application for CO Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

A facile method for generating Au nanorice enclosed by high-index facets in high purity. The nanorice shows much higher catalytic activity for CO oxidation than multiply twinned particles of Au enclosed by {l_brace}111{r_brace} facets at temperatures below 300 C.

Zheng, Y.; Tao, J.; Liu, H.; Zeng, J.; Yu, T.; Ma, Y.; Moran, C.; Wu, L.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, J.; Xia, Y.



Direct determination of polarity, faceting, and core location in colloidal core/shell wurtzite semiconductor nanocrystals.  


The ability to determine the atomic arrangement and termination of various facets of surfactant-coated nanocrystals is of great importance for understanding their growth mechanism and their surface properties and represents a critical piece of information that can be coupled to other experimental techniques and to calculations. This is especially appealing in the study of nanocrystals that can be grown in strongly anisotropic shapes, for which the relative growth rates of various facets can be influenced under varying reaction conditions. Here we show that in two representative cases of rod-shaped nanocrystals in the wurtzite phase (CdSe(core)/CdS(shell) and ZnSe(core)/ZnS(shell) nanorods) the terminations of the polar facets can be resolved unambiguously by combining advanced electron microscopy techniques, such as aberration-corrected HRTEM with exit wave reconstruction or aberration-corrected HAADF-STEM. The [0001] and [000-1] polar directions of these rods, which grow preferentially along their c-axis, are revealed clearly, with one side consisting of the Cd (or Zn)-terminated (0001) facet and the other side with a pronounced faceting due to Cd (or Zn)-terminated {10-1-1} facets. The lateral faceting of the rods is instead dominated by three nonpolar {10-10} facets. The core buried in the nanostructure can be localized in both the exit wave phase and HAADF-STEM images. PMID:22708556

Bertoni, Giovanni; Grillo, Vincenzo; Brescia, Rosaria; Ke, Xiaoxing; Bals, Sara; Catellani, Alessandra; Li, Hongbo; Manna, Liberato




Microsoft Academic Search

The Six Facets Model of technology management has previously only been applied to process innovation at the firm and the industry level. In this article, the model is applied to product innovation for the first time. In the context of genetically-modified organisms in the agribusiness industry, we examine radical product innovation through the Six Facets Model. We propose, based on




Facile synthesis of AgBr nanoplates with exposed {111} facets and enhanced photocatalytic properties.  


AgBr nanoplates with exposed {111} facets have been synthesized in high yield by a facile precipitation reaction, and the as-prepared nanoplates exhibited greatly enhanced photocatalytic properties for the degradation of organic pollutants, which may be primarily ascribed to the relatively higher surface energy of {111} facets. PMID:22105717

Wang, Hua; Gao, Jian; Guo, Tianqi; Wang, Rongming; Guo, Lin; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong



Exploring Local Item Dependence Using a Random-Effects Facet Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The random-effects facet model that deals with local item dependence in many-facet contexts is presented. It can be viewed as a special case of the multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model (MRCMLM) so that the estimation procedures for the MRCMLM can be directly applied. Simulations were conducted to examine parameter recovery…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark



Facet effect manifestation during crystallization from small volumes of solution in melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manifestations of the facet effect are possible during the thermomigration of discrete inclusions of the solution of a growing crystal material in small volumes of the melt of a solvent metal. Similar to the case of a bulk crystal growth, the facet effect in small volumes is related to the nonequilibrium trapping of impurity by singular regions of the crystallization front.

Gershanov, V. Yu.; Garmashov, S. I.



Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally Involved Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally involved individuals. In this study, we examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory–16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening

Michelle Schoenleber; Naomi Sadeh; Edelyn Verona



Shocks and Curvature Dynamics: A Test of Global Kinetic Faceting in Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the microscopic mechanisms underlying the dynamical faceting of crystals. Partially faceted crystal shapes of CCl4 are formed from a melt contained in a Bridgman apparatus and pressure is used to control growth which is observed using optical microscopy. In contrast to predictions of models in which the local interfacial motion is greatest where the step density is the

M. Maruyama; N. Kuribayashi; K. Kawabata; J. S. Wettlaufer



Study of Faceted Blog Distillation -- PRIS at TREC 2009 Blog Track.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes BUPT (pris) participation in faceted blog distillation task at Blog Track 2009. The system adopts a two-stage strategy in faceted blog distillation task. In the first stage, the system carries out a basic topic relevance retrieval to ...

F. Chen H. Gao H. Sun J. Gao S. Li



Future-Time Perspective: Analysis of a Facet-Designed Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future-time perspective for adolescents and young adults is directed towards several objects and may extend into the far or the near future. Differences in this perspective can affect motivational qualities influencing investment in one's future. A future-time perspective questionnaire was developed along these lines using facet design. It contains an object facet with the elements school and professional career, personal

Marlies E. A. Stouthard; Thea T. D. Peetsma



Preserving Nuclear Grade Knowledge  

SciTech Connect

When people think of the government they think of the President, or Congress, or the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), but there are thousands of people in government-related jobs doing things most don’t really notice everyday. You can find them everywhere, from the space science folks at NASA, to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) watching out for the bad guys. There are Rangers, and Social Workers, Nurses and Agricultural Managers. They are people working to keep the many facets of the USA rolling. One very diverse bunch is The Department of Energy (DOE) , a group who is expanding the ways we make and save energy to power our cars, homes, and businesses. Tucked away under the DOE is the National Nuclear Security Administration, the NNSA is an agency that maintains the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. It works to reduce global danger from weapons of mass destruction. It provides the U.S. Navy with safe nuclear propulsion, and it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad, and it supports efforts in science and technology*. (* DOE/NNSA/KCP website info)

Lange, Bob



Jointness: A Selected Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

JDEIS is the Joint Doctrine, Education and Training Community Electronic Information System. It encompasses a searchable Joint Doctrine Database, a Joint Education section that includes the JPME Prospective Research Topics Database, as well as award-winni...

L. Garder



Nucleation and Growth During Faceting of the Platinum Covered W(111) Surface  

SciTech Connect

Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) have been used to investigate the faceting of W(111) as induced by Pt. The atomically rough W(111) surface, when fully covered with a monolayer film of Pt and annealed to temperatures higher than {approximately}750 K, experiences a significant morphological restructuring: the initially planar surface undergoes a faceting transition and forms three-sided pyramids with {l_brace}211{r_brace} faces. When Pt is dosed onto the heated surface, the transition from planar to faceted structure proceeds through the nucleation and growth of spatially separated faceted regions, as shown by LEEM. STM reveals the atomic structure of the partially faceted surface, with large planar regions, dotted by clusters of pyramids of various sizes.

Hannon, J.B.; Kellogg, G.L.; Madey, T.E.; Pelhos, K.



Growth of au@ag core-shell pentatwinned nanorods: tuning the end facets.  


Au@Ag core-shell nanorods with tunable end facets are obtained by coating Au bipyramids (BPs) with Ag. The resultant nanorods exhibit a pentatwinned crystal structure with tips terminated with either {110} or {111} facets. The control over the end facets is achieved by varying the capping agents and tuning the reduction rate of Ag. Specifically, when Ag is reduced slowly, Au@Ag nanorods with flat {110} end facets are formed with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the capping agent. If CTAB is replaced with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), Au@Ag nanorods with tips terminated with {111} facets are obtained. However, at a high Ag reduction rate, dumbbell-shaped Au@Ag nanorods are formed, with either CTAB or CTAC as the capping agent. The morphological evolution of the nanorods in each case is closely followed and a growth mechanism is proposed. PMID:23934938

Zhang, Weiqing; Goh, Hao Ying Johnny; Firdoz, Shaik; Lu, Xianmao



Development of new preservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservative-stamping oil Volgol-131 has been developed on the basis of a mixture of high-purity mineral oil and a group of\\u000a additives that impart the desired service properties to the given product. The oil can be used in stamping operations and\\u000a to provide long-term corrosion protection to cold-rolled products that have undergone electrolytic or hot galvanizing. The\\u000a oil can be applied

T. A. Bliznetsov



Magnetic resonance imaging of hip joint cartilage and labrum  

PubMed Central

Hip joint instability and impingement are the most common biomechanical risk factors that put the hip joint at risk to develop premature osteoarthritis. Several surgical procedures like periacetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia or hip arthroscopy or safe surgical hip dislocation for femoroacetabular impingement aim at restoring the hip anatomy. However, the success of joint preserving surgical procedures is limited by the amount of pre-existing cartilage damage. Biochemically sensitive MRI techniques like delayed Gadolinium Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) might help to monitor the effect of surgical or non-surgical procedures in the effort to halt or even reverse joint damage.

Zilkens, Christoph; Miese, Falk; Jager, Marcus; Bittersohl, Bernd; Krauspe, Rudiger



Training Development for Pavement Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some cases, th...

A. Morandeira C. T. Jahren J. Mallen



Campaign Plan Failure: An Analysis of the Peninsula Campaign of 1862 and Its Implications to Current Joint Doctrine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Peninsula Campaign of 1862 during the American Civil War provides an excellent case study for many facets of current U.S. joint planning doctrine. This examination explores the reasons behind the Union campaign plan failure, using aspects of today's j...

P. C. Sweeney



Plant cytoplasm preserved by lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usually only an organism with hard parts may be preserved in the fossil record. Cytoplasm, which is a physiologically active part of a plant, is rarely seen in the fossil record. Two Cretaceous plant fossils older than 100 million years with exceptional preservation of cytoplasm are reported here. Some cytoplasm is well preserved with subcellular details while other cytoplasm is

X. Wang



Genetic covariation among facets of openness to experience and general cognitive ability.  


Genetic and environmental sources of covariation among cognitive measures of verbal IQ, performance IQ (PIQ), academic achievement, 2-choice reaction time (CRT), inspection time (IT) and the 6 Openness facets of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) were examined. The number of twin and twin-sibling pairs ranged from 432 (182 MZ, 350 DZ/sibling) to 1023 (273 MZ, 750 DZ/sibling) for cognitive measures, and between 432 (90 MZ, 342 DZ/sibling) - 437 (91 MZ, 346 DZ/sibling) for Openness facets. Structural equation modeling best supported a model with a 3-factor additive genetic structure. A genetic general factor subsumed the 5 cognitive measures and 5 of the 6 Openness facets (Actions did not load significantly). A second additive genetic factor incorporated the 6 Openness facets, and a third additive genetic factor incorporated the 5 cognitive measures. Specific additive and dominance genetic effects were also evident, as were shared common and shared unique environmental influences, and specific unique environmental effects. The Openness facets of Ideas and Values evidenced the strongest phenotypic correlations with cognitive indices, particularly verbal measures. The genetic correlations among Openness facets and cognitive measures ranged from -.06 to .79. Results were interpreted as suggesting that Openness is related to general cognitive ability (g) through a genetic mechanism and that gengenders a minor but discernable disposition towards Openness for the majority of facets. PMID:18498206

Wainwright, Mark A; Wright, Margaret J; Luciano, Michelle; Geffen, Gina M; Martin, Nicholas G



Treatment-related changes in behavioral outcomes of psychopathy facets in adolescent offenders.  


This study examines the association between the facets of psychopathy embedded in the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth et al., Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version, 2003), and changes in institutional behavior and post-treatment violent and general offending in a sample of juvenile delinquent males treated in the Mendota Juvenile Treatment Center (MJTC), an intensive treatment program. Affective, Interpersonal, Behavioral and Antisocial facet scale scores were calculated from items of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth et al., 2003). Data on daily institutional behavior were collected from treatment records. In order to analyze re-offense patterns, the number and type of new criminal charges were collected over a mean follow-up of 54 months (range = 24-79 months), after the youth was released from custody. The Interpersonal facet of the PCL:YV was significantly related to admission behavior problems, while other facet scores were not. Youth with elevated Interpersonal facet scores showed the greatest improvement in institutional behavior during treatment. Treatment was also associated with a significant decrease in general and violent offending for each facet. The Interpersonal facet of the PCL:YV was found to play a key role in institutional and community violence in this study. Treatment appeared to disrupt the link between institutional and community violence and psychopathy features in this population. PMID:20658262

Caldwell, Michael F



Fertility Preservation in Girls  

PubMed Central

Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer.

Michaeli, Jennia; Weintraub, Michael; Gross, Eitan; Ginosar, Yehuda; Ravitsky, Vardit; Eizenman, Einat; Mitrani, Eduardo; Lebovich, Meital; Laufer, Neri; Kennedy, Stephen; Revel, Ariel



Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC



Use of land facets to plan for climate change: conserving the arenas, not the actors.  


Even under the most optimistic scenarios, during the next century human-caused climate change will threaten many wild populations and species. The most useful conservation response is to enlarge and link protected areas to support range shifts by plants and animals. To prioritize land for reserves and linkages, some scientists attempt to chain together four highly uncertain models (emission scenarios, global air-ocean circulation, regional circulation, and biotic response). This approach has high risk of error propagation and compounding and produces outputs at a coarser scale than conservation decisions. Instead, we advocate identifying land facets-recurring landscape units with uniform topographic and soil attributes-and designing reserves and linkages for diversity and interspersion of these units. This coarse-filter approach would conserve the arenas of biological activity, rather than the temporary occupants of those arenas. Integrative, context-sensitive variables, such as insolation and topographic wetness, are useful for defining land facets. Classification procedures such as k-means or fuzzy clustering are a good way to define land facets because they can analyze millions of pixels and are insensitive to case order. In regions lacking useful soil maps, river systems or riparian plants can indicate important facets. Conservation planners should set higher representation targets for rare and distinctive facets. High interspersion of land facets can promote ecological processes, evolutionary interaction, and range shift. Relevant studies suggest land-facet diversity is a good surrogate for today's biodiversity, but fails to conserve some species. To minimize such failures, a reserve design based on land facets should complement, rather than replace, other approaches. Designs based on land facets are not biased toward data-rich areas and can be applied where no maps of land cover exist. PMID:20067491

Beier, Paul; Brost, Brian



V-groove faceted reflector for enhanced module output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the manufacture of present-day photovoltaic modules, single crystal wafers of silicon serve as the starting point. Because of the high cost of the silicon, it is not economical to convert the circular wafers into square or rectangular cells, even though these cells would more nearly fill the available area in a module. Accordingly, a substantial portion, typically 20 to 25%, of the module area is not filled with silicon. Incident light falling on these 'interstitial' regions between cells is largely lost, leading to module inefficiencies. One technique for recovering a portion of the 'lost' light is to use a white, scattering background behind the cells. The cell output can generally be improved by 5 to 10%. The present study is concerned with an improved method of recovering the light falling on the interstitial regions by which nearly 50% increase in cell output has been realized in favorable cases. The method makes use of an optically transparent medium above the cells, and a series of V-groove facets provided in the interstitial regions between cells.

Amick, J. A.; Kurth, W. T.


Faceting at the step flow threshold in epitaxial growth on patterned surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We identify a kinetic mechanism responsible for the emergence of low-angle facets in recent epitaxial regrowth experiments on patterned surfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of vicinal surfaces show that the preferred slope of the facets matches the threshold slope for the transition between step flow and growth by island nucleation. At this crossover slope, the surface step density is minimized and the adatom density is maximized, respectively. A model is developed that predicts the temperature dependence of the crossover slope and hence the facet slope.

Jones, Aleksy K.; Ballestad, Anders; Li, Tian; Whitwick, Michael; Rottler, Joerg; Tiedje, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)



Growth phenomena in the surface layer and step generation from the edges of faceted crystals  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of growth step generation from the edges of faceted crystals obtained from experimental results with KDP crystals is described. It shows that growth from the crystal edges is initiated by the deviation of the edges from their crystallographic orientation and formation of incomplete shapes of singular facets. The conditions for formation of the incomplete faceted shapes during dislocation growth are considered. It is shown that the process of step generation from the edges is determined by the mutual positions of the vicinal slopes on the adjacent faces.

Carman, L; Smolsky, I; Zaitseva, N P



Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations): C.S. SAP  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Computer Science Scientific Application Partnership (C.S. SAP) at LLNL is to develop and apply leading-edge scientific component technology to FACETS software. Contributions from LLNL's fusion energy program staff towards the underlying physics modules are described in a separate report. FACETS uses component technology to combine selectively multiple physics and solver software modules written in different languages by different institutions together in an tightly-integrated, parallel computing framework for Tokamak reactor modeling. In the past fiscal year, the C.S. SAP has focused on two primary tasks: applying Babel to connect UEDGE into the FACETS framework through UEDGE's existing Python interface and developing a next generation componentization strategy for UEDGE which avoids the use of Python. The FACETS project uses Babel to solve its language interoperability challenges. Specific accomplishments for the year include: (1) Refined SIDL interfaces for UEDGE to meet satisfy the standard interfaces required by FACETS for all physics modules. This required consensus building between framework and UEDGE developers. (2) Wrote prototype C++ driver for UEDGE to demonstrate how UEDGE can be called from C++ using Babel. (3) Supported the FACETS project by adding new features to Babel such as release number tagging, porting to new machines, and adding new configuration options. Babel modifications were delivered to FACETS by testing and publishing development snapshots in the projects software repository. (4) Assisted Tech-X Corporation in testing and debugging of a high level build system for the complete FACETS tool chain--the complete list of third-party software libraries that FACETS depends on directly or indirectly (e.g., MPI, HDF5, PACT, etc.). (5) Designed and implemented a new approach to wrapping UEDGE as a FACETS component without requiring Python. To get simulation results as soon as possible, our initial connection from the FACETS framework to UEDGE uses a Forthon-generated Python layer that sits on top of the UEDGE Fortran code. To run on leadership class machines that do not support shared libraries such as Franklin (NERSCS) and Jaguar (ORNL), FACETS requires a more direct connection to the UEDGE Fortran that eliminates the Python layer. We designed and developed an extension for Forthon to provide a direct connection from C++ to the UEDGE Fortran using Babel. This also required added annotations to the Forthon '.v' input files to indicate how function parameters are used.

Epperly, T W



Shocks and Curvature Dynamics: A Test of Global Kinetic Faceting in Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the microscopic mechanisms underlying the dynamical faceting of crystals. Partially faceted crystal shapes of CCl4 are formed from a melt contained in a Bridgman apparatus and pressure is used to control growth which is observed using optical microscopy. In contrast to predictions of models in which the local interfacial motion is greatest where the step density is the highest, the loss of rough orientations is observed to occur via a local decrease in curvature which results in the formation of discontinuities-shocks-in the surface of the growth forms, a feature predicted by a recent theory of kinetic faceting.

Maruyama, M.; Kuribayashi, N.; Kawabata, K.; Wettlaufer, J. S.



Editorial: Stabilization of the sacroiliac joint.  


Lower back pain and pain involving the area of the posterior iliac spine are extremely common. Degeneration of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is one potential cause for lower back pain and pain radiating into the groin or buttocks. Degenerative changes to the lumbar spine and sacroiliac joints are common. A recent study evaluating SIJ abnormalities in a primary low back pain population demonstrated 31.7% of patients demonstrated SI joint abnormalities. (4) As is the case for the evaluation and management of isolated lower back pain, the evaluation, management, and role for surgical intervention in SIJ pain is very controversial. Many patients have degenerative changes of the disc, facet joints, and SIJs. A recent systematic review performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tests available to clinicians to identify the disc, facet joint, or SIJ as the source of low back pain concluded that tests do exist that change the probability of the disc or SIJ (but not the facet joint) as the source of low back pain. (3) It was also concluded that the usefulness of these tests in clinical practice, particularly for guiding treatment selection, remains unclear. (3) Although there is general agreement that SIJ pathological changes are a potential cause of pain, there is far less agreement about the optimal management of these conditions. A variety of conditions can cause SIJ dysfunction including degenerative and inflammatory arthritis, trauma, prior lumbosacral fusion, hip arthritis, limb length inequality, infections, and neoplasia. (8) There is increasing evidence that image intensifier-guided single periarticular injection can correctly localize pain to the SIJ but the optimal management strategy remains controversial. Recent publications have compared surgical versus injection treatments and fusion versus denervation procedures. (1 , 8) A systematic review found improvement regardless of the treatment, with most studies reporting over 40% improvement in pain as measured by VAS or NRS scores. (8) It cautioned that one of the studies reported 17.6% of patients experiencing mild/no pain compared with 82.4% experiencing marked/severe pain at 39 months after SIJ fusion procedures. (6 , 8) This systematic review also noted that despite improvements in reported pain, less than half of patients who had work status reported as returning to work. (8) Because of the functional and socioeconomic consequences of chronic lower back pain, numerous surgical treatments to improve this condition have been attempted by spinal surgeons through the years. Arthrodesis of the SIJ is a surgical procedure with a long history dating to the beginnings of spinal surgery. (7) Poor results, high complication rates and the need for additional surgical procedures have generally diminished the enthusiasm for this procedure until recently. (6) A variety of "minimally invasive" procedures have been recently introduced that have rekindled enthusiasm for the surgical management of SIJ pathology. The technique demonstrated in the "Stabilization of the SIJ with SI-Bone" is one of these new techniques. There has been a recent publication detailing the very short term clinical outcomes with this technique that reported encouraging results. (5) In this series of 50 patients, quality of life questionnaires were available for 49 patients preoperatively, 41 patients at 3 months, 40 at 6 months and only 27 at 12 months, complicating the ability to accurately assess true outcomes. Although the focus of this video by Geisler is on the surgical technique, there should have been more information provided on the expected surgical outcomes and potential complications of SIJ fusion. (2) The video only gives minimal information on how to appropriately select patients with potential SIJ pathology for surgical intervention. There are insufficient recommendations on the clinical and radiographic follow-up needed for this procedure. A concern with this implant is whether the porous plasma spray coating on the implant actually results in bone growth across the SIJ

Shaffrey, Christopher I; Smith, Justin S



A Systems Biology Approach to Synovial Joint Lubrication in Health, Injury, and Disease  

PubMed Central

The synovial joint contains synovial fluid (SF) within a cavity bounded by articular cartilage and synovium. SF is a viscous fluid that has lubrication, metabolic, and regulatory functions within synovial joints. SF contains lubricant molecules, including proteoglycan-4 and hyaluronan. SF is an ultrafiltrate of plasma with secreted contributions from cell populations lining and within the synovial joint space, including chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Maintenance of normal SF lubricant composition and function are important for joint homeostasis. In osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and joint injury, changes in lubricant composition and function accompany alterations in the cytokine and growth factor environment and increased fluid and molecular transport through joint tissues. Thus, understanding the synovial joint lubrication system requires a multi-faceted study of the various parts of the synovial joint and their interactions. Systems biology approaches at multiple scales are being used to describe the molecular, cellular, and tissue components and their interactions that comprise the functioning synovial joint. Analyses of the transcriptome and proteome of SF, cartilage, and synovium suggest that particular molecules and pathways play important roles in joint homeostasis and disease. Such information may be integrated with physicochemical tissue descriptions to construct integrative models of the synovial joint that ultimately may explain maintenance of health, recovery from injury, or development and progression of arthritis.

Hui, Alexander Y.; McCarty, William J.; Masuda, Koichi; Firestein, Gary S.; Sah, Robert L.



High power (2. 1 W) 10-stripe AlGaAs laser arrays with Si disordered facet windows  

SciTech Connect

Silicon impurity induced disordering has been used to fabricate lasers with reduced facet absorption (facet windows) exhibiting enhanced catastrophic facet damage levels over comparable nonwindow devices. Power levels of 1.2 W cw were obtained from uncoated output facet devices and 2.1 W cw were obtained for a device with a coated output facet. Evidence is presented that the window region formed by silicon diffusion is a low-loss waveguide which confines the propagating wave, increasing the efficiency of the device.

Thornton, R.L.; Welch, D.F.; Burnham, R.D.; Paoli, T.L.; Cross, P.S.



Measurement of intermodulation distortion in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, we present an experimental characterization of third-order intermodulation distortion (IM3) at 5.8 GHz in a unitraveling-carrier refracting-facet photodiode (UTC-RFPD) and a p-i-n refracting-facet photodiode (pin-RFPD). The IM3 in the pin-RFPD is considerably reduced compared to the waveguide-type p-i-n photodiode. The third-order intercept point (IP3) of the UTC-RFPD does not decrease as the photocurrent increases, indicating that space-charge-induced

T. Ohno; H. Fukano; Y. Muramoto; T. Ishibashi; T. Yoshimatsu; Y. Doi



Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching  

SciTech Connect

We present a technique to lithographically define and fabricate all required optical facets on a silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuit by an inductively coupled plasma etch process. This technique offers 1 {mu}m positioning accuracy of the facets at any location within the chip and eliminates the need of polishing. Facet fabrication consists of two separate steps to ensure sidewall verticality and minimize attack on the end surfaces of the waveguides. Protection of the waveguides by a thermally evaporated aluminum layer before the 40-70 {mu}m deep optical facet etching has been proven essential in assuring the facet smoothness and integrity. Both scanning electron microscopy analysis and optical measurement results show that the quality of the facets prepared by this technique is comparable to the conventional facets prepared by polishing.

Yap, K.P.; Lamontagne, B.; Delage, A.; Janz, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Picard, M.; Post, E.; Chow-Chong, P.; Malloy, M.; Roth, D.; Marshall, P.; Liu, K.Y.; Syrett, B. [Department of Electronics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Electronics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario KIS 5B6 (Canada)



Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions.  


We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes. PMID:24097175

Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu



Openness to Experience and Mortality in Men: Analysis of Trait and Facets  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined whether specific facets are more robust predictors of mortality risk than overall trait openness in a sample of older men. Methods The current investigation used data from 1,349 men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. From 1990–1991 to 2008, 547 (41%) had died. We used exploratory factor analysis to extract facets of openness, followed by proportional hazards modeling to examine 18-year mortality risk. Results Two facets emerged from the openness adjectives: intellect and creativity. In the fully adjusted model, only creativity predicted mortality risk. A 1-SD increase in creativity was associated with a 12% decrease in mortality risk. Discussion The study demonstrated that consideration of facets allows for a more precise understanding of the personality–health association. Higher levels of creativity predict longer survival in a sample of older men which provides preliminary support of the protective role creativity has on health even at advanced ages.

Turiano, Nicholas A.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.



Photometric model of diffuse surfaces described as a distribution of interfaced Lambertian facets.  


The Lambertian model for diffuse reflection is widely used for the sake of its simplicity. Nevertheless, this model is known to be inaccurate in describing a lot of real-world objects, including those that present a matte surface. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a photometric model where the surfaces are described as a distribution of facets where each facet consists of a flat interface on a Lambertian background. Compared to the Lambertian model, it includes two additional physical parameters: an interface roughness parameter and the ratio between the refractive indices of the background binder and of the upper medium. The Torrance-Sparrow model--distribution of strictly specular facets--and the Oren-Nayar model--distribution of strictly Lambertian facets--appear as special cases. PMID:19844317

Simonot, Lionel



Self Assembly of Mixed-Valence Ionic Amphiphiles into Faceted Vesicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that anionic and cationic amphiphiles of unequal charge can co-assemble into small faceted vesicles and we propose a theoretical model to explain the faceting behavior. The strong electrostatic interaction between the +3 and -1 head groups increases the Columbic cohesion energy of the amphiphiles and should favor the formation of a two-dimensional, flat ionic surface. The vesicle surface can form edges by breaking the ionic lattice, which can be visualized as faceted shapes. Our results demonstrate that a large charge imbalance between the cationic and anionic head groups of amphiphiles enables their coassembly into facetted vesicles. We anticipate this work to be a starting point for rationally designing new self-assembled supramolecular structures.

Greenfield, Megan; Vernizzi, Graziano; Palmer, Liam; Stupp, Samuel; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica



Relationships between psychological safety climate facets and safety behavior in the rail industry: a dominance analysis.  


The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to confirm a relationship between employee perceptions of psychological safety climate and safety behavior for a sample of workers in the rail industry and (2) to explore the relative strengths of relationships between specific facets of safety climate and safety behavior. Non-management rail maintenance workers employed by a large North American railroad completed a survey (n=421) regarding workplace safety perceptions and behaviors. Three facets of safety climate (management safety, coworker safety, and work-safety tension) were assessed as relating to individual workers' reported safety behavior. All three facets were significantly associated with safety behavior. Dominance analysis was used to assess the relative importance of each facet as related to the outcome, and work-safety tension evidenced the strongest relationship with safety behavior. PMID:20538102

Morrow, Stephanie L; McGonagle, Alyssa K; Dove-Steinkamp, Megan L; Walker, Curtis T; Marmet, Matthew; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L



Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes.

Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu



Electrostatics-driven assembly of uni-lamellar catanionic facetted vesicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature utilizes shape to generate function. Organelle and halophilic bacteria wall envelopes, for example, adopt various polyhedral shapes to compartmentalize matter. The origin of these shapes is unknown. A large variety of shell geometries, either fully faceted polyhedra or mixed Janus-like vesicles with faceted and curved domains that resemble cellular shells can be generated by coassembling water-insoluble anionic (--1) amphiphiles with high valence cationic (+2 and +3) amphiphiles. Electron microscopy, X-ray scattering, theory and simulations demonstrate that the resulting faceted ionic shells are crystalline, and stable at high salt concentrations. The crystallization of the co-assembled single tail amphiphiles is induced by ionic correlations, and modified by the solution pH. This work promotes the design of faceted shapes for various applications and improves our understanding of the origin of polyhedral shells in nature.

Leung, Cheuk-Yui; Palmer, Liam; Kewalramani, Sumit; Sknepnek, Rastko; Vernizzi, Graziano; Greenfield, Megan; Stupp, Samuel; Bedzyk, Michael; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica



Facet-dependent electrochemical properties of Co3O4 nanocrystals toward heavy metal ions  

PubMed Central

We revealed an interesting facet-dependent electrochemical behavior toward heavy metal ions (HMIs) based on their adsorption behaviors. The (111) facet of Co3O4 nanoplates has better electrochemical sensing performance than that of the (001) facet of Co3O4 nanocubes. Adsorption measurements and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals that adsorption of HMIs is responsible for the difference of electrochemical properties. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies provide a solid hint to explain the mechanism of electrochemical detection of HMIs using nanoscale metal oxides. Furthermore, this study not only suggests a promising new strategy for designing high performance electrochemical sensing interface through the selective synthesis of nanoscale materials exposed with different well-defined facets, but also provides a deep understanding for a more sensitive and selective electroanalysis at nanomaterials modified electrodes.

Yu, Xin-Yao; Meng, Qiang-Qiang; Luo, Tao; Jia, Yong; Sun, Bai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu



Percutaneous computer-assisted translaminar facet screw: an initial human cadaveric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextTranslaminar facet screws are a minimally invasive technique for posterior lumbar fixation with good success rates. Computer-assisted image navigation using virtual fluoroscopy allows multiple simultaneous screens in various planes to plan and drive spinal instrumentation.

Rick C. Sasso; Natalie M. Best; Eric A. Potts



Anomalous growth of c-facets in4He crystals at mK-temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied growth of c-facets in4He crystals without screw dislocations at temperatures 2-200 mK. High-resolution optical interferometry allowed us to resolve interfacial speeds down to 0.01 nm/s. Contrary to expectations, c-facets were found to grow about 1 atomic layer/sec at relatively small overpressures of 0.1 mbar; this rate decreased by a factor of ten when temperature was increased from 20 mK up to 200 mK. At larger speeds, growth of c-facets consisted of consecutive bursts whose distribution in pressure displayed a strong temperature dependence. The method for measuring small rates of facet growth is described.

Ruutu, Jussi; Hakonen, Pertti; Babkin, Alexei; Penttilä, Jari; Saramäki, Jari



Provincetown History Preservation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The story of Provincetown, Massachusetts is part of the earliest European settlement of the United States. Stretching back almost four centuries, the tales of this town include whaling, artists, creative theater, and of course, the Pilgrims. This website was created to preserve the history of this unique place, and it is made possible by a generous donation from the Ken Weiss Schwab Charitable Fund. First-time visitors can get started by using the search engine here or by browsing the items by collection, format, or subject category. The collection includes annual town reports, glass plates, a history of the town department, and so on. The town reports date from 1870 to 1918 and they offer an interesting picture of what occupied the minds and attentions of local residents. Visitors shouldn't miss the "Artworks" area, as they will find beautiful oil canvases of waterfront scenes and watercolors depicting celebrated shipping vessels.



Format-Preserving Encryption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Format-preserving encryption (FPE) encrypts a plaintext of some specified format into a ciphertext of identical format—for example, encrypting a valid credit-card number into a valid credit-card number. The problem has been known for some time, but it has lacked a fully general and rigorous treatment. We provide one, starting off by formally defining FPE and security goals for it. We investigate the natural approach for achieving FPE on complex domains, the “rank-then-encipher” approach, and explore what it can and cannot do. We describe two flavors of unbalanced Feistel networks that can be used for achieving FPE, and we prove new security results for each. We revisit the cycle-walking approach for enciphering on a non-sparse subset of an encipherable domain, showing that the timing information that may be divulged by cycle walking is not a damaging thing to leak.

Bellare, Mihir; Ristenpart, Thomas; Rogaway, Phillip; Stegers, Till


Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.



Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC  


Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  


The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in a non-clinical\\u000a student sample. The Chinese FFMQ demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and the test-retest reliability. Confirmatory\\u000a factor analysis provided support for the five-factor model. Four of these facets (describing, acting with awareness, non-judging\\u000a and non-reacting) were shown to have incremental validity in the prediction

Yu-Qin Deng; Xing-Hua Liu; Marcus A. Rodriguez; Chun-Yan Xia



Are all the parts there everywhere? Facet job satisfaction in the United States and the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of satisfaction with the “parts” or facets of the job to the “whole” of global job satisfaction and to intention\\u000a to quit differed between samples of employees from financial firms in the United States of America (USA) and the Philippines.\\u000a In contrast with research using commonly accepted sets of facet satisfactions developed in the USA, our results showed

Teresa J. Rothausen; Jorge A. Gonzalez; Andrea E. C. Griffin



Psychometric properties of the Dutch Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in patients with fibromyalgia.  


Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used in clinical populations to reduce psychological distress and improve functioning. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is a questionnaire that measures five facets of mindfulness: observe, describe, actaware, nonjudge and nonreact. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the FFMQ in a clinical population of fibromyalgia patients. A total of 141 patients completed an online questionnaire on mindfulness (FFMQ) and theoretically related (e.g. acceptance, openness, alexithymia) and unrelated (physical health) constructs. Thirty-eight patients filled in the FFMQ twice. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the five-factor structure of the FFMQ. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were respectively assessed with Cronbach's ? and intraclass correlation coefficients. Construct validity was examined by correlating FFMQ facets with theoretically related and unrelated constructs. Incremental validity in predicting mental health and psychological symptoms was examined with regression analyses. CFA confirmed the correlated five-factor structure of the FFMQ. Internal consistency of the five facets was satisfactory and test-retest reliability was good to excellent. Construct validity was excellent, as shown by the moderate to large correlations with related constructs (except observe facet) and weak correlation with a theoretically unrelated construct. Two of the five facets (actaware and nonjudge) had incremental validity over the others in predicting mental health and psychological symptoms. After controlling for related constructs, the actaware facet remained a significant predictor. This study showed satisfactory psychometric properties of the Dutch FFMQ in fibromyalgia patients. The observe facet, however, should be used with caution given its deviant relationship with theoretically related constructs. PMID:21347605

Veehof, Martine M; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Taal, Erik; Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T



Mental Model Metrics and Team Adaptability: A Multi-Facet Multi-Method Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically examines the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of three team mental model measurement approaches. Specifically, this study measures the similarity (MM-similarity) and quality (MM-quality) facets of team strategy-focused mental models using structural networks, priority rankings, and importance ratings. The convergent and divergent relationships among the three mental model metrics are then examined via a multi-facet multi-method matrix.

Christian J. Resick; Toshio Murase; Wendy L. Bedwell; Elizabeth Sanz; Miliani Jiménez; Leslie A. DeChurch



Ion Cleaning of Facets for Improving the Reliability of High Power 980 nm Semiconductor Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a simple and available way of improving the reliability of high power InGaAs 980 nm lasers by cleaning the facets using Ar ion before the protecting films have been coated. The Ar cleaning can remove the impurity and the oxide on the air-cleaved facets of laser diodes. It is proven that the way has marked effect on reducing the gradual degradation rate of laser diodes and improving the catastrophic-optical-damage threshold.

Shu, Xiong-Wen; Xu, Chen; Tian, Zeng-Xia; Shen, Guang-Di



Grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth in BaTiO 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

When 0.1mol% TiO2–excess BaTiO3 was sintered below the eutectic temperature in air, abnormally large grains formed in the fine matrix BaTiO3 grains. The abnormal grains contained {111} twin lamellae, while the matrix grains did not. A TEM observation revealed that almost all the grain boundaries were faceted. On the other hand, however, when the air-sintered sample with faceted grain boundaries

Byoung-Ki Lee; Sung-Yoon Chung; Suk-Joong L Kang



Method to Remedy Image Degradations Due to Facet Braiding in 3D Integral-Imaging Monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main challenges in 3D integral imaging (InI) is to overcome the limited depth of field of displayed 3D images. Although this limitation can be due to many factors, the phenomenon that produces the strongest deterioration of out-of-focus images is the facet braiding. In fact, the facet braiding is an essential problem, since InI 3D monitors are not

Héctor Navarro; Raúl Martinez-Cuenca; Ainhoa Molina-Martian; Manuel Martinez-Corral; Genaro Saavedra; Bahram Javidi



Psychopathy and the Five Factor Model in a Noninstitutionalized Sample: A Domain and Facet Level Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of primary and secondary psychopathic dispositions as measured by the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) Scales to NEO-PI-R domain and facet scales of the Five Factor Model (FFM) was examined in a sample (N = 463) of young adults. Previous investigations were extended by (1) addressing the relationship of higher- (i.e., domain) and lower-order (i.e., facet) FFM traits to

Scott R. Ross; Catherine J. Lutz; Steven E. Bailley



Hierarchical TiO2 nanospheres with dominant {001} facets: facile synthesis, growth mechanism, and photocatalytic activity.  


Hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres with controlled surface morphologies and dominant {001} facets were directly synthesized from Ti powder by a facile, one-pot, hydrothermal method. The obtained hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres have a uniform size of 400-500?nm and remarkable 78?% fraction of {001} facets. The influence of the reaction temperature, amount of HF, and reaction time on the morphology and the exposed facets was systematically studied. A possible growth mechanism speculates that Ti powder first dissolves in HF solution, and then flowerlike TiO(2) nanostructures are formed by assembly of TiO(2) nanocrystals. Because of the high concentration of HF in the early stage, these TiO(2) nanostructures were etched, and hollow structures formed on the surface. After the F(-) ions were effectively absorbed on the crystal surfaces, {001} facets appear and grow steadily. At the same time, the {101} facets also grow and meet the {101} facets from adjacent truncated tetragonal pyramids, causing coalescence of these facets and formation of nanospheres with dominant {001} facets. With further extension of the reaction time, single-crystal {001} facets of hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres are dissolved and TiO(2) nanospheres with dominant {101} facets are obtained. The photocatalytic activities of the hierarchical TiO(2) nanospheres were evaluated and found to be closely related to the exposed {001} facets. Owing to the special hierarchical architecture and high percentage of exposed {001} facets, the TiO(2) nanospheres exhibit much enhanced photocatalytic efficiency (almost fourfold) compared to P25 TiO(2) as a benchmark material. This study provides new insight into crystal-facet engineering of anatase TiO(2) nanostructures with high percentage of {001} facets as well as opportunities for controllable synthesis of 3D hierarchical nanostructures. PMID:22499525

Li, Hongmei; Zeng, Yangsu; Huang, Tongcheng; Piao, Lingyu; Yan, Zijie; Liu, Min



Squatting facet: a case study Dilkaya and Van-Kalesi populations in eastern Turkey.  


Anomalies of the skeleton provide information on living conditions, cultural structure and health problems in ancient societies. Squatting facet is a kind of anomaly that forms on the surfaces where the tibia and talus articulate is the squatting facet states the daily activities and living style of the society. The aim of this study is to learn the daily activities of the medieval societies in the Van region through studying of squatting facets. In this study, adult skeletons from Dilkaya and Van Kalesi-Eski Van Sehri societies dating to the Medieval Age were investigated (65 tibia and 82 tali from Dilkaya, 61 tibia and 52 tali from Van Kalesi-Eski Van Sehri). The lateral squatting facet had high ratios in both societies. The tibia lateral squatting facet found on females and males of Dilkaya was 97.2% and 96.9%, respectively, and on females and males of Van kalesi Eski Van Sehri was 87.5% and 89.2%, respectively. The talus lateral squatting facet found on females and males of Dilkaya was 72.1% and 51.3%, respectively, and on females and males of Van kalesi Eski Van Sehri was 91.2% and 83.7%, respectively. The results provide an opportunity to study the relationship between past and modern population, and also describe the daily activity of life and cultural structure. PMID:21874707

Baykara, Ismail; Yilmaz, Hakan; Gültekin, Timur; Güleç, Erksin



Growth kinetics on silicon facets during low-temperature crystallization from indium solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-grained Si layers are attractive for cost-effective thin film solar cells. Our experiments using a low-temperature steady-state solution growth procedure for growing Si crystallites on glass show the dominance of Si{111} facets. Recesses observed in the centers of these facets suggest that growth starts at {100} vertices and/or {110} edges and continues rather by spreading of monatomic steps on the {111} facets than by nucleation on these planes. The aim of this paper is to explain the observed morphology by calculation and to find out if the growth can be improved by nucleation on {111} facets. Thermodynamic analysis shows that {100} facets are rough under our growth conditions. Therefore, the calculation of two-dimensional (2D) nucleation is focused on the flat {110}, and {111} facets. The dissolution enthalpy of silicon in indium is used to evaluate the ledge free energy of Wulff-shaped 2D nuclei on both planes. It results, that 2D nucleation takes place on {110} planes already at low degrees of supersaturation. In contrast, the saturated solution would have to be undercooled by 34.2 K to explain observed size of grown crystallites by 2D nucleation on {111} planes. Such high degree of supersaturation does not occur in the experiments. Hence, the calculations support the assumed growth model.

Teubner, Th.; Heimburger, R.; Boeck, T.; Fornari, R.



On the nature of various growth facets at the interfaces of gold catalyzed-silicon nanowires.  


Modified embedded atom method-molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to define the various growth facets at the interfaces of Au catalyzed-silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The interfacial growth facet of Au/SiNW on c-Si (111) surface has a single, planar interface, that grows parallel to the Si (111) planes. The interfacial growth facet on c-Si (211) surface has an asymmetrical, cone shape. The interface of Au/SiNW consists of two planes--the greater being {111} and the lesser being {100} planes. And finally the interfacial growth facet on c-Si (110) surface has a symmetrical, cone shape. The interface consists of two {111} planes. These findings exhibit good agreement with the previous experimental observation done with cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. We also predict the interfacial growth facet of Au/SiNW with NW direction (100), explaining that such a direction rarely exists due to geometrical limitations. We propose that changes in SiNW direction are caused the existence of various growth facets at the Au/SiNW interfaces. PMID:23858883

Cho, Tae-Sik; Hwang, Gyeong S



Joint Injection/Aspiration  


... osteoarthritis. What usually is injected into the joint space? Corticosteroids (such as methylprednisolone and triamcinolone formulated to ... for producing inflammation and pain within the joint space. Although corticosteroids may also be successfully used in ...


Arthritis: Metacarpophalangeal (MP) Joint  


... activities. Arthritis is the wearing away of the cartilage at a joint. Cartilage is the coating layer of tissue on the ... that acts as a shock-absorber. Loss of cartilage can lead to joint destruction and a shift ...


Large displacement spherical joint  


A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)



Medium for preserving biological materials  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a medium allowing the preservation and cryopreservation of biological materials such as animal cells and viral particles that are directly injectable or reinjectable into an organism. A medium for preserving and/or freezing biological materials, including a saline solution, modified fluid gelatin and human serum albumin, is disclosed.

Crespo; Andre (Ormesson, FR); Soria; Henri Michel (Monts, FR)



Guayule as a wood preservative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wood preservatives used to protect wood from insect and microbial damage are presently of major concern to human health and the environment. Finding alternative and economical preservatives has not been successful. Studies have shown that the resin material extracted from the guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum, Gray) has both insect and microbial resistant properties. Unfortunately, this finding has not been

F. S Nakayama; S. H Vinyard; P Chow; D. S Bajwa; J. A Youngquist; J. H Muehl; A. M Krzysik



User Experience and Heritage Preservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan



Food preservation by hurdle technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurdle technology was developed several years ago as a new concept for the production of safe, stable, nutritious, tasty and economical foods. It advocates the intelligent use of combinations of different preservation factors or techniques (‘hurdles’) in order to achieve multi-target, mild but reliable preservation effects. Attractive applications have been identified in many food areas. The present article briefly introduces

Lothar Leistner; Leon G. M. Gorris



Preferences, information and biodiversity preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the nature of preferences for the preservation of biodiversity, and the extent to which individuals are well-informed about biodiversity. We present evidence that the elicitation of monetary bids to pay for biodiversity preservation, as required for cost-benefit analysis, fails as a measure of welfare changes due to the prevalence of preferences which neoclassical economics defines as lexicographic.

Clive L. Spash; Nick Hanley



Building Preservation Knowledge in Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project to translate into Portuguese and disseminate preservation knowledge was part of a broader partnership between the Council on Library and Information Resources, which incorporates the former Commission on Preservation and Access, and a consortium of Brazilian archival, library, and museum institutions. The partnership was intended to…

Beck, Ingrid


Collapsible mechanical joint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mechanical joint that can be configured to be either flexible or rigid is presented. The mechanical joint comprises three members which are flexibly attached to each other with a cable. When the cable is tightened, the three members come together to form a rigid joint capable of withstanding structural loads.

Robertson, Glen A.



Bolted Hybrid Joints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of an analytical study of hybrid steel butt joints of A36, A440 and A514 steel. The joints were fastened by either A325 or A490 bolts. The studies were designed to determine the effect of various variables on the joint stre...

R. Kormanik J. W. Fisher



Atlantoaxial manual realignment in a patient with traumatic atlantoaxial joint disruption.  


We report a patient with complex traumatic translatory atlantoaxial dislocation, who we treated by joint exposure and reduction of the dislocation by facet manipulation and subsequent plate and screw atlantoaxial fixation. A 28-year-old male had fallen 7.6m (25 feet), and following the fall had severe neck pain but no neurological deficit. Investigations revealed a fracture at the base of the odontoid process and posterior displacement of the entire atlas over the axis, resulting in a translatory atlantoaxial dislocation. Head traction failed as he developed severe vertigo following its application. The patient was operated upon in a prone position. We opened the atlantoaxial joint and realigned the facets using distraction and manipulation techniques and secured the joint using a plate and screw interarticular method. The patient tolerated the treatment well and was symptom-free after 28 months. Postoperative images showed good craniovertebral alignment. Although technically challenging, direct manipulation of the facets of the atlas and axis can result in excellent craniovertebral realignment. PMID:20223670

Goel, Atul; Figueiredo, Antonio; Maheshwari, Shradha; Shah, Abhidha



Combined Fire Retardant and Wood Preservative Treatments for Outdoor Wood Applications – A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative Australian national project funded jointly by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation\\u000a and the Forest & Wood Products Research and Development Corporation has been undertaken to develop a ‘proof of concept’ for\\u000a a combined fire retardant\\/wood preservative treatment technology for P. radiata to satisfy the requirements of both the Australian Bushfire and Wood Preservation Standards. The focus

D. C. O. Marney; L. J. Russell



Pairwise sparsity preserving embedding for unsupervised subspace learning and classification.  


Two novel unsupervised dimensionality reduction techniques, termed sparse distance preserving embedding (SDPE) and sparse proximity preserving embedding (SPPE), are proposed for feature extraction and classification. SDPE and SPPE perform in the clean data space recovered by sparse representation and enhanced Euclidean distances over noise removed data are employed to measure pairwise similarities of points. In extracting informative features, SDPE and SPPE aim at preserving pairwise similarities between data points in addition to preserving the sparse characteristics. This paper calculates the sparsest representation of all vectors jointly by a convex optimization. The sparsest codes enable certain local information of data to be preserved, and can endow SDPE and SPPE a natural discriminating power, adaptive neighborhood and robust characteristic against noise and errors in delivering low-dimensional embeddings. We also mathematically show SDPE and SPPE can be effectively extended for discriminant learning in a supervised manner. The validity of SDPE and SPPE is examined by extensive simulations. Comparison with other related state-of-the-art unsupervised algorithms show that promising results are delivered by our techniques. PMID:23955747

Zhang, Zhao; Yan, Shuicheng; Zhao, Mingbo



Relationships between geometry and kinematic characteristics in the temporomandibular joint.  


Motions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involve both translation and rotation; however, there may be substantial variations from one human to another, and these variations present significant difficulties when designing TMJ prostheses. The disc-condyle glides along the temporal bone and the condyle centre describe a curve that depends on the individual morphology. This study analyses disc-condyle rotatory and translatory displacements moving all along the temporal bone facets which are mainly composed of two areas: the articular tubercle slope (ATS) and the preglenoid plane separated by the articular tubercle crest. Displacements were quantified using 3D video analysis, and this technique was computer-assisted. From a population of 32 volunteers, we were able to establish a correlation between the kinematic characteristics of the joint and the disc-condyle trajectories. This study quantifies the geometrical characteristics of the ATS and their inter-individual variations, which are useful in TMJ prosthesis design. PMID:21264781

Mesnard, M; Coutant, J C; Aoun, M; Morlier, J; Cid, M; Caix, P



Morphologically-tunable TiO2 nanorod film with high energy facets: green synthesis, growth mechanism and photocatalytic activity.  


A novel green synthesis strategy was developed to synthesize a film photocatalyst containing anatase TiO(2) nanorods wholly dominated with {100} and {101} facets by employing a simple hydrothermal reaction in the presence of NaCl solution and hydrogen titanate nanosheet array film. The formation mechanism of the anatase TiO(2) nanorods was deduced from X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations, which revealed that the highly reactive {100} facets were derived from the enhanced structural stability of hydrogen titanate induced by Na(+) and selective adsorption of Cl(-) on the {100} facets of anatase TiO(2) crystals. Photocatalytic performance has indicated that the TiO(2) nanorods with {100} facet exposure exhibit much higher activities than that of rhombic nanoparticles with {101} facet exposure for the degradation of organic contaminants, which may be primarily ascribed to the high surface energy of {100} facets. PMID:22767389

Wang, Changhua; Zhang, Xintong; Zhang, Yanli; Jia, Yan; Yuan, Bo; Yang, Jikai; Sun, Panpan; Liu, Yichun



Principles of Low Temperature Cell Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell transplantation is becoming an important technique for treatment of heart failure. Preservation is an integral step in any procedure using cells. There are two primary modes of cell preservation at low temperature, hypothermic preservation at temperatures above freezing and cryogenic preservation at temperatures below freezing. Optimal preservation protocols require a fundamental understanding of the principles involved. This review briefly

Boris Rubinsky



Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations)  

SciTech Connect

This role of this computer science SAP is to facilitate FACETS design and development by contributing CCA component technology and new application-specific technology. From a software perspective, the FACETS project is a very complex project. It is a combination of legacy software written in Fortran, Python, and C++ by various coding groups along with new software modules being written from scratch. The FACETS team is spread among 11 organizations and is geographically distributed from coast to coast. The fusion physics modules to be incorporated vary in terms of the model dimensions, typical time scale, and type of interactions with other components. Because FACETS is a complex project, it requires a component-based framework to facilitate the definition and composition of scientific applications from a suite of available fusion physics components. Component architectures have proven themselves in the business world and more recently in the scientific computing world. The CS SAP contributes fundamental tools like Babel to the FACETS framework and helps develop application-specific interfaces appropriate for the fusion physics modules.

Epperly, T W



Systematic review of tests to identify the disc, SIJ or facet joint as the source of low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical practice guidelines state that the tissue source of low back pain cannot be specified in the majority of patients.\\u000a However, there has been no systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests used to identify the source of low back pain.\\u000a The aim of this systematic review was therefore to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tests available to clinicians

M. J. Hancock; C. G. Maher; J. Latimer; M. F. Spindler; J. H. McAuley; M. Laslett; N. Bogduk



Cancer and fertility preservation: fertility preservation in breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive chemotherapy has improved the life expectancy for reproductive-age women with breast cancer, but it often causes\\u000a infertility or premature ovarian failure due to destruction of the ovarian reserve. Many questions concerning fertility preservation\\u000a in breast cancer patients remain unanswered – for example, whether fertility preservation methods interfere with chemotherapy,\\u000a and whether subsequent pregnancy has negative effects on the prognosis.

Theodoros Maltaris; Michael Weigel; Andreas Mueller; Marcus Schmidt; Rudolf Seufert; Franz Fischl; Heinz Koelbl; Ralf Dittrich



Preserved coastal lithosomes: Variations and preservation, east Texas continental shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 1,300 km of high-resolution seismic data, coupled with more than 400 sediment cores, were used to identify and map preserved coastal lithosomes on the east Texas inner to middle continental shelf. Discrete pods of tidal-inlet, tidal-inlet\\/spit, and tidal-delta facies occur within incised valleys. Tidal-delta facies also occur outside of incised valleys. Shoreface deposits are rare. The distribution of preserved

F. P. Siringan; J. B. Anderson



High-Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of a (15, 17, 1) Facet Structure on a Si(110) Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (HTSTM) was applied to observe a facet structure on a Si(110) surface. The facet structures of (15, 17, 1) and (17, 15, 1) and the 16-structure were observed at 655°C. The 16-structure was formed on flat parts. It was confirmed that the 16-structure and the facet structures of (15, 17, 1) and (17, 15, 1) coexisted on the surface on which hillocks are dispersed. The hillock may be a contamination.

Yamamoto, Youiti; Sueyoshi, Takashi; Sato, Tomoshige; Iwatsuki, Masashi



Direct measurement of facet temperature up to melting point and COD in high-power 980-nm semiconductor diode lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a straightforward experimental technique for measuring the facet temperature of a semiconductor laser under high-power operation by analyzing the laser emission itself. By applying this technique to 1-mm-long 980-nm lasers with 6- and 9-?m-wide tapers, they measure a large increase in facet temperature under both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed operation. Under CW operation, the facet temperature

Stephen John Sweeney; Leslie Jamieson Lyons; Alfred R. Adams; Daren Alfred Lock



Asymmetric anatase TiO? nanocrystals with exposed high-index facets and their excellent lithium storage properties.  


In this work, we demonstrate a unique organic solvent system to synthesize asymmetric anatase TiO(2) nanocrystals with a bipyramidal structure, where the upper pyramid is bound by (201) facets, and the lower pyramid is bound by (401) surfaces. Due to the high surface energy of these (401) high-index facets, the nanocrystals tend to assemble on these facets to minimize the free energy, leading to the formation of a dandelion-like hierarchical structure. PMID:21892504

Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Lou, Xiong Wen David; Hng, Huey Hoon



Molecular simulation of the influence of interface faceting on the shock sensitivity of a model plastic bonded explosive.  


Molecular dynamics simulations are used to model the shock loading of an interface with various degrees of nanometer scale faceting between an inert binder and an energetic crystal. The facets create regions of local compression that induce exothermic reaction that leads to local hotspots and an increased shock sensitivity to detonation. Two mechanisms for compression and hotspot formation are identified that depend on the shock impedance mismatch between the binder and energetic crystal, namely shock focusing and local compression of the facets. These results provide a possible explanation for why spherical RDX crystals in cast polymer-bonded explosives appear less shock sensitive than RDX with more faceted morphologies. PMID:18973371

Shi, Yunfeng; Brenner, Donald W



Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

Barbaran, Francisco Ramon



Correctness-preserving program transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the predicate calculus formalization of the partial correctness properties of programs (Ki, Go) to include the preservation of correctness under program transformations. The general notion of \\

Susan L. Gerhart



Preserving Historic Lighthouses: An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical preservation bibliography has been developed to assist owners, architects and administrative officials with the planning, review, and implementation of preservation work on historic lighthouses. Preservation work funded by the Bicentennial L...

C. M. Martone L. McCroskey S. C. Park



Rotary encoding device using polygonal mirror with diffraction gratings on each facet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a monochromatic light beam is directed towards the facets. The facets of the polygonal mirror each have a low line density diffraction grating to diffract the monochromatic light beam into a number of diffracted light beams such that a number of light spots are created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spots on the linear array detector means. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spots and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

Leviton, Douglas B.



Mesoporous NiO crystals with dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets for ultrafast lithium storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faceted crystals with exposed highly reactive planes have attracted intensive investigations for applications such as hydrogen production, enhanced catalytic activity, and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Herein, we report the synthesis of mesoporous NiO crystals with dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets by the thermal conversion of hexagonal Ni(OH)2 nanoplatelets. When applied as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous NiO crystals exhibit a high reversible lithium storage capacity of 700 mAh g-1 at 1 C rate in 100 cycles and an excellent cyclability. In particular, the dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets and mesoporous nanostructure of NiO crystals lead to ultrafast lithium storage, which mimics the high power delivery of supercapacitors.

Su, Dawei; Ford, Mike; Wang, Guoxiu



Scanning-tunneling-microscopy study of faceting on high-step-density TaC surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the morphologies of the TaC(310), (210), and (110) surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy. Heating the crystals to high temperatures activates a faceting of these surfaces into a hill-and-valley structure consisting of enlarged (100) terraces and (010) step walls. Step-separation distributions obtained from these surfaces can be well fit by sharp Gaussians and are much narrower than predicted for the noninteracting terrace-step-kink model, indicating a strong repulsive interaction exists between steps on the faceted surfaces. This faceting is suggested to be driven by a decrease in the total step repulsive energy through a reduction of the total number of step pairs. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Zuo, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65804 (United States); Carpinelli, J.M. [Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Zehner, D.M.; Wendelken, J.F. [Solid State Division, Oak Ridge, National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)



Mesoporous NiO crystals with dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets for ultrafast lithium storage  

PubMed Central

Faceted crystals with exposed highly reactive planes have attracted intensive investigations for applications such as hydrogen production, enhanced catalytic activity, and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Herein, we report the synthesis of mesoporous NiO crystals with dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets by the thermal conversion of hexagonal Ni(OH)2 nanoplatelets. When applied as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous NiO crystals exhibit a high reversible lithium storage capacity of 700?mAh g?1 at 1 C rate in 100?cycles and an excellent cyclability. In particular, the dominantly exposed {110} reactive facets and mesoporous nanostructure of NiO crystals lead to ultrafast lithium storage, which mimics the high power delivery of supercapacitors.

Su, Dawei; Ford, Mike; Wang, Guoxiu



A glimpse behind the mask: facets of narcissism and feelings of self-worth.  


This study examined the connections that the facets of narcissism captured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009) have with self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 372 participants to complete measures of narcissism and self-esteem level as well as daily diary measures concerning their state self-esteem and daily experiences. Our analyses found that the facets of narcissism differed in their associations with average level of self-esteem, fluctuations in state self-esteem over time, and self-esteem reactions following daily events. These results suggest that it is important to consider specific facets of narcissism when examining feelings of self-worth rather than relying on broader composite measures of narcissistic personality features. Implications of these results for our understanding of the dynamics of the narcissistic personality are discussed. PMID:22946774

Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Besser, Avi



Facet-selective adsorption on noble metal crystals guided by electrostatic potential surfaces of aromatic molecules.  


We aim to provide a model platform composed of aromatic molecules and noble metal surfaces to study the molecular facet-selective adsorption and employ the discoveries to design surfactants for predictable shape-controlled syntheses of nanocrystals. Starting from Pt, it is demonstrated that negative electrostatic potential on the aromatic ring is the prerequisite to display binding selectivity to Pt(111), while a neutral to positive one prefers Pt(100). The geometric matching between molecular binding sites and surface lattices plays a role as well in facet selectivity. Significantly, Raman spectroscopy has been employed to probe the interactions between aromatic molecules and metal surfaces, providing direct evidence of their binding mechanisms. These discoveries are further exploited to design and identify Pd(111) and Pd(100) facet-specific surfactants. These results represent a step forward in achieving predictable and programmable nanostructures through better understanding of organic-inorganic interfaces. PMID:24050216

Chiu, Chin-Yi; Wu, Hao; Yao, Zhaoying; Zhou, Fei; Zhang, Hua; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Huang, Yu



Cost effectiveness of subaxial fusion--lateral mass screws versus transarticular facet screws.  


As health care reform continues to evolve, demonstrating the cost effectiveness of spinal fusion procedures will be of critical value. Posterior subaxial cervical fusion with lateral mass screw and rod instrumentation is a well-established fixation technique. Subaxial transarticular facet fixation is a lesser known fusion technique that has been shown to be biomechanically equivalent to lateral mass screws for short constructs. Although there has not been a widespread adoption of transarticular facet screws, the screws potentially represent a cost-effective alternative to lateral mass rod and screw constructs. In this review, the authors describe an institutional experience with the use of lateral mass screws and provide a theoretical cost comparison with the use of transarticular facet screws. PMID:22746231

Ray, Wilson Z; Ravindra, Vijay M; Jost, Gregory F; Bisson, Erica F; Schmidt, Meic H



Observations of segregation and grain-boundary faceting by tellurium and oxygen in iron  

SciTech Connect

Tellurium is known to be a highly surface-active impurity in iron and to cause severe intergranular embrittlement and grain-boundary faceting. In this regard it behavior of Te-doped iron using high-resolution scanning Auger microprobe analysis of specimens given a variety of heat treatments and fractured in UHV stet, so that a comparison could be made of the two systems. In general, it was found that the appearance of the faceted grain boundaries is similar, but significant differences exist with regard to the temperature dependence. A new and quite unexpected finding was that oxygen can substitute for tellurium on a faceted grain boundary in iron. The implications of this are discussed.

Menyhard, M. (Research Inst. of Technical Physics, Budapest, (Hungary)); Rothman, B.; McMahon, C.J. Jr. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)



Special feature: personality and personality disorders. A facet theoretical analysis of the similarity relationships.  


Categorical and dimensional models of personality, and personality disorders and their interrelationships, are discussed. A facet theoretical analysis of the structural relationships between personality factors and disorders is described. It is hypothesized that higher-order personality traits organize the personality of both the psychically healthy and the psychically ill, and that personality disorders represent maladaptive variants of traits that are evident in all persons to varying degrees. Data were collected from a clinical (n = 165) and a nonclinical sample (n = 100). Results show that the two classes of variables (personality factors and disorders) have similar relationships to each other, and can be structured in the form of a radex in both samples. Finally, the compatibility of the radex structure with other models is examined, comparing facet theory with factor analytical techniques. The results of the facet theoretical analysis further support the hypothesis of a universal personality model, and a continuous transition from normal personalities to personality disorders. PMID:9785265

Pukrop, R; Herpertz, S; Sass, H; Steinmeyer, E M



Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.  


Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. PMID:22468847

Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A



Interferometric technique for faceted microstructure metrology using an index matching liquid  

SciTech Connect

Microstructured optical products are becoming more widespread due to advances in manufacturing. Many of these structures contain faceted surfaces with steep slopes. Adequate metrology for such surfaces is lacking. We describe an interferometric technique that combines plane wave illumination with an index matching liquid to achieve high quality, high speed measurements of such faceted microstructures. We account for refraction at the interfaces, rather than consider only optical path length changes due to the index liquid, and this significantly improves the facet angle measurement. We demonstrate the technique with the measurement of an array of micropyramids and show that our results are in good agreement with measurements taken on a contact profilometer. We also extend the technique to measure opaque microcorner cubes by implementing an intermediate replication step.

Purcell, Daryl; Suratkar, Amit; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo



Shapes, Sizes, and Faceting of Nanoscale Metal Particles for Applications in Catalysis  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to reduce the world's dependence on fossil fuels, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are commonly considered as a prime candidate for alternative energy sources. The efficiency of fuel cells is limited by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which is driven by platinum based catalysts. Numerous methods have been developed to synthesize particles which contain more active surfaces by tuning shapes, sizes and facets. Here, we will present a study of a well known wet chemical reduction method targeting specific morphologies and the resulting electrochemical activity. Studying the relationship between Pt facets at the bulk phase single crystal level versus the nanoscale correlates the effects of faceting on activities. Studying the formation of crystals during the course of the synthesis via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) provides mechanistic insight on growth, while electrochemical studies correlate physical properties to performance.

Strand, M. B.; Leong, G. J.; Dinh, H. N.; Richards, R. M.




SciTech Connect

The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

CHARTRAND, RICK [Los Alamos National Laboratory



A model for solid-state dewetting of a fully-faceted thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to their extremely aspect ratios, most thin films are unstable and when they are heated, they will dewet or agglomerate to form islands. This process can occur in the solid state through capillary-driven surface self-diffusion. A key feature of the dewetting process is the retraction of the edges of the film, either natural edges, patterned edges, or edges where holes have formed. Models of edge retraction have been previously developed for isotropic materials and anisotropic materials with differentiable surfaces, but the effects of faceting in highly anisotropic materials have been largely unexplored. Here, we present a two-dimensional model of edge retraction for highly anisotropic, fully-faceted thin films. This model shows generally good agreement with experimental results for edge retraction of single-crystal Ni films on MgO. In both experiments and the model, rims form as the edges retract. The effects of adjusting various physical parameters on the edge retraction rate and the evolving rim geometry were explored using the model. The film thickness, surface self-diffusivity on the top facet of the rim, the equivalent contact angle of the film on the substrate, and the absolute value of the surface energies were found to be the factors that have the greatest influence on the edge retraction rate. In isotropic models and some experimental systems, valleys form ahead of the retracting rims and deepen to contact the substrate and cause pinch-off. Our model suggests that this form of pinch-off will not occur when the rim is fully faceted and the top surface is an equilibrium facet. However, pinch-off can occur through film thinning and for films with top surfaces that do not form flat equilibrium facets.

Zucker, Rachel V.; Kim, Gye Hyun; Craig Carter, W.; Thompson, Carl V.



Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.  


The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H



Preservatives in registered chemical products.  


Preservatives are common causes of contact allergy and contact dermatitis. Exposure to cosmetics, personal care products, consumer products and occupationally used products often involve contact with the same range of preservatives. The aim of this study is to provide an overview on the occurrence of preservatives in registered chemical products. The studied preservatives included substances from standard patch test series and other preservatives relevant for registered chemical products. Data obtained from the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) in January 2005 were compared to similar data from January 2002. Paints/lacquers, cleaning agents and printing inks were the most frequently registered product categories, and the studied preservatives were registered in most of the product categories included in the study. For most product categories the total number of registered products was stable during the study period. Butylated hydroxytoluene, benzoic acid, isothiazolinones, Bronopol and formaldehyde showed an increase from 2002 to 2005. Most of these changes occurred in the product category paints/lacquers, for which a doubling mainly due to a change in registration practice was observed. The frequent registration of isothiazolinones (MCI/MI and benzisothiazolinone) in paints/lacquers may be a possible explanation for the relative high and stable frequency of positive patch test reactions to MCI/MI. PMID:15982228

Flyvholm, Mari-Ann



Ordered arrays of faceted gold nanoparticles obtained by dewetting and nanosphere lithography.  


Nanoparticle arrays have potential applications in many areas, such as optics and electronics. Earlier work is mostly concentrated on the synthesis of such arrays, whereas we would like to focus on the control of particle size and shape, which has a great influence on the particle properties. In this study three different types of arrays of faceted nanoparticles were synthesized; it is shown that the particle size and shape in such arrays can be modified by the annealing treatment. By taking advantage of this, a novel method for the production of lines of faceted particles was demonstrated. These structures have potential applications as plasmon waveguides. PMID:21836300

Müller, Claudia Manuela; Mornaghini, Flavio Carlo Filippo; Spolenak, Ralph



5 W GaAs/GaAlAs laser diodes with a reactive ion etched facet  

SciTech Connect

GaAs/GaAlAs laser diodes with reactive ion etched facets have been demonstrated for the first time with high output powers (5 W from 100-{mu}m-wide apertures), high output power density (15 MW/cm{sup 2}), and high slope efficiencies (66%) in junction-up configuration under quasi-cw operation. Mirror etching was performed in a pure SiCl{sub 4} gas environment by maintaining a low background pressure and gas pressure. High quality etched facets have been achieved with almost no scattering loss.

Ou, S.S.; Yang, J.J.; Jansen, M. (TRW, Research Center, Space Technology Group, One Space Park, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (USA))



Cu(2+)-assisted synthesis of hexoctahedral Au-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high-index facets.  


Controlled syntheses of multicomponent metal nanocrystals (NCs) and high-index surfaces have attracted increasing attention due to the specific physical and chemical properties of such NCs. Taking advantage of copper underpotential deposition as a bridge, hexoctahedral Au-Pd alloy NCs with {hkl} facets exposed were successfully synthesized, while phase separation occurred in the absence of Cu(2+) ions. The as-prepared hexoctahedral Au-Pd alloy NCs exhibited very excellent performance in terms of both formic acid electro-oxidation and methanol tolerance due to synergism between the high-index facets and the alloy. PMID:21894987

Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiawei; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Shuifen; Jiang, Zhiyuan; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Zheng, Lansun



Equilibrium faceting formation in vicinal Al2O3 (0001) surface caused by annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a heat-induced transformation of the surface of ?-alumina (0001) crystals which have an off-cut in the [12¯10] direction. Annealing the crystal causes the surface to transform into a regular array of (0001) and (12¯16) facets. The resultant faceted morphology represents the equilibrium state of the system. It is demonstrated that the average terrace periodicity is determined by the annealing temperature. Possible causes for the surface rearrangement are also discussed. This method could be used for producing templates with controlled periodicity for growth of nanostructure arrays.

Verre, R.; Sofin, R. G. S.; Usov, V.; Fleischer, K.; Fox, D.; Behan, G.; Zhang, H.; Shvets, I. V.



Facet Growth of 4He Crystals at mK Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated growth of c facets in good quality helium crystals with screw dislocation densities 0-20 cm-2 along the c axis. Three distinct regimes of growth were observed. One of them can be explained by spiral growth provided that kinetic energy of moving steps and their tendency to localization at large driving forces are taken into account. In the absence of screw dislocations we find burstlike growth unless the speed is less than 0.5 nm/s, in which case anomalous, intrinsic growth of facets is detected.

Ruutu, J. P.; Hakonen, P. J.; Babkin, A. V.; Parshin, A. Ya.; Penttilä, J. S.; Saramäki, J. P.; Tvalashvili, G.



Anomalous growth of c-facets in 4 He crystals at mK-temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied growth of c-facets in4He crystals without screw dislocations at temperatures 2–200 mK. High-resolution optical interferometry allowed us to resolve\\u000a interfacial speeds down to 0.01 nm\\/s. Contrary to expectations, c-facets were found to grow about 1 atomic layer\\/sec at relatively\\u000a small overpressures of 0.1 mbar; this rate decreased by a factor of ten when temperature was increased from

Jussi Ruutu; Pertti Hakonen; Alexei Babkin; Jari Penttilä; Jari Saramäki



Preserved coastal lithosomes: Variations and preservation, east Texas continental shelf  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 1,300 km of high-resolution seismic data, coupled with more than 400 sediment cores, were used to identify and map preserved coastal lithosomes on the east Texas inner to middle continental shelf. Discrete pods of tidal-inlet, tidal-inlet/spit, and tidal-delta facies occur within incised valleys. Tidal-delta facies also occur outside of incised valleys. Shoreface deposits are rare. The distribution of preserved coastal lithosomes mimics the along-strike variation of the present coastal system and supports a step-line nature of sea-level rise. In addition, the distribution of lithosomes defines six relative sea-level stillstands during the past 10.2 ky, including that of the present. The seismic architectures of the preserved lithosomes indicate that sediment supply and wave/current energies have not varied substantially during the past 8 ky. In contrast, pre-8 ka coastal lithosomes indicate greater tidal influence, greater accommodation space, and higher sedimentation rates. Preserved coastal lithosomes indicate that the depth of ravinement decreases with decreasing shelf gradient, increasing rate of sea-level rise, and increasing sediment supply. High preservation potential within incised valleys results from greater accommodation space and the soft valley-fill that allow incision of the inlets beyond the depth of shoreface ravinement.

Siringan, F.P.; Anderson, J.B. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)



One-year outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of an educational-behavioural joint protection programme for people with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Joint protection aims to reduce pain and local inflammation, preserve the integrity of joint structures and improve function. There is evidence that it can improve pain and function in the short term, but the long-term effects are uncertain. This study evaluated the effects of joint protection in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded trial of duration

A. Hammond; K. Freeman



Preservation and Conservation and Their Teaching: The Methodology of Vienna '86.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses a seminar on the Teaching of Conservation and Preservation Management for Librarians, Archivists, and Information Scientists, which was organized jointly by the FID (Federation Internationale de Documentation), the ICA (International Council of Archives), and IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations) and held in…

Vallejo, Rosa M.


Preservation and Conservation and Their Teaching: The Methodology of Vienna '86.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses a seminar on the Teaching of Conservation and Preservation Management for Librarians, Archivists, and Information Scientists, which was organized jointly by the FID (Federation Internationale de Documentation), the ICA (International Council of Archives), and IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations) and held in…

Vallejo, Rosa M.


Facets of psychopathy among mentally disordered offenders: clinical comorbidity patterns and prediction of violent and criminal behavior.  


The complexity and consequences of psychopathy are still debated, and its relation to other mental disorders, pathological personality traits, and criminality needs to be further investigated by clinical, longitudinal studies using structured diagnostic instruments. The present study used two groups of mentally disordered offenders (N=153) investigated with in-depth clinical assessments and prospective long-term follow-up to identify the convergence between 1) the four facets of psychopathy defined by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial), 2) mental disorders according to SCID I and II interviews, 3) personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and 4) criminal recidivism. The Interpersonal facet differed substantially from the other three facets by not being significantly associated with substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder (the other facets at P?0.001 level), or personality traits involving impulsive and aggressive antisocial behaviors (the other facets at P<0.01 level). Furthermore, the interpersonal facet could not predict violent recidivism better than random. The Antisocial facet outperformed not only the other facets but also the total PCL-R score in the prediction of violent recidivism, P<0.001.The findings confirm psychopathy as a heterogeneous phenomenon and have clinical implications for assessments of psychopathy and violence risk assessments in clinical and forensic contexts. PMID:22421067

Wallinius, Märta; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Stålenheim, Gunilla



Public Health Assessment for Facet Enterprises, Elmira, Chemung County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD073675514.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Facet Enterprises, Inc. site in the Village of Elmira and Town of Horseheads, Chemung County, New York was listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1981. The Facet facility is one of several industrial facilities and landfills in the Newtown Va...



Catalytic CO oxidation on nanoscale Pt facets: Effect of interfacet CO diffusion on bifurcation and fluctuation behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present lattice-gas modeling of the steady-state behavior in CO oxidation on the facets of nanoscale metal clusters, with coupling via interfacet CO diffusion. The model incorporates the key aspects of the reaction process, such as rapid CO mobility within each facet and strong nearest-neighbor repulsion between adsorbed O. The former justifies our use of a ``hybrid'' simulation approach treating the CO coverage as a mean-field parameter. For an isolated facet, there is one bistable region where the system can exist in either a reactive state (with high oxygen coverage) or a (nearly CO-poisoned) inactive state. Diffusion between two facets is shown to induce complex multistability in the steady states of the system. The bifurcation diagram exhibits two regions with bistabilities due to the difference between adsorption properties of the facets. We explore the role of enhanced fluctuations in the proximity of a cusp bifurcation point associated with one facet in producing transitions between stable states on that facet, as well as their influence on fluctuations on the other facet. The results are expected to shed more light on the reaction kinetics for supported catalysts.

Pavlenko, N.; Evans, J. W.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Imbihl, R.



Violence Risk Assessment and Facet 4 of the Psychopathy Checklist: Predicting Institutional and Community Aggression in Two Forensic Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL/PCL-R) were used to predict institutional aggression and community violence in two groups of forensic patients. Results showed that Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL/PCL-R or one of its parcels consistently achieved incremental validity relative to the first three facets, whereas the…

Walters, Glenn D.; Heilbrun, Kirk



The link between facets of neuroticism and dimensions of relationship commitment: Evidence from gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between six facets of both one's own and one's partner's neuroticism (anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability) and two dimensions of one's own relationship commitment (attractions to the relationship and constraints against leaving the relationship) was examined for both partners from 33 gay, 40 lesbian, and 70 heterosexual couples. With controls for other facets of one's own

Lawrence A. Kurdek



Factors affecting the interface of cervical spine facet screws placed in the technique by Roy-Camille et al  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of bone cement, length of burr hole and bone density on pullout force and insertional screw torque of cervical spine facet screws. Both facets of 24 human cervical vertebrae were scanned for bone mineral density (BMD) and assigned to two groups for measuring of insertional screw torque and pullout strength.

T. R. Pitzen; S. Zenner; D. Barbier; T. Georg; W. I. Steudel



Edge-preserving image deconvolution with nonlocal domain transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new approach for performing efficient edge-preserving image deconvolution algorithm based on a nonlocal domain transform (NLDT). We present the geodesic distance-preserving transforming procedure of a 1D signal embedded in 2D space into a new 1D domain via a transformation for simplicity. The nonlocal domain transform derives from the (1D) nonlocal means filter kernel and iteratively and separably applies 1D edge-aware operations. In order to solve the main issue with noisy images that is finding robust estimates for their derivatives, we develop an efficient joint nonlocal domain transform filter in the deblurring process. Furthermore, we derive the discrepancy principle to automatically adjust the regularization parameter at each iteration. We compare our deconvolution algorithm with many competitive deconvolution techniques in terms of ISNR and visual quality.

Yang, Hang; Zhang, Zhongbo; Zhu, Ming; Huang, Heyan



Contemporary Cybernetics and Its Facets of Cognitive Informatics and Computational Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the architecture, theoretical foundations, and paradigms of contemporary cybernetics from perspectives of cognitive informatics (CI) and computational intelligence. The modern domain and the hierarchical behavioral model of cybernetics are elaborated at the imperative, autonomic, and cognitive layers. The CI facet of cybernetics is presented, which explains how the brain may be mimicked in cybernetics via CI and

Yingxu Wang; Witold Kinsner; Du Zhang



Faceted growth of primary Al2Cu crystals during directional solidification in high magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high magnetic field is widely used to modify the crystal morphology. In this work, the effect of the magnetic field on growing behavior of faceted crystals in the Al-40 wt. %Cu alloy was investigated using directional solidification technique. It was found that the faceted growth of primary Al2Cu phase was degraded and the primary spacing was reduced upon applying the magnetic field. Additionally, the length of the mushy zone first decreased and then increased with increase of the magnetic field intensity. The quantitative analysis reveals that the shear stress induced by the fluid motion is insufficient to break the atom bonds at the solid-liquid interface. However, both of the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) and the thermoelectric magnetic force (TEMF) cause dendrites to fracture and reduce the primary spacing. The two effects also weaken the faceting growth. Moreover, the instability of the solid-liquid interface is generated by the TEMF, which further leads to degrade the faceted growth. The length of mushy zone was changed by the TEMC and reached the minimum in the magnetic field of 0.5 T, which is in good agreement with the predicted value (0.83 T).

Li, Chuanjun; Ren, Zhongming; Shen, Yu; Wang, Qiuliang; Dai, Yinming; Wang, Hui



A Complete Description of Cones and Polytopes Including Hypervolumes of All Facets of a Polytope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper methods and algorithms for identifying the main elements (edges and facets of any dimension) of a cone and a polytope, and calculating the corresponding hypervolumes are presented. The cones and polytopes are supposed to be given as the non-negative linear combination and the convex hull generated by a, not necessarily minimal, set…

Jubete, F.; Castillo, E.



Facet Growth and Step Structure of (4)He Crystals at mK-Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growth of c-facets of (sup 4)He crystals has been investigated at mK-temperatures, using accurate capacitive crystal level and liquid pressure gauges. In order to obtain information about the width of elementary steps, giving rise to the spiral growth mec...

J. P. Saramaeki V. Tsepelin A. V. Babkin P. J. Hakonen A. Husmann J. J. Hyvoenen R. M. Luusalo A. Y. Parshin



Upward Self-Diffusion of Adatoms and Small Clusters on Facets of fcc Metal (110) Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We study upward self-diffusion of adatoms and small clusters on facetted huts formed in fcc metal (110) homoepitaxy using molecular dynamics simulations with interatomic potentials described by the embedded-atom method (EAM). Our results show that both individual adatoms and small clusters on the (111)-sloped and (100)-sloped facets of the huts on Al and Cu(110) can readily diffuse upwards and cross the outer edges of the huts, but with different atomistic mechanisms. An adatom crosses the outer edges via a simple concerted exchange or indirect place exchange mechanism. In contrast, the upward diffusion and outer-edge crossing of small clusters is realized by their dissociation at or near the edges of the hut after one or two atoms belonging to the cluster are incorporated into the edges. The present simulation studies reveal that there truly exists efficient upward mass transport on facetted islands in fcc metal (110) homoepitaxy, and such upward diffusion processes are expected to play an important role in defining the kinetic faceting instability in these growth systems. PACS number: 66.30.Fq, 68.35.Bs, 68.35.Fx, 68.35.Ja, 68.55.-a

Yang, Haili [Zhengzhou University, China; Sun, Qiang [Zhengzhou University, China; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Jia, Yu [ORNL



Project Report on a Korean Science & Technology Thesaurus with Conceptual\\/Relational Facets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our project has a long-term plan to construct a Korean science & technology thesaurus from 2005 to 2010. For designing an elaborated the- saurus, we introduce conceptual and relational facets which are excluded or partially included in WordNet, Core-Net, and other thesauri con- structed by Chung et al. (2002) and Lee et al. (2000).

Hanmin Jung; Won-Kyung Sung; Dong-In Park


Effect of random facet phases in distributed feedback lasers on optical fibre link transmission penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The random phase differences between facet reflectors and those due to the Bragg grating in uniform grating DFB lasers cause significant variations in the spectral characteristics from device to device. This results in a spread in the transmission performance for long haul fibre links. It is uneconomical to fail packaged components, therefore it is necessary to

R. P. Thilakumara; A. Wonfor; K. A. Williams; R. V. Penty; I. H. White; F. H. G. M. Wijnands



Using Self-Report Assessment Methods to Explore Facets of Mindfulness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the facet structure of mindfulness using five recently developed mindfulness questionnaires. Two large samples of undergraduate students completed mindfulness questionnaires and measures of other constructs. Psychometric properties of the mindfulness questionnaires were examined, including internal consistency and convergent and discriminant relationships with other variables. Factor analyses of the combined pool of items from the mindfulness questionnaires suggested

Ruth A. Baer; Gregory T. Smith; Jaclyn Hopkins; Jennifer Krietemeyer; Leslie Toney



Facets of Impulsivity Are Differentially Linked to Insomnia: Evidence From an Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between insomnia and four facets of impulsivity as distinguished by Whiteside and Lynam (2001): urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking. A sample of 233 university students completed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index, and a short questionnaire on sleep-related mentation. Correlational analyses revealed that urgency was related to

Ralph E. Schmidt; Philippe Gay; Martial Van der Linden




PubMed Central

The construct of psychopathy is viewed as comprising distinctive but correlated affective-interpersonal and social deviance facets. Here, we examined these facets of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in terms of their associations with the externalizing dimension of adult psychopathology, defined as the common factor underlying symptoms of conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, alcohol use/abuse, and drug abuse, along with disinhibitory personality traits. Correlational analyses revealed a strong relationship between this externalizing dimension and the social deviance facet of psychopathy (r = .84), and a lesser relationship with the emotional-interpersonal component (r = .44). Structural models controlling for the moderate overlap between the PCL-R factors revealed that externalizing was substantially related to the unique variance in the social deviance features of psychopathy, but unrelated to the unique variance of the emotional and interpersonal features whether modeled together or as separate factors. These results indicate that the social deviance factor of the PCL-R reflects the externalizing dimension of psychopathology, whereas the emotional-interpersonal component taps something distinct aside from externalizing. In addition, based on our finding of an association between PCL-R social deviance and externalizing, we were able to predict new relations between this facet of psychopathy and criterion variables, including nicotine use and gambling, that have previously been linked to externalizing. Implications for future research on the causes and correlates of psychopathy are discussed.

Patrick, Christopher J.; Hicks, Brian M.; Krueger, Robert F.; Lang, Alan R.



Teachers' Perceptions Structured through Facet Theory: Smallest Space Analysis versus Factor Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the facet theory (FT) of L. Gutman and compared it to factor analysis (FA) in the context of two research studies, one of desirable student traits perceived by 203 Israeli teachers and the other of the perceptions of 92 Israeli teachers regarding teacher professionalism. By using FT and FA, the multidimensional theory and structural…

Maslovaty, Nava; Marshall, Anne E.; Alkin, Marvin C.



Simulations of Two-Bunch Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Experiments at FACET  

SciTech Connect

Simulation results of possible upcoming Plasma Wakefield Accelerator (PWFA) experiments at FACET are presented. In a two-bunch scenario, the second (accelerated) electron bunch can have multi-GeV energy gain and a small energy spread after less than 1 meter of propagation in a Cs plasma column.

An Weiming; Lu Wei; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren B. [University of California Los Angeles, CA (United States); Huang Chengkun [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Hogan, Mark J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (United States); Martins, Samuel F.; Silva, Luis O. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)



Beneath the Surface: Uncovering the relationship between extraversion and organizational citizenship behavior through a facet approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, an empirical link between the broad factor extraversion and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has not been found. We propose that a facet conceptualization of extraversion including surgency, sociability and positive emotions predict an individual's level of citizenship behaviors in opposing ways, thus masking the predictive ability of a broad factor of extraversion. In study one, we establish the

Henry Moon; John R. Hollenbeck; Sophia Marinova; Stephen E. Humphrey



FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions  

SciTech Connect

FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

Christiansen, J. H.



Faceted nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal: defect structures and potentials of mean force  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the defect structures and the potentials of mean force (PMF) that arise when faceted nanoparticles, namely cubes and triangular prisms, are immersed in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC). Using a mesoscale theory for the tensor order parameter Q of the nematic, we have determined the thermodynamic stability of different orientations of one nanoparticle with respect to the far-field

Francisco R. Hung; Shivkumar Bale



Photocatalytic selective oxidation of phenol in suspensions of titanium dioxide with exposed {0 0 1} facets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {0 0 1} facets were tailored by hydrothermal treatment of Ti(OC4H9)4-HF-H2O mixed solution. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of structure of the photocatalyst on the photocatalytic selective oxidation of phenol under UV irradiation was studied. The experiment results showed that (1) the percentage of the exposed {0 0 1} facets of the nanocrystal increases with increasing the nominal atomic ratio of fluorine to titanium (RF), (2) catechol and hydroquinone are main intermediates detected during photocatalytic oxidation of phenol, and (3) both photocatalytic oxidation of phenol and selectivity (yield) of catechol are positively correlated with the percentage of exposed {0 0 1} facets of the high-energy TiO2 nanocrystals. The enhanced conversion of phenol and selectivity (yield) of catechol were ascribed to the synergistic effects of the exposed high-energy {0 0 1} facets and surface fluorination. This study may provide new insight into the selective oxidation of organics.

Ye, Hengpeng; Lu, Shaoming



Deletion of an Insulator Element by the Mutation facet-strawberry in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic chromosomes are thought to be subdivided into a series of structurally and functionally independent units. Critical to this hypothesis is the identification of insulator or boundary elements that delimit chromosomal domains. The properties of a Notch mutation, facet-strawberry ( fa swb ), suggest that this small deletion disrupts such a boundary element. fa swb is located in the interband

Julio Vazquez; Paul Schedl


Treatment of bipolar disorder: a complex treatment for a multi-faceted disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Manic-depression or bipolar disorder (BD) is a multi-faceted illness with an inevitably complex treatment. METHODS: This article summarizes the current status of our knowledge and practice of its treatment. RESULTS: It is widely accepted that lithium is moderately useful during all phases of bipolar illness and it might possess a specific effectiveness on suicidal prevention. Both first and second

Konstantinos N Fountoulakis; Eduard Vieta; Melina Siamouli; Marc Valenti; Stamatia Magiria; Timucin Oral; David Fresno; Panteleimon Giannakopoulos; George S Kaprinis



A Complete Description of Cones and Polytopes Including Hypervolumes of All Facets of a Polytope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper methods and algorithms for identifying the main elements (edges and facets of any dimension) of a cone and a polytope, and calculating the corresponding hypervolumes are presented. The cones and polytopes are supposed to be given as the non-negative linear combination and the convex hull generated by a, not necessarily minimal, set…

Jubete, F.; Castillo, E.



Domain and facet personality correlates of religiosity among Iranian college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation of religion, defined in terms of Islamic Shiite creeds\\/rituals, Islamic Shiite morals, inclusion of transcendence, and symbolic processing, to the five-factor model of personality at the domain and facet levels as measured by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory using a religiously homogeneous sample of 359 Iranian college students. Results

Maria E. Aguilar-Vafaie; Mahnaz Moghanloo



Synthesis of Tetrahexahedral Platinum Nanocrystals with High-Index Facets and High ElectroOxidation Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shapes of noble metal nanocrystals (NCs) are usually defined by polyhedra that are enclosed by {111} and {100} facets, such as cubes, tetrahedra, and octahedra. Platinum NCs of unusual tetrahexahedral (THH) shape were prepared at high yield by an electrochemical treatment of Pt nanospheres supported on glassy carbon by a square-wave potential. The single-crystal THH NC is enclosed by

Na Tian; Zhi-You Zhou; Shi-Gang Sun; Yong Ding; Zhong Lin Wang



NaCl on vicinal Cu surfaces: layer growth versus adsorbate-induced faceting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NaCl growth on vicinal Cu surfaces was studied by high-resolution electron diffraction and STM. The substrates used are Cu(221) which consists of (111) terraces and intrinsic (11\\overline1) steps, and Cu(532) which is a kinked (211) surface with (111) terraces and intrinsic (100) steps. On Cu(221) NaCl grows epitaxially on the flat substrate surface and forms (100)-terminated films. The polar [110] in-plane direction of the adlayer is aligned with the intrinsic Cu steps. Submonolayer deposition of NaCl on Cu(532) at 500 K to 600 K, on the other hand, induces two-dimensional substrate surface faceting. The new structure consists of nanopyramids with (111)-, (311)-, and (531)-oriented facets. NaCl grows selectively in its energetically favorable (100) termination as a single monolayer on the (311) and (531) facets, whereas the (111) facet remains uncovered. The overall growth behavior confirms that the orientational relationships observed are governed by Coulomb interactions between the ionic charges in the film and electrostatic dipoles located at steps and kinks of the vicinal metal template [1]. [1] J. Repp, S. Fölsch, G. Meyer, K.H. Rieder, Phys. Rev. Lett. (in print)

Riemann, A.; Fölsch, S.; Repp, J.; Meyer, G.; Rieder, K. H.



Crystal facet dependence of water oxidation on BiVO4 sheets under visible light irradiation.  


Monoclinic BiVO(4) crystals with preferentially exposed (040) facets were hydrothermally synthesized by using a trace amount of TiCl(3) as the directing agent; this function was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The effects of the directing agent TiCl(3) and the pH values applied during synthesis have been studied, and the optimized BiVO(4) sample with highly exposed (040) facet could be obtained by using 1.2 at.% of TiCl(3) as the directing agent at a pH value of 2. Some complementary techniques were also applied to exclude the effects of the structural and physical property changes, such as surface area and hydrophilicity. The photocatalytic activity of oxygen evolution on BiVO(4) is found to be proportionally correlated with the exposed surfaces of the (040) facet. It is assumed that the active sites with a BiV(4) structure on the exposed (040) facet is assigned to be responsible for the high activity of O(2) evolution. PMID:21243695

Wang, Donge; Jiang, Hongfu; Zong, Xu; Xu, Qian; Ma, Yi; Li, Guoling; Li, Can



A Cross-Cultural Replication on Elizur's Facets of Work Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A slightly refined version of Elizur's 2-facetted theory on the structure of work values is investigated in this study. Two representative samples of West German adults were asked to rate the importance of work outcomes. Findings confirmed Elizur's radex structure. (Author/LMO)|

Borg, Ingwer



Reliability improvement of 980-nm laser diodes with a new facet passivation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facet passivation process especially for the realization of highly reliable 980-nm laser diodes (LDs) has been developed. This process includes three procedure steps which involve, in sequence: 1) ion irradiation; 2) interlayer deposition; and 3) ion-assisted deposition of coating material. We have named this passivation process \\

Hideyoshi Horie; Hirotaka Ohta; Toshinari Fujimori



Self-consistent edge-wall simulations with WALLPSI in FACETS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Framework Architecture for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS) is a SciDAC project for self-consistent simulations of core-edge-wall transport in tokamaks using leadership class computers [1]. For analysis of transient peak power load handling, PFC erosion/deposition and lifetime, plasma impurity contamination, and hydrogen retention issues in FACETS, we developed the 1D continuum code WALLPSI [2]. WALLPSI simulates highly non-linear transport, release and trapping of hydrogen species in wall, and calculates the wall temperature and emerging impurity fluxes. We present progress on the development of an interface to allow WALLPSI to be invoked from within the multiple-component FACETS infrastructure. Each wall segment is modeled by WALLPSI instance which are all run concurrently on separate CPUs. FACETS provides the mechanism for coupling the wall to plasma transport code UEDGE. The results are presented showing non-linear variation of hydrogen species wall inventory in response to incident plasma fluxes and abrupt changes in edge plasma parameters caused by wall switching from net pumping regimes to net outgassing ones using an initial slab edge plasma setup. [1] J.Cary et al J.Physics CS 125(2008)012040 [2] A.Pigarov et al JNM 390(2009)192

Pigarov, A.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Cary, J.; Hakim, A.; Kruger, S.; Miah, M.; Pletzer, A.; Shasharina, S.; Cohen, R.; Rognlien, T.; Epperly, T.



Facets of Type A personality and pay increase among the employees of fast food restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employee satisfaction continues to be a key to an understanding of relatively high turnover rates within the hospitality industry. The present study explores the personality characteristics of employees who receive pay increases in the restaurant industry. One of the two facets of Type A personality ‘achievement striving’ was found to be positively related to all three measures of pay increases

Abdul Aziz; Heather M. Goldman; Nils Olsen



Construct Validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Meditating and Nonmeditating Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research on assessment of mindfulness by self-report suggests that it may include five component skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, and nonreactivity to inner experience. These elements of mindfulness can be measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). The authors…

Baer, Ruth A.; Smith, Gregory T.; Lykins, Emily; Button, Daniel; Krietemeyer, Jennifer; Sauer, Shannon; Walsh, Erin; Duggan, Danielle; Williams, J. Mark G.



Measurement of temperature and strain using fiber Bragg sensor and angle-facet laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber sensors using Bragg Grating are emerging as one of the most prominent sensors to measure temperature and strain easily and accurately. In this paper we demonstrate a Fiber Bragg Sensor integrated to an angle facet laser to measure temperature and strain simultaneously.

Matin, Mohammad A.; Arif, Muhammad; Kumar, Prasanna



Unique and Common Facets of Religion and Spirituality: Both Are Important  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary describes a multidimensional approach that underlies much recent empirical research on religion and spirituality (RS) and health. Each faith tradition possesses its own particularities, and common facets shared with other traditions as a coherent resemblance. Taxonomies of RS dimensions vary from being coarse grained to fine grained. The most useful taxonomy depends upon the particular research question. Fine-grained

Doug Oman



Joint warfare system (JWARS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Warfare System (JWARS) is a campaign-level model of military operations that is currently being developed under contract by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) for use by OSD, the Joint Staff, the Services, and the War fighting Commands. The behavior of military forces can be simulated from ports of embarkation through to their activities in combat.

A. Simlote



Joint Seal Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three major experimental field installations of approximately 7 types of joint sealing materials were used to compare and evaluate the products of numerous sealant manufacturers. The sealants were placed in contraction joints (3/8 in. x 2 in.) which were ...

J. G. F. Hiss J. R. Lambert W. M. McCarty



Joint remote state preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alice, Bob and Charlie are three remote parties. Alice and Bob share the classical knowledge of a secret qubit state. We consider the following question: 'how can Alice and Bob jointly prepare the qubit state for Charlie?' Two different protocols are proposed for such a joint remote state preparation. The first protocol uses a single GHZ state while the second

Ba An Nguyen; Jaewan Kim



Facet-Dependent Catalytic Activity of Platinum Nanocrystals for Triiodide Reduction in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum (Pt) nanocrystals have demonstrated to be an effective catalyst in many heterogeneous catalytic processes. However, pioneer facets with highest activity have been reported differently for various reaction systems. Although Pt has been the most important counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), suitable atomic arrangement on the exposed crystal facet of Pt for triiodide reduction is still inexplicable. Using density functional theory, we have investigated the catalytic reaction processes of triiodide reduction over {100}, {111} and {411} facets, indicating that the activity follows the order of Pt(111) > Pt(411) > Pt(100). Further, Pt nanocrystals mainly bounded by {100}, {111} and {411} facets were synthesized and used as counter electrode materials for DSCs. The highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency of Pt(111) in DSCs confirms the predictions of the theoretical study. These findings have deepened the understanding of the mechanism of triiodide reduction at Pt surfaces and further screened the best facet for DSCs successfully.

Zhang, Bo; Wang, Dong; Hou, Yu; Yang, Shuang; Yang, Xiao Hua; Zhong, Ju Hua; Liu, Jian; Wang, Hai Feng; Hu, P.; Zhao, Hui Jun; Yang, Hua Gui



Preservation of detached fragments in open fractures of the limbs.  


In open limb fractures, loss of bone fragments of considerable size, including portions of the joint surface, is a frequent finding. Although the authors routinely use common surgical methods of reconstruction, in this paper they present a method for preserving these fragments by storage in the abdominal wall, and using them for autografting once healing of the soft tissues in the site of fracture has occurred. This method, illustrated by an analysis of 3 cases, appears to be simple and effective and, when used in selected cases, may provide a solution for the treatment of severe post-traumatic loss of bone. PMID:2151600

Bossi, E; Ronzani, C



Clathrate hydrates for ozone preservation.  


We report the experimental evidence for the preservation of ozone (O(3)) encaged in a clathrate hydrate. Although ozone is an unstable substance and is apt to decay to oxygen (O(2)), it may be preserved for a prolonged time if it is encaged in hydrate cavities in the form of isolated molecules. This possibility was assessed using a hydrate formed from an ozone + oxygen gas mixture coexisting with carbon tetrachloride or xenon. Each hydrate sample was stored in an air-filled container at atmospheric pressure and a constant temperature in the range between -20 and 2 degrees C and was continually subjected to iodometric measurements of its fractional ozone content. Such chronological measurements and structure analysis using powder X-ray diffraction have revealed that ozone can be preserved in a hydrate-lattice structure for more than 20 days at a concentration on the order of 0.1% (hydrate-mass basis). PMID:20707330

Muromachi, Sanehiro; Ohmura, Ryo; Takeya, Satoshi; Mori, Yasuhiko H



New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.  


In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products. PMID:20447363

Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C


Complex 3D-tailored facets for optimal lighting of facades and public places  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to antiquated technologies (calculation methods, regulations, lighting and luminaire concepts, production techniques) current outdoor lighting causes a lot of problems like light pollution, glare, energy waste etc. New types of luminaires, and in consequence new outdoor lighting concepts, can be created by combining advanced calculation methods for optical surfaces with recent production technologies and novel light sources such as short arc metal halide lamps. Light emitted from this small Etendue light sources can precisely be redirected by 3D-curved surfaces manufactured with injection molding, milling and aluminium metallization. The required optical design may use techniques like complex surface calculations and 3D-Tailoring. An innovative concept based on the latest findings in visual perception research is to focus the light of such short arc light sources onto a facetted secondary mirror which provides the desired illuminance distribution on a facade or a public place. These systems are designed to fulfill lighting requirements as well as providing visual comfort. Thus lamps with improved color rendering, luminous efficacy and increased lifetime are used and glare is minimized by splitting the reflector into many facets (light spot decomposition). A few examples of realized projects will be presented where such complex facetted surfaces are used to reach a special quality of light. Using novel techniques like 3D-Tailoring, each facet can be designed to individually create the desired (e.g. uniform) illuminance distribution on the target surface - in this case, a large facade. For this particular application, we chose to impose a square boundary for each facet, in order to tile the rectangular aperture of the secondary mirror without compromising efficiency.

Pohl, Wilfried; Anselm, Christian; Knoflach, Christian; Timinger, Andreas L.; Muschaweck, Julius A.; Ries, Harald



Cryobiological preservation of Drosophila embryos  

SciTech Connect

The inability to cryobiologically preserve the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has required that fly stocks be maintained by frequent transfer of adults. This method is costly in terms of time and can lead to loss of stocks. Traditional slow freezing methods do not succeed because the embryos are highly sensitive to chilling. With the procedures described here, 68 percent of precisely staged 15-hour Oregon R (wild-type) embryos hatch after vitrification at -205[degree]C, and 40 percent of the resulting larvae develop into normal adult flies. These embryos are among the most complex organisms successfully preserved by cryobiology.

Mazur, P.; Schreuders, P.D.; Cole, K.W.; Hall, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Mahowald, A.P. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))



Emittance preservation in linear accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In linear colliders preservation of the phase space density of charged particles during acceleration to high energies is essential. In practice, the electromagnetic fields which govern the beam transport may not be sufficiently well understood. This may arise, for example, from magnet and structure alignment and/or manufacturing errors, time-varying electromagnetic fields due to component vibration or imperfect regulation, or at high beam currents, from beam-induced fields. These inadequacies may be overcome using measurements of the beam response. In this report we review such methods for preserving single-bunch beam emittances with experimental results from the Stanford Linear Collider. .

Minty, M.



Transforming Logistics: Joint Theater Logistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective and efficient management of joint theater logistics is a challenge for theater commanders. Current doctrine for joint theater logistics management provides broad non-directive guidance for developing a joint theater logistics system that can opt...

S. W. Pate



Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.  


Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives. PMID:21272037

Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L



Privacy-preserving fingercode authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a privacy preserving protocol for fingerprint-based authentication. We consider a scenario where a client equipped with a fingerprint reader is interested into learning if the acquired fingerprint belongs to the database of authorized entities managed by a server. For security, it is required that the client does not learn anything on the database and the server should not

Mauro Barni; Tiziano Bianchi; Dario Catalano; Mario Di Raimondo; Ruggero Donida Labati; Pierluigi Failla; Dario Fiore; Riccardo Lazzeretti; Vincenzo Piuri; Fabio Scotti; Alessandro Piva



Preservation: past, present and future.  


Foods deteriorate in quality due to a wide range of reactions including some that are physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of spoilage and food poisoning caused by micro-organisms are preventable to a large degree by a number of preservation techniques, most of which act by preventing or slowing microbial growth. These include freezing, chilling, drying, curing, conserving, vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, acidifying, fermenting, and adding preservatives. In contrast, a smaller number of techniques act by inactivating micro-organisms, predominantly heating (pasteurization and sterilization). Complementary techniques restrict access of micro-organisms to food products, e.g. aseptic processing and packaging. New and 'emerging' preservation techniques include more that act by inactivation. They include the application of ionizing radiation, high hydrostatic pressure, high voltage electric discharges, high intensity light, ultrasonication in combination with heat and slightly raised pressure ('manothermosonication'), and the addition to foods of bacteriolytic enzymes, bacteriocins, and other naturally-occurring antimicrobials. Major trends, reacting to consumers' needs, are towards the use of procedures that deliver food products that are less 'heavily' preserved, higher quality, more convenient, more 'natural', freer from additives, nutritionally healthier, and still with high assurance of microbiological safety. PMID:10885107

Gould, G W



Preserving average proximity in arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmers and data structure designers are often forced to choose between alternative structures. In storing these structures, preserving logical adjacencies or “proximity” is usually an important consideration. The combinatorial problem of storing arrays as various kinds of list structures is examined. Embeddings of graphs are used to model the loss of proximity involved in such storage schemes, and an elementary

Richard A. DeMillo; Stanley C. Eisenstat; Richard J. Lipton



A Phase Preserving Sar Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image phase information IS necessary to support many advanced SAR applications. The phase information in the complex image for conventional range­ Doppler processors is not a robust estimate of scene phase . A SAR processor specifically designed to preserve phase informa­ tion is being developed at the Canada Centre for Remote Sens­ ing (CCRS). In addition

R. Keith Raney; Paris W. Vachon



Preservation and Archives in Vietnam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

Henchy, Judith


Privacy Preserving Nearest Neighbor Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining is frequently obstructed by privacy con- cerns. In many cases data is distributed, and bringing the data together in one place for analysis is not possible due to privacy laws (e.g. HIPAA) or policies. Privacy preserving data mining techniques have been developed to address this issue by providing mechanisms to mine the data while giv- ing certain privacy

Mark Shaneck; Yongdae Kim; Vipin Kumar



Privacy preserving frequent itemset mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

One crucial aspect of privacy preserving frequent itemset mining is the fact that the mining process deals with a trade-off: privacy and accuracy, which are typically contradictory, and improving one usually incurs a cost in the other. One alternative to address this particular problem is to look for a balance between hiding restrictive patterns and disclosing nonrestrictive ones. In this

Stanley R. M. Oliveira; Osmar R. Zaïane



High-active anatase TiO? nanosheets exposed with 95% {100} facets toward efficient H? evolution and CO? photoreduction.  


We succeed in preparation of anatase TiO? single crystals with marked photocatalytic activity via a facile and effective method. This TiO? is composed of TiO? ultrathin nanosheets (2 nm in thickness) with 95% of exposed {100} facet, which is considered to be the active facet for photocatalytic reaction. This percentage (95%) is the highest among previously reported {100} facet exposed anatase TiO?. More importantly, due to this high ratio, our developed TiO? nanosheets showed marked photocatalytic activity, about 5 times higher activity in both H? evolution and CO? reduction than the reference sample, TiO? cuboids with 53% of exposed {100} facet. For the TiO? nanosheets, both the higher percentage of exposed {100} facets and larger surface area can offer more surface active sites in the photocatalytic reaction. On the other hand, the superior electronic band structure which results from the higher percentage of {100} facet is also beneficial for the higher activity. This study exemplifies that the facet engineering of semiconductors is one of the most effective strategies to achieve advanced properties over photofunctional materials for solar energy conversion. PMID:23360579

Xu, Hua; Ouyang, Shuxin; Li, Peng; Kako, Tetsuya; Ye, Jinhua



Asymmetric effect of (000bar{1}) and (0001) facets on surface and interface properties of CdS single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A different effect of (0001) and (000bar{1}) crystal facets of the cadmium sulfide (CdS) wurtzite structure terminated with Cd and S atoms, respectively, was observed in respect to the properties of the crystal surface and interface with metal or organic semiconductor contacts. In addition to the different surface morphology, a bare CdS single crystal showed different features in photoluminescence from the Cd- and S-terminated surfaces. Different adhesive behavior of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) films in respect to the Cd- and S-terminated facets of the crystal has also been found. Photovoltaic properties of hybrid CdS/PEDOT:PSS heterojunctions have been shown to be sensitive in respect to the crystal facet used. Thin films of aluminum (Al) equally deposited onto the opposite crystal facets revealed much smaller sheet resistance on the sulfur facet than on the cadmium one, which has been assigned to the difference in both chemical interaction with the surface atoms and surface morphology. Current-voltage characteristics of an apparently symmetric Al/CdS/Al structure with Al electrodes deposited onto the opposite crystal facets showed asymmetric behavior depending on the bias direction applied to the Cd or S-terminated facet, with the barrier for electrons at the Al/S-terminated interface, respectively.

Singaevsky, A. F.; Piryatinski, Y. P.; Grynko, D. O.; Dimitriev, O. P.




Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. ASCO/FDA JOINT LUNG CANCER PANEL 2002-2003 Paul Bunn, MD (NCE-Chair) University of Colorado Cancer Center Denver, CO ... More results from


Joint Agency Turbulence Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Doppler radar data acquired during the 1981 Joint Agency Turbulence Experiment are presented. Pulse-pair processed reflectivity factor and Doppler spectrum mean data collected during volume scan periods are displayed over constant height surfaces at aircr...

A. R. Bohne



Joint fluid Gram stain  


... and shape of the cells help identify the bacteria. ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a joint infection, for example, gonococcal arthritis or arthritis due to Staphylococcus aureus.


Joint aspiration and injection.  


Joint aspiration/injection is an invaluable procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. The knee is the commonest site to require aspiration although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining synovial fluid. Septic arthritis and crystal arthritis can be readily diagnosed by aspirating synovial fluid. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids produces rapid resolution of inflammation in most injected joints and is a well established procedure in rheumatological practice. The technique involves only a knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used it is a safe procedure. This chapter addresses the indications, technical principals, expected benefits and risks of intra-articular corticosteroid injection. The use of other intra-articular injections including osmic acid, radioisotopes and hyaluronic acid, which are less universally utilised than intra-articular corticosteroid, will also be addressed. PMID:15939363

Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael



Joint Healthcare Manpower Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Standard is to ensure that the peacetime staffing requirements of the Military Health Services System (MHSS) provide quality medical care in a productive environment. The Joint Healthcare Manpower Standards (JHMS) provide the Department...

V. Melidosian



Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronics Program) in solid state electronics, quantum electronics, information electronics, control and optimization, and electromagnetic phenomena is presented. Results of the research to date are summarize...

M. Tinkham



Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronics Program) in solid state electronics, quantum electronics, information electronics, control and optimization, and electromagnetic phenomena is presented. Results of the research to date are summarize...

M. Tinkham



Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronic Program) in solid state electronics, quantum electronics, information electronics, control and optimization, and electromagnetic phenomenon is presented. Results of the research to date are summari...

M. Tinkham



Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronics Program) in Electromagnetics, Quantum Electronics, Solid State Electronics, Materials and Devices and Information System is presented. In addition, results of the research to date are summarized and...

W. G. Oldham



Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronic Program) in solid state electronics, quantum electronics, information electronics control and optimization and electromagnetic phenomenon is presented. Results of the research to date are summarized ...

M. Tinkham



Joint Services Electronics Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annual report of the JSEP (Joint Services Electronics Program) in solid state electronics, quantum electronics, information electronics, control and optimization, and electromagnetic phenomena is presented. Results of the research to date are summarize...

M. Tinkham



Faceting Induced by Ultrathin Metal Films on W(111) and Mo(111):. Structure, Reactivity, and Electronic Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied ultrathin films of transition and noble metals on Mo(111) and W(111) using Auger spectroscopy, LEED, thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The atomically rough, open bcc(111) surfaces are morphologically unstable when covered by films ? 1 monolayer thick of certain metals, i.e. they form faceted structures. For example, using a UHV STM to study Pd/W(111), we find that the Pd-covered W(111) surface becomes completely faceted to three-sided {211} pyramids upon annealing, for Pd coverages greater than a critical coverage ?c. Formation of pyramidal facets also occurs when W(111) or Mo(111) surfaces are dosed with Pt, Au, Ir, Rh, oxygen or sulfur. In contrast, monolayer films of Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag and Gd do not induce massive reconstruction or faceting on W(111) and Mo(111) surfaces. The faceting appears to be thermodynamically driven but kinetically limited: faceting is caused by an increased anisotropy in surface free energy that occurs for the film-covered surfaces. An interesting correlation has been observed for both substrates: faceting occurs for overlayer elements having Pauling electronegativities greater than 2.0, suggesting that surface electronic effects are controlling the structural instability of both Mo(111) and W(111). Structure sensitivity in a model catalytic reaction, n-butane hydrogenolysis, is observed over planar and faceted Pt/W(111). We have also used soft x-ray photoemission spectrosocopy (SXPS) based on synchrotron radiation methods to characterize the bimetallic interface; for Pt, Pd and Au on W(111), we find that substrate core level shift effects associated with interface formation are substantial, while those associated with faceting are rather subtle.

Madey, Theodore E.; Guan, J.; Nien, C.-H.; Dong, C.-Z.; Tao, H.-S.; Campbell, R. A.


Prosthetic Joint Infections  

PubMed Central

Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status.

Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.



Joint remote state preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alice, Bob and Charlie are three remote parties. Alice and Bob share the classical knowledge of a secret qubit state. We consider the following question: 'how can Alice and Bob jointly prepare the qubit state for Charlie?' Two different protocols are proposed for such a joint remote state preparation. The first protocol uses a single GHZ state while the second one uses a pair of EPR states as the quantum channel whose entanglement is not necessarily maximal.

Nguyen, Ba An; Kim, Jaewan