Sample records for facial bone lengthening

  1. Bone lengthening in malformed upper limbs: a four year experience.

    PubMed

    Pajardi, G; Campiglio, G L; Candiani, P

    1994-01-01

    Bone lengthening by corticotomy, gradual distraction and stabilization with an external frame has proved to be effective in the repair of osseous defects in lower extremities. More recently this technique has been introduced also in the treatment of post-traumatic deformities and malformations of the upper limbs. From 1989 to 1992 we treated 38 patients (46 upper limbs) with bone lengthening of which 12 (16 upper limbs) affected by post-traumatic deformities and 26 (30 upper limbs) by malformations. We present herein our four year experience with malformed cases only. The results suggest that bone lengthening is a simple and reliable procedure to obtain good function, to correct angular deviations and, also, to give a better esthetic appearance. Satisfying results, low complication rates and simple execution recommend its use in the treatment of many congenital malformations of the upper limbs, usually in association with traditional techniques. However, we are now strongly selecting the indications in order to improve our future results. We stress in particular that the treatment of some malformations, as ulnar or radial club hands, could be radically modified by introduction of bone lengthening. PMID:7618398

  2. Experience and anatomical study of modified lengthening temporalis myoplasty for established facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ayato; Labbé, Daniel; Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Tatsuo; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Lengthening temporalis myoplasty, reported by Daniel Labbé in 1997, is a unique and definite facial reanimation procedure that involves moving the whole temporal muscle anteroinferiorly and inserting its tendon directly into the nasolabial fold. In the present article, we report our experience in the use of his modified method of the procedure, which preserves the zygomatic arch by transecting the coronoid process through the nasolabial fold incision. We also describe our cadaveric study that aimed to elucidate a secure approach for coronoid process transection. We performed this procedure in five patients with permanent facial paralysis. To improve facial symmetry, we also performed several additional static reconstructions such as T-shaped double-sleeve fascia grafts for lower lip deformities. We were successful in achieving considerable static improvement at rest, immediately after the surgery, and the recovery of facial movement was apparent approximately 3 months after the surgery. With regard to the cadaveric study, we noted that the entry to the buccal fat region, which is also the pathway of the temporal fascia, was a narrow space, and a short transection of the medial upper edge of the masseter fascia would make it easy to locate the coronoid process. Therefore, for a safe and secure access to the coronoid process from the nasolabial fold, we believe that we should first expose the cranial side and continue to dissect along the side and lower edge of the maxilla to locate the medial upper edge of the masseter fascia. By transecting along its edge, we could easily access the coronoid process, located immediately behind it, and widen the pathway of the temporal fascia. This modified method is less invasive and simpler compared to the original procedure, and understanding the detailed anatomy for dissection would help surgeons perform this procedure more confidently. PMID:25448366

  3. Facial Asymmetry in Young Adults with Condylar Hyperplasia-Unusual Changes in the Facial Bones

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; JK, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

  4. Leg lengthening.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, S A; Bennet, G C; Evans, G A; Stirling, J

    1993-04-01

    The combined experience of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow and the Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry in lengthening 52 lower limb segments with the Orthofix device is reviewed. Forty-eight segments were lengthened by callotasis, 24 in patients with achondroplasia. Attempted lengthening with chondrodiatasis was performed in 4 patients with leg length discrepancy. With callotasis, planned lengthening was achieved in 43/48 (90%) of segments. There was a small number of significant complications. Angulation or buckling of the new bone was the commonest major complication, and was seen in 10% of segments. Pin tract infection was the predominant minor complication. Premature union was noted commonly in the femurs of achondroplastics, but could usually be overcome with manipulation under anaesthesia. We confirm that callotasis achieves its objectives with fewer complications and operations than the commonly used Wagner method which it should supersede. By contrast, we had major complications in all cases with chondrodiatasis and have abandoned this method. PMID:8478826

  5. Sensorineural Deafness, Distinctive Facial Features and Abnormal Cranial Bones

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2008-01-01

    The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. PMID:18553554

  6. [Bone distraction osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Malevez, Ch; Dujardin, Th; Glorieux, V; Swennen, G; Schutyser, F; Van Cleynenbreugel, J

    2002-01-01

    Bone osteogenesis has been used by many surgeons to compensate dissymmetry due to congenital malformations, diseases or traumas. Bone distraction is the process of generating new bone in a gap between two bone segments in response to the application of graduated tensile stress across the bone gap. Different types of distraction are actually proposed to be an alternative to facial osteotomies or bone grafting techniques. Distraction can be unilateral, bilateral and correct the deficiencies in one, two or three dimensions. The advantages of the distraction osteogenesis are the possibilities to obtain bone lengthening together with simultaneous expansion of the functional soft tissue matrix including skin, muscles, nerves, cartilage, blood vessels and periosteum. Distractors are internal or external devices made of pins or miniplates fixed on the bone and connected by lengthening--screw--systems allowing elongation. PMID:12649984

  7. The study of barium concentration in deciduous teeth, impacted teeth, and facial bones of Polish residents.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Agnieszka; Malara, Piotr; Wiechu?a, Danuta

    2014-10-01

    The study determines the concentration of Ba in mineralized tissues of deciduous teeth, permanent impacted teeth, and facial bones. The study covers the population of children and adults (aged 6-78) living in an industrial area of Poland. Teeth were analyzed in whole, with no division into dentine and enamel. Facial bones and teeth were subjected to the following preparation: washing, drying, grinding in a porcelain mortar, sample weighing (about 0.2 g), and microwave mineralization with spectrally pure nitric acid. The aim of the study was to determinate the concentration of Ba in deciduous teeth, impacted permanent teeth, and facial bones. The concentration of barium in samples was determined over the ICP OES method. The Ba concentration in the tested bone tissues amounted to 2.2-15.5 ?g/g (6.6 ?g/g ± 3.9). The highest concentration of Ba was present in deciduous teeth (10.5 ?g/g), followed by facial bones (5.2 ?g/g), and impacted teeth (4.3 ?g/g) (ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis rank test, p = 0.0002). In bone tissue and impacted teeth, Ba concentration increased with age. In deciduous teeth, the level of Ba decreased with children's age. PMID:25077468

  8. Microstructural properties of the mid-facial bones in relation to the distribution of occlusal loading.

    PubMed

    Janovic, Aleksa; Milovanovic, Petar; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Hahn, Michael; Rakocevic, Zoran; Filipovic, Nenad; Amling, Michael; Busse, Bjoern; Djuric, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Although the concept of the occlusal load transfer through the facial skeleton along the buttresses has been extensively studied, there has been no study to link microarchitecture of the mid-facial bones to the occlusal load distribution. The aim of this study was to analyze micro-structural properties of the mid-facial bones in relation to occlusal stress. The study was performed by combining the three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) and micro-computed tomography analysis (micro-CT). Clenching was simulated on the computer model of the adult male human skull which was also used as a source of bone specimens. After the FEA was run, stress was measured at the specific sites in cortical shell and trabecular bone of the model along and between the buttresses. From the corresponding sites on the skull, twenty-five cortical and thirteen cancellous bone specimens were harvested. The specimens were classified into high stress or low stress group based on the stress levels measured via the FEA. Micro-architecture of each specimen was assessed by micro-CT. In the high stress group, cortical bone showed a tendency toward greater thickness and density, lower porosity, and greater pore separation. Stress-related differences in microstructure between the groups were more pronounced in trabecular bone, which showed significantly greater bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in the high stress group. Our results suggest that the mid-facial bones in the adult dentate male skull exhibit regional variations in cortical and trabecular bone micro-architecture that could be a consequence of different occlusal stress. PMID:25093265

  9. ON TRAUMAS AT SKULL AND\\/OR FACIAL BONES CAUSED BY TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Thien HUONG; Nguyen Huu DUC

    When an unwanted traffic accident occurred, a great attention is paid to lessen the bad consequences, especially, to treat the injuries. Traumas at skull and\\/or facial bones (skull traumas for short) often impact seriously to the health of patients. Among all kinds of injuries caused by traffic accidents in Vietnam, the percentage of this sickness type is not small. To

  10. Acute shortening and re-lengthening in the management of bone and soft-tissue loss in complicated fractures of the tibia.

    PubMed

    El-Rosasy, M A

    2007-01-01

    We have managed 21 patients with a fracture of the tibia complicated by bone and soft-tissue loss as a result of an open fracture in 10, or following debridement of an infected nonunion in 11, by resection of all the devitalised tissues, acute limb shortening to close the defect, application of an external fixator and metaphyseal osteotomy for re-lengthening. The mean bone loss was 4.7 cm (3 to 11). The mean age of the patients was 28.8 years (12 to 54) and the mean follow-up was 34.8 months (24 to 75). All the fractures united with a well-aligned limb. The mean duration of treatment for the ten grade-III A+B open fractures (according to the Gustilo-Anderson classification) was 5.7 months (4.5 to 8) and for the nonunions, 7.6 months (5.5 to 12.5). Complications included one refracture, one transient palsy of the peroneal nerve and one equinus contracture of 10 degrees . PMID:17259422

  11. Differences in the Diameter of Facial Nerve and Facial Canal in Bell's Palsy—A 3-Dimensional Temporal Bone Study

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Melissa; Adams, Meredith; Schachern, Patricia; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto; Paparella, Michael Mauro; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2014-01-01

    Bell's palsy is hypothesized to result from virally mediated neural edema. Ischemia occurs as the nerve swells in its bony canal, blocking neural blood supply. Because viral infection is relatively common and Bell's palsy relatively uncommon, it is reasonable to hypothesize that there are anatomic differences in facial canal (FC) that predispose the development of paralysis. Measurements of facial nerve (FN) and FC as it follows its tortuous course through the temporal bone are difficult without a 3D view. In this study, 3D reconstruction was used to compare temporal bones of patients with and without history of Bell's palsy. Methods Twenty-two temporal bones (HTBs) were included in the study, 12 HTBs from patients with history of Bell's palsy and 10 healthy controls. Three-dimensional models were generated from HTB histopathologic slides with reconstruction software (Amira), diameters of the FC and FN were measured at the midpoint of each segment. Results The mean diameter of the FC and FN was significantly smaller in the tympanic and mastoid segments (p = 0.01) in the BP group than in the controls. The FN to FC diameter ratio (FN/FC) was significantly bigger in the mastoid segment of BP group, when compared with the controls. When comparing the BP and control groups, the narrowest part of FC was the labyrinthine segment in control group and the tympanic segment in the BP. Conclusion This study suggests an anatomic difference in the diameter of FC in the tympanic and mastoid segments but not in the labyrinthine segment in patients with Bell's palsy. PMID:24518410

  12. [Upper limb lengthening. 47 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Pajardi, G

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1993, the authors treated 39 patients by progressive bone lengthening in a total of 47 hands (17 post-traumatic and 30 congenital deformities). The Hoffman distractor was used in 34 cases and the Orthofix device was used in 13 cases. The percentage of lengthening obtained, compared to the initial bone length, was 87% for the hand skeleton and 47% for the forearm bones in congenital malformations while only 51% was obtained in post traumatic cases due to their older age and frequently associated skin problems. In 4 (8.5%) of these post-traumatic cases, the skin conditions had to be improved surgically. The average duration of treatment was 6.7 months, with a "healing" index (months/centimeters of lengthening obtained of 1.7. The time necessary to achieve complete bone healing was as long as the lengthening period. The complication rate was 34% (severe pain 8.5% delayed bone healing 8.5%, pin infections 6.3%, bone grafts 4.2%, tendon complications 2.1%), however none of these problems required pin removal. A complete failure was observed in two cases, followed by a second successful operation. PMID:8519588

  13. A deep penetrating facial congenital melanocytic tumor with bone involvement and ipsilateral eye blindness.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Reuven; Ben-Arush, Miriam W; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Gilboa, Michael; Simon, Einav; Hershkovitz, Dov; Sabo, Edmond; Maly, Alexander; Gerami, Pedram; Goldsher, Dorith

    2015-01-01

    Bone involvement has been described in tumors with melanocytic differentiation such as melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, and very rarely in cellular blue nevi and neurocristic cutaneous hamartoma. We present an unusual case of facial congenital melanocytic tumor that involved the underlying bones and maxillary sinus and led to unilateral blindness. A newborn with a large red bluish patch with peripheral brown and black macules overlying marked swelling on the left side of his face was presented. The tumor was shown by magnetic resonance imaging, scintigraphy, and histopathology to invade the underlying bones and maxillary sinus and to compress the left eyeball resulting in blindness. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, morphometric computerized microscopy, molecular genetic mutation analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization studies were more congruent with a melanocytic nevus. An 8.5-year follow-up was uneventful, with spontaneous partial shrinkage of the tumor. PMID:25222197

  14. Limb lengthening over plate

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ruta; Singh, Nishant; Kulkarni, Govind S; Kulkarni, Milind; Kulkarni, Sunil; Kulkarni, Vidisha

    2012-01-01

    Background: The limb lengthening over plate eliminates the associated risk of infection with limb lengthening over intramedullary nail. We present our experience of limb lengthening in 15 patients with a plate fixed on the proximal segment, followed by corticotomy and application of external fixator. Materials and Methods: 15 patients (7 females, 8 males) were included in this consecutive series. The average age was 18.1 years (range 8–35 years). Fifteen tibiae and one femur were lengthened in 15 patients. Lengthening was achieved at 1 mm/day followed by distal segment fixation with three or four screws on reaching the target length. Results: The preoperative target length was successfully achieved in all patients at a mean of 4.1 cm (range 1.8–6.5 cm). The mean duration of external fixation was 75.3 days (range 33–116 days) with the mean external fixation index at 19.2 days/cm (range 10.0–38.3 days/cm). One patient suffered deep infection up to the plate, three patients had mild procurvatum deformities, and one patient developed mild tendo achilles contracture. Conclusion: Lengthening over a plate allows early removal of external fixator and eliminates the risk of creating deep intramedullary infection as with lengthening over nail. Lengthening over plate is also applicable to children with open physis. PMID:22719123

  15. Late intracranial haemorrhage and subsequent carotid-cavernous sinus fistula after fracture of the facial bones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chien-Ming; Cheng, Chi-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is an arteriovenous fistula between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and is usually caused by a traumatic tear or a ruptured aneurysm of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. We describe a rare case of delayed intracranial haemorrhage and carotid-cavernous sinus fistula that presented 3 weeks after fracture of the facial bones. The patient developed orbital apex syndrome including ptosis of upper eyelid, pulsatile exophthalmos, chemosis, loss of ocular motility, monocular blindness on the right, and numbness of the right infraorbital region. After transcatheter intra-arterial embolisation, the ptosis and chemosis improved. PMID:23958350

  16. Current concepts of leg lengthening.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Carol C; Krieg, Andreas H

    2012-06-01

    Any lower limb discrepancy may be equalised by conservative means (insoles, prosthesis and orthosis). However, their long-term acceptance is low in regard to function, costs, expenditure and appearance. Timely epiphysiodesis is the best option in uniplanar deformities with adequate remaining growth and for patients whose predicted final body height is above the 50th percentile. However, many patients present late or with multi-planar deformities, which warrant more sophisticated operative approaches. The history of surgical bone lengthening comprises 100 exciting years of struggling, development and ongoing learning. The initial strategy of acute or rapid incremental distraction had lasted almost half a century until Ilizarov recognised the benefits of biological periosteum-preserving osteotomies and incremental lengthening at slow rates (1 mm/day) at a 4 × 0.25-mm daily rhythm, well appreciated as callotasis. In parallel, ring and wire constructs made complex three-dimensional axial, translational and rotational bone moulding possible. Taylor Spatial Frames-built on hexapod strut-linked platform technology as known from flight simulators-took limb correction to a more reliable, more precise and aesthetical level, all the more that the whole process became web-based. It represents state-of-the-art methodology and technology for complex, multi-plane deformities. Due to the significant risk of secondary malalignment, indications for lengthening by unilateral fixation have shrunken to moderate amounts of length disparity and uni- to bi-planar deformities in patients with still open physes. Mechanical or motorised, minimally invasively placed nails prevent muscle fixation and, therefore, ease rehabilitation, increase patient comfort and potentially shorten the overall time of sick leave and refrain from sports activities. Hence, they offer a valuable alternative for low-grade complexity situations. It remains to be proved if the significantly higher implant costs are compensated by lower treatment costs. Overall, limb lengthening, particularly in combination with multi-planar deformity correction, can still be an arduous endeavour. In any case, wise judgement of the patient's deformity, medical and biological situation, psychosocial environment, selection of the appropriate method and hardware, as well as meticulous operating technique by an experienced surgeon are the cornerstones of successful outcomes. PMID:23730339

  17. Case Reports: Lengthening of a Vascularized Free Fibular Graft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurélien Courvoisier; Frédéric Sailhan; Pierre Mary; Jean-Paul Damsin

    2009-01-01

    Wide bone resection is sometimes necessary for bone tumors, and reconstruction is a major challenge. Vascularized fibular\\u000a graft is one alternative but may result in progressive limb-length discrepancy (LLD) in children with substantial growth left.\\u000a Progressive distraction lengthening with an external fixator is now a standard procedure to generally correct LLD. However,\\u000a lengthening of free vascularized fibular grafts for lower

  18. Pattern Alteration: Lengthening & Shortening

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    , and E-373, Personal Measurement Chart, for basic alteration instructions. A garment needs lengthening if major fi tting points, such as the waist or hem line ride up evenly around the body or fall too short for comfort. You might also want... ................................................................................................................................................................................. Basic lengthening and shortening On the Personal Measurement Chart, determine the amount of alteration you need from line 7, shoulder to waist; line 13, skirt length; line 17, side length; and/or line 11-b, sleeve length. Do this alteration on front...

  19. Sensorineural deafness, distinctive facial features, and abnormal cranial bones: a new variant of Waardenburg syndrome?

    PubMed

    Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H

    2008-07-15

    The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair, and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. PMID:18553554

  20. Leg lengthening - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bones of the leg, the tibia and the femur. Surgical treatment may be recommended for severe unequal ... lower leg bone (tibia) or upper leg bone (femur). Metal pins or screws are inserted into and ...

  1. Post-traumatic facial nerve paralysis: three cases of delayed temporal bone exploration with recovery.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, L; Eviatar, A; Daniller, A

    1983-12-01

    No consensus exists today on the management of immediate-onset post-traumatic facial nerve paralysis. Controversy surrounds the timing of surgical intervention and the role of electrophysiologic testing. Three patients are presented who sustained immediate, complete facial paralysis following closed head trauma. They did not have prompt facial nerve decompression. In each case, electroneurography and electromyography showed complete nerve degeneration and denervated muscle. Despite the results of the electrophysiologic tests, all patients underwent late surgical decompression of the nerve: one at 2 1/2 months, one at 3 months, and one as late as 14 months after injury. They all had good recovery of facial function within 6 months of surgery. Early surgical intervention has been advocated in post-traumatic facial nerve paralysis if any benefit is to be gained. It is thought that late surgical intervention is unlikely to yield further improvement in the facial nerve function. Experience with these cases suggests that surgical exploration of the facial nerve is indicated at anytime, as it may be beneficial even in very old injuries. The prognostic value of electroneurography and electromyography in determining facial nerve recovery and in deciding upon facial nerve surgery is questioned. PMID:6645756

  2. Translational Research: Palatal-derived Ecto-mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Palate: A New Hope for Alveolar Bone and Cranio-Facial Bone Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Wolf Dieter; Dannan, Aous; Giesenhagen, Bernd; Schau, Ingmar; Varga, Gabor; Vukovic, Mark Alexander; Sirak, Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    The management of facial defects has rapidly changed in the last decade. Functional and esthetic requirements have steadily increased along with the refinements of surgery. In the case of advanced atrophy or jaw defects, extensive horizontal and vertical bone augmentation is often unavoidable to enable patients to be fitted with implants. Loss of vertical alveolar bone height is the most common cause for a non primary stability of dental implants in adults. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure loss of vertical alveolar bone height and achieve optimal pre-implantological bone regeneration before dental implant placement. Recently, it has been found that specific populations of stem cells and/or progenitor cells could be isolated from different dental resources, namely the dental follicle, the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament. Our research group has cultured palatal-derived stem cells (paldSCs) as dentospheres and further differentiated into various cells of the neuronal and osteogenic lineage, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. In this publication will be shown whether paldSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate alveolar bone tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Furthermore, using these data we have started a proof of principle clinical- and histological controlled study using stem cell-rich palatal tissues for improving the vertical alveolar bone augmentation in critical size defects. The initial results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat alveolar bone defects in humans. PMID:24921024

  3. Complications of Albizzia femoral lengthening nail: an analysis of 36 cases.

    PubMed

    Mazeau, Philippe; Assi, Chahine; Louahem, Djamel; L'Kaissi, Mohamed; Delpont, Marion; Cottalorda, Jérôme

    2012-09-01

    Thirty-six cases of femoral lengthening using the Albizzia nail were performed. The indication for lengthening was a congenital malformation, sequellae of trauma, of infection, of radiation therapy, short stature, and vascular malformation. The mean age of the patients was 16 years, the average lengthening achieved was 4.7 cm, and the follow-up period averaged 5.8 years. We found that bone consolidation was achieved faster than with external fixation. The patient's comfort during lengthening as well as the speed of functional restoration also improved. In three cases, the program failed, in six the lengthening was achieved with a second procedure, and eight patients required one ratcheting or more under general anesthesia. In our experience, the Albizzia nail is a simple and effective solution for uncomplicated femoral lengthening. PMID:22643127

  4. Reduced bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A signaling in neural-crest-derived cells causes facial dysmorphism

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hiromitsu; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor type 1A (BMPR1A) mutations are associated with facial dysmorphism, which is one of the main clinical signs in both juvenile polyposis and chromosome 10q23 deletion syndromes. Craniofacial development requires reciprocal epithelial/neural crest (NC)-derived mesenchymal interactions mediated by signaling factors, such as BMP, in both cell populations. To address the role of mesenchymal BMP signaling in craniofacial development, we generated a conditional knockdown mouse by expressing the dominant-negative Bmpr1a in NC-derived cells expressing the myelin protein zero(Mpz)-Cre transgene. At birth, 100% of the conditional mutant mice had wide-open anterior fontanelles, and 80% of them died because of cleft face and cleft palate soon after birth. The other 20% survived and developed short faces, hypertelorism and calvarial foramina. Analysis of the NC-derived craniofacial mesenchyme of mutant embryos revealed an activation of the P53 apoptosis pathway, downregulation of both c-Myc and Bcl-XL, a normal growth rate but an incomplete expansion of mesenchymal cells. These findings provide genetic evidence indicating that optimal Bmpr1a-mediated signaling is essential for NC-derived mesenchymal cell survival in both normal nasal and frontal bone development and suggest that our model is useful for studying some aspects of the molecular etiology of human craniofacial dysmorphism. PMID:22773757

  5. Skin and Bones: The Contribution of Skin Tone and Facial Structure to Racial Prototypicality Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Michael A.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Shunan; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Lee, Hoon Koo

    2012-01-01

    Previous research reveals that a more ‘African’ appearance has significant social consequences, yielding more negative first impressions and harsher criminal sentencing of Black or White individuals. This study is the first to systematically assess the relative contribution of skin tone and facial metrics to White, Black, and Korean perceivers’ ratings of the racial prototypicality of faces from the same three groups. Our results revealed that the relative contribution of metrics and skin tone depended on both perceiver race and face race. White perceivers’ racial prototypicality ratings were less responsive to variations in skin tone than were Black or Korean perceivers’ ratings. White perceivers ratings’ also were more responsive to facial metrics than to skin tone, while the reverse was true for Black perceivers. Additionally, across all perceiver groups, skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics on racial prototypicality ratings of White faces, with the reverse for Korean faces. For Black faces, the relative impact varied with perceiver race: skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics for Black and Korean perceivers, with the reverse for White perceivers. These results have significant implications for predicting who will experience racial prototypicality biases and from whom. PMID:22815966

  6. Facial aesthetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Graivier, Miles H; Kane, Michael; Lorenc, Z Paul; Vleggaar, Danny; Werschler, Wm Philip; Kenkel, Jeffrey M

    2010-01-01

    Consideration of the individual patient's appearance based on systematic mapping and a three-dimensional evaluation of the four levels of facial structure (bone, muscle, fat, and skin) will help the clinician choose the most appropriate modalities for facial rejuvenation. This article addresses these concepts and also discusses universal perceptions of attractiveness. PMID:20844297

  7. Femoral lengthening with a motorized intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Horn, Joachim; Grimsrud, Øyvind; Dagsgard, Anita Hoddevik; Huhnstock, Stefan; Steen, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Purpose - We assessed whether an intramedullary lengthening device would reduce the problems normally associated with the external fixation technique. We also wanted to determine whether it is a reliable construct for limb lengthening and deformity correction in the femur. Patients and methods - We conducted a matched-pair comparison of 30 femoral lengthenings, 15 with a motorized intramedullary nail (the nail group) and 15 lengthenings with an external ring fixator (the fixator group). The patients were matched based on age, sex, amount of lengthening, and the etiology of leg length discrepancy. Mean lengthening was 35 (25-55) mm in the nail group and 38 (15-75) mm in the fixator group. Outcome measures were: lengthening and alignment achieved, consolidation index, knee range of motion (ROM), and complications. Results - The pairs in this matched-pair study were similar in terms of age, sex, diagnosis, and amount of lengthening. The planned amount of lengthening was achieved in all patients in both groups and axis correction was considered sufficient. The mean radiographic consolidation index in the nail group, at 1.5 (0.9-3.0) months/cm, was better than the mean value for the fixator group (1.9 (0.9-3.4) months/cm) (p = 0.01). Knee ROM was better in the nail group during the lengthening, 6 weeks after lengthening was completed, and 6 months after lengthening was completed (p < 0.001). A larger number of complications were observed in the fixator group than in the nail group. Interpretation - A lengthening nail may be superior to external fixation in femoral lengthening, when the anatomical conditions and the complexity of the deformity allow the use of an intramedullary nail. PMID:25191936

  8. Safety Profile of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Stem Cells in the Rehabilitation of Patients with Posttraumatic Facial Nerve Paralysis—A Novel Modality (Phase One Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sushil Kumar; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Modi, Manish; Gupta, Rijuneeta; Marwaha, Neelam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives?The objectives of this study were to study the safety profile and role of mononuclear stem cells in the rehabilitation of posttraumatic facial nerve paralysis not improving with conventional treatment. Study Design?This is a prospective nonrandomized controlled trial. Study Setting?This study is conducted at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh between July, 2007 and December, 2008. Patients?We included eight patients of either sex aged between 18 and 60 years of posttraumatic facial nerve paralysis not improving with conventional treatment presented to PGIMER, Chandigarh between July 2007 and December 2008. Methods?All patients underwent preoperative electroneuronography (ENoG), clinical photography, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) temporal bone. All patients then underwent facial nerve decompression and stem cell implantation. Stem cells processing was done in well-equipped bone marrow laboratory. Postoperatively, all patients underwent repeat ENoG and clinical photography at 3 and 6 months to assess for objective and clinical improvement. Clinical improvement was graded according to modified House–Brackmann grading system. Intervention Done?All patients of posttraumatic facial nerve paralysis who were not improving with conventional surgical treatment were subjected to facial nerve decompression and stem cell implantation. Main Outcome Measures?All patients who were subjected to stem cell implantation were followed up for 6 months to assess for any adverse effects of stem cell therapy on human beings; no adverse effects were seen in any of our patients after more than 6 months of follow-up. Results?Majority of the patients were male, with motor vehicle accidents as the most common cause of injury in our series. Majority had longitudinal fractures on HRCT temporal bone. The significant improvement in ENoG amplitude was seen between preoperative and postoperative amplitudes on involved side which was statistically significant (0.041). Clinical improvement seen was statistically significant both for eye closure (p?facial nerve paralysis not improving with conventional surgical treatment but few more clinical series are required for validation. PMID:23905000

  9. Update on facial aging.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Graivier, Miles H; Kane, Michael; Lorenc, Z Paul; Vleggaar, Danny; Werschler, Wm Philip; Kenkel, Jeffrey M

    2010-01-01

    Facial aging was once thought to be the result of the relentless downward pull of gravity on skin and underlying fat. In turn, facial fat was believed to be a contiguous sheet of tissue. However, over the past four decades, a number of investigators have examined more closely the causes of facial aging, leading to a better understanding of age-related changes, and have confirmed and further explored the proposal by Gonzalez-Ulloa and Flores in 1965 that facial aging involves changes in muscle and bone, as well as skin and fat. Further, the recent work of Rohrich and Pessa (and other authors) has demonstrated that facial fat is not a sheet of tissue, but rather is compartmentalized throughout the face. This discovery has allowed the evolution of improved techniques for facial rejuvenation. PMID:20844296

  10. Treatment of posttraumatic radial club hand with distraction lengthening.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Gamal A; Kandel, Wael A

    2013-11-01

    The clinical and radiological results of distraction lengthening in cases with posttraumatic radial club hand were evaluated. Five patients (3 men and 2 women, with average age of 21 years) with traumatic radial shortening (3 patients had nonunited fracture of distal end radius with bone loss and 2 patients had short radius after malunited fracture of radius or growth arrest of distal radial epiphysis, the average shortening was 4.2 cm) were treated with distraction lengthening using Ilizarov fixator and hybrid fixation technique. Patients were evaluated clinically for hand function and appearance, and radiologically for union. The average follow-up was 25 months. The preplanned length was achieved in all cases with good union and no bone graft was needed, clinically there was much improvement in hand function (the range of motion of the wrist increased and the power of hand grip increased) and appearance. Pin tract infection occurred in 3 cases, broken pin in 1 case, and stiff wrist in 1 case. These complications were treated and did not affect the final results. Acquired radial club hand is difficult to treat. Treatment with distraction lengthening is a good option with excellent results and mild complications that did not affect the overall results. PMID:24126335

  11. Femoral lengthening during hip resurfacing arthroplasty: A new surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, L; Ayoub, B; Mesnil, P; Pasquier, G; Migaud, H; Girard, J

    2015-04-01

    Correction of leg length discrepancy during hip arthroplasty is a technical challenge. Although resurfacing proposed to young subjects presents a number of advantages (stability, bone stock, etc.), it does not correct leg length discrepancy. We propose an original femoral lengthening technique concomitant to resurfacing performed through the same approach, consisting in a Z-shaped subtrochanteric osteotomy. Resurfacing was performed first and the femoral and acetabular reaming material was used for autografting. The series comprised five cases followed for a mean 42.2 months (range, 33-64 months). The mean surgical time was 100min (range, 76-124min). Weightbearing was authorized in all cases at the 8th week. The mean lengthening was 32mm (range, 25-40mm). Healing was observed in all cases. This surgical technique, reserved for very young subjects who accept an 8-week postoperative period without weightbearing, can be proposed in cases with substantial preoperative leg length discrepancy. PMID:25755066

  12. Limb Lengthening and Then Insertion of an Intramedullary Nail: A Case-matched Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Dawn; Fragomen, Austin T.; Ilizarov, Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for lengthening, deformity correction, and treatment of nonunions and bone defects. The classic method uses an external fixator for both distraction and consolidation leading to lengthy times in frames and there is a risk of refracture after frame removal. We suggest a new technique: lengthening and then nailing (LATN) technique in which the frame is used for gradual distraction and then a reamed intramedullary nail inserted to support the bone during the consolidation phase, allowing early removal of the external fixator. We performed a retrospective case-matched comparison of patients lengthened with LATN (39 limbs in 27 patients) technique versus the classic (34 limbs in 27 patients). The LATN group wore the external fixator for less time than the classic group (12 versus 29 weeks). The LATN group had a lower external fixation index (0.5 versus 1.9) and a lower bone healing index (0.8 versus 1.9) than the classic group. LATN confers advantages over the classic method including shorter times needed in external fixation, quicker bone healing, and protection against refracture. There are also advantages over the lengthening over a nail and internal lengthening nail techniques. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18800209

  13. Facial nerve stimulation by a cochlear implant in a hemodialysis patient with bone of low mineral density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Iwasaki; K. Atsumi; S. Ocho; K. Mizuta

    1998-01-01

    Facial nerve stimulation by an activated cochlear implant was noted in a 56-year-old patient who had undergone cochlear implant\\u000a with a Nucleus 22 implant 2 years previously as treatment for total sensorineural hearing loss following meningitis at age\\u000a 54. Past history was complicated by total renal failure for which hemodialysis had been required during the past 13 years.\\u000a Facial spasm

  14. Three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Nethravathy, Ramya; Vinoth, Santhana Krishnan; Thomas, Ashwin Varghese

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A short clinical crown may lead to poor retention form thereby leading to improper tooth preparation. Surgical crown lengthening procedure is done to increase the clinical crown length without violating the biologic width. Several techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening which includes gingivectomy, apically displaced flap with or without resective osseous surgery, and surgical extrusion using periotome. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare clinically the three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening procedures. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients who reported to the department of Periodontology, were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, which include patients who underwent gingivectomy (Group A), apically repositioned flap (Group B) and surgical extrusion using periotome (Group C). Clinical measurements such as clinical crown length, gingival zenith, interdental papilla height were taken at baseline and at 3rd month post-operatively. Results: Clinical and radiographic evaluation at 3rd month suggest that surgical extrusion technique offers several advantages over the other conventional surgical techniques such as preservation of the interproximal papilla, gingival margin position and no marginal bone loss. Conclusions: This technique can be used to successfully treat a grossly damaged crown structure as a result of tooth fracture, dental caries and iatrogenic factors especially in the anterior region, where esthetics is of great concern. PMID:23946567

  15. Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity. PMID:24665426

  16. Femoral lengthening with the Barnes device.

    PubMed

    Ensley, N J; Green, N E; Barnes, W P

    1993-01-01

    Twenty femoral lengthenings were performed with a staged lengthening technique with the Barnes device. After the plate is attached to the femur, the femur is lengthened 2 cm initially and at two or more subsequent stages. Average length gained was 5.4 cm (range 2.5-8.3 cm), and there were no malunions or nonunions. There were two transient peroneal palsies, but no permanent nerve injuries. There were no pin tract problems, no chronic infections, and no knee subluxations. The complication rate with this technique compares favorably with those of other methods. PMID:8416356

  17. Lengthened temporal integration in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Brent D; Gandhi, Shilpa; Aurbach, Elyse L; Williams, Nina; Williams, Micah; Wassef, Adel; Eagleman, David M

    2013-01-01

    Research in schizophrenia has tended to emphasize deficits in higher cognitive abilities, such as attention, memory, and executive function. Here we provide evidence for dysfunction at a more fundamental level of perceptual processing, temporal integration. On a measure of flicker fusion, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly lower thresholds than age and education matched healthy controls. We reasoned that this finding could result from a longer window of temporal integration or could reflect diminished repetition suppression: if every frame of the repeating stimulus were represented as novel, its perceived duration would be accordingly longer. To tease apart these non-exclusive hypotheses, we asked patients to report the number of stimuli perceived on the screen at once (numerosity) as they watched rapidly flashing stimuli that were either repeated or novel. Patients reported significantly higher numerosity than controls in all conditions, again indicating a longer window of temporal integration in schizophrenia. Further, patients showed the largest difference from controls in the repeated condition, suggesting a possible effect of weaker repetition suppression. Finally, we establish that our findings generalize to several different classes of stimuli (letters, pictures, faces, words, and pseudo-words), demonstrating a non-specific effect of a lengthened window of integration. We conclude that the visual system in schizophrenics integrates input over longer periods of time, and that repetition suppression may also be deficient. We suggest that these abnormalities in the processing of temporal information may underlie higher-level deficits in schizophrenia and account for the disturbed sense of continuity and fragmentation of events in time reported by patients. PMID:23182725

  18. Restoration of the Severely Decayed Tooth Using Crown Lengthening with Simultaneous Tooth-Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Beom

    2010-01-01

    This clinical case describes a treatment approach that combines, in a single appointment, a crown lengthening procedure and the final crown preparation for the restoration of a severely decayed tooth. This approach allows for a more accurate placement of the crown margin in relation to the bone crest while reducing treatment time. PMID:20396453

  19. Design of a lengthening element for a modular femur endoprosthetic system.

    PubMed

    Verkerke, G J; Schraffordt Koops, H; Veth, R P; Oldhoff, J; Nielsen, H K; van den Kroonenberg, H H; Grootenboer, H J; van Krieken, F M

    1989-01-01

    A malignant tumour may develop around the knee joint of a child. In the majority of cases it will then be necessary to resect the involved bone with adjacent tissue. A joint team of Groningen University Hospital and University of Twente is currently working on the project of developing a modular endoprosthetic system to bridge the defect resulting from the resection. Since the other, normal, leg continues to grow, the endoprosthetic system will have to include an element the length of which can be adjusted non-invasively. The main conditions to be met by the lengthening element are non-invasive continuous adjustability and a maximum total lengthening of 114 mm. This was achieved by using an external magnetic field. Animal experiments showed that the lengthening element worked well, although moisture infiltrated the telescopic tubes and the lengthening element was covered by proliferating bone at an early stage. Also, the necessary magnetic field proved to be larger than calculated. In a revised design, these problems are resolved. In vitro tests show that the new lengthening element meets all requirements. PMID:2619841

  20. Intramedullary leg lengthening with a motorized nail

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309

  1. Limb lengthening with fully implantable magnetically actuated mechanical nails (PHENIX(®))-preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Thaller, Peter Helmut; Fürmetz, Julian; Wolf, Florian; Eilers, Thorsten; Mutschler, Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Limb lengthening and deformity correction with fully implantable systems is becoming more and more widespread. Different actuation techniques are known and every system has its specific limitations in distraction control and/or stability. A new system with magnetic actuation offers outstanding options. The mechanism of the Phenix M2(®) bone lengthening nail (Phenix Medical, France) is driven by a strong external magnet. The device can provide lengthening, shortening and bone transport. Between December 2011 and November 2012 we applied the nail in 10 patients with an average age of 25 years (range 15-40 years). There were 6 femoral and 4 tibial procedures. The intended distraction goal was achieved in 8 of 10 patients. In three cases we simultaneously corrected malalignment. Average lengthening was 4.6 cm (range 1.3-7.6 cm). Average distraction index was 0.85 mm/day (range 0.6-1.3mm/day). Average weight bearing index was 27 days/cm (range 16-37 days/cm). Three patients had revisions due to early distraction arrest. The early results are comparable to those of other intramedullary systems in the literature like the ISKD(®), the Albizzia(®) or the Fitbone(®) system. All intramedullary procedures require accurate analysis and planning, advanced operative technique and close follow-up. The custom made design of the Phenix nail with unique options for size, stroke and locking provides new options for small bones and improved stability. The shortening option may be helpful for soft tissue problems, joint subluxation and additional stimulation of bone formation. Magnetic forces have to be considered and too much soft tissue around the nail might be a limiting factor. The magnetically actuated Phenix nail offers new therapeutic options in limb lengthening. PMID:24321414

  2. Is progressive lengthening of the distal phalanx of a child's index finger possible and safe?

    PubMed

    Issa, Majed; Yaacoub, Jean-Jacques; Mansour, Elie; Ghanem, Ismat

    2014-03-01

    Progressive lengthening using an external fixator has only recently been applied to the phalanges of the hand. A number of technical challenges exist, especially in pediatric cases, such as the size of the bone involved, the existence of the physis, and the risk of infection and neurovascular compromise. Here, we report a case of lengthening of a short distal phalanx following osteomyelitis in a 7-year-old child with a uniplanar mini-external fixator. Elongation of 63% was obtained, reaching 80% of the contralateral phalanx, with complete resolution of the preoperative functional impairment, and an acceptable cosmetic result for the patient. A mild limitation of the distal interphalangeal joint flexion as well as mild effort-related discomfort was still present at the last follow-up. No complications were recorded. Gradual lengthening of the phalanges using uniplanar minifixators can be performed safely in children with good results as long as appropriate indications and technical limitations are respected. PMID:24201073

  3. Lengthening of the forearm by callus distraction.

    PubMed

    Abe, M; Shirai, H; Okamoto, M; Onomura, T

    1996-04-01

    Ten patients aged 3 to 13 years (mean, 9 years and 7 months) underwent forearm lengthening by callotasis. The indications for lengthening were shortening and/or deformity of the forearm due to exostosis of the distal ulna in five cases, enchondroma of the distal ulna in one, growth disturbance after fracture of the distal radius in one, radial club hand in one, congenital amputation of the forearm in one and congenital dislocation of the radial head in one. Four had lengthening of the ulna, one of the radius and five of both the radius and the ulna. The average lengthening achieved was 30 mm. Complications encountered were pin track discharge in three cases, callus fracture in five, delayed consolidation of the callus in one and no callus formation in one. Review after 1 to 7 years follow-up (with a mean of 4 years and 9 months) showed satisfactory improvement in appearance and function especially in patients who had tumorous conditions or traumatic epiphyseal arrest. PMID:8732393

  4. Effect of limb lengthening on internodal length and conduction velocity of peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A Hamish; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Anderson, Heather; Cottrell, David; Sherman, Diane L; Ribchester, Richard R; Brophy, Peter J

    2013-03-01

    The influences of axon diameter, myelin thickness, and internodal length on the velocity of conduction of peripheral nerve action potentials are unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong dependence of conduction velocity on internodal length. However, a theoretical analysis has suggested that this relationship may be lost above a nodal separation of ?0.6 mm. Here we measured nerve conduction velocities in a rabbit model of limb lengthening that produced compensatory increases in peripheral nerve growth. Divided tibial bones in one hindlimb were gradually lengthened at 0.7 mm per day using an external frame attached to the bone. This was associated with a significant increase (33%) of internodal length (0.95-1.3 mm) in axons of the tibial nerve that varied in proportion to the mechanical strain in the nerve of the lengthened limb. Axonal diameter, myelin thickness, and g-ratios were not significantly altered by limb lengthening. Despite the substantial increase in internodal length, no significant change was detected in conduction velocity (?43 m/s) measured either in vivo or in isolated tibial nerves. The results demonstrate that the internode remains plastic in the adult but that increases in internodal length of myelinated adult nerve axons do not result in either deficiency or proportionate increases in their conduction velocity and support the view that the internodal lengths of nerves reach a plateau beyond which their conduction velocities are no longer sensitive to increases in internodal length. PMID:23467369

  5. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Human Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilda A. Pickett; Roger R. Reddel

    \\u000a Telomere renewal is a prerequisite for cellular immortalisation. Some cells maintain their telomeres by a telomerase-independent\\u000a alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism. Characteristic features of most ALT-positive human cells include highly\\u000a heterogeneous telomere lengths, PML nuclear bodies containing telomeric DNA and telomere-binding proteins, a high frequency\\u000a of telomeric exchange events, and the presence of extrachromosomal telomeric DNA circles. Numerous proteins

  6. Plasticity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow in the Presence of Conditioned Medium of the Facial Nerve and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; Marinho, Maria Jocileide de Medeiros; Pereira, Wogelsanger Oliveira; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão; Costa, Miriam Stela Mariz de Oliveira; Júnior, Expedito Silva do Nascimento; Cavalcante, Jeferson Sousa

    2014-01-01

    A number of evidences show the influence of the growth of injured nerve fibers in peripheral nervous system as well as potential implant stem cells (SCs). The SCs implementation in the clinical field is promising and the understanding of proliferation and differentiation is essential. This study aimed to evaluate the plasticity of mesenchymal SCs from bone marrow of mice in the presence of culture medium conditioned with facial nerve explants and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The growth and morphology were assessed for over 72 hours. Quantitative phenotypic analysis was taken from the immunocytochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), protein OX-42 (OX-42), protein associated with microtubule MAP-2 (MAP-2), protein ?-tubulin III (?-tubulin III), neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), and neurofilament 200 (NF-200). Cells cultured with conditioned medium alone or combined with FGF-2 showed morphological features apparently similar at certain times to neurons and glia and a significant proliferative activity in groups 2 and 4. Cells cultivated only with conditioned medium acquired a glial phenotype. Cells cultured with FGF-2 and conditioned medium expressed GFAP, OX-42, MAP-2, ?-tubulin III, NeuN, and NF-200. This study improves our understanding of the plasticity of mesenchymal cells and allows the search for better techniques with SCs. PMID:25614888

  7. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...

  8. Znf385C mediates a novel p53-dependent transcriptional switch to control timing of facial bone formation.

    PubMed

    Hochgreb-Hägele, Tatiana; Koo, Daniel E S; Bronner, Marianne E

    2015-04-01

    Jaw formation involves an intricate series of molecular events, whereby a chondrogenic scaffold precedes osteogenesis. The mechanisms coupling timing of cartilage maturation to onset of bone differentiation are poorly understood, particularly for neural crest-derived bones of the head. Here we present a novel zebrafish gene/protein-trap Citrine-fusion line that reveals transient expression of the zinc-finger protein Znf385C in maturing chondrocytes of the jaw. Functional analysis shows that loss of Znf385C disrupts a distinct peak of p21(cip1/waf1) expression in the chondrocytes, as well as causes premature ossification of the zebrafish jaw. We find that Znf385C is expressed as two splice variants which act differentially to activate p21(cip1/waf1) and/or interact with p53 in subcellular compartments. Taken together, the results suggest that Znf385C acts as a developmental switch for p53 function that modulates cell cycle arrest of chondrocytes and regulates timing of jaw cartilage maturation and ossification. PMID:25636963

  9. Peripheral nerve lengthening as a regenerative strategy

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Kenneth M.; Brown, Justin M.; Shah, Sameer B.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic function, incurring substantial financial costs and diminished quality of life. For large nerve gaps, proximal lesions, or chronic nerve injury, the prognosis for recovery is particularly poor, even with autografts, the current gold standard for treating small to moderate nerve gaps. In vivo elongation of intact proximal stumps towards the injured distal stumps of severed peripheral nerves may offer a promising new strategy to treat nerve injury. This review describes several nerve lengthening strategies, including a novel internal fixator device that enables rapid and distal reconnection of proximal and distal nerve stumps. PMID:25317163

  10. Telomere length maintenance, shortening, and lengthening.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenrong; Pan, Xinghua; Liu, Lin; Liu, Na

    2014-10-01

    Telomeres maintain chromosome stability and cell replicative capacity. Telomere shortening occurs concomitant with aging. Short telomeres are associated with some diseases, such as dyskeratosis congenita, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and aplastic anemia. Telomeres are longer in pluripotent stem cells than in somatic cells and lengthen significantly during preimplantation development. Furthermore, telomere elongation during somatic cell reprogramming is of great importance in the acquisition of authentic pluripotency. This review focuses primarily on regulatory mechanisms of telomere length maintenance in pluripotent cells, telomere length extension in early embryo development, and also telomere rejuvenation in somatic cell reprogramming. Telomere related diseases are also discussed in this review. PMID:24374808

  11. Prevalence of dental trauma in 6000 patients with facial injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Gassner; Renato Bösch; Tarkan Tuli; Rüdiger Emshoff

    1999-01-01

    Objective. In contrast to epidemiologic studies on facial injuries reporting on dental trauma, facial bone fractures with dentoalveolar injuries, or soft tissue injuries individually, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall place of dental trauma in facial injuries. This was a retrospective investigation of the impact of sport, work, violence, traffic, household, and play accidents in the

  12. Unilateral humeral lengthening in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Gamal Ahmed

    2005-11-01

    This study evaluates our early experience with unilateral humeral lengthening in children and adolescents. From 1995 till 2001, 16 cases with unilateral humeral shortening ranging from 5.5 to 15 cm were referred to our center. The cause was Erb's palsy in eight cases, epiphyseal injury in five cases and infection in three cases. The average age at operation was 13 years (range 8.5-17 years). Hybrid fixation using wires and half pins were applied to all cases to minimize the risk of operative neurovascular complications. Osteotomy was performed in the middle third of the humerus through a posterior approach. After a latent period of 5-7 days lengthening started at a rate of 0.33 mm every 8 h. At an average follow up of 3 years and 2 months (range 1 year and 4 months to 5 years and 6 months) there were 10 excellent and six good results. The average healing index was 28 days/cm. Complications included pin tract infection in all cases; radial nerve palsy in one patient whose humerus overlengthened by 2 cm but improved completely after compression; fracture of the regenerate in two cases. PMID:16200022

  13. Facial tics

    MedlinePLUS

    Tic - facial; Mimic spasm ... Tics may involve repeated, uncontrolled spasm-like muscle movements, such as: Eye blinking Grimacing Mouth twitching Nose wrinkling Squinting Repeated throat clearing or grunting may also be ...

  14. Facial trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2013:chap 42. Hill JD, Hamilton III GS. Facial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck ...

  15. Facial paralysis

    MedlinePLUS

    Paralysis of the face. ... from the brain to the muscles of the face Damage to the area of the brain that sends signals to the muscles of the face In people who are otherwise healthy, facial paralysis ...

  16. Geared up to stretch: pennate muscle behavior during active lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Many locomotor activities require muscles to actively lengthen, dissipate energy and decelerate the body. These eccentric contractions can disrupt cytoskeletal structures within myofibrils and reduce force output. We examined how architectural features of pennate muscles can provide a protective mechanism against eccentric muscle damage by limiting fascicle lengthening. It has been previously shown that the angled fibers of pennate muscles change orientation when shortening. This change in fiber orientation can amplify fascicle shortening, resulting in a velocity advantage at the level of the muscle–tendon unit (MTU) that is characterized by a gear ratio (MTU velocity/fascicle velocity). A muscle's architectural gear ratio (AGR) has been shown to vary as a function of force during shortening, while AGR during lengthening remains largely unknown. We independently measured fascicle length and MTU length in vitro in the bullfrog plantaris. We characterized the muscle's force–velocity curve and AGR during both shortening and lengthening across a broad range of forces (10–190% peak isometric force). AGR was measured during the isotonic portion of each contraction, to eliminate possible contributions of series elasticity to MTU length changes. We found that gear ratio varies with force during both shortening and lengthening contractions. The highest AGR was observed during lengthening contractions, indicating that lengthening of the MTU can occur with relatively little stretch of the fascicle. As fascicle strain is considered an important determinant of muscle damage, a high gear ratio may afford pennate muscles protection against the damaging effects of active lengthening. PMID:24477610

  17. Serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP): A novel bowel lengthening procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heung Bae Kim; Dario Fauza; Jennifer Garza; Jung-Tak Oh; Samuel Nurko; Tom Jaksic

    2003-01-01

    Background\\/Purpose: Bowel lengthening may be beneficial for children with short bowel syndrome. However, current techniques require at least one intestinal anastomosis and place the mesenteric blood supply at risk. This study seeks to establish the technical principles of a new, simple, and potentially safer bowel lengthening procedure. Methods: Young pigs (n = 6) underwent interposition of a reversed intestinal segment

  18. Geared up to stretch: pennate muscle behavior during active lengthening.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J

    2014-02-01

    Many locomotor activities require muscles to actively lengthen, dissipate energy and decelerate the body. These eccentric contractions can disrupt cytoskeletal structures within myofibrils and reduce force output. We examined how architectural features of pennate muscles can provide a protective mechanism against eccentric muscle damage by limiting fascicle lengthening. It has been previously shown that the angled fibers of pennate muscles change orientation when shortening. This change in fiber orientation can amplify fascicle shortening, resulting in a velocity advantage at the level of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) that is characterized by a gear ratio (MTU velocity/fascicle velocity). A muscle's architectural gear ratio (AGR) has been shown to vary as a function of force during shortening, while AGR during lengthening remains largely unknown. We independently measured fascicle length and MTU length in vitro in the bullfrog plantaris. We characterized the muscle's force-velocity curve and AGR during both shortening and lengthening across a broad range of forces (10-190% peak isometric force). AGR was measured during the isotonic portion of each contraction, to eliminate possible contributions of series elasticity to MTU length changes. We found that gear ratio varies with force during both shortening and lengthening contractions. The highest AGR was observed during lengthening contractions, indicating that lengthening of the MTU can occur with relatively little stretch of the fascicle. As fascicle strain is considered an important determinant of muscle damage, a high gear ratio may afford pennate muscles protection against the damaging effects of active lengthening. PMID:24477610

  19. [The Ilizarov method for lengthening and correction of the ulna in radial club hand].

    PubMed

    Messina, A

    1988-01-01

    The revolutionary method of treatment of fractures and their complications according to Ilizarov' can also be applied in congenital deformities. Ilizarov uses "compactotomy" and distraction of 1 mm a day, in order to cause a "driving osteogenesis" and the stimulus to regenerate the bone and soft tissues near it and connected to it. In this way it is possible to obtain progressive lengthening of a limb or bone fragment. Bone stumps are fixed with crossed Kirschner wires, and such as we can obtain at the same time a lengthening of nerves, vessels, tendons, muscles; and that, in one of his patients, Ilizarov succeeded in reaching an elongation until 25 cm! Our patient is a 12 years old boy, affected by bilateral radial club hand, congenital heart and kidney diseases. After both wrist centralization requiring soft tissues release, we established that the right forearm showed persistent shortening and radial bowing of the ulna. So we used the Ilizarov's method, mending both deformities and reaching an elongation of the ulna of 7.5 cm. A remarkable both functional an aesthetic improvement of the forearm has been also obtain without any loss of function of soft tissues, such as trophic troubles, functional loss of vessels, nerves, tendons, muscles and skin. PMID:3190316

  20. Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchovi?ová, So?a; Zahradníková, Barbora; Schreiber, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

  1. Tibial lengthening for unilateral Crowe type-IV developmental dysplasia of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jun; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Ling, Lin; Fan, Jing; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is associated with chronic pain and limping which especially has a negative impact on the patients’ daily activities, body image, and self-esteem. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the first choice for treatment of DDH in adults, minimally invasive alternative approaches are being increasingly favored both by the surgeon and the patients with severe DDH. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of these patients treated with a mono-lateral external fixator-based tibial lengthening procedure. Materials and Methods: During the period of month between June 1999 and January 2006, 13 (mean ages 20.8 years) adult patients with unilateral Crowe type-IV DDH were treated by tibial lengthening using a mono-lateral external fixator over an intramedullary nail. Bone healing, infection, gait correction and improvement in body image were assessed during postoperative followup. Patients’ overall health status at the end of followup was assessed using the short form-36 (SF-36) health survey. Results: Patients were followed up for an average of 7.3 years. Successful bone healing was observed in all 13 patients and no further surgeries were indicated. A mean external fixation index of 12.4 days/cm was achieved. Bone formation fell in good to excellent categories with a mean consolidation index of 50.1 days/cm. Pin-tract infections were observed in two patients. The degree of limping was reduced from severe or moderate preoperatively to mild postoperatively. Neither equinus deformity nor painful degenerative osteoarthritis and hip dysfunction were observed in any of the patients studied. The SF-36 questionnaire survey showed that all patients were satisfied with their outcomes. Conclusions: Tibial lengthening may effectively correct gait and satisfactorily improve body image in young patients with unilateral Crowe type-IV DDH. Mono-lateral external fixator allows for accelerated postoperative rehabilitation and optimal preservation of ankle movements. Lengthening along with intramedullary nails may significantly reduce the external fixation time and the risk of fixator-related complications. PMID:25143648

  2. Diverse muscle architecture adaptations in a rabbit tibial lengthening model

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yasui, Natsuo; Enishi, Tetsuya; Sato, Nori; Mizobuchi, Takatoshi; Homma, Yukako; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: during limb lengthening, muscles are thought to increase the number of sarcomeres. However, this adaptation may differ among muscles with diverse architecture. Purpose: this study wish to clarify the differences in muscle adaptation in a rabbit model of tibial lengthening. Methods: twelve rabbits underwent tibial lengthening (0.7 mm/day for 4 weeks), with the contralateral limb serving as a control, and were euthanized after either the lengthening or the consolidation period. Six muscles around the tibia were investigated in terms of muscle belly length, muscle weight, sarcomere length and serial sarcomere number. Results: muscle belly length increased in all the lengthened muscles. No increases in muscle mass were noted. Sarcomere length increased in the ankle plantar-flexors and was kept longer than the optimal sarcomere length after the consolidation period. Nevertheless, significant increases in sarcomere number were observed in two ankle plantar-flexors. Conclusion: this study demonstrated that muscle belly length largely adapted to the lengthening. The increase in sarcomere number did not match the increase in muscle belly length. We estimated that elongation of the intramuscular aponeuroses is another mechanism of the adaptation in addition to the increase in sarcomere number.

  3. Medial hamstring lengthening in the presence of hip flexor tightness in spastic diplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst B Zwick; Vinay Saraph; Gertrude Zwick; Christiane Steinwender; Wolfgang E Linhart; Gerhardt Steinwender

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of medial hamstring lengthening on gait in patients with diplegic cerebral palsy. A group of patients who underwent medial hamstring lengthening and distal rectus transfer was compared to a group of patients who underwent intramuscular psoas lengthening as well. Patients who underwent a psoas lengthening showed an increased anterior pelvic tilt and a tendency towards

  4. Stretching Skeletal Muscle: Chronic Muscle Lengthening through Sarcomerogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zöllner, Alexander M.; Abilez, Oscar J.; Böl, Markus; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09m to 3.51m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance treatment for patients with ill proportioned limbs, tendon lengthening, tendon transfer, tendon tear, and chronically retracted muscles. PMID:23049683

  5. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  6. Facial features

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Allan

    2008-09-21

    THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

  7. Cranial nasal bone grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey G. Hallock

    1989-01-01

    Reconstitution of the nasal scaffolding with maintainence of soft tissue proportions either following severe facial trauma or as a sequela to aesthetic rhinoplasty misadventures frequently is best achieved using the stability afforded by bone grafts. Split cranial bone grafts offer many advantages and may be the donor site of choice, and may even allow such surgery to be performed on

  8. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  9. Forensic Facial Reconstruction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

    2008-07-01

    This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

  10. Facial Plastic Surgery Today

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Shopping Cart Trust Your Face To A Facial Plastic Surgeon.® Home Meetings & Courses Find a Surgeon Physicians’ ... FAQ's For Patients Procedures What is a Facial Plastic Surgeon Facelift Surgery Wrinkle Treatment Nose Surgery Eyelid ...

  11. The effects of hamstring lengthening on hip rotation.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Steven A; Tylkowski, Chester; Oeffinger, Donna; Sander, Leah

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect on hip rotation of hamstring lengthening as measured by preoperative and postoperative motion analysis. Thirty-eight patients/76 hips in children with cerebral palsy spastic diplegia were retrospectively reviewed using presurgical and postsurgical gait analysis. Physical examination and gait analysis showed an increase in knee extension and decreased popliteal angles postoperatively. Kinematic analysis showed an increase in knee extension and decreased hip internal rotation throughout the gait cycle postoperatively as well. No difference was seen between those with internal and external rotation pattern at the hip preoperatively. As a group, the patients did not improve enough to change from internal to external rotation at the hip, suggesting that children with cerebral palsy spastic diplegia with significant internal rotation gait should have other surgical options besides hamstring lengthening when internal rotation gait of the hip is to be treated. PMID:17314637

  12. The epidemiology of facial fractures in automotive collisions.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Joseph; Duma, Stefan

    2009-10-01

    This study examines the pattern of facial fractures in automotive collisions using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System. The database was examined for trends within collision and occupant descriptors among occupants sustaining facial fractures. Drivers and right front passengers were included in an analysis of frontal collisions. Side impacts were assessed separately by identifying occupants exposed to near and far side collisions. The distribution of facial bone fractures and injury sources were demonstrated for each impact configuration. Risk ratios were used to demonstrate the effects of restraint use and airbag deployment. Seatbelts were found to reduce the risk of sustaining a facial fracture by 74% in frontal impacts. Facial fractures are associated with severe impacts with a risk of 5% at a Delta-V of 40 km/h and 65 km/h for unbelted and belted occupants respectively. PMID:20184842

  13. The Epidemiology of Facial Fractures in Automotive Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Joseph; Duma, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the pattern of facial fractures in automotive collisions using the National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System. The database was examined for trends within collision and occupant descriptors among occupants sustaining facial fractures. Drivers and right front passengers were included in an analysis of frontal collisions. Side impacts were assessed separately by identifying occupants exposed to near and far side collisions. The distribution of facial bone fractures and injury sources were demonstrated for each impact configuration. Risk ratios were used to demonstrate the effects of restraint use and airbag deployment. Seatbelts were found to reduce the risk of sustaining a facial fracture by 74% in frontal impacts. Facial fractures are associated with severe impacts with a risk of 5% at a Delta-V of 40 km/h and 65 km/h for unbelted and belted occupants respectively. PMID:20184842

  14. Unpacking a time interval lengthens its perceived temporal distance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Li, Shu; Sun, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In quantity estimation, people often perceive that the whole is less than the sum of its parts. The current study investigated such an unpacking effect in temporal distance judgment. Our results showed that participants in the unpacked condition judged a given time interval longer than those in the packed condition, even the time interval was kept constant between the two conditions. Furthermore, this unpacking effect persists regardless of the unpacking ways we employed. Results suggest that unpacking a time interval may be a good strategy for lengthening its perceived temporal distance. PMID:25477854

  15. Superior oblique tendon lengthening for acquired superior oblique overactions.

    PubMed Central

    Manners, R M; O'Flynn, E; Morris, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two patients who presented with compensatory head postures and diplopia are described. They both had marked unilateral superior oblique overaction, in one patient due to a large, incomitant skew deviation. Each underwent a superior oblique tendon lengthening procedure using a segment of silicone 240 retinal band as an expander, in combination with a contralateral superior rectus recession. Both achieved an excellent result with an improvement of the compensatory head posture and an increase in the field of binocular single vision. This surgical procedure is proposed as an option in the management of superior oblique overaction, including certain cases of skew deviation. Images PMID:8199114

  16. Facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Nomiya, Shigenobu; Kariya, Shin; Nomiya, Rie; Morita, Norimasa; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2014-03-01

    The information on incidence of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media is important for surgeons. The purpose of this study is to disclose the histopathologic findings of facial nerve canal dehiscence in human temporal bones with chronic otitis media. We divided the human temporal bones into two groups (age 4 years, and under 4 years of age). We evaluated the incidence and the area of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media under light microscopy. Age-matched normal control temporal bones were also examined. In the age group of 4 years, 68.9 % of temporal bones with chronic otitis media and 71.9 % of controls had the facial nerve canal dehiscence. There was no significant difference between them (P = 0.61). The area of the dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic otitis media was not statistically different from controls (P = 0.53). In the age group under 4 years, 88.2 % of temporal bones with chronic otitis media and 76.5 % of controls had the dehiscence. No significant difference was found between them (P = 0.66). The area of the dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic otitis media was not statistically different from controls in the age group under 4 years (P = 0.43). In chronic otitis media, the incidence of facial nerve canal dehiscence was high and was not statistically different from controls. These results suggest that there is no association between chronic otitis media and the presence of facial nerve canal dehiscence. PMID:23483192

  17. Facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Nomiya, Shigenobu; Kariya, Shin; Nomiya, Rie; Morita, Norimasa; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Paparella, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    The information on incidence of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media is important for surgeons. The purpose of this study is to disclose the histopathologic findings of facial nerve canal dehiscence in human temporal bones with chronic otitis media. We divided the human temporal bones into two groups (age 4 years, and under 4 years of age). We evaluated the incidence and the area of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media under light microscopy. Age-matched normal control temporal bones were also examined. In the age group of 4 years, 68.9 % of temporal bones with chronic otitis media and 71.9 % of controls had the facial nerve canal dehiscence. There was no significant difference between them (P = 0.61). The area of the dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic otitis media was not statistically different from controls (P = 0.53). In the age group under 4 years, 88.2 % of temporal bones with chronic otitis media and 76.5 % of controls had the dehiscence. No significant difference was found between them (P = 0.66). The area of the dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic otitis media was not statistically different from controls in the age group under 4 years (P = 0.43). In chronic otitis media, the incidence of facial nerve canal dehiscence was high and was not statistically different from controls. These results suggest that there is no association between chronic otitis media and the presence of facial nerve canal dehiscence. PMID:23483192

  18. Facial Burns - Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

    2013-01-01

    Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

  19. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459

  20. Propylthiouracil, but not other antithyroid treatments, lengthens hamster circadian period

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, L.P. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Two experiments were performed to evaluate the role of the thyroid gland as a mediator of circadian rhythms in the hamster. In experiment 1, the antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU) lengthened the circadian period ({tau}), increased thyroid weight, and eliminated detectable thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) from blood. A low-iodine diet greatly reduced T{sub 4} levels but had no effect on T{sub 3} or {tau}. Treatment with 500 {mu}Ci of {sup 131}I failed to alter any parameter of physiology or thythmicity measured. In this experiment, some animals in the low-iodine and PTU groups had greatly reduced testes sizes, and testses size was inversely correlated with change in {tau}. In experiment 2, T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} levels detected 11 wk after surgical thyroidectomy were significantly less than those found in sham-operated ammals, but concentrations of the two hormones varied widely across the thyroidectomized group. Thyroidectomy did not increase {tau} either 4 or 11 wk after surgery, nor was there evidence from individuals that level of thyroid function was associated with change in {tau}. The results from these experiments suggest that diminished thyroid function is not causal of lengthened circadian period.

  1. Longitudinal growth of mammalian bones: a possible role for membrane transporters in mediating chondrocyte hypertrophy 

    E-print Network

    Mohamad Yusof, Loqman; Yusof, Loqman Mohamad

    2012-06-22

    Long bone lengthening occurs at the growth plate (GP) by well-regulated chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy and terminal matrix deposition. GP chondrocyte (GPC) hypertrophy has been implicated to be the main determinant ...

  2. Extratemporal facial nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Sternbach, G L; Rosen, P; Meislin, H W

    1976-04-01

    Isolated traumatic facial nerve injury, frequently seen in wartime combat, may also be encountered among civilians. The clinical picture occurring as a result of such injury may be confusing because partial, or incomplete, damage to the peripheral nerve may mimic impairment of the central facial motor mechanism. In treating the patient with facial injury, life-threatening aspects of the injury must be assessed and stabilized first. Then, attention may be focused on the injured facial nerve, for which prompt surgical repair is the treatment of choice. Prior to surgery, the assessment of taste and hearing, as well as mastoid and skull x-ray films and electrodiagnostic tests are helpful in localizing the facial nerve injury. PMID:933404

  3. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

  4. Detection of alternative lengthening of telomeres by telomere quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Loretta M. S.; Dagg, Rebecca A.; Henson, Jeremy D.; Au, Amy Y. M.; Royds, Janice A.; Reddel, Roger R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is one of the two known telomere length maintenance mechanisms that are essential for the unlimited proliferation potential of cancer cells. Existing methods for detecting ALT in tumors require substantial amounts of tumor material and are labor intensive, making it difficult to study prevalence and prognostic significance of ALT in large tumor cohorts. Here, we present a novel strategy utilizing telomere quantitative PCR to diagnose ALT. The protocol is more rapid than conventional methods and scrutinizes two distinct characteristics of ALT cells concurrently: long telomeres and the presence of C-circles (partially double-stranded circles of telomeric C-strand DNA). Requiring only 30 ng of genomic DNA, this protocol will facilitate large-scale studies of ALT in tumors and can be readily adopted by clinical laboratories. PMID:22923525

  5. Radial Forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's Lengthening Pendulum

    E-print Network

    McMillan, Matthew; Whitney, Heather M

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner radial driving may easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum, and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergra...

  6. Muscle response to leg lengthening during distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thorey, Fritz; Bruenger, Jens; Windhagen, Henning; Witte, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Continuous lengthening of intact muscles during distraction osteogenesis leads to an increase of sarcomeres and enhances the regeneration of tendons and blood vessels. A high distraction rate leads to an excessive leg and muscle lengthening and might cause damages of muscle fibers with fibrosis, necrosis, and muscle weakness. Complications like muscle contractures or atrophy after postoperative immobilization emphazize the importance of muscles and their function in the clinical outcome. In an animal model of distraction osteogenesis, 18 sheep were operated with an external fixator followed by 4 days latency, 21 days distraction (1.25 mm per day) and 51 days consolidation. The anatomical location (gastrocnemius, peroneus tertius, and first flexor digitorum longus muscle), dimension and occurrence of muscular defects were characterized histologically. The callus formation and leg axis was monitored by weekly X-rays. Additionally, serum creatine kinase was analyzed during a distraction and consolidation period. Significant signs of muscle lesions in all three observed muscles can be found postoperatively, whereas normal callus formation and regular leg axis was observed radiologically. The peroneus tertius and first flexor digitorum longus muscles were found to have significantly more signs of fibrosis, inflammatory, and necrosis. Creatine kinase showed two peaks: 4 and 39 days postoperative as an indication of muscle damage and regeneration. The study implicates that muscle damages should be considered when a long-distance distraction osteogenesis is planned. The surgeon should consider these muscle responses and individually discuss a two-stage treatment or additional muscle tendon releases to minimize the risk of muscle damages. PMID:18973235

  7. Domain-final Lengthening and Foot-level Shortening in Spoken English*

    E-print Network

    Domain-final Lengthening and Foot- level Shortening in Spoken English* Brad Rakerd,t William Sennet") and a shortening of stressed syllables followed by unstressed syllables ("foot-Ievel shortening"). In the present that syntactic boundaries at which lengthening occurs delimit the domains over which foot-level shortening

  8. MODELLING THE PREPAUSAL LENGTHENING EFFECT FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION: A DYNAMIC BAYESIAN NETWORK APPROACH

    E-print Network

    Noble, William Stafford

    Speech has a property that the speech unit preceding a speech pause tends to lengthen. This work presents- dom variable whose value is influenced by whether a pause will ap- pear between the current. By modelling the prepausal lengthening effect we achieve a 5.5% relative reduction in word er- ror rate

  9. Impact of intestinal lengthening on the nutritional outcome for children with short bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinaldo Figueroa-Colon; Paul R Harris; Elizabeth Birdsong; Frank A Franklin; Keith E Georgeson

    1996-01-01

    Survival among children with short bowel syndrome has increased with the use of supportive nutritional techniques including parenteral and enteral nutrition. Further improvement in outcome has been sought by using intestinal lengthening procedures to lengthen the bowel, improve intestinal motility, initiate a progressive increase in intestinal mucosal mass, and thereby improve tolerance to enteral nutrition. The authors examine the growth

  10. Z-lengthening of the Achilles Tendon with Transverse Skin Incision

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jong Seok; Lee, Jong Seo; Lee, Tae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of various complications after Achilles tendon lengthening is mainly related to the length of surgical exposure and the lengthening method. A comprehensive technique to minimize the complications is required. Methods The treatment of Achilles tendon tightness in 57 patients (95 ankles) were performed by using a short transverse incision on a skin crease of the heel and by Z-lengthening of the tendon. In the severe cases, two or three transverse incisions were required for greater lengthening of the tendon, and a serial cast or Ilizarov apparatus was applied for the gradual correction. The results of these 95 ankles were compared to those of 18 ankles, which underwent percutaneous sliding lengthening, and to the 19 ankles, which received Z-lengthening with a medial longitudinal incision. Results The functional and cosmetic satisfaction was achieved among those who underwent the tendon lengthening with the new technique. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score improved from 56.1 to 81.8. The second operations to correct recurrence were performed in the two cerebral palsy patients. Conclusions The new technique has a low rate of complications such as scarring, adhesion, total transection, excessive lengthening, and recurrence of shortening. The excellent cosmesis and the short operation time are the additional advantages. PMID:24900904

  11. Realistic modeling for facial animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuencheng Lee; Demetri Terzopoulos; Keith Walters

    1995-01-01

    A major unsolved problem in computer graphics is the construc- tion and animation of realistic human facial models. Traditionally, facial models have been built painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by ad hoc parametrically controlled facial mesh defor- mations or kinematic approximation of muscle actions. Fortunately, animators are now able to digitize facial geometries through the use of scanning range

  12. PCA facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  13. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  14. Orbital and facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Uzelac, Alina; Gean, Alisa D

    2014-08-01

    This article reviews the importance of particular radiologic findings related to facial trauma and their implications for clinical and surgical management. An emphasis is placed on critical imaging signs that warrant immediate surgical attention. PMID:25086804

  15. Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects

    PubMed Central

    Federspil, Philipp A.

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology. PMID:22073096

  16. Prophylactic titanium elastic nailing (TEN) following femoral lengthening (Lengthening then rodding) with one or two nails reduces the risk for secondary interventions after regenerate fractures: a cohort study in monolateral vs. bilateral lengthening procedures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Femoral fracture rates of up to 30% have been reported following lengthening procedures using fixators. “Lengthening then rodding” uses one or two titanium elastic nails (TENs) for prophylactic intramedullary nailing to reduce this complication. The aim of the study was to decide if usage of only one TEN is safe or has it a higher risk of getting a fracture? And we asked if there is a difference between patients with monolateral or bilateral lengthening procedures according to their fracture rate? Methods One or two TENs were implanted in two groups of patients (monolateral and bilateral) after femoral lengthening procedures. The regenerate quality was classified using the Li system and fractures were categorized using the Simpson and Kenwright classification. The follow-up period was at least 1 year after removal of the frame. Results Sixty-seven patients with 101 femoral lengthening procedures were included in 2007–2011. Group A included 34 patients with bilateral lengthening due to congenital short stature. Group B consisted of 33 patients with congenital disorders with leg length discrepancies. Seven fractures in six patients were seen in group A and five fractures in group B. One patient had residual shortening of 1 cm, and 11 fractures healed without relevant deviation (< 5°) or shortening (< 5 mm). A soft-tissue infection in one patient led to early removal of one TEN. Conclusions Fractures occurred in both groups of patients in total in 12 of the 101 cases (12%). The rate of secondary interventions was markedly reduced. Usage of one or two TENs did not influence the fracture rate. PMID:24156728

  17. Facial bacterial infections: folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Ana Cristina; Schwartz, Robert A; Cohen, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Facial bacterial infections are most commonly caused by infections of the hair follicles. Wherever pilosebaceous units are found folliculitis can occur, with the most frequent bacterial culprit being Staphylococcus aureus. We review different origins of facial folliculitis, distinguishing bacterial forms from other infectious and non-infectious mimickers. We distinguish folliculitis from pseudofolliculitis and perifolliculitis. Clinical features, etiology, pathology, and management options are also discussed. PMID:25441463

  18. Producing computer facial animation

    E-print Network

    Koehlert, Erik Wulf

    1998-01-01

    be the basis of the film that launches a new motion picture process in which we will be creating synthetic, realistic human ? and humanoid ? characters [41]. " During the production of "Dragonheart", design work required sketched images of the dragon based... on the mouth and facial movements of Sean Connery to help the artists develop key poses for the dragon's mouth, in addition to new software tools to automate facial animation tasks [33]. An excerpt from a published magazine article had some insights...

  19. Computerized forensic facial reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Wilkinson

    2005-01-01

    Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions\\/approximations to stimulate recognition and identification.\\u000a Over the past 25 years, many computer-based systems have been developed, and with the recent rapid advances in medical imaging\\u000a and computer technology, the current systems claim high levels of efficiency, objectivity, and flexibility. The history of\\u000a computerized facial approximation\\/reconstruction is presented, along with a discussion of the advantages

  20. Complex reconstruction of facial deformity and function after severe gunshot injury: one case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijian; Duan, Jianmin; Wang, Qiao; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we described clinical outcomes of a multi-stage surgery integrating multiple techniques in restoration of facial morphology and function of a 17-year-old boy with severe gunshot injuries. This multi-stage surgery was applied in treatment of one rare case of gunshot-caused complicated facial deformities involving most parts of the face (labrum, left nose wing, nasal columella, nasal septum, maxillary alveolar process, hard palate, soft palate, bilateral maxillary bones, left zygoma, suborbital bone defects) and clinical efficacy upon restoring facial form and function were retrospectively evaluated. The patient was diagnosed with massive facial defects and deformities caused by gunshot, which led to feeding difficulty, severe articulation disorders and serious facial disfigurement. To reconstruct facial form and restore functions of mastication and articulation, multiple examinations and surgical procedures including mirror imaging, rapid prototyping technique, porous titanium implants, microscopic surgical technique, dental implants, osteomyocutaneous flap, muscular flap, shifting and repairing of adjacent tissue flaps and free bone graft reconstruction were undertaken. Postoperatively, reconstruction of severe facial disfigurement and restoring basic functions including articulation and feeding for the first time and relatively sound clinical outcomes have been obtained, which may add clinical evidence to the treatment of similar cases of severe facial deformities. PMID:25785151

  1. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  2. Reactive oxygen species generation is not different during isometric and lengthening contractions of mouse muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sloboda, Darcée D.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscles can be injured by lengthening contractions, when the muscles are stretched while activated. Lengthening contractions produce structural damage that leads to the degeneration and regeneration of damaged muscle fibers by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated at the time of injury may initiate degenerative or regenerative processes. In the present study we hypothesized that lengthening contractions that damage the muscle would generate more ROS than isometric contractions that do not cause damage. To test our hypothesis, we subjected muscles of mice to lengthening contractions or isometric contractions and simultaneously monitored intracellular ROS generation with the fluorescent indicator 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (CM-DCFH), which is oxidized by ROS to form the fluorescent product CM-DCF. We found that CM-DCF fluorescence was not different during or shortly after lengthening contractions compared with isometric controls, regardless of the amount of stretch and damage that occurred during the lengthening contractions. The only exception was that after severe stretches, the increase in CM-DCF fluorescence was impaired. We conclude that lengthening contractions that damage the muscle do not generate more ROS than isometric contractions that do not cause damage. The implication is that ROS generated at the time of injury are not the initiating signals for subsequent degenerative or regenerative processes. PMID:23948772

  3. How precise is the PRECICE compared to the ISKD in intramedullary limb lengthening?

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Björn; Tretow, Henning L; Schuhknecht, Britta; Gosheger, Georg; Horter, Melanie J; Rödl, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The PRECICE intramedullary limb lengthening system uses a new technique with a magnetic rod and a motorized external remote controller (ERC) with rotational magnetic field. We evaluated the reliability and safety of the PRECICE system. Methods We compared our preliminary results with PRECICE in 24 patients (26 nails) with the known difficulties in the use of mechanical lengthening devices such as the ISKD. We used the Paley classification for evaluation of problems, obstacles, and complications. Results 2 nails were primarily without function, and 24/26 nails lengthened over the desired distance. Lengthening desired was 38 mm and lengthening obtained was 37 mm. There were 2 nail breakages, 1 in the welding seam and 1 because of a fall that occurred during consolidation. ERC usage was problematic mostly in patients with femoral lengthening. Adjustment of the ERC was necessary in 10 of 24 cases. 15 cases had implant-associated problems, obstacles were seen in 5 cases, and complications were seen in each of 4 cases. Interpretaion The reliability of the PRECICE system is comparable to that of other intramedullary lengthening devices such as the ISKD. The motorized external remote controller and its application by the patients is a weak point of the system and needs strict supervision. PMID:24758320

  4. Isolated fibrous dysplasia of the zygomatic bone.

    PubMed

    Demirdöver, Cenk; Sahin, Baris; Ozkan, Heval Selman; Durmu?, Ebru Ulger; Oztan, Hasan Yücel

    2010-09-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a nonneoplastic, hamartomatous, developmental disease of the bone of obscure etiology. The disease is generally presented as a continuously growing, painless mass at late childhood. It is mostly seen in the maxilla and the mandible in facial skeleton. Involvement of the zygomatic bone is far rarer. Fibrous dysplasia of the zygomatic bone may cause orbital dystopia, diplopia, proptosis, loss of visual acuity, swelling, mass formation, or facial asymmetry. We present 2 cases of fibrous dysplasia with isolated zygomatic bone involvement. PMID:20818245

  5. Radial forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's lengthening pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Blasing, David; Whitney, Heather M.

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner, radial driving can easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergraduate physics classroom, where investigations into pendulums and oscillations are commonplace.

  6. Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Boosted Discriminatory

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Boosted Discriminatory Classifiers Stephen Moore approach to facial expression recognition in video sequences. Low cost contour features are introduced information to build boosted classifiers for frontal facial expression recognition in video sequences. Facial

  7. Combined effects of recombinant human BMP2 and Nell1 on bone regeneration in rapid distraction osteogenesis of rabbit tibia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songsong Zhu; Donghui Song; Xiaowen Jiang; Hao Zhou; Jing Hu

    2011-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been accepted as an effective technique for bone lengthening. However, the long treatment period and possible fibrous union or nonunion hampers its further clinical application. Bone regeneration in DO involves multiple stages of repair and coordinated action of multiple cell types. Consequently, it may be possible to enhance bone regeneration through treatment strategies that target more

  8. Facial palsy: unusual etiology.

    PubMed

    Breadon, G E; Cody, D T; Weiland, L H

    1977-01-01

    This is a report of three patients who presented at the Mayo Clinic over a two-year period. All were initially diagnosed as having Bell's palsy but were later found to have a malignant neoplasm causing the paralysis. Two of the patients had breast carcinoma metastases involving the mastoid portion of the facial nerve. The third patient had an adenocarcinoma of the deep lobe of the parotid that involved the facial nerve distal to the stylomastoid foramen. The course of the facial paralysis in the two patients with the metastitic breast disease was almost identical. It consisted of episodes of pain in the mastoid area. generally in the late evening or during the night, often awakening the patient from sleep. This was then followed by peripheral facial-nerve paralysis, sometimes partial and at other times complete. These episodes lasted from 10 minutes to several hours and then resolved completely. They recurred over several months. The patients were completely asymptomatic and normal on examination in the intervals between episodes of paralysis until it became permanent. Metastatic lesions causing facial paralysis are extremely rare in the literature. In those cases that have been reported, the paralysis was progressive from the start and in the vast majority of cases was either painless or associated with other aural symptoms such as otorrhea, hearing loss, and periauricular swelling. There are two unusual features of these two cases: 1. the initial presentation of a breast metastasis as a facial paralysis; in the first case there were no other metastatic lesions present at diagnosis, whereas the second patient had other, asymptomatic, metastatic nodules; and 2. the multiple, brief, recurring episodes of facial paralysis, which have not previously been reported as a mode of presentation of metastitic disease. The third patient was diagnosed as having Bell's palsy. A facial nerve decompression was performed, and the nerve apparently looked normal. The paralysis failed to resolve. He was later found to have adenocarcinoma of the deep lobe of the parotid that involved the facial nerve distal to the stylomastoid foramen. A report of only one similar case could be found in the literature. The sequence of events in these three cases emphasizes the importance of submitting a patient suspected of having Bell's palsy to a thorough otoneurologic examination. PMID:831048

  9. Systemic inflammatory responses to maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M Peake; Kazunori Nosaka; Makii Muthalib; Katsuhiko Suzuki

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wecompared,changes in markers,of muscle,damage,and systemic inflammation after submaximal,and maximal,lengthening muscle contractions of the elbow flex- ors. Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy young men not involved in resistance training completed a submaximal trial (10 sets of 60 lengthening contractions at 10 % maximum isometric strength, 1 min rest between sets), followed by a maxi- mal trial (10 sets of

  10. Pediatric Facial Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. O-Lee; Peter J. Koltai

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Falls, motor vehicle accidents, and sports-related activities are the leading causes of facial trauma in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Children below 6 years of age suffer more orbital roof and skull fractures than facial fractures due to proportionally larger\\u000a cranial volume.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Nasal and dentoalveolar fractures are the most common facial fractures in children. Nasal septal hematoma need to be detected

  11. Acneiform facial eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972

  12. [Advantage of facial rehabilitation after facial palsy].

    PubMed

    Gatignol, Peggy; Lannadère, Elodie; Bernat, Isabelle; Tankéré, Frédéric; Lamas, Georges

    2011-10-01

    Visible and immediate trauma, facial palsy (FP) covers functional but also psychological damage and it is essential to evaluate before a comprehensive therapeutic care tailored. Few patients, however, are emerging with a prescription for rehabilitation after a consultation. Why? This rehabilitation is it ignored? Is it absolutely necessary? It is evident in the extension of medical care to minimize the effects. Yet the foundation of rehabilitation is sadly little known and often poorly enforced. In addition to its specificity, this therapy preceded by a report called "pretreatments offers a prognosis for recovery to patient" regardless of the origin and degree of involvement of the PF. PMID:22046678

  13. Penetrating facial injury from angle grinder use: management and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lachlan M; Wales, Craig J; Varley, Iain; Telfer, Martin R

    2008-01-01

    Injuries resulting from the use of angle grinders are numerous. The most common sites injured are the head and face. The high speed disc of angle grinders does not respect anatomical boundaries or structures and thus the injuries produced can be disfiguring, permanently disabling or even fatal. However, aesthetically pleasing results can be achieved with thorough debridement, resection of wound edges and careful layered functional closure after reduction and fixation of facial bone injuries. A series of penetrating facial wounds associated with angle grinder use are presented and the management and prevention of these injuries discussed. PMID:18215305

  14. Middle Pleistocene human facial morphology in an evolutionary and developmental context.

    PubMed

    Freidline, Sarah E; Gunz, Philipp; Harvati, Katerina; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Neanderthals and modern humans exhibit distinct facial architectures. The patterning of facial morphology of their predecessors, the Middle Pleistocene humans, is more mosaic showing a mix of archaic and modern morphologies. Significant changes in facial size and robusticity occurred throughout Pleistocene human evolution, resulting in temporal trends in both facial reduction and enlargement. However, the allometric patterning in facial morphology in archaic humans is not well understood. This study explores temporal trends in facial morphology in order to gain a clearer understanding of the polarity of features, and describes the allometric patterning of facial shape. The modern human sample comprises cross-sectional growth series of four morphologically distinct human populations. The fossil sample covers specimens from the Middle Pleistocene to the Upper Paleolithic. We digitized landmarks and semilandmarks on surface and computed tomography scans and analyzed the Procrustes shape coordinates. Principal component analyses were performed, and Procrustes distances were used to identify phenetic similarities between fossil hominins. In order to explore the influence of size on facial features, allometric trajectories were calculated for fossil and modern human groups, and developmental simulations were performed. We show that facial features can be used to separate Pleistocene humans into temporal clusters. The distinctly modern human pattern of facial morphology is already present around 170 ka. Species- and population-specific facial features develop before two years of age, and several of the large-scale facial differences between Neanderthals and Middle Pleistocene humans are due to scaling along a shared allometric trajectory. These features include aspects of the frontal bone, browridge morphology, nasal aperture size and facial prognathism. Infraorbital surface topography and orientation of the midface in the European Middle Pleistocene hominins is intermediate between the African Middle Pleistocene and Neanderthal condition. This could suggest that the European Middle Pleistocene hominins display incipient Neanderthal features. PMID:22981042

  15. Tension transients during steady lengthening of tetanized muscle fibres of the frog.

    PubMed Central

    Piazzesi, G; Francini, F; Linari, M; Lombardi, V

    1992-01-01

    1. Steady lengthenings at different velocities (0.02-1.6 microns/s per half-sarcomere, temperature 2.5-5.5 degrees C) were imposed on isolated frog muscle fibres at the plateau of the isometric tetanus (tension T0). When tension during lengthening had attained a steady value (Ti), which varied from about 1.5 to about 2 times T0 depending on lengthening velocity, tension transients were elicited by applying step length changes of different amplitudes. The change in length of a selected segment, close to the end of the fibre connected to the force transducer, was controlled by means of a striation follower. 2. The instantaneous plots of tension versus the length change during the step itself showed that at the high forces developed during steady lengthening, as at the plateau of isometric tetanus, the elasticity of the fibre was almost undamped in the whole range of lengthening velocities used. 3. The tension transient elicited by step length changes imposed in isometric conditions exhibited the characteristic four phases described previously: following the tension change simultaneous with the step (phase 1), there was a quick partial recovery (phase 2, the speed of which increased going from the largest step stretch to the largest step release), a subsequent pause or inversion in recovery (phase 3) and finally a slower approach to the tension before the step (phase 4). 4. In the region of small steps the plot of the extreme tension attained during the step (T1) versus step amplitude appeared more linear during steady lengthening than in isometric conditions and deviated progressively from linearity with increase in the size of step releases. The amount of instantaneous shortening necessary to drop tension to zero (Y0), measured by the abscissa intercept of the straight line drawn through T1 points for small steps, was about 4.1 nm per half-sarcomere in isometric conditions and 5.4 nm per half-sarcomere during lengthening at low speed (0.09 microns/s per half-sarcomere, Ti about 1.6 T0). Taken altogether this indicates, in agreement with previous work, that force enhancement during steady lengthening is due to increase in both number and extension of attached cross-bridges. During lengthening at high speed (0.8 microns/s per half-sarcomere), further enhancement in steady force (Ti about 1.9 T0) was accompanied by increase of Y0 to 6.3 nm per half-sarcomere, indicating that increase in lengthening velocity exclusively produces increase in cross-bridge extension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1501149

  16. Facial diplegia: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Debaprasad; Roy, Mukut; Bhattacharyya, Amrit K

    2013-06-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical entity and presents as a diagnostic challenge. Unlike its unilateral counterpart facial diplegia is seldom secondary to Bell's palsy. Occurring at a frequency of 0.3% to 2% of all facial palsies it often indicates ominous medical conditions. Guillian-Barre syndrome needs to be considered as a differential in all given cases of facial diplegia where timely treatment would be rewarding. Here a case of bilateral facial palsy due to Guillian-Barre syndrome with atypical presentation is reported. PMID:24761505

  17. The psychology of facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, S J

    1999-12-01

    Facial attractiveness is now recognized as being important in situations as diverse as education, relationships and employment. An individual's facial appearance is one of their most obvious characteristics and facial disfigurements are judged to be among the least desirable 'handicaps'. A face which deviates from the norm becomes a stigma. This paper looks at the complex area of facial appearance and its importance in the field of dentistry. The relationship between facial attractiveness and varying forms of dental and surgical intervention are discussed, as well as some of the problems which may be encountered during treatment. PMID:10765787

  18. Gradual bone distraction in craniosynostosis. Preliminary results in seven cases.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, C M; Di Domizio, G; Tiziani, V; Galhardi, F; Buzzo, C L; Rinco, T; Kharmandayan, P; Bueno, M A; Bolzani, N; Sabbatini, R M; Lopes, L D; Lopes, P F; Paiva, B; Paiva, R M; Turchiari, L A

    1997-03-01

    Seven patients with craniosynostosis (mean age 8 years, Apert syndrome, n = 4, Crouzon's disease, n = 3) underwent lengthening of the skull by gradual bone distraction. Three patients (group A) were treated by coronal craniectomy reaching the orbital fissure and gradual bone distraction. The other four (group B) underwent monobloc craniofacial disjunction and gradual bone distraction. The patients' progress was monitored clinically as well as by radiographs and photographs. The results showed that craniofacial disjunction followed by gradual bone distraction produced complete correction of exophthalmus and an improvement in the functional and aesthetic aspects of the middle third of the face without the need for bone grafts. PMID:9075285

  19. Female facial attractiveness increases

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    . Keywords: facial attractiveness; mate choice; beauty; oestrus; monogamy 1. INTRODUCTION Human females lack of Humanities, Charles University, Legerova 63, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic 3 Department of Parasitology, and 4 Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7

  20. Lasers for Facial Rejuvenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Goldberg

    2003-01-01

    Laser and laser-like assisted facial rejuvenation has become very popular during the last decade. Although a myriad of techniques are available, such approaches can be divided into four basic approaches. There are those that (i) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and provide a significant thermal effect (CO2 lasers); (ii) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and minimal thermal effects

  1. Injury to skeletal muscles of mice by forced lengthening during contractions.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, J A; Jones, D A; Round, J M

    1989-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine the amount of injury to extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and anterior tibial (ATB) muscles of mice from 1 h to 30 days following passive shortening and lengthening, shortening contractions and lengthening contractions. The shortening-lengthening cycle was of 600 ms duration and was repeated every 5 s for 30 min. Contractions were produced during either the shortening or lengthening phase with stimulation at 100 Hz for 300 ms. The amount of injury was evaluated by the decrease in the number of fibres in a cross-section of the muscle and in the maximum isometric tetanic force (Po). Passively shortened and lengthened and actively shortened EDL and ATB muscles showed no evidence of injury. At 3-5 days after lengthening contractions, EDL and ATB muscles showed an inflammatory response. At 3-5 days, the number of fibres in the cross-section of the injured EDL muscles was 65% of that of the contralateral control EDL muscle, whereas no change was observed in the number of fibres in the injured ATB muscles. By 3 days, the presence of myoblasts, myotubes and central nuclei indicated regeneration of fibres. One hour after shortening contractions, the Po of EDL and ATB muscles decreased to about 75% of the contralateral control value, but recovered completely by 3 days. In contrast, 1 h after lengthening contractions the Po of EDL and ATB muscles decreased to 52 and 40% respectively of the contralateral control value and then both recovered to about 65% within 3 h. For the ATB muscle, the Po showed a secondary decrease to 49% of the contralateral control value at 1 day and for the EDL muscle, to 47% at 3 days. Each muscle recovered gradually and by 30 days the number of fibres and the Po of the injured muscles were not significantly different from values for contralateral control muscles. PMID:2594927

  2. Facial reconstruction of a pathological case.

    PubMed

    Gaytán, E; Mansilla-Lory, J; Leboreiro, I; Pineda, S C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a forensic paleopathology case using findings obtained from images of a skull with leontiasis ossea. This unique specimen is on display in the National Museum of Anthropology and History in Mexico. The skull shows tissue overgrowth, periosteal bone proliferation, which produced a cortical and diploid thickening involving the entire bone matrix. The study of images, X-rays, and helical computed tomography revealed generalized hyperostosis obliterating the maxillary and sphenoid sinuses, and two exuberant bony masses arising from the maxilla with encroachment of the anterior nasal opening. In order to reconstruct an image of the external appearance in life, a copy was obtained in the first place, using a stereolithography machine, after that, three-dimensional (3-D) facial reconstruction technique was applied, thus an approximation of the external appearance of this specimen was obtained. During the process, we encountered several difficulties, mainly when interpreting the cortical topography, the position of eyes and mouth. In this sense, facial reconstruction allows only for a moderate investigation due to the limited information that can be obtained from the skull and the significant alterations observed. PMID:19412674

  3. The contractile response during steady lengthening of stimulated frog muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, V; Piazzesi, G

    1990-01-01

    1. Steady lengthenings at different velocities (0.025-1.2 microns/s per half-sarcomere; temperature 2-5.5 degrees C) were imposed on isolated frog muscle fibres at the isometric tetanus plateau by means of a loudspeaker motor. The lengthening at the sarcomere level was measured by means of a striation follower either in fixed-end or in length-clamp mode. The force response was measured by a capacitance gauge transducer (resonance frequency 50 kHz). Preparations showing gross non-homogeneity during lengthening were excluded. 2. A steady tension was in all cases reached after about 20 nm per half-sarcomere of lengthening. Tension during this steady phase rose with speed of elongation up to 0.25-0.4 micron/s per half-sarcomere, when tension was 1.9-2 times isometric tetanic force (T0). Further increase in speed produced only very little increase in the steady tension. 3. During the transitory phase, before steady tension was reached, the tension rose monotonically if speed of lengthening was less than 0.25-0.3 micron/s per half-sarcomere; at higher speed the tension rose above the steady level, reaching a peak when extension was 10-14 nm per half-sarcomere, and then fell to the steady level. Tension at the peak continued to rise with speed of lengthening above 0.3 micron/s per half-sarcomere. 4. During the tension rise within the transitory phase of force response the segment elongated at a speed 15-20% lower than that imposed on the whole fibre, as a consequence of tendon compliance. 5. During the steady phase, non-homogeneity of lengthening speed began above a speed of lengthening which varied from fibre to fibre. At speeds below this value, segments elongated at the same speed as that imposed on the fibre. 6. Tension responses to large step stretches (up to 12 nm per half-sarcomere), applied at the plateau of isometric tetanus, showed that the instantaneous elasticity of contractile machinery is not responsible for the limit in force attained with high-speed lengthening. 7. Instantaneous stiffness was determined during the steady state of force response by superposing small steps (less than 1.5 nm per half-sarcomere) on steady lengthening at different velocities. Stiffness was 10-20% larger during lengthening than at the plateau of isometric tetanus and remained practically constant, independent of lengthening velocity, in the range of velocities used. 8. The results indicate that steady lengthening of a tetanized fibre induces a cross-bridge cycle characterized by fast detachment of the cross-bridge extended beyond a critical level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2100305

  4. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. (Univ. of Toronto School of Medicine, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

  5. Infant-directed speech: Final syllable lengthening and rate of speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Robyn; Bernhardt, Barbara; Shi, Rushen; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    Speech rate has been reported to be slower in infant-directed speech (IDS) than in adult-directed speech (ADS). Studies have also found phrase-final lengthening to be more exaggerated in IDS compared with ADS. In our study we asked whether the observed overall slower rate of IDS is due to exaggerated utterance-final syllable lengthening. Two mothers of preverbal English-learning infants each participated in two recording sessions, one with her child, and another with an adult friend. The results showed an overall slower rate in IDS compared to ADS. However, when utterance-final syllables were excluded from the calculation, the speech rate in IDS and ADS did not differ significantly. The duration of utterance-final syllables differed significantly for IDS versus ADS. Thus, the overall slower rate of IDS was due to the extra-long final syllable occurring in relatively short utterances. The comparable pre-final speech rate for IDS and ADS further accentuates the final syllable lengthening in IDS. As utterances in IDS are typically phrases or clauses, the particularly strong final-lengthening cue could potentially facilitate infants' segmentation of these syntactic units. These findings are consistent with the existing evidence that pre-boundary lengthening is important in the processing of major syntactic units in English-learning infants.

  6. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  7. Influence of congenital facial nerve palsy on craniofacial growth in craniofacial microsomia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaehoon; Park, Sang Woo; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Hur, Ji An; Baek, Seung-Hak; Kim, Jae Chan; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sukwha

    2014-11-01

    Facial muscles are of major importance in human craniofacial growth and development. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether congenital facial nerve palsy influences craniofacial growth in craniofacial microsomia. Fifty-one patients with unilateral craniofacial microsomia and no history of craniofacial skeletal surgery whose radiographs were taken after craniofacial growth was complete were included in this study. These patients were divided into groups in which the facial nerve was involved or uninvolved. The authors evaluated a total of seven measurement items to analyze the midface and mandibular asymmetry. Twenty patients had facial nerve involvement, and 31 had no involvement. None of the measurement items revealed any significant differences between the facial nerve-involved group and the uninvolved group within the same modified Pruzansky grade. There was no correlation between the type of facial nerve involvement and the measurement items. In relationships among the measurement items within each group, maxillary asymmetry was indirectly correlated with mandibular asymmetry or midline deviation through the occlusal plane angle in the uninvolved groups. However, in the facial nerve-involved group, the relationships disappeared. When the correlations in the facial nerve-involved group were compared with those of the uninvolved group, the relationships in the uninvolved group appeared more significant than in the facial nerve-involved group. The loss of relationships between the upper and lower jaw in the facial nerve-involved group might have been caused by subtle changes, which occur in midfacial bones and in the mandible due to facial nerve palsy. The main limitation of our study is that aside from facial nerve palsy, craniofacial microsomia has many factors that can influence craniofacial growth, such as hypoplasia of the mandibular condyle and soft tissue deficiencies. PMID:25210001

  8. Hemifacial spasm and involuntary facial movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N.-C. TAN; L.-L. CHAN; E.-K. TAN

    2002-01-01

    Summary Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by tonic and clonic contractions of the muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve. It is important to distinguish this from other causes of facial spasms, such as psychogenic facial spasm, facial tic, facial myokymia, blepharospasm, and tardive dyskinesia. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography studies frequently demonstrate vascular compression of the root exit zone

  9. Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gabana-Silveira, Jesus Claudio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Braga, Arnaldo Feitosa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment. PMID:25141118

  10. Distraction lengthening of the ulna in radial club hand using the Ilizarov technique.

    PubMed

    Pickford, M A; Scheker, L R

    1998-04-01

    Six children with radial club hand had distraction lengthening of the ulna using the Ilizarov technique at the mean age of 10 years. The mean lengthening achieved was 4.7 cm (46% of original ulna length). Complications included nocturnal pain, pin track infection and callus fracture or delayed union. Distraction lengthening of the ulna can enhance the ability to perform normal activities of daily living, such as reaching the perineum or driving a car, but complications are extremely common. The high rate of callus fracture in this series reinforces the need for regular radiographic review during distraction and suggests that after distraction it may take more than 4 weeks for satisfactory callus consolidation before removal of the fixator. PMID:9607657

  11. Ilizarov distraction-lengthening in congenital anomalies of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Hülsbergen-Krüger, S; Preisser, P; Partecke, B D

    1998-04-01

    Nine patients underwent Ilizarov distraction-lengthening for congenital anomalies. All were late cases and had undergone other procedures. In five radial club hand patients with very short forearms, we achieved an average 5.8 cm increase in length with each distraction cycle. In two patients with symbrachydactyly of the cleft hand type, we achieved pinch grip between a radial and an ulnar digit by lengthening the short ray. Another case of the monodactyly type in which we tried to lengthen three transplanted proximal toe phalanges ended in failure. A soft tissue distraction was attempted in a case of camptodactyly but failed. We report the problems we encountered and suggest some solutions. PMID:9607658

  12. PTEN controls junction lengthening and stability during cell rearrangement in epithelial tissue.

    PubMed

    Bardet, Pierre-Luc; Guirao, Boris; Paoletti, Camille; Serman, Fanny; Léopold, Valentine; Bosveld, Floris; Goya, Yûki; Mirouse, Vincent; Graner, François; Bellaïche, Yohanns

    2013-06-10

    Planar cell rearrangements control epithelial tissue morphogenesis and cellular pattern formation. They lead to the formation of new junctions whose length and stability determine the cellular pattern of tissues. Here, we show that during Drosophila wing development the loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN disrupts cell rearrangements by preventing the lengthening of newly formed junctions that become unstable and keep on rearranging. We demonstrate that the failure to lengthen and to stabilize is caused by the lack of a decrease of Myosin II and Rho-kinase concentration at the newly formed junctions. This defect results in a heterogeneous cortical contractility at cell junctions that disrupts regular hexagonal pattern formation. By identifying PTEN as a specific regulator of junction lengthening and stability, our results uncover how a homogenous distribution of cortical contractility along the cell cortex is restored during cell rearrangement to control the formation of epithelial cellular pattern. PMID:23707736

  13. Human facial beauty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy Thorrthill; Steven W. Gangestad

    1993-01-01

    It is hypothesized that human faces judged to be attractive by people possess two features—averageness and symmetry—that promoted\\u000a adaptive mate selection in human evolutionary history by way of production of offspring with parasite resistance. Facial composites\\u000a made by combining individual faces are judged to be attractive, and more attractive than the majority of individual faces.\\u000a The composites possess both symmetry

  14. Gene expression of osteogenic factors following gene therapy in mandibular lengthening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoping; Zhou, Bin; Hu, Chunbing; Li, Shaolan

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of gene therapy on the expression of osteogenic mediators in mandibular distraction osteogenesis rabbits. Bilateral mandibular osteotomies were performed in 45 New-Zealand rabbits. After a latency of 3 days, the mandibles were elongated using distractors with a rate of 0.8 mm/d for 7 days. After the completion of distraction, the rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups: 2 ?g (0.1 ?g/?L) of recombinant plasmid pIRES-hVEGF165-hBMP-2, recombinant plasmid pIRES-hBMP2, recombinant plasmid pIRES-hVEGF165, pIRES, and the same volume of normal saline were injected into the distraction gap of groups A, B, C, D, and E, respectively, followed by electroporation. Three animals were killed at the 7th, 14th, and 28th day after gene transfected in different groups, respectively. The lengthened mandibles were harvested and processed for immunohistochemical examinations; the mean optic densities (MODs) and integral optical density of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1)-positive cells were measured by CMIAS-2001A computerized image analyzer. The data were analyzed with SPSS (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and TGF-?1 staining was mainly located in inflammatory cells, monocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and chondrocytes in the distraction zones. Their strongest expression reached to the peak at the seventh day and decreased at the 14th day of consolidation stage; at the 28th day, they expressed weakly. Image analysis results show that, at the seventh day, the expression of BMP-2 in group B (0.26 ± 0.03, 0.36 ± 0.02) was the strongest; there was significant difference among them (P < 0.01), whereas the expression of TGF-?1 in group C (0.38 ± 0.06, 1.05 ± 0.19) is strongest followed by group A (0.34 ± 0.05, 0.95 ± 0.16) and B (0.33 ± 0.07, 0.90 ± 0.19). At every time point, the level of expression of BMP-2 and TGF-?1 in gene therapy groups (groups A, B, and C) was remarkably higher than those in non-gene therapy groups(groups D and E). There were significant differences between gene therapy groups and non-gene therapy groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.001). These results indicated that local gene transfection can up-regulate the expression of osteogenic mediators (BMP-2 and TGF-?1), which may promote cell differentiation and proliferation and stimulate extracellular matrix synthesis and new bone formation in distraction gap. PMID:25723654

  15. The etiology of short stature affects the clinical outcome of lower limb lengthening using external fixation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been used to gain height in short statured individuals. However, there have been no studies comparing the clinical outcome of limb lengthening based on the etiology of the short stature. We assessed whether different underlying diagnoses are associated with varied clinical outcomes in these patients. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature pertaining to lower limb lengthening using external fixation for short stature. Clinical outcomes including amount of lengthening, healing index (HI), and complications based on the underlying diagnosis for the short stature were documented. Results 18 clinical studies were included, with 547 patients who underwent 1,581 lower limb segment lengthening procedures. Mean follow-up was 4.3 years. The average age at lengthening was less for individuals with achondroplasia/hypochondroplasia (A/H) (14.5 years) than for those with Turner’s syndrome (TS) (18.2 years) or with constitutional short stature (CSS) (21.7 years). Mean height gained was greater in patients with A/H (9.5 cm) than in those with TS (7.7 cm) or CSS (6.1 cm) group. The HI was better in A/H (30.8 days/cm) and CSS (32 days/cm) than in TS (45.1 days/cm). The reported complication rate per segment was lower for A/H (0.68) and TS (0.71) than for CSS (1.06). Interpretation Patients with A/H tolerated larger amounts of lengthening with fewer complications than those with other diagnoses. PMID:24650027

  16. Unusual delayed presentation of head trauma complicating outcome of facial nerve decompression surgery.

    PubMed

    Thakur, J S; Shekar, Vidya; Saluja, Manika; Mohindroo, N K

    2013-01-01

    Late presentation of head trauma is rare. A young boy presented with a traumatic facial paralysis after head trauma. A CT scan of the head showed temporal bone fracture without intracranial insult. Facial nerve decompression was performed and paralysis started improving. However, he presented with vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss after 2 months. Clinical examination also showed cerebellar sign. We suspected iatrogenic injury to the cochlea; however, brain MRI showed haemorrhage in the area of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient was managed conservatively and the vertigo improved. This case stresses on unusual late presentation of head trauma and cerebellar artery injury that complicated the outcome of facial nerve paralysis. PMID:23964046

  17. Family Facial Patch Resemblance Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Ghahramani; Wei-Yun Yau; Eam Khwang Teoh

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Family members have close facial resemblances to one another; especially for certain specific parts of the face but the resemblance\\u000a part differ from family to family. However, we have no problem in identifying such facial resemblances to guess the family\\u000a relationships. This paper attempts to develop such human capability in computers through measurements of the resemblance of\\u000a each facial patch

  18. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bone disease can make bones easy to break Bones can also develop cancer and infections Other bone diseases are caused by poor nutrition, genetic factors or ...

  19. Comparing sensitivity to facial asymmetry and facial identity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Nicole D.; Gleddie, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral symmetry is a facial feature that plays an important role in the aesthetic judgments of faces. The extent to which symmetry contributes to the identification of faces is less clear. We investigated the relationship between facial asymmetry and identity using synthetic face stimuli where the geometric identity of the face can be precisely controlled. Thresholds for all observers were 2 times lower for discriminating facial asymmetry than they were for discriminating facial identity. The advantage for discriminating asymmetrical forms was not observed using nonface shape stimuli, suggesting this advantage is face-specific. Moreover, asymmetry thresholds were not affected when faces were either inverted or constructed about a nonmean face. These results, taken together, suggest that facial asymmetry is a characteristic that we are exquisitely sensitive to, and that may not contribute to face identification. This conclusion is consistent with neuroimaging evidence that suggests that face symmetry and face identity are processed by different neural mechanisms. PMID:24349698

  20. Systemic inflammatory responses to maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors. Muscle damage and systemic inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M Peake; Kazunori Nosaka; Makii Muthalib; Katsuhiko Suzuki

    We compared changes in markers of muscle damage and systemic inflammation after submaximal and maximal lengthening muscle contractions of the elbow flex- ors. Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy young men not involved in resistance training completed a submaximal trial (10 sets of 60 lengthening contractions at 10 % maximum isometric strength, 1 min rest between sets), followed by a

  1. Coexistence of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres and Telomerase in hTERT-Transfected GM847 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KILIAN PERREM; LOREL M. COLGIN; AXEL A. NEUMANN; THOMAS R. YEAGER; ROGER R. REDDEL

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown previously that some immortalized human cells maintain their telomeres in the absence of significant levels of telomerase activity by a mechanism referred to as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Cells utilizing ALT have telomeres of very heterogeneous length, ranging from very short to very long. Here we report the effect of telomerase expression in the ALT

  2. Extent of palatal lengthening after cleft palate repair as a contributing factor to the speech outcome.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yong-Chan; Choi, Soo-Jong; Lee, Jae-Woo; Seo, Hyoung-Joon

    2015-03-01

    Operative techniques in performing cleft palate repair have gradually evolved to achieve better speech ability with its main focus on palatal lengthening and accurate approximation of the velar musculature. The authors doubted whether the extent of palatal lengthening would be directly proportional to the speech outcome. Patients with incomplete cleft palates who went into surgery before 18 months of age were intended for this study. Cases with associated syndromes, mental retardation, hearing loss, or presence of postoperative complications were excluded from the analysis. Palatal length was measured by the authors' devised method before and immediately after the cleft palate repair. Postoperative speech outcome was evaluated around 4 years by a definite pronunciation scoring system. Statistical analysis was carried out between the extent of palatal lengthening and the postoperative pronunciation score by Spearman correlation coefficient method. However, the authors could not find any significant correlation. Although the need for additional research on other variables affecting speech outcome is unequivocal, we carefully conclude that other intraoperative constituents such as accurate reapproximation of the velar musculature should be emphasized more in cleft palate repair rather than palatal lengthening itself. PMID:23903079

  3. Reduction in primary genu recurvatum gait after aponeurotic calf muscle lengthening during multilevel surgery.

    PubMed

    Klotz, M C M; Wolf, S I; Heitzmann, D; Krautwurst, B; Braatz, F; Dreher, T

    2013-11-01

    Knee hyperextension (genu recurvatum, GR) is often seen in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Primary GR appears essential without previous treatment. As equinus deformity is suspected to be one of the main factors evoking primary GR, the purpose of this study was to determine whether lengthening the calf muscles to decrease equinus would decrease coexisting GR in children with bilateral spastic CP. In a retrospective study, 19 CP patients with primary GR (mean age: 9.4 years, 13 male, 6 female, 26 involved limbs) in whom an aponeurotic calf muscle lengthening procedure was performed during single-event multilevel surgery were included and investigated using three-dimensional gait analysis before and at a mean follow-up of 14 months after the procedure according to a standardized protocol. After calf muscle lengthening, a significant improvement in ankle dorsiflexion (9.5°) and a significant reduction (10.5°) in knee hyperextension (p<0.001) were found during mid-stance of the gait cycle. Six limbs (23%) showed no improvement concerning knee hyperextension and were designated as nonresponders. In these patients no significant improvement in ankle dorsiflexion was found after surgery either. Improvement in ankle dorsiflexion and reduction in knee hyperextension in stance phase correlated significantly (r=0.46; p=0.019). These findings indicate that equinus deformity is a Major underlying factor in Primary GR and that calf muscle lengthening can effectively reduce GR in patients with CP. PMID:24029800

  4. CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Weak National Recovery Lengthens Nevada's Employment Recession

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Weak National Recovery Lengthens Nevada's Employment Recession The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using an index of employment variables. The Nevada Leading Employment Index also measures the ups

  5. Facial three-dimensional morphometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virgilio F. Ferrario; Chiarella Sforza; Carlo E. Poggio; Graziano Serrao

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional facial morphometry was investigated in a sample of 40 men and 40 women, with a new noninvasive computerized method. Subjects ranged in age between 19 and 32 years, had sound dentitions, and no craniocervical disorders. For each subject, 16 cutaneous facial landmarks were automatically collected by a system consisting of two infrared camera coupled device (CCD) cameras, real time

  6. Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma.

    PubMed

    González Rodríguez, A J; Jordá Cuevas, E

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG) is a condition that is commonly encountered in clinical practice, but is rarely reported. It appears in childhood and its pathogenesis is still unknown. It has a benign course with resolution within a few months without aggressive treatment. Microbiological tests are negative and histological findings are nonspecific. It is possible that this condition is part of the spectrum of granulomatous rosacea in childhood. We present two cases in which diagnosis of IFAG was established and resolved without sequelae following topical antibiotic treatment. PMID:25557471

  7. Management of Chronic Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.

    2009-01-01

    Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies. PMID:22110799

  8. Promises and difficulties with the use of femoral intra-medullary lengthening nails to treat limb length discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Papanna, Madhavan Chikkapapanna; Monga, Puneet; Al-Hadithy, Nawfal; Wilkes, Richard Allen

    2011-12-01

    Limb lengthening using external fixation may be associated with problems such as pin-track infections, poor patient acceptance, muscle transfixation, secondary axial deformity and re-fractures. Intramedullary lengthening nails have been designed to address these issues. We present our results for femoral limb lengthening in adults managed by intramedullary lengthening nails. A retrospective review was undertaken for 8 femoral lengthening procedures performed in adults using intra-medullary lengthening nails over a three-year period. The average age of our patients was 34 years; the average duration of follow-up was 26.5 months (range: 8 to 40 months). An Albizzia nail was used in 5 procedures, an Intra-medullary Skeletal Kinetic Distractor (ISKD nail) in 3 procedures. Target lengthening was achieved in 6 out of 8 femurs with an average of 38.77 mm (range: 0 to 70 mm) length gained. The distraction index (length gained per day) was 0.58 on average (range: 0-1.25) and the consolidation index average was 5039 (range: 0-79) days/cm. Premature consolidation was noted in 4 cases, runaway acute lengthening in one patient; prominent metalwork--noted in 4 patients--and a bent nail were frequent obstacles and meant multiple visits to theatre. Femoral lengthening with an intramedullary lengthening nail is a reasonable alternative to external fixators, thereby avoiding problems associated with callotasis using external fixation methods. It is however, important to counsel patients regarding possibilities of significant obstacles including failure and multiple visits to theatre during the process. PMID:22308625

  9. A Comparative Evaluation for Biologic Width following Surgical Crown Lengthening Using Gingivectomy and Ostectomy Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Patil, Veena Ashok; John, Jiji

    2012-01-01

    Surgical crown lengthening has been proposed as a means of facilitating restorative procedures and preventing injuries in teeth with structurally inadequate clinical crown or exposing tooth structure in the presence of deep, subgingival pathologies which may hamper the access for proper restorative measures. Histological studies utilizing animal models have shown that postoperative crestal resorption allowed reestablishment of the biologic width. However, very little has been done in humans. Aims. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potential changes in the periodontal tissues, particularly the biologic width, following surgical crown lengthening by two surgical procedures before and after crown placement. Methods and Material. Twenty (20) patients who needed surgical crown lengthening to gain retention necessary for prosthetic treatment and/or to access caries, tooth fracture, or previous prosthetic margins entered the study. The following parameters were obtained from line angles of treated teeth (teeth requiring surgical crown lengthening) and adjacent sites: Plaque and Gingival Indices (PI) & (GI), Position of Gingival Margin from reference Stent (PGMRS), Probing depth (PD), and Biologic Width (BW). Statistical Analysis Used. Student “t” Test. Results. Initial baseline values of biologic width were 2.55?mm (Gingivectomy procedure B1 Group) and 1.95?mm (Ostectomy procedure B2 Group) and after surgical procedure the values were 1.15?mm and 1.25?mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the study the biologic width, at treated sites, was re-established to its original vertical dimension by 3 months. Ostectomy with apically positioned flap can be considered as a more effective procedure than Gingivectomy for Surgical Crown Lengthening. PMID:22969804

  10. Oral Crest Lengthening for Increasing Removable Denture Retention by Means of CO2 Laser

    PubMed Central

    Nammour, Samir; Gerges, Elie; Bou Tayeh, Rima; Zeinoun, Toni

    2014-01-01

    The loss of teeth and their replacement by artificial denture is associated with many problems. The denture needs a certain amount of ridge height to give it retention and a long-term function. Crest lengthening procedures are performed to provide a better anatomic environment and to create proper supporting structures for more stability and retention of the denture. The purpose of our study is to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 laser-assisted surgery in patients treated for crest lengthening (vestibular deepening). There have been various surgical techniques described in order to restore alveolar ridge height by pushing muscles attaching of the jaws. Most of these techniques cause postoperative complications such as edemas, hemorrhage, pain, infection, slow healing, and rebound to initial position. Our clinical study describes the treatment planning and clinical steps for the crest lengthening with the use of CO2 laser beam (6–15 Watts in noncontact, energy density range: 84.92–212.31?J/cm2, focus, and continuous mode with a focal point diameter of 0.3?mm). At the end of each surgery, dentures were temporarily relined with a soft material. Patients were asked to mandatorily wear their relined denture for a minimum of 4–6 weeks and to remove it for hygienic purposes. At the end of each surgery, the deepest length of the vestibule was measured by the operator. No sutures were made and bloodless wounds healed in second intention without grafts. Results pointed out the efficiency of the procedure using CO2 laser. At 8 weeks of post-op, the mean of crest lengthening was stable without rebound. Only a loss of 15% was noticed. To conclude, the use of CO2 laser is an effective option for crest lengthening. PMID:25383385

  11. A Comparative Evaluation for Biologic Width following Surgical Crown Lengthening Using Gingivectomy and Ostectomy Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Patil, Veena Ashok; John, Jiji

    2012-01-01

    Surgical crown lengthening has been proposed as a means of facilitating restorative procedures and preventing injuries in teeth with structurally inadequate clinical crown or exposing tooth structure in the presence of deep, subgingival pathologies which may hamper the access for proper restorative measures. Histological studies utilizing animal models have shown that postoperative crestal resorption allowed reestablishment of the biologic width. However, very little has been done in humans. Aims. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potential changes in the periodontal tissues, particularly the biologic width, following surgical crown lengthening by two surgical procedures before and after crown placement. Methods and Material. Twenty (20) patients who needed surgical crown lengthening to gain retention necessary for prosthetic treatment and/or to access caries, tooth fracture, or previous prosthetic margins entered the study. The following parameters were obtained from line angles of treated teeth (teeth requiring surgical crown lengthening) and adjacent sites: Plaque and Gingival Indices (PI) & (GI), Position of Gingival Margin from reference Stent (PGMRS), Probing depth (PD), and Biologic Width (BW). Statistical Analysis Used. Student "t" Test. Results. Initial baseline values of biologic width were 2.55?mm (Gingivectomy procedure B1 Group) and 1.95?mm (Ostectomy procedure B2 Group) and after surgical procedure the values were 1.15?mm and 1.25?mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the study the biologic width, at treated sites, was re-established to its original vertical dimension by 3 months. Ostectomy with apically positioned flap can be considered as a more effective procedure than Gingivectomy for Surgical Crown Lengthening. PMID:22969804

  12. Human facial dysostoses.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, D

    2013-06-01

    The human facial dysostoses can be subdivided into mandibulofacial dysostoses (MFDs) and acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs). The craniofacial phenotypes of the two groups of patients are similar. Both types are thought to be related to abnormal migration of neural crest cells to the pharyngeal arches and the face. The craniofacial anomalies shared by the two groups consist of downslanting palpebral fissures, coloboma of the lower eyelid, from which the eyelashes medial to the defect may be absent, hypoplasia of the zygomatic complex, micrognathia, and microtia, which is often associated with hearing loss. These facial deformities are associated with limb anomalies in the AFDs. All MFDs present with the typical craniofacial phenotype, but some have additional features that help to distinguish them clinically: intellectual disability, microcephaly, chest deformity, ptosis, cleft lip/palate, macroblepharon, or blepharophimosis. The limb anomalies in the AFDs can be classified into pre-axial, post-axial, and others not fitting into the first two AFD types. Of the pre-axial types, Nager syndrome and of the post-axial types, Miller syndrome are the best-known disorders of their AFD subgroups. Several other AFDs with unknown molecular genetic bases, including lethal ones, have been described. This article reviews the MFDs and AFDs published to date. PMID:23565775

  13. Spatiotemporal Features for Effective Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Spatiotemporal Features for Effective Facial Expression Recognition Hatice C¸inar Akakin and B schemes for automatic recognition of emotion related facial expressions. In one scheme facial landmark- sion database and a state-of-the-art 95.34 % recognition performance is achieved. Key words: facial

  14. Bioactive glass-ceramics in facial skeleton contouring.

    PubMed

    Dusková, Markéta; Smahel, Zbynek; Vohradník, Milos; Tvrdek, Miroslav; Mazánek, Jirí; Kozák, Jirí; Kot'ová, Magdalena; Strnadel, Tomás

    2002-01-01

    The removal of certain facial-bone defects is a prerequisite to restoration of function, stability, and appearance. Synthetic bone substitutes are beneficial in cases where other operative techniques would be an unacceptable burden for a patient. Satisfactory results can be achieved in one surgical intervention with low costs and low demand on technical equipment. Osteoconductive, biocompatible, non-resorbable glass-ceramic implants based on oxyfluoroapatite and wollastonite permit osteointegration--a direct physical and chemical bond between live bone tissue and the implant without formation of a fibrous capsule. They display better stress durability in simulated body fluid than hydroxyapatite implants do. This material was used for facial skeletal framework, contour restoration in 44 cases under conditions where other solutions were doubtful. Patients were observed for 24.8 months. Immediate healing occurred without any adverse reaction. The main problem was extrusion, observed in 20.45% cases over a 2-3 month period after the implantation. All cases, with one exception, were solved with a satisfactory final result by reoperation, implant size reduction, and increased soft tissue cover. This approach was found to be a suitable technique, especially for patients exhausted by prior incompetent treatment but still dissatisfied with their appearance. Successful reconstruction with a bone substitute may remarkably increase quality of life for affected persons and, at the same time, reduce surgery-related time and costs. PMID:12397450

  15. The Fate of Porous Hydroxyapatite Granules Used in Facial Skeletal Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Steve R.; Lavoipierre, Alain M.; Huggins, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Facial appearance is largely determined by the morphology of the underlying skeleton. Hydroxyapatite is one of several materials available to enhance projection of the facial skeleton. This study evaluated the long-term maintenance of augmented bony projection when porous hydroxyapatite granules are used on the facial skeleton. Ten female patients aged 28–58 years were studied following aesthetic augmentation of the facial skeleton at 24 sites using porous hydroxyapatite granules. Postoperative CT scans at 3 months served as the baseline measurement and compared with scans taken at 1 and 2 years, with the thickness of the hydroxyapatite measured in axial and coronal planes. Thickness of original bone plus overlay of hydroxyapatite, thickness of the overlying soft tissue, and the overall projection (bone plus soft tissue) were recorded. It was found that 99.7% of the hydroxyapatite was maintained at 2 years, with no statistical difference (t test) from the baseline measurement. The overall projection (bony and soft tissue) was maintained as there was no evidence of native bone resorption or soft tissue atrophy. Radiographic results confirmed that the use of porous hydroxyapatite granules for enhancement of the facial skeleton is not only a predictable procedure, but maintains full bony projection at 2 years. PMID:20186415

  16. Stapes fixation accompanied with abnormal facial nerve pathway.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Taro; Kawano, Atsushi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Shimizu, Masaaki; Negishi, Miho; Kawada, Yuri; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2014-06-01

    The patient was a 52-year-old woman. She had been aware of her bilateral hearing loss since she was 20 years old. The hearing in her left ear started to deteriorate at the age of 49. Pure-tone audiometry showed a bilateral mixed hearing loss. The hearing levels for the right ear and the left ear were 52 dB and 68 dB, respectively. There were no remarkable findings in a computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bone. We suspected that she had otosclerosis, and an operation was performed on her left ear. When the incudostapedial joint (I-S joint) was exposed to investigate the movement of the stapes, a soft white band that ran under the superstructure of the stapes was noted. By using a nerve monitoring system, we confirmed that the white band was the bare facial nerve. The ossicular chain was normal, except for a malformed stape due to the facial nerve, and the footplate of the stapes was fixed. Therefore, she was diagnosed as having otosclerosis with an abnormal facial nerve pathway. The malformed superstructure of the stapes was removed carefully. When the ectopic facial nerve was shifted to anteroinferior side, the oval window could be seen. Stapedotomy using a Teflon piston prosthesis was performed with no complications. PMID:24581447

  17. Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

    2014-12-01

    Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face. PMID:25132572

  18. Odontoplasty associated with clinical crown lengthening in management of extensive crown destruction

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Márcio K; Martos, Josué; Silveira, Luiz Fernando Machado; Duarte, Poliana M; Neto, João Batista César

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of teeth submitted to odontoplasty during clinical crown lengthening surgery (CCLS), when compared to their contralateral non-operated teeth. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients submitted to odontoplasty during CCLS were evaluated according to plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth and final restoration outcome (total success, relative success and failure). Results: The mean follow-up period was 13.57 (± 8.00) months, and ranged from 6 to 24 months. Twelve cases presented total success of the final rehabilitation and 2 cases presented relative success. The cases of relative success were due to the necessity for a new periodontal intervention (scalling). No differences were observed with respect to periodontal parameters (P>0.05) and the patients that showed relative success presented generalized poor oral hygiene. Conclusions: The odontoplasty during clinical crown lengthening surgery is a feasible procedure in the management of extensive crown destruction. PMID:22368337

  19. Automated interactive facial caricature generation

    E-print Network

    Logan, Ryan C

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop a concept to automatically generate facial caricatures based on anthropometric measurements. Based on this concept, a system was created to automate caricature generation with minimal user input...

  20. Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.

    PubMed

    Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

    1975-09-01

    Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. PMID:169753

  1. Transiliac lengthening with posterior lumbar-iliac percutaneous fusion in sacral hemiagenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Antonio Sánchez Mesa

    2011-01-01

    Sacral agenesis is a term that applies to a wide range of developmental disorders of the lower portions of the spine and pelvis.\\u000a Hemisacrum patients with all sacral segments present on one side of the spine, and decompensated lumbar rotoscoliosis, whit\\u000a instability torac-pelvic that had transiliac lengthening of the lower extremity, accomplished by an innominate osteotomy with\\u000a interposition of a

  2. 1500 MHZ Passive SRF Cavity for Bunch Lengthening in the NSLS-II Storage Ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yanagisawa; J. Rose; T. Grimm; A. Bogle

    2009-01-01

    NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3 GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. Ion clearing gaps are required to suppress ion effects on the beam. The natural bunch length of 3mm is planned to be lengthened by means of a third

  3. A Simple Method for Evaluating Abnormal Lengthening of the QT Interval During the Face Immersion Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kamimura; M. Yoshinaga; Y. Kono; S. Yanagi; J. Nishi; Y. Nomura; T. Fukushige; R. Kusubae; R. Shinkura; K. Miyata

    2002-01-01

      The slope of the relation between the unadjusted QT interval and heart rate during the face immersion test has been reported\\u000a to be useful as an index for predicting an abnormal lengthening of the QT interval for children with nonfamilial long QT syndrome.\\u000a Our goals were to determine whether we can replace the slope of the QT\\/heart rate relation calculated

  4. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, K.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Bäker, M.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  5. Introduction to volumetric facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Glasgold, Mark

    2015-02-01

    The volumetric techniques of injectable fillers and autologous fat transfer are an important tool in the treatment of facial aging. Rapid widespread adoption has outpaced a sophisticated understanding of the goals of volume rejuvenation. The development of shadows and shadow patterns are the fundamental changes that occur with volumetric facial aging. A detailed examination of these shadows will lead to an understanding of how to apply volumetric techniques to create natural appearing results. PMID:25763891

  6. Active finite element analysis of skeletal muscle-tendon complex during isometric, shortening and lengthening contraction.

    PubMed

    Tsui, C P; Tang, C Y; Leung, C P; Cheng, K W; Ng, Y F; Chow, D H K; Li, C K

    2004-01-01

    An active finite element model was developed to predict the mechanical behaviors of skeletal muscle-tendon complex during isometric, shortening and lengthening contraction. The active finite element was created through incorporation of a user-defined material property into ABAQUS finite element code. The active finite element is controlled by a motor element that is activated by a mathematical function. The nonlinear passive behavior of the muscle was defined by the viscoelastic elements and can be easily altered to other properties by using other elements in the material library without the need of re-defining the constitutive relation of the muscle. The isometric force-length relationship, force-strain relations of the muscle-tendon complex during both shortening and lengthening contraction and muscle relaxation response were predicted using the proposed finite element model. The predicted results were found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. In addition, the stress distribution in the muscle-tendon complex during isometric, shortening and lengthening contractions was simulated. The location of the maximum stress may provide useful information for studying muscle damage and fatigue in the future. PMID:15299239

  7. Dietary apple polyphenols have preventive effects against lengthening contraction-induced muscle injuries.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Koichi; Ochi, Eisuke; Waga, Toshiaki

    2010-03-01

    We examined whether polyphenols from dietary apple have protective effects against exercise-induced muscle strain injury. Sixteen male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the apple polyphenol (APP; N=8) and control (CON; N=8) groups. The APP and the CON groups were fed diets with and without 5% APP, respectively. After a 3-wk feeding period, the gastrocnemii of the animals were subject to lengthening contractions with electrical stimulation and forced ankle dorsiflexion. Isometric torques were measured before and after the lengthening contractions and on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 after the contractions. On day 7, the animals were sacrificed and the gastrocnemii harvested. Thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl, and mRNA of antioxidative proteins in the muscles were quantified. The APP group had significantly lower torque deficits than the CON group on days 3, 5, and 7 after the eccentric contractions. The thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances and protein carbonyl levels in the case of the APP group were significantly lower than those in the case of the CON group. The APP group had significantly higher glutathione-S-transferase alpha1 mRNA levels than the CON group. Therefore, we conclude that dietary APPs have protective effects against lengthening contraction-induced muscle injury. PMID:19866470

  8. Use of Allograft in Skeletally Immature Patients for Calcaneal Neck Lengthening Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Yoon Hae; Park, Kun Bo; Park, Hui Wan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To date, there have been no studies evaluating the usefulness of allograft as a substitute for autograft in calcaneal neck lengthening osteotomy. This retrospective study examined the results of calcaneal neck lengthening osteotomy using allograft for pathologic flatfoot deformity in children and adolescents with various neuromuscular diseases. Materials and Methods 118 feet in 79 children treated surgically between Mar 2000 and July 2005 were reviewed. The mean age at the time of the operation was 9 + 3 years (range, 3 - 17 years) and follow-up averaged 15.4 months (range, 13 - 21 months) postoperatively. Talo-1st metatarsal angle, talo-calcaneal angle, calcaneal pitch were measured before and after operation and bony union was estimated. Results Bony union was noted at the latest follow-up and there were no postoperative complications such as reduction loss, infection, nonunion, delayed union or graft loss during the follow-up period in all but one foot. All radiographic indices were improved postoperatively in all cases. Conclusion Our results indicate that use of allograft in calcaneal neck lengthening osteotomy is a useful option for correction of the planovalgus deformity in skeletally immature patients whose enough autobone can not be obtained. PMID:18306473

  9. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

  10. Facial tissue depths in children with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, John M; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a craniofacial malformation affecting more than seven million people worldwide that results in defects of the hard palate, teeth, maxilla, nasal spine and floor, and maxillodental asymmetry. CLP facial soft-tissue depth (FSTD) values have never been published. The purpose of this research is to report CLP FSTD values and compare them to previously published FSTD values for normal children. Thirty-eight FSTDs were measured on cone beam computed tomography images of CLP children (n = 86; 7-17 years). MANOVA and ANOVA tests determined whether cleft type, age, sex, and bone graft surgical status affect tissue depths. Both cleft type (unilateral/bilateral) and age influence FSTDs. CLP FSTDs exhibit patterns of variation that differ from normal children, particularly around the oronasal regions of the face. These differences should be taken into account when facial reconstructions of children with CLP are created. PMID:25442980

  11. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Using Boosted Discriminatory Classifiers

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Using Boosted Discriminatory Classifiers Stephen Moore background of research into automatic facial expression recognition is presented. Section 3 ex- plains on Automatic Facial expression recognition by Ekman [8], intro- duced the Facial Action Coding System (FACS

  12. Material properties of mandibular cortical bone in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    E-print Network

    Material properties of mandibular cortical bone in the American alligator, Alligator of cortical bone in the mandible of juvenile Alligator mississippiensis obtained by using an ultrasonic wave Alligator bone specimens obtained from the lingual and facial surfaces of 4 fresh Alligator mandibles

  13. A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Spontaneous Facial Action Modeling

    E-print Network

    recognition is limited to posed expressions and often in frontal view. A spontaneous facial expression knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, facial action recognition is accomplished facial expressions. Index Terms--Facial action unit recognition, face pose estimation, facial action

  14. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  15. Responses of intramembranous bone and sutures upon in vivo cyclic tensile and compressive loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra I. Peptan; Aurora Lopez; Ross A. Kopher; Jeremy J. Mao

    2008-01-01

    Cranial vault and facial sutures interpose between mineralized bones of the skull, and may function analogously to appendicular and cranial base growth plates. However, unlike growth plates that are composed of chondrocyte lineage, cranial and facial sutures possess heterogeneous cell lineages such as mesenchymal cells, fibroblasts, and osteoblasts, in addition to vascular-derived cells. Despite recently intensified effort, the biological responses

  16. Shape Analysis of Local Facial Patches for 3D Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Shape Analysis of Local Facial Patches for 3D Facial Expression Recognition Ahmed Maaleja. Abstract In this paper we address the problem of 3D facial expression recognition. We propose a local identity-independent12 facial expression recognition based on a local shape analysis. Unlike the13 identity

  17. Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Beat. Copyright 2004 ACM 1-58113-940-3/04/0010 ...$5.00. 1. INTRODUCTION Automatic facial expression recognition, Switzerland gatica@idiap.ch ABSTRACT For supervised training of automatic facial expression recog- nition

  18. Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Karen L. Schmidt

    E-print Network

    Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    1 Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current

  19. Automated Facial Expression Recognition System Andrew Ryan

    E-print Network

    jeffcohn@cs.cmu.edu, slucey@cs.cmu.edu, jsaragih@andrew.cmu.edu, ftorre@cs.cmu.edu Adam Rossi Platinum facial expressions with one of the seven universal expressions of emotion [1]. II. FACIAL ACTION CODING

  20. Facial coloration tracks changes in women's estradiol.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benedict C; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Wincenciak, Joanna; Kandrik, Michal; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Red facial coloration is an important social cue in many primate species, including humans. In such species, the vasodilatory effects of estradiol may cause red facial coloration to change systematically during females' ovarian cycle. Although increased red facial coloration during estrus has been observed in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), evidence linking primate facial color changes directly to changes in measured estradiol is lacking. Addressing this issue, we used a longitudinal design to demonstrate that red facial coloration tracks within-subject changes in women's estradiol, but not within-subject changes in women's progesterone or estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. Moreover, the relationship between estradiol and facial redness was observed in two independent samples of women (N=50 and N=65). Our results suggest that changes in facial coloration may provide cues of women's fertility and present the first evidence for a direct link between estradiol and female facial redness in a primate species. PMID:25796069

  1. [Psychological aspects of facial trauma].

    PubMed

    Kosakevitch-Ricbourg, L

    2006-09-01

    The anatomic lesions resulting from facial trauma have serious psychological implications. The topic can be divided into three parts. First, the psychological trauma begins by a simple conception of the psychic structure. Secondly, an external crust protects an inner structure whose role is to maintain a vital function and a pleasure function. Thirdly, the face materializes these two functions. Facial trauma totally disrupts the external crust with staggering psychic implications, releasing the archaic process of survival. After this initial event, a second step is required where the trauma is interiorized leading to a highly variable clinical course which involves recovery, disturbed memory, and a depressive syndrome. The clinical manifestations and possibilities for preventing the post-commotional syndrome are also discussed together with the psychological disorders implied with facial traumatism: disorders linked to the perception of the face, esthetic damage, neurological and sensorial disorders. The course is basically linked to the personality of the patient. PMID:17003762

  2. Mechanical Characteristics of a Polymer Spring Device used to Lengthen Small Intestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, Douglas J.

    Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) is a condition that occurs due to an insufficient amount of small intestine needed for nutrient absorption and water regulation of the body. A compression spring device is being developed in order to provide a mechanical stimulus to the tissue, as this type of force has been shown to promote lengthening of the tissue. The research completed in this thesis investigated the mechanical characteristics of the spring device and attempted to relate it to the functionality in rat and porcine intestinal tissue. Results from the evaluation of the springs show that Poly(epsilon-caprolactone), or PCL, is a sufficient polymer to use for creating a biodegradable device as the spring dimensions can be adjusted through variations in the diameter, thickness, and band size in order to provide an adequate spring constant for multiple animal types. Design of the springs, however, need to take into account the size of the gelatin capsule used, the amount of plastic deformation and creep behavior of the spring under compression for an extended time period, and the variation in the mechanical properties of the animal soft tissue that requires lengthening. Integration of the spring in-continuity requires a feature that will provide a mechanical resistance to force that is greater than the force of the spring in the compressed state. The spring still requires further development and any design should also take into account the possibility of intestinal perforations or obstructions. The polymer spring device provides a good means towards developing a treatment option for SBS, and other potential soft tissue lengthening needs of the body.

  3. The MAGEC system for spinal lengthening in children with scoliosis: A NICE Medical Technology Guidance.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Michelle; Craig, Joyce; Higgins, Joanne; Willits, Iain; Barata, Teresa; Wood, Hannah; Kimpton, Christine; Sims, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Scoliosis-structural lateral curvature of the spine-affects around four children per 1,000. The MAGEC system comprises a magnetically distractible spinal rod implant and an external remote controller, which lengthens the rod; this system avoids repeated surgical lengthening. Rod implants brace the spine internally and are lengthened as the child grows, preventing worsening of scoliosis and delaying the need for spinal fusion. The Medical Technologies Advisory Committee at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) selected the MAGEC system for evaluation in a NICE medical technologies guidance. Six studies were identified by the sponsor (Ellipse Technologies Inc.) as being relevant to the decision problem. Meta-analysis was used to compare the clinical evidence results with those of one conventional growth rod study, and equal efficacy of the two devices was concluded. The key weakness was selection of a single comparator study. The External Assessment Centre (EAC) identified 16 conventional growth rod studies and undertook meta-analyses of relevant outcomes. Its critique highlighted limitations around study heterogeneity and variations in baseline characteristics and follow-up duration, precluding the ability to draw firm conclusions. The sponsor constructed a de novo costing model showing that MAGEC rods generated cost savings of £9,946 per patient after 6 years, compared with conventional rods. The EAC critiqued and updated the model structure and inputs, calculating robust cost savings of £12,077 per patient with MAGEC rods compared with conventional rods over 6 years. The year of valuation was 2012. NICE issued a positive recommendation as supported by the evidence (Medical Technologies Guidance 18). PMID:25172432

  4. Facial expression recognition for neonatal pain assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanming Lu; Xiaonan Li; Haibo Li

    2008-01-01

    Facial expressions are considered a critical factor in neonatal pain assessment. This paper attempts to apply modern facial expression recognition techniques to the task of distinguishing pain expression from non-pain expression. Firstly, 2D Gabor filter is applied to extract the expression features from facial images. Then we apply Adaboost as a feature selection tool to remove the redundant Gabor features.

  5. Modulation of facial mimicry by attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja U. Likowski; Andreas Mühlberger; Beate Seibt; Paul Pauli; Peter Weyers

    2008-01-01

    The current experiment explored the influence of attitudes on facial reactions to emotional faces. The participants’ attitudes (positive, neutral, and negative) towards three types of characters were manipulated by written reports. Afterwards participants saw happy, neutral, and sad facial expressions of the respective characters while their facial muscular reactions (M. Corrugator supercilii and M. Zygomaticus major) were recorded electromyografically. Results

  6. The computer-aided facial reconstruction system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Miyasaka; M. Yoshino; K. Imaizumi; S. Seta

    1995-01-01

    A computer imaging system was introduced into the facial reconstruction process. The system, which consists of the image processing unit for skull morphometry and the image editing unit for compositing facial components on the skull images, was an original construction. The image processor generates the framework for building a face onto the digitized skull image. For reconstructing a facial image

  7. Toronto Facial Grading System: Interobserver reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FATMA TULIN KAYHAN; DAVID ZURAKOWSKI; STEVEN D. RAUCH

    2000-01-01

    The Toronto Facial Grading System (TFGS) is an observer scale for rating facial nerve dysfunction. The TFGS scores aspects of resting symmetry, symmetry of voluntary movement, and synkinesis for each division of the face (subscores) and then provides calculated total scores and an overall composite score of facial function. The developers of the scale have validated its sensitivity for identifying

  8. Joint Angular Velocity in Spastic Gait and the Influence of Muscle-Tendon Lengthening*

    PubMed Central

    GRANATA, KEVIN P.; ABEL, MARK F.; DAMIANO, DIANE L.

    2006-01-01

    Background Joint angular velocity (the rate of flexion and extension of a joint) is related to the dynamics of muscle activation and force generation during walking. Therefore, the goal of this research was to examine the joint angular velocity in normal and spastic gait and changes resulting from muscle-tendon lengthening (recession and tenotomy) in patients who have spastic cerebral palsy. Methods The gait patterns of forty patients who had been diagnosed with spastic cerebral palsy (mean age, 8.3 years; range, 3.7 to 14.8 years) and of seventy-three age-matched, normally developing subjects were evaluated with three-dimensional motion analysis and electromyography. The patients who had cerebral palsy were evaluated before muscle-tendon lengthening and nine months after treatment. Results The gait patterns of the patients who had cerebral palsy were characterized by increased flexion of the knee in the stance phase, premature plantar flexion of the ankle, and reduced joint angular velocities compared with the patterns of the normally developing subjects. Even though muscle-tendon lengthening altered sagittal joint angles in gait, the joint angular velocities were generally unchanged at the hip and knee. Only the ankle demonstrated modified angular velocities, including reduced dorsiflexion velocity at foot-strike and improved dorsiflexion velocity through midstance, after treatment. Electromyographic changes included reduced amplitude of the gastrocnemius-soleus during the loading phase and decreased knee coactivity (the ratio of quadriceps and hamstring activation) at toe-off. Principal component analyses showed that, compared with joint-angle data, joint angular velocity was better able to discriminate between the gait patterns of the normal and cerebral palsy groups. Conclusions This study showed that muscle-tendon lengthening corrects biomechanical alignment as reflected by changes in sagittal joint angles. However, joint angular velocity and electromyographic data suggest that the underlying neural input remains largely unchanged at the hip and knee. Conversely, electromyographic changes and changes in velocity in the ankle indicate that the activation pattern of the gastrocnemius-soleus complex in response to stretch was altered by recession of the complex. PMID:10682726

  9. æIEFS PROCEEDINGS Recurrence of diabetic pedal ulcerations following tendo-Achilles lengthening

    E-print Network

    Richard D. Weiner; Lee M. Hlad; Danielle R. Mckenna

    Foot and ankle surgeons are frequently challenged by the devastating systemic consequences of diabetes mellitus manifested through neuropathy, integumentary and joint breakdown, delayed healing, decreased ability to fight infection, and fragile tendon/ligaments. Diabetic neuropathic pedal ulcerations lead to amputations at an alarming rate and also carry a high mortality rate. This article will discuss causes of diabetic pedal ulcerations that persist or recur after tendo-Achilles lengthening and will highlight areas that need to be addressed by the practitioner such as infection, vascular and nutritional status, glucose control, off-loading, biomechanics, and patient compliance.

  10. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis methods for determining ten causes of lengthening of a soft-tissue anterior cruciate ligament graft construct.

    PubMed

    Smith, Conrad; Hull, M L; Howell, S M

    2008-08-01

    There are many causes of lengthening of an anterior cruciate ligament soft-tissue graft construct (i.e., graft+fixation devices+bone), which can lead to an increase in anterior laxity. These causes can be due to plastic deformation andor an increase in elastic deformation. The purposes of this in vitro study were (1) to develop the methods to quantify eight causes (four elastic and four plastic) associated with the tibial and femoral fixations using Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) and to demonstrate the usefulness of these methods, (2) to assess how well an empirical relationship between an increase in length of the graft construct and an increase in anterior laxity predicts two causes (one elastic and one plastic) associated with the graft midsubstance, and (3) to determine the increase in anterior tare laxity (i.e., laxity under the application of a 30 N anterior tare force) before the graft force reaches zero. Markers were injected into the tibia, femur, and graft in six cadaveric legs whose knees were reconstructed with single-loop tibialis grafts. To satisfy the first objective, legs were subjected to 1500 cycles at 14 Hz of 150 N anterior force transmitted at the knee. Based on marker 3D coordinates, equations were developed for determining eight causes associated with the fixations. After 1500 load cycles, plastic deformation between the graft and WasherLoc tibial fixation was the greatest cause with an average of 0.8+/-0.5 mm followed by plastic deformation between the graft and cross-pin-type femoral fixation with an average of 0.5+/-0.1 mm. The elastic deformations between the graft and tibial fixation and between the graft and femoral fixation decreased averages of 0.3+/-0.3 mm and 0.2+/-0.1 mm, respectively. The remaining four causes associated with the fixations were close to 0. To satisfy the remaining two objectives, after cyclic loading, the graft was lengthened incrementally while the 30 N anterior tare laxity, 150 N anterior laxity, and graft tension were measured. The one plastic cause and one elastic cause associated with the graft midsubstance were predicted by the empirical relationships with random errors (i.e., precision) of 0.9 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. The minimum increase in 30 N anterior tare laxity before the graft force reached zero was 5 mm. Hence, each of the eight causes of an increase in the 150 N anterior laxity associated with the fixations can be determined with RSA as long as the overall increase in the 30 N anterior tare laxity does not exceed 5 mm. However, predicting the two causes associated with the graft using empirical relationships is prone to large errors. PMID:18601444

  11. Facial leontiasis ossea: a rare presentation of hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Dantas, M; Costa, R S; Jorgetti, V; Santos, P S; Cintra, L C; Kimachi, T; Ferraz, A S

    1991-01-01

    The term renal osteodystrophy is often used in a generic sense to include skeletal disorders of patients with chronic renal failure due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. The prevalence of this condition among patients on hemodialysis is considerably high. However, extreme forms such as facial leontiasis ossea are very rare, only 2 well-characterized cases having been reported thus far in the literature. In the present article we report the case of a female patient who developed hyperparathyroidism secondary to end-stage renal disease which was manifested as facial leontiasis ossea and culminated in dysphagia and respiratory difficulties caused by excess bone tissue growth. PMID:1922615

  12. Immediate implant placement and provisionalization after long-axis root fracture and complete loss of the facial bony lamella.

    PubMed

    Noelken, Robert; Kunkel, Martin; Wagner, Wilfried

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the performance of a flapless surgical approach for immediate implant placement, simultaneous alveolar ridge augmentation, and immediate provisionalization in patients with complete loss of the facial bony lamella resulting from long-axis root fracture. Eighteen NobelPerfect implants were placed in 16 patients (follow-up, 13 to 36 months) who had sustained complete loss of the facial bony lamellae. Implants were inserted simultaneous to subperiostal bone augmentation with autogenous bone chips and underwent immediate provisionalization. Outcome variables included implant success, marginal bone levels, and pink esthetic score (PES). All implants achieved excellent primary stability. There were no implant losses. On average, interproximal marginal bone levels stabilized at 1.0 to 1.3 mm above the first thread. Postoperative cone beam computed tomography scans were available for 16 implant sites and confirmed restoration of the facial lamella in the vast majority of patients. Marginal esthetics, as assessed by the PES, was by and large preserved (mean postoperative PES, 12.5). Oral hygiene was highly predictive for the esthetic result. Survival rates, marginal bone levels, and esthetic results suggest a proof-of-principle for the new flapless immediate implant placement technique in patients with complete loss of the facial bony lamella. Oral hygiene status may be considered as a negative prognostic factor for the esthetic outcome. PMID:21491017

  13. Anatomy of Sodium Hypochlorite Accidents Involving Facial Ecchymosis – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wan-chun; Gyamfi, Jacqueline; Niu, Li-na; Schoeffel, G. John; Liu, Si-ying; Santarcangelo, Filippo; Khan, Sara; Tay, Kelvin C-Y.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Root canal treatment forms an essential part of general dental practice. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used irrigant in endodontics due to its ability to dissolve organic soft tissues in the root canal system and its action as a potent antimicrobial agent. Although NaOCl accidents created by extrusion of the irrigant through root apices are relatively rare and are seldom life-threatening, they do create substantial morbidity when they occur. Methods To date, NaOCl accidents have only been published as isolated case reports. Although previous studies have attempted to summarise the symptoms involved in these case reports, there was no endeavor to analyse the distribution of soft tissue distribution in those reports. In this review, the anatomy of a classical NaOCl accident that involves facial swelling and ecchymosis is discussed. Results By summarising the facial manifestations presented in previous case reports, a novel hypothesis that involves intravenous infusion of extruded NaOCl into the facial vein via non-collapsible venous sinusoids within the cancellous bone is presented. Conclusions Understanding the mechanism involved in precipitating a classic NaOCl accident will enable the profession to make the best decision regarding the choice of irrigant delivery techniques in root canal débridement, and for manufacturers to design and improve their irrigation systems to achieve maximum safety and efficient cleanliness of the root canal system. PMID:23994710

  14. Cortical and spinal excitability during and after lengthening contractions of the human plantar flexor muscles performed with maximal voluntary effort.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel; Hoffman, Ben W; Carroll, Timothy J; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the sites of potential specific modulations in the neural control of lengthening and subsequent isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) versus purely isometric MVCs of the plantar flexor muscles, when there is enhanced torque during and following stretch. Ankle joint torque during maximum voluntary plantar flexion was measured by a dynamometer when subjects (n = 10) lay prone on a bench with the right ankle tightly strapped to a foot-plate. Neural control was analysed by comparing soleus motor responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M-wave, V-wave), electrical stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (CMEP) and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (MEP). Enhanced torque of 17 ± 8% and 9 ± 8% was found during and 2.5-3 s after lengthening MVCs, respectively. Cortical and spinal responsiveness was similar to that in isometric conditions during the lengthening MVCs, as shown by unchanged MEPs, CMEPs and V-waves, suggesting that the major voluntary motor pathways are not subject to substantial inhibition. Following the lengthening MVCs, enhanced torque was accompanied by larger MEPs (p ? 0.05) and a trend to greater V-waves (p ? 0.1). In combination with stable CMEPs, increased MEPs suggest an increase in cortical excitability, and enlarged V-waves indicate greater motoneuronal output or increased stretch reflex excitability. The new results illustrate that neuromotor pathways are altered after lengthening MVCs suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of the enhanced torque are not purely mechanical in nature. PMID:23166794

  15. Can fast-twitch muscle fibres be selectively recruited during lengthening contractions? Review and applications to sport movements.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Gordon R

    2008-01-01

    Literature examining the recruitment order of motor units during lengthening (eccentric) contractions was reviewed to determine if fast-twitch motor units can be active while lower threshold slow-twitch motor units are not active. Studies utilizing surface electromyogram (EMG) amplitude, single motor unit activity, spike amplitude-frequency analyses, EMG power spectrum, mechanomyographic, and phosphocreatine-to-creatine ratio (PCr/Cr) techniques were reviewed. Only single motor unit and PCr/Cr data were found to be suitable to address the goals of this review. Nine of ten single motor unit studies, examining joint movement velocities up to 225 degrees/s and forces up to 53% of a maximum voluntary contraction, found that the size principle of motor unit recruitment applied during lengthening contractions. Deviation from the size principle was demonstrated by one study examining movements within a small range of low velocities and modest forces, although other studies examining similar low forces and lengthening velocities reported size-ordered recruitment. The PCr/Cr data demonstrated the activation of all fibre types in lengthening maximal contractions. Most evidence indicates that for lengthening contractions of a wide range of efforts and speeds, fast-twitch muscle fibres cannot be selectively recruited without activity of the slow-twitch fibres of the same muscle. PMID:18341141

  16. Pilocytic Astrocytomas Have Telomere-Associated Promyelocytic Leukemia Bodies without Alternatively Lengthened Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Slatter, Tania; Gifford-Garner, Jennifer; Wiles, Anna; Tan, Xin; Chen, Yu-Jen; MacFarlane, Martin; Sullivan, Michael; Royds, Janice; Hung, Noelyn

    2010-01-01

    Telomere maintenance by either telomerase activity or the recombination-mediated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism is a hallmark of cancer. Tumors that use ALT as their telomere maintenance mechanism are characterized by long telomeres of great heterogeneity in length and by specific nuclear structures of co-localized promyelocytic leukemia protein and telomere DNA, called ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies (APBs). Recent advances have revealed a direct role for APBs in telomere recombination in ALT-positive cells. In this study, we investigated the possibility that APBs could occur before the long ‘alternatively’ lengthened telomeres arise, particularly in low-grade tumors. We measured APBs, telomere length, and telomerase activity in 64 astrocytomas inclusive of grade 1?4 tumors. Almost all grade 1?3 tumors (93%) were APB-positive using published criteria. Grade 2?3 APB-positive tumors also had long telomeres and were confirmed as ALT positive. However, grade 1 tumors lacked long telomeres and were therefore classified as ALT negative, but positive for telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies (TPB). This is the first report of a TPB-positive but ALT-negative tumor, and suggests that low-grade tumors have the foundation for recombinational telomere repair, as in ALT. Further work is warranted to characterize the TPB-positive phenotype in other early malignancies, as well as to determine whether TPBs predispose to telomere maintenance by ALT. PMID:21037079

  17. Treatment of knee contracture in cerebral palsy by hamstring lengthening, posterior capsulotomy, and quadriceps mechanism shortening.

    PubMed

    Beals, R K

    2001-12-01

    Results of surgery to correct fixed flexion contracture of the knee and improve voluntary knee extension in 39 knees in 20 children (11 females, 9 males; mean age 12 years 8 months, age range 5 to 20 years) with cerebral palsy were analyzed. All patients had neuromotor disease and 18 children had spastic diplegia or quadriplegia. All patients could initiate voluntary knee extension but lacked full passive extension. Five patients (10 knees) were free walkers with a mean motor severity index of 19 and mean fixed knee contracture of 20 degrees. Fifteen patients (29 knees) were not free walkers and 13 were wheelchair ambulators. They had a mean motor severity index of 8 and mean fixed knee contractures of 30 degrees. Surgical procedures included various combinations of hamstring lengthening and/or posterior capsulotomy to allow free passive knee extension, with or without quadriceps mechanism shortening, to enhance voluntary extension. The best results were in patients who had hamstring lengthening, posterior capsulotomy, and quadriceps mechanism shortening. PMID:11769265

  18. Gradual Lengthening of the Ulna in Patients with Multiple Hereditary Exostoses with a Dislocated Radial Head

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Taek

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple hereditary exostoses of the forearm typically form in the distal ulna, causing disturbances in the growth of the ulna and functional disability. Multiple hereditary exostoses inhibit the growth of the ulna, leading to an acquisition of a varus deformity in the radius, which sometimes leads to dislocation of the radial head, the development of limitations in the pronation-supination of the forearm, and cosmetic problems. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of four patients who had deformities of the forearm with radial head dislocation associated with multiple hereditary exostoses, and evaluated the radiologic and clinical results of excision of the osteochondromas from the distal ulna and gradual ulnar lengthening with an Ilizarov external fixator. Results Good clinical and radiological results were obtained after a mean follow-up of 25 months. At the most recent follow-up, radial bowing, ulnar shortening, carpal slip, and the pronation/supination arch of the forearm had improved. There was little change in terms of preoperative radial articular angle and the flexion/extension arch of the elbow by the most recent follow-up. Conclusion Treatment of four forearms from four patients by excision of osteochondromas and gradual lengthening of the ulna with an Ilizarov external fixator spontaneously reduced dislocations of the radial heads without the need for any additional operative intervention. All patients were satisfied with the final results. PMID:24339304

  19. The facial interpersonal perception inventory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Luciani

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an interpersonal perception inventory which would demonstrate that various ratings of facial caricature drawings when made by a husband and wife can be used as a predictor of marital adjustment. The subjects in this study were 30 operationally defined adjusted and 30 non-adjusted couples. A series of three tests were administered to

  20. Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences University. The procedure is done under anesthesia administered by an anesthesiologist. After surgery, you

  1. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Mends, Francine; Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish; Roehm, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers. PMID:23766904

  2. [Neurological disease and facial recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system. PMID:22764352

  3. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  4. Characteristics of maxillofacial injuries and safety of in-theater facial fracture repair in severe combat trauma.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew W; Han, Peggy P; Galarneau, Michael R; Gaball, Curtis W

    2015-03-01

    The study objectives were to characterize maxillofacial injuries and assess the safety of in-theater facial fracture repair in U.S. military personnel with severe combat trauma from Iraq and Afghanistan. We performed a retrospective chart review of the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database from 2004 to 2010. 1,345 military personnel with combat-related maxillofacial injuries were identified. Injury severity was quantified with the Abbreviated Injury Scale and Injury Severity Score. Service members with maxillofacial injury and severe combat trauma (Injury Severity Score ? 16) were included. The distribution of facial fractures, types, and outcomes of surgical repairs, incidence of traumatic brain injury, concomitant head and neck injuries, burn rate/severity, and rates of Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and surgical site infection were analyzed. The prevalence of maxillofacial injury in the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database was 22.7%. The most common mechanism of injury was improvised explosive device (65.7%). Midface trauma and facial burns were common. Approximately 64% of the study sample sustained traumatic brain injury. Overall, 45.6% (109/239) had at least one facial bone fracture. Of those with facial fractures, 64.2% (n = 70) underwent surgical repair. None of the service members who underwent in-theater facial fracture repair developed A. baumannii facial wound infection or implant extrusion. PMID:25735023

  5. [Fragmentary osteotomy of maxilla back parts for dentoalveolar lengthening as preparation stage before dental prosthetics making on implants].

    PubMed

    Seniuk, A N; Mokhirev, M A

    2010-01-01

    Conditions for dental implantation are not always ideal that decrease the method possibilities and makes surgeons-implantologists to resort to additional interventions in order to increase the hard and soft tissues volume in the region of the planned implantation. Considerably rare an implantologist comes across with abutment tissues surplus when considerable dentoalveolar lengthening happens with expressed diminution of interalveolar distance. Orthognatic surgery as the method of surgical correction of expressed dentoalveolar lengthening of some teeth group is the most effective when there is no possibility to such deformation elimination by other methods - orthodontic or prosthetic. PMID:20436408

  6. Augmentation of facial skeleton with ceramics in congenital disorders and in post-traumatic or postoperative deformities: a preliminary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Duäková; J. Kozák; J. Mazánek; Z. Šámahel; M. Vohradník

    2000-01-01

    The reconstruction of defects of the facial skeleton resulting from congenital faults, tumor removal, or trauma should provide\\u000a function and form. Synthetic bone substitutes can be used in patients in which autologous bone graft or other operative techniques\\u000a are contraindicated by the patient’s condition or would not achieve the expected result. The advantages of synthetic substances\\u000a are obvious: there is

  7. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ying-li; Kanade, Takeo; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2010-01-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such prototypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze facial expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal-view face image sequence. The AFA system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression into action units (AUs) of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), instead of a few prototypic expressions. Multistate face and facial component models are proposed for tracking and modeling the various facial features, including lips, eyes, brows, cheeks, and furrows. During tracking, detailed parametric descriptions of the facial features are extracted. With these parameters as the inputs, a group of action units (neutral expression, six upper face AUs and 10 lower face AUs) are recognized whether they occur alone or in combinations. The system has achieved average recognition rates of 96.4 percent (95.4 percent if neutral expressions are excluded) for upper face AUs and 96.7 percent (95.6 percent with neutral expressions excluded) for lower face AUs. The generalizability of the system has been tested by using independent image databases collected and FACS-coded for ground-truth by different research teams. PMID:25210210

  8. Moving Facial Image Transformations Based on Static 2D Prototypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Tiddeman; David I. Perrett

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for creating visually realistic moving facial image sequences that retain an actor's personality (individuality, expression and characteristic movements) while altering the facial appearance along a certain specified facial dimension. We combine two existing technologies, facial feature tracking and facial image transformation, to create the sequences. Examples are given of transforming the apparent age, race

  9. Mapping and manipulating facial expression.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R; Brick, Timothy R; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Boker, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of nonverbal visual behavior during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions. PMID:19624037

  10. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    PubMed Central

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Non-verbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this paper we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and non-verbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of non-verbal visual behaviour during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions. PMID:19624037

  11. Alternative lengthening of telomeres renders cancer cells hypersensitive to ATR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Rachel Litman; Cox, Kelli E; Jeitany, Maya; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Bryll, Alysia R; Ganem, Neil J; Bersani, Francesca; Pineda, Jose R; Suvà, Mario L; Benes, Cyril H; Haber, Daniel A; Boussin, Francois D; Zou, Lee

    2015-01-16

    Cancer cells rely on telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to overcome replicative mortality. ALT is mediated by recombination and is prevalent in a subset of human cancers, yet whether it can be exploited therapeutically remains unknown. Loss of the chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX associates with ALT in cancers. Here, we show that ATRX loss compromises cell-cycle regulation of the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA and leads to persistent association of replication protein A (RPA) with telomeres after DNA replication, creating a recombinogenic nucleoprotein structure. Inhibition of the protein kinase ATR, a critical regulator of recombination recruited by RPA, disrupts ALT and triggers chromosome fragmentation and apoptosis in ALT cells. The cell death induced by ATR inhibitors is highly selective for cancer cells that rely on ALT, suggesting that such inhibitors may be useful for treatment of ALT-positive cancers. PMID:25593184

  12. Rapid induction of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres by depletion of the histone chaperone ASF1

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Arnoult, Nausica; Lackner, Daniel H.; Oganesian, Liana; Haggblom, Candy; Corpet, Armelle; Almouzni, Genevieve; Karlseder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of activation of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway of mammalian chromosome end maintenance has remained an unresolved issue. We have discovered that co-depletion of the histone chaperones ASF1a and ASF1b in human cells induced all hallmarks of ALT in both primary and cancer cells. These included the formation of ALT associated PML bodies (APBs), extra-chromosomal telomeric DNA species an elevated frequency of telomeric sister chromatid exchanges (t-SCE) events and inter-telomeric exchange of an integrated tag. The induction of ALT characteristics in this setting led to the simultaneous suppression of telomerase. We identified that ALT induction is positively regulated by RAD17 and BLM, while negatively regulated by EXO1 and DNA2. The induction of ALT phenotypes as a consequence of ASF1 depletion strongly support the hypothesis that ALT is a consequence of a histone management dysfunction. PMID:24413054

  13. Group velocity and pulse lengthening of mismatched laser pulses in plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-07

    Analytic solutions are presented to the non-paraxial wave equation describing an ultra-short, low-power, laser pulse propagating in aplasma channel. Expressions for the laser pulse centroid motion and laser group velocity are derived, valid for matched and mismatchedpropagation in a parabolic plasma channel, as well as in vacuum, for an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. The group velocity of amismatched laser pulse, for which the laser spot size is strongly oscillating, is found to be independent of propagation distance andsignificantly less than that of a matched pulse. Laser pulse lengthening of a mismatched pulse owing to laser mode slippage isexamined and found to dominate over that due to dispersive pulse spreading for sufficiently long pulses. Analytic results are shown tobe in excellent agreement with numerical solutions of the full Maxwell equations coupled to the plasma response. Implications for plasmachannel diagnostics are discussed.

  14. Polyunsaturated lipid diet lengthens torpor and reduces body temperature in a hibernator.

    PubMed

    Geiser, F; Kenagy, G J

    1987-05-01

    Membrane lipids of vertebrate animals that tolerate cold are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Because the lipid composition of cellular membranes in mammals can be experimentally altered by diet, we investigated whether a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids would lengthen bouts of torpor and reduce the minimum body temperature in hibernating chipmunks (Eutamias amoenus) compared with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids. Animals on the highly unsaturated diet showed significantly longer bouts of torpor, lower minimum body temperatures, and lower metabolic rates than those on a saturated diet. Animals on a control diet were intermediate. These dietary adjustments apparently influence the control of body temperature by the central nervous system, which results in a modification of the pattern of torpor. The observations also suggest a role of nutritional ecology in hibernation. PMID:3578556

  15. Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

    1975-01-01

    Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. Images Figs. 1 a and b. Fig. 1c., Fig. 1d. Fig. 1f. Fig. 1g. Fig. 1h. Fig. 1i. Fig. 1m. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b., Fig. 2c., Fig. 2d. Fig. 2e. Figs. 3 a and b. Fig. 3d., Fig. 3e. Fig. 3f. Fig. 4a., Fig. 4b. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b., Fig. 5c. Figs. 5d and e. Fig. 5f. Figs. 5g. and 5h. Fig. 6a., Fig. 6b. Fig. 6c. Fig. 7a. Fig. 7b. Figs. 7e and f. Fig. 8a. Fig. 8b. Fig. 8c. Fig. 8d., Fig. 8e. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Figs. 9c. and d. Fig. 9e. Fig. 9f. Figs. 9g. and h. Figs. 11a, b, and c. Figs. 11d, e, f. PMID:169753

  16. Techniques of facial nerve block.

    PubMed Central

    Schimek, F; Fahle, M

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure was measured and lid motility determined on a subjective score scale. Whereas the modified O'Brien and lid blocks nearly abolished the muscle activity recorded in the EMG (p < 0.003), the Atkinson and van Lint blocks did not significantly affect these variables. The O'Brien and lid blocks decreased the force of lid closure and lid movements far more effectively than the Atkinson and van Lint blocks (p < 0.0001). The topographic distribution of a mixture of metrizamide and lignocaine solutions was evaluated radiographically in eight additional patients, to assess potential causes for differences in the efficacy of the block techniques. The radiological results showed involvement of the region of the facial nerve trunk and its temporal and cervical divisions by the modified O'Brien block. The lid block, on the other hand, affected terminal branches of the facial nerve's temporal division. In this study, complete lid akinesia was achieved by both the modified O'Brien block and the lid block. However, because the modified O'Brien block involves the risk of neural injury to the facial nerve or its main divisions, the lid block is recommended as the most effective and safe method to achieve akinesia of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Images PMID:7696239

  17. Lengthening of the duration of xylogenesis engenders disproportionate increases in xylem production.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sergio; Girard, Marie-Josée; Morin, Hubert

    2014-07-01

    In cold climates, the expected global warming will lead to earlier cambial resumptions in spring, with a resultant lengthening of the growing season but unknown consequences on forest productivity. The phenological traits of cambium activity and xylem formation were analyzed at a short time scale along a thermal gradient represented by an alti-latitudinal range from the 48th to 53rd parallels and covering the whole closed black-spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] forest in Quebec, Canada. A hypothesis was tested that warmer temperatures influence cambium phenology, allowing longer duration and higher intensity of growth, and resulting in proportionally increased xylem production. From April to October 2012, cell division in cambium and post-cambial differentiation of xylem were observed on anatomical sections obtained from microcores collected weekly from the stem of fifty trees. The southern and warmer site was characterized by the highest radial growth, which corresponded to both the highest rates and longest durations of cell production. The differences in terms of xylem phenology and growth were marginal between the other sites. Xylem growth was positively correlated with rate and duration of cell production, with the latter explaining most variability in growth. Within the range analyzed, the relationship between temperature and most phenological phases of xylogenesis was linear. On the contrary, temperature was related with cell production according to an exponential pattern. Periods of xylogenesis of 14 days longer (+13.1%) corresponded to a massive increase in cell production (33 cells, +109%). This disproportionate change occurred at a May-September average temperature of ca. 14 °C and a snow-free period of 210-235 days. At the lower boundary of the distribution of black spruce, small environmental changes allowing marginal lengthening of the period of cell division could potentially lead to disproportionate increases in xylem cell production, with substantial consequences for the productivity of this boreal species. PMID:24259354

  18. Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

    2013-06-01

    Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

  19. Wire internal fixation: an obsolete, yet valuable method for surgical management of facial fractures

    PubMed Central

    Bouletreau, Pierre; Konsem, Tarcissus; Traoré, Ibraïma; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouédraogo, Dieudonné

    2014-01-01

    In some developing countries wire is still widely used in facial fractures internal fixation. This study presents the effectiveness and complications of wire osteosynthesis in a university teaching hospital in Burkina Faso and discusses some of its other benefits and disadvantages. Notes of 227 patients with facial fractures treated by wire internal fixation at department of stomatology and maxillofacial surgery of CHU Souro Sanou, Burkina Faso between 2006 and 2010 are reviewed retrospectively. A satisfactory treatment outcome was recorded in 91.2% of the 227 patients. Complications occurred in 8.8% of the patients who had operative site infection (3.1%), malocclusion (1.8%), sensory disturbance (1.8), facial asymmetry (1.3%), delayed bone union (0.9%) or enophtalmos (0.4%). The overall complications rate was 7.4% after mandibular osteosynthesis, 6.9% after Le Fort osteosynthesis and 6.5% after zygoma osteosynthesis. Post operative infections occurred irrespective to the surgical site. The other complications were more specific to the surgical site. Wire internal fixation may be a reasonable alternative for the surgical treatment of non-comminuted facial fractures and those without bone substance loss, in the setting of limited resources. PMID:25237416

  20. Facial Resurfacing With Coblation Technology

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Stephen M.; Downs, Brian W.; Ferraz, Mario B.J.; Wang, Tom D.; Cook, Ted A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe our experience with coblation technology for facial resurfacing Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients treated with coblation at our institution Results Twenty-four patients (22 female) underwent a total of 29 coblation procedures for aging face (n = 21) or acne scarring (n = 3). The perioral region was the most frequently treated aesthetic subunit (n = 14), followed by the lower eyelid (n = 7). Five patients underwent full-face coblation. Three patients underwent a second coblation procedure for aging face while a single patient with severe acne scarring underwent 3 procedures. Repeat coblation was delayed at least 5 months (mean, 9 months). Seventeen coblation procedures (59%) were performed concurrently with procedures including, but not limited to, injection treatment, rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, or combined face/necklift; no adverse events occurred. Seven procedures, including a full-face coblation, were performed in the office under local anesthesia and oral sedation without any adverse events. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1 week to 24 months). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the results after their final coblation treatment. Conclusions Facial coblation is a safe and effective treatment modality for facial resurfacing. PMID:18769690

  1. How is facial expression coded?

    PubMed

    Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Facial expression is theorized to be visually represented in a multidimensional expression space, relative to a norm. This norm-based coding is typically argued to be implemented by a two-pool opponent coding system. However, the evidence supporting the opponent coding of expression cannot rule out the presence of a third channel tuned to the center of each coded dimension. Here we used a paradigm not previously applied to facial expression to determine whether a central-channel model is necessary to explain expression coding. Participants identified expressions taken from a fear/antifear trajectory, first at baseline and then in two adaptation conditions. In one condition, participants adapted to the expression at the center of the trajectory. In the other condition, participants adapted to alternating images from the two ends of the trajectory. The range of expressions that participants perceived as lying at the center of the trajectory narrowed in both conditions, a pattern that is not predicted by the central-channel model but can be explained by the opponent-coding model. Adaptation to the center of the trajectory also increased identification of both fear and antifear, which may indicate a functional benefit for adaptive coding of facial expression. PMID:25556250

  2. Facial expression form and function

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Adam K

    2008-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, facial expressions would serve adaptive functions that promote genetic fitness. While many ideas have been proposed,1 the specific adaptive functions of expressing emotion on the face have largely remained untested since Darwin proposed a set of expressive functional principles over 130 years ago.2 Recently, we showed that expressions of fear and disgust alter the biomechanical properties of the face, such that fear increases while disgust decreases sensory exposure.3 Additional vector flow analyses presented here reveal that anger and surprise expressions may similarly be shaped by sensory contraction and expansion action tendencies. An examination of the temporal dynamics of sensory modulation may reveal a general principle shaping expressive form rather than a specific adaptation shaping fear and disgust. Furthermore, if sensory modulation is a general principle, this function should be present across species rather than only in humans. Although facial morphology differs across species, detailed examination of sensory intake in different species may reveal the origins of facial expressions inherited by humans. PMID:19704875

  3. Facial expression form and function.

    PubMed

    Susskind, Joshua M; Anderson, Adam K

    2008-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, facial expressions would serve adaptive functions that promote genetic fitness. While many ideas have been proposed,1 the specific adaptive functions of expressing emotion on the face have largely remained untested since Darwin proposed a set of expressive functional principles over 130 years ago.2 Recently, we showed that expressions of fear and disgust alter the biomechanical properties of the face, such that fear increases while disgust decreases sensory exposure.3 Additional vector flow analyses presented here reveal that anger and surprise expressions may similarly be shaped by sensory contraction and expansion action tendencies. An examination of the temporal dynamics of sensory modulation may reveal a general principle shaping expressive form rather than a specific adaptation shaping fear and disgust. Furthermore, if sensory modulation is a general principle, this function should be present across species rather than only in humans. Although facial morphology differs across species, detailed examination of sensory intake in different species may reveal the origins of facial expressions inherited by humans. PMID:19704875

  4. The intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor (ISKD): first clinical results of a new intramedullary nail for lengthening of the femur and tibia.

    PubMed

    Cole, J D; Justin, D; Kasparis, T; DeVlught, D; Knobloch, C

    2001-12-01

    In 1986, a programme was initiated by the senior author to develop a reliable, mechanically activated, intramedullary lengthening device with a non-invasive means of measuring the progress of lengthening without X-ray. We report results of design, biomechanical testing, in vivo animal testing and clinical implantation of the first 20 intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractors (ISKDs) in adult patients with limb-length discrepancies. Twenty ISKD devices were implanted in 18 patients (14 males and four females). Lengthening was required due to infection (ten), trauma (six), polio (one) and burn (one). Six femurs and 14 tibias were lengthened. Mean patient age was 40 years (range, 18-65 years). No implant related infections, non-unions, malunions or joint contractures were observed. A design change was made following two initial hardware failures, after which there were no further breakages. Average lengthening was 49 mm (range, 29-110 mm). The average lengthening rate was 0.82 mm/day (range, 1.7-0.4 mm/day). Ability to work, walk and drive before, during and after treatment with the ISKD compared favourably with that of similar patients undergoing lengthening using the 'monorail' method in our practice. The ISKD appears to be a safe and cost-effective alternative to external fixators that reduces lifestyle disruption and complications during adult limb-lengthening procedures. PMID:11812486

  5. Rubber Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children's Museum of Houston

    2011-01-01

    Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

  6. Bone Density

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Not everyone who has low bone mass gets osteoporosis. But everyone with low bone mass is at higher risk for getting it. If you have low bone mass, there are things you can do to help slow down bone loss. These include eating foods rich in calcium and vitamin D and doing ...

  7. Whale bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (Go Card USA; )

    2007-12-21

    Vertebrates, or animals that have a skeletal structure for body support, leave bones behind after their death. These bones can be placed together to recreate the skeletal frame of that animal. Bones can be examined to determine what animal the bones came from.

  8. The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

  9. Ultrasound: assessment of the distraction osteogenesis wound in patients undergoing mandibular lengthening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J Troulis; Carolyn Coppe; Mary Jane O’Neill; Leonard B Kaban

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Common methods of assessment of the clinical distraction osteogenesis (DO) wound consist of serial physical examinations, plain radiographs, and computed tomography (CT). Ultrasound (US) is an inexpensive and efficient method of imaging that provides detailed assessment of bone formation across a defect. It has proved to be useful for the evaluation of long bone DO healing. The purpose of

  10. 3D Facial Performance Capture From A Single RGBD Camera

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yen-Lin

    2013-05-28

    Realistic facial animation remains one of the most challenging problems in computer graphics, where facial performance capture of real people has been a key component. The current state-of-the-art technologies used to capture facial performances...

  11. Brief Communications Superior Facial Expression, But Not Identity Recognition, in

    E-print Network

    Duchaine, Bradley C.

    Brief Communications Superior Facial Expression, But Not Identity Recognition, in Mirror expressionontothesamesensorimotorrepresentationsthatareactiveduringtheexperienceoftheperceivedemotion.Toinvestigatethis view, the present study examines facial expression and identity recognition-touch synesthetes outperformed nonsynesthetic partic- ipants on measures of facial expression recognition

  12. Recognition of Facial Attributes using Adaptive Sparse Representations

    E-print Network

    Bowyer, Kevin W.

    Recognition of Facial Attributes using Adaptive Sparse Representations of Random Patches Domingo recognition of facial attributes by proposing a new general approach called Adap- tive Sparse Representation representation, soft biometrics, gender recognition, race recognition, facial expression recognition. 1

  13. Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Gong, Shaogang

    Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition Caifeng Shan for facial expression recognition by boosting Local Binary Patterns (LBP) based classifiers. Low-cost LBP a classifier of improved classification per- formance. 1 Introduction Automatic facial expression recognition

  14. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250...Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture fixation appliance is a...

  15. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250...Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture fixation appliance is a...

  16. The neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    This article reviews the definition, etiology and evaluation, and medical and neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain. A neuropathic origin for facial pain should be considered when evaluating a patient for rhinologic surgery because of complaints of facial pain. Neuropathic facial pain is caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve in the prepontine cistern and is characterized by an intermittent prickling or stabbing component or a constant burning, searing pain. Medical treatment consists of anticonvulsant medication. Neurosurgical treatment may require microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:24680498

  17. Lengthening of a single-loop tibialis tendon graft construct after cyclic loading: a study using Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Conrad Kay; Hull, M L; Howell, S M

    2006-06-01

    Although single-loop tibialis tendon allografts have increased in popularity owing to their many advantages over patellar tendon and double-loop hamstring tendon autografts, some percentage of the patient population do not have clinically stable knees following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with single-loop tibialis tendon allografts. Therefore, it would be advantageous to determine the causes of increased anterior laxity which ultimately must be traced to lengthening of the graft construct. One objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) to determine the causes of lengthening of a single-loop graft construct subjected to cyclic loading. A second objective was to determine which cause(s) contributes most to an increase in length of this graft construct. Radio-opaque markers were inserted into ten grafts to measure the lengthening at the sites of the tibial and femoral fixations and between the sites of fixation. Each graft was passed through a tibial tunnel in a calf tibia, looped around a rigid cross-pin, and fixed to the tibia with a Washerloc fixation device. The grafts were cyclically loaded for 225,000 cycles from 20 to 170 N. Prior to and at intervals during the cyclic loading, simultaneous radiographs were taken. RSA was used to determine the three-dimensional coordinates of the markers from which the lengthening at the sites of fixation and between the sites of fixation was computed at each interval. The sites of the femoral and tibial fixations were the largest contributors to the increase in length of the graft construct, with maximum average values of 0.68 and 0.55 mm, respectively, after 225,000 cycles. The graft substance between the sites of fixation contributed least to lengthening of the graft, with a maximum average value of 0.31 mm. Ninety percent of the maximum average values occurred before 100,000 cycles of loading for the largest contributors. RSA proved to be a useful method for measuring lengthening due to all three causes. Lengthening of the graft construct at the sites of both fixations is sufficiently large that the combined contributions may manifest as a clinically important increase in anterior laxity. PMID:16706593

  18. Facial Action Unit Recognition by Exploiting Their Dynamic and Semantic Relationships

    E-print Network

    Facial Action Unit Recognition by Exploiting Their Dynamic and Semantic Relationships Yan Tong measurements yields significant improvement of AU recognition, especially for spontaneous facial expressions. Index Terms--Facial action unit recognition, facial expression analysis, Facial Action Coding System

  19. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  20. Manual stimulation of facial muscles improves functional recovery after hypoglossal–facial anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafting of the facial nerve in adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orlando Guntinas-Lichius; Gregor Hundeshagen; Thomas Paling; Michael Streppel; Maria Grosheva; Andrey Irintchev; Emmanouil Skouras; Athanasia Alvanou; Srebrina K. Angelova; Stefanie Kuerten; Nektarios Sinis; Sarah A. Dunlop; Doychin N. Angelov

    2007-01-01

    The facial nerve in humans is often prone to injuries requiring surgical intervention. In the best case, nerve reconstruction is achieved by a facial–facial anastomosis (FFA), i.e. suture of the proximal and distal stumps of the severed facial nerve. Although a method of choice, FFA rarely leads to a satisfactory functional recovery. We have recently devised and validated, in an

  1. Monobloc and facial bipartition distraction with internal devices.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S R; Boydston, W; Hudgins, R; Burstein, F D

    1999-05-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) permits gradual lengthening of the craniofacial skeleton. With the advent of new internal devices, monobloc (M) and facial bipartition (FB) DO are feasible. The rationale behind M and FB distraction is (1) gradual advancement of the M segment is not associated with a substantial retrofrontal dead space; (2) because 5 to 7 days elapse prior to distraction, the nasofrontal opening, in theory, is allowed to remucosalize; (3) gradual expansion of the soft tissues takes advantage of skin creep, potentially limiting relapse; (4) the procedure appears to be less invasive with decreased blood loss and operative time, enabling its use in infants; (5) overdistraction may eliminate or reduce the frequency of subsequent procedures; and (6) the procedure may be combined with FB and skull vault remodeling to provide excellent results in more complex craniofacial dysostosis problems. Five children underwent M advancement (N = 3) and M with FB (N = 2) at 9 months to 5 years of age to correct functional abnormalities such as corneal exposure, increased intracranial pressure, and apnea, as well as severe craniofacial disfigurement. Each patient underwent from 22 to 30 mm of distraction with the Modular Internal Distraction (MID) system, developed by the first author (SRC). There was one infection late in the series along the DO cable track. There were no cases of epidural abscess. In conclusion, MDO, with and without FB, appears to be a safe and effective technique for transcranial frontofacial advancement. The morbidity of the procedure appears to be less than that of conventional M advancement. PMID:10530235

  2. A retrospective analysis of gunshot injuries to the maxillo-facial region.

    PubMed

    Kassan, A H; Lalloo, R; Kariem, G

    2000-07-01

    This study analysed the prevalence, demography, soft- and hard-tissue injury patterns, management and complications of gunshot injuries to the maxillo-facial region in 301 patients treated at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. The number of patients presenting with maxillo-facial injuries caused by gunshot increased over the 15-year study period. The majority were caused by civilian type low-velocity hand-guns and were purposefully and intentionally inflicted by others. Males in their third decade of life and of low socioeconomic status were most often the victims. The wounding effects of these low-velocity injuries were characteristic--small rounded entrance wounds, causing fragmentation of teeth and comminution of the underlying bone, usually without any exit wounds. A comminuted displaced type of fracture pattern was most frequently observed. Special investigations included plain film radiographs with more sophisticated investigations being requested where indicated. Definitive surgical management was initiated by early soft-tissue debridement. Both the mandibular and maxillary fractures had more open than closed reductions. Bone continuity defects as a result of the initial injury were usually reconstructed secondarily using free autogenous bone grafts. All the patients received anti-tetanus toxoid on admission and the majority received antibiotic treatment. The most common complications were sepsis, ocular and neurological complications and limitation of mouth opening. The postoperative sepsis rate was high (19%). The wounding effects of these low-velocity missile injuries are devastating and pose a treatment challenge to the maxillo-facial surgeon. PMID:12608195

  3. Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

  4. The effect of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further recurrence of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Zhi; Yan, Cheng; Hui, Liu

    2015-05-01

    The objective is to study the role of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further episodes and promoting facial nerve recovery of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy. 24 cases with idiopathic recurrent facial palsy were involved in the study, among which 16 undergoing total facial nerve decompression were classified into the surgery group, and 8 who refused surgery and received prednisolone were included in the control group. The recurrence rate and facial nerve function recovery of the two groups were compared. The mean follow-up of surgery and control group was 4.9 years (range 3-7 years) and 5.0 years (range 3-8 years), respectively. Further attacks of facial palsy affected 1 of 16 cases (6.2 %) among surgery group in comparison to 4 of 8 cases (50 %) among control group, with statistical difference (p < 0.05). 15 of 16 cases (93.8 %) recovered to Grade I or Grade II in surgery group in contrast to 6 of 8 cases (75.0 %) in control group, without statistical difference (p > 0.05). In conclusion, total facial nerve decompression is effective to prevent further episodes of facial palsy in idiopathic recurrent facial palsy, but ineffective to promote facial nerve recovery. PMID:24493560

  5. The relationships between processing facial identity, emotional expression, facial speech, and gaze direction during development.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Sibylle M; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction or, alternatively, according to facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction while disregarding facial identity. Reaction times showed that children and adults were able to direct their attention selectively to facial identity despite variations of other kinds of face information, but when sorting according to facial speech and emotional expression, they were unable to ignore facial identity. In contrast, gaze direction could be processed independently of facial identity in all age groups. Apart from shorter reaction times and fewer classification errors, no substantial change in processing facial information was found to be correlated with age. We conclude that adult-like face processing routes are employed from 5 years of age onward. PMID:19892363

  6. Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

  7. Crowdsourcing Facial Responses to Online Videos

    E-print Network

    statistics from this corpus to those from the Cohn-Kanade+ (CK+) and MMI databases and show or compensation of participants. Index Terms--Crowdsourcing, facial expressions, nonverbal behavior, advertising and cognitive information [1]. In relation to advertising it as been shown that facial expressions exhibited

  8. Examining categorical perception of emotional facial expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenna L Cheal

    2010-01-01

    Individuals perceive emotional facial expressions in categories. Specifically, for basic emotional expressions, discrimination performance is better for pairs of stimuli that fall on either side of a perceptual category boundary than for those within a perceptual category. In this thesis I have examined categorical perception of emotional facial expressions from a number of different perspectives. In Chapter 2, I found

  9. Ophthalmic involvement in cranio-facial trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shantha Amrith; Seang Mei Saw; Thiam Chye Lim; Timothy Kam Yiu Lee

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: This is a retrospective descriptive case study which will look into the spectrum of ophthalmic involvement in cases with orbital and eye injuries after cranio-facial trauma and to analyse the visual and motility outcome. Material: One hundred and four cases with ophthalmic involvement after cranio-facial trauma that were referred to and seen in the eye department of a tertiary

  10. Classification Algorithms Research on Facial Expression Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jun

    In order to improve the reliability of facial expression recognition system, and reduce the chance of false positives caused by error, classification strategy is important in recognition process. In the process, the k-nearest neighbor algorithm is improved. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is excellent when it is applied to facial expression recognition system.

  11. Isolated facial palsy: a new lacunar syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Y Huang; G Broe

    1984-01-01

    Three cases of sudden isolated upper motor neuron facial palsy and two with associated pseudobulbar palsy have been seen. All were without significant limb weakness. Computed tomography demonstrated small deep infarcts in the internal capsular\\/corona radiata regions. Pure upper motor neuron facial palsy may be another lacunar syndrome, due to a lesion in the internal capsule or corona radiata.

  12. Comprehensive Database for Facial Expression Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeo Kanade; Ying-li Tian; Jeffrey F. Cohn

    2000-01-01

    Within the past decade, significant effort has occurred in developing methods of facial expression analysis. Because most investigators have used relatively limited data sets, the generalizability of these various methods remains unknown. We describe the problem space for facial expression analysis, which includes level of description, transitions among expression, eliciting conditions, reliability and validity of training and test data, individual

  13. Bone Crusher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students use a tension-compression machine (or an alternative bone-breaking setup) to see how different bones fracture differently and with different amounts of force, depending on their body locations. Teams determine bone mass and volume, calculate bone density, and predict fracture force. Then they each test a small animal bone (chicken, turkey, cat) to failure, examining the break to analyze the fracture type. Groups conduct research about biomedical challenges, materials and repair methods, and design repair treatment plans specific to their bones and fracture types, presenting their design recommendations to the class.

  14. Enhanced Facial Symmetry Assessment in Orthodontists.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Tate H; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff-orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness. PMID:24319342

  15. Enhanced Facial Symmetry Assessment in Orthodontists

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Tate H.; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff—orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness. PMID:24319342

  16. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  17. Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

  18. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  19. Robust facial expression recognition via compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Lei, Bicheng

    2012-01-01

    Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks. PMID:22737035

  20. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA Johnson Space Center

    2012-06-26

    In this activity about engineering, nutrition, and physical activity, learners design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increasing amounts of weight. This activity contains several engaging mini-activities and stresses the importance of the scientific method. Learners can complete this activity as part of NASA's Fit Explorer Challenge, in which learners train like astronauts, set goals, track their progress, and accumulate points to progress through Exploration Levels and earn certificates.

  1. Lengthening-contractions in isolated myocardium impact force development and worsen cardiac contractile function in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Delfín, Dawn A; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A; Janssen, Paul M L

    2011-02-01

    Lengthening-contractions exert eccentric stress on myofibers in normal myocardium. In congestive heart failure caused by a variety of diseases, the impact of lengthening-contractions of myocardium likely becomes more prevalent and severe. The present study introduces a method to investigate the role of stretching imposed by repetitive lengthening-contractions in myocardium under near-physiological conditions. By exerting various stretch-release ramps while the muscle is contracting, consecutive lengthening-contractions and their potential detrimental effect on cardiac function can be studied. We tested our model and hypothesis in age-matched (young and adult) mdx and wild-type mouse right ventricular trabeculae. These linear and ultrathin muscles possess all major cardiac cell types, and their contractile behavior very closely mimics that of the whole myocardium. In the first group of experiments, 10 lengthening-contractions at various magnitudes of stretch were performed in trabeculae from 10-wk-old mdx and wild-type mice. In the second group, 100 lengthening-contractions at various magnitudes were conducted in trabeculae from 10- and 20-wk-old mice. The peak isometric active developed tension (F(dev), in mN/mm(2)) and kinetic parameters time to peak tension (TTP, in ms) and time from peak tension to half-relaxation (RT50, in ms) were measured. Our results indicate lengthening-contractions significantly impact contractile behavior, and that dystrophin-deficient myocardium in mdx mice is significantly more susceptible to these damaging lengthening-contractions. The results indicate that lengthening-contractions in intact myocardium can be used in vitro to study this emerging contributor to cardiomyopathy. PMID:21127205

  2. Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2006-01-01

    Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facial dysmorphism and hypogonadism. Para-infectious rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication reported in an increasing number of patients. During general anaesthesia, patients with CCFDN require careful monitoring as they have an elevated risk of complications. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. Diagnosis is clinical and is supported by electrophysiological and brain imaging studies. The major differential diagnosis is Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. The definitive diagnosis is molecular, based on homozygosity for the CTDP1 mutation. CTDP1 maps to 18qter and encodes a protein phosphatase whose only known substrate is the phosphorylated serine residues of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, indicating that CCFDN affects basic cellular processes of gene expression and developmental regulation. Families benefit from genetic counselling and predictive testing. Management includes surgical treatment of the cataracts, and rehabilitation and corrective orthopaedic surgery for the peripheral neuropathy. Thus, the most disabling manifestations, though not curable, are manageable, and allow an acceptable quality of life and everyday living. Current data indicate that patients survive well into adulthood. PMID:16939648

  3. 1500 MHZ Passive SRF Cavity for Bunch Lengthening in the NSLS-II Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagisawa,T.; Rose, J.; Grimm, T.; Bogle, A.

    2009-05-04

    NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3 GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. Ion clearing gaps are required to suppress ion effects on the beam. The natural bunch length of 3mm is planned to be lengthened by means of a third harmonic cavity in order to increase the Touschek limited lifetime. After an extensive investigation of different cavity geometries, a passive, superconducting two-cell cavity has been selected for prototyping. The cavity is HOM damped with ferrite absorbers on the beam pipes. The two-cell cavity simplifies the tuner design, compared to having two independent cells. Tradeoffs between the damping of the higher order modes, thermal isolation associated with the large beam tubes, and overall cavity length are described. A copper prototype has been constructed, and measurements of fundamental and higher order modes will be compared to calculated values.

  4. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction12

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

    2013-01-01

    Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth. PMID:24339742

  5. Duration of xylogenesis in black spruce lengthened between 1950 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Boulouf Lugo, Jacqueline; Deslauriers, Annie; Rossi, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Reconstructions have identified the 20th century as being uniquely warm in the last 1000 years. Changes in the phenology of primary meristems converged toward increases in length of the growing season. Has the phenology of secondary meristem changed during the last century, and to what extent? Methods Timings of wood formation in black spruce, Picea mariana, were monitored for 9 years on a weekly timescale at four sites in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Models for assessing xylem phenology were defined and applied to reconstruct onset, ending and duration of xylogenesis between 1950 and 2010 using thermal thresholds on chronologies of maximum and minimum temperatures. Key Results All sites exhibited increasing trends of both annual and May–September temperatures, with the greatest changes observed at the higher latitudes. Phenological events in spring were more affected than those occurring in autumn, with cambial resumptions occurring 0·5–0·8 d decade?1 earlier. The duration of xylogenesis has lengthened significantly since 1950, although the models supplied wide ranges of variations, between 0·07 and 1·5 d decade?1, respectively. Conclusions The estimated changes in past cambial phenology demonstrated the marked effects of the recent increase in temperature on the phenological traits of secondary meristems. In the long run, the advancement of cambial activity could modify the short time window for growth of boreal species and dramatically affect the dynamics and productivity of trees in these temperature-limited ecosystems. PMID:23041380

  6. Most of the G1 period in hamster cells is eliminated by lengthening the S period.

    PubMed Central

    Stancel, G M; Prescott, D M; Liskay, R M

    1981-01-01

    Two Chinese hamster cell lines, G1+-1 and CHO, have been grown in the presence of low concentrations of hydroxyurea to determine how a slowing DNA synthesis (i.e., a lengthening of the S period) affects the length of the G1 period. Hydroxyurea concentrations of approximately 10 microM do not alter the generation times of these cell lines but do cause increases in S with corresponding decreases in G1. In both cell lines, 10 microM hydroxyurea reduces G1 to an absolute value of 1 hr, which represents decreases of 70% (G1+-1) and 60% (CHO) from control values. Higher concentrations of hydroxyurea increase the generation times and lengths of S for both cell lines but do not reduce G1 below the minimum value of 1 hr. These observations indicate that the majority of G1 is expendable and most of G1 therefore cannot contain specific events required for the initiation of DNA synthesis. This result supports the hypothesis that G1 is a portion of the cell growth cycle but not of the chromosome cycle. PMID:6947230

  7. Alternative lengthening of telomeres: recurrent cytogenetic aberrations and chromosome stability under extreme telomere dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

    2013-11-01

    Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth. PMID:24339742

  8. Bone tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest x- ... affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood phosphorus ...

  9. Bone Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The danger of disuse osteoporosis under weightless condition in space led to extensive research into measurements of bone stiffness and mass by the Biomedical Research Division of Ames and Stanford University. Through its Technology Utilization Program, NASA funded an advanced SOBSA, a microprocessor-controlled bone probe system. SOBSA determines bone stiffness by measuring responses to an electromagnetic shaker. With this information, a physician can identify bone disease, measure deterioration and prescribe necessary therapy. The system is now undergoing further testing.

  10. Bone Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    This is an activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about the two main components of bone - collagen and minerals (like calcium) - and how they each contribute to its flexibility and strength. Learners will submerge 3 chicken bones in water, bleach, and vinegar, wait 24 hours, then observe and test each bone. This resource includes information about how nanoscientists are trying to produce artificial analogs to these components and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Bone Regrowth.

  11. Coding, Analysis, Interpretation, and Recognition of Facial Expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irfan A. Essa; Alex P. Pentland

    1997-01-01

    We describe a computer vision system for observing facial motion by using an optimal estimation optical flow method coupled with geometric, physical and motion-based dynamic models describing the facial structure. Our method produces a reliable parametric representation of the face's independent muscle action groups, as well as an accurate estimate of facial motion. Previous efforts at analysis of facial expression

  12. A Facial Sketch Animation Generator for Mobile Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuehu Liu; Yuanqi Su; Yang Yang; Fengjuan Wang; Maojun Yuan; Zhen Ren

    2007-01-01

    The ability to analyze and reproduce specific-person facial expression is an important multimedia content service for mobile communication. In this paper, a novel three-layer facial animation model is presented for generating the personalized facial sketch animation, and the three layers are motion sequence layer, the reference shape layer, and the painting shape layer. Based on the model, a facial sketch

  13. A prototype for automatic recognition of spontaneous facial actions

    E-print Network

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart

    A prototype for automatic recognition of spontaneous facial actions M.S. Bartlett, G. Littlewort, B recognition of spon- taneous facial actions. Spontaneous facial expressions differ substan- tially from posed. Previous methods for automatic facial expression recognition assumed images were collected in controlled

  14. Data-Free Prior Model for Facial Action Unit Recognition

    E-print Network

    Data-Free Prior Model for Facial Action Unit Recognition Yongqiang Li, Jixu Chen, Yongping Zhao, and Qiang Ji Abstract--Facial action recognition is concerned with recognizing the local facial motions from units recognition, Bayesian networks, knowledge-driven model Ã? 1 INTRODUCTION FACIAL behavior analysis

  15. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... In some communities, a CT scan with special software can also be used to diagnose or monitor ... patient's bone mineral density. DXA machines feature special software that compute and display the bone density measurements ...

  16. Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

  17. Cerebral regulation of facial expressions of pain.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Miriam; Chen, Jen-I; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Rainville, Pierre

    2011-06-15

    Facial expression of affective states plays a key role in social interactions. Interestingly, however, individuals differ substantially in their level of expressiveness, ranging from high expressive to stoic individuals. Here, we investigate which brain mechanisms underlie the regulation of facial expressiveness to acute pain. Facial responses, pain ratings, and brain activity (BOLD-fMRI) evoked by noxious heat and warm (control) stimuli were recorded in 34 human volunteers with different degrees of facial expressiveness. Within-subject and between-subject variations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses were examined specifically in relation to facial responses. Pain expression was inversely related to frontostriatal activity, consistent with a role in downregulating facial displays. More detailed analyses of the peak activity in medial prefrontal cortex revealed negative BOLD responses to thermal stimuli, an effect generally associated with the default mode network. Given that this negative BOLD response was weaker in low expressive individuals during pain, it could reflect stronger engagement in, or reduced disengagement from, self-reflective processes in stoic individuals. The occurrence of facial expressions during pain was coupled with stronger primary motor activity in the face area and-interestingly-in areas involved in pain processing. In conclusion, these results indicate that spontaneous pain expression reflects activity within nociceptive pathways while stoicism involves the active suppression of expression, a manifestation of learned display rules governing emotional communication and possibly related to an increased self-reflective or introspective focus. PMID:21677157

  18. Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions

    PubMed Central

    Milutinovic, Jovana

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

  19. Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2014-01-01

    Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

  20. Epineurial repair of an iatrogenic facial nerve neurotmesis after total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in a dog with concurrent cranio-mandibular osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Ignacio; Espadas, Irene; Hammond, Gawain; Pratschke, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old male entire West Highland white terrier was referred to the Small Animal Hospital at the University of Glasgow for bilateral, chronic, medically unresponsive otitis media and externa. A history of cranio-mandibular osteopathy was also reported. Bilateral total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy was performed with the aid of a pneumatic burr. Extensive bone proliferation was present bilaterally originating from the caudal mandibular ramus and tympanic bulla which incorporated the horizontal canal on each side. The right facial nerve was identified leaving the stylomastoid foramen and running in a cranial direction through a 1.5 cm diameter cuff of bone surrounding the horizontal canal and external acoustic meatus. Despite careful dissection, a facial nerve neurotmesis ensued which required microsurgical epineurial repair. Neurologic examination performed 12 h post-operatively revealed abnormalities consistent with right facial nerve paralysis. At 3 months, the facial nerve function was found to have improved significantly and was assessed to be normal four months after surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this clinical communication described the first reported clinical case where unilateral facial nerve paralysis resulting from iatrogenic facial nerve neurotmesis was successfully treated by microsurgical epineurial repair. PMID:25686402

  1. A model of a patient-derived IDH1 mutant anaplastic astrocytoma with alternative lengthening of telomeres.

    PubMed

    Borodovsky, Alexandra; Meeker, Alan K; Kirkness, Ewen F; Zhao, Qi; Eberhart, Charles G; Gallia, Gary L; Riggins, Gregory J

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) have been found in the vast majority of low grade and progressive infiltrating gliomas and are characterized by the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate from ?-ketoglutarate. Recent investigations of malignant gliomas have identified additional genetic and chromosomal abnormalities which cluster with IDH1 mutations into two distinct subgroups. The astrocytic subgroup was found to have frequent mutations in ATRX, TP53 and displays alternative lengthening of telomeres. The second subgroup with oligodendrocytic morphology has frequent mutations in CIC or FUBP1, and is linked to co-deletion of the 1p/19q arms. These mutations reflect the development of two distinct molecular pathways representing the majority of IDH1 mutant gliomas. Unfortunately, due to the scarcity of endogenously derived IDH1 mutant models, there is a lack of accurate models to study mechanism and develop new therapy. Here we report the generation of an endogenous IDH1 anaplastic astrocytoma in vivo model with concurrent mutations in TP53, CDKN2A and ATRX. The model has a similar phenotype and histopathology as the original patient tumor, expresses the IDH1 (R132H) mutant protein and exhibits an alternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype. The JHH-273 model is characteristic of anaplastic astrocytoma and represents a valuable tool for investigating the pathogenesis of this distinct molecular subset of gliomas and for preclinical testing of compounds targeting IDH1 mutations or alternative lengthening of telomeres. PMID:25471051

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 22, NO. 7, JULY 2013 2559 Simultaneous Facial Feature Tracking and Facial

    E-print Network

    Tracking and Facial Expression Recognition Yongqiang Li, Shangfei Wang, Member, IEEE, Yongping Zhao, and Qiang Ji, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images--Bayesian network, expression recognition, facial action unit recognition, facial feature tracking, simultaneous

  3. Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Disbro, M.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Osborn, A.G.

    1985-06-01

    Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction may have a clinically apparent or occult cause. The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 36 patients with peripheral facial nerve dysfunction to obtain information on the location of the suspected lesion and the number, sequence, and type of radiographic evaluations performed. Inadequate clinical evaluations before computed tomography (CT) was done and unnecessary CT examinations were also noted. They have suggested a practical clinical and radiographic scheme to evaluate progressive peripheral facial dysfunction with no apparent cause. If this scheme is applied, unnecessary radiologic tests and delays in diagnosis and treatment may be avoided.

  4. [Summery and recommendations for acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems. PMID:22256658

  5. Facial Sketch Rendering and Animation for Fun Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanqi Su; Yuehu Liu; Yunfeng Zhu; Zhen Ren

    2006-01-01

    The ability to analyze a human’s facial expressions and reproduce them is important for fun communication. In this paper,\\u000a a novel model is presented for generating the facial sketch of pen-and-ink style and reproducing facial expressions in facial\\u000a sketch animation. Facial sketch rendering is implemented by combing the painting path and line template, in which personalized\\u000a painting path ensures the

  6. Recognition of facial expressions is influenced by emotional scene gist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruthger Righart; Beatrice de Gelder

    2008-01-01

    Recognition of facial expressions has traditionally been investigated by presenting facial expressions without any context\\u000a information. However, we rarely encounter an isolated facial expression; usually, we perceive a persons facial reaction as\\u000a part of the surrounding context. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether emotional scenes influence the\\u000a explicit recognition of facial expressions. In three experiments, participants

  7. Facial behaviometrics: The case of facial deformation in spontaneous smile\\/laughter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanos Zafeiriou; Maja Pantic

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of dense facial deformation in spontaneous smile\\/laughter as a biometric signature. The facial deformation is calculated between a neutral image (as neutral we define the least expressive image of the smile\\/laughter episode) and the apex of spontaneous smile\\/laughter (as apex we define the frame of the maximum facial change\\/deformation) and its complex representation

  8. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  9. Effect of pulsed magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve on cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Borsody, Mark K; Yamada, Chisa; Bielawski, Dawn; Heaton, Tamara; Lyeth, Bruce; Garcia, Andrea; Castro Prado, Fernando; Azpiroz, Joaquín; Sacristan, Emilio

    2013-08-28

    In these experiments we define an effective means of pulsed magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve for the purpose of increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF). In normal anesthetized dog and sheep, a focal magnetic field was directed toward the facial nerve within the temporal bone by placing a 6.5 cm figure-8 stimulation coil over the ear. In an initial set of experiments, CBF was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the cerebral vasculature was visualized by angiography. The effect of facial nerve stimulation was found to be dependent on stimulation power, frequency, and the precise positioning of the stimulation coil. Furthermore, an increase in CBF was not observed after direct electrical stimulation in the middle ear space, indicating that non-specific stimulation of the tympanic plexus, an intervening neural structure with vasoactive effects, was not responsible for the increase in CBF after pulsed magnetic stimulation. Subsequent experiments using perfusion MRI demonstrated reproducible increases in CBF throughout the forebrain that manifested bilaterally, albeit with an ipsilateral predominance. These experiments support the development of a non-invasive pulsed magnetic facial nerve stimulator that will increase CBF as a treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:23850647

  10. Similar increases in muscle size and strength in young men after training with maximal shortening or lengthening contractions when matched for total work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Moore; Mark Young; Stuart M. Phillips

    Training exclusively with eccentric (lengthening) contractions can result in greater muscular adaptations than training with\\u000a concentric (shortening) contractions. We aimed to determine whether training-induced increases in muscle size and strength\\u000a differed between muscles performing maximal lengthening (LC) or maximal shortening (SC) contractions when total external work\\u000a is equivalent. Nine healthy young males completed a 9-week isokinetic (0.79 rad\\/s) resistance training program

  11. Multidisciplinary treatment of peripheral osteoma arising from mandibular condyle in patient presenting with facial asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Kunihiko; Niizuma-Kosaka, Fumiko; Nishii, Yasushi; Sueishi, Kenji; Yamakura, Daiki; Ikumoto, Hideyuki; Ohata, Hitoshi; Inoue, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    While osteomas often occur in the orofacial area, it is relatively rare for one to occur in the temporomandibular joint area. Here, we report a patient who underwent multidisciplinary treatment including high condylectomy for peripheral osteoma arising in the left mandibular condyle. The patient was a 46-year-old woman with the chief complaint of facial asymmetry. Cephalometric analysis revealed skeletal anterior crossbite due to anterior deviation of the mandible, with chin deviation of 10 mm to the right. A computed tomography scan revealed bone hyperplasia in the mesiodistal and inner areas of the left mandibular condyle, which exhibited outward anterior displacement. Bone scintigraphy showed a circular area of strong radioisotope accumulation with indistinct boundaries, consistent with the lesion in the left mandibular condyle. The above findings led to a diagnosis of skeletal mandibular prognathism with facial asymmetry due to peripheral osteoma originating in the left mandibular condyle. After orthodontic treatment and surgical resection of the tumor and mandibular condyle, preservation and prosthetic treatment were undertaken. A well-balanced facial appearance and good occlusion were achieved. PMID:24717929

  12. Crowdsourced data collection of facial responses

    E-print Network

    el Kaliouby, Rana

    In the past, collecting data to train facial expression and affect recognition systems has been time consuming and often led to data that do not include spontaneous expressions. We present the first crowdsourced data ...

  13. Greater perceptual sensitivity to happy facial expression.

    PubMed

    Maher, Stephen; Ekstrom, Tor; Chen, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Perception of subtle facial expressions is essential for social functioning; yet it is unclear if human perceptual sensitivities differ in detecting varying types of facial emotions. Evidence diverges as to whether salient negative versus positive emotions (such as sadness versus happiness) are preferentially processed. Here, we measured perceptual thresholds for the detection of four types of emotion in faces--happiness, fear, anger, and sadness--using psychophysical methods. We also evaluated the association of the perceptual performances with facial morphological changes between neutral and respective emotion types. Human observers were highly sensitive to happiness compared with the other emotional expressions. Further, this heightened perceptual sensitivity to happy expressions can be attributed largely to the emotion-induced morphological change of a particular facial feature (end-lip raise). PMID:25669052

  14. Pathologies o Bone Fracture and Bone Repair

    E-print Network

    Gefen, Amit

    1 Bone Pathologies o Bone Fracture and Bone Repair o Degenerative Changes Associated with Aging o (Bone Cancer) o Paget's Disease o Overuse Damage (Stress Fractures) o Considerations for Bioengineers TOPICS 1 Bone Fracture and Bone Repair A radiograph of a torsional bone fracture from a skiing accident

  15. Are facial injuries caused by stumbling different from other kinds of fall accidents?

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mohammad; Saleh, Majid; Seyed Hoseini, Seyed Rohallah

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate and compare the epidemiology and pattern of maxillofacial injuries caused by stumbling and other kinds of falls. We evaluated all patients with facial injuries due to stumbling or falls who presented to Besat Hospital in Hamedan, Iran, during the 2.5-year study period and analyzed the acquired data. Of 2990 patients with facial injuries who were referred to Besat Hospital during the study period, 733 (24.5%) were injured by stumbling, and 246 (8.2%) were injured by falls. The male-to-female ratios in the stumbling and falls groups were 2:1 and 1.86:1, respectively. Although the rate of soft tissue injuries was the same in both groups, the rate of bone fractures was higher in fall accidents (1.6:1). In stumbling accidents, the most common type of bone fracture was nasal fracture, followed by dentoalveolar, mandibular, and zygomatic fractures. In falls, nasal fractures were the most common type of bone fracture, followed by zygomatic, mandibular, and dentoalveolar fractures. All of the Le Fort I, II, and III fractures, nasal-orbital-ethmoid, and frontal sinus injuries occurred in fall accidents. The rate of associated injuries in falls was higher than stumbling accidents. We concluded that the incidence, age distribution, rate, and pattern of bone fractures and the frequency and type of associated injuries in stumbling accidents were significantly different from that of fall accidents. For a good program planning to prevent and manage facial injuries, we recommend separate evaluation of stumbling and fall accidents. PMID:22134289

  16. Cochlear implant and delayed facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shawn Thadathil; Vishwakarma, Rajesh; Ramani, Mukesh Kumar; Aurora, Rupa

    2009-12-01

    Delayed facial nerve palsy following cochlear implant surgery is less documented though it poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Apart from the functional, aesthetic and emotional concerns, it can raise important medico legal issues. The objectives of this study were: to report a case of delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery in a patient who had positive viral antibody markers pre operatively; and to review the literature on delayed onset facial paralysis following viral reactivation and its relation to cochlear implant surgery. An extensive literature review was done using internet and medical search engines and library facilities. Important articles on the topic were identified and summarised. Data on delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery were collected, constructed in a coherent way and details discussed. Postulated mechanisms of delayed facial palsy include neural oedema, vasospasm and viral reactivation. Of these, reactivation of previous herpes simplex virus infection has special significance, as many of these patients are positive for viral antibody markers. Manipulation of sensory branches of the facial nerve and chorda tympani can be a mechanism in such cases. Correlation of clinical presentation and pre operative positive viral antibody markers with positive polymerase chain reaction can be strongly suggestive of viral reactivation. It is concluded that patients with positive viral antibody markers are more susceptible to facial palsy from viral reactivation. Corticosteroids, antiviral agents and physiotherapy can be useful in producing a quicker and complete recovery. An experienced cochlear implant surgery team and pre operative radiological evaluations are mandatory to decrease the chances of direct facial nerve trauma. Proper irrigation lowers the risk of neural oedema. PMID:19194876

  17. Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in remote locations. Remote users could perform real-time searches where network connectivity is not available. As images are enrolled at the remote locations, periodic database synchronization is necessary.

  18. Prepatterned, Sculpted Free Flaps for Facial Burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliott H. Rose

    \\u000a The demands of the twenty-first century dictate aesthetic excellence as well as functional correction in complex burn reconstructions.\\u000a The severely disfigured burned face is marred by corrugated external scarring, distortion of facial features, and restricted\\u000a facial movement. Z-plasties, local flaps, and full thickness skin grafts are useful in addressing more limited functional\\u000a needs of ectropion release, nasal stenosis, perioral contractures,

  19. Bilateral Candida albicans dacryocystitis with facial cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Codère, F; Anderson, R L

    1982-08-01

    Candida albicans rarely infects the lacrimal drainage system. This paper describes a case of bilateral C. albicans dacryocystitis following midfacial trauma. The patient presented with recurrent facial cellulitis and a fistula opening onto the cheek. The condition was controlled only after bilateral dacryocystorhinostomy along with amphotericin B therapy. This appears to be the first reported case in which the lacrimal sacs acted as a reservoir for microorganisms causing recurrent facial cellulitis. PMID:7127203

  20. Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tzifi, Flora; Pons, Roser; Athanassaki, Corina; Poulou, Myrto; Kanavakis, Emmanuel

    2011-09-01

    Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy syndrome is a delineated genetic disease exclusively manifested in the Roma population. The pattern of inheritance is autosomal recessive, and a causative mutation is evident in the CTDP1 gene. Affected patients display congenital cataracts, microcornea, peripheral neuropathy, mild facial dysmorphism, hypogonadism, and psychomotor delay. We present the second case of this syndrome in a Greek Roma family, diagnosed in early infancy, along with the prenatal diagnosis in a subsequent pregnancy. PMID:21824574

  1. The Nonrandom Distribution of Facial Hemangiomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milton Waner; Paula E. North; Katherine A. Scherer; Ilona J. Frieden; Alexandra Waner

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To map sites of occurrence of facial infan- tile hemangiomas and correlate these with pattern of tu- mor growth, clinical complications, and proximity to structural and developmental landmarks. Design: A retrospective medical record review of 205 patients diagnosed with facial infantile hemangioma. Setting:ArkansasChildren'sHospital,LittleRock,a250- bedteachinghospitalaffiliatedwiththeUniversityofAr- kansas for Medical Sciences. Patients: Based on their clinical photographs, 232 of the hemangiomas were

  2. Facial allograft transplantation, personal identity and subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Swindell, J S

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation is provided in this paper. The identity issues involved in organ transplantation in general, under both theoretical accounts of personal identity and subjective accounts provided by organ recipients, are examined. It is argued that the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation are similar to those involved in organ transplantation in general, but much stronger because the face is so closely linked with personal identity. Recipients of facial allograft transplantation have the potential to feel that their identity is a mix between their own and the donor's, and the donor's family is potentially likely to feel that their loved one “lives on”. It is also argued that facial allograft transplantation allows the recipients to regain an identity, because they can now be seen in the social world. Moreover, they may regain expressivity, allowing for them to be seen even more by others, and to regain an identity to an even greater extent. Informing both recipients and donors about the role that identity plays in facial allograft transplantation could enhance the consent process for facial allograft transplantation and donation. PMID:17664301

  3. Classifying chimpanzee facial expressions using muscle action.

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A; Waller, Bridget M; Vick, Sarah J; Bard, Kim A

    2007-02-01

    The Chimpanzee Facial Action Coding System (ChimpFACS) is an objective, standardized observational tool for measuring facial movement in chimpanzees based on the well-known human Facial Action Coding System (FACS; P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978). This tool enables direct structural comparisons of facial expressions between humans and chimpanzees in terms of their common underlying musculature. Here the authors provide data on the first application of the ChimpFACS to validate existing categories of chimpanzee facial expressions using discriminant functions analyses. The ChimpFACS validated most existing expression categories (6 of 9) and, where the predicted group memberships were poor, the authors discuss potential problems with ChimpFACS and/or existing categorizations. The authors also report the prototypical movement configurations associated with these 6 expression categories. For all expressions, unique combinations of muscle movements were identified, and these are illustrated as peak intensity prototypical expression configurations. Finally, the authors suggest a potential homology between these prototypical chimpanzee expressions and human expressions based on structural similarities. These results contribute to our understanding of the evolution of emotional communication by suggesting several structural homologies between the facial expressions of chimpanzees and humans and facilitating future research. PMID:17352572

  4. Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.

    PubMed

    Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation. PMID:22575677

  5. Bendy Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity (on pages 19-24 of PDF), learners soak chicken bones or eggshells in vinegar for several days. Learners observe what happens to the material as the acid dissolves the calcium that provides the strength to the material. The lesson includes information about calcium, calcium-rich foods that keep bones strong, and an explanation of how the acidic vinegar solution causes the bone or eggshell to become weak.

  6. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and J. H. J. Schaminée (2010), A new European Landscape Classification (LANMAP): A transparent, flexible and user-oriented methodology to distinguish landscapes, Ecological Indicators, 10(1), 87-103. Stöckli, R., and P. L. Vidale (2004), European plant phenology and climate as seen in a 20-year AVHRR land-surface parameter dataset, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25(17), 3303-3330. White, M. A., et al. (2009), Intercomparison, interpretation, and assessment of spring phenology in North America estimated from remote sensing for 1982-2006, Global Change Biology, 15(10), 2335-2359.

  7. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Gerd F.; Karamyan, Inna; Klingner, Carsten M.; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been established systematically to detect structural muscular changes after facial nerve lesion. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate quantitative assessment of MRI muscle volume data for facial muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with facial palsy were recruited. Using manual or semiautomatic segmentation of 3T MRI, volume measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control. Results: All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex or age effects were not seen (all P > 0.05). There was no facial asymmetry with exception of the zygomaticus major (larger on the left side; P = 0.012). The exploratory examination of 5 patients revealed considerably smaller muscle volumes on the palsy side 2 months after facial injury. One patient with chronic palsy showed substantial muscle volume decrease, which also occurred in another patient with incomplete chronic palsy restricted to the involved facial area. Facial nerve reconstruction led to mixed results of decreased but also increased muscle volumes on the palsy side compared with the healthy side. Conclusions: First systematic quantitative MRI volume measures of 5 different clinical presentations of facial paralysis are provided. PMID:25289366

  8. Facial Pain Followed by Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    GV, Sowmya; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection. The treatment included extraction of the associated tooth followed by endodontic treatment of the neighboring tooth which resulted in recovery of facial nerve plasy. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making any diagnosis. It is essential to rule out other causes of facial paralysis before making the definitive diagnosis, which implies the intervention. The authors hereby, report a case of 32-year-old male patient who developed unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection with a good prognosis after appropriate treatment. PMID:25302280

  9. The use of facial motion and facial form during the processing of identity

    E-print Network

    Jegelka, Stefanie

    research has shown that facial motion can carry information about age, gender, emotion and, at least? Previous research has shown that facial motion can convey information about gender (Berry, 1991; Hill signature independent of other sources of information. A twisted smile for example or a characteristic head

  10. Recordings from the facial nucleus in the rat: signs of abnormal facial muscle response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Møller; C. N. Sen

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of results of electrophysiological studies in patients undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) operations to relieve hemifacial spasm (HFS), we have postulated that the abnormal muscle response characteristically found in patients with HFS is the result of irritation of the facial nerve by the blood vessel that is compressing the facial nerve near its exit from the brainstem in

  11. Edema facial en síndrome de vena cava superior Facial Edema in Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Yuste Chaves; Juan Carlos Santos Durán; Juan Sánchez Estella

    Summary We report two cases of superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The first symptom was facial edema. The etiology of the first case was a thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma. The second case was caused by a central endovenous catheter for chemoterapy, inducing trombosis in the rigth jugular vein. We reviewed the etiology of facial edema including the SVCS. We emphasize the

  12. The Neuropsychology of Facial Identity and Facial Expression in Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Oswald, Donald P.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Ellis, Cynthia R.; Sage, Monica; Ferris, Jennifer R.

    2005-01-01

    We indirectly determined how children with mental retardation analyze facial identity and facial expression, and if these analyses of identity and expression were controlled by independent cognitive processes. In a reaction time study, 20 children with mild mental retardation were required to determine if simultaneously presented photographs of…

  13. Soccer-related facial fractures: postoperative management with facial protective shields.

    PubMed

    Procacci, Pasquale; Ferrari, Francesca; Bettini, Giordana; Bissolotti, Guido; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Nocini, Pier Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Facial fractures are one of the most common orofacial injury sustained during participation in sporting events.The frequency of maxillofacial lesions varies according to the popularity that each sport has in a particular country. Soccer is the most popular sport in Italy, and it is responsible for a large number of facial traumas.Traumas and fractures in soccer mainly involve the zygomatic and nasal regions and are especially caused by direct contact that takes place mainly when the ball is played with the forehead. In particular, elbow-head and head-head impacts are the most frequent dangerous contacts.Soccer is not a violent sport, and the use of protective helmets is not allowed because it could be dangerous especially when players play the ball with the head. The use of protective facial shields are exclusively permitted to preserve players who underwent surgery for facial fractures.The use of a facial protection mask after a facial fracture treatment has already been reported. This article describes a clinical experience of management of 4 soccer-related facial fractures by means of fabrication of individual facial protective shields. PMID:19164981

  14. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    E-print Network

    Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  15. Structural Dynamics in Metal Tris-hydroxyquinolines: Interconversion of Meridianal and Facial Alq3 Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Kim; Sapochak, Linda; Burrows, Paul; Rodovsky, Deanna; Marmolejo, Theresa

    2004-03-01

    While previous work investigating the charge transport properties of Alq3 has indicated that the meridianal (mer) conformation of Alq3 is predominant species, recent work suggesting identification of a facial (fac) form raises again the question of heterogeneity. Electronic structure computations from our group have noted that the energy difference(in parenthesis) between the mer and fac conformations is highly sensitive to basis set description (8.6 kcal/mol//3-21g*/SCF; 6.9 kcal/mol//6-31g*/SCF), electron correlation (6.0 kcal/mol//3-21g*/MP2; 4.7 kcal/mol//6-31g*/MP2), and solvent effects (4.4 kcal/mol/3-21g*/SCF/DMSO). Given these small energy differences, we have conducted a series of Hartree-Fock and first principles electronic structure computations on the interconversion of these structural forms, and will report on the structural and energetic aspects of the transformation. The likely reaction path involves lengthening of the Al-N bond to the point where a pentacoordinate intermediate or transition state would be formed, followed by flipping of the ligand through rotation around the Al-O bond. Following Schmidbauer's earlier work, we note that transformation involving only one ligand will actually lead to a facial isomer. Preliminary characterization of this transition state suggests that the activation energy is approximately 20-25 kcal/mol above the mer conformation. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences Division.

  16. Restorative interventions for HIV facial lipoatrophy.

    PubMed

    Carey, Dianne; Liew, Steven; Emery, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Facial lipoatrophy is a common and distressing manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy. The changes in facial appearance can reduce quality of life, self esteem and antiretroviral adherence. Apart from the modest benefits of thymidine-based nucleoside analog cessation, there are no proven therapies for lipoatrophy. Management of established fat loss can be challenging as restoration of lost fat mass is extremely gradual. Plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures can restore lost facial volume. Both biodegradable and permanent filling agents have been investigated for HIV facial lipoatrophy. Biodegradable products offer a good safety profile, but maintenance of aesthetic benefits necessitates reinjection over time. Although permanent products offer longevity and lower treatment costs, adverse events should they occur can be serious and of long duration. Despite the substantial increase in options for soft-tissue augmentation in recent years, well-performed clinical studies in HIV-infected adults with facial lipoatrophy are scarce, and long-term clinical safety data are lacking. This review will summarize available efficacy and safety data of the biodegradable and permanent agents utilized for soft-tissue augmentation in this population. Difficulties associated with comparing treatment efficacy data, assessment of facial lipoatrophy presence and severity, and measurement of facial fat will be discussed. Available data indicate that in HIV-infected adults, most filling agents have short-term clinically safety, and can provide aesthetic improvement and improve well-being, social functioning and quality of life. However, well-designed studies with objectively assessed endpoints are needed to elucidate optimal treatments for this distressing condition. PMID:18615122

  17. Blink detection robust to various facial poses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Oh; Lee, Eui Chul; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2010-11-30

    Applications based on eye-blink detection have increased, as a result of which it is essential for eye-blink detection to be robust and non-intrusive irrespective of the changes in the user's facial pose. However, most previous studies on camera-based blink detection have the disadvantage that their performances were affected by the facial pose. They also focused on blink detection using only frontal facial images. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed a new method for blink detection, which maintains its accuracy despite changes in the facial pose of the subject. This research is novel in the following four ways. First, the face and eye regions are detected by using both the AdaBoost face detector and a Lucas-Kanade-Tomasi (LKT)-based method, in order to achieve robustness to facial pose. Secondly, the determination of the state of the eye (being open or closed), needed for blink detection, is based on two features: the ratio of height to width of the eye region in a still image, and the cumulative difference of the number of black pixels of the eye region using an adaptive threshold in successive images. These two features are robustly extracted irrespective of the lighting variations by using illumination normalization. Thirdly, the accuracy of determining the eye state - open or closed - is increased by combining the above two features on the basis of the support vector machine (SVM). Finally, the SVM classifier for determining the eye state is adaptively selected according to the facial rotation. Experimental results using various databases showed that the blink detection by the proposed method is robust to various facial poses. PMID:20826183

  18. Vangl2-regulated polarisation of second heart field-derived cells is required for outflow tract lengthening during cardiac development.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, Simon A; Sharma, Vipul; Rhee, Hong Jun; Eley, Lorraine; Phillips, Helen M; Rigby, Hannah F; Dean, Charlotte; Chaudhry, Bill; Henderson, Deborah J

    2014-12-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the mechanism by which cells orient themselves in the plane of an epithelium or during directed cell migration, and is regulated by a highly conserved signalling pathway. Mutations in the PCP gene Vangl2, as well as in other key components of the pathway, cause a spectrum of cardiac outflow tract defects. However, it is unclear why cells within the mesodermal heart tissue require PCP signalling. Using a new conditionally floxed allele we show that Vangl2 is required solely within the second heart field (SHF) to direct normal outflow tract lengthening, a process that is required for septation and normal alignment of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the ventricular chambers. Analysis of a range of markers of polarised epithelial tissues showed that in the normal heart, undifferentiated SHF cells move from the dorsal pericardial wall into the distal outflow tract where they acquire an epithelial phenotype, before moving proximally where they differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Thus there is a transition zone in the distal outflow tract where SHF cells become more polarised, turn off progenitor markers and start to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. Membrane-bound Vangl2 marks the proximal extent of this transition zone and in the absence of Vangl2, the SHF-derived cells are abnormally polarised and disorganised. The consequent thickening, rather than lengthening, of the outflow wall leads to a shortened outflow tract. Premature down regulation of the SHF-progenitor marker Isl1 in the mutants, and accompanied premature differentiation to cardiomyocytes, suggests that the organisation of the cells within the transition zone is important for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis. PMID:25521757

  19. PT-ACRAMTU, a platinum–acridine anticancer agent, lengthens and aggregates, but does not stiffen or soften DNA

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Samrat; Snyder, Matthew J.; Rosile, David; Binz, Kristen L.; Roll, Eric H.; Suryadi, Jimmy; Bierbach, Ulrich; Guthold, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the dose-dependent change in conformational and mechanical properties of DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU ([PtCl(en)(ACRAMTU-S)](NO3)2, (en = ethane-1,2-diamine, ACRAMTU = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea. PT-ACRAMTU is the parent drug of a family of nonclassical platinum-based agents that show potent activity in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Its acridine moiety intercalates between DNA bases, while the platinum group forms monoadducts with DNA bases. AFM images show that PT-ACRAMTU causes some DNA looping and aggregation at drug-to-base pair ratio (rb) of 0.1 and higher. Very significant lengthening of the DNA was observed with increasing doses of PT-ACRAMTU, and reached saturation at an rb of 0.15. At rb of 0.1, lengthening was 0.6 nm per drug molecule, which is more than one fully stretched base pair stack can accommodate, indicating that ACRAMTU also disturbs the stacking of neighboring base pair stacks. Analysis of the AFM images based on the worm-like chain (WLC) model showed that PT-ACRAMTU did not change the flexibility of (non-aggregated) DNA, despite the extreme lengthening. The persistence length of untreated DNA and DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU was in the range of 49 to 65 nm. Potential consequences of the perturbations caused by this agent for the recognition and processing of the DNA adducts it forms are discussed. PMID:23636685

  20. Vangl2-Regulated Polarisation of Second Heart Field-Derived Cells Is Required for Outflow Tract Lengthening during Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hong Jun; Eley, Lorraine; Phillips, Helen M.; Rigby, Hannah F.; Dean, Charlotte; Chaudhry, Bill; Henderson, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the mechanism by which cells orient themselves in the plane of an epithelium or during directed cell migration, and is regulated by a highly conserved signalling pathway. Mutations in the PCP gene Vangl2, as well as in other key components of the pathway, cause a spectrum of cardiac outflow tract defects. However, it is unclear why cells within the mesodermal heart tissue require PCP signalling. Using a new conditionally floxed allele we show that Vangl2 is required solely within the second heart field (SHF) to direct normal outflow tract lengthening, a process that is required for septation and normal alignment of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the ventricular chambers. Analysis of a range of markers of polarised epithelial tissues showed that in the normal heart, undifferentiated SHF cells move from the dorsal pericardial wall into the distal outflow tract where they acquire an epithelial phenotype, before moving proximally where they differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Thus there is a transition zone in the distal outflow tract where SHF cells become more polarised, turn off progenitor markers and start to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. Membrane-bound Vangl2 marks the proximal extent of this transition zone and in the absence of Vangl2, the SHF-derived cells are abnormally polarised and disorganised. The consequent thickening, rather than lengthening, of the outflow wall leads to a shortened outflow tract. Premature down regulation of the SHF-progenitor marker Isl1 in the mutants, and accompanied premature differentiation to cardiomyocytes, suggests that the organisation of the cells within the transition zone is important for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis. PMID:25521757

  1. The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Wallraven, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions. PMID:22438875

  2. Bear Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-03-08

    An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.

  3. Talking Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  4. Talking Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jaclyn Johnson

    2002-09-01

    Bones reveal many facts about the animals from which they come, making them a great hands-on educational tool. For several years, the Saint Louis Zoo has offered a summer course on bones, where children in grades three to five learn how animals move, what

  5. Choroidal melanoma metastasizing to maxillofacial bones

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manoj; Prakash, Om; Mathews, Anitha; Nayak, Nileena; Ramachandran, Krishnankutty

    2007-01-01

    Background Melanomas are malignant neoplasm of melanocytic origin, commonly seen on skin and various mucous membranes. Melanomas are the commonest intraocular malignant tumour in the adults. Case presentation A 50-year-old female presented with complains of painless progressive swelling in right cheek region of two months duration. Examination revealed a 6 × 4 cm bony hard swelling in right zygomatic region near and below lateral canthus of right eye with loss of vision. Investigations revealed it to be a choroidal melanoma metastatising to the zygomatic bone. Patient was successfully treated by surgery. Conclusion Choroidal melanoma, which commonly metastasizes to liver and lungs, never involves the lymph nodes and metastasis to facial bones is rare. Here we report a case of choroidal melanoma metastasizing to maxillofacial bones. PMID:17346341

  6. Impact of Orthodontic Decompensation on Bone Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Nary Filho, Hugo; Borgo, Evandro José; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    There has always been concern in determining the relationship between orthodontic tooth movement and the consequent biological costs to the periodontium and tooth root. The possibility of evaluating the tooth and bone morphology by CBCT allows more accurate analysis of qualitative and quantitative aspects of these processes. This paper presents a case report of a 20-year-old male patient with Class III malocclusion and hyperdivergent facial pattern, who was surgically treated. A significant amount of labial movement of mandibular incisors was performed during orthodontic treatment before surgery. CBCT was used for evaluation of buccal and lingual bone plates before and after tooth decompensation. The changes in the bone insertion level of maxillary and mandibular incisors in the present case encourage a reflection on the treatment protocol in individuals with dentoskeletal discrepancies. PMID:25436157

  7. Contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Marian, Diane E; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-01-01

    Participants viewed dynamic facial expressions that moved from a neutral expression to varying degrees of angry, happy, or sad or from these emotionally expressive faces to neutral.A contrast effect was observed for expressions that moved to a neutral state. That is, a neutral expression that began as angry was rated as having a mildly positive expression, whereas the same neutral expression was rated as negatively valenced when it began with a smile. In Experiment 2, static expressions presented sequentially elicited contrast effects, but they were weaker than those following dynamic expressions. Experiment 3 assessed a broad range of facial movements across varying degrees of angry and happy expressions. We observed momentum effects for movements that ended at mildly expressive points (25% and 50% expressive). For such movements, affect ratings were higher, as if the perceived expression moved beyond their endpoint. Experiment 4 assessed sad facial expressions and found both contrast and momentum effects for dynamic expressions to and from sad faces. These findings demonstrate new and potent contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions and highlight the importance of facial movements in social-emotional communication. PMID:23505959

  8. Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fatouros-Bergman, H.; Spang, J.; Merten, J.; Preisler, G.; Werbart, A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature. PMID:22966449

  9. Facial Diplegia in Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jae Eun; Choi, Young-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Background Facial diplegia has diverse etiologies, including viral and bacterial infections such as diphtheria, syphilis and Lyme disease, and also protozoal infection in very rarely cases. Case Report A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital due to bilateral weakness of the upper and lower facial muscles. Examination revealed that the patient had a facial diplegia of the peripheral type. A peripheral blood smear demonstrated the presence of the asexual trophozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax with ring-form trophozoites, which led to a diagnosis of malaria. A serum work-up revealed increased IgG titers of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein and ganglioside GD1b. The patient was administered antimalarial treatment, 1 week after which he showed signs of recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of facial diplegia after malaria infection, providing evidence that the mechanism underlying the condition is related to immune-mediated disease. Conclusions Facial diplegia can manifest after P. vivax infection. PMID:20607050

  10. Relationships among Facial Mimicry, Emotional Experience, and Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Fujimura, Tomomi; Kochiyama, Takanori; Suzuki, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on scales of valence and arousal for experienced emotions (Study 1) and for experienced and recognized emotions (Study 2) while participants viewed dynamic and static facial expressions of negative and positive emotions. Path analyses showed that the facial EMG activity consistently predicted the valence ratings for the emotions experienced in response to dynamic facial expressions. The experienced valence ratings in turn predicted the recognized valence ratings in Study 2. Conclusion These results suggest that facial mimicry influences the sharing and recognition of emotional valence in response to others' dynamic facial expressions. PMID:23536774

  11. The many facets of facial interactions in mammals.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2012-04-01

    Facial interactions are prominent behaviors in primates. Primate facial signaling, which includes the expression of emotions, mimicking of facial movements, and gaze interactions, is visually dominated. Correspondingly, in primate brains an elaborate network of face processing areas exists within visual cortex. But other mammals also communicate through facial interactions using additional sensory modalities. In rodents, multisensory facial interactions are involved in aggressive behaviors and social transmission of food preferences. The eusocial naked mole-rat, whose face is dominated by prominent incisors, uses facial aggression to enforce reproductive suppression. In burrow-living mammals like the naked mole-rat in particular, and in rodents in general, somatosensory face representations in cortex are enlarged. Diversity of sensory domains mediating facial communication might belie underlying common mechanisms. As a case in point, neurogenetics has revealed strongly heritable traits in face processing and identified gene defects that disrupt facial interactions both in humans and rodents. PMID:22209040

  12. Dynamics Analysis of Facial Expressions for Person Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Saito, Hideo

    We propose a new method for analyzing the dynamics of facial expressions to identify persons using Active Appearance Models and accurate facial feature point tracking. Several methods have been proposed to identify persons using facial images. In most methods, variations in facial expressions are one trouble factor. However, the dynamics of facial expressions are one measure of personal characteristics. In the proposed method, facial feature points are automatically extracted using Active Appearance Models in the first frame of each video. They are then tracked using the Lucas-Kanade based feature point tracking method. Next, a temporal interval is extracted from the beginning time to the ending time of facial expression changes. Finally, a feature vector is obtained. In the identification phase, an input feature vector is classified by calculating the distance between the input vector and the training vectors using dynamic programming matching. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method using smile videos from the MMI Facial Expression Database.

  13. Temporal bone fracture: evaluation and management in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Freedom; Semaan, Maroun T; Megerian, Cliff A

    2008-06-01

    Temporal bone fractures occur from high-energy mechanisms, typically but not limited to motor vehicle accidents. However, as the automotive industry continues to introduce improved safety measures, violence and falls account for a larger proportion of cases. Given the great forces involved, temporal bone fractures rarely occur in isolation and initial evaluation must focus on the fundamental ABCs of Advanced Trauma Life Support with special attention to Glasgow Coma Scale, intracranial injury, and cervical spine injury. Subsequent evaluation relies on physical examination, high-resolution CT, and electrodiagnostic testing to address the neurotologic consequences of temporal bone fracture, including cerebrospinal fluid leak, facial nerve injury, and injury to the peripheral hearing and balance organs. Management algorithms must address immediate (eg, ABCs, neurosurgical issues), short-term (eg, cerebrospinal fluid leak, facial nerve injury, hearing loss), long-term (eg, facial nerve injury, hearing loss, vestibular injury), and delayed (eg, encephalocele, cholesteatoma, late meningitis) issues. This article reviews the current state of temporal bone fracture evaluation and management with special attention to mechanisms of injury, clinical presentations and emergency evaluation, and diagnostic workup, including the evolution of radiographic fracture classification systems and electrodiagnostic testing. Discussion of treatment approaches address management of immediate, short-term, long-term, and delayed complications. PMID:18436001

  14. The face is not an empty canvas: how facial expressions interact with facial appearance

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Ursula; Adams, Reginald B.; Kleck, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Faces are not simply blank canvases upon which facial expressions write their emotional messages. In fact, facial appearance and facial movement are both important social signalling systems in their own right. We here provide multiple lines of evidence for the notion that the social signals derived from facial appearance on the one hand and facial movement on the other interact in a complex manner, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes contradicting one another. Faces provide information on who a person is. Sex, age, ethnicity, personality and other characteristics that can define a person and the social group the person belongs to can all be derived from the face alone. The present article argues that faces interact with the perception of emotion expressions because this information informs a decoder's expectations regarding an expresser's probable emotional reactions. Facial appearance also interacts more directly with the interpretation of facial movement because some of the features that are used to derive personality or sex information are also features that closely resemble certain emotional expressions, thereby enhancing or diluting the perceived strength of particular expressions. PMID:19884144

  15. Mesh Achilles tendon lengthening--a new method to treat equinus deformity in patients with spastic cerebral palsy: surgical technique and early results.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Chii-Jeng; Huang, Ming-Tung; Su, Wei-Ren; Wu, Tung-Tai

    2013-01-01

    Equinus of the ankle is a common deformity in spastic cerebral palsy. Many methods have been developed to lengthen the Achilles tendon to correct the deformity. A new mesh Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) procedure that might decrease immobilization and promote recovery was performed in 36 tendons with equinus deformity (22 patients, average age=6.2). The results were compared with those of two other methods: the Vulpius group and the Z-lengthening group. The corrected dorsiflexion angle of the ankle at a subsequent 2-year follow-up of the mesh ATL and Vulpius groups matched (25.5±3.0 and 27.1±3.5°, respectively), whereas that of the Z-lengthening group was higher (33.9±3.8°). Nevertheless, statistics of the timing of each patient's readiness to begin rehabilitation and walking as well as gaining better stability for running and one-legged hopping indicated that the mesh ATL group recovered significantly quicker than the Vulpius and Z-lengthening groups. The mesh ATL procedure achieves a successful correction of the equinus deformity in spastic cerebral palsy comparable with that of the Vulpius procedure, with the advantage of preserving the gastrocnemius without a complete section. This confers greater antigravity stability and quicker recovery in patients. PMID:23192252

  16. Static topographic modeling for facial expression recognition and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Wang; Lijun Yin

    2007-01-01

    Facial expression plays a key role in non-verbal face-to-face communication. It is a challenging task to develop an automatic facial expression reading and understanding system, especially, for recognizing the facial expression from a static image without any prior knowledge of the test subject. In this paper, we present a topographic modeling approach to recognize and analyze facial expression from single

  17. Building highly realistic facial modeling and animation: a survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos Ersotelos; Feng Dong

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive survey on the techniques for human facial modeling and animation. The survey is carried\\u000a out from two different perspectives: facial modeling, which concerns how to produce 3D face models, and facial animation,\\u000a which regards how to synthesize dynamic facial expressions. To generate an individual face model, we can either perform individualization\\u000a of a generic model

  18. A muscle model for animation three-dimensional facial expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Waters

    1987-01-01

    The development of a parameterized facial muscle process, that incorporates the use of a model to create realistic facial animation is described.Existing methods of facial parameterization have the inherent problem of hard-wiring performable actions. The development of a muscle process that is controllable by a limited number of parameters and is non-specific to facial topology allows a richer vocabulary and

  19. Break-Induced Replication Requires DNA Damage-Induced Phosphorylation of Pif1 and Leads to Telomere Lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Vasianovich, Yulia; Harrington, Lea A.; Makovets, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Broken replication forks result in DNA breaks that are normally repaired via homologous recombination or break induced replication (BIR). Mild insufficiency in the replicative ligase Cdc9 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in a population of cells with persistent DNA damage, most likely due to broken replication forks, constitutive activation of the DNA damage checkpoint and longer telomeres. This telomere lengthening required functional telomerase, the core DNA damage signaling cascade Mec1-Rad9-Rad53, and the components of the BIR repair pathway – Rad51, Rad52, Pol32, and Pif1. The Mec1-Rad53 induced phosphorylation of Pif1, previously found necessary for inhibition of telomerase at double strand breaks, was also important for the role of Pif1 in BIR and telomere elongation in cdc9-1 cells. Two other mutants with impaired DNA replication, cdc44-5 and rrm3?, were similar to cdc9-1: their long telomere phenotype was dependent on the Pif1 phosphorylation locus. We propose a model whereby the passage of BIR forks through telomeres promotes telomerase activity and leads to telomere lengthening. PMID:25329304

  20. Bone Identification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    This activity (page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into fossil hunting and identification. Groups of learners will sift through a commercially prepared owl pellet, looking for bone pieces that they will attempt to match to an identification chart and subsequently arrange into a rough skeleton. Learners use this exercise to consider how animal skeletons help researchers determine what kinds of animals live together in an ecosystem as well compare the bones they find to the bones in their own body. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Dinosaurs.

  1. The Ilizarov technique for treatment of sequelae of childhood-acquired bone and joint infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, C T; Huang, S C

    1999-03-01

    Bone and joint infections in childhood can result in various sequelae including deformity and limb length discrepancy (LLD). Management of these sequelae is difficult and must be individualized. In this study, we retrospectively examined the efficacy of treatment with Ilizarov techniques in 30 patients suffering from sequelae of bone and joint infections in childhood, treated from 1989 to 1994. These cases comprised 17 hip infections, two septic shoulders, and 11 cases of osteomyelitis (4 femurs, 5 tibiae, 1 humerus, and 1 forearm). All patients had some evidence of LLD. There were 13 cases of hip deformity and 10 cases of unstable hips. There were also 10 cases of angular deformity and five of nonunion of bone. The mean age at treatment was 21 years. Twenty-eight patients underwent Ilizarov lengthening procedures and 18 of them underwent deformity or instability correction simultaneously. Two patients underwent Ilizarov deformity correction only. Various techniques were used, including Schanz osteotomy plus mid-shaft femoral lengthening and distraction callotasis with and without an intramedullary nail. Postoperative complications included stiffness of joints in six patients, pin tract infection in six, fracture in five, malunion in five, nonunion in four, callus shortening in four, nerve palsy in two, and over-lengthening in one. The mean duration of follow-up was 72 months. The average length gain was 6.6 cm in shortened bones, with a mean external fixator index of 40.5 days/cm. All patients were satisfied with the functional and cosmetic results. We conclude that Ilizarov techniques are effective in treating sequelae of childhood infections of bones and joints. PMID:10365536

  2. Using infrared facial imagery for positive identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David C.

    1995-05-01

    Positive identification or verification of identity of an individual is a major part of the security, legal, banking, and police task of granting or denying authority to take an action. Work is being done using IR facial imaging and computer technology to perform the human recognition task rapidly, accurately, and nonintrusively. Three basic principles have been demonstrated: every human IR facial image (or thermogram) is unique to that individual; an IR camera can be used to capture human thermograms; and captured thermograms can be digitized, stored, and matched using a computer and certain mathematical algorithms. A three- part development effort has been undertaken using IR facial recognition in an access control application. The first, an opertor assisted proof-of-concept effort, has been successfully completed. The second, an automated access control unit, has been completed and is undergoing independent testing in a simulated controlled access environment. Work on the third developmental effort is planned for this summer.

  3. [Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis complicated with peripheral facial palsy].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Taichi; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-03-01

    A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination of an acute febrile illness with liver dysfunction. A peripheral blood smear displayed atypical lymphocytes. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis was diagnosed based on the detection of CMV-specific IgM and conventional CMV pp65 antigen. The physical examination on admission revealed signs of lower motor neuron right facial palsy. There were no significant cerebrospinal fluid findings, nor were there other neurological abnormalities. After receiving a short-course of oral corticosteroids, the patient gradually recovered from the facial paralysis. A one-month follow-up examination indicated that she had fully recovered neurologically, showing disappearance of CMV-DNA and a significant increase in the anti-CMV IgG titer. To our knowledge, there has been only one previous report describing CMV as the cause of an isolated facial palsy combined with CMV mononucleosis. PMID:24681941

  4. Facial Dysostoses: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Paul A.; Andrews, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in-utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981

  5. Manifold based methods in facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Kun

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes a novel method for facial expression recognition based on non-linear manifold techniques. The graph-based algorithms are designed to treat structure in data, and regularize accordingly. This same goal is shared by several other algorithms, from linear method principal components analysis (PCA) to modern variants such as Laplacian eigenmaps. In this paper we focus on manifold learning for dimensionality reduction and clustering using Laplacian eigenmaps for facial expression recognition. We evaluate the algorithm by using all the pixels and selected features respectively and compare the performance of the proposed non-linear manifold method with the previous linear manifold approach, and the non linear method produces higher recognition rate than the facial expression representation using linear methods.

  6. [Hemifacial microsomia treated with mandibular lengthening using intraoral distractors. On precise indications].

    PubMed

    Diner, P A; Tomat, C; Zazurca, F; Coquille, F; Soupre, V; Vazquez, M P

    2001-10-01

    Mandibular hypoplasia in the hemifacial microsomia have largely benefited from distraction techniques especially intraoral. In fact, these techniques are possible in the child, replacing him in a better morphological, psychological and functional configuration. They can redynamise growth and, in any case, diminish secondary distant effects. The authors, from precise criteria, propose a surgical classification to facilitate the therapeutic decision. Intraoral and sometimes bidirectional distraction, whose results are equivalent to external distraction, present numerous advantages that, in the majority of cases, make it preferred now to external distraction. Its three-dimensional (3D) effect on bone and soft tissues and the long term follow-up must be evaluated more objectively, as pre and post-distraction stereolithographic or 3D photogrammetric may get. It must be considered in the child as the first step of skeletic surgery preparing to a facilitated second step orthopedic, orthodontic or orthognathic after puberty. In the young adult, it is in competition with conventional surgery but the slow progressive process, kind with the temporo-mandibular joints, allows in mandibular asymmetries an adaptation having avoided the need for controlateral osteotomy or a bone graft. PMID:11770458

  7. Reactivation of varicella-zoster virus in delayed facial palsy after dental treatment and oro-facial surgery.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Y; Ohtani, F; Fukuda, S; Inuyama, Y; Nagashima, K

    2000-09-01

    In rare cases, acute peripheral facial palsy occurs several days after dental treatment and oro-facial surgery. Surgical procedures have been known to trigger reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The present study examined eight patients who exhibited delayed facial palsy after dental treatment or oro-facial surgery. Ramsay Hunt syndrome was diagnosed in three patients and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation without zoster lesions (zoster sine herpete) was diagnosed in three patients either by PCR or serological assay. Therefore, VZV reactivation was detected in 75% (6 of 8) of patients who exhibited delayed facial palsy after dental or oro-facial treatment. The results suggest that VZV reactivation is a major cause of delayed facial palsy after dental treatment or oro-facial surgery. PMID:10935987

  8. Impaired overt facial mimicry in response to dynamic facial expressions in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-05-01

    Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in high-functioning individuals with ASD and controls to dynamic and static facial expressions of anger and happiness. Visual coding of facial muscle activity and the subjective impression ratings showed reduced congruent responses to dynamic expressions in the ASD group. Additionally, this decline was related to social dysfunction. These results suggest that impairment in overt facial mimicry in response to others' dynamic facial expressions may underlie difficulties in reciprocal social interaction among individuals with ASD. PMID:25374131

  9. Quantitative parameters of facial motor evoked potential during vestibular schwannoma surgery predict postoperative facial nerve function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus André Acioly; Alireza Gharabaghi; Marina Liebsch; Carlos Henrique Carvalho; Paulo Henrique Aguiar; Marcos Tatagiba

    2011-01-01

    Background  Facial motor evoked potential (FMEP) amplitude ratio reduction at the end of the surgery has been identified as a good predictor\\u000a for postoperative facial nerve outcome. We sought to investigate variations in FMEP amplitude and waveform morphology during\\u000a vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection and to correlate these measures with postoperative facial function immediately after\\u000a surgery and at the last follow-up.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Intraoperative

  10. Facial nerve palsy associated with Rickettsia conorii infection

    PubMed Central

    Bitsori, M; Galanakis, E; Papadakis, C; Sbyrakis, S

    2001-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy has been occasionally attributed to infectious agents, but Rickettsiae species have not been documented as causative agents. We report two adolescent girls with facial nerve palsy and serological evidence of R conorii infection. These cases indicate that rickettsioses should be included among the causes of facial nerve palsy, particularly in endemic areas.?? PMID:11420202

  11. Judging the Accuracy of Facial Expressions: A Methodological Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.

    The extent to which human facial expressions are universal and cross-culturally recognizable has been the subject of considerable debate. Two approaches have been used in studies of facial expressions: the judgment approach entails showing examples of facial expressions to various cultures or groups of people and determining whether they interpret…

  12. NPAR by Example: Line Drawing Facial Animation from Photographs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Luo; Marina L. Gavrilova; Mario Costa Sousa

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for generating non-photorealistic (NPR) facial expression animations. The method consists of two main processing parts. First, a particular NPR style portrait is created from a frontal facial photograph. Facial expressive details, like: expressive wrinkles, fine, creases, even freckles, can be included in the synthesized portrait, which makes it more expressive. Second, with two different

  13. Analysis and Synthesis of Facial Expressions Peter Eisert

    E-print Network

    Eisert, Peter

    applications in facial animation for film productions. REVIEW OF FACIAL ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS TECHNIQUES-of-the-art in facial animation and expression analysis is reviewed and new techniques for the estimation of 3-D human of these analysis techniques is illustrated for applications like character animation and model- based video coding

  14. Learning Discriminative LBP-Histogram Bins for Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Kim, Tae-Kyun

    Learning Discriminative LBP-Histogram Bins for Facial Expression Recognition Caifeng Shan) bins for the task of facial expression recognition. Our experiments illustrate that the selected LBPH recognition performance of 93.1% on the Cohn-Kanade database. 1 Introduction Machine analysis of facial

  15. 4D Facial Expression Recognition by Learning Geometric Deformations

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 4D Facial Expression Recognition by Learning Geometric Deformations Boulbaba Ben Amor?, Member, Senior, IEEE Abstract--In this paper, we present an automatic approach for facial expression recognition on the scalar fields showed comparable results and outperformed earlier studies on facial expression recognition

  16. Task oriented facial behavior recognition with selective sensing

    E-print Network

    Task oriented facial behavior recognition with selective sensing Haisong Gu a , Yongmian Zhang, gaze, and furrow happenings. An automated system for facial behavior recognition is always desirable presents an efficient approach to real-world facial behavior recognition. With dynamic Bayesian network

  17. Facial Recognition Technology A Survey of Policy and Implementation Issues

    E-print Network

    Nissenbaum, Helen

    Facial Recognition Technology A Survey of Policy and Implementation Issues Lucas D. Introna EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Facial recognition technology (FRT) has emerged as an attractive solution to address many, guided us to important sources and helped to focus our attention on crucial features of facial

  18. 3D Face Analysis for Facial Expression Recognition Ahmed Maalej

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    3D Face Analysis for Facial Expression Recognition Ahmed Maalej LIFL, Universit´e de Lille 1, Italy. Abstract In this paper, we investigate the person-independent 3D facial expression recognition advances Facial expression analysis and recognition is an ac- tive and challenging research topic

  19. Facial Expression Recognition as A Creative Interface Roberto Valenti1

    E-print Network

    Sebe, Nicu

    1 Facial Expression Recognition as A Creative Interface Roberto Valenti1 , Alejandro Jaimes2 , Nicu time, producing sounds in combination with images. The facial expression recognition component detects of outputs by combining expression classification with the motion unit values. FACIAL EXPRESION RECOGNITION

  20. Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Mounts, Jeffrey R. W.; Olczak, Paul V.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph.…

  1. Objectifying Facial Expressivity Assessment of Parkinson's Patients: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Patsis, Georgios; Jiang, Dongmei; Sahli, Hichem; Kerckhofs, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can exhibit a reduction of spontaneous facial expression, designated as “facial masking,” a symptom in which facial muscles become rigid. To improve clinical assessment of facial expressivity of PD, this work attempts to quantify the dynamic facial expressivity (facial activity) of PD by automatically recognizing facial action units (AUs) and estimating their intensity. Spontaneous facial expressivity was assessed by comparing 7 PD patients with 8 control participants. To voluntarily produce spontaneous facial expressions that resemble those typically triggered by emotions, six emotions (amusement, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, and fear) were elicited using movie clips. During the movie clips, physiological signals (facial electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG)) and frontal face video of the participants were recorded. The participants were asked to report on their emotional states throughout the experiment. We first examined the effectiveness of the emotion manipulation by evaluating the participant's self-reports. Disgust-induced emotions were significantly higher than the other emotions. Thus we focused on the analysis of the recorded data during watching disgust movie clips. The proposed facial expressivity assessment approach captured differences in facial expressivity between PD patients and controls. Also differences between PD patients with different progression of Parkinson's disease have been observed. PMID:25478003

  2. Locating essential facial features using neural visual model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Phimoltares; C. Lursinsap; K. Chamnongthai

    2002-01-01

    Facial feature detection plays an important role in applications such as human computer interaction, video surveillance, face detection and face recognition. We propose a facial feature detection algorithm for all types of face images in the presence of several image conditions. There are two main step: the facial feature extraction from original face image, and the coverage of the features

  3. Gender and 3D Facial Symmetry: What's the Relationship?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gender and 3D Facial Symmetry: What's the Relationship? Baiqiang Xia§, Boulbaba Ben Amor§, Hassen recognition, little consideration has been given to the relationship between gender, age, ethnicity, etc. and facial asymmetry. In this paper we present a new approach based on bilateral facial asymmetry for gender

  4. Considerations in non-Caucasian facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M; Nolen, David

    2014-08-01

    Aging of the face is inevitable and undeniable. This process includes a loss of skeletal support, soft tissue volume depletion, and a decrease in skin elasticity. The contribution of these 3 factors varies between individuals with noticeable hereditary influence. Characteristic ethnic features have been described in the literature, but as societies have changed, many of these ethnic variations have blended together. Facial cosmetic procedures must to be tailored to address these variations in anatomy, and consideration must be given to enhancing the facial skeleton, adequately lifting the soft tissues, and planning careful incisions to be closed under no tension. PMID:25049130

  5. Automated prediction of preferences using facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Masip, David; North, Michael S; Todorov, Alexander; Osherson, Daniel N

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a computer vision problem from social cognition, namely, the automated detection of attitudes from a person's spontaneous facial expressions. To illustrate the challenges, we introduce two simple algorithms designed to predict observers' preferences between images (e.g., of celebrities) based on covert videos of the observers' faces. The two algorithms are almost as accurate as human judges performing the same task but nonetheless far from perfect. Our approach is to locate facial landmarks, then predict preference on the basis of their temporal dynamics. The database contains 768 videos involving four different kinds of preferences. We make it publically available. PMID:24503553

  6. Neurological complications of progressive facial hemiatrophy

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Sheldon Mark; Verity, M. Anthony

    1974-01-01

    Progressive left facial hemiatrophy began in a boy at the age of 5 years. Over the next 20 years, he developed wasting of the left shoulder and arm muscles, ptosis of the eyelids, ophthalmoplegia, convergence nystagmus, pupillary dilatation, hemiparesis, seizures, and dysarthria. A pneumoencephalogram showed cerebellar hemiatrophy. Biopsy of the cerebellum revealed loss of and degenerative changes in Purkinje cells. A deltoid muscle biopsy studied by histochemical and enzymatic procedures was normal. There are many neurological and ophthalmological complications of progressive facial hemiatrophy. Seizures, ophthalmoparesis, and pupillary abnormalities are the most common. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease are unknown. The possibility that this is a `slow virus' disease is suggested. Images

  7. Peripheral Facial Nerve Palsy after Therapeutic Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Ji Woon; Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Chol Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a mononeuropathy that affects the peripheral part of the facial nerve. Primary causes of peripheral FNP remain largely unknown, but detectable causes include systemic infections (viral and others), trauma, ischemia, tumor, and extrinsic compression. Peripheral FNP in relation to extrinsic compression has rarely been described in case reports. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with peripheral FNP following endoscopic submucosal dissection. This case is the first report of the development of peripheral FNP in a patient undergoing therapeutic endoscopy. We emphasize the fact that physicians should be attentive to the development of peripheral FNP following therapeutic endoscopy.

  8. Broken bone

    MedlinePLUS

    Bone - broken; Fracture; Stress fracture ... as those caused by running, can cause stress fractures of the foot, ankle, tibia, or hip ... circulation. Press firmly over the skin beyond the fracture site. (For example, if the fracture is in ...

  9. Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

    2008-01-01

    Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

  10. Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

  11. Stress fracture of the navicular bone in a patient with cerebral palsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Mari; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Kawamura, Yoshika; Matsuo, Keisuke; Saeki, Mitsuru; Wada, Futoshi

    2015-03-01

    A 14-year-old girl with cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia) underwent examination due to a chief complaint of right foot pain, and was diagnosed with a stress fracture of the central one third of the navicular bone. The fracture was considered to have developed due to repeated loading on the navicular bone as a result of an equinus gait.Therefore, she underwent osteosynthesis and Achilles tendon lengthening to correct the equinus deformity. Following our review of the current literature, we did not identify any reports of stress fracture of the navicular bone in cerebral palsy. We believe that in cases where cerebral palsy patients with paralytic equinus complain of foot pain, the possibility of stress fracture of the navicular bone should be considered. PMID:25787097

  12. Facial Caricaturing Robot “COOPER" for Proposing New Facial Media and Its Field Test at EXPO2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funahashi, Takuma; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takashi; Tokuda, Naoya; Takino, Fuminori; Koshimizu, Hiroyasu

    We developed the facial caricaturing robot “COOPER” that was exhibited at the Prototype Robot Exhibition of EXPO 2005, Aichi Japan during 11 days from Jun.9 to Jun.19. COOPER watches the face of a person seated at the chair, obtains facial images, and analyzes the images to extract 251 feature points to generate his facial line drawings with deformation. It is noted that the caricature was drawn on the specialized “Shrimp rice cracker” in about 4 minutes. To do this, we customized the original system PICASSO by coping with the illumination circumstances in EXPO pavilion. This paper illustrates the outline of the COOPER and the details of the image processing in it. And we discuses on the prospects of the future subjects based on more than 352 facial caricatures obtained at EXPO2005.

  13. Terminal Segment Surgical Anatomy of the Rat Facial Nerve: Implications for Facial Reanimation Study

    PubMed Central

    Henstrom, Doug; Hadlock, Tessa; Lindsay, Robin; Knox, Christopher J.; Malo, Juan; Vakharia, Kalpesh T.; Heaton, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rodent whisking behavior is supported by the buccal and mandibular branches of the facial nerve, a description of how these branches converge and contribute to whisker movement is lacking. Methods Eight rats underwent isolated transection of either the buccal or mandibular branch and subsequent opposite branch transection. Whisking function was analyzed following both transections. Anatomical measurements, and video recording of stimulation to individual branches, were taken from both facial nerves in 10 rats. Results Normal to near-normal whisking was demonstrated after isolated branch transection. Following transection of both branches whisking was eliminated. The buccal and mandibular branches form a convergence just proximal to the whisker-pad, named the “distal pes.” Distal to this convergence, we identified consistent anatomy that demonstrated cross-innervation. Conclusion The overlap of efferent supply to the whisker pad must be considered when studying facial nerve regeneration in the rat facial nerve model. PMID:22499096

  14. Undifferentiated and differentiated adipose-derived stem cells improve nerve regeneration in a rat model of facial nerve defect.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Sasaki, Ryo; Matsumine, Hajime; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-06-01

    Autologous nerve grafting is the current procedure used for repairing facial nerve gaps. As an alternative to this method, tissue engineering cell-based therapy using induced pluripotent stem cells, Schwann cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed. However, these cells have major problems, including tumorigenesis in induced pluripotent stem cells and invasiveness and limited tissue associated with harvesting for the other cells. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be harvested easily and repeatedly by a minimally invasive liposuction procedure. The ASCs had characteristics of mesenchymal tissue lineages and could differentiate into Schwann-like cells that were relatively simple to isolate and expand in culture. In an in vivo study, a silicone conduit containing undifferentiated ASCs, differentiated ASCs or Schwann cells were transplanted, embedded in a collagen gel and the efficacy of repair of a 7 mm-gap in the rat facial nerve examined. Morphometric quantification analysis of regenerated facial nerves after a regeneration period of 13 weeks showed that undifferentiated ASCs, differentiated ASCs, and Schwann cells had similar potential for nerve regeneration. Furthermore, the functional recovery of facial nerve regeneration using a rat facial palsy scoring system in the three groups was close to that in autologous nerve graft positive controls. These findings suggest that undifferentiated and differentiated ASCs may both have therapeutic potential in facial nerve regeneration as a source of Schwann cells in cell-based therapy performed as an alternative to autologous nerve grafts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24889763

  15. Unique and reliable rat model for the assessment of cell therapy: bone union in the rat mandibular symphysis using bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yagyuu, Takahiro; Kirita, Tadaaki; Hattori, Koji; Tadokoro, Mika; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2015-03-01

    Many kinds of bone graft materials have been developed and reported to repair various bone defects. The defects are usually created by surgical resection of pre-existing bone tissue. However, spontaneous healing of bone defects without implantation of materials could be seen, because bone tissue possesses inherent repairing property. The central portion of the lower jaw bone in many animals consists of fibrous tissue and is called the mandibular symphysis. It persists even in old animals and thus can be interpreted as a physiological bone gap or a non-healing bone defect. We implanted calcium phosphate porous ceramics alone or composites of the ceramics and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into the bone defect (mandibular symphysis) to examine whether it could be filled with new bone tissue, resulting in bone union. Eight weeks after implantation, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological and biomechanical analyses demonstrated that bone union of the mandibles occurred in all rats with composites but in none of those with ceramics alone. These results showed that the rat mandibular symphysis is a unique bone defect site for the evaluation of bone graft materials. These analyses demonstrated that ceramics alone could not contribute to bone healing in the defect; however, supplementation with BMSCs drastically changed the properties of the ceramics (turning them into osteogenic ceramics), which completely healed the defect. As BMSCs can be culture-expanded using small amounts of bone marrow, the use of the composites might have clinical significance for the reconstruction of various bone tissues, including facial bone. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23255518

  16. Until they have faces: the ethics of facial allograft transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Agich, G; Siemionow, M

    2005-01-01

    The ethical discussion of facial allograft transplantation (FAT) for severe facial deformity, popularly known as facial transplantation, has been one sided and sensationalistic. It is based on film and fiction rather than science and clinical experience. Based on our experience in developing the first IRB approved protocol for FAT, we critically discuss the problems with this discussion, which overlooks the plight of individuals with severe facial deformities. We discuss why FAT for facial deformity is ethically and surgically justified despite its negative portrayal in the media. PMID:16319234

  17. A Facial Control Method Using Emotional Parameters in Sensibility Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Hiroshi; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Kato, Shohei; Kunitachi, Tsutomu; Itoh, Hidenori

    The “Ifbot” robot communicates with people by considering its own “emotions”. Ifbot has many facial expressions to communicate enjoyment. These are used to express its internal emotions, purposes, reactions caused by external stimulus, and entertainment such as singing songs. All these facial expressions are developed by designers manually. Using this approach, we must design all facial motions, if we want Ifbot to express them. It, however, is not realistic. We have therefore developed a system which convert Ifbot's emotions to its facial expressions automatically. In this paper, we propose a method for creating Ifbot's facial expressions from parameters, emotional parameters, which handle its internal emotions computationally.

  18. Bone marrow transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; ...

  19. Description of sex difference as prescription for sex change: on the origins of facial feminization surgery.

    PubMed

    Plemons, Eric D

    2014-10-01

    This article explores the research project that led to the development of facial feminization surgery, a set of bone and soft tissue reconstructive surgical procedures intended to feminize the faces of male-to-female trans- women. Conducted by a pioneering surgeon in the mid-1980s, this research consisted of three steps: (1) assessments of sexual differences of the skull taken from early 20th-century physical anthropology, (2) the application of statistical analyses taken from late 20th-century orthodontic research, and (3) the vetting of this new morphological and metric knowledge in a dry skull collection. When the 'feminine type' of early 20th-century physical anthropology was made to articulate with the 'female mean' of 1970s' statistical analysis, these two very different epistemological artifacts worked together to produce something new: a singular model of a distinctively female skull. In this article, I show how the development of facial feminization surgery worked across epistemic styles, transforming historically racialized and gendered descriptions of sex difference into contemporary surgical prescriptions for sex change. Fundamental to this transformation was an explicit invocation of the scientific origins of facial sexual dimorphism, a claim that frames surgical sex change of the face as not only possible, but objectively certain. PMID:25362828

  20. Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring (IFNM) Predicts Facial Nerve Outcome after Resection of Vestibular Schwannoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Sobottka; G. Schackert; S. A. May; M. Wiegleb; G. Reiß

    1998-01-01

    Summary   Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IFNM) is a suitable technique for intraoperative facial nerve identification and\\u000a dissection, especially in large vestibular schwannomas (VS) (acoustic neuroma). To evaluate its feasibility for estimating\\u000a functional nerve outcome after VS resection 60 patients underwent surgery using IFNM. Out of this group the last 40 patients\\u000a were included in a prospective study evaluating the prognostic

  1. A rare case of keloidal granuloma faciale with extra-facial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Rai, Tulika; Sharma, Taniya

    2013-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is an uncommon, cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques, or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extra-facial lesions occur rarely. We present a case report of 33-year-old male who presented with keloidal lesions on face and left shoulder. The patient didn’t respond with intralesional triamcinolone and showed poor response with the addition of topical tacrolimus. Surgical excision in consultation with plastic surgeons is planned. PMID:23439975

  2. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTION INTERPERSONAL TRAIT INFERENCES

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Brian

    , as in the caseof trait infer- ence. The hypothesis that facial expressions of emotion (e.g., anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness)affect subjects' interpersonal trait inferences (e.g., domi- nance and affiliation with either static or apparently mov- ing expressions. They inferred high dominance and affiliation from happy

  3. Facial recognition deficits and cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gabriele; Steger-Wuchse, Dorothea; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Gur, Ruben C; Katschnig, Heinz

    2004-05-01

    Previous investigations have found impaired recognition of facial affect and cognition in schizophrenia. We compared patients with schizophrenia and healthy control volunteers on computerized tasks of emotion recognition, to determine whether emotion processing deficits were correlated with neurocognitive performance. A Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNP) was administered to 40 patients (25 male, 15 female, mean age+/-S.D. 30.4+/-8.1) with schizophrenia (DSM-IV, 15 first episode and 25 chronically ill patients) treated with atypical neuroleptics and 43 healthy volunteers. A German version of the PENN Facial Discrimination, Differentiation and Memory Test, including happy, sad and neutral faces was used. Additionally, all patients were tested with a standard neuropsychological battery and rated for positive and negative symptoms. Patients with schizophrenia performed worse than control subjects on all emotion recognition tasks (p<0.01). We found higher error rates for discrimination of emotion in happy (p<0.02) and happy female faces (p<0.01), for differentiation of sad versus happy faces (p<0.001) and for facial memory (p<0.04). Poorer performance in emotion discrimination and facial memory correlated with severity of negative symptoms, abstraction-flexibility (p<0.001), verbal memory (p<0.01) and language processing (p<0.001). The study did not reveal a specific deficit for emotion recognition in schizophrenia. These findings lend support to the notion that difficulties in emotion recognition are associated in schizophrenia with key cognitive deficits. PMID:15037337

  4. Peripheral Facial Palsy: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Roob; Franz Fazekas; Hans-Peter Hartung

    1999-01-01

    Treatment options for peripheral facial palsy (PFP) are an often discussed problem in neurologic practice. Following a short description of the complex anatomy of the seventh cranial nerve we therefore review possible etiologies in the context of leading clinical signs, with idiopathic PFP or Bell’s palsy (BP) being most frequent. A rather typical clinical course of BP allows to focus

  5. Hard Tissue Pediatric Facial Trauma: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. V. Hogg; Bruce B. Horswell

    J Can Dent Assoc 2006; 72(6):555-8 This article has been peer reviewed. Although hard tissue injuries are uncommon in the pediatric patient, dentists may be involved in the initial assessment of these patients. In this paper, we review fractures of the facial skeleton with a focus on dentoalveolar injuries. Minimally displaced fractures in pediatric patients can be managed conservatively, while

  6. Flexible signal generator for facial nerve detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Habib ELKHORCHANI; Hamadi GHARIANI; A. Benhamida; M. Ghorbel

    2004-01-01

    During surgical intervention on patient face, the facial nerve must be protected. To avoid the risk of its damage, we propose an electronic device that could detect the presence of this nerve. Thanks to its excitability, it was possible therefore to record a noticeable muscular electric reaction on the face. An active stimulating electrode would be placed on the patient

  7. Facial Appearance, Gender, and Emotion Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Hess; Robert E. Kleck

    2004-01-01

    Western gender stereotypes describe women as affiliative and more likely to show happiness and men as dominant and more likely to show anger. The authors assessed the hypothesis that the gender-stereotypic effects on perceptions of anger and happiness are partially mediated by facial appearance markers of dominance and affiliation by equating men's and women's faces for these cues. In 2

  8. Facial age affects emotional expression decoding

    PubMed Central

    Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Werheid, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces. PMID:24550859

  9. Postoperative Care of the Facial Laceration

    PubMed Central

    Medel, Nicholas; Panchal, Neeraj; Ellis, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine factors involved in the postoperative care of traumatic lacerations. An evidence-based comprehensive literature review was conducted. There are a limited number of scientifically proven studies that guide surgeons and emergency room physicians on postoperative care. Randomized controlled trials must be conducted to further standardize the postoperative protocol for simple facial lacerations. PMID:22132257

  10. Facial Animation Driven by XRay Microbeam Data

    E-print Network

    Regina, University of

    areas. For the film industry, researchers have been focusing on producing realistically animated facesFacial Animation Driven by X­Ray Microbeam Data November Scheidt and Howard J. Hamilton Technical Animation Driven by X­Ray Microbeam Data November Scheidt and Howard J. Hamilton Department of Computer

  11. Learning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such assessment becomes in- creasingly important in an aging population to prevent medical practitioners from of classification results when using still im- ages datasets collected in a controlled lab environment will help to prevent many accidents from happening. Facial expression recognition systems, among others, may

  12. Facial cleft detected: is the palate normal?

    PubMed

    Hassan, Wassim A; Lees, Christoph C

    2014-04-01

    Despite advances in ultrasound technology, the sensitivity for detection of facial clefts at the routine mid-trimester details scan remains relatively poor. This can be improved by the use of a three-point ultrasound screening protocol, although this is not routine in many countries. When a facial cleft is suspected at the routine scan, further imaging is usually required to detail the extent of the cleft and presence or absence of any other abnormalities. Involvement of the fetal palate is an important finding that will determine the requirement for surgery, audiology, and orthodontic services well into teenage years. There remains little uniformity in how a facial cleft is described antenatally, with involvement of the alveolar ridge frequently and incorrectly taken to mean involvement of the palate. Further, midline clefts of the hard and soft palates, where the fetal lips and alveolar ridge are intact, are a feature of many genetic conditions, but are almost never diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. In this chapter, we detail issues surrounding the nomenclature of facial clefts in relation to the palate, and describe some of the more commonly used two-dimensional and three-dimensional methodologies for imaging the fetal palate. PMID:24613229

  13. Annotation: Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, K. C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), the most frequent known interstitial deletion identified in man, is associated with chromosomal microdeletions in the q11 band of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS are reported to have a characteristic behavioural phenotype with high rates of behavioural, psychiatric, neuropsychological and…

  14. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy for cancer - related facial pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok-Ryeong; Lee, Sang-Won; Son, Byung-Chul

    2014-07-01

    Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

  15. Stereotactic Mesencephalotomy for Cancer - Related Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok-ryeong; Lee, Sang-won

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

  16. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

    2001-01-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such pro- totypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze

  17. The role of structural facial asymmetry in asymmetry of peak facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Karen L; Liu, Yanxi; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2006-11-01

    Asymmetric facial expression is generally attributed to asymmetry in movement, but structural asymmetry in the face may also affect asymmetry of expression. Asymmetry in posed expressions was measured using image-based approaches in digitised sequences of facial expression in 55 individuals, N=16 men, N=39 women. Structural asymmetry (at neutral expression) was higher in men than women and accounted for .54, .62, and .66 of the variance in asymmetry at peak expression for joy, anger, and disgust expressions, respectively. Movement asymmetry (measured by change in pixel values over time) was found, but was unrelated to peak asymmetry in joy or anger expressions over the whole face and in facial subregions relevant to the expression. Movement asymmetry was negatively related to peak asymmetry in disgust expressions. Sidedness of movement asymmetry (defined as the ratio of summed movement on the left to movement on the right) was consistent across emotions within individuals. Sidedness was found only for joy expressions, which had significantly more movement on the left. The significant role of structural asymmetry in asymmetry of emotion expression and the exploration of facial expression asymmetry have important implications for evolutionary interpretations of facial signalling and facial expressions in general. PMID:16966242

  18. Suitable models for face geometry normalization in facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Hamid; Raie, Abolghasem A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, facial expression recognition has attracted much attention in machine vision research because of its various applications. Accordingly, many facial expression recognition systems have been proposed. However, the majority of existing systems suffer from a critical problem: geometric variability. It directly affects the performance of geometric feature-based facial expression recognition approaches. Furthermore, it is a crucial challenge in appearance feature-based techniques. This variability appears in both neutral faces and facial expressions. Appropriate face geometry normalization can improve the accuracy of each facial expression recognition system. Therefore, this paper proposes different geometric models or shapes for normalization. Face geometry normalization removes geometric variability of facial images and consequently, appearance feature extraction methods can be accurately utilized to represent facial images. Thus, some expression-based geometric models are proposed for facial image normalization. Next, local binary patterns and local phase quantization are used for appearance feature extraction. A combination of an effective geometric normalization with accurate appearance representations results in more than a 4% accuracy improvement compared to several state-of-the-arts in facial expression recognition. Moreover, utilizing the model of facial expressions which have larger mouth and eye region sizes gives higher accuracy due to the importance of these regions in facial expression.

  19. Recognition of 3D facial expression from posed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samad, Manar D.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2013-05-01

    Although recognition of facial expression in 3D facial images has been an active research area, most of the prior works are limited to using full frontal facial images. These techniques primarily project 3D facial image on 2D and manually select landmarks in 2D projection to extract relevant features. Face recognition in 2D images can be challenging due to unconstrained conditions such as head pose, occlusion, and resulting loss of data. Similarly, pose variation in 3D facial imaging can also result in loss of data. In most of the current 3D facial recognition works, when 3D posed face data are projected onto 2D, additional data loss may render 2D facial expression recognition even more challenging. In comparison, this work proposes novel feature extraction directly from the 3D facial posed images without the need of manual selection of landmarks or projection of images in 2D space. This feature is obtained as the angle between consecutive 3D normal vectors on the vertex points aligned either horizontally or vertically across the 3D facial image. Our facial expression recognition results show that the feature obtained from vertices aligned vertically across the face yields the best accuracy for classification with an average 87.8% area under the ROC. The results further suggest that the same feature outperforms its horizontal counterpart in recognizing facial expressions for pose variation between 35º - 50º with average accuracy of 80% - 60%, respectively.

  20. Dynamics Analysis of Facial Expression Changes for Person Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Saito, Hideo

    We propose a new method for analyzing dynamics of facial expression changes to identify persons. Several methods have been proposed to identify persons using facial images. In most methods, variations in facial expressions are one trouble factor because an input face image does not always contain the same facial expression as training images. However, the dynamics of facial expression changes are one measure of personal characteristics. In the proposed method, facial feature points are extracted using Active Appearance Models (AAMs) in the first frame of each video. They are then tracked using the Lucas-Kanade (LK) based feature point tracking method. Next, the starting and ending frames of facial expression changes are extracted by differences in the facial feature points' position between two successive frames. Finally, a feature vector is obtained as the sequence of the 2D coordinate variations of facial feature points. In the identification phase, an input feature vector is classified by calculating the distance between the input vector and the training vectors using dynamic programming matching (DP matching). We show the effectiveness of the proposed method using facial expression videos of the Facial Expressions and Emotions Database from Technical University of Munich (FEEDTUM database).

  1. Perception of global facial geometry is modulated through experience

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Identification of personally familiar faces is highly efficient across various viewing conditions. While the presence of robust facial representations stored in memory is considered to aid this process, the mechanisms underlying invariant identification remain unclear. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that facial representations stored in memory are associated with differential perceptual processing of the overall facial geometry. Subjects who were personally familiar or unfamiliar with the identities presented discriminated between stimuli whose overall facial geometry had been manipulated to maintain or alter the original facial configuration (see Barton, Zhao & Keenan, 2003). The results demonstrate that familiarity gives rise to more efficient processing of global facial geometry, and are interpreted in terms of increased holistic processing of facial information that is maintained across viewing distances. PMID:25825678

  2. Perception of global facial geometry is modulated through experience.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Meike

    2015-01-01

    Identification of personally familiar faces is highly efficient across various viewing conditions. While the presence of robust facial representations stored in memory is considered to aid this process, the mechanisms underlying invariant identification remain unclear. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that facial representations stored in memory are associated with differential perceptual processing of the overall facial geometry. Subjects who were personally familiar or unfamiliar with the identities presented discriminated between stimuli whose overall facial geometry had been manipulated to maintain or alter the original facial configuration (see Barton, Zhao & Keenan, 2003). The results demonstrate that familiarity gives rise to more efficient processing of global facial geometry, and are interpreted in terms of increased holistic processing of facial information that is maintained across viewing distances. PMID:25825678

  3. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    Virtual reality is rapidly evolving into a pragmatically usable technology for mental health (MH) applications. As the underlying enabling technologies continue to evolve and allow us to design more useful and usable structural virtual environments (VEs), the next important challenge will involve populating these environments with virtual representations of humans (avatars). This will be vital to create mental health VEs that leverage the use of avatars for applications that require human-human interaction and communication. As Alessi et al.1 pointed out at the 8th Annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference (MMVR8), virtual humans have mainly appeared in MH applications to "serve the role of props, rather than humans." More believable avatars inhabiting VEs would open up possibilities for MH applications that address social interaction, communication, instruction, assessment, and rehabilitation issues. They could also serve to enhance realism that might in turn promote the experience of presence in VR. Additionally, it will soon be possible to use computer-generated avatars that serve to provide believable dynamic facial and bodily representations of individuals communicating from a distance in real time. This could support the delivery, in shared virtual environments, of more natural human interaction styles, similar to what is used in real life between people. These techniques could enhance communication and interaction by leveraging our natural sensing and perceiving capabilities and offer the potential to model human-computer-human interaction after human-human interaction. To enhance the authenticity of virtual human representations, advances in the rendering of facial and gestural behaviors that support implicit communication will be needed. In this regard, the current paper presents data from a study that compared human raters' judgments of emotional expression between actual video clips of facial expressions and identical expressions rendered on a three-dimensional avatar using a performance-driven facial animation (PDFA) system developed at the University of Southern California Integrated Media Systems Center. PDFA offers a means for creating high-fidelity visual representations of human faces and bodies. This effort explores the feasibility of sensing and reproducing a range of facial expressions with a PDFA system. In order to test concordance of human ratings of emotional expression between video and avatar facial delivery, we first had facial model subjects observe stimuli that were designed to elicit naturalistic facial expressions. The emotional stimulus induction involved presenting text-based, still image, and video clips to subjects that were previously rated to induce facial expressions for the six universals2 of facial expression (happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise), in addition to attentiveness, puzzlement and frustration. Videotapes of these induced facial expressions that best represented prototypic examples of the above emotional states and three-dimensional avatar animations of the same facial expressions were randomly presented to 38 human raters. The raters used open-end, forced choice and seven-point Likert-type scales to rate expression in terms of identification. The forced choice and seven-point ratings provided the most usable data to determine video/animation concordance and these data are presented. To support a clear understanding of this data, a website has been set up that will allow readers to view the video and facial animation clips to illustrate the assets and limitations of these types of facial expression-rendering methods (www. USCAvatars.com/MMVR). This methodological first step in our research program has served to provide valuable human user-centered feedback to support the iterative design and development of facial avatar characteristics for expression of emotional communication. PMID:11708727

  4. Detection of degenerative disease of the temporomandibular joint by bone scintigraphy: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Bloom, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    Nine patients with facial pain were evaluated with limited bone scans. The scintigrams correlated with microscopy in all patients, although radiographs correlated with microscopy in only five patients. The degenerative disease process in the temporomandibular joint was more extensive in the patients with radiographic and scintigraphic abnormalities than in those with scintigraphic abnormalities alone. The limited bone scan appears useful in detecting early degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint.

  5. Biomechanics of the facial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Rudderman, R H; Mullen, R L

    1992-01-01

    Several concepts have been discussed in this article. (1) The geometry and muscle attachments of the mandible are such that it is inconsistent with physics as we know today to have this structural arrangement always in tension at the upper surface and compression always at the lower. (2) The idea behind rigid internal fixation (RIF) is to stabilize the fracture to allow the mandible to work (function) as a nonfractured structure. We should therefore attempt to simulate conditions that most accurately approximate the unfractured structure. (3) The larger, older plates worked in most situations if the fracture was reduced anatomically. As physicians use smaller devices and combinations with unicortical screws, there will be less room for error, and the stability provided by the devices will be closer to the critical load characteristics of the fractures. (4) The "neutral" axis does not remain constant in a fixed location during mastication, either in unfractured or fractured mandible scenarios. Even if a standard neutral zone existed, it would be the worst place for plate placement because devices there would not function with mechanical advantage either in tension or compression loading. (5) Tangential and comminuted fractures generally should be addressed with caution and require special attention. The probability of the smaller plates providing adequate stability in these conditions is low, and the likelihood of failure is high. Physician discretion and judgment should be used to select a more stable system if early mobilization is the goal. (6) The plating systems available rely on adequate bone apposition at the fracture site. This, coupled with a degree of compression in many scenarios, provides a stable condition under functional loading. If movement occurs at the fracture site, the load characteristics change dramatically, with much higher demands placed on the plate systems, and failures will increase based on mechanics alone. When biomechanics are not considered, the incidence of infection, nonunion, and tissue injury may increase. (7) Treatment of structural defects of the midface should be directed to the reconstruction of "normal" pretraumatic load paths. (8) When dealing with plating systems in midfacial fractures, the placement of multiple screws on each side of the fracture provides for a more even distribution of loading (load sharing between the plate and the bone). (9) Stabilization of a fracture requires prevention of translation in all three directions and rotation about all three axes. Restraining a point solves translation but not rotation. Plates provide some rotational stability. The best mechanical advantage is obtained during fixation when plates are not placed along the same axis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1537212

  6. Gender and age differences in facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Houstis, Odyssia; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this research was to determine a reliable method for quantitatively evaluating the facial expressions of children and adults in order to assess their dependence on age and gender. This study evaluated 80 healthy subjects divided into four groups: 20 girls (mean age 10.6 years), 20 boys (mean age 10.8 years), 20 females (average age 25.6 years), and 20 males (average age 27.0 years). A video was used to record each individual executing three facial expressions: a rest pose, a lip pucker, and a posed smile. Representative video frames were chosen for each individual's expressions; they were digitized and then analysed with software that extracted a set of horizontal and vertical distances of the face. All distances measured in the posed smile and lip pucker were expressed as a percentage change from the rest pose. Statistical analysis with a two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed, with gender and age as the independent variables. It was evident that the ability to produce certain facial expressions differs between groups of individuals due to gender and age. Males had a greater upward vertical movement capacity in the studied facial expressions than females. Females had a more pronounced horizontal component in the posed smile. There was a trend from childhood to adulthood showing an increase in the percentage change in most vertical movements. This trend was present in both genders, though more pronounced in males. Using a robust quantitative method for collecting and analysing facial expressions, gender differences in adults were detected as well as differences between adults and children. The trend toward increasing vertical movements in adults compared with children suggests the possibility that the mimic musculature is developmentally regulated. PMID:19541798

  7. A comparison of facial expression properties in five hylobatid species.

    PubMed

    Scheider, Linda; Liebal, Katja; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne; Waller, Bridget

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about facial communication of lesser apes (family Hylobatidae) and how their facial expressions (and use of) relate to social organization. We investigated facial expressions (defined as combinations of facial movements) in social interactions of mated pairs in five different hylobatid species belonging to three different genera using a recently developed objective coding system, the Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS). We described three important properties of their facial expressions and compared them between genera. First, we compared the rate of facial expressions, which was defined as the number of facial expressions per units of time. Second, we compared their repertoire size, defined as the number of different types of facial expressions used, independent of their frequency. Third, we compared the diversity of expression, defined as the repertoire weighted by the rate of use for each type of facial expression. We observed a higher rate and diversity of facial expression, but no larger repertoire, in Symphalangus (siamangs) compared to Hylobates and Nomascus species. In line with previous research, these results suggest siamangs differ from other hylobatids in certain aspects of their social behavior. To investigate whether differences in facial expressions are linked to hylobatid socio-ecology, we used a Phylogenetic General Least Square (PGLS) regression analysis to correlate those properties with two social factors: group-size and level of monogamy. No relationship between the properties of facial expressions and these socio-ecological factors was found. One explanation could be that facial expressions in hylobatid species are subject to phylogenetic inertia and do not differ sufficiently between species to reveal correlations with factors such as group size and monogamy level. PMID:24395677

  8. A metastatic glomus jugulare tumor. A temporal bone report

    SciTech Connect

    El Fiky, F.M.; Paparella, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The clinicopathologic findings in the temporal bone of a patient with a highly malignant metastasizing glomus jugulare tumor are reported. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of primary malignant tumors of the ear, including facial paralysis, otorrhea, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo. He was treated with cobalt irradiation followed by radium implant in the ear canal for a residual tumor; then a left-sided radical mastoidectomy was performed.

  9. Management of petrous bone cholesteatoma: open versus obliterative techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando López Álvarez; Justo R. Gómez; Ma Jesús Bernardo; Carlos Suárez

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to expose our results in the treatment of petrous bone cholesteatomas (PBC), paying attention\\u000a to diagnosis, surgical strategy, facial management, results, and recurrences. The main objective is to compare the results\\u000a of obliterative and open techniques in their management concerning the recurrence rate, due to the controversy elicited on\\u000a obliterative or closed techniques in

  10. The natural history of primary temporal bone myxoma.

    PubMed

    Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Deavers, Michael; DeMonte, Franco; Gidley, Paul W

    2012-08-01

    Primary myxomas of the temporal bone are rare tumors. If misdiagnosed, they can grow into locally aggressive expansile masses resulting in hearing loss, facial paralysis, dural invasion, and mass effect on the adjacent brain parenchyma. This case demonstrates the natural history of an extraordinarily rare tumor over a longer period not previously described. The importance of correlating histopathologic findings with diagnostic imaging features to enable an accurate diagnosis is also emphasized. PMID:22483549

  11. Effects of gastrocnemius fascia lengthening on gait pattern in children with cerebral palsy using the gait profile score.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Cimolin, Veronica; Costici, Pier Francesco; Albertini, Giorgio; Oliveira, Claudia Santos; Galli, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of the GPS regarding the quantification of changes in gait following the gastrocnemius fascia lengthening in children with CP. Nineteen children with CP were selected and evaluated in the preoperative period (PRE session) and approximately one year postoperatively (POST session; mean 13.1 ± 5.1 months) using 3D gait analysis and computing the GPS and GVSs. As the GPS represents the difference between the patient's data and the average from the reference dataset, the higher the value of GPS is, more compromised gait of the subject. A statistically significant improvement in mean GPS was found in the POST session (PRE: 13.38 ± 5°; POST: 10.26 ± 2.41°; p<0.05), with an improvement close to 23%. Moreover, the GVSs demonstrated statistically significant improvements in ankle dorsi-plantarflexion (PRE: 22.20 ± 16.36°; POST: 11.50 ± 6.57°; p<0.05) and pelvic rotation (PRE: 9.53 ± 3.87°; POST: 6.47 ± 2.98°; p<0.05). A strong correlation (r=0.75; p<0.05) was found between the preoperative GPS and the percentage of GPS improvement. The results demonstrated that the gastrocnemius fascia lengthening produced a global gait pattern improvement, as showed by the GPS value, which decreased after surgery. Besides this, the GVS permitted to better evidence the joints more compromised by the pathology and their improvement due to the surgery, in this case not only the GVS of the ankle joint but also of the pelvis were characterized by higher GVS values. PMID:24642227

  12. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio) in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans). We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans), and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face length in carnivorans, this relationship is not conserved across mammals in general. PMID:22741925

  13. Soccer-related Facial Trauma: Multicenter Experience in 2 Brazilian University Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Gal M.; Pereira, Max D.; Gurgel, Augusto; Bastos, Endrigo O.; Nagarkar, Purushottam; Gemperli, Rolf; Ferreira, Lydia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Soccer is the most popular sport in Brazil and a high incidence of related trauma is reported. Maxillofacial trauma can be quite common, sometimes requiring prolonged hospitalization and invasive procedures. To characterize soccer-related facial fractures needing surgery in 2 major Brazilian Centers. Methods: A retrospective review of trauma medical records from the Plastic Surgery Divisions at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo–Escola Paulista de Medicina and the Hospital das Clinicas–Universidade de São Paulo was carried out to identify patients who underwent invasive surgical procedures due to acute soccer-related facial fractures. Data points reviewed included gender, date of injury, type of fracture, date of surgery, and procedure performed. Results: A total of 45 patients (31 from Escola Paulista de Medicina and 14 from Universidade de São Paulo) underwent surgical procedures to address facial fractures between March 2000 and September 2013. Forty-four patients were men, and mean age was 28 years. The fracture patterns seen were nasal bones (16 patients, 35%), orbitozygomatic (16 patients, 35%), mandibular (7 patients, 16%), orbital (6 patients, 13%), frontal (1 patient, 2%), and naso-orbito-ethmoid (1 patient, 2%). Mechanisms of injury included collisions with another player (n = 39) and being struck by the ball (n = 6). Conclusions: Although it is less common than orthopedic injuries, soccer players do sustain maxillofacial trauma. Knowledge of its frequency is important to first responders, nurses, and physicians who have initial contact with patients. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems in the physiological actions of breathing, vision, and chewing. PMID:25289361

  14. Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

  15. Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

  16. [Bone transplant].

    PubMed

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  17. Early complete bone union after condylar fracture in a child.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Hwan; Youn, Seungki; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2011-07-01

    A 3-year-old boy had unilateral intracapsular condylar fracture due to a fall. Short duration of immobilization using a facial band was performed for 5 days without any surgical intervention. The patient had full recovery in mouth opening with no deviation or asymmetry of the mandible. Posttraumatic 6 weeks later, the patient's computed tomogram revealed complete reduction of fracture, and bone union had occurred. In condylar fractures of children, treatment protocols with short duration of immobilization and early active exercise can obtain complete bone union, contrary to the previously described deformity or remodeling process. PMID:21778852

  18. Bone Stress

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    2011-12-07

    In this optics activity, learners examine how polarized light can reveal stress patterns in clear plastic. Learners place a fork between two pieces of polarizing material and induce stress by squeezing the tines together. Learners will observe the colored stress pattern in the image of the plastic that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector. Learners rotate one of the polarizing filters to explore which orientations give the most dramatic color effects. This activity can be related to bones, as bones develop stress patterns from the loads imposed upon them every day.

  19. Automated and objective action coding of facial expressions in patients with acute facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Haase, Daniel; Minnigerode, Laura; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Denzler, Joachim; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2015-05-01

    Aim of the present observational single center study was to objectively assess facial function in patients with idiopathic facial palsy with a new computer-based system that automatically recognizes action units (AUs) defined by the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Still photographs using posed facial expressions of 28 healthy subjects and of 299 patients with acute facial palsy were automatically analyzed for bilateral AU expression profiles. All palsies were graded with the House-Brackmann (HB) grading system and with the Stennert Index (SI). Changes of the AU profiles during follow-up were analyzed for 77 patients. The initial HB grading of all patients was 3.3 ± 1.2. SI at rest was 1.86 ± 1.3 and during motion 3.79 ± 4.3. Healthy subjects showed a significant AU asymmetry score of 21 ± 11 % and there was no significant difference to patients (p = 0.128). At initial examination of patients, the number of activated AUs was significantly lower on the paralyzed side than on the healthy side (p < 0.0001). The final examination for patients took place 4 ± 6 months post baseline. The number of activated AUs and the ratio between affected and healthy side increased significantly between baseline and final examination (both p < 0.0001). The asymmetry score decreased between baseline and final examination (p < 0.0001). The number of activated AUs on the healthy side did not change significantly (p = 0.779). Radical rethinking in facial grading is worthwhile: automated FACS delivers fast and objective global and regional data on facial motor function for use in clinical routine and clinical trials. PMID:25373838

  20. Anatomic study of full facial and scalp allografts without cutaneous facial scars.

    PubMed

    Bastidas, Nicholas; Runyan, Christopher M; Jones, Donna C; Taylor, Jesse A

    2013-12-01

    Conventional reconstructive procedures for face and scalp reconstruction fall short of aesthetic and functional goals because of the unique quality and quantity of facial and scalp soft tissue. The purpose of this cadaver study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a flap design for full face and scalp composite tissue allotransplantation, without cutaneous facial scars. Six fresh human cadavers were dissected with sagittal scalp and mucosal incisions for full face and scalp harvest without cutaneous facial incisions. Sub-galeal and sub-SMAS dissection allowed for inclusion of the external carotid and internal jugular systems. Time of facial-scalp flap harvesting, length of the arterial and venous pedicles, length of sensory nerves (that were included in the facial flaps) and approximate surface area of the flaps were measured. Three of six flaps were transferred to recipient cadavers and the time of transfer was recorded. As a proof of concept, the external carotid arteries of one of six cadavers was flushed to remove clots and perfused with a radio-opaque latex polymer, Microfil (Flow Tech Inc.), to study flap perfusion by X-ray imaging. In the donor cadaver, the mean harvesting time of the total facial-scalp flap was 105 ± 19 minutes. The mean length of the supraorbital, infraorbital, mental and great auricular nerves were 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.1, and 4.8 ± 0.6 cm, respectively. The mean length of the external carotid artery and external jugular vein were 8.7 ± 0.3 and 9.2 ± 0.4 cm, respectively. The approximate area of the harvested flap was 1063 ± 60 cm(2). In preparation for full face and scalp allotransplantation in humans, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of a full face and scalp flap without visible facial incisions. PMID:23647571

  1. The Tolerance of the Nasal Bone to Blunt Impact

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Joseph; Manoogian, Sarah; Bisplinghoff, Jill; Rowson, Steve; Santago, Anthony; McNally, Craig; Duma, Stefan; Bolte, John

    2010-01-01

    The nasal bone is among the most frequently broken facial bone due to all types of trauma and is the most frequently fractured facial bone due to motor vehicle collisions. This study reports the results of anterior-posterior impacts performed on male cadavers using a free-falling impactor with a flat impacting surface. The force at fracture onset was determined using an acoustic emission sensor. These non-censored data were utilized in parametric and non-parametric techniques to determine a relationship between applied force and fracture risk. Based on these analyses a 50% risk of fracture corresponded to an applied force of approximately 450 to 850 N. There was no correlation between fracture force and anthropometric measures of the nasal bone. Interestingly, age had a statistically significant relationship with the risk of nasal bone fracture. This study demonstrates the need for a non-censored measure of fracture occurrence when evaluating structures that can continue to support load after fracture onset. PMID:21050587

  2. Sex Differences in the Rapid Detection of Emotional Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that females and males differ in the processing of emotional facial expressions including the recognition of emotion, and that emotional facial expressions are detected more rapidly than are neutral expressions. However, whether the sexes differ in the rapid detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured reaction times (RTs) during a visual search task in which 44 females and 46 males detected normal facial expressions of anger and happiness or their anti-expressions within crowds of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions expressed neutral emotions with visual changes quantitatively comparable to normal expressions. We also obtained subjective emotional ratings in response to the facial expression stimuli. RT results showed that both females and males detected normal expressions more rapidly than anti-expressions and normal-angry expressions more rapidly than normal-happy expressions. However, females and males showed different patterns in their subjective ratings in response to the facial expressions. Furthermore, sex differences were found in the relationships between subjective ratings and RTs. High arousal was more strongly associated with rapid detection of facial expressions in females, whereas negatively valenced feelings were more clearly associated with the rapid detection of facial expressions in males. Conclusion Our data suggest that females and males differ in their subjective emotional reactions to facial expressions and in the emotional processes that modulate the detection of facial expressions. PMID:24728084

  3. Event-related alpha suppression in response to facial motion.

    PubMed

    Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J; Spencer, Janine V; O'Brien, Justin M D

    2014-01-01

    While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors. PMID:24586735

  4. Transformation of dynamic facial image sequences using static 2D prototypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Tiddeman; David I. Perrett

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for creating visually realistic moving facial image sequences that retain an actor's personality (individuality, expression and characteristic movements) while altering the facial appearance along a certain specified facial dimension. We combine two existing technologies, facial feature tracking and facial image transformation, to create the sequences. Examples are given of transforming the apparent age, ethnic

  5. Imitation as a Communication Tool for Online Facial Expression Learning and Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Imitation as a Communication Tool for Online Facial Expression Learning and Recognition S. Boucenna for the recognition of the facial expression then the parents must imitate the baby facial expression to allow the on to recognize facial expressions without having a teaching signal allowing to associate a facial expression

  6. Bone Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... taken for other reasons, such as a sprained ankle or rotator cu? problem. Doctor Examination If you think you might have a bone tumor, see your doctor as soon as possible for diagnosis and treatment. Occasionally, infection, stress fractures, and other non-tumor conditions can closely resemble ...

  7. Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Pothiawala, Sohil; Lateef, Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Bilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a rare condition, representing less than 2% of all cases of FNP. Majority of these patients have underlying medical conditions, ranging from neurologic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, or metabolic disorders. Objective. The differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive and hence can present as a diagnostic challenge. Emergency physicians should be aware of these various diagnostic possibilities, some of which are potentially fatal. Case Report. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with sequential bilateral facial nerve paralysis which could not be attributed to any particular etiology and, hence, presented a diagnostic dilemma. Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant. PMID:23326715

  8. [Microfat transfer in cosmetic facial procedures].

    PubMed

    Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Vissink, A

    2014-06-01

    Loss of volume in the soft tissues of the face is considered to be an important cause of facial ageing. This volume loss can be compensated by microfattransfer. This technique offers a natural and long-lasting effect. Fat is harvested with liposuction and after centrifugation it is injected into the target areas in the face using small blunt cannulas. The goal is to place the fat in the desired place in such a way that the fat will survive and become integrated in the acceptor tissue. Microfattransfer can be combined with other cosmetic facial procedures such as blepharoplasties and facelifts. Although fatgrafting is a safe technique, complications may occur. These are mostly related to technique and amount of fat injected. Microfattransfer is a useful adjunctive procedure in maxillofacial surgery. Because only 40-50% of the result of microfattransfer is permanent touching up is often necessary. Microfattransfer should be considered as a staged treatment modality. PMID:25022045

  9. Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

    2014-06-01

    In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

  10. Transgender feminization of the facial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Becking, Alfred G; Tuinzing, D Bram; Hage, J Joris; Gooren, Louis J G

    2007-07-01

    In transsexualism, there is a strong and ongoing cross-gender identification, and a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite gender; thus there is a wish for somatic treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with gender identity. Makeup and change in hairstyle and accessories further feminize the face, and in time, most persons became more adapted to their life as a member of the opposite gender. There is a need for more objective standardization of the differences in the facial features of the two sexes, to facilitate surgical treatment planning and more objectively assess the outcome of the facial surgery on psychosocial functioning and appearance. PMID:17692711

  11. Facial Experience During the First Year

    PubMed Central

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Simmons, Rachel E.

    2008-01-01

    Parents of 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-month-olds used two scales we developed to provide information about their infants’ facial experience with familiar and unfamiliar individuals during one week. Results showed large discrepancies in the race, sex, and age of faces that infants experience during their first year with the majority of their facial experience being with their primary caregiver, females, and other individuals of the same race and age as their primary caregiver. The infant’s age and an unfamiliar individual’s sex were predictive of their time spent interacting with one another. Moreover, an unfamiliar individual’s sex was predictive of the attention infants allocated during social interactions. Differences in frequency and length of interactions with certain types of faces, as well as in infant attention toward certain individuals, all likely contribute to the development of expertise in processing commonly experienced face types and deficiencies in processing less commonly experienced face types. PMID:18554724

  12. Facial reconstruction – anatomical art or artistic anatomy?

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury. PMID:20447245

  13. Facial Translocation Approach to the Cranial Base

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Moises A.; Janecka, Ivo P.

    1991-01-01

    Surgical exposure of the nasopharyngeal region of the cranial base is difficult because of its proximity to key anatomic structures. Our laboratory study outlines the anatomic basis for a new approach to this complex topography. Dissections were performed on eight cadaver halves and two fresh specimens injected with intravascular silicone rubber compound. By utilizing facial soft tissue translocation combined with craniofacial osteotomies; a wide surgical field can be obtained at the skull base. The accessible surgical field extends from the contralateral custachian tube to the ipsilateral geniculate ganglion, including the nasopharyax; clivus, sphonoid, and cavernous sinuses, the entire infratemporal fossa, and superior orbital fissure. The facial translocation approach offers previously unavailable wide and direct exposure, with a potential for immediate reconstruction, of this complex region of the cranial base. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:17170817

  14. Management of missiles injuries of the facial skeleton: primary, intermediate, and secondary phases.

    PubMed

    Kummoona, Raja

    2010-07-01

    This study included 235 patients with missile injuries of the facial skeleton, who were treated in the Maxillofacial Unit of the Hospital of Specialized Surgery in Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq, during a period of 4 years of war, since Iraq became the international battlefield for terrorism. There were 195 men and 40 women, with ages ranging from 1 to 70 years (mean, 39.5 years); all patients had severe facial injuries and posttraumatic missile deformities, including 27 patients with orbital injuries. This study also evaluates the management of the immediate, intermediate, and secondary phases.Deformities of the facial skeleton as a complication of missile injuries were classified into the following cases: 95 patients (40.43%) had bone loss, 72 patients (30.64%) had soft-tissue loss, 33 patients (14.05%) had orbital injuries, and 35 patients (14.90%) had other deformities of scar contracture, fistula, and sinus formation.The bony defects of the mandible were reconstructed by both bone chips carried by osteomesh tray harvested from the iliac crest in 24 patients and by block of corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest in 38 patients for reconstruction of the mandible, 4 cases for maxillary reconstruction, and 4 cases of orbital floor defect. K-wire was used in 23 cases for holding missing segments of the mandible. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the face was done in 72 cases, local flaps were used in 30 cases, regional flaps including lateral cervical flap in 10 cases, and cervicofacial flaps in 11 cases. The orbit was reconstructed by bone graft, lyophilized dura, and silastic implant. Low-velocity bullet injury to the frontal part of the head was treated by coronal flap, as an access in 6 cases required craniotomy and dura was reconstructed by galea or temporalis muscle. Scar contracture was treated by scar revision, and sinus tract was excised at the same time of scar revision. Primary phase required an urgent airway management, controlling an active bleeding by surgical intervention; most entrance and exit wounds as well as retained missile were located in the cheek, chin, and mandibular body. Few cases were reported of mortality due to complication related to head injuries. PMID:20613559

  15. Facial paralysis rehabilitation: retraining selective muscle control.

    PubMed

    Balliet, R; Shinn, J B; Bach-y-Rita, P

    1982-01-01

    Traumatic facial paralysis can be improved with surgical techniques but alone will not restore full function. EMG sensory (bio) feedback can, however, facilitate rehabilitation. Four cases are described using a combined treatment technique of EMG, behavioural modification and specific action exercises. Retraining of eyelid control was also accomplished. Standardized evaluation methods are described. All four patients showed improvement, despite the failure of traditional retraining methods. PMID:7174215

  16. Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Finsterer

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters\\u000a of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections,\\u000a trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the\\u000a presence of typical symptoms

  17. Exercise heart rate response to facial cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Riggs Jr; Dewayne J. Johnson; Barbara J. Konopka; Robert D. Kilgour

    1981-01-01

    Summary  The heart rate responses of physically untrained men to exercise with and without facial cooling were determined. Cold wind\\u000a (10‡ C, 6.5 m·s?1, or 2‡ C, 6.5 m·s?1) was directed at the faces of the subjects during a 16 min bout of progressively intense exercise. The 10‡ C wind resulted\\u000a in a significant (p<0.05) lowering of heart rate that appeared

  18. Facial Fracture Management in Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Godwin, Ndubuizi Ugochukwu; Ibikunle, Adebayo Aremu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Facial fracture is gradually become a public health problem in our community due to the attendant morbidity and mortality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the pattern of facial fracture in Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to provide information regarding gender, age, etiology, and diagnosis of patients with maxillofacial fractures. Materials and Methods: A 1-year review of patients diagnosed and treated for facial fractures in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital between January 2011 and December 2011. The diagnosis was based on radiographic data and clinical examination. The main analysis outcome measures were etiology, age, gender, site, and treatment. Data were organized and presented by means of descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: A total of 40 patients were treated in this period. Over 95% were male, 81% were caused by road traffic crash (RTC) and 86.4% were in the 21-30 years group. Most patients (52%) had mandibular fractures, and the most common site was the body. Most patients with midfacial fractures had fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary region (36%), while fractures of the parasymphyseal region were more common in the mandible 156 (31%). The most common treatment for jaw fractures was mandibulomaxillary fixation (MMF). Stable zygomatic complex fractures were reduced (elevated) intraorally, and unstable ones were supported by antral packs. Conclusions: This study highlights facial fractures secondary to RTC as a serious public health problem in our environment. Preventive strategies remain the cheapest way to reduce direct and indirect costs of the sequelae of RTC. It also bring to the fore the necessity to shift to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of fractures. PMID:24741422

  19. Facial Composite System Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahradníková, Barbora; Duchovi?ová, So?a; Schreiber, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with genetic algorithms and their application in face identification. The purpose of the research is to develop a free and open-source facial composite system using evolutionary algorithms, primarily processes of selection and breeding. The initial testing proved higher quality of the final composites and massive reduction in the composites processing time. System requirements were specified and future research orientation was proposed in order to improve the results.

  20. Criteria of facial attractiveness in five populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doug Jones; Kim Hill

    1993-01-01

    The theory of sexual selection suggests several possible explanations for the development of standards of physical attractiveness\\u000a in humans. Asymmetry and departures from average proportions may be markers of the breakdown of developmental stability. Supernormal\\u000a traits may present age- and sex-typical features in exaggerated form. Evidence from social psychology suggests that both average\\u000a proportions and (in females) “neotenous” facial traits

  1. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Nath, Devajit; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Thakkar, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannoma occurring within the parotid gland is a rare tumour. We report a case of schwannoma within the parotid gland in a young female patient, who underwent ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and subsequent surgical excision of the lesion. The lesion showed hyperintensity on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. There was no adjacent lymphadenopathy. Although hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted MRI could suggest malignant tumours, the characteristic “string sign” provided the clue for the diagnosis of schwannoma.

  2. Special locations dermoscopy: facial, acral, and nail.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Luc; Phan, Alice; Pralong, Pauline; Poulalhon, Nicolas; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Dalle, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    Although dermoscopy reflects the anatomy, skin anatomy is different on facial and acral skin as well as in the nail unit. Malignant patterns on acral sites include the parallel ridge pattern and irregular diffuse pigmentation, whose presence should lead to a biopsy. Malignant patterns on the face include features of follicular invasion (signet-ring images, annular granular images, and rhomboidal structures) and atypical vessels. Malignant patterns on the nail unit include the micro-Hutchinson sign and irregular longitudinal lines. PMID:24075549

  3. Time Perception and Dynamics of Facial Expressions of Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Fayolle, Sophie L.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were run to examine the effects of dynamic displays of facial expressions of emotions on time judgments. The participants were given a temporal bisection task with emotional facial expressions presented in a dynamic or a static display. Two emotional facial expressions and a neutral expression were tested and compared. Each of the emotional expressions had the same affective valence (unpleasant), but one was high-arousing (expressing anger) and the other low-arousing (expressing sadness). Our results showed that time judgments are highly sensitive to movements in facial expressions and the emotions expressed. Indeed, longer perceived durations were found in response to the dynamic faces and the high-arousing emotional expressions compared to the static faces and low-arousing expressions. In addition, the facial movements amplified the effect of emotions on time perception. Dynamic facial expressions are thus interesting tools for examining variations in temporal judgments in different social contexts. PMID:24835285

  4. Combining skin texture and facial structure for face identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoni, R. E.; Canosa, R. L.

    2012-03-01

    Current face identification systems are not robust enough to accurately identify the same individual in different images with changes in head pose, facial expression, occlusion, length of hair, illumination, aging, etc. This is especially a problem for facial images that are captured using low resolution video cameras or webcams. This paper introduces a new technique for facial identification in low resolution images that combines facial structure with skin texture to accommodate changes in lighting and head pose. Experiments using this new technique show that combining facial structure features with skin texture features results in a facial identification system for low resolution images that is more robust to pose and illumination conditions than either technique used alone.

  5. Sex differences in perception of invisible facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang Wook; Yoon, K. Lira; Peaco, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that women are better at recognizing facial expressions than men. In the current study, we examined whether this female advantage in the processing of facial expressions also occurs at the unconscious level. In two studies, participants performed a simple detection task and a 4-AFC task while faces were rendered invisible by continuous flash suppression. When faces with full intensity expressions were suppressed, there was no significant sex difference in the time of breakup of suppression (Study 1). However, when suppressed faces depicted low intensity expressions, suppression broke up earlier in men than women, indicating that men may be more sensitive to facial features related to mild facial expressions (Study 2). The current findings suggest that the female advantage in processing of facial expressions is absent in unconscious processing of emotional information. The female advantage in facial expression processing may require conscious perception of faces.

  6. Sex differences in perception of invisible facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Wook; Yoon, K Lira; Peaco, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that women are better at recognizing facial expressions than men. In the current study, we examined whether this female advantage in the processing of facial expressions also occurs at the unconscious level. In two studies, participants performed a simple detection task and a 4-AFC task while faces were rendered invisible by continuous flash suppression. When faces with full intensity expressions were suppressed, there was no significant sex difference in the time of breakup of suppression (Study 1). However, when suppressed faces depicted low intensity expressions, suppression broke up earlier in men than women, indicating that men may be more sensitive to facial features related to mild facial expressions (Study 2). The current findings suggest that the female advantage in processing of facial expressions is absent in unconscious processing of emotional information. The female advantage in facial expression processing may require conscious perception of faces. PMID:25883583

  7. Laypersons' perception of facial and dental asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno Pereira; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Martinez-de-Fuentes, Rafael; Greenberg, Joseph R; Chu, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to determine the individual visual perception thresholds of certain facial and dental discrepancies for a symmetric face model (SFM). A facial photograph of a female subject's smile was digitally manipulated into an artificially symmetric picture. Modifications were made on the SFM for shifts in the dental midline, nose, and chin (group 1) and cants of dental midline and incisal plane (group 2), resulting in a total of 24 different images divided into two groups. One-hundred randomly selected laypersons divided into two groups were used to evaluate each image according to their own personal beauty and esthetic criteria using a visual analog scale. The visual perception thresholds found for the SFM were 2 mm for a dental midline shift, 4 mm for nose deviation, 5 degrees for dental midline cant, and 3 degrees for frontal incisal plane cant. Chin deviations of 6 mm or less were not noticed. Dental midline shift, nose deviation, dental midline cant, and incisal plane cant relative to an SFM have an impact on the perception of facial attractiveness. Chin deviations did not have a statistically significant impact. PMID:24116371

  8. Geometric Facial Gender Scoring: Objectivity of Perception

    PubMed Central

    Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

  9. From Bone Biology to Bone Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Schoenau; G. Saggese; F. Peter; G. I. Baroncelli; N. J. Shaw; N. J. Crabtree; Z. Zadik; C. M. Neu; C. Noordam; G. Radetti; Z. Hochberg

    2004-01-01

    Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has great potential to enhance our understanding of bone development. The usefulness of densitometry in children and adolescents would be increased

  10. Style learning and transferring for facial animation editing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohan Ma; Binh Huy Le; Zhigang Deng

    2009-01-01

    Most of current facial animation editing techniques are frame-based approaches (i.e., manually edit one keyframe every several frames), which is ineffective, time-consuming, and prone to editing inconsistency. In this paper, we present a novel facial editing style learning framework that is able to learn a constraint-based Gaussian Process model from a small number of facial-editing pairs, and then it can

  11. Histopathologic and functional effects of facial nerve following electrical stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emrah Sapmaz; Irfan Kaygusuz; Hayrettin Cengiz Alpay; Nusret Akpolat; Erol Keles; Turgut Karlidag; Israfil Orhan; Sinasi Yalcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the functional and histopathologic changes in facial nerve due to the application of\\u000a various violent and numerous electrical stimuli to the facial nerve. The study was carried out with Wistar rats weighing between\\u000a 200 and 300 g. The facial nerves of the subjects were located and stimulated with electrical stimulator. Then five groups

  12. Intraoperative Monitoring and Facial Nerve Outcomes after Vestibular Schwannoma Resection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brandon Isaacson; Paul R. Kileny; Hussam El-Kashlan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the predictive value of proximal fa- cial nerve electrical threshold and proximal-to-distal facial muscle compound action potential amplitude ratio on facial nerve outcomes after resection of vestibular schwannomas. Study Design: Retrospective case review. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Patients: Two hundred twenty-nine patients undergoing resec- tion of vestibular schwannomas with intraoperative facial nerve monitoring at a single institution.

  13. The facial expression of pain in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Miriam; Scharmann, Siegfried; Hemmeter, Uli; Schepelmann, Karsten; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2007-12-15

    The facial expression of pain has emerged as an important pain indicator in demented patients, who have difficulties in providing self-report ratings. In a few clinical studies an increase of facial responses to pain was observed in demented patients compared to healthy controls. However, it had to be shown that this increase can be verified when using experimental methods, which also allows for testing whether the facial responses in demented patients are still typical for pain. We investigated facial responses in 42 demented patients and 54 aged-matched healthy controls to mechanically induced pain of various intensities. The face of the subject was videotaped during pressure stimulation and was later analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Besides facial responses we also assessed self-report ratings. Comparable to previous findings, we found that facial responses to noxious stimulation were significantly increased in demented patients compared to healthy controls. This increase was mainly due to an increase of pain-indicative facial responses in demented patients. Moreover, facial responses were closely related to the intensity of stimulation, especially in demented patients. Regarding self-report ratings, we found no significant group differences; however, the capacity to provide these self-report ratings was diminished in demented patients. The preserved pain typicalness of facial responses to noxious stimulation suggests that pain is reflected as validly in the facial responses of demented patients as it is in healthy individuals. Therefore, the facial expression of pain has the potential to serve as an alternative pain assessment tool in demented patients, even in patients who are verbally compromised. PMID:17949906

  14. Personalized low polygon count facial models for real time applications

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Ryan Troy

    2002-01-01

    PERSONALIZED LOW POLYGON COUNT FACIAL MODELS FOR REAL TIME APPLICATIONS A Thesis RYAN TROY MITCHELL Subndt ted to the Offrce of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM IJniversity in partial fullillnrent of the requircmcnts for thc degree of MASTER... VI. 2. Other Directions in Facial Rcprcscntation 6 7 7 9 10 11 12 14 la 18 18 20 21 23 24 26 28 28 30 30 30 33 Page REFERENCES VITA 37 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Thc facial interface paranreter slidebars are represcntcd...

  15. , jklee}@ajou.ac.kr Facial Animation of Automatic Added Anticipation

    E-print Network

    Lee, In-Kwon

    Chenney, Mark Pingel, Rob Iverson, and Marcin Szymanski, " Simulating Cartoon Style Animation O {janus98 O , jklee}@ajou.ac.kr Facial Animation of Automatic Added Anticipation Dong Animation) . (Anticipation) (Facial Animation) . (Facial Animation

  16. Aberrant Patterns of Visual Facial Information Usage in Schizophrenia Cameron M. Clark

    E-print Network

    Gosselin, Frédéric

    Aberrant Patterns of Visual Facial Information Usage in Schizophrenia Cameron M. Clark University emotion perception have been linked to poorer functional outcome in schizophrenia. However understand the nature of facial emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we used the Bubbles Facial

  17. Optical Computer Recognition of Facial Expressions Associated with Stress Induced by Performance

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Optical Computer Recognition of Facial Expressions Associated with Stress Induced by Performance, METAXAS DN. Optical computer recognition of facial expressions associated with stress induced optical computer recognition (OCR) algorithms for detecting facial changes during performance while people

  18. AAM Derived Face Representations for Robust Facial Action Recognition Anonymous author

    E-print Network

    Hu, Changbo

    AAM Derived Face Representations for Robust Facial Action Recognition Anonymous author Author methods for these representations which increase facial action recognition performance. 1. Introduction goal of "real-world" automatic facial action recognition. However, for any pattern recognition task

  19. Research report Neural organization for recognition of grammatical and emotional facial

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    Research report Neural organization for recognition of grammatical and emotional facial expressions expression; Language 1. Introduction Recognition of facial expressions of emotion is a crucial communication occurs very early in development, and the neural circuitry underlying facial affect recognition

  20. The development of facial emotion recognition: The role of configural information

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The development of facial emotion recognition: The role of configural information Karine study was to provide new evidence on development change in recognition of facial emotions during childhood. Few studies have investigated the developmental course of facial emotion recognition, contrary

  1. Facial palsy in Kawasaki disease: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Sung-Tse; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Ho, Che-Sheng; Chen, Ming-Ren

    2008-01-01

    Facial palsy is an unusual complication associated with Kawasaki disease, with only a few published case reports. We report two patients with typical Kawasaki disease and facial palsy. Both had coronary artery aneurysms and were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. The facial palsy resolved completely over the next several months in both patients. Coronary artery aneurysms resolved completely in one patient, and the other has not regressed to normal till now. The incidence of coronary artery aneurysm appears to be higher in the handful of reported cases of Kawasaki disease with facial palsy. PMID:18581725

  2. Facial Expression Recognition Analysis with Muti-Scale Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jun

    The design of filters is the key step of facial expression extraction. Frequency and orientation of the filters can simulate those of the human visual system, and they have the characteristics of being particularly appropriate for texture representation and discrimination. The paper presents the wavelet filter provided with 3 frequencies, 8 orientations. In according to actual demand, it can extract the feature of low quality facial expression image target, and have good robust for automatic facial expression recognition. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed filter achieved excellent average recognition rates, when it is applied to facial expression recognition system.

  3. Buried Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, pairs of learners will create two make-believe dig sites by burying chicken bones in plaster of Paris--a powder that hardens when wet. Then, learners try to excavate (dig out) their partner's "fossils." Learners will discover that excavating fossils requires skill, patience, and the right tools. Note: this activity requires adult supervision as working with plaster of Paris can be dangerous if not done properly.

  4. Sagittal split ramus osteotomy for aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Amit; Sharma, Rohit; Muralidharan, Chiyyarath Gopalan

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign pseudocystic osseous lesion characterized by a fibrous connective tissue stroma with cellular fibrous tissue, multinucleated giant cells, and large blood-filled spaces with no endothelial lining. The entity is uncommon in facial bones, and it rarely involves the mandibular condyle. Resection of the lesion is the most accepted treatment. The present case is the 11th reported case of aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandibular condyle in the existing literature and the first where, rather than using conventional extra oral approach, sagittal split ramus osteotomy was used to excise the lesion successfully with no recurrence after 3 years of follow-up. PMID:25565239

  5. Evolution of Postoperative Edema in Alveolar Graft Performed With Bone Morphogenetic Protein (rhBMP-2).

    PubMed

    Leal, Claudia Resende; Calvo, Adriana Maria; de Souza Faco, Renato André; da Cunha Bastos Júnior, José Carlos; Yaedú, Renato Yassutaka Faria; da Silva Dalben, Gisele; Carvalho, Roberta Martinelli

    2014-12-01

    Objective :? To evaluate the evolution of facial edema in the postoperative period after alveolar graft surgeries performed with collagen membrane soaked with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in individuals with cleft lip and palate. Design :? Longitudinal prospective. Setting :? Tertiary craniofacial center. Participants :? One hundred fifty individuals submitted to alveolar graft. Interventions : In the preoperative consultation and 4 days after surgery, the individuals were assessed as to age, professional performing the surgery, duration of the procedure, type of cleft, measurement of facial edema, mouth opening, and global evaluation of the postoperative period. Main outcome measures :? Statistical analysis was performed to compare the facial edema and different variables, at a significance level of .05. Results :? The maximum facial edema occurred between 3 and 4 days postoperatively, was inversely proportional to age and mouth opening, greater for female patients, for incomplete unilateral cleft lip and palate, and for surgeon 1 compared with the other surgeons at some moment postoperatively. The surgeries were longer for complete unilateral and bilateral clefts. The difference was statistically significant for these variables. Conclusions :? The facial edema was influenced by the rhBMP-2 used in alveolar graft, and trismus was proportional to the intensity of facial edema. PMID:25436425

  6. Stretch speed?dependent myofiber damage and functional deficits in rat skeletal muscle induced by lengthening contraction

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Itoh, Yuta; Miyazu?Inoue, Masumi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Taguchi, Toru; Kawakami, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Exercise involving lengthening contraction (LC) often results in delayed myofiber damage and functional deficits over the ensuing days. The present study examined whether the stretch speed of LC is a determinant of damage severity. Under isoflurane anesthesia, LC was repeatedly induced in rat ankle extensor muscles at different stretch speeds (angular velocities of 50, 100, 200, and 400 deg/sec) over a fixed stretch range of motion (90°). The number of muscle fibers labeled with Evans blue dye, a marker of muscle fiber damage associated with increased membrane permeability, increased with the angular velocity of LC (by 20% of all myofibers at 400 deg/sec). Muscle fibers with cross?sectional areas in the range of 3600–4800 ?m2, corresponding to type IIb fiber size, exhibited the most severe damage as revealed by the largest decrease in the number of fibers 3 days after LC at 200 deg/sec, suggesting that muscle damage occurred preferentially in type IIb myofibers. Isometric torque of dorsiflexion measured 2 days after LC decreased progressively with LC angular velocity (by 68% reduction at 400 deg/sec). The angular velocity of muscle stretch during LC is thus a critical determinant of the degree of damage, and LC appears to damage type IIb fibers preferentially, resulting in a disproportionate reduction in isometric torque. This LC response is an important consideration for the design of physical conditioning and rehabilitation regimens. PMID:25413330

  7. Telomere dysfunction and activation of alternative lengthening of telomeres in B-lymphocytes infected by Epstein–Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Kamranvar, S A; Chen, X; Masucci, M G

    2013-01-01

    Malignant cells achieve replicative immortality by two alternative mechanisms, a common one dependent on de novo synthesis of telomeric DNA by telomerase, and a rare one based on telomere recombination known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) transforms human B-lymphocytes into lymphoblastoid cell lines with unlimited growth potential in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that newly EBV-infected cells exhibit multiple signs of telomere dysfunction, including the occurrence of extra-chromosomal telomeres, telomere fusion and telomere length heterogeneity, and undergo progressive increase in telomere length without a parallel increase in telomerase activity. This phenotype is accompanied by the accumulation of telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies and telomeric-sister chromatid exchange, suggesting that EBV infection promotes the activation of ALT. Newly infected cells also display a significant reduction of telomere-associated TRF2 and express low levels of TRF1, TRF2, POT1 and ATRX, pointing to telomere de-protection as an important correlate of ALT activation. Collectively, these findings highlight the involvement of recombination-dependent mechanisms for maintenance of telomere homeostasis in EBV-induced B-cell immortalization. PMID:23708666

  8. Telomere dysfunction and activation of alternative lengthening of telomeres in B-lymphocytes infected by Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Kamranvar, S A; Chen, X; Masucci, M G

    2013-12-01

    Malignant cells achieve replicative immortality by two alternative mechanisms, a common one dependent on de novo synthesis of telomeric DNA by telomerase, and a rare one based on telomere recombination known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms human B-lymphocytes into lymphoblastoid cell lines with unlimited growth potential in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that newly EBV-infected cells exhibit multiple signs of telomere dysfunction, including the occurrence of extra-chromosomal telomeres, telomere fusion and telomere length heterogeneity, and undergo progressive increase in telomere length without a parallel increase in telomerase activity. This phenotype is accompanied by the accumulation of telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies and telomeric-sister chromatid exchange, suggesting that EBV infection promotes the activation of ALT. Newly infected cells also display a significant reduction of telomere-associated TRF2 and express low levels of TRF1, TRF2, POT1 and ATRX, pointing to telomere de-protection as an important correlate of ALT activation. Collectively, these findings highlight the involvement of recombination-dependent mechanisms for maintenance of telomere homeostasis in EBV-induced B-cell immortalization. PMID:23708666

  9. The Effect of Altering the Mechanical Loading Environment on the Expression of Bone Regenerating Molecules in Cases of Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Mohammad M.; Anam, Emad A.; Makhdom, Asim M.; Villemure, Isabelle; Hamdy, Reggie Charles

    2014-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical technique where gradual and controlled separation of two bony fragments following an osteotomy leads to the induction of new bone formation in the distracted gap. DO is used for limb lengthening, correction of bony deformities, and the replacement of bone loss secondary to infection, trauma, and tumors. Although DO gives satisfactory results in most cases, one major drawback of this technique is the prolonged period of time the external fixator has to be kept on until the newly formed bone consolidates thus leading to numerous complications. Numerous attempts at accelerating bone formation during DO have been reported. One specific approach is manipulation of the mechanical environment during DO by applying changes in the standard protocol of distraction. Attempts at changing this mechanical environment led to mixed results. Increasing the rate or applying acute distraction, led to poor bone formation in the distracted zone. On the other hand, the addition of compressive forces (such as weight bearing, alternating distraction with compression or by over-lengthening, and then shortening) has been reported to increase bone formation. It still remains unclear why these alterations may lead to changes in bone formation. While the cellular and molecular changes occurring during the standard DO protocol, specifically increased expression of transforming growth factor-?1, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and bone morphogenic proteins have been extensively investigated, the literature is sparse on the changes occurring when this protocol is altered. It is the purpose of this article to review the pertinent literature on the changes in the expression of various proteins and molecules as a result of changes in the mechanical loading technique in DO and try to define potential future research directions. PMID:25540639

  10. 3D Facial Landmark Localization3D Facial Landmark Localization using Combinatorial Search and

    E-print Network

    Whelan, Paul F.

    as an index of early brain dysmorphogenesis in neuropsychiatric disorders Down syndrome Autism Schizophrenia Bipolar disorder Fetal alcohol syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome Cornelia de Large syndrome Joubert syndrome ... Patterns tend to be subtle #12;07/10/2012 2 Facial

  11. Facial mimicry and emotional contagion to dynamic emotional facial expressions and their influence on decoding accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Hess; Sylvie Blairy

    2001-01-01

    The present study had the goal to assess whether individuals mimic and show emotional contagion in response to relatively weak and idiosyncratic dynamic facial expressions of emotions similar to those encountered in everyday life. Furthermore, the question of whether mimicry leads to emotional contagion and in turn facilitates emotion recognition was addressed. Forty-one female participants rated a series of short

  12. Laser welding of rat's facial nerve.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Sun Goo; Kim, Dae Joong; Lee, Chang Hyun

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare regeneration of the severed nerves that were repaired by laser welding with those repaired by microsurgical suturing and evaluate the value in use of laser nerve welding in the head and neck area. In 12 rats the buccal branches of the facial nerves on the both sides were transected, and CO2 laser welding of the epineurium was performed on the right side and microsurgical suture technique was applied on the left side. In six rats Cholera Toxin B Subunit (CTb) was injected in the epineurium distal to the nerve anastomosis site at postoperative week 4. Another six rats were treated exactly in the same way in postoperative week 8. Six normal rats were used as controls. Intact facial nerve was observed after injection of CTb as well. Neurons of facial nuclei labeled positively by CTb were detected immunohistochemically, and the numbers were counted. CTb-positive neurons in the control group were 1311 +/- 258 (n = 6). CTb-positive neurons in the group (n = 6) with laser nerve welding were 1174 +/- 122 in postoperative week 4 and 1562 +/- 565 in postoperative week 8. CTb-positive neurons in the group (n = 6) with microsurgical suture were 1066 +/- 89 in postoperative week 4 and 1443 +/- 531 in postoperative week 8. CTb-positive neurons were seen significantly more in the group with laser welding than in the group with microsurgical suture in postoperative week (P = 0.028), but there was not much difference in postoperative week 8 (P = 0.463). None of 12 rats showed dehiscence at the nerve anastomosis done by laser welding. This study shows that nerve regeneration is more apparent in the nerve repaired by laser welding than in that repaired by microsurgical suture. PMID:16327562

  13. Psychometric Testing of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew

    2010-01-01

    School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…

  14. Young Children's Ability to Match Facial Features Typical of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacoste, Ronald J.

    This study examined (1) the ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to racially classify Negro and Caucasian facial features in the absence of skin color as a racial cue; and (2) the relative value attached to the facial features of Negro and Caucasian races. Subjects were 21 middle income, Caucasian children from a privately owned nursery school in…

  15. Ultrasonic assessment of facial soft tissue thicknesses in adult Egyptians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inas Hassan El-Mehallawi; Eman Mostafa Soliman

    2001-01-01

    The production of a three-dimensional plastic face on an unknown human skull has been practiced sporadically since the latter part of the last century. In recent years, the technique has been revived and applied to forensic science cases. The morphometric method of forensic facial reconstruction rests heavily on the use of facial soft tissue depth measurements. Moreover, it has been

  16. Featural Evaluation, Integration, and Judgment of Facial Affect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Ellison; Dominic W. Massaro

    1997-01-01

    The paradigm of the fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP) is extended to the domain of perception and recognition of facial affect. Two experiments were performed using a highly realistic computer-generated face varying on 2 features of facial affect. Each experiment used the same expanded factorial design, with 5 levels of brow deflection crossed with 5 levels of mouth deflection,

  17. Featural evaluation, integration, and judgment of facial affect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Ellison; Dominic W. Massaro

    1997-01-01

    The paradigm of the fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP) is extended to the domain of perception and recognition of facial affect. Two experiments were performed using a highly realistic computer-generated face varying on 2 features of facial affect. Each experiment used the same expanded factorial design, with 5 levels of brow deflection crossed with 5 levels of mouth deflection,

  18. The Facial Expression Coding System (FACES): Development, Validation, and Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kring, Ann M.; Sloan, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information on the development and validation of the Facial Expression Coding System (FACES; A. M. Kring & D. Sloan, 1991). Grounded in a dimensional model of emotion, FACES provides information on the valence (positive, negative) of facial expressive behavior. In 5 studies, reliability and validity data from 13 diverse…

  19. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlackova syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an…

  20. RICOSTRUZIONE POST-TRAUMATICA DEL NERVO FACIALE MEDIANTE INNESTO ALLOPLASTICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. MALAN; M. NAVISSANO; B. BATTISTON

    2003-01-01

    Facial nerve post-traumatic reconstruction through alloplastic graft. SUMMARY Purpose: There are two reconstruction methods used in facial nerve lesions with nervous gap: direct suture of the two stumps and autologous or tubulized graft (tubes of biological or synthetic origin are generally used). \\

  1. Neonatal pain facial expression: Evaluating the primal face of pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Schiavenato; Jacquie F. Byers; Paul Scovanner; James M. McMahon; Yinglin Xia; Naiji Lu; Hua He

    2008-01-01

    The primal face of pain (PFP) is postulated to be a common and universal facial expression to pain, hardwired and present at birth. We evaluated its presence by applying a computer-based methodology consisting of “point-pair” comparisons captured from video to measure facial movement in the pain expression by way of change across two images: one image before and one image

  2. VISUAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING COMPACT FACIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND VISEME INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    VISUAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING COMPACT FACIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND VISEME INFORMATION Angeliki@usc.edu, shri@sipi.usc.edu ABSTRACT Emotion expression is an essential part of human interaction. Rich emotional information of ten speakers of both genders during emotional speech. We derive compact facial representations

  3. A 3D facial combination model based on mesh resampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Yongli; Yin Baocai; Cheng Shiquan; Gu Chunliang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a combination model for 3D facial synthesis. To construct the model it is fundamental to compute the dense point-to-point alignments among the prototypic faces acquired by Cyberware scanner. The proposed mesh resampling method overcome the alignments by the same resampling criterion to all prototypes. From the aligning prototypes the linear combination facial model is constructed.

  4. Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Stimulation on Facial Nerve Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Byers; Keith F. Clark; Glenn C. Thompson

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine if exposure to electromag- netic fields influences regeneration of the transected fa- cial nerve in the rat. Design and Methods: The left facial nerve was tran- sected in the tympanic section of the fallopian canal in 24 rats randomly assigned to 2 groups. The cut ends of the facial nerve were reapproximated without sutures within the fallopian

  5. Computer Simulation of Antidromic Facial Nerve Response Waveform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuru Iwai; Taizo Takeda; Hiroaki Nakatani; Akinobu Kakigi

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion: An assessment of facial nerve (FN) damage on the basis of antidromic facial nerve response (AFNR) was established by computer simulation analysis. Computer simulation has the advantage of being able to assume any type of lesion. In the near future, computer analysis should provide another experimental method which displaces animal experiments, thus circumventing the ethical dilemma associated with animal

  6. Evaluation of proximal facial nerve conduction by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T N Schriefer; K R Mills; N M Murray; C W Hess

    1988-01-01

    A magnetic stimulator was used for direct transcutaneous stimulation of the intracranial portion of the facial nerve in 15 normal subjects and in patients with Bell's palsy, demyelinating neuropathy, traumatic facial palsy and pontine glioma. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) thus elicited in the orbicularis oris muscle of controls were of similar amplitude but longer latency (1.3 SD 0.15 ms)

  7. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial

  8. RESEARCH Open Access Facial phenotypes in subgroups of prepubertal

    E-print Network

    Duan, Ye

    of these subgroups will help to elucidate the causes and significance of these subtle facial differences. Keywords appropriate. Results: First, we found that there are significant differences in facial morphology in boys with ASD compared to typically developing boys. Second, we also found two subgroups of boys with ASD

  9. Impaired facial emotion recognition and reduced amygdalar volume in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Chihiro; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Makiko; Hanakawa, Takashi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-10-15

    Structural abnormalities of the amygdala and impaired facial emotion recognition have been reported in schizophrenia. Most studies demonstrated reduced amygdalar volumes in schizophrenia patients, and difficulty in recognizing negative facial emotions has also been reported. However, findings on the deficit in facial emotion recognition have been inconsistent, and the relationships between this impairment and amygdalar volume reduction remain unclear. In this study, we investigated these relationships by performing volumetric analysis of the amygdala and evaluation of facial emotion recognition performance in the same subjects with schizophrenia. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. We measured the volumes of the amygdalae with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3.0 Tesla. Additionally, we included a task that evaluated the subjects' ability to recognize the intensity of basic facial emotions. We found that impaired facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia patients is emotion-specific (sadness, surprise, disgust, and anger). Moreover, the volume of each amygdala on either side of the brain was reduced. Finally, we found a correlation between left amygdalar volume and the recognition of sadness in facial expressions. This study demonstrated that amygdala dysfunction may contribute to impaired facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. PMID:17728113

  10. Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for facial emotion detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bashir Mohammed Ghandi; R. Nagarajan; Hazry Desa

    2009-01-01

    Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm has been applied and found to be efficient in many searching and optimization related applications. In this paper, we present a modified version of the algorithm that we successfully applied to facial emotion detection. Our approach is based on tracking the movements of facial action units (AUs) placed on the face of a subject and

  11. Manifold of Facial Expression Ya Chang, Changbo Hu, Matthew Turk

    E-print Network

    Hu, Changbo

    varies a lot between different individuals. However, it is a challenging task to automatically determine categories. Second, this approach does not consider the intensity scale of the different facial expressionsManifold of Facial Expression Ya Chang, Changbo Hu, Matthew Turk Computer Science Department

  12. Gender differences in the motivational processing of facial beauty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boaz Levy; Dan Ariely; Nina Mazar; Won Chi; Scott Lukas; Igor Elman

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial images, and (b) rating the attractiveness of

  13. Reconstruction of massive facial avulsive injury, secondary to animal bite.

    PubMed

    Motamed, Sadrollah; Niazi, Feizollah; Moosavizadeh, Seyed Mehdi; Gholizade Pasha, Abdolhamid; Motamed, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Management of facial soft tissue trauma requires complex reconstruction surgery. Animal bite on face is a common cause of facial tissue trauma with severe destruction. Evaluation of unit involvement is the first effort, followed by designation of reconstruction. In this case, we performed multiple reconstruction options. PMID:24527975

  14. Gender classification by combining clothing, hair and facial component classifiers

    E-print Network

    Lu, Bao-Liang

    design feature extraction methods for hair and clothing; these features have seldom been used in previousGender classification by combining clothing, hair and facial component classifiers Bing Li a , Xiao classification Facial components Clothing feature Hair feature Classifier combination Local binary pattern

  15. Example-based performance driven facial shape animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Yang; Nanning Zheng; Yuehu Liu; Shaoyi Du; Yoshifumi Nishio

    2009-01-01

    A novel performance driven facial shape animation method is presented for mapping the expressions from the source face to the target face automatically. Unlike the prior expression cloning approaches, the proposed method aims to animate a new target face with the help of real facial expression samples. The basic idea is to learn the shape deformation from samples for target

  16. Facial movement varies by sex and is related to attractiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward R. Morrison; Lisa Gralewski; Neill Campbell; Ian S. Penton-Voak

    2007-01-01

    Facial movement has received little attention in studies of human attractiveness, yet dynamic displays are an important aspect of courtship in many species. This experiment investigated whether facial movement could be used to identify sex, and whether the ease of identification was associated with attractiveness. We removed shape cues to sex by applying movement from individual faces to a standardised

  17. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  18. Ophthalmic Management of Facial Nerve Palsy: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imran Rahman; S. Ahmed Sadiq

    2007-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy affects individuals of all ages, races, and sexes. Psychological and functional implications of the paralysis present a devastating management problem to those afflicted, as well as the carriers. Since Sir Charles Bell's original description of facial palsy in 1821, our understanding and treatment options have expanded. It is essential that a multidisciplinary approach, encompassing ophthalmologists; Ear, Nose,

  19. Dynamic facial expression recognition using a be-havioural model

    E-print Network

    Bierlaire, Michel

    Dynamic facial expression recognition using a be- havioural model Thomas Robin Michel Bierlaire Javier Cruz STRC 2009 September 2009 #12;STRC 2009 Dynamic facial expression recognition using in transportation for users emotion recognition. This permits to adapt car behaviors to drivers mood for safety

  20. Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…