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1

Computer Simulation of Multidimensional Bone Deformity Correction and Lengthening by Unilateral External Fixator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Analytic and graphic model of a unilateral external fixator and bone system is presented to simulate and visualize the\\u000a pre-operative planning of three-dimensional adjustments of the fixator joints in osteotomy. An analytic model was developed\\u000a as a rigid body linkage system, and kinematic chain loop equations were utilized in the adjustment analysis to obtain the\\u000a necessary rotations and translations

Yoon Hyuk Kim

2003-01-01

2

Intra-temporal facial nerve centerline segmentation for navigated temporal bone surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approaches through the temporal bone require surgeons to drill away bone to expose a target skull base lesion while evading vital structures contained within it, such as the sigmoid sinus, jugular bulb, and facial nerve. We hypothesize that an augmented neuronavigation system that continuously calculates the distance to these structures and warns if the surgeon drills too close, will aid in making safe surgical approaches. Contemporary image guidance systems are lacking an automated method to segment the inhomogeneous and complexly curved facial nerve. Therefore, we developed a segmentation method to delineate the intra-temporal facial nerve centerline from clinically available temporal bone CT images semi-automatically. Our method requires the user to provide the start- and end-point of the facial nerve in a patient's CT scan, after which it iteratively matches an active appearance model based on the shape and texture of forty facial nerves. Its performance was evaluated on 20 patients by comparison to our gold standard: manually segmented facial nerve centerlines. Our segmentation method delineates facial nerve centerlines with a maximum error along its whole trajectory of 0.40+/-0.20 mm (mean+/-standard deviation). These results demonstrate that our model-based segmentation method can robustly segment facial nerve centerlines. Next, we can investigate whether integration of this automated facial nerve delineation with a distance calculating neuronavigation interface results in a system that can adequately warn surgeons during temporal bone drilling, and effectively diminishes risks of iatrogenic facial nerve palsy.

Voormolen, Eduard H. J.; van Stralen, Marijn; Woerdeman, Peter A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.; Noordmans, Herke J.; Regli, Luca; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, Jan W.; Viergever, Max A.

2011-03-01

3

Sensorineural Deafness, Distinctive Facial Features and Abnormal Cranial Bones  

PubMed Central

The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. PMID:18553554

Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

2008-01-01

4

A case of recovery of oral function with dental implants following facial bone trauma.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old woman had sustained facial lacerations, loss of several teeth, alveolar bone fracture, and severe vertical bone resorption in conjunction with a shattered alveolar bone and marked loss of intraoral function and facial disfigurement in a car accident. She underwent 9 surgical procedures by plastic surgeons to treat the facial lesions, including hold facial scar formation reduction surgery, reduction of fractures of the nasal and cheek bones, and bone transplants. To restore intraoral function and improve facial appearance, plastic surgeons transplanted a rib into the maxillary sinus while dental surgeons simultaneously inserted 5 dental implants. Eleven months after the dental implant surgery, a complete upper denture and a mandibular gingival ceramometal-casting crown were fitted. After insertion of the final prosthodontics, regular follow-up examinations were performed to check dental occlusion, oral hygiene, and the condition of the gingival tissue. In the years since the upper dental implants were fitted, there have been no bone resorption and no functional problems. Transplantation of rib bones is an effective method for maxillary reconstruction and remains effective even after the insertion of dental implants. The patient is extremely satisfied with the results. A means of maintaining oral health over the long term, and of motivating the patient to maintain oral health, should be established. PMID:23291849

Kamoi, Hisahiro

2012-01-01

5

Microstructural properties of the mid-facial bones in relation to the distribution of occlusal loading.  

PubMed

Although the concept of the occlusal load transfer through the facial skeleton along the buttresses has been extensively studied, there has been no study to link microarchitecture of the mid-facial bones to the occlusal load distribution. The aim of this study was to analyze micro-structural properties of the mid-facial bones in relation to occlusal stress. The study was performed by combining the three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) and micro-computed tomography analysis (micro-CT). Clenching was simulated on the computer model of the adult male human skull which was also used as a source of bone specimens. After the FEA was run, stress was measured at the specific sites in cortical shell and trabecular bone of the model along and between the buttresses. From the corresponding sites on the skull, twenty-five cortical and thirteen cancellous bone specimens were harvested. The specimens were classified into high stress or low stress group based on the stress levels measured via the FEA. Micro-architecture of each specimen was assessed by micro-CT. In the high stress group, cortical bone showed a tendency toward greater thickness and density, lower porosity, and greater pore separation. Stress-related differences in microstructure between the groups were more pronounced in trabecular bone, which showed significantly greater bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in the high stress group. Our results suggest that the mid-facial bones in the adult dentate male skull exhibit regional variations in cortical and trabecular bone micro-architecture that could be a consequence of different occlusal stress. PMID:25093265

Janovic, Aleksa; Milovanovic, Petar; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Hahn, Michael; Rakocevic, Zoran; Filipovic, Nenad; Amling, Michael; Busse, Bjoern; Djuric, Marija

2014-11-01

6

Experimental model for bone regeneration in oral and cranio-maxillo-facial surgery.  

PubMed

Bone and tooth loss, as a result of trauma, anatomical or congenital reasons, cancer, and periodontal disease, is a common therapeutic problem in the fields of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery and periodontics. The proposed techniques for the treatment of various bone defects encountered include bone grafts, bone substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, and distraction osteogenesis as well as their combinations. In addition, dental implants have been successfully utilized for the restoration of full or partial edentulism. The introduction and development of new therapeutic approaches and devices demand the use of appropriate animal models that present bone anatomy and healing comparable to human. Among other animal models, the pig is extensively documented in several biomedical areas and has been largely used in maxillo-facial surgery and implants dentistry-related research. Anatomical and physiological similarities with human in size, physiology, and bone biology contribute to a successful involvement of this animal to understand and treat various osseous lesions. However, improvements and standardization are requested with respect to consistency and discrimination abilities. The aim of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature related to swine models for the evaluation of cranio-maxillo-facial osseous defect healing, regeneration, and bone-implant interface. This review should assist researchers in the field to select the most appropriate model for each dedicated purpose and also contribute to stimulate an innovative thinking on the use of porcine models. PMID:23957784

Mardas, Nikos; Dereka, Xanthippi; Donos, Nikolaos; Dard, Michel

2014-02-01

7

Hearing and Facial Function After Surgical Removal of Cholesteatomas Involving Petrous Bone  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to inspect the clinical characteristics, surgical approaches, functional preservation, and complications of petrous bone cholesteatoma and to propose appropriate surgical approaches based on long-term follow-up cases and previous reports in the literature. Methods The medical records of 31 patients who underwent surgery for petrous bone cholesteatoma between 1990 and 2011 at two tertiary referral hospitals were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the classification, type of surgical approach, preservation of facial and auditory function, and recurrence. Results Of 31 cases, 16 were supralabyrinthine (class I), 1 was infralabyrinthine-apical (class III), 13 were massive (class IV), and 1 was apical (class V). Facial nerve palsy was found in 35.5% of the cases (11 cases). Hearing was preserved in 11 of 22 patients who had better than a 50-dB hearing level of bone conduction pure tone average preoperatively. Preoperative hearing was preserved in only four of the patients in class I (supralabyrinthine). Facial function was preserved or improved in 29 patients (93.5%). Conclusion Complete removal of cholesteatoma of petrous bone can be achieved by choosing the appropriate approach based on location and extent. Facial function was preserved postoperatively in most reviewed cases. Auditory function could not be preserved postoperatively in some cases, but preserving residual hearing levels can be accomplished mostly in supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas with the appropriate surgical approach.

Kim, Min Joo; An, Yun Suk; Jang, Min Seok

2014-01-01

8

ON TRAUMAS AT SKULL AND\\/OR FACIAL BONES CAUSED BY TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an unwanted traffic accident occurred, a great attention is paid to lessen the bad consequences, especially, to treat the injuries. Traumas at skull and\\/or facial bones (skull traumas for short) often impact seriously to the health of patients. Among all kinds of injuries caused by traffic accidents in Vietnam, the percentage of this sickness type is not small. To

Nguyen Thien HUONG; Nguyen Huu DUC

9

Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

2011-03-01

10

Sphenoid mucocoele as a complication of fibrous dysplasia of the facial bones.  

PubMed

We report on a 28-year-old man with severe headache. Imaging studies included CT and MR. A large sphenoid mucocoele was demonstrated as well as findings compatible with fibrous dysplasia of the facial bones. Both disorders had been previously unknown. Imaging findings suggested that the sphenoid mucocoele was related to an obstruction caused by the expansile bone of fibrous dysplasia. These findings were confirmed surgically. Fibrous dysplasia with subsequent outflow obstruction is an extremely rare cause of sphenoid mucocoele development. PMID:22489404

De Smet, K; De Maeseneer, M; Yazdi, A Talebian; Buisseret, T; De Mey, J

2012-01-01

11

Pattern Alteration: Lengthening & Shortening  

E-print Network

, long sleeves can be lengthened above the elbow dart(s) so that the dart(s) will point toward the elbow, but they might not need lengthening or shortening below the dart to adjust sleeve length. 2... ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Fitted sleeve darts Sleeve darts should point toward the elbow when the arm is bent. Incorrect dart placement will create extra fullness above or below the elbow and will be uncomfortable. You can adjust the dart location while keeping...

2006-08-04

12

Current concepts of leg lengthening.  

PubMed

Any lower limb discrepancy may be equalised by conservative means (insoles, prosthesis and orthosis). However, their long-term acceptance is low in regard to function, costs, expenditure and appearance. Timely epiphysiodesis is the best option in uniplanar deformities with adequate remaining growth and for patients whose predicted final body height is above the 50th percentile. However, many patients present late or with multi-planar deformities, which warrant more sophisticated operative approaches. The history of surgical bone lengthening comprises 100 exciting years of struggling, development and ongoing learning. The initial strategy of acute or rapid incremental distraction had lasted almost half a century until Ilizarov recognised the benefits of biological periosteum-preserving osteotomies and incremental lengthening at slow rates (1 mm/day) at a 4 × 0.25-mm daily rhythm, well appreciated as callotasis. In parallel, ring and wire constructs made complex three-dimensional axial, translational and rotational bone moulding possible. Taylor Spatial Frames-built on hexapod strut-linked platform technology as known from flight simulators-took limb correction to a more reliable, more precise and aesthetical level, all the more that the whole process became web-based. It represents state-of-the-art methodology and technology for complex, multi-plane deformities. Due to the significant risk of secondary malalignment, indications for lengthening by unilateral fixation have shrunken to moderate amounts of length disparity and uni- to bi-planar deformities in patients with still open physes. Mechanical or motorised, minimally invasively placed nails prevent muscle fixation and, therefore, ease rehabilitation, increase patient comfort and potentially shorten the overall time of sick leave and refrain from sports activities. Hence, they offer a valuable alternative for low-grade complexity situations. It remains to be proved if the significantly higher implant costs are compensated by lower treatment costs. Overall, limb lengthening, particularly in combination with multi-planar deformity correction, can still be an arduous endeavour. In any case, wise judgement of the patient's deformity, medical and biological situation, psychosocial environment, selection of the appropriate method and hardware, as well as meticulous operating technique by an experienced surgeon are the cornerstones of successful outcomes. PMID:23730339

Hasler, Carol C; Krieg, Andreas H

2012-06-01

13

Investigation of a progressive facial deformity and stridor in an adult horse with a bone sequestrum and subsequent sinonasal abscess  

PubMed Central

Advanced diagnostic imaging and histopathological investigation were performed in an adult horse with chronic facial swelling due to a bone sequestrum and abscessation. In contrast to other cases, there were no draining tracts, difficulty eating, weight loss, head shaking, or fistula formation between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus. PMID:23204586

Marques, Fernando J.; Sharma, Ajay; Wilson, David G.

2012-01-01

14

Quantitative evaluation of alveolar cortical bone density in adults with different vertical facial types using cone-beam computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the cortical bone densities of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes in adults with different vertical facial types using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods CBCT images (n = 142) of adult patients (20-45 years) were classified into hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent groups on the basis of linear and angular S-N/Go-Me measurements. The cortical bone densities (in Hounsfield units) at maxillary and mandibular interdental sites from the distal aspect of the canine to the mesial aspect of the second molar were measured on the images. Results On the maxillary buccal side, female subjects in the hyperdivergent group showed significantly decreased bone density, while in the posterior region, male subjects in the hyperdivergent group displayed significantly decreased bone density when compared with corresponding subjects in the other groups (p<0.001). Furthermore, the subjects in the hyperdivergent group had significantly lower bone densities on the mandibular buccal side than hypodivergent subjects. The maxillary palatal bone density did not differ significantly among groups, but female subjects showed significantly denser palatal cortical bone. No significant difference in bone density was found between the palatal and buccal sides in the maxillary premolar region. Overall, the palatal cortical bone was denser anteriorly and buccal cortical bone was denser posteriorly. Conclusion Adults with the hyperdivergent facial type tend to have less-dense buccal cortical bone in the maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes. Clinicians should be aware of the variability of cortical bone densities at mini-implant placement sites. PMID:24511514

Ozdemir, Fulya; Tozlu, Murat

2014-01-01

15

Strict X-ray beam collimation for facial bones examination can increase lens exposure  

PubMed Central

Objectives It is well accepted that collimation is a cost-effective dose-reducing tool for X-ray examinations. This phantom-based study investigated the impact of X-ray beam collimation on radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid along with the effect on image quality in facial bone radiography. Methods A three-view series (occipitomental, occipitomental 30 and lateral) was investigated, and radiation doses to the lenses and thyroid were measured using an Unfors dosemeter. Images were assessed by six experienced observers using a visual grading analysis and a total of 5400 observations were made. Results Strict collimation significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid when using a fixed projection-specific exposure. With a variable exposure technique (fixed exit dose, to simulate the behaviour of an automatic exposure control), while strict collimation was again shown to reduce thyroid dose, higher lens doses were demonstrated when compared with larger fields of exposure. Image quality was found to significantly improve using strict collimation, with observer preference being demonstrated using visual grading characteristic curves. Conclusion The complexities of optimising radiographic techniques have been shown and the data presented emphasise the importance of examining dose-reducing strategies in a comprehensive way. PMID:22374279

Powys, R; Robinson, J; Kench, P L; Ryan, J; Brennan, P C

2012-01-01

16

Two-stage distraction lengthening of the forearm.  

PubMed

Single-stage lengthening of the forearm using callus distraction is well described; however, forearm lengthening using a 2-stage technique of distraction followed by bone grafting has received less attention. A 2-staged technique can be a better alternative in cases where the surgeon desires extensive lengthening. A retrospective review was undertaken of eleven 2-stage forearm lengthening procedures performed by 1 surgeon over a 15-year period. Indications were radial longitudinal deficiency (8 patients), neonatal ischemic contractures (2 patients), and septic growth arrest (1 patient). Average follow-up was 2.8 years. Distraction was performed on patients an average of 82 mm over an average duration of 24 weeks. Average time to union from the time of distractor removal and grafting was 87 days. Average healing index was 32.1 d/cm. Distraction problems were common and related to the length of time that the distractor was in place; they included pain, pin-related infections, and multiple mechanical device difficulties. Three patients had nonunion, and another had delayed union; however, additional procedures resulted in ultimate bony union in all patients. Demineralized bone matrix and autologous corticocancellous bone grafts yielded predictable healing and good functional results in short-distance distractions. For longer distractions, free vascularized fibula transfer produced the best outcomes. Intercalary cortical allografts did not heal well. Patients with neonatal Volkmann contractures had the most difficulty with distraction and healing, ultimately obtaining little to no lengthening and poor functional outcomes. PMID:23348260

Taghinia, Amir H; Al-Sheikh, Ayman A; Panossian, Andre E; Upton, Joseph

2013-01-01

17

Humeral lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: a safe procedure?  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the safety of humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame. We retrospectively reviewed 26 humeral segments in 17 patients that were lengthened at our department between 1993 and 2011. There were varying aetiologies including achondroplasia, epiphyseal dysplasia, Oilier disease, trauma or infection of the proximal humeral growth-plate, unicameral bone cyst and brachial plexus injury. Mean age at start of surgery was 17.05 years (range : 5-40). The mean lengthening achieved was 8.85 (3-13) cm. Mean lengthening percentage was 353% (range : 10-48). Average healing index was 30.56 days/cm (range : 17.46-4232). There was a significant difference in healing index between achondroplasia patients (28.79 days/cm) compared to others (33.41 days/cm). Minor problems included pin tract infection (14 segments). More important obstacles were temporary elbow flexion contracture (7 segments), premature consolidation (6 segments), radial nerve dysaesthesia (6 segments) and loosening of a Schanz screw (1 segment). Complications included one fracture and one progressive bowing after frame removal. One planned lengthening was not completely achieved. Despite a lot of obstacles, humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame provided a reliable method to treat the functional or cosmetic problems of upper limb shortening. PMID:24563967

Ruette, Peter; Lammens, Johan

2013-12-01

18

One-stage Metatarsal Lengthening by Allograft Interposition: A Novel Approach for Congenital Brachymetatarsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Congenital brachymetatarsia, a shortened metatarsal bone, can be corrected surgically by callus distraction or one-stage lengthening\\u000a using bone graft.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We asked whether one-stage metatarsal lengthening using metatarsal homologous bone graft could improve forefoot function,\\u000a lead to metatarsal healing, restore metatarsal parabola, and improve cosmetic appearance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  We retrospectively reviewed 29 patients (41 feet) in whom we lengthened 50 metatarsals.

Sandro Giannini; Cesare Faldini; Stavroula Pagkrati; Maria Teresa Miscione; Deianira Luciani

2010-01-01

19

Analysis of 809 Facial Bone Fractures in a Pediatric and Adolescent Population  

PubMed Central

Background Facial fractures are infrequent in children and adolescents and have different clinical features from those in adults. The low incidence in children and adolescents reflects the flexibility and underdevelopment of their facial skeletons, as well as their more protected environments. Only a few reports have reviewed such patients in Korea. The authors performed a retrospective study to analyze the characteristics of facial fractures in the Korean pediatric population. Methods We conducted a retrospective review on a series of 741 patients, aged <18 years, with facial fractures who had been treated at our hospital between 2006 and 2010. The following parameters were evaluated: age, sex, cause, location and type of fractures, associated injuries, treatment and complications. Results A total of 741 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. The ratio of boys to girls was 5.7:1. Facial fractures most commonly occurred in patients between 13 and 15 years of age (36.3%). The most common causes of injury was violence. The nasal fracture was the most common type of fracture (69%) and the blowout fracture was the second most common (20%). Associated injuries occurred in 156 patients (21%). Conclusions The incidence of pediatric facial fractures caused by violence is high in Korea. Our results show that as age increases, etiological factors and fracture patterns gradually shift towards those found in adults. This study provides an overview of facial fractures in these age groups that helps illustrate the trends and characteristics of the fractures and may be helpful in further evaluation and management. PMID:23233885

Kim, Sang Hun; Lee, Soo Hyang

2012-01-01

20

Onlay bone grafting simultaneous with facial soft tissue augmentation in a hemifacial microsomia patient using de-epithelialized orthograde submental flap: a technical note  

PubMed Central

Summary Soft tissue augmentation in hemifacial microsomia patients is a challenging procedure. Free microvascular flap transfer is considered usually as the most accepted choice. On the other hand, bone grafting, simultaneous with facial soft tissue augmentation using de-epithelialized orthograde submental flap, is a suggested procedure. Moreover, preoperative evaluation of facial artery and anterior belly of the digastric muscle are essential steps for success in such flaps. Furthermore, bone suture technique helps achieve more predictable results and reduces the need for postoperative bulky dressing. PMID:24753799

Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

2014-01-01

21

Translational Research: Palatal-derived Ecto-mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Palate: A New Hope for Alveolar Bone and Cranio-Facial Bone Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The management of facial defects has rapidly changed in the last decade. Functional and esthetic requirements have steadily increased along with the refinements of surgery. In the case of advanced atrophy or jaw defects, extensive horizontal and vertical bone augmentation is often unavoidable to enable patients to be fitted with implants. Loss of vertical alveolar bone height is the most common cause for a non primary stability of dental implants in adults. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure loss of vertical alveolar bone height and achieve optimal pre-implantological bone regeneration before dental implant placement. Recently, it has been found that specific populations of stem cells and/or progenitor cells could be isolated from different dental resources, namely the dental follicle, the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament. Our research group has cultured palatal-derived stem cells (paldSCs) as dentospheres and further differentiated into various cells of the neuronal and osteogenic lineage, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. In this publication will be shown whether paldSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate alveolar bone tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Furthermore, using these data we have started a proof of principle clinical- and histological controlled study using stem cell-rich palatal tissues for improving the vertical alveolar bone augmentation in critical size defects. The initial results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat alveolar bone defects in humans. PMID:24921024

Grimm, Wolf Dieter; Dannan, Aous; Giesenhagen, Bernd; Schau, Ingmar; Varga, Gabor; Vukovic, Mark Alexander; Sirak, Sergey Vladimirovich

2014-01-01

22

Unusual multifocal intraosseous papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (Dabska tumor) of facial bones: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Abstract Papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (PILA) or Dabska tumor is extremely rare, and often affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues of children. Since its first description by Dabska, only a few intraosseous cases have been described in the literature and none of them presents with multifocal osteolytic lesion of bones. We present a case of unusual multifocal intraosseous PILA in facial bones occurring in a 1 year 3 month old male child. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multifocal osteolytic lesions were located at the left zygoma, left orbital bone and right maxillary. Histologically, the lesions were ill-defined and composed of multiple delicate interconnecting vascular channels with papillae formation which projected into the lumen lined by atypical plumped endothelial cells. The vascular channels were also lined by plump cuboidal endothelial cells with focal hobnailed or “match-head” appearance. In some areas, endothelial cells formed solid-appearing aggregates with vessel lumens. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were positive for CD31, CD34 and D2-40 at varying intensity. A final diagnosis of intraosseous PILA was made. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first case of primary multifocal osseous PILA. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1919488629100787 PMID:24063649

2013-01-01

23

Skin and Bones: The Contribution of Skin Tone and Facial Structure to Racial Prototypicality Ratings  

PubMed Central

Previous research reveals that a more ‘African’ appearance has significant social consequences, yielding more negative first impressions and harsher criminal sentencing of Black or White individuals. This study is the first to systematically assess the relative contribution of skin tone and facial metrics to White, Black, and Korean perceivers’ ratings of the racial prototypicality of faces from the same three groups. Our results revealed that the relative contribution of metrics and skin tone depended on both perceiver race and face race. White perceivers’ racial prototypicality ratings were less responsive to variations in skin tone than were Black or Korean perceivers’ ratings. White perceivers ratings’ also were more responsive to facial metrics than to skin tone, while the reverse was true for Black perceivers. Additionally, across all perceiver groups, skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics on racial prototypicality ratings of White faces, with the reverse for Korean faces. For Black faces, the relative impact varied with perceiver race: skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics for Black and Korean perceivers, with the reverse for White perceivers. These results have significant implications for predicting who will experience racial prototypicality biases and from whom. PMID:22815966

Strom, Michael A.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Shunan; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Lee, Hoon Koo

2012-01-01

24

Facial Sports Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... if the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones ... pressure does not cause nose damage or infection. Fractures Some otolaryngologist-head and neck specialists set fractured ...

25

Marfanoid habitus, inguinal hernia, advanced bone age, and distinctive facial features: a new collagenopathy?  

PubMed

We report on two sibs, a girl, and a boy, with tall stature, long, and triangular faces, prominent foreheads with high frontal hairlines, telecanthus, downward slanting of the palpebral fissures, ptosis of the eyelids, everted lower eyelids, large ears, long noses, full, and everted vermilions, highly arched and narrow palates, tooth crowding, thin and long uvulae, coloboma of the alae, hyperextensible joints, long digits, positive thumb signs, flat feet, slightly diminished muscle strength, myopia, astigmatia, inguinal hernia, and vesical diverticula. Total body X-rays showed the presence of advanced bone age in both sibs and bilateral hallux valgus in the girl. Array-CGH did not reveal any pathological CNV. Molecular analysis of FBN1, FBN2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and CHST14 gene was normal, and SNP linkage analysis excluded more candidate genes. Differential diagnoses and the possibility that we might be reporting on a hitherto unreported syndrome are discussed. PMID:22489068

Mégarbané, André; Hanna, Nadine; Chouery, Eliane; Jalkh, Nadine; Mehawej, Cybel; Boileau, Catherine

2012-05-01

26

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation does not improve quality of muscle reinnervation or recovery of motor function after facial nerve transection in rats.  

PubMed

Recently, we devised and validated a novel strategy in rats to improve the outcome of facial nerve reconstruction by daily manual stimulation of the target muscles. The treatment resulted in full recovery of facial movements (whisking), which was achieved by reducing the proportion of pathologically polyinnervated motor endplates. Here, we posed whether manual stimulation could also be beneficial after a surgical procedure potentially useful for treatment of large peripheral nerve defects, i.e., entubulation of the transected facial nerve in a conduit filled with suspension of isogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in collagen. Compared to control treatment with collagen only, entubulation with BM-MSCs failed to decrease the extent of collateral axonal branching at the lesion site and did not improve functional recovery. Post-operative manual stimulation of vibrissal muscles also failed to promote a better recovery following entubulation with BM-MSCs. We suggest that BM-MSCs promote excessive trophic support for regenerating axons which, in turn, results in excessive collateral branching at the lesion site and extensive polyinnervation of the motor endplates. Furthermore, such deleterious effects cannot be overridden by manual stimulation. We conclude that entubulation with BM-MSCs is not beneficial for facial nerve repair. PMID:18627308

Grosheva, Maria; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Arnhold, Stephan; Skouras, Emmanouil; Kuerten, Stefanie; Streppel, Michael; Angelova, Srebrina K; Wewetzer, Konstantin; Radtke, Christine; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N

2008-07-01

27

Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning  

PubMed Central

Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity. PMID:24665426

Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

2014-01-01

28

Periodontal dressing after surgical crown lengthening: A randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal dressing on post-operative pain and swelling after surgical crown lengthening. Materials and methods. A blind, randomized, clinical trial was carried out with 36 patients. Following surgical crown lengthening, the individuals were randomly allocated to the periodontal dressing group (PDG) and control group (CG, non-placement of periodontal dressing). Pain and discomfort were analyzed using a visual analog scale (VAS), verbal scale (VS) and the number of analgesics consumed in 7 days post-operatively. Post-operative infection, stability of the gingival margin and type of healing were also evaluated. Results. The PDG had a significantly higher percentage of responses of 'strong pain' on the VS in the first day post-operatively (33.3% vs 5.3%, p = 0.03) and greater pain on the first and second days post-operatively based on the VAS. Moreover, a significant difference between groups was found regarding gingival swelling after 7 days. However, gingival recession was found in 57.8% of the sites in the CG and only 5.5% of sites in the PDG. No change in condition was found among individuals with conjunctive tissue/bone exposure in the CG in the immediate post-operative period and 80% of the patients in the PDG had healing by first intention after 7 days. Conclusion. The use of periodontal dressing seems to be preferable following surgical crown lengthening with connective tissue/bone exposure. However, adequate post-operative analgesic strategies should be employed due to the possibility of intense pain in the first 24 hours. PMID:25139226

Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Vieira, Alessandra Ramires; Da Rosa, Joana Luz; Ferrazo, Kivia Linhares; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

2014-11-01

29

TGF-beta1 and VEGF after fresh frozen bone allograft insertion in oral-maxillo-facial surgery.  

PubMed

Bone regeneration technique using allografts is widely used in oral surgery to repair alveolar defects and to increase alveolar volume for endosseous implant insertions. Bone allografts promote the reabsorption and neo-synthesis of bone tissue, which are regulated by numerous cytokines, proteins and growth factors. In this study, six patients with insufficient alveolar volume for endosseous implant insertions, were treated with bone regeneration technique using Fresh Frozen Bone (FFB) allografts collected from the femoral head or the hip. Samples of bone graft collected during graft insertion surgery and biopsies collected six months later during implantology were fixed, decalcified and analyzed histomorphologically and morphometrically by haematoxylin-eosin staining. In addition, TGF-beta1 and VEGF were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The histological analysis of FFBs showed wide areas of calcified bone organized in osteons intermingled with areas of non-calcified matrix containing osteoblasts. However, the regenerated alveolar bone, collected six months after the graft insertion surgery, showed wide areas of non-calcified matrix. TGF-beta1 and VEGF were less expressed in FFB than in regenerated alveolar bone. PMID:20183799

Rodella, L F; Favero, G; Boninsegna, R; Borgonovo, A; Rezzani, R; Santoro, F

2010-04-01

30

Facial Prostheses  

MedlinePLUS

... office visits to complete. Once you and your maxillofacial prosthodontist determine that a facial prosthesis is the ... around the effected facial area. You and your maxillofacial prosthodontist will determine which method of retention is ...

31

Open Syllable Lengthening in West Germanic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to show that open syllable lengthening (OSL) was part of the grammar of the West Germanic languages: Middle English, Middle Dutch, and Middle High German. Claims that all three languages endeavored to maintain and maximize the Germanic foot, and OSL contributed in different ways to do so. (Author/VWL)

Lahiri, Aditi; Dresher, B. Elan

1999-01-01

32

[Differential diagnosis in fibro-osseous lesions of facial bones: report of a case of ossifying fibroma and review of literature].  

PubMed

Ossifying fibroma is a relatively rare, benign neoplasm of non-odontogenic origin, affecting the facial bones, and prevalently localized in the mandible, but which can also appear in the maxilla, paranasal sinuses and peripheral bones. Its growth is generally very slow and it is usually asymptomatic, for which it often manages to reach a considerable size. An incidental diagnosis during orthopantography, on the other hand, is not infrequent. The diagnosis, which is fundamentally made by utilizing conventional x-rays and CT and NMR scans, may present several controversial aspects and is not to be disjointed from the clinical and anatomopathological aspects, for which close interdisciplinary collaboration is required in many cases. In effecting a differential diagnosis, the possibility of inflammatory lesions, other fibrous-osseous lesions (in particular, fibrous dysplasia) and benign or malignant neoplasms must be taken into consideration. The present work presents a case of ossifying fibroma of the maxilla that is emblematic in its clinical, radiological and histopathological aspects. It also discusses problems connected with classification and differential diagnosis, in particular with respect to fibrous dysplasia, which are important in determining the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:12510342

Lerda, W; Magnano, M; Ferraris, R; Gerri, F; Motta, M; Bongioannini, G

2002-10-01

33

Rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis: part III. Gradual distraction versus acute lengthening.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis is a well-established method of endogenous tissue engineering. This technique has significantly augmented our armamentarium of reconstructive craniofacial procedures. Although the histologic and ultrastructural changes associated with distraction osteogenesis have been extensively described, the molecular mechanisms governing successful membranous distraction remain unknown. Using an established rat model, the molecular differences between successful (i.e., osseous union with gradual distraction) and ineffective (i.e., fibrous union with acute lengthening) membranous bone lengthening was analyzed. Herein, the first insight into the molecular mechanisms of successful membranous bone distraction is provided. In addition, these data provide the foundation for future targeted therapeutic manipulations designed to improve osseous regeneration. Vertical mandibular osteotomies were created in 52 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the animals were fitted with customized distraction devices. Twenty-six animals underwent immediate acute lengthening (3 mm; a length previously shown to result in fibrous union) and 26 animals were gradually distracted (after a 3-day latency period, animals were distracted 0.25 mm twice daily for 6 days; total = 3 mm). Four mandibular regenerates were harvested from each group for RNA analysis on 5, 7, 9, 23, and 37 days postoperatively (n = 40). Two mandibular regenerates were also harvested from each group and prepared for immunohistochemistry on postoperative days 5, 7, and 37 (n = 12). In addition to the 52 experimental animals, 4 control rats underwent sham operations (skin incision only) and mandibular RNA was immediately collected. Control and experimental specimens were analyzed for collagen I, osteocalcin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA and protein expression. In this study, marked elevation of critical extracellular matrix molecules (osteocalcin and collagen I) during the consolidation phase of gradual distraction compared with acute lengthening is demonstrated. In addition, the expression of an inhibitor of extracellular matrix turnover, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, remained strikingly elevated in gradually distracted animals. Finally, this study demonstrated that neither gradual distraction nor acute lengthening appreciably alters vascular endothelial growth factor expression. These results suggest that gradual distraction osteogenesis promotes successful osseous bone repair by regulating the expression of bone-specific extracellular matrix molecules. In contrast, decreased production or increased turnover of bone scaffolding proteins (i.e., collagen) or regulators of mineralization (i.e., osteocalcin) may lead to fibrous union during acute lengthening. PMID:11214060

Warren, S M; Mehrara, B J; Steinbrech, D S; Paccione, M F; Greenwald, J A; Spector, J A; Longaker, M T

2001-02-01

34

Outpatient percutaneous heel cord lengthening in children.  

PubMed

Outpatient percutaneous tendo Achillis lengthening is a quick, complication-free, inexpensive approach to a common pediatric orthopedic problem. The procedure is a known alternative to conventional open procedures, but it is not widely used. This study outlines the advantage of the percutaneous procedure performed in outpatient surgery with the patient under a general anesthetic. Fifty-five patients were operated on between December 1980 and March 1984. Overall results were excellent, with 97% improvement in gait. There were no infections. Percutaneous heel cord lengthening in children is a safe and simple operation, yielding results equal to those of open procedures. The advantage of outpatient surgery adds a further positive dimension to this procedure. PMID:3584437

Moreau, M J; Lake, D M

1987-01-01

35

Anthropological study for the determination of the Europid and Negroid characteristics on facial bones of human fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

During my 3-month long scholarship in the Smithsonian Institute in 1991, I carried out metric and comparative anatomical (anthropological) examinations on the collection of fetal\\/newborn skeletons of the Anthropological Institute of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. I determined 85 sizes of 50 characteristic bones of about 350 complete fetal\\/new-born skeletons in standardized conditions. In the study of

Ferenc Kósa

36

Alternative method for thumb reconstruction. Combination of 2 techniques: metacarpal lengthening and mini wraparound transfer.  

PubMed

Amputation at the proximal phalanx or at the metacarpophalangeal joint can be treated by pollicization of a finger, osteoplastic reconstruction, free microvascular transfer of a toe, or distraction lengthening. The best technique to use to treat these cases depends on the place of amputation and the patient's age, sex, occupation and functional demands. In the past 6 years, we treated 4 patients by lengthening the thumb metacarpal ray and adding a mini wraparound flap from the great toe. All the subjects were female with an average age of 22 years. All 4 patients had sustained traumatic amputations: 2 at the metacarpophalangeal joint and 2 at the base of the proximal phalanx. Distraction was completed approximately 65 days after osteotomy, obtaining an average lengthening of 23 mm. To achieve bone consolidation, the lengthener was left in place for 127 days on average. Microsurgical thumb reconstruction was performed around 3 months after consolidation of the osteotomy. There were no failures or cases of postoperative vascular compromise. The average pinch power was 66% of the opposite hand. The static 2-point discrimination of the reconstructed thumb was 8 mm (range, 7-10 mm). All patients reported being satisfied with the treatment, although 1 patient was partially dissatisfied due to the prolonged length of the treatment. Donor site morbidity was minimal. This procedure is mainly chosen by selected patients who refuse standard microsurgical thumb reconstruction because it requires a longer treatment period. PMID:23618457

Adani, Roberto; Corain, Massimo; Tarallo, Luigi; Fiacchi, Francesco

2013-05-01

37

Facial fractures.  

PubMed Central

Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a PMID:8199509

Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.

1994-01-01

38

Peripheral nerve lengthening as a regenerative strategy  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic function, incurring substantial financial costs and diminished quality of life. For large nerve gaps, proximal lesions, or chronic nerve injury, the prognosis for recovery is particularly poor, even with autografts, the current gold standard for treating small to moderate nerve gaps. In vivo elongation of intact proximal stumps towards the injured distal stumps of severed peripheral nerves may offer a promising new strategy to treat nerve injury. This review describes several nerve lengthening strategies, including a novel internal fixator device that enables rapid and distal reconnection of proximal and distal nerve stumps.

Vaz, Kenneth M.; Brown, Justin M.; Shah, Sameer B.

2014-01-01

39

Telomere length maintenance, shortening, and lengthening.  

PubMed

Telomeres maintain chromosome stability and cell replicative capacity. Telomere shortening occurs concomitant with aging. Short telomeres are associated with some diseases, such as dyskeratosis congenita, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and aplastic anemia. Telomeres are longer in pluripotent stem cells than in somatic cells and lengthen significantly during preimplantation development. Furthermore, telomere elongation during somatic cell reprogramming is of great importance in the acquisition of authentic pluripotency. This review focuses primarily on regulatory mechanisms of telomere length maintenance in pluripotent cells, telomere length extension in early embryo development, and also telomere rejuvenation in somatic cell reprogramming. Telomere related diseases are also discussed in this review. PMID:24374808

Zhao, Zhenrong; Pan, Xinghua; Liu, Lin; Liu, Na

2014-10-01

40

A bioactive "self-fitting" shape memory polymer scaffold with potential to treat cranio-maxillo facial bone defects.  

PubMed

While tissue engineering is a promising alternative for treating critical-sized cranio-maxillofacial bone defects, improvements in scaffold design are needed. In particular, scaffolds that can precisely match the irregular boundaries of bone defects as well as exhibit an interconnected pore morphology and bioactivity would enhance tissue regeneration. In this study, a shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffold was developed exhibiting an open porous structure and the capacity to conformally "self-fit" into irregular defects. The SMP scaffold was prepared via photocrosslinking of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diacrylate using a SCPL method, which included a fused salt template. A bioactive polydopamine coating was applied to coat the pore walls. Following exposure to warm saline at T>Ttrans (Ttrans=Tm of PCL), the scaffold became malleable and could be pressed into an irregular model defect. Cooling caused the scaffold to lock in its temporary shape within the defect. The polydopamine coating did not alter the physical properties of the scaffold. However, polydopamine-coated scaffolds exhibited superior bioactivity (i.e. formation of hydroxyapatite in vitro), osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic gene expression and extracellular matrix deposition. PMID:25063999

Zhang, Dawei; George, Olivia J; Petersen, Keri M; Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea C; Hahn, Mariah S; Grunlan, Melissa A

2014-11-01

41

The Science and Theory behind Facial Aging  

PubMed Central

Summary: The etiology of age-related facial changes has many layers. Multiple theories have been presented over the past 50–100 years with an evolution of understanding regarding facial changes related to skin, soft tissue, muscle, and bone. This special topic will provide an overview of the current literature and evidence and theories of facial changes of the skeleton, soft tissues, and skin over time.

Pessa, Joel E.; Hubbard, Bradley; Rohrich, Rod J.

2013-01-01

42

Flapless postextraction socket implant placement in the esthetic zone: part 1. The effect of bone grafting and/or provisional restoration on facial-palatal ridge dimensional change-a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The dental literature has reported vertical soft tissue changes that can occur with immediate implant placement, bone grafting, and provisional restoration ranging from a gain or loss of 1.0 mm. However, little is known of the effects of facial-palatal collapse of the ridge due to these clinical procedures. Based upon treatment modalities rendered, an ensuing contour change can occur with significant negative esthetic consequences. The results of a retrospective clinical cohort study evaluating the change in horizontal ridge dimension associated with implant placement in anterior postextraction sockets are presented for four treatment groups: (1) group no BGPR = no bone graft and no provisional restoration; (2) group PR = no bone graft, provisional restoration; (3) group BG = bone graft, no provisional restoration; and (4) group BGPR = bone graft, provisional restoration. Bone grafting at the time of implant placement into the gap in combination with a contoured healing abutment or a provisional restoration resulted in the smallest amount of ridge contour change. Therefore, it is recommended to place a bone graft and contoured healing abutment or provisional restoration at the time of flapless postextraction socket implant placement. PMID:24804283

Tarnow, Dennis P; Chu, Stephen J; Salama, Maurice A; Stappert, Christian F J; Salama, Henry; Garber, David A; Sarnachiaro, Guido O; Sarnachiaro, Evangelina; Gotta, Sergio Luis; Saito, Hanae

2014-01-01

43

Fibular lengthening by Ilizarov method secondary to shortening by osteochondroma of distal tibia  

PubMed Central

Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumour. They most commonly affect the long tubular bones and almost half of osteochondromata are found around the knee. Osteochondroma arising from the distal metaphysis of the tibia typically result in a valgus deformity of the ankle joint secondary to relative shortening of the fibula. This case describes the use of Ilizarov technique for fibular lengthening following excision of a distal tibial osteochondroma. A 12-year-old girl presented with a 3-year history of a large swelling affecting the lateral aspect of the right distal tibia. Plain radiographs confirmed a large sessile osteochondroma arising from the postero-lateral aspect of the distal tibia with deformity of the fibula and 15 mm of fibular shortening. The patient underwent excision through a postero-lateral approach and subsequent fibular lengthening by Ilizarov technique. The patient made excellent recovery with removal of frame after 21 weeks and had made a full recovery with normal ankle function by 6 months. The Ilizarov method is a commonly accepted method of performing distraction osteogenesis for limb inequalities; however, this is mainly for the tibia, femur and humerus. We are unaware of any previous cases using the Ilizarov method for fibular lengthening. This case demonstrates the success of the Ilizarov method in restoring both fibular length and normal ankle anatomy. PMID:18427924

Andrews, C. T.

2008-01-01

44

An interactive facial expression generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to generate vivid facial expressions by computers has been an inter- esting and challenging problem for a long time. Some research adopts an anatomical approach by studying the relationships between the expressions and the underlying bones and muscles. On the other hand, MPEG4's SNHC (synthetic\\/natural hybrid coding) provides mechanisms which allow detailed descriptions of facial expressions and animations. Unlike

Chuan-kai Yang; Wei-ting Chiang

2008-01-01

45

Facial paralysis  

MedlinePLUS

... headaches, seizures, or hearing loss. In newborns, facial paralysis may be caused by trauma during birth. Other causes include: Infection of the brain or surrounding tissues Lyme disease Sarcoidosis Tumor that ...

46

Distraction by a monotube fixator to achieve limb lengthening: predictive factors for tibia trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons’ experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. Methods A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. Patient’s informed consent and institutional ethical committee approval were obtained. Bio-data, clinical and healing indexes were documented. DMF was applied for patient that met inclusion criteria. The Statistic tests used included the Chi-square, the Student’s two-tailed t test, and the Wilcox on rank-sum test when appropriate. Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for poor outcome potential risk factors were recorded. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were evaluated. Significance level was set at a p value <0.05. Results Thirty-six patients with mean age, 37.2?±?10.3 year and male/female ratio of 1:1.25 had DMF applied. Motorcycle accident accounted for 50.0% of patients and diaphyseal segment was most commonly affected 25 (69.4%). The mean bone lengthened was 10.1?±?4.0 cm (range: 5-21 cm) and mean duration of bone transport was 105.6?±?38.2 days. The means of rate of distraction, healing index and percentage of lengthening were 0.99?±?0.14 mm/day, 15.6?±?4.3 days/cm and 38.0?±?14.3 respectively. The mean follow up was 9.7 ±4.9 months (range: 2–17.0). Per operative complications varied and outcome was satisfactory in 30 (83.3%). Obesity (p <0.0001), multiple surgery (p?=?0.012) and transfusion (p?=?0.001) correlated to poor outcome. Percentage lengthening???50%, bone gap >10 cm, anemia, blood transfusion, general anesthesia administration, distraction rate >1 mm/day, osteomyelitis and prolong partial weight bearing were significant predictive factors for poor outcome in post traumatic tibia distraction. Conclusion Distraction by a monotube fixator appears effective in achieving correction >38.0% original tibia lengthening following traumatic bone gap. Predictive factors for poor outcome were useful for prognostication. PMID:23672599

2013-01-01

47

On-top plasty using a free metacarpal head graft for lengthening of proximal phalanx in symbrachydactyly--a case report.  

PubMed

A three-year old patient with symbrachydactyly (didactyly type) presented with a little finger that was too short to allow pinching and consisting of a floppy soft-tissue envelope with hypoplastic phalanges, although the thumb was functional. As the proximal phalanx was too small to permit distraction lengthening or conventional bone grafting, on-top plasty using a 4th metacarpal graft with a cartilage head was undertaken for lengthening the proximal phalanx of the little finger for pinch reconstruction. At ten weeks after surgery, the patient achieved satisfactory pinch function due to the lengthened and bone-stabilised postoperative digit and reconstruction of functional proximal interphalangeal joint. In addition, the grafted metacarpal demonstrated satisfactory bone growth throughout the six-year follow-up period. PMID:24164137

Iba, Kousuke; Wada, Takuro; Yamashita, Toshihiko

2013-01-01

48

Facial Cosmetic Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ...

49

Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Photos Find a Surgeon For Physicians For Facial Plastic Surgery Assistants About the OFPSA OFPSA Officers Become a ... fully heal and achieve maximum improved appearance. Facial plastic surgery makes it possible to correct facial flaws that ...

50

Early and late fracture following extensive limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.  

PubMed

Two types of fracture, early and late, have been reported following limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH). We reviewed 25 patients with these conditions who underwent 72 segmental limb lengthening procedures involving the femur and/or tibia, between 2003 and 2011. Gender, age at surgery, lengthened segment, body mass index, the shape of the callus, the amount and percentage of lengthening and the healing index were evaluated to determine predictive factors for the occurrence of early (within three weeks after removal of the fixation pins) and late fracture (> three weeks after removal of the pins). The Mann?Whitney U test and Pearson's chi-squared test for univariate analysis and stepwise regression model for multivariate analysis were used to identify the predictive factor for each fracture. Only one patient (two tibiae) was excluded from the analysis due to excessively slow formation of the regenerate, which required supplementary measures. A total of 24 patients with 70 limbs were included in the study. There were 11 early fractures in eight patients. The shape of the callus (lateral or central callus) was the only statistical variable related to the occurrence of early fracture in univariate and multivariate analyses. Late fracture was observed in six limbs and the mean time between removal of the fixation pins and fracture was 18.3 weeks (3.3 to 38.4). Lengthening of the tibia, larger healing index, and lateral or central callus were related to the occurrence of a late fracture in univariate analysis. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the shape of the callus was the strongest predictor for late fracture (odds ratio: 19.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.91 to 128). Lateral or central callus had a significantly larger risk of fracture than fusiform, cylindrical, or concave callus. Radiological monitoring of the shape of the callus during distraction is important to prevent early and late fracture of lengthened limbs in patients with ACH or HCH. In patients with thin callus formation, some measures to stimulate bone formation should be considered as early as possible. PMID:25183602

Kitoh, H; Mishima, K; Matsushita, M; Nishida, Y; Ishiguro, N

2014-09-01

51

Pediatric facial injuries: It's management  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial injuries in children always present a challenge in respect of their diagnosis and management. Since these children are of a growing age every care should be taken so that later the overall growth pattern of the facial skeleton in these children is not jeopardized. Purpose: To access the most feasible method for the management of facial injuries in children without hampering the facial growth. Materials and Methods: Sixty child patients with facial trauma were selected randomly for this study. On the basis of examination and investigations a suitable management approach involving rest and observation, open or closed reduction and immobilization, trans-osseous (TO) wiring, mini bone plate fixation, splinting and replantation, elevation and fixation of zygoma, etc. were carried out. Results and Conclusion: In our study fall was the predominant cause for most of the facial injuries in children. There was a 1.09% incidence of facial injuries in children up to 16 years of age amongst the total patients. The age-wise distribution of the fracture amongst groups (I, II and III) was found to be 26.67%, 51.67% and 21.67% respectively. Male to female patient ratio was 3:1. The majority of the cases of facial injuries were seen in Group II patients (6-11 years) i.e. 51.67%. The mandibular fracture was found to be the most common fracture (0.60%) followed by dentoalveolar (0.27%), mandibular + midface (0.07) and midface (0.02%) fractures. Most of the mandibular fractures were found in the parasymphysis region. Simple fracture seems to be commonest in the mandible. Most of the mandibular and midface fractures in children were amenable to conservative therapies except a few which required surgical intervention. PMID:22639504

Singh, Geeta; Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U. S.; Hariram; Malkunje, Laxman R.; Singh, Nimisha

2011-01-01

52

Surgical crown lengthening: a periodontal and restorative interdisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

Surgical crown lengthening helps to provide an adequate retention form for proper tooth preparation, thus enabling dentists to create esthetically pleasing and healthy restorations. Long-term stability requires accurate diagnosis and development of a comprehensive treatment plan in each case. This sequence of events stresses the importance of communication between the restorative dentist and the periodontist. This article presents 2 cases that involve surgical crown lengthening (including mucoperiosteal flap and ostectomy) for the restoration of teeth. PMID:25369395

Parwani, Simran R; Parwani, Rajkumar N

2014-01-01

53

Facial Morphogenesis of the Earliest Europeans  

PubMed Central

The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900–800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor. PMID:23762314

Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; de Castro, Jose Maria Bermudez; Martinon-Torres, Maria; O'Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L.; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G.

2013-01-01

54

Lengthening the pedicle of a scapular osseous free flap by angular branch reconnection within the subscapular artery system.  

PubMed

This report describes a case of a patient who underwent secondary reconstruction of the maxilla using a combined scapular osseous and thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) flap, in which the pedicle of the scapular osseous flap was lengthened by reconnecting the angular branch of the thoracodorsal artery to the serratus branch. The patient was a 62-year-old man who had undergone left total maxillectomy for maxillary carcinoma and came for reconstruction of left deformity. A reconstructive procedure involving a vascularized scapular osseous and TAP flap transfer was planned. However, the patient's ipsilateral superficial temporary artery and facial artery was found stenosed due to previous radiotherapy and chemotherapy and were not suitable for use as recipient vessels. Thus, a long flap pedicle was needed for anastomoses to the contralateral recipient vessels. We lengthened the pedicle of the scapular osseous flap by reconnecting the angular branch of the thoracodorsal artery to the serratus branch within the chimeric free flap and then anastomosed it to the contralateral facial vessels. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the left cheek deformity was well corrected. Using the technique of reconnection of branches within the blood supply system, a chimeric flap with a long pedicle may be elevated safely whilst avoiding the need for vein grafts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 34:662-665, 2014. PMID:24652698

Usami, Satoshi; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Tanaka, Kentaro; Homma, Tsutomu; Yano, Tomoyuki

2014-11-01

55

Correction of severe facial deformity.  

PubMed

A craniofacial team has been developed to corrdinate the treatment of patients with severe facial deformity and to minimize the surgical risks. Two hundred patients have been evaluated in the last 4 years and more than 100 treated by this team to correct orbital hypertelorism, oxycephaly and plagiocephaly with exophthalmos, features of Crouzon's disease and Apert's and Treacher Collins syndromes, hemifacial microsomia, and severe lower facial deformity and malocclusion. Surgical principles include extensive subperiosteal stripping of bone, osteotomy as necessary, and repositioning maintained by bone grafts. Postoperative evaluation is being maintained for 5 years or to maturity in younger children. Although many of the results are less than perfect, there has been sufficient improvement, especially psychologic and functional, to warrant continuation of the surgical program under closely controlled conditions. PMID:1156980

Munro, I R

1975-09-20

56

Nonvascularized toe phalangeal transfer and distraction lengthening for symbrachydactyly.  

PubMed

Symbrachydactyly describes a spectrum of congenital hand differences consisting of digital loss resulting in fused short fingers. As the principles for distraction lengthening have evolved, the technique of nonvascularized toe phalangeal transfer to the hand with shortened digits has provided patients with improved outcomes. Nonvascularized toe phalanx to hand transplant with distraction lengthening restores functional length to a skeletally deficient, poorly functioning hand while maintaining an overlying layer of vascular and sensate tissue. The primary goal is improvement of digital length to enhance mechanical advantage and prehension. We describe the technique of nonvascularized toe phalangeal transfer and distraction lengthening for symbrachydactyly, including the following steps: nonvascularized proximal toe phalanx harvest, toe phalanx transfer to hand, pin placement, osteotomy, and closure. PMID:20353864

Patterson, Ryan W; Seitz, William H

2010-04-01

57

Facial features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

58

Functional outcome after percutaneous tendo-Achilles lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPercutaneous tendo-Achilles lengthening (PTAL) is a common procedure performed as an adjunct to other procedures that are used to treat a variety of foot and ankle disorders. Despite the widespread use of PTAL, the only literature to substantiate its efficacy comes from the treatment of forefoot ulceration in diabetics. The complications of the procedure include pain along the Achilles tendon,

Michael P. Stauff; William B. Kilgore; Patrick W. Joyner; Paul J. Juliano

2011-01-01

59

Using distraction forces to drive an autodistractor during limb lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction osteogenesis can result in high forces developing in the limb. To determine and control the distraction forces (DF), a motorized distractor driven by feedback from DF was developed and used to lengthen the tibiae of 6 sheep undergoing distraction osteogenesis. The forces were measured continually, and, in 4 of the sheep, a force threshold was set, above which an

Jinyong Wee; Tariq Rahman; Robert E. Akins; Rahamim Seliktar; David G. Levine; Dean W. Richardson; George R. Dodge; Ahmed M. Thabet; Laurens Holmes; William G. Mackenzie

2011-01-01

60

Telomerase Dependence of Telomere Lengthening in ku80 Mutant Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a ku80 mutant of Arabidopsis and show that telomerase is needed to generate the longer telomeres ob- served in this mutant. Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures at the ends of chromosomes that permit cells to distinguish chromosome ends from double-strand breaks, thus preventing chromosome fusion events. Ku80 deficiency re- sults in the lengthening of telomeres, a phenotype

Maria Eugenia Gallego; Nicole Jalut; Charles I. White

2003-01-01

61

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2011-04-01

62

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2013-04-01

63

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2012-04-01

64

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

...fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2014-04-01

65

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The...

2010-04-01

66

Facial Plastic Surgery Today  

MedlinePLUS

... is a really good idea Third Quarter 2011 Cosmetic surgery to ease bullying? Second Quarter 2011 Facial Plastic ... 2014 | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FACIAL PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY (AAFPRS) | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED | SITEMAP | CONTACT | PRIVACY Follow us on

67

Bunch lengthening in the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider) damping rings  

SciTech Connect

A high level of current dependent bunch lengthening has been observed on the North damping ring of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). At currents of 3 {times} 10{sup 10} this behavior does not appear to degrade the machine's performance significantly. However, at the higher currents that are envisioned for the future one fears that its performance could be greatly degraded due to the phenomenon of bunch lengthening. This was the motivation for the work described in this paper. In this paper we calculate the longitudinal impedance of the damping ring vacuum chamber. More specifically, in this paper we find the response function of the ring to a short Gaussian bunch, which we call the Green function wake. In addition, we try to estimate the relative importance of the different vacuum chamber objects, in order to see how we might reduce the ring impedance. This paper also describes bunch length measurements performed on the North damping ring. We use the Green function wake, discussed above, to compute the bunch lengthening. Then we compare these results with those obtained from the measurements. In addition, we calculate the current dependence of the tune distribution.

Bane, K.L.F.

1990-02-01

68

Hydroxyapatite-coated external-fixation pins. The effect on pin loosening and pin-track infection in leg lengthening for short stature.  

PubMed

Pin loosening and infection are inherent complications of external fixation. This study deals with their effects of using either hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated or uncoated external fixation pins in leg-lengthening procedures on patients of short stature. We used HA-coated pins on one side and uncoated pins on the other (randomly determined) in 28 bilateral lengthenings undertaken in 23 patients. A total of 322 pins was used. The mean implantation time was 530 days and the mean lengthening achieved was 78% of initial bone length. Mean extraction torque was 7611.6 Nmm degree(-1) for HA-coated and 85.4 Nmm degree(-1) for uncoated pins (p < 0.001). The rate of pin loosening was 4% (7/161) for HA-coated and 80% (129/161) for uncoated pins (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of pin-track infection between the two groups. The use of HA coating appears to be an effective method of reducing the incidence of pin loosening in external fixation with a long implantation time and for mechanically highly stressed procedures such as leg lengthening for short stature. PMID:15330032

Pizà, G; Caja, V L; González-Viejo, M A; Navarro, A

2004-08-01

69

Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction  

PubMed Central

Background Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A), which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. Methods/Design The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5–21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont). Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group) intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. Discussion BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the context of limb lengthening and deformity correction. Trial Registration NCT00412035 PMID:17903262

Hamdy, Reggie C; Montpetit, Kathleen; Ruck-Gibis, Joanne; Thorstad, Kelly; Raney, Ellen; Aiona, Michael; Platt, Robert; Finley, Allen; Mackenzie, William; McCarthy, James; Narayanan, Unni

2007-01-01

70

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

71

Repeated mandibular lengthening in Treacher Collins syndrome: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with mandibular hypoplasia associated with Treacher Collins syndrome was treated by bilateral distraction osteogenesis. Since less than optimal length was provided by the first distraction, a second corticotomy was performed in the newly formed bone 6 months after the first distraction. Thus, bone gained by distraction osteogenesis was subjected to distraction once again. New bone formation occurred after

Oya Kocabalkan; Gürsel Leblebicio?lu; Yücel Erk; Ayhan Enacar

1995-01-01

72

[Facial asymmetries and their skeletal component].  

PubMed

The diagnosis and treatment of facial asymmetries is one of the most difficult challenges in orthognathic surgery. In some cases, the involvement of soft tissue defects or, in other cases, an associated basi-cranial asymmetry can complicate the management. The influence of various components of the cephalic end in the development of the face requires a thorough clinical and radiographic examination including the overall posture of the patient. The causes are multiple: congenital, constitutional, acquired with an important esthetic, functional, and psychological and social impact. The classification of these asymmetries can only be incomplete and purely didactic because of the multiplicity of clinical forms. Two elements are mandatory for the diagnosis and surgical treatment: first, the anterior clinical and radiological "craniofacial cross" established from the midline or midplane of the face; second, the clinical and radiological orientation of the maxillary and mandibular occlusal transverse and sagittal planes. The surgical techniques are the same as in conventional orthognathic surgery except for those used for the correction of the vertical posterior dimension of the face: condylectomy, lengthening osteotomy of the mandibular ramus, costochondral graft, and free flap. The contribution of 3D vision of the facial skeleton and its possibilities of measurement have improved the assessment of skeletal structure displacement during surgery. However, traditional radiographic examinations are still useful for pre and postoperative comparison and also to assess results. Computer simulation and computer-assisted surgery should allow achieving better and more stable results because of their reliability and easy access. PMID:25087115

Mercier, J-M; Perrin, J-P; Longis, J; Arzul, L; Corre, P

2014-09-01

73

Facial and hand allotransplantation.  

PubMed

Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is a novel therapeutic option for treatment of patients suffering from limb loss or severe facial disfigurement. To date, 72 hand and 19 facial transplantations have been performed worldwide. VCA in hand and facial transplantation is a complex procedure requiring a multidisciplinary team approach and extensive surgical planning. Despite good functional outcome, courses after hand and facial transplantation have been complicated by skin rejection. Long-term immunosuppression remains a necessity in VCA for allograft survival. To widen the scope of these quality-of-life-improving procedures, minimization of immunosuppression to limit risks and side effects is needed. PMID:24478387

Pomahac, Bohdan; Gobble, Ryan M; Schneeberger, Stefan

2014-03-01

74

Facial shaping: beyond lines and folds with fillers.  

PubMed

Facial attractiveness is the most important determinant of physical attractiveness, and an important factor in social and interpersonal interactions. The field of facial rejuvenation using minimally invasive procedures has expanded exponentially over the last decade. Historically, aging and the resulting changes were primarily attributed to changes in the skin and the underlying musculoskeletal system. However, more recent understanding of the changes associated with facial aging has shifted the focus to changes in the distribution of subcutaneous fat. With the introduction of seemingly endless varieties of fillers over the last decade, restoration of volume loss by subcutaneous fat, and to some extent bone, has never been easier. Here, the authors review the basic principles that govern facial beauty, facial anatomy, the aging process, and the wide variety of fillers available on the market today that enable a dermatologic surgeon to revitalize the face. PMID:20715395

Patel, Utpal; Fitzgerald, Rebecca

2010-08-01

75

Authentic Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that for the computer to be able to interact with humans, it needs to have the communication skills of humans. One of these skills is the ability to understand the emotional state of the person. The most expressive way humans dis- play emotions is through facial expressions. In most facial expression systems and databases, the emotion data

Nicu Sebe; Michael S. Lew; Ira Cohen; Yafei Sun; Theo Gevers; Thomas S. Huang

2004-01-01

76

Maxillofacial osteonecrosis in a patient with multiple "idiopathic" facial pains.  

PubMed

Previous investigations have identified focal areas of alveolar bone tenderness, increased mucosal temperature, abnormal anesthetic response, radiographic abnormality, increased radioisotope uptake on bone scans, and abnormal marrow within the quadrant of pain in patients with chronic, idiopathic facial pain. The present case reports a 53-year-old man with multiple debilitating, "idiopathic" chronic facial pains, including trigeminal neuralgia and atypical facial neuralgia. At necropsy he was found to have numerous separate and distinct areas of ischemic osteonecrosis on the side affected by the pains, one immediately beneath the major trigger point for the lancinating pain of the trigeminal neuralgia. This disease, called NICO (neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis) when the jaws are involved, is a variation of the osteonecrosis that occurs in other bones, especially the femur. The underlying problem is vascular insufficiency, with intramedullary hypertension and multiple intraosseous infarctions occurring over time. The present case report illustrates the extreme difficulties involved in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PMID:10535367

Adams, W R; Spolnik, K J; Bouquot, J E

1999-10-01

77

Determinants of the Repeated Bout Effect Following Lengthening Contractions  

PubMed Central

Objective Stresses to skeletal muscle often result in injury. A subsequent bout of the same activity performed days or even weeks after an initial bout results in significantly less damage. The underlying causes of this phenomenon, termed the “repeated bout effect” (RBE), are unclear. This study compared the protective effect of two different injury protocols on the ankle dorsiflexors in the rat. We hypothesized that the RBE would occur soon after the initial injury and persist for several weeks, and that the RBE would occur even if the second injury was performed under different biomechanical conditions than the first. Design In this controlled laboratory study, the dorsiflexor muscles in the left hindlimbs of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 75) were subjected to 10 repetitions of large-strain lengthening contractions or 150 repetitions of small-strain lengthening contractions. Results Both protocols induced a significant (P < 0.001) and similar loss of isometric torque (~50%) following the first bout of contractions. The RBE occurred as early as 2 days after injury and remained high for 14 days (P < 0.001), but diminished by 28 days and was lost by 42 days. The small-strain contractions offered a protective effect against a subsequent large-strain contraction, but not vice-versa. Although the RBE did not occur sooner than day 2, the early recovery following a second large strain injury performed 8 h after the first was two-fold greater than following a single injury. Conclusions The RBE is both rapid in onset and prolonged, and some but not all injuries can protect against different types of subsequent injury. PMID:21862912

DiPasquale, Dana M.; Bloch, Robert J.; Lovering, Richard M.

2011-01-01

78

Columella lengthening using a cartilage graft in the bilateral cleft lip-associated nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article describes the technique of columellar lengthening using a cartilaginous strut in patients with a severely deformed bilateral cleftlip-associated nose.Materials and Methods: When the upper lip is not deficient, and especially when resection of lip scar tissue is indicated, the Millard forked flap technique is recommended. Advancement of the prolabium into the columella for lengthening, combined with an

Tsuyoshi Takato; Yoshiyuki Yonehara; Takahumi Susami

1995-01-01

79

Z-lengthening of the Achilles Tendon with Transverse Skin Incision  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of various complications after Achilles tendon lengthening is mainly related to the length of surgical exposure and the lengthening method. A comprehensive technique to minimize the complications is required. Methods The treatment of Achilles tendon tightness in 57 patients (95 ankles) were performed by using a short transverse incision on a skin crease of the heel and by Z-lengthening of the tendon. In the severe cases, two or three transverse incisions were required for greater lengthening of the tendon, and a serial cast or Ilizarov apparatus was applied for the gradual correction. The results of these 95 ankles were compared to those of 18 ankles, which underwent percutaneous sliding lengthening, and to the 19 ankles, which received Z-lengthening with a medial longitudinal incision. Results The functional and cosmetic satisfaction was achieved among those who underwent the tendon lengthening with the new technique. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score improved from 56.1 to 81.8. The second operations to correct recurrence were performed in the two cerebral palsy patients. Conclusions The new technique has a low rate of complications such as scarring, adhesion, total transection, excessive lengthening, and recurrence of shortening. The excellent cosmesis and the short operation time are the additional advantages. PMID:24900904

Oh, Jong Seok; Lee, Jong Seo; Lee, Tae Hoon

2014-01-01

80

MODELLING THE PREPAUSAL LENGTHENING EFFECT FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION: A DYNAMIC BAYESIAN NETWORK APPROACH  

E-print Network

MODELLING THE PREPAUSAL LENGTHENING EFFECT FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION: A DYNAMIC BAYESIAN NETWORK- bust speech recognition, dynamic Bayesian networks 1. INTRODUCTION Automatic speech recognition (ASR Speech has a property that the speech unit preceding a speech pause tends to lengthen. This work presents

Noble, William Stafford

81

Chapter 11. Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions are the facial changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. Facial expression analysis has been an active research topic for behavioral scientists since the work of Darwin in 1872 [18, 22, 25, 71]. Suwa et al. [76] presented an early attempt to automatically analyze facial expressions by tracking the motion of 20

Ying-Li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

82

Realistic modeling for facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major unsolved problem in computer graphics is the construc- tion and animation of realistic human facial models. Traditionally, facial models have been built painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by ad hoc parametrically controlled facial mesh defor- mations or kinematic approximation of muscle actions. Fortunately, animators are now able to digitize facial geometries through the use of scanning range

Yuencheng Lee; Demetri Terzopoulos; Keith Walters

1995-01-01

83

Mortality and facial dyskinesia.  

PubMed

In 1965 a psychiatric in-patient population was surveyed for the prevalence of facial dyskinesia. The present investigation reports on their survival time. Among male and female patients with functional disorders (mostly schizophrenia) there was a strong association between moderate or severe facial dyskinesia and shortened survival, but no clinical factors were found to explain this. Mild facial dyskinesia in functional disorders was not associated with reduced life expectancy and may be attributable to the general effects of ageing rather than to a specific pathological process. Among patients with primary organic brain syndromes, dyskinesia was not associated with reduced life expectancy. PMID:3719224

McClelland, H A; Dutta, D; Metcalfe, A; Kerr, T A

1986-03-01

84

PCA facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

2013-12-01

85

Towards Realistic Facial Modeling and Re-Rendering of Human Skin Aging Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial aging simulation and animation are aspiring goals and challenging tasks because the growth and ag- ing processes are greatly influence the facial shape and its structure. The face structure, the size of the bones, and the skin texture change, the skin fattens or sags, wrin- kles appear and even muscular activities change in terms of intensity. This paper proposes

Hussein Karam Hussein

2002-01-01

86

Treatment of Facial Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... be sure to ask that an oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is called for consultation. With their ... injury that might otherwise go unnoticed. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are experts in treating and repairing facial ...

87

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

PubMed

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities. PMID:23529088

Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

2013-07-01

88

Emotion and Facial Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Facial expression is usually synthesized or predicted on the basis of a given emotion. The prototypical expressions for basic\\u000a emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger, and fear) as postulated by discrete emotion psychologists are rather\\u000a consistently produced and interpreted among different cultures, and can be used as icons to represent a basic emotion. However,\\u000a these facial expressions are actually rarely

Thomas Wehrle; Susanne Kaiser

1999-01-01

89

Nonsurgical facial rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Facial rejuvenation has evolved from purely surgical to the use of nonsurgical techniques such as lasers and injectable fillers and toxins. This has occurred as a product of consumer demand for less down time and risk, as well as a new scientific knowledge of facial aging. A review of patient consultation evaluation and use of injectable products will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:25076454

Monheit, Gary D

2014-08-01

90

Radial forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's lengthening pendulum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner, radial driving can easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergraduate physics classroom, where investigations into pendulums and oscillations are commonplace.

McMillan, Matthew; Blasing, David; Whitney, Heather M.

2013-09-01

91

Ipsilateral motor cortical responses to TMS during lengthening and shortening of the contralateral wrist flexors  

PubMed Central

Unilateral lengthening contractions provide a greater stimulus for neuromuscular adaptation than shortening contractions in the active and non-active contralateral homologous muscle, although little is known of the potential mechanism. Here we examined the possibility that corticospinal and spinal excitability vary in a contraction-specific manner in the relaxed right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) when humans perform unilateral lengthening and shortening contractions of the left wrist flexors at the same absolute force. Corticospinal excitability in the relaxed right FCR increased more during lengthening than shortening at 80 and 100% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) diminished during shortening contractions and it became nearly abolished during lengthening. Intracortical facilitation (ICF) lessened during shortening but increased during lengthening. Interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) to the “non-active” motor cortex diminished during shortening and became nearly abolished during lengthening at 90% MVC. The amplitude of the H-reflex in the relaxed right FCR decreased during and remained depressed for 20 s after lengthening and shortening of the left wrist flexors. We discuss the possibility that instead of the increased afferent input, differences in the descending motor command and activation of brain areas that link function of the motor cortices during muscle lengthening vs. shortening may cause the contraction-specific modulation of ipsilateral motor cortical output. In conclusion, ipsilateral M1 responses to TMS are contraction-specific; unilateral lengthening and shortening contractions reduced contralateral spinal excitability but uniquely modulated ipsilateral corticospinal excitability and the networks involved in intracortical and interhemispheric connections, which may have clinical implications. PMID:21219480

Howatson, Glyn; Taylor, Mathew B.; Rider, Patrick; Motawar, Binal R.; McNally, Michael P.; Solnik, Stanislaw; DeVita, Paul; Hortobagyi, Tibor

2010-01-01

92

Glomus Jugulare Presenting with Isolated Facial Nerve Palsy  

PubMed Central

Glomus jugulare is a rare slow growing tumor occurring within the jugular foramen that rarely presents with isolated symptoms. Although histologically benign, these tumors are locally destructive because of their proximity to the petrous bone, the lower cranial nerves, and the major vascular structures (Miller et al. (2009) and Silverstone (1973)). We wish to report a glomus jugulare tumor eroding the petrous bone and producing an ipsilateral peripheral facial weakness. The mechanism of this erosion is discussed. PMID:25374954

Nunez, Angelica A.; Ramos-Duran, Luis R.; Cuetter, Albert C.

2014-01-01

93

[Craniofacial bone abnormalities in von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis].  

PubMed

Cases of cranio-facial bone anomalies were observed in 40 cases of neurofibromatosis. The cranio-facial skeletal manifestations are numerous and varied. Radiographic investigation is important to confirm the diagnosis, when neurologic and cutaneous signs are absent. The diagnosis should be easily confirmed by a conventional radiographic study. PMID:7503538

Abassi-Bakir, D; Graiess-Tlili, K; Turky, A; Gharbi, H; Bouzaiene, M; Kraiem, C; Bakir, A

1995-01-01

94

A damage model for the percutaneous triple hemisection technique for tendo-achilles lengthening.  

PubMed

A full understanding of the mechanisms of action in the percutaneous triple hemisection technique for tendo-achilles lengthening has yet to be acquired and therefore, an accurate prediction of the amount of lengthening that occurs is difficult to make. The purpose of this research was to develop a phenomenological damage model that utilizes both matrix and fiber damage and replicates the observed behavior of the tendon tissue during the lengthening process. Matrix damage was triggered and evolved relative to shear strain and the fiber damage was triggered and evolved relative to fiber stretch. Three examples are given to show the effectiveness of the model. Implementation of the damage model provides a tool for studying this common procedure, and may allow for numerical investigation of alternative surgical approaches that could reduce the incidence rates of severe over-lengthening. PMID:25194459

Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

2014-10-17

95

Peroneus longus tendon lengthening as an adjuvant measure in cavus foot surgery.  

PubMed

Lengthening of the peroneus longus tendon is very important when performing cavus foot surgery. This tendon directly affects all three components (varus heel, increased arch height, and forefoot adduction) of the idiopathic cavus foot which can be accounted for by increased strength and activity of the peroneus muscle. The deforming force is removed or weakened according to the degree, duration and rigidity of the cavus foot by lengthening or transferring the tendon. PMID:1025187

Smith, S D; Weil, L S

1976-01-01

96

Outcome analysis of sports-related multiple facial fractures.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report a retrospective study of 236 patients with facial bone fractures from various sports who were treated at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea, between February 1996 and April 2007. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and analyzed to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment of the sports-related facial bone fractures. The highest frequency of sports-related facial bone fractures was in the age group 11 to 20 years (40.3%); there was a significant male predominance in all age groups (13.75:1). The most common causes of the injury were soccer (38.1%), baseball (16.1%), basketball (12.7%), martial arts (6.4%), and skiing or snowboarding (11%). Fractures of the nasal bone were the most common in all sports; mandible fractures were common in soccer and martial arts, orbital bone fractures were common in baseball, basketball, and ice sports, and fractures of the zygoma were frequently seen in soccer and martial arts. The main causes of the sports injuries were direct body contact (50.8%), and the most commonly associated soft tissue injuries were found in the head and neck regions (92.3%). Nasal bone fractures were the most common (54.2%), and tripod fractures were the most common type of complex injuries (4.2%). The complication rate was 3.0%. Long-term epidemiological data regarding the natural history of sports-related facial bone fractures are important for the evaluation of existing preventative measures and for the development of new methods of injury prevention and treatment. PMID:19352203

Hwang, Kun; You, Sun Hye; Lee, Hong Sik

2009-05-01

97

MMN evidence for asymmetry in detection of IOI shortening and lengthening at behavioral indifference tempo.  

PubMed

Most behavioral investigations indicated an indifference interval of 500-700 ms, at which the detection of inter-onset interval (IOI) shortening and lengthening are equally difficult and no perceptual bias would be expected. However, some event-related potential (ERPs) studies showed that even at this behavioral indifference time, the detection of shortening and lengthening might rely on different aspects of information processing. This work was aimed to investigate whether the pre-attentive processing of local tempo perturbations, i.e., IOI shortening and lengthening, are different when the basic tempo is at the behavioral indifference area. Tempo perturbations were introduced by shortening or lengthening the third IOI by 10% of the base IOI of the 5-beat isochronous sequence. ERPs recorded in a passive experiment showed that both tempo perturbations elicited a distinct frontal mismatch negativity (MMN). The low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) source estimation indicated a left prefrontal predominance activity around the MMN peak, implicating an important role of the frontal lobe in the processing of local tempo perturbations. Statistical analysis revealed that the MMN to IOI shortening had an earlier and greater peak than that to IOI lengthening, implying that IOI shortening might be more easily to be detected than IOI lengthening even at indifference tempo. Our results suggested that local IOI perturbations at behavioral indifference area have an asymmetric effect on the pre-attentive processing of temporal variation detection. PMID:21029729

Lai, Yongxiu; Tian, Yin; Yao, Dezhong

2011-01-01

98

Chapter III Facial Expression Analysis,  

E-print Network

for analysis of facial information, modeling of internal emotional states, and methods for graphical synthesis. However, certain areas of face-based HCI, such as facial expression recognition and robotic facial display. Casacuberta (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Synthetic Emotions and Sociable Robotics: New Applications

Lyons, Michael J.

99

A Facial Repertoire for Avatars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions are becoming more and more important in today's computer systems with humanoid user interfaces. Avatars have become popular, however their facial communication is usually limited. This is partly due to the fact that many questions, especially on the dynamics of expressions, are still open. Moreover, the few commercial facial animation tools have limited facilities, and are not aimed

Zsófia Ruttkay; Jeroen Hendrix; Alban Lelièvre; Han Noot

100

Use of rapidly hardening hydroxyapatite cement for facial contouring surgery.  

PubMed

Hydroxyapatite cement is an ideal alloplastic material to replace the autogenous bone grafts in craniofacial surgery. Hydroxyapatite cement is advantageous because it can be easily molded by hand unlike other alloplastic materials such as silicone and high-density polyethylene. For aesthetic applications of hydroxyapatite cement, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the rapidly hardening hydroxyapatite cement used in facial contour augmentation, especially for the forehead and the malar area. A total of 18 cases of facial skeleton augmentation or contouring surgery using rapidly hardening hydroxyapatite cement (Mimix; Biomet, Warsaw, IN) were examined, and the long-term cosmetic results and any complications were also analyzed. The aims of facial contouring surgeries were to correct the following conditions: hemifacial microsomia, craniosynostosis, posttraumatic facial deformity, deformity after tumor resection, dentofacial deformity, and Romberg disease. The application sites of hydroxyapatite cement were the forehead, malar area, chin, and paranasal area. A mean of 16 g (range, 5-50 g) of the hydroxyapatite cement was used. Postoperative infection, seroma, and migration of the implant were not observed during the follow-up period of 23 months. Rapidly hardening hydroxyapatite cement, Mimix, is easy to manipulate, promptly sclerotized, and can be replaced by living bone tissue, with a low complication rate. Therefore, it can be an optimal treatment that can be used instead of other conventional types of alloplastic materials used in facial contouring surgery. PMID:20613576

Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Ji Ye; Lew, Dae Hyun

2010-07-01

101

Reconstruction of facial deformities in leprosy patients.  

PubMed

Almost all the parts of the face may be involved in deformities caused by leprosy. Reconstructive surgery can be undertaken after the disease is arrested by medical treatment. Reconstruction of nose can be done by augmentation with autogenous bone graft, retronasal inlay graft, etc. Loss of eyebrows can be reconstructed with hair bearing skin with hair follicles. Sagging face can be corrected by nasolabial face-lift with correction of glabellar folds. Blepharoplasty is done for correction of some conditions. The temporal muscle sling is a dynamic procedure to reconstruct facial nerve palsy. PMID:15871355

Banerjee, Samir

2004-12-01

102

Assessing pain by facial expression: Facial expression as nexus  

PubMed Central

The experience of pain is often represented by changes in facial expression. Evidence of pain that is available from facial expression has been the subject of considerable scientific investigation. The present paper reviews the history of pain assessment via facial expression in the context of a model of pain expression as a nexus connecting internal experience with social influence. Evidence about the structure of facial expressions of pain across the lifespan is reviewed. Applications of facial assessment in the study of adult and pediatric pain are also reviewed, focusing on how such techniques facilitate the discovery and articulation of novel phenomena. Emerging applications of facial assessment in clinical settings are also described. Alternative techniques that have the potential to overcome barriers to the application of facial assessment arising out of its resource-intensiveness are described and evaluated, including recent work on computer-based automatic assessment. PMID:19262917

Prkachin, Kenneth M

2009-01-01

103

Authentic facial expression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing trend toward emotional intelligence in human-computer interaction paradigms. In order to react appropriately to a human, the computer would need to have some perception of the emotional state of the human. We assert that the most informative channel for machine perception of emotions is through facial expressions in video. One current difficulty in evaluating automatic emotion

Nicu Sebe; Michael S. Lew; Yafei Sun; Ira Cohen; Theo Gevers; Thomas S. Huang

2007-01-01

104

Evolutionary facial feature selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing number of acquired physiological and behavioral biometric samples, biometric data sets are experiencing tremendous growth. As database sizes increase, exhaustive identification searches by matching with entire biometric feature sets become computationally unmanageable. An evolutionary facial feature selector chooses a set of features from prior contextual or meta face features that reduces the search space. This paper discusses

Aaron K. Baughman

2008-01-01

105

Facial diplegia: a clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical entity and presents as a diagnostic challenge. Unlike its unilateral counterpart facial diplegia is seldom secondary to Bell's palsy. Occurring at a frequency of 0.3% to 2% of all facial palsies it often indicates ominous medical conditions. Guillian-Barre syndrome needs to be considered as a differential in all given cases of facial diplegia where timely treatment would be rewarding. Here a case of bilateral facial palsy due to Guillian-Barre syndrome with atypical presentation is reported. PMID:24761505

Chakrabarti, Debaprasad; Roy, Mukut; Bhattacharyya, Amrit K

2013-06-01

106

Mechanism of force enhancement during and after lengthening of active muscle: a temperature dependence study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine the temperature dependence of active force in lengthening and shortening muscle. Experiments were done, in vitro, on bundles of intact fibres (fibre length L(0) ~2 mm; sarcomere length ~2.5 ?m) isolated from a rat fast muscle (flexor hallucis brevis) and a ramp length change of 5-7% L(0) was applied on the plateau of an isometric tetanic contraction. Ramp lengthening increased and ramp shortening decreased the muscle tension to new approximately steady levels in a velocity-dependent way. The isometric tension and the lower steady tension reached at a given shortening velocity, increased with warming from 10 to 35 °C and the relation between tension and reciprocal absolute temperature was sigmoidal. However, the tension-temperature curve of shortening muscle was sharper and shifted to higher temperature with increased velocity. In contrast, the enhanced steady tension during lengthening at a given velocity was largely temperature-insensitive within the same temperature range; we hypothesize that the tension-temperature curve may be shifted to lower temperatures in lengthening muscle. Consequently, when normalised to the isometric tension at each temperature, the tension during lengthening at a given velocity decreased exponentially with increase of temperature. The residual force enhancement that remains after ramp lengthening showed a similar behaviour and was markedly reduced in warming from 10 to 35 °C. The findings are consistent with the thesis that active force generation in muscle is endothermic and strain-sensitive; during shortening with a faster crossbridge cycle it becomes more pronounced, but during lengthening it becomes depressed as the cycle slows in a velocity-dependent way. The residual force enhancement may be caused by the same process in addition to non-crossbridge mechanism(s). PMID:22706970

Roots, H; Pinniger, G J; Offer, G W; Ranatunga, K W

2012-10-01

107

Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.  

PubMed

The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences. PMID:23469703

Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

2012-01-01

108

Facial animation reconstruction from FAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In MPEG-4, two sets of parameters are defined: Facial Definition Parameters (FDPs) and Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs). The FDPs are used to customize the proprietary face model of the decoder to a particular face or to download a face model along with the information about how to animate it. And the FAPs are based on the study of minimal facial actions and are closely related to muscle actions, they represent a complete set of basic facial actions, and therefore allow the representation of most facial expressions. In this paper, we propose a simple key-point displacement-controlling muscle model, which describes how the adjacent facial tissue moves with the key points to reconstruct facial animation using FAPs.

Yu, Lu; Zhang, Jingyu

2000-04-01

109

Neural control of shortening and lengthening contractions: influence of task constraints  

PubMed Central

Although the performance capabilities of muscle differ during shortening and lengthening contractions, realization of these differences during functional tasks depends on the characteristics of the activation signal discharged from the spinal cord. Fundamentally, the control strategy must differ during the two anisometric contractions due to the lesser force that each motor unit exerts during a shortening contraction and the greater difficulty associated with decreasing force to match a prescribed trajectory during a lengthening contraction. The activation characteristics of motor units during submaximal contractions depend on the details of the task being performed. Indexes of the strategy encoded in the descending command, such as coactivation of antagonist muscles and motor unit synchronization, indicate differences in cortical output for the two types of anisometric contractions. Furthermore, the augmented feedback from peripheral sensory receptors during lengthening contractions appears to be suppressed by centrally and peripherally mediated presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents, which may also explain the depression of voluntary activation that occurs during maximal lengthening contractions. Although modulation of the activation during shortening and lengthening contractions involves both supraspinal and spinal mechanisms, the association with differences in performance cannot be determined without more careful attention to the details of the task. PMID:18955381

Duchateau, Jacques; Enoka, Roger M

2008-01-01

110

Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

2014-01-01

111

Giant facial lymphangioma.  

PubMed

Lymphatic malformation (LM) is a benign cystic entity resulting from aberrant lymphatic drainage. Often evident at birth, most LMs have declared themselves by 2 years of age. They can be concerning when they occur near vital structures such as the airway or orbit. The natural history varies considerable from spontaneous gradual regression to long-term growth and debilitation. Depending on the location, structures involved, and clinical course of the LM, therapeutic options include observation, intralesional sclerosis, laser therapy, and surgical excision. The literature provides guidelines for treatment options that must be carefully applied to the facial region. We present a newborn infant who presented to our institution with giant facial lymphangioma who underwent a combination of sclerosis, laser ablation, and surgery with reconstruction. PMID:21772195

Sanger, Claire; Wong, Lindsey; Wood, Jeyhan; David, Lisa R; Argenta, Louis C

2011-07-01

112

Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment. PMID:25141118

Gabana-Silveira, Jesus Claudio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Braga, Arnaldo Feitosa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

2014-01-01

113

Efficacy of allogenic bone implants in a series of consecutive elective foot procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To show the efficacy of an allogenic bone graft in elective foot surgery, the authors report on 39 consecutive procedures in which allograft was implanted in 26 patients during a 30-month period. These procedures were performed for a variety of conditions, including arthrodesis, segmental lengthening, and treatment of nonunion. Allograft material consisted of freeze-dried tricortical iliac crest or demineralized bone

Glenn M. Weinraub; Catherine Cheung

2003-01-01

114

Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)  

SciTech Connect

Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. (Univ. of Toronto School of Medicine, Ontario (Canada))

1989-12-01

115

Power loss is greater following lengthening contractions in old versus young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with isometric and dynamic velocity-constrained (isokinetic) tasks, less is known regarding velocity-dependent (isotonic)\\u000a muscle power and recovery in older adults following repeated fatiguing lengthening contractions. We investigated voluntary\\u000a and evoked neuromuscular properties of the dorsiflexors in nine old (68.3?±?6.1 years) and nine young women (25.1?±?1.3 years)\\u000a during and following 150 lengthening contractions for up to 30 min of recovery. At baseline, the

Geoffrey A. Power; Brian H. Dalton; Charles L. Rice; Anthony A. Vandervoort

116

Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations.  

PubMed

Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

2014-01-01

117

[Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].  

PubMed

This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain. PMID:24748087

Koyama, Shinichi

2014-04-01

118

Topological optimization for designing patient-specific large craniofacial segmental bone replacements  

E-print Network

functional requirements may be shaped differently than the natural human bone but be optimized for functional reconstructive techniques result in long-term disfigurement with devastating physical, psychological, social of the facial skeleton. Reconstruction requires facial bone replacement. This is an extremely challenging

Paulino, Glaucio H.

119

The Influence of Prior Hamstring Injury on Lengthening Muscle Tissue Mechanics  

E-print Network

The Influence of Prior Hamstring Injury on Lengthening Muscle Tissue Mechanics Amy Silder1, Scott B risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the affect of prior hamstring strain injury on muscle injuries are frequent in sporting activities, with hamstring injuries particularly common among athletes

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

120

Ilizarov distraction-lengthening in congenital anomalies of the upper limb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine patients underwent Ilizarov distraction-lengthening for congenital anomalies. All were late cases and had undergone other procedures. In five radial club hand patients with very short forearms, we achieved an average 5.8 cm increase in length with each distraction cycle. In two patients with symbrachydactyly of the cleft hand type, we achieved pinch grip between a radial and an ulnar

S. Hülsbergen-Krüger; P. Preisser; B. D. Partecke

1998-01-01

121

CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Weak National Recovery Lengthens Nevada's Employment Recession  

E-print Network

CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Weak National Recovery Lengthens Nevada's Employment Recession The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using an index of employment variables. The Nevada Leading Employment Index also measures the ups

Ahmad, Sajjad

122

Central fatigue and motor cortical excitability during repeated shortening and lengthening actions.  

PubMed

A decline in voluntary muscle activation and adaptations in motor cortical excitability contribute to the progressive decline in voluntary force during sustained isometric contractions. However, the neuronal control of muscle activation differs between isometric and dynamic contractions. This study was designed to investigate voluntary activation, motor cortex excitability, and intracortical inhibition during fatiguing concentric and eccentric actions. Eight subjects performed 143 torque motor-controlled, repeated shortening and lengthening actions of the elbow flexor muscles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied three times every 20 cycles. Magnetic evoked motor potentials (MEP), duration of the silent period (SP), and the torque increase due to TMS were analyzed. TMS resulted in a small torque increase in unfatigued actions. With repeated actions, voluntary torque dropped rapidly and the amplitude of the TMS-induced twitches increased, especially during repeated lengthening actions. MEP area of biceps brachii and brachioradialis muscles increased during repeated actions to a similar extent during lengthening and shortening fatigue. The duration of biceps and brachioradialis SP did not change with fatigue. Thus, voluntary activation became suboptimal during fatiguing dynamic actions and motor cortex excitability increased without any changes in intracortical inhibition. The apparent dissociation of voluntary activation and motor cortex excitability suggests that the central fatigue observed, especially during lengthening actions, did not result from changes in motor cortex excitability. PMID:12115976

Löscher, Wolfgang N; Nordlund, Maria M

2002-06-01

123

Reduction in primary genu recurvatum gait after aponeurotic calf muscle lengthening during multilevel surgery.  

PubMed

Knee hyperextension (genu recurvatum, GR) is often seen in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Primary GR appears essential without previous treatment. As equinus deformity is suspected to be one of the main factors evoking primary GR, the purpose of this study was to determine whether lengthening the calf muscles to decrease equinus would decrease coexisting GR in children with bilateral spastic CP. In a retrospective study, 19 CP patients with primary GR (mean age: 9.4 years, 13 male, 6 female, 26 involved limbs) in whom an aponeurotic calf muscle lengthening procedure was performed during single-event multilevel surgery were included and investigated using three-dimensional gait analysis before and at a mean follow-up of 14 months after the procedure according to a standardized protocol. After calf muscle lengthening, a significant improvement in ankle dorsiflexion (9.5°) and a significant reduction (10.5°) in knee hyperextension (p<0.001) were found during mid-stance of the gait cycle. Six limbs (23%) showed no improvement concerning knee hyperextension and were designated as nonresponders. In these patients no significant improvement in ankle dorsiflexion was found after surgery either. Improvement in ankle dorsiflexion and reduction in knee hyperextension in stance phase correlated significantly (r=0.46; p=0.019). These findings indicate that equinus deformity is a Major underlying factor in Primary GR and that calf muscle lengthening can effectively reduce GR in patients with CP. PMID:24029800

Klotz, M C M; Wolf, S I; Heitzmann, D; Krautwurst, B; Braatz, F; Dreher, T

2013-11-01

124

Musculo-tendon length and lengthening velocity of rectus femoris in stiff knee gait.  

PubMed

Inappropriate activity of M. rectus femoris (RF) during swing is believed to contribute to stiff knee gait in cerebral palsy. This study used musculoskeletal modeling techniques to analyze rectus femoris musculo-tendon (MT) length and lengthening velocity during stiff knee gait in 35 children with diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Duncan Ely test scores were used to categorize the patients into four groups with increasing levels of rectus femoris spasticity. Knee kinematics confirmed a significant reduction and delay of maximal peak knee flexion during swing in the patient groups compared to reference values. Maximal musculo-tendon length of M. rectus femoris was reduced and occurred prematurely in swing. Musculo-tendon lengthening velocity was significantly reduced and the timing of the maximal lengthening velocity was shifted into stance phase. The present study demonstrates altered dynamic behavior of the M. rectus femoris in stiff knee gait and the results indicate that maximal knee flexion in swing was not a valid reference for the MT length of the M. rectus femoris. Furthermore, in the patient group maximal musculo-tendon lengthening velocity of the muscle related to the stance phase rather than the stance-swing transition. PMID:16399519

Jonkers, Ilse; Stewart, Caroline; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Spaepen, Arthur

2006-02-01

125

Limb lengthening over a nail can safely reduce the duration of external fixation  

PubMed Central

Background: Limb lengthening using Ilizarov external fixation is safe, but the consolidation phase tends to take too long. A method that can safely reduce the time spent in external fixation would help increase patient tolerance and comfort. We report our results of lengthening over nails (LON) method in which an interlocking nail was used along with an Ilizarov external fixator to reduce external fixation duration in limb lengthening. This is a retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven lengthening surgeries were done with the LON method in 23 patients with 22 tibiae and five femora during the last 12 years. Length gain ranged from 1.5 cm to a maximum of 9.8 cm with a mean of 4.6 cm. The mean modified Paley difficulty score was 7.6 points. Fourteen associated procedures were performed in these patients, including equinus contracture releases, supracondylar osteotomies, ilizarov hip reonstruction and ankle fusion. We had a 29% rate of complications which included one problem, three obstacles and four complications with no serious deep intramedullary infections. Our rate of complications compares favorably with series reported in the literature. External fixation duration was reduced significantly to a mean of 17.8 days per cm. Conclusions: A combination of intramedullary nailing along with external fixation significantly reduces external fixation time while maintaining low rate of complications. Great care needs to be taken to prevent pin track infection and deep intramedullary sepsis. PMID:19753160

Chaudhary, Milind

2008-01-01

126

Biomechanical consequences of lateral column lengthening of the calcaneus: part I. long plantar ligament strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral column lengthening of the calcaneus has been a powerful tool used to correct peritalar subluxation in symptomatic flat feet. The mechanical basis and limits for correction with this procedure are not well understood. A flatfoot model was created on 8 fresh-frozen cadaver feet by sectioning the deltoid ligament, talonavicular capsule, and spring ligament. Strain-gauge analysis of the long plantar

Kent R DiNucci; Jeffrey C Christensen; Kris A DiNucci

2004-01-01

127

Older women strongly prefer stride lengthening to shortening in avoiding obstacles.  

PubMed

In the present study the obstacle avoidance strategy during treadmill walking was investigated in ten young (aged 19-32) and ten older females (aged 65-78). Minimisation of displacement of the foot from its original landing position has been proposed to be the main criterion for the selection of alternate foot placement. Each participant performed 60 obstacle avoidance trials. Foot-obstacle configurations were varied in order to obtain both lengthening and shortening avoidance reactions. For each trial it was calculated how much lengthening and how much shortening of the stride was required minimally for successful avoidance. The difference between required lengthening and required shortening was expressed as a percentage of the control stride length and was used as a measure of minimal displacement. The behavior of young females was in agreement with the minimal displacement criterion. The older females, however, exhibited a strong preference for stride lengthening, even in situations in which stride shortening would be highly favorable. The explanation for the long step strategy preference of the older females is discussed in terms of age-related changes in decision-making, differences between young and older persons in the unobstructed gait pattern, and safety considerations. PMID:15688175

Weerdesteyn, V; Nienhuis, B; Mulder, T; Duysens, J

2005-02-01

128

Achilles tendon lengthening for equinus foot with Miyoshi myopathy: a case report.  

PubMed

A 17-year-old male presented with reduced muscle strength in both lower limbs and demonstrated equinus foot (ankle equinus) in the right lower limb. Using dysferlin immunostaining, the patient was diagnosed with Miyoshi myopathy by the neurologist. Achilles tendon lengthening was performed, and a plantigrade foot without ankle equinus was achieved. PMID:24618243

Ikoma, Kazuya; Maki, Masahiro; Kido, Masamitsu; Arai, Yuji; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

2014-01-01

129

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

130

Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery  

E-print Network

/Head & Neck Surgery Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 7. If eyelid surgery is performed there mayPostoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences

Chapman, Michael S.

131

[Emotional impact of facial palsy].  

PubMed

Facial palsy is not only a movement disorder but leads also to an emotional and communicative disorder in chronic stage but also in some patients already during the acute phase of the disease. The present review describes the current knowledge of the neurobiological and psychological fundamentals on the relation of facial movement and its emotional context. So far there is not much knowledge on the impact of a facial palsy on the interaction between facial movement, emotional processing and communicative skills of the patient. The emotional contagion seems to be reduced in patients with facial palsy. The ability to express emotions seems also to be reduced. Moreover, the patients feel to be perceived negatively. In fact, most of the expressions of patients with facial palsy are allocated with a negative affect even when the patients are smiling. Patients with facial palsy react with negative stress, anxiety and depression. The patients avoid social contacts. In turn, this reinforces the communicative disorder. The otorhinolaryngologist can use the Facial Disability Index as a simple questionnaire to detect such dysfunctions. Diagnostics that are necessary to develop a therapy program are presented in this review. Standardized therapy concepts that are not only treat the movement disorder but also the emotional context is missing so far. Finally, the review will give an outlook on potential therapy strategies. PMID:23065673

Dobel, C; Miltner, W H R; Witte, O W; Volk, G F; Guntinas-Lichius, O

2013-01-01

132

Non-Rigid Image Registration using Bone Growth Model  

E-print Network

of the cranio-facial complex, and for understanding the eects of cranio-facial surgery on children. After after surgery. Using such knowledge, the surgeon could possibly anticipate this development and correctNon-Rigid Image Registration using Bone Growth Model Morten Bro-Nielsen123, Claus Gramkow23, Sven

133

Oral Crest Lengthening for Increasing Removable Denture Retention by Means of CO2 Laser  

PubMed Central

The loss of teeth and their replacement by artificial denture is associated with many problems. The denture needs a certain amount of ridge height to give it retention and a long-term function. Crest lengthening procedures are performed to provide a better anatomic environment and to create proper supporting structures for more stability and retention of the denture. The purpose of our study is to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 laser-assisted surgery in patients treated for crest lengthening (vestibular deepening). There have been various surgical techniques described in order to restore alveolar ridge height by pushing muscles attaching of the jaws. Most of these techniques cause postoperative complications such as edemas, hemorrhage, pain, infection, slow healing, and rebound to initial position. Our clinical study describes the treatment planning and clinical steps for the crest lengthening with the use of CO2 laser beam (6–15 Watts in noncontact, energy density range: 84.92–212.31?J/cm2, focus, and continuous mode with a focal point diameter of 0.3?mm). At the end of each surgery, dentures were temporarily relined with a soft material. Patients were asked to mandatorily wear their relined denture for a minimum of 4–6 weeks and to remove it for hygienic purposes. At the end of each surgery, the deepest length of the vestibule was measured by the operator. No sutures were made and bloodless wounds healed in second intention without grafts. Results pointed out the efficiency of the procedure using CO2 laser. At 8 weeks of post-op, the mean of crest lengthening was stable without rebound. Only a loss of 15% was noticed. To conclude, the use of CO2 laser is an effective option for crest lengthening. PMID:25383385

Nammour, Samir; Gerges, Elie; Bou Tayeh, Rima; Zeinoun, Toni

2014-01-01

134

A novel method for designing and fabricating custom-made artificial bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial bones are useful for tissue augmentation in patients with facial deformities or defects. Custom-made artificial bones, produced by mirroring the bone structure on the healthy side using computer-aided design, have been used. This method is simple, but has limited ability to recreate detailed structures. The authors have invented a new method for designing artificial bones, better customized for the

H. Saijo; Y. Kanno; Y. Mori; S. Suzuki; K. Ohkubo; D. Chikazu; Y. Yonehara; U.-i. Chung; T. Takato

2011-01-01

135

Differential segmental strain during active lengthening in a large biarticular thigh muscle during running  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis (ILPO) is the largest muscle in the hindlimb of the guinea fowl and is thought to play an important role during the stance phase of running, both absorbing and producing work. Using sonomicrometry and electromyography, we examined whether the ILPO experiences differential strain between proximal, central and distal portions of the posterior fascicles. When the ILPO is being lengthened while active, the distal portion was found to lengthen significantly more than either the proximal or central portions of the muscle. Our data support the hypothesis that the distal segment lengthened farther and faster because it began activity at shorter sarcomere lengths on the ascending limb of the length–tension curve. Probably because of the self-stabilizing effects of operating on the ascending limb of the length–tension curve, all segments reached the end of lengthening and started shortening at the same sarcomere length. During shortening, this similarity in sarcomere length among the segments was maintained, as predicted from force–velocity effects, and shortening strain was similar in all segments. The differential active strain during active lengthening is thus ultimately determined by differences in strain during the passive portion of the cycle. The sarcomere lengths of all segments of the fascicles were similar at the end of active shortening, but after the passive portion of the cycle the distal segment was shorter. Differential strain in the segments during the passive portion of the cycle may be caused by differential joint excursions at the knee and hip acting on the ends of the muscle and being transmitted differentially by the passive visco-elastic properties of the muscle. Alternatively, the differential passive strain could be due to the action of active or passive muscles in the thigh that transmit force to the IPLO in shear. Based on basic sarcomere dynamics we predict that differential strain is more likely to occur in muscles undergoing active lengthening at the beginning of contraction than those undergoing only shortening. PMID:21957102

Carr, Jennifer A.; Ellerby, David J.; Marsh, Richard L.

2011-01-01

136

Craniofacial Bone Grafting: Wolff's Law Revisited  

PubMed Central

Bone grafts are used for the reconstruction of congenital and acquired deformities of the facial skeleton and, as such, comprise a vital component of the craniofacial surgeon's armamentarium. A thorough understanding of bone graft physiology and the factors that affect graft behavior is therefore essential in developing a more intelligent use of bone grafts in clinical practice. This article presents a review of the basic physiology of bone grafting along with a survey of pertinent concepts and current research. The factors responsible for bone graft survival are emphasized. PMID:22110789

Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Tong, Lawrence; Buchman, Steven R.

2008-01-01

137

Tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov\\u000a external fixator for the treatment of leg length discrepancy or short stature. This retrospective study was performed on 18\\u000a tibiae (13 patients) in which attempts were made to reduce complications. We used an Ilizarov external fixator and a

Hayoung Kim; Sang Ki Lee; Kap Jung Kim; Jae Hoon Ahn; Won Sik Choy; Yong In Kim; Jea Yun Koo

2009-01-01

138

Imaging of the facial nerve.  

PubMed

The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve. PMID:20456888

Veillona, F; Ramos-Taboada, L; Abu-Eid, M; Charpiot, A; Riehm, S

2010-05-01

139

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (pcl) Reconstruction by Transtibial Tunnel:. Suggestions of Lengthening and Slippage Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examined the biomechanical fatigue behavior of Achilles tendon autograft after posterior cruciate ligament (PLC) reconstructions. It experimented with various fixation devices and locations on the degree of initial lengthening and slippage to investigate the relationship between lengthening and slippage ratios among calcaneal and soft tissue fixation methods. Eight specimens of proximal tibia and Achilles tendon grafts were harvested from cadavers and classified into four groups according to the type of transtibial fixation technique. A cyclic load ranging from 50N to 250N was applied to each graft when fixed to the proximal tibia at 55 degrees. The soft tissue fixation method, which uses an interference screw, demonstrated a 56.4% ratio of slippage to total elongation. The use of a double cross-pin with the same method demonstrated a 45.4% slippage ratio. The former was associated with approximately 2 mm less total elongation and 13% more slippage than lengthening compared to the latter. This result was predominantly due to the poor standard of fixation compared to the same method using a double cross-pin.

Kim, Jay-Jung; Kim, Cheol-Woong

140

Peripheral facial palsy in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

2014-11-01

141

Comparison between old and young men for responses to fast velocity maximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy exists concerning the susceptibility of elderly individuals to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. This\\u000a study investigated the hypothesis that muscle damage induced by fast maximal lengthening contractions would be greater for\\u000a old than young men. Ten old (64 ± 4 years) and young (25 ± 6 years) men performed 30 maximal voluntary lengthening contractions\\u000a of the elbow flexors at an angular velocity of 210° s?1. Prior to

Dale W. Chapman; Michael Newton; Michael R McGuigan; Kazunori Nosaka

2008-01-01

142

Objective Guidelines for Removing an External Fixator after Tibial Lengthening Using Pixel Value Ratio: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

During limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail, decisions regarding external fixator removal and weightbearing depend\\u000a on the amount of callus seen at the lengthening area on radiographs. However, this method is subjective and objective evaluation\\u000a of the amount of callus likely would minimize nail or interlocking screw breakage and refracture after fixator removal. We\\u000a asked how many cortices with full

Li Zhao; Qing Fan; K. P. Venkatesh; Man S. Park; Hae Ryong Song

2009-01-01

143

Modulation of corticospinal excitability during lengthening and shortening contractions in the first dorsal interosseus muscle of humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lengthening and shortening contractions are the fundamental patterns of muscle activation underlying various movements. It\\u000a is still unknown whether or not there is a muscle-specific difference in such a fundamental pattern of muscle activation.\\u000a The purpose of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether or not the relationship between lengthening and shortening\\u000a contractions in the modulation of corticospinal excitability in

Hirofumi Sekiguchi; Yutaka Kohno; Tatsuya Hirano; Masami Akai; Yasoichi Nakajima; Kimitaka Nakazawa

2007-01-01

144

Medical facial surface scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical, non-contact three-dimensional range surface digitizers are employed in the 360-degree examination of object surfaces, especially the heads and faces of individuals. The resultant 3- D surface data is suitable for computer graphics display and manipulation, for numerically controlled object replications, or for further processing such as surface measurement extraction. We employed a scanner with a basic active sensor element consisting of a synchronized pattern projector employing flashtubes that illuminate a surface, with a CID camera to detect, digitize, and transmit the sequence of 24 images (per camera) to a digital image processor for surface triangulation, calibration, and fusion into a single surface description of the headform. A major feature of this unit is its use of multiple (typically 6) stationary active sensor elements, with efficient calibration algorithms that achieve nearly seamless superposition of overlapping surface segments seen by individual cameras. The result is accurate and complete coverage of complex contoured surfaces. Application of this system to digitization of the human head in the planning and evaluation of facial plastic surgery is presented.

Vannier, Michael W.; Bhatia, Gulab H.; Commean, Paul K.; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Brunsden, Barry S.

1992-05-01

145

Facial neuroma masquerading as acoustic neuroma.  

PubMed

Facial nerve neuromas are rare benign tumors that may be initially misdiagnosed as acoustic neuromas when situated near the auditory apparatus. We describe a patient with a large cystic tumor with associated trigeminal, facial, audiovestibular, and brainstem dysfunction, which was suspicious for acoustic neuroma on preoperative neuroimaging. Intraoperative investigation revealed a facial nerve neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle and internal acoustic canal. Gross total resection of the tumor via retrosigmoid craniotomy was curative. Transection of the facial nerve necessitated facial reanimation 4 months later via hypoglossal-facial cross-anastomosis. Clinicians should recognize the natural history, diagnostic approach, and management of this unusual and mimetic lesion. PMID:24775608

Sayegh, Eli T; Kaur, Gurvinder; Ivan, Michael E; Bloch, Orin; Cheung, Steven W; Parsa, Andrew T

2014-10-01

146

Compound facial expressions of emotion  

PubMed Central

Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

2014-01-01

147

Outcomes of Direct Facial-to-Hypoglossal Neurorrhaphy with Parotid Release  

PubMed Central

Lesions of the temporal bone and cerebellopontine angle and their management can result in facial nerve paralysis. When the nerve deficit is not amenable to primary end-to-end repair or interpositional grafting, nerve transposition can be used to accomplish the goals of restoring facial tone, symmetry, and voluntary movement. The most widely used nerve transposition is the hypoglossal-facial nerve anastamosis, of which there are several technical variations. Previously we described a technique of single end-to-side anastamosis using intratemporal facial nerve mobilization and parotid release. This study further characterizes the results of this technique with a larger patient cohort and longer-term follow-up. The design of this study is a retrospective chart review and the setting is an academic tertiary care referral center. Twenty-one patients with facial nerve paralysis from proximal nerve injury at the cerebellopontine angle underwent facial-hypoglossal neurorraphy with parotid release. Outcomes were assessed using the Repaired Facial Nerve Recovery Scale, questionnaires, and patient photographs. Of the 21 patients, 18 were successfully reinnervated to a score of a B or C on the recovery scale, which equates to good oral and ocular sphincter closure with minimal mass movement. The mean duration of paralysis between injury and repair was 12.1 months (range 0 to 36 months) with a mean follow-up of 55 months. There were no cases of hemiglossal atrophy, paralysis, or subjective dysfunction. Direct facial-hypoglossal neurorrhaphy with parotid release achieved a functional reinnervation and good clinical outcome in the majority of patients, with minimal lingual morbidity. This technique is a viable option for facial reanimation and should be strongly considered as a surgical option for the paralyzed face. PMID:22451794

Jacobson, Joel; Rihani, Jordan; Lin, Karen; Miller, Phillip J.; Roland, J. Thomas

2010-01-01

148

Management of Temporal Bone Trauma  

PubMed Central

The temporal bones are paired structures located on the lateral aspects of the skull and contribute to the skull base. Trauma is usually the result of blunt head injury and can result in damage to the brain and meninges, the middle and internal ear, and the facial nerve. Complications can include intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral contusion, CSF leak and meningitis, hearing loss, vertigo, and facial paralysis. To prevent these complications, diagnosis followed by appropriate medical and surgical management is critical. Diagnosis relies primarily on physical signs and symptoms as well as radiographic imaging. Emergent intervention is required in situations involving herniation of the brain into the middle ear cavity or hemorrhage of the intratemporal carotid artery. Patients with declining facial nerve function are candidates for early surgical intervention. Conductive hearing loss can be corrected surgically as an elective procedure, while sensorineural hearing loss carries a poor prognosis, regardless of management approach. Children generally recover from temporal bone trauma with fewer complications than adults and experience a markedly lower incidence of facial nerve paralysis. PMID:22110824

Patel, Alpen; Groppo, Eli

2010-01-01

149

Facial Firework Injury: A Case Series  

E-print Network

infection of traumatic injuries. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clinocular, oral, and facial function. 7-9 Firework injury isoral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury,

Tadisina, Kashyap Komarraju; Abcarian, Arianne; Omi, Ellen

2014-01-01

150

Automated Facial Expression Recognition System Andrew Ryan  

E-print Network

Automated Facial Expression Recognition System Andrew Ryan Naval Criminal Investigative Services to develop "non-intrusive" technologies for rapidly assessing the credibility of statements by individuals investigative resources will advance operational excellence and improve investigative capabilities. Facial

151

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Karen L. Schmidt  

E-print Network

1 Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

152

Facial mimicry is not necessary to recognize emotion: Facial expression recognition by people with Moebius syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the reverse simulation model of embodied simulation theory, we recognize others' emotions by subtly mimicking their expressions, which allows us to feel the corresponding emotion through facial feedback. Previous studies examining whether facial mimicry is necessary for facial expression recognition were limited by potentially distracting manipulations intended to artificially restrict facial mimicry or very small samples of people

Kathleen Rives Bogart; David Matsumoto

2010-01-01

153

Mechanical Characteristics of a Polymer Spring Device used to Lengthen Small Intestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) is a condition that occurs due to an insufficient amount of small intestine needed for nutrient absorption and water regulation of the body. A compression spring device is being developed in order to provide a mechanical stimulus to the tissue, as this type of force has been shown to promote lengthening of the tissue. The research completed in this thesis investigated the mechanical characteristics of the spring device and attempted to relate it to the functionality in rat and porcine intestinal tissue. Results from the evaluation of the springs show that Poly(epsilon-caprolactone), or PCL, is a sufficient polymer to use for creating a biodegradable device as the spring dimensions can be adjusted through variations in the diameter, thickness, and band size in order to provide an adequate spring constant for multiple animal types. Design of the springs, however, need to take into account the size of the gelatin capsule used, the amount of plastic deformation and creep behavior of the spring under compression for an extended time period, and the variation in the mechanical properties of the animal soft tissue that requires lengthening. Integration of the spring in-continuity requires a feature that will provide a mechanical resistance to force that is greater than the force of the spring in the compressed state. The spring still requires further development and any design should also take into account the possibility of intestinal perforations or obstructions. The polymer spring device provides a good means towards developing a treatment option for SBS, and other potential soft tissue lengthening needs of the body.

Steinberger, Douglas J.

154

The MAGEC System for Spinal Lengthening in Children with Scoliosis: A NICE Medical Technology Guidance.  

PubMed

Scoliosis-structural lateral curvature of the spine-affects around four children per 1,000. The MAGEC system comprises a magnetically distractible spinal rod implant and an external remote controller, which lengthens the rod; this system avoids repeated surgical lengthening. Rod implants brace the spine internally and are lengthened as the child grows, preventing worsening of scoliosis and delaying the need for spinal fusion. The Medical Technologies Advisory Committee at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) selected the MAGEC system for evaluation in a NICE medical technologies guidance. Six studies were identified by the sponsor (Ellipse Technologies Inc.) as being relevant to the decision problem. Meta-analysis was used to compare the clinical evidence results with those of one conventional growth rod study, and equal efficacy of the two devices was concluded. The key weakness was selection of a single comparator study. The External Assessment Centre (EAC) identified 16 conventional growth rod studies and undertook meta-analyses of relevant outcomes. Its critique highlighted limitations around study heterogeneity and variations in baseline characteristics and follow-up duration, precluding the ability to draw firm conclusions. The sponsor constructed a de novo costing model showing that MAGEC rods generated cost savings of £9,946 per patient after 6 years, compared with conventional rods. The EAC critiqued and updated the model structure and inputs, calculating robust cost savings of £12,077 per patient with MAGEC rods compared with conventional rods over 6 years. The year of valuation was 2012. NICE issued a positive recommendation as supported by the evidence (Medical Technologies Guidance 18). PMID:25172432

Jenks, Michelle; Craig, Joyce; Higgins, Joanne; Willits, Iain; Barata, Teresa; Wood, Hannah; Kimpton, Christine; Sims, Andrew

2014-12-01

155

Rf stability, control and bunch lengthening in electron synchrotron storage rings  

SciTech Connect

A self-consistent theory for nonlinear longitudinal particle motion and rf cavity excitation in a high energy electron storage ring is developed. Coupled first order equations for the motion of an arbitrary number of particles and for the field in several rf cavities are given in the form used in control system theory. Stochastic quantum excitation of synchrotron motion is included, as are the effects of rf control system corrections. Results of computations for double cavity bunch lengthening are given. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Wachtel, J.M.

1989-09-01

156

Medial column stabilization improves the early result of calcaneal lengthening in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Calcaneal lengthening is a popular surgical treatment for pronated foot deformity. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of medial column stabilization in improving the results of calcaneal lengthening for pronated foot deformity in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-one consecutive (37 feet) children with cerebral palsy with pronated foot deformity who received calcaneal lengthening from 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. Talonavicular stabilizations were performed by either stapling alone or fusion depending on the children's age and correctability of midfoot deformity. Satisfaction rates were assessed using Mosca's radiographic, Mosca's clinical, and Yoo's clinical criteria. Talonavicular coverage angle was also measured. Results between groups with and without stabilization of the talonavicular joint were compared. Group 1 included 11 children (19 feet) who had no talonavicular stabilization. Group 2 included 10 children (18 feet) who had talonavicular fixation. Groups were further divided into subgroups A [Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)?II] and B (GMFCS?III). Factors including demography, geographical classification, functional status, and preoperative degree of deformity were similar between the two groups. After the operation, all four radiographic parameters improved significantly. The talonavicular coverage angle was better in group 2 than in group 1. Mosca's radiographic results were satisfactory in 73.68% of cases in group 1 and 100% in group 2; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.027). As for Mosca's clinical results, 63.16% in group 1 and 83.33% in group 2 achieved satisfactory results (P=0.156). On the basis of Yoo's criteria, the results were satisfactory in 57.89% of cases in group 1 and in 94.44% of cases in group 2 (P=0.012). Further analysis on the satisfaction rates between the subgroups showed similar results between the patients in subgroup 1A and 2A, and significantly better results in subgroup 2B than in subgroup 1B. Concurrent stabilization of the talonavicular joint is an effective method to improve clinical and radiographic results of calcaneal lengthening in children with cerebral palsy with pronated feet, and the effect is more significant in children with worse GMFCS levels. PMID:23531550

Huang, Che-Nan; Wu, Kuan-Wen; Huang, Shier-Chieg; Kuo, Ken N; Wang, Ting-Ming

2013-05-01

157

Specific modulation of motor unit discharge for a similar change in fascicle length during shortening and lengthening contractions in humans  

PubMed Central

This study examines the effect of a change in fascicle length on motor unit recruitment and discharge rate in the human tibialis anterior during shortening and lengthening contractions that involved a similar change in torque. The dorsiflexor torque and the surface and intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) from the tibialis anterior were recorded in eight subjects. The behaviour of the same motor unit (n = 63) was compared during submaximal shortening and lengthening contractions performed at a constant velocity (10 deg s?1) with the dorsiflexor muscles over a 20 deg range of motion around the ankle neutral position. Muscle fascicle length was measured non-invasively using ultrasonography. Motor units that were active during a shortening contraction were always active during the subsequent lengthening contraction. Furthermore, additional motor units (n = 18) of higher force threshold that were recruited during the shortening contraction to maintain the required torque were derecruited first during the following lengthening contraction. Although the change in fascicle length was linear (r2 > 0.99), and similar for both shortening and lengthening contractions, modulation of discharge rate differed during the two contractions. Compared with an initial isometric contraction at short (11.9 ± 2.4 Hz) or long (11.7 ± 2.2 Hz) muscle length, discharge rate increased only slightly and stayed nearly constant throughout the lengthening contraction (12.6 ± 2.0 Hz; P < 0.05) whereas it augmented progressively and more substantially during the shortening contraction, reaching 14.5 ± 2.5 Hz (P < 0.001) at the end of the movement. In conclusion, these observations indicate a clear difference in motor unit discharge rate modulation with no change in their recruitment order between shortening and lengthening contractions when performed with a similar change in muscle fascicle length and torque. PMID:16959853

Pasquet, Benjamin; Carpentier, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

2006-01-01

158

Realistic 3D Human Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction and animation of realistic human facial models is an important research field in computer graphics. How to simulate the motions of human faces on 3D facial models in real-time to generate realistic facial expressions is still a challenge. In this paper, a technique to simulate the human facial animation realistically in real-time is presented. First of all, the 3D

ZHANG Qing-Shan; CHEN Guo-Liang

2003-01-01

159

DaFEx: Database of Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a DaFEx (Database of Facial Expressions) is a database created with the purpose of providing a benchmark for the evaluation\\u000a of the facial expressivity of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). DaFEx consists of 1008 short videos containing emotional\\u000a facial expressions of the 6 Ekman’s emotions plus the neutral expression. The facial expressions were recorded by 8 italian\\u000a professional actors (4 male and

Alberto Battocchi; Fabio Pianesi; Dina Goren-bar

2005-01-01

160

Altering First Impressions After Facial Plastic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background First impressions are greatly influenced by facial appearance. Clinical data from psychiatric medicine overwhelming indicate that attractive individuals receive better judgment, treatment and behavior [1,2,10]. This study aimed to determine whether cosmetic alteration of facial features projects a better first impression. Methods Random reviewers were asked independently to grade standardized preoperative and postoperative photographs of patients who underwent facial

Steven Dayan; Kirk Clark; Allan A. Ho

2004-01-01

161

Facial Expression Recognition: A Fully Integrated Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. Humans detect and interpret faces and facial expressions in a scene with little or no effort. Still, development of an automated system that accomplishes this task is rather difficult. There are several related problems: detection of an image segment as a face, facial features extraction and tracking, extraction of

R. Volenti; Nicu Sebe; Theo Gevers

2007-01-01

162

Facial soft tissue thickness in Japanese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on mean soft tissue thickness measurements. Numerous studies of facial tissue thickness in adults have been published on a range of subjects from different ancestral backgrounds. Data on facial thickness in children derive primarily from Caucasoid, African-American, and Hispanic subjects. There are limited data from the few studies of Japanese children

Hajime Utsuno; Toru Kageyama; Keiichi Uchida; Mineo Yoshino; Hiroo Miyazawa; Katsuhiro Inoue

2010-01-01

163

Automatic Facial Skin Defect Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin analysis is one of the most important procedures before medical cosmetology. Most conventional skin analysis systems are semi-automatic. They often require human intervention. In this study, an automatic facial skin defect detection approach is proposed. The system first detects human face in the facial image. Based on the detected face, facial features are extracted to locate regions of interest.

Chuan-Yu Chang; Shang-Cheng Li; Pau-Choo Chung; Jui-Yi Kuo; Yung-Chin Tu

2010-01-01

164

COMPUTER-AIDED PLANNING FOR ZYGOMATIC BONE  

E-print Network

COMPUTER-AIDED PLANNING FOR ZYGOMATIC BONE RECONSTRUCTION IN MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMATOLOGY S. MAUBLEU of Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery, CHU Purpan, place Baylac 31059 Toulouse, France A common maxillofacial reference location, and the important swelling. One of the topic of the computer-aided maxillofacial

Boyer, Edmond

165

A Magnetic Resonance-Compatible Loading Device for Dynamically Imaging Shortening and Lengthening Muscle Contraction Mechanics  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to design and test a magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible device to induce either shortening or lengthening muscle contractions for use during dynamic MR imaging. The proposed device guides the knee through cyclic flexion-extension, while either elastic or inertial loads are imposed on the hamstrings. Ten subjects were tested in a motion capture laboratory to evaluate the repeatability of limb motion and imposed loads. Image data were subsequently obtained for all ten subjects using cine phase contrast imaging. Subjects achieved ~30 deg of knee joint motion, with individual subjects remaining within ~1 deg of their average motion across 56 repeated cycles. The maximum hamstring activity and loading occurred when the knee was flexed for the elastic loading condition (shortening contraction), and extended for the inertial loading condition (lengthening contraction). Repeat MR image acquisitions of the same loading condition resulted in similar tissue velocities, while spatial variations in velocity data were clearly different between loading conditions. The proposed device can enable dynamic imaging of the muscle under different types of loads, which has the potential to improve our understanding of basic muscle mechanics, identify potential causes of muscle injury, and provide a basis for quantitatively assessing injury effects at the tissue level. Slight modifications to the device design and/or subject positioning could allow for imaging of the quadriceps or the knee. PMID:24353749

Silder, Amy; Westphal, Christopher J.; Thelen, Darryl G.

2013-01-01

166

Gradual Lengthening of the Ulna in Patients with Multiple Hereditary Exostoses with a Dislocated Radial Head  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multiple hereditary exostoses of the forearm typically form in the distal ulna, causing disturbances in the growth of the ulna and functional disability. Multiple hereditary exostoses inhibit the growth of the ulna, leading to an acquisition of a varus deformity in the radius, which sometimes leads to dislocation of the radial head, the development of limitations in the pronation-supination of the forearm, and cosmetic problems. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of four patients who had deformities of the forearm with radial head dislocation associated with multiple hereditary exostoses, and evaluated the radiologic and clinical results of excision of the osteochondromas from the distal ulna and gradual ulnar lengthening with an Ilizarov external fixator. Results Good clinical and radiological results were obtained after a mean follow-up of 25 months. At the most recent follow-up, radial bowing, ulnar shortening, carpal slip, and the pronation/supination arch of the forearm had improved. There was little change in terms of preoperative radial articular angle and the flexion/extension arch of the elbow by the most recent follow-up. Conclusion Treatment of four forearms from four patients by excision of osteochondromas and gradual lengthening of the ulna with an Ilizarov external fixator spontaneously reduced dislocations of the radial heads without the need for any additional operative intervention. All patients were satisfied with the final results. PMID:24339304

Jung, Sung Taek

2014-01-01

167

The scope of boundary lengthening as a function of lexical stress and pitch accent.  

PubMed

Although the phenomenon of boundary lengthening is well established, the scope of the effect and its interaction with prominence is not well understood. It is known that phrase-final prominence is a determining factor. However, it is unclear whether it is lexical stress or pitch accent that drives the effect, and whether the affected domain is continuous or discontinuous. An electromagnetic articulometer (EMA) study of five speakers of Greek was conducted to examine the effect of (1) boundary (word and IP), (2) stress (ultima, penult, or antepenult), and (3) prominence (accented and de-accented) on the duration of phrase-final word articulatory events. In both accented and de-accented conditions, lengthening affected events that immediately preceded the boundary in stress-final words, but was initiated earlier in words with non-final stress. The affected domain was continuous. The stress effect could also be observed in pausing behavior: pauses following phrase-final words were realized with specific vocal tract configurations, and the articulatory movements forming them were longer when stress was final than when non-final. Based on these results, a theoretical account of boundaries is proposed within the Articulatory Phonology framework, with implications for a cross-linguistic model of prosody. [Work supported by NIH.]. PMID:25235212

Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapi?, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

2014-04-01

168

Facial recognition at the CIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an

Susan Gragg

1997-01-01

169

Facial Expressions, Emotions, and Sign Languages  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as “surprise” to complex and culture specific concepts such as “carelessly.” The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by referring to three dimensions on which facial expressions vary: semantic, compositional, and iconic. PMID:23482994

Elliott, Eeva A.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2013-01-01

170

Facial paralysis for the plastic surgeon  

PubMed Central

Facial paralysis presents a significant and challenging reconstructive problem for plastic surgeons. An aesthetically pleasing and acceptable outcome requires not only good surgical skills and techniques, but also knowledge of facial nerve anatomy and an understanding of the causes of facial paralysis. The loss of the ability to move the face has both social and functional consequences for the patient. At the Facial Palsy Clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, 22,954 patients were surveyed, and over 50% were found to have a considerable degree of psychological distress and social withdrawal as a consequence of their facial paralysis. Functionally, patients present with unilateral or bilateral loss of voluntary and nonvoluntary facial muscle movements. Signs and symptoms can include an asymmetric smile, synkinesis, epiphora or dry eye, abnormal blink, problems with speech articulation, drooling, hyperacusis, change in taste and facial pain. With respect to facial paralysis, surgeons tend to focus on the surgical, or ‘hands-on’, aspect. However, it is believed that an understanding of the disease process is equally (if not more) important to a successful surgical outcome. The purpose of the present review is to describe the anatomy and diagnostic patterns of the facial nerve, and the epidemiology and common causes of facial paralysis, including clinical features and diagnosis. Treatment options for paralysis are vast, and may include nerve decompression, facial reanimation surgery and botulinum toxin injection, but these are beyond the scope of the present paper. PMID:19554190

Kosins, Aaron M; Hurvitz, Keith A; Evans, Gregory RD; Wirth, Garrett A

2007-01-01

171

Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

172

[Recent progress in facial esthetic surgery (excluding endoscopic technics)].  

PubMed

Recent advances offer a new approach to cosmetic surgery of the frontal, cervico-facial and orbito-palpebral areas. Conservative frontal lifting procedures displace the entire frontal muscle (without section or resection) over the underlying bone and periosteal planes by raising the galea and the antagonist muscles. This repositioning reduces or eliminate wrinkles by preventing hyperfunction of the frontal muscle. The risk of sensorial or motor nerve lesions is reduced and the forehead and eyelids have a natural appearance. Unlike extensive lifting of the cervico facial areas, physiological conservative cervico-facial lifting maintains the cutanéomusculo-aponeurotic unity which associates the skin with the superficial musculo-aponeurotic system. The procedure limits detachment in the parotido-masseter region. Early results on the lower cheeks and platysmal cords are significant. The absence of cutaneous detachment preserves the natural appearance of the palpebral complex and the orbital fat allowing improved function and a pleasant aspect of the eyelids. This surgery should be widened beyond the orbito-palpebral area and be used in the frontal, jugal and, in certain cases, the endonasal areas. PMID:9697233

Gola, R

1998-07-01

173

Anatomy of Sodium Hypochlorite Accidents Involving Facial Ecchymosis - A Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives Root canal treatment forms an essential part of general dental practice. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used irrigant in endodontics due to its ability to dissolve organic soft tissues in the root canal system and its action as a potent antimicrobial agent. Although NaOCl accidents created by extrusion of the irrigant through root apices are relatively rare and are seldom life-threatening, they do create substantial morbidity when they occur. Methods To date, NaOCl accidents have only been published as isolated case reports. Although previous studies have attempted to summarise the symptoms involved in these case reports, there was no endeavor to analyse the distribution of soft tissue distribution in those reports. In this review, the anatomy of a classical NaOCl accident that involves facial swelling and ecchymosis is discussed. Results By summarising the facial manifestations presented in previous case reports, a novel hypothesis that involves intravenous infusion of extruded NaOCl into the facial vein via non-collapsible venous sinusoids within the cancellous bone is presented. Conclusions Understanding the mechanism involved in precipitating a classic NaOCl accident will enable the profession to make the best decision regarding the choice of irrigant delivery techniques in root canal débridement, and for manufacturers to design and improve their irrigation systems to achieve maximum safety and efficient cleanliness of the root canal system. PMID:23994710

Zhu, Wan-chun; Gyamfi, Jacqueline; Niu, Li-na; Schoeffel, G. John; Liu, Si-ying; Santarcangelo, Filippo; Khan, Sara; Tay, Kelvin C-Y.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

2013-01-01

174

Genetic Factors That Increase Male Facial Masculinity Decrease Facial Attractiveness of Female Relatives  

PubMed Central

For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

2014-01-01

175

Specific modulation of corticospinal and spinal excitabilities during maximal voluntary isometric, shortening and lengthening contractions in synergist muscles  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was designed to investigate the cortical and spinal mechanisms involved in the modulations of neural activation during lengthening compared with isometric and shortening maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Two muscles susceptible to different neural adjustments at the spinal level, the soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG), were compared. Twelve healthy males participated in at least two experimental sessions designed to assess corticospinal and spinal excitabilities. We compared the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation and Hoffmann reflexes (H-reflexes) during isometric and anisometric MVCs. The H-reflex and MEP responses, recorded during lengthening and shortening MVCs, were compared with those obtained during isometric MVCs. The results indicate that the maximal amplitude of both MEP and H-reflex in the SOL were smaller (P < 0.01) during lengthening MVCs compared with isometric and shortening MVCs but similar (P > 0.05) in MG for all three muscle contraction types. The silent period that follows maximal MEPs was reduced (P < 0.01) during lengthening MVCs in the SOL but not the MG. Similar observations were obtained regardless of the initial length of the MG muscle. Collectively, the current results indicate that the relative contribution of both cortical and spinal mechanisms to the modulation of neural activation differs during lengthening MVCs and between two synergist muscles. The comparison of SOL and MG responses further suggests that the specific modulation of the corticospinal excitability during lengthening MVCs depends mainly on pre- and postsynaptic inhibitory mechanisms acting at the spinal level. PMID:21502288

Duclay, Julien; Pasquet, Benjamin; Martin, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

2011-01-01

176

Polyunsaturated lipid diet lengthens torpor and reduces body temperature in a hibernator.  

PubMed

Membrane lipids of vertebrate animals that tolerate cold are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Because the lipid composition of cellular membranes in mammals can be experimentally altered by diet, we investigated whether a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids would lengthen bouts of torpor and reduce the minimum body temperature in hibernating chipmunks (Eutamias amoenus) compared with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids. Animals on the highly unsaturated diet showed significantly longer bouts of torpor, lower minimum body temperatures, and lower metabolic rates than those on a saturated diet. Animals on a control diet were intermediate. These dietary adjustments apparently influence the control of body temperature by the central nervous system, which results in a modification of the pattern of torpor. The observations also suggest a role of nutritional ecology in hibernation. PMID:3578556

Geiser, F; Kenagy, G J

1987-05-01

177

Rapid induction of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres by depletion of the histone chaperone ASF1  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of activation of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway of mammalian chromosome end maintenance has remained an unresolved issue. We have discovered that co-depletion of the histone chaperones ASF1a and ASF1b in human cells induced all hallmarks of ALT in both primary and cancer cells. These included the formation of ALT associated PML bodies (APBs), extra-chromosomal telomeric DNA species an elevated frequency of telomeric sister chromatid exchanges (t-SCE) events and inter-telomeric exchange of an integrated tag. The induction of ALT characteristics in this setting led to the simultaneous suppression of telomerase. We identified that ALT induction is positively regulated by RAD17 and BLM, while negatively regulated by EXO1 and DNA2. The induction of ALT phenotypes as a consequence of ASF1 depletion strongly support the hypothesis that ALT is a consequence of a histone management dysfunction. PMID:24413054

O'Sullivan, Roderick J.; Arnoult, Nausica; Lackner, Daniel H.; Oganesian, Liana; Haggblom, Candy; Corpet, Armelle; Almouzni, Genevieve; Karlseder, Jan

2013-01-01

178

Group velocity and pulse lengthening of mismatched laser pulses in plasma channels  

SciTech Connect

Analytic solutions are presented to the non-paraxial wave equation describing an ultra-short, low-power, laser pulse propagating in a plasma channel. Expressions for the laser pulse centroid motion and laser group velocity are derived, valid for matched and mismatched propagation in a parabolic plasma channel, as well as in vacuum, for an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. The group velocity of a mismatched laser pulse, for which the laser spot size is strongly oscillating, is found to be independent of propagation distance and significantly less than that of a matched pulse. Laser pulse lengthening of a mismatched pulse owing to laser mode slippage is examined and found to dominate over that due to dispersive pulse spreading for sufficiently long pulses. Analytic results are shown to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions of the full Maxwell equations coupled to the plasma response. Implications for plasma channel diagnostics are discussed.

Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Tilborg, J. van; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2011-08-15

179

Group velocity and pulse lengthening of mismatched laser pulses in plasma channels  

SciTech Connect

Analytic solutions are presented to the non-paraxial wave equation describing an ultra-short, low-power, laser pulse propagating in aplasma channel. Expressions for the laser pulse centroid motion and laser group velocity are derived, valid for matched and mismatchedpropagation in a parabolic plasma channel, as well as in vacuum, for an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. The group velocity of amismatched laser pulse, for which the laser spot size is strongly oscillating, is found to be independent of propagation distance andsignificantly less than that of a matched pulse. Laser pulse lengthening of a mismatched pulse owing to laser mode slippage isexamined and found to dominate over that due to dispersive pulse spreading for sufficiently long pulses. Analytic results are shown tobe in excellent agreement with numerical solutions of the full Maxwell equations coupled to the plasma response. Implications for plasmachannel diagnostics are discussed.

Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim

2011-07-07

180

Visual processing of facial affect.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of the fusiform gyrus in identifying and processing facial emotional expression in humans, MEG data were collected while six healthy subjects judged whether photographs of faces displayed emotion (happiness or disgust) compared to neutral faces and equiluminant scrambled faces. For all six subjects, a magnetic source localizing to right fusiform gyrus was evident approximately 150 ms following presentation of face stimuli, but not following non-face stimuli. MEG source strength for this component was greatest for happy, intermediate for disgust, and lowest for neutral facial expressions, suggesting that activity in fusiform gyrus is sensitive to both face-specific stimuli and to the affective content of the face. These findings are considered in the context of a specialized neural face-dependent information system. PMID:14534432

Lewis, Stephen; Thoma, Robert J; Lanoue, Marianna D; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Edgar, Christopher; Huang, Minxiong; Weisend, Michael P; Irwin, Jessica; Paulson, Kim; Cañive, José M

2003-10-01

181

Automated interactive facial caricature generation  

E-print Network

. Subject: Aaron Otstott. 31 31 Subject: Cody Starr. 32 17 18 19 Subject: Kristian ten Wolde. Subject: John Patterson. . Subject: Margaret Lomas. . . 32 33 20 Successor of Caraccis (17th century). Ogcers and Soldiers. 35 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION..., "Synthesizing Continuous-tone Caricature, " Image and Vision. Computing, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 23-129, April 1991. [5] P. Benson, R. Campbell, T. Harris, M. Frank and M. Tovee, "Enhancing Images of Facial Expressions, " Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 61, no...

Logan, Ryan C

2012-06-07

182

Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

Tan, Pearlie W.W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

183

Aging and facial changes--documenting clinical signs, part 1: clinical changes of the aging face.  

PubMed

The process of aging induces the transformation of the face with changes that are usually classified as either chronological or photo induced and that affect the shape, the texture, and the color of the face. Facial shape is mainly transformed by the evolution of bones and soft tissues (muscles, fat, and skin) in addition to noticeable effects of gravity. Skin texture is mainly determined by wrinkles, which arise from atrophy of the skin layers, elastosis, and facial expressions. Skin color is related to the distribution of skin chromophores and the structure of the dermis, which affects light scattering. All facial changes are dependant on sex, ethnicity, and lifestyle. They affect self-perception and social interactions and can sometimes be slowed down or reversed using appropriate clinical procedures (e.g., dermatological, surgical, and cosmetic interventions). PMID:23163070

Nkengne, Alex; Bertin, Christiane

2012-01-01

184

Aging and facial changes--documenting clinical signs, part 1: clinical changes of the aging face.  

PubMed

The process of aging induces the transformation of the face with changes that are usually classified as either chronological or photo-induced and that affect the shape, the texture, and the color of the face. Facial shape is mainly transformed by the evolution of bones and soft tissues (muscles, fat, and skin) in addition to noticeable effects of gravity. Skin texture is mainly determined by wrinkles, which arise from atrophy of the skin layers, elastosis, and facial expressions. Skin color is related to the distribution of skin chromophores and the structure of the dermis, which affects light scattering. All facial changes are dependant on sex, ethnicity, and lifestyle. They affect self-perception and social interactions and can sometimes be slowed down or reversed using appropriate clinical procedures (eg, dermatological, surgical, cosmetic interventions). PMID:24340467

Nkengne, Alex; Bertin, Christiane

2013-01-01

185

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

PubMed

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

2013-06-01

186

Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving  

PubMed Central

Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkable bulging of the right tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear. PMID:22953110

Kamide, Daisuke; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

2012-01-01

187

Stretching versus strength training in lengthened position in subjects with tight hamstring muscles: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stretching is used to modify muscle length. However, its effects seem to be temporary. There is evidence in animal models that strengthening in a lengthened position may induce long lasting changes in muscle length. The objective of this study was to compare changes in hamstrings flexibility, peak torque angle and stretch tolerance after two training programs: stretching and strengthening in

Cecília F. Aquino; Sérgio T. Fonseca; Gabriela G. P. Gonçalves; Paula L. P. Silva; Juliana M. Ocarino; Marisa C. Mancini

2010-01-01

188

Repair of bilateral clefts of lip, alveolus and palate Part 2: Concomitant lip closure and columella lengthening after lip adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lip repair and synchronous columella lengthening in bilateral clefts of the lip, alveolus and palate following lip adhesion according to the method outlined in Part 1 is described in this part of the paper. Together with lip and nose repair the gingivo-periosteoplasty can also be performed when the alveolar process is perfectly aligned and the greater and lesser segments abutt

Klaus Bitter

2001-01-01

189

The effect of walking speed on hamstrings length and lengthening velocity in children with spastic cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with cerebral palsy often walk with reduced knee extension in terminal swing, which can be associated with short length or slow lengthening velocity of hamstrings muscles during gait. This study investigated the role of two factors that may contribute to such short and slow hamstrings: walking speed and spasticity. 17 children with spastic cerebral palsy and 11 matched typically

Marjolein M. van der Krogt; Caroline A. M. Doorenbosch; Jaap Harlaar

2009-01-01

190

Suppression of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres by Sp100-Mediated Sequestration of the MRE11\\/RAD50\\/NBS1 Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 10% of cancers overall use alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) instead of telomerase to prevent telomere shortening, and ALT is especially common in astrocytomas and various types of sarcomas. The hallmarks of ALT in telomerase-negative cancer cells include a unique pattern of telomere length heterogeneity, rapid changes in individual telomere lengths, and the presence of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies

Wei-Qin Jiang; Ze-Huai Zhong; Jeremy D. Henson; Axel A. Neumann; Andy C.-M. Chang; Roger R. Reddel

2005-01-01

191

Bone Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

192

Bone Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

193

Facial expression recognition from video sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing human facial expression and emotion by computer is an interesting and challenging problem. We propose a method for recognizing emotions through facial expressions displayed in video sequences. We introduce a tree-augmented naive-Bayes (TAN) classifier that learns the dependencies between facial features; we also provide an algorithm for finding the best TAN structure. Our person-dependent and person-independent experiments show that

Ira Cohen; Nicu Sebe; Ashutosh Garg; Michael S. Lew; Thomas S. Huang

2002-01-01

194

FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION FROM VIDEO SEQUENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing human facial expression and emotion by computer is an interesting and challenging problem. In this paper we propose a method for recognizing emotions through facial expressions dis- played in video sequences. We introduce a Tree-Augmented-Naive Bayes (TAN) classifier that learns the dependencies between the facial features and we provide an algorithm for finding the best TAN structure. Our person-dependent

Ira Cohen; Nicu Sebe; Ashutosh Garg; Michael S. Lew; Thomas S. Huang

2003-01-01

195

3-facial colouring of plane graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plane graph is l-facially k-colourable if its vertices can be coloured with\\u000ak colours such that any two distinct vertices on a facial segment of length at\\u000amost l are coloured differently. We prove that every plane graph is 3-facially\\u000a11-colourable. As a consequence, we derive that every 2-connected plane graph\\u000awith maximum face-size at most 7 is cyclically

Frédéric Havet; Jean-Sébastien Sereni; Riste Skrekovski

2006-01-01

196

Research and events leading to facial transplantation.  

PubMed

Facial transplantation has long captured the interest and imagination of scientists, the media, and the lay public. Facial transplantation could provide an excellent alternative to current treatments for facial disfigurement caused by burns, trauma, cancer extirpation, or congenital birth defects. This article discusses the major technical, immunologic, psychosocial and ethical hurdles that have been overcome to bring facial transplantation from an idea to a clinical reality by providing the reader with a chronologic overview of the research and events that have led this exciting new treatment into the clinical arena. PMID:17418674

Barker, John H; Stamos, Niki; Furr, Allen; McGuire, Sean; Cunningham, Michael; Wiggins, Osborne; Brown, Charles S; Gander, Brian; Maldonado, Claudio; Banis, Joseph C

2007-04-01

197

The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

2010-01-01

198

The 3D facial kernel: Application to facial surface spherical mapping and alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for the computation of a novel 3D facial attribute, namely,the face kernel. The first part of the paper exposes the theoretical background related to the kernel computation and demonstrates some properties of the surface kernel. The second part describes two applications of the kernel concept, namely, spherical facial surface mapping and facial surface alignment. This

Naoufel Werghi

2010-01-01

199

Genetics Home Reference: Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... neck, malformations of the eyes and ears, and distinctive facial features. "Branchio-" refers to the branchial arches, which are ... Problems with development of the face lead to distinctive facial features in people with branchio-oculo-facial syndrome. Many ...

200

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695...3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device that is...

2010-04-01

201

Wire internal fixation: an obsolete, yet valuable method for surgical management of facial fractures  

PubMed Central

In some developing countries wire is still widely used in facial fractures internal fixation. This study presents the effectiveness and complications of wire osteosynthesis in a university teaching hospital in Burkina Faso and discusses some of its other benefits and disadvantages. Notes of 227 patients with facial fractures treated by wire internal fixation at department of stomatology and maxillofacial surgery of CHU Souro Sanou, Burkina Faso between 2006 and 2010 are reviewed retrospectively. A satisfactory treatment outcome was recorded in 91.2% of the 227 patients. Complications occurred in 8.8% of the patients who had operative site infection (3.1%), malocclusion (1.8%), sensory disturbance (1.8), facial asymmetry (1.3%), delayed bone union (0.9%) or enophtalmos (0.4%). The overall complications rate was 7.4% after mandibular osteosynthesis, 6.9% after Le Fort osteosynthesis and 6.5% after zygoma osteosynthesis. Post operative infections occurred irrespective to the surgical site. The other complications were more specific to the surgical site. Wire internal fixation may be a reasonable alternative for the surgical treatment of non-comminuted facial fractures and those without bone substance loss, in the setting of limited resources. PMID:25237416

Bouletreau, Pierre; Konsem, Tarcissus; Traore, Ibraima; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouedraogo, Dieudonne

2014-01-01

202

Post-traumatic TMJ internal derangement: impact on facial growth (findings in a pediatric age group).  

PubMed

Many clinical studies have shown how jaw injuries sustained during impact trauma to the face or mandible are the single most important cause of TMJ subsequent internal derangement. Proper function of the masticatory system is certainly the most influential variable in the TMJ remodelling; once a TMJ is internally deranged, adaptative or degenerative osteocartilagineous processes take place in the mandible, temporal bones and muscles. To evaluate relationships between consequences of post-traumatic TMJ internal derangement and disturbed facial skeleton growth in children, 25 patients (16 boys 9 girls), 14 year of age or younger, were selected out of a group of 74 and analysed. They all had been treated by physiotherapy and had undergone combined clinical and radiographic examination for five years. Symptoms included either individually or in various combination, pain, mechanical TMJ dysfunction and facial skeletal abnormalities, such as mandibular retrognathia and lower facial asymmetry manifested by chin deviation from the midline. Seventeen patients were found to have at least one abnormal and internally deranged TMJ on imaging studies; in twelve of them a mandibular asymmetry with chin deviation from the midline to the smaller or more degenerated TMJ was evident. Of the eight retrognathic patients, five were found to have bilateral TMJ derangement. In three patients both TMJ(s) were normal with normal facial structure. These data suggest that TMJ derangement in children may potentially have an impact on facial growth and lead to the development of retrognathia, with or without asymmetry, in many cases. PMID:12924728

Defabianis, Patrizia

2003-01-01

203

Associated injuries in patients with facial fractures: a review of 604 patients  

PubMed Central

Facial fractures may be associated with concomitant lesions of other parts of body with some of these injuries being life-threatening. This retrospective study reports the types of associated injury and the factors influencing their occurrence, in patients with facial fractures. In 18.2% of 604 patients, one associated injury at least was recorded. The most common associated injury was cranial trauma (9.9%), followed by limbs fractures (9.1%), chest trauma (2%), spine injury (0.5%) and eye ball rupture (0.5%). A poly trauma was recorded in 3.2% of the patients who had sustained a cerebral trauma, a spinal injury or a thoracic trauma. Death occurred in two patients (0.3%) who had respectively a spinal injury and a chest trauma. The occurrence of associated injuries correlated significantly with the fracture type with solitary mandibular fracture being a significant predictor of associated injuries. Although not statistically significant, multiple facial fractures and violence were more associated with concomitant injuries. The findings of this study recall the need for initial full examination of the trauma patients particularly victims of violence, patients presenting with multiple facial fractures or single facial bone fracture involving the mandible, the trauma patients? multidisciplinary management as well as trauma prevention. PMID:24778756

Beogo, Rasmane; Dakoure, Patrick; Savadogo, Leon Blaise; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouoba, Kampadilemba

2013-01-01

204

Quality of life and facial trauma: psychological and body image effects.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the social and psychologic impact of facial trauma on previously healthy individuals. Inclusion criteria for the study included 18- to 45-year-old individuals who had a facial laceration of 3 cm or greater and/or a fractured facial bone requiring operative intervention within 6 months to 2 years prior to participation in the study. Retrospective analysis of patients at Yale New Haven Hospital Emergency Department was done between May 1997 and December 1998. When compared with a control population, the study group showed a statistically significant lower satisfaction with life, more negative perception of body image, higher incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder, higher incidence of alcoholism, and an increase in depression. Also, among the study group there was a significantly higher incidence of posttrauma unemployment, marital problems, binge drinking, jail, and lower attractiveness scores. In conclusion, in this preliminary study, it appears that the result of facial scarring/trauma includes a significantly decreased satisfaction with life, an altered perception of body image, a higher incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder, a higher incidence of alcoholism, and increased posttrauma jail, unemployment, binge drinking, and marital problems. Thus, it appears that there is significant negative social and functional impact related to facial trauma and scarring. PMID:15838211

Levine, Elie; Degutis, Linda; Pruzinsky, Thomas; Shin, Joseph; Persing, John A

2005-05-01

205

Reconstruction of bony facial contour deficiencies with polymethylmethacrylate implants: case report  

PubMed Central

Facial trauma can be considered one of the most serious aggressions found in the medical centers due to the emotional consequences and the possibility of deformity. In craniofacial surgery, the use of autologous bone is still the first choice for reconstructing bony defects or irregularities. When there is a shortage of donor bone or a patient refuses an intracranial operation, alloplastic materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) can be used. The PMMA prosthesis can be pre-fabricated, bringing advantages such as reduction of surgical time, easy technical handling and good esthetic results. This paper describes the procedures for rehabilitating a patient with PMMA implants in the region of the face, recovering the facial contours and esthetics of the patient. PMID:21952926

ABDO FILHO, Ruy C. C.; OLIVEIRA, Thais M.; LOURENCO, Natalino; GURGEL, Carla; ABDO, Ruy C.C.

2011-01-01

206

Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

2007-01-01

207

Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

2014-01-01

208

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989

SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

2007-01-01

209

Whale bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrates, or animals that have a skeletal structure for body support, leave bones behind after their death. These bones can be placed together to recreate the skeletal frame of that animal. Bones can be examined to determine what animal the bones came from.

N/A N/A (Go Card USA;)

2007-12-21

210

Rubber Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

Houston, Children'S M.

2011-01-01

211

Facial allograft transplantation, personal identity and subjectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation is provided in this paper. The identity issues involved in organ transplantation in general, under both theoretical accounts of personal identity and subjective accounts provided by organ recipients, are examined. It is argued that the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation are similar to those involved in organ

J S Swindell

2007-01-01

212

Facial palsy: interpretation of neurologic findings.  

PubMed

A review of the otoneurologic findings in 500 patients with facial paralysis revealed their importance for diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the pathophysiology of Bell's palsy. Diagnosis. The presence of simultaneous bilateral palsy, facial paralysis associated with lateral rectus palsy, slowly progressive facial weakness with or without hyperkinesis, and facial paralysis that showed no recovery after six months excluded Bell's palsy from the diagnosis. Ipsilateral recurrent palsies were another indication to suspect an underlying cause, since a tumor of the facial nerve caused the paralysis in 30% of the patients with this finding. Signs such as intact forehead movement, alterations in facial sensation, and corneal hypesthesia--although often associated with lesions in the cerebral cortex, cerebellopontine angle, or internal auditory canal--were also found in patients with Bell's palsy. Prognosis. A spontaneous complete recovery following Bell's palsy occurs in about 70% of the patients; but in the presence of a dry eye or dysacousis, the prognosis for a complete recovery drops 10 and 25%, respectively. Pathophysiology. It is proposed that the wide range of neurologic findings associated with Bell's palsy is due to a viral polyneuropathy. This is a disorder that primarily involves sensory nerves, and the facial motor deficit results from involvement of the sensory fibers carried with the facial nerve within the fallopian canal. PMID:672368

May, M; Hardin, W B

1978-08-01

213

Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Boosted Discriminatory  

E-print Network

to effectively describe the salient features of the face. Temporalboost is used to build classifiers which allow. Such variation include ethnicity, age, facial hair, occlusion, pose and lighting. Many fields benefit from accurate facial expression recognition in- cluding behavioral science, security, communication

Bowden, Richard

214

Expressing Complex Mental States Through Facial Expressions  

E-print Network

animation models for complex emotions based on video clips of professional actors displaying these emotions selected a limited set of emotional facial expressions and defined them as basic emotions, which are universally recognized facial expressions. These basic emotions have been well studied since 1969 and employed

Sezgin, Metin

215

The Ideal of Facial Beauty: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review article we examine the question as to which parameters of facial attraction are amenable to measurement and which tools are available to perform these measurements. The evaluation of facial images, artistic standards, cephalometry, and anthropometry are discussed. Furthermore, we consider how the attractiveness of a face is influenced by symmetry, averageness and distinguishing features such as dental

Mirjam Hönn; Gernot Göz

2007-01-01

216

Image Analysis Of Facial Skin Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image processing algorithms and photographic techniques have been developed to allow objective, reproducible quantification of facial skin wrinkles, age spots, pores, and other visible skin features. The methods have been used to determine the effects of environmen-tal solar exposure on facial skin aging.

Gartstein, Vladimir; Shaya, Steven A.

1986-06-01

217

Comprehensive Database for Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past decade, significant effort has occurred in developing methods of facial expression analysis. Because most investigators have used relatively limited data sets, the generalizability of these various methods remains unknown. We describe the problem space for facial expression analysis, which includes level of description, transitions among expression, eliciting conditions, reliability and validity of training and test data, individual

Takeo Kanade; Ying-li Tian; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2000-01-01

218

Hierarchical Unsupervised Learning of Facial Expression Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of unsupervised classification of temporal sequences of facial expressions in video. This problem arises in the design of an adaptive visual agent, which must be capable of identifying appropriate classes of visual events without supervision to effectively complete its tasks. We present a multilevel dynamic Bayesian network that learns the high-level dynamics of facial expressions simultaneously

Jesse Hoey

2001-01-01

219

Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

2014-06-01

220

Bone cement  

PubMed Central

The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc.

Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

2013-01-01

221

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres is characterized by reduced compaction of telomeric chromatin  

PubMed Central

Proper telomeric chromatin configuration is thought to be essential for telomere homeostasis and stability. Previous studies in mouse suggested that loss of heterochromatin marks at telomeres might favor onset of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway, by promoting homologous recombination. However, analysis of chromatin status at human ALT telomeres has never been reported. Here, using isogenic human cell lines and cellular hybrids, which rely either on telomerase or ALT to maintain telomeres, we show that chromatin compaction is reduced at ALT telomeres and this is associated with a global decrease in telomeric H3K9me3. This, subsequently, leads to upregulation of telomere transcription. Accordingly, restoration of a more condensed telomeric chromatin through telomerase-dependent elongation of short ALT telomeres reduces telomere transcription. We further show that loss of ATRX chromatin remodeler function, a frequent characteristic of ALT cells, is not sufficient to decrease chromatin condensation at telomeres nor to increase the expression of telomeric RNA species. These results offer new insight on telomeric chromatin properties in ALT cells and support the hypothesis that telomeric chromatin decondensation is important for ALT pathway. PMID:24500201

Episkopou, Harikleia; Draskovic, Irena; Van Beneden, Amandine; Tilman, Gaelle; Mattiussi, Marina; Gobin, Matthieu; Arnoult, Nausica; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Decottignies, Anabelle

2014-01-01

222

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction12  

PubMed Central

Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth. PMID:24339742

Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

2013-01-01

223

Oxycodone lengthens reproductions of suprasecond time intervals in human research volunteers  

PubMed Central

Oxycodone, a popularly used opioid for treating pain, is widely abused. Other drugs of abuse have been shown to affect time perception, which in turn may affect sensitivity to future consequences. This may contribute to continued use. The current study evaluated the effect of oxycodone on time perception in normal healthy volunteers. For this within-subject, double-blind design study, participants performed a temporal reproduction task before and after receiving placebo or oxycodone (15 mg, po) over 6 outpatient sessions. Participants were first trained with feedback to reproduce three standard intervals (1.1, 2.2, and 3.3 s) in separate blocks by matching response latency from a start signal to the duration of that block’s standard interval. During testing participants were instructed to reproduce the three intervals from memory without feedback before and after drug administration . Oxycodone significantly lengthened time estimations for the two longer intervals relative to placebo. These results suggest that opioids alter temporal processing for intervals greater than one second, raising questions about the effect of these drugs on valuation of future consequences. PMID:21750426

Gooch, Cynthia M.; Rakitin, Brian C.; Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D.; Balsam, Peter D

2011-01-01

224

Change with age in muscular mechanical hyperalgesia after lengthening contraction in rats.  

PubMed

To determine whether there is any change by aging in mechanical hyperalgesia (delayed onset muscle soreness) after lengthening contraction (LC, also termed as eccentric contraction), we applied LC to the dorsi-flexors of the hind legs in young (7-week-old) and aged (130-week-old) rats and examined the change in mechanical withdrawal threshold of the exercised muscle with a Randall-Selitto apparatus and by c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn. The baseline mechanical withdrawal threshold did not differ among two age groups. One day after LC the withdrawal threshold started to decrease in both age groups, however, the duration of decreased withdrawal threshold was different: young rats had their withdrawal threshold lowered only for 3 days after LC while that of aged rats remained lowered two more days, showing delayed recovery in aged rats. Induction of c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn by compression of the muscle was examined in aged animals 3 days after LC. Significantly larger numbers of c-Fos positive neurons was observed in the superficial dorsal horn than the control animals (no treatment). This increase was observed not only in L4 but also in L5, a wider distribution than in young animals (L4 only) in our previous report [Taguchi, T., Matsuda, T., Tamura, R., Sato, J., Mizumura, K., 2005a. Muscular mechanical hyperalgesia revealed by behavioural pain test and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn after eccentric contraction in rats. PMID:17156878

Taguchi, Toru; Matsuda, Teru; Mizumura, Kazue

2007-03-01

225

Comparison between old and young men for responses to fast velocity maximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors.  

PubMed

Controversy exists concerning the susceptibility of elderly individuals to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. This study investigated the hypothesis that muscle damage induced by fast maximal lengthening contractions would be greater for old than young men. Ten old (64 +/- 4 years) and young (25 +/- 6 years) men performed 30 maximal voluntary lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors at an angular velocity of 210 degrees s(-1). Prior to exercise, no significant differences were evident between groups for criterion measures. A significant (P < 0.05) group x time interaction was found only for isometric strength and muscle soreness with the old group showing significantly slower recovery of strength and less development of soreness compared with the young group. These results did not support the hypothesis that old men would be more susceptible to muscle damage, but confirmed a previous study reporting that recovery of muscle strength was slower for old than young individuals. PMID:18584196

Chapman, Dale W; Newton, M; McGuigan, M R; Nosaka, K

2008-10-01

226

Facial Orientation and Facial Shape in Extant Great Apes: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Covariation  

PubMed Central

The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stephane

2013-01-01

227

Can fast-twitch muscle fibres be selectively recruited during lengthening contractions? Review and applications to sport movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature examining the recruitment order of motor units during lengthening (eccentric) contractions was reviewed to determine if fast-twitch motor units can be active while lower threshold slow-twitch motor units are not active. Studies utilizing surface electromyogram (EMG) amplitude, single motor unit activity, spike amplitude–frequency analyses, EMG power spectrum, mechanomyographic, and phosphocreatine-to-creatine ratio (PCr\\/Cr) techniques were reviewed. Only single motor unit

Gordon R. Chalmers

2008-01-01

228

The intensification of pre-industrial cereal agriculture in the tropics: Boserup, cultivation lengthening, and the Classic Maya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a review of recent research in tropical ecology, soils science, and agronomy, this paper develops a model of tropical agricultural intensification through cultivation lengthening that applies to non-industrial cereal production in moist-to-wet tropical lowlands under conditions of high population density. Contrary to the predictions of many archaeological models, in tropical agricultural societies lacking plows, draft animals, or chemical fertilizers,

Kevin J. Johnston

2003-01-01

229

Low Bone Density (Osteopenia)  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here Home » Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

230

Bone Crusher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a tension-compression machine (or an alternative bone-breaking setup) to see how different bones fracture differently and with different amounts of force, depending on their body locations. Teams determine bone mass and volume, calculate bone density, and predict fracture force. Then they each test a small animal bone (chicken, turkey, cat) to failure, examining the break to analyze the fracture type. Groups conduct research about biomedical challenges, materials and repair methods, and design repair treatment plans specific to their bones and fracture types, presenting their design recommendations to the class.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

231

The identification of unfolding facial expressions.  

PubMed

We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration. PMID:23025158

Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

2012-01-01

232

Intact facial adaptation in autistic adults.  

PubMed

Adaptation paradigms seek to bias subsequently viewed stimuli through prolonged exposure to an adapting stimulus, thereby giving rise to an aftereffect. Recent experiments have found that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show reduced facial aftereffects, prompting some researchers to speculate that all individuals with ASD exhibit deficient facial adaptation. However, caution is required when generalizing findings from samples of children with ASD to the wider ASD population. The reduced facial aftereffects seen in child samples may instead reflect delayed or atypical developmental trajectories, whereby individuals with ASD are slower to develop adaptive mechanisms. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to determine whether high-functioning adults with ASD also show diminished aftereffects for facial identity and expression. In Experiment 1, using a procedure that minimized the contribution of low-level retinotopic adaptation, we observed substantial aftereffects comparable to those seen in matched controls, for both facial identity and expression. A similar pattern of results was seen in Experiment 2 using a revised procedure that increased the contribution of retinotopic adaptation to the facial aftereffects observed. That adults with autism can show robust facial aftereffects raises the possibility that group differences are seen only at particular points during development, and may not be a lifelong feature of the condition. PMID:24757172

Cook, Richard; Brewer, Rebecca; Shah, Punit; Bird, Geoffrey

2014-08-01

233

Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA  

PubMed Central

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

2014-01-01

234

Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions  

PubMed Central

The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

Milutinovic, Jovana

2014-01-01

235

Relationship of Premaxillary Bone and Its Sutures to Deciduous Dentition in Nonhuman Primates  

E-print Network

embryonic/ early fetal development (Chase, 1942). The ``overgrowth theory'' holds that the maxillary bone completely covers the Pmx on the facial surface between 12 and 16 weeks of fetal development (Ashley of a suture between fetal premaxillary and maxillary bones. Two major theories have been advanced

Dumont, Elizabeth R.

236

Increased bone density in sclerosteosis is due to the deficiency of a novel secreted protein (SOST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sclerosteosis is a progressive sclerosing bone dysplasia with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Radiologically, it is characterized by a generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis leading to a markedly thickened and sclerotic skull, with mandible, ribs, clavicles and all long bones also being affected. Due to narrowing of the foramina of the cranial nerves, facial nerve palsy, hearing loss and atrophy

Wendy Balemans; Martin Ebeling; E ls Van Hul; Pam Olson; Marianna Dioszegi; Charlemagne Lacza; Jenneke Van Den Ende; Patrick Willems; Auristela F. Paes-Alves; Manuel Bueno; J. Ramos; Paolo Tacconi; G. Dikkers; Klaus Lindpaintner; Brian Vickery; Dorothee Foernzler; Wim Van Hul

2001-01-01

237

The mandibular symphysis as a donor site in maxillofacial bone grafting: A quantitative anatomic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of bone graft material present in the mandibular symphysis as well as to determine the maximal size of the corticocancellous bone block that can be harvested while avoiding mental nerve injury, tooth injury, and simultaneously preserving the preoperative facial contour. Materials and Methods: Sixteen fixed dentate cadaver mandibles were

Andre Montazem; David V Valauri; Hugo St-Hilaire; Daniel Buchbinder

2000-01-01

238

Living Bones, Strong Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about engineering, nutrition, and physical activity, learners design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increasing amounts of weight. This activity contains several engaging mini-activities and stresses the importance of the scientific method. Learners can complete this activity as part of NASA's Fit Explorer Challenge, in which learners train like astronauts, set goals, track their progress, and accumulate points to progress through Exploration Levels and earn certificates.

Center, Nasa J.

2012-06-26

239

Categorical perception of affective and linguistic facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX discrimination and identification tasks on morphed affective and linguistic facial expression continua. The continua

Stephen McCullough; Karen Emmorey

2009-01-01

240

Facial soft tissue thickness in Japanese female children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on soft tissue thickness measurements. Many studies of facial tissue thickness in adults have been published that take racial background into account. However, the only data on facial thickness in children are derived from studies of American, British, and Hispanic children. The authors therefore measured facial tissue thickness in Japanese children,

Hajime Utsuno; Tooru Kageyama; Toshio Deguchi; Mineo Yoshino; Hiroo Miyazawa; Katsuhiro Inoue

2005-01-01

241

Facial Dysmorphism Across the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Classic facial characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) are shortened palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum, and thin upper vermillion. We aim to help pediatricians detect facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum, especially among nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE) individuals without classic facial characteristics. METHODS: Of 192 Cape Coloured children recruited, 69 were born to women who reported abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy. According to multifaceted criteria, the remainder were allocated clinically to the FAS (n = 22), partial FAS (n = 26) or nonsyndromal HE (n = 75) categories. We used dense surface modeling and signature analyses of 3-dimensional facial photographs to determine agreement between clinical categorization and classifications induced from face shape alone, to visualize facial differences, and to consider predictive links between face shape and neurobehavior. RESULTS: Face classification achieved significant agreement with clinical categories for discrimination of nonexposed from FAS alone (face: 0.97–1.00; profile: 0.92) or with the addition of partial FAS (face: 0.90; profile: 0.92). Visualizations of face signatures delineated dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum and in half of the nonsyndromal HE category face signature graphs detected facial characteristics consistent with prenatal alcohol exposure. This subgroup performed less well on IQ and learning tests than did nonsyndromal subjects without classic facial characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Heat maps and morphing visualizations of face signatures may help clinicians detect facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum. Face signature graphs show potential for identifying nonsyndromal heavily exposed children who lack the classic facial phenotype but have cognitive impairment. PMID:23439907

Suttie, Michael; Foroud, Tatiana; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Khaole, Nathaniel; Robinson, Luther K.; Riley, Edward P.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

2013-01-01

242

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

PubMed Central

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

243

[Blepharoplasty in aesthetic facial surgery].  

PubMed

Blepharoplasty is the most commonly performed procedure in aesthetic facial surgery. The upper eyelid is part of the same aesthetic subunit as the eyebrow and the lower eyelid is part of the same aesthetic subunit as the cheek. In upper eyelid blepharoplasty the excess skin and possibly also a portion of the sphincter is removed. A low-hanging eyebrow is preferably corrected by lifting the brow instead of over excising the redundant eyelid skin. Blepharoplasty of the lower eyelid is generally carried out by a very limited excision of the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle in order to prevent lower lid retraction (ectropion). Rejuvenation in the lower lid region is also achieved by fat resection or redistribution, by means of which the double convex contour deformity is reduced. Blepharoplasty is generally performed under local anaesthesia and complications are rare. Patient satisfaction is generally high. PMID:25174189

Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Schouten, H J; Vissink, A

2014-01-01

244

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

PubMed Central

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

245

Arc/Forearc Lengthening at Plate Triple Junctions and the Formation of Ophiolitic Soles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal enigma of large obducted ophiolite slabs is that they clearly must have been generated by some form of organized sea-floor spreading/plate-accretion, such as may be envisioned for the oceanic ridges, yet the volcanics commonly have arc affinity (Miyashiro) with boninites (high-temperature/low-pressure, high Mg and Si andesites), which are suggestive of a forearc origin. PT conditions under which boninites and metamorphic soles form and observations of modern forearc systems lead us to the conclusion that ophiolite formation is associated with overidding plate spreading centers that intersect the trench to form ridge-trench-trench of ridge-trench-tranform triple junctions. The spreading centers extend and lengthen the forearc parallel to the trench and by definition are in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) settings. Many ophiolites likewise have complexly-deformed associated mafic-ultramafic assemblages that suggest fracture zone/transform t along their frontal edges, which in turn has led to models involving the nucleation of subduction zones on fracture zones or transpressional transforms. Hitherto, arc-related sea-floor-spreading has been considered to be either pre-arc (fore-arc boninites) or post-arc (classic Karig-style back arc basins that trench-parallell split arcs). Syn-arc boninites and forearc oceanic spreading centers that involve a stable ridge/trench/trench triple or a ridge-trench-transform triple junction, the ridge being between the two upper plates, are consistent with large slab ophiolite formation in a readied obduction settting. The direction of subduction must be oblique with a different sense in the two subduction zones and the oblique subduction cannot be partitioned into trench orthogonal and parallel strike-slip components. As the ridge spreads, new oceanic lithosphere is created within the forearc, the arc and fore-arc lengthen significantly, and a syn-arc ophiolite forearc complex is generated by this mechanism. The ophiolite ages along arc-strike; a distinctive diachronous MORB-like to boninitic to arc volcanic stratigraphy develops vertically in the forearc and eruption centers progressively migrate from the forearc back to the main arc massif with time. Dikes in the ophiolite are highly oblique to the trench (as are back-arc magnetic anomalies. Boninites and high-mg andesites are generated in the fore-arc under the aqueous, low pressure/high temperature, regime at the ridge above the instantaneously developed subducting and dehydrating slab. Subducted slab refrigeration of the hanging wall ensues and accretion of MORB metabasites to the hanging wall of the subduction channel initiates. Mafic protolith garnet/two pyroxene granulites to greenschists accrete and form the inverted P and T metamorphic sole prior to obduction. Sole accretion of lithosphere begins at about 1000°C and the full retrogressive sole may be fully formed within ten to fifteen million years of accretion, at which time low grade subduction melanges accrete. Obduction of the SSZ forearc ophiolite with its subjacent metamorphic sole occurs whenever the oceanic arc attempts subduction of a stable buoyant continental or back arc margin.

Casey, John; Dewey, John

2013-04-01

246

Compensatory muscle activation caused by tendon lengthening post-Achilles tendon rupture.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between the lengthening of the Achilles tendon post-rupture and surgical repair to muscle activation patterns during walking in order to serve as a reference for post-surgical assessment. METHOD: The Achilles tendon lengths were collected from 4 patients with an Achilles tendon rupture 6 and 12 months post-surgery along with 5 healthy controls via ultrasound. EMG was collected from the triceps surae muscles and tibialis anterior during overground walking. RESULTS: Achilles lengths at 6 and 12 months post-surgery were significantly longer (p < 0.05) on the involved side compared to the uninvolved side, but there were no side-to-side differences in the healthy controls. The integrated EMG (iEMG) of the involved side was significantly higher than the uninvolved side in the lateral gastrocnemius at 6 months and for the medial gastrocnemius at 12 months in the patients with Achilles tendon rupture; no side-to-side difference was found in the healthy controls. The triceps surae muscles' activations were fair to moderately correlated to the Achilles lengths (0.38 < r < 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: The increased Achilles tendon length and iEMG from the triceps surae muscles indicate that loss of function is primarily caused by anatomical changes in the tendon and the appearance of muscle weakness is due to a lack of force transmission capability. This study indicates that when aiming for full return of function and strength, an important treatment goal appears to be to minimize tendon elongation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic prospective case series, Level IV. PMID:23609529

Suydam, Stephen M; Buchanan, Thomas S; Manal, Kurt; Silbernagel, Karin Gravare

2013-04-23

247

Propylthiouracil causes phase delays and circadian period lengthening in male and female hamsters.  

PubMed

The thyroid neuroendocrine axis has been implicated in the control of circadian rhythmicity. The present work examined the ability of a thyroid hormone-inhibiting agent, propylthiouracil (PTU), to modulate phase and period of the hamster wheel-running circadian rhythm. The circadian period (tau) of blind male hamsters was lengthened by approximately 0.2 h when they were fed a diet containing 0.6% PTU. Removal of the PTU reversed the change in tau. Pinealectomy did not alter the tau response to PTU. Blind ovariectomized female hamsters showed changes in tau during and after PTU treatment that were similar to those of males. Males were also tested with 0.3, 0.6, or 1.2% PTU diets, and a dose-response relationship was established. Under 14:10 light-dark (LD 14:10) conditions, the phase of activity onset relative to lights off (psi) was not affected by 0.6% PTU. In LD 6:18, mean psi was 16.7 h, but this shortened to 13.3 h during PTU, returning to 16.0 h after PTU removal. In intact males under LD 14:10, the three PTU diet concentrations failed to differentially suppress thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels. Food intake and body weight were differentially reduced by the PTU treatments. A 0.5% quinine hydrochloride diet also reduced food intake and body weight but did not change tau. The inconsistency between the dose-tau response and the dose-thyroid hormone response suggest that PTU may affect circadian rhythmicity independent of its action on the thyroid neuroendocrine axis. PMID:3946633

Morin, L P; Gavin, M L; Ottenweller, J E

1986-02-01

248

Compensatory muscle activation caused by tendon lengthening post Achilles tendon rupture  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between the lengthening of the Achilles tendon post rupture and surgical repair to muscle activation patterns during walking in order to serve as a reference for post-surgical assessment. Method The Achilles tendon lengths were collected from 4 patients with an Achilles tendon rupture 6 and 12 month post-surgery along with 5 healthy controls via ultrasound. EMG was collected from the triceps surae muscles and tibialis anterior during over-ground walking. Results Achilles lengths at 6 and 12 months post-surgery were significantly longer (p < 0.05) on the involved side compared to the uninvolved side but there were no side to side differences in the healthy controls. The integrated EMG (iEMG) of the involved side was significantly higher than the uninvolved side in the lateral gastrocnemius at 6 months and for the medial gastrocnemius at 12 months in the patients with Achilles tendon rupture; no side to side difference was found in the healthy controls. The triceps surae muscles’ activations were fair to moderately correlated to the Achilles lengths (0.38 < r < 0.52). Conclusions The increased Achilles tendon length and iEMG from the triceps surae muscles indicate that loss of function is primarily caused by anatomical changes in the tendon and the appearance of muscle weakness is due to a lack of force transmission capability. This study indicates that when aiming for full return of function and strength an important treatment goal appears to be to minimize tendon elongation. Level of evidence Prognostic prospective case series. Level IV. PMID:23609529

Suydam, Stephen M.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Manal, Kurt; Silbernagel, Karin Gravare

2013-01-01

249

New "Golden" Ratios for Facial Beauty  

PubMed Central

In four experiments, we tested the existence of an ideal facial feature arrangement that could optimize the attractiveness of any face given its facial features. Participants made paired comparisons of attractiveness between faces with identical facial features but different eye-mouth distances and different interocular distances. We found that although different faces have varying attractiveness, individual attractiveness is optimized when the face’s vertical distance between the eyes and the mouth is approximately 36% of its length, and the horizontal distance between the eyes is approximately 46% of the face’s width. These “new” golden ratios match those of an average face. PMID:19896961

Pallett, Pamela M.; Link, Stephen; Lee, Kang

2009-01-01

250

Extensive visual loss with topical facial steroids.  

PubMed

Steroid creams applied topically to the skin are routinely used in the treatment of many dermatoses. Their use on the face in severe atopic eczema is relatively common. We report a series of three patients who whilst using topical facial steroids developed advanced glaucoma. A further two cases of ocular hypertension secondary to topical facial steroids are also described. This is the first series of cases to be reported demonstrating the potentially blinding complications of topical facial steroids. Recommendations are made with regard to screening such patients for glaucoma. PMID:8287990

Aggarwal, R K; Potamitis, T; Chong, N H; Guarro, M; Shah, P; Kheterpal, S

1993-01-01

251

Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust: male facial width and trustworthiness.  

PubMed

Decisions about whom to trust are biased by stable facial traits such as attractiveness, similarity to kin, and perceived trustworthiness. Research addressing the validity of facial trustworthiness or its basis in facial features is scarce, and the results have been inconsistent. We measured male trustworthiness operationally in trust games in which participants had options to collaborate for mutual financial gain or to exploit for greater personal gain. We also measured facial (bizygomatic) width (scaled for face height) because this is a sexually dimorphic, testosterone-linked trait predictive of male aggression. We found that men with greater facial width were more likely to exploit the trust of others and that other players were less likely to trust male counterparts with wide rather than narrow faces (independent of their attractiveness). Moreover, manipulating this facial-width ratio with computer graphics controlled attributions of trustworthiness, particularly for subordinate female evaluators. PMID:20424067

Stirrat, M; Perrett, D I

2010-03-01

252

Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

2014-01-01

253

Bone tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Alkaline phosphatase blood level Bone biopsy Bone scan Chest ... also affect the results of the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme Blood calcium level Parathyroid hormone Blood ...

254

Beneficial effects of growth hormone therapy for ossification defects after bone distraction in X linked hypophosphataemic rickets.  

PubMed

A report on two homozygous twin girls affected by X linked hypophosphataemic rickets. They were examined due to short stature and genu varum of both tibias. They were treated with calcitriol and Joulie's solution, whereon it was observed that serum parathyroid hormone and phosphaturia decreased while phosphataemia increased. They underwent a tibial osteotomy (by means of the insertion of Kirchner needles) at 7.7?years of age for correction of genu varum and a normal consolidation was reached 1?month later. Nonetheless, height was percentile <1 after menarche, so both sisters asked for bone lengthening. Because of this, at 15?years of age femoral distraction was performed, but no bone callus was observed 14?months later. Consequently, they were treated with subcutaneous growth hormone, showing bone callus at 6?months. Finally, the external fixators were removed due to ossification in the lengthened segments. PMID:25115781

Cañete, Ramón; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier; Aguilar-Quintero, María; Vázquez-Rueda, Fernando

2014-01-01

255

Similar increases in muscle size and strength in young men after training with maximal shortening or lengthening contractions when matched for total work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training exclusively with eccentric (lengthening) contractions can result in greater muscular adaptations than training with\\u000a concentric (shortening) contractions. We aimed to determine whether training-induced increases in muscle size and strength\\u000a differed between muscles performing maximal lengthening (LC) or maximal shortening (SC) contractions when total external work\\u000a is equivalent. Nine healthy young males completed a 9-week isokinetic (0.79 rad\\/s) resistance training program

Daniel R. Moore; Mark Young; Stuart M. Phillips

256

Bone Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

• Overview A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure in which a small sample of a bone is removed from the body and ... is often called a closed or needle bone biopsy , because it involves inserting a needle directly into ...

257

Massage Therapy for Patients Undergoing Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of massage therapy on psychological, physical, and psychophysiological measures in patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Patients scheduled to undergo BMT were randomly assigned to receive either (a) massage therapy, consisting of 20-minute sessions of shoulder, neck, head, and facial massage, or (b) standard treatment. Overall effects of

Tim A. Ahles; Denise M. Tope; Briane Pinkson; Susan Walch; Danette Hann; Marie Whedon; Bradley Dain; Julia E. Weiss; Letha Mills; Peter M. Silberfarb

1999-01-01

258

Crowdsourced data collection of facial responses  

E-print Network

In the past, collecting data to train facial expression and affect recognition systems has been time consuming and often led to data that do not include spontaneous expressions. We present the first crowdsourced data ...

el Kaliouby, Rana

259

MHC-assortative facial preferences in humans  

PubMed Central

Individuals tend to choose mates who are sufficiently genetically dissimilar to avoid inbreeding. As facial attractiveness is a key factor in human mate preference, we investigated whether facial preferences were related to genetic dissimilarity. We asked female volunteers to rate the attractiveness of men from photographs and compared these results with individual genotypes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In contrast to previously reported preferences based on odour, we found a non-significant tendency for women to rate MHC-similar faces as more attractive, suggesting a preference for cues to a self-similar MHC in faces. Further analysis revealed that male faces received higher attractiveness scores when rated by women who were MHC-similar than by MHC-dissimilar women. Although unexpected, this MHC-similar facial preference is consistent with other studies documenting assortative preferences in humans, including for facial phenotype. PMID:17148217

Roberts, S. Craig; Little, Anthony C; Gosling, L. Morris; Jones, Benedict C; Perrett, David I; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

2005-01-01

260

Facial reconstruction using 3-D computer graphics.  

PubMed

Facial reconstruction using 3-D computer graphics is being used in our institute as a routine procedure in forensic cases as well as for skulls of historical and archaeological interest. Skull and facial data from living subjects is acquired using an optical laser scanning system. For the production of the reconstructed image, we employ facial reconstruction software which is constructed using the TCL/Tk scripting language, the latter making use of the C3D system. The computer image may then be exported to enable the production of a solid model, employing, for example, stereolithography. The image can also be modified within an identikit system which allows the addition of facial features as appropriate. PMID:10722195

Vanezi, P; Vanezis, M; McCombe, G; Niblett, T

2000-02-14

261

Authentic Facial Expression Analysis , Michael S. Lew  

E-print Network

Authentic Facial Expression Analysis Nicu Sebe , Michael S. Lew ¡ , Ira Cohen ¢ , Yafei Sun £ , Theo Gevers , Thomas S. Huang ¤ ¥ Faculty of Science, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands ¦ nicu

Sebe, Nicu

262

Acoustic neuroma surgery and delayed facial palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed onset of facial palsy is possibly an underestimated but distressing complication of acoustic neuroma surgery. The\\u000a incidence of this complication reported in the literature has varied from 11.7 to 41%.This study reviewed retrospectively\\u000a 60 primary acoustic neuroma surgeries performed by a single neurotologist. The deelayed onset of facial dysfunction was defined\\u000a according to the guidelines described by of Lalwani

G. Magliulo; C. Sepe; S. Varacalli; J. Crupi

1998-01-01

263

Effect of pulsed magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve on cerebral blood flow.  

PubMed

In these experiments we define an effective means of pulsed magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve for the purpose of increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF). In normal anesthetized dog and sheep, a focal magnetic field was directed toward the facial nerve within the temporal bone by placing a 6.5 cm figure-8 stimulation coil over the ear. In an initial set of experiments, CBF was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the cerebral vasculature was visualized by angiography. The effect of facial nerve stimulation was found to be dependent on stimulation power, frequency, and the precise positioning of the stimulation coil. Furthermore, an increase in CBF was not observed after direct electrical stimulation in the middle ear space, indicating that non-specific stimulation of the tympanic plexus, an intervening neural structure with vasoactive effects, was not responsible for the increase in CBF after pulsed magnetic stimulation. Subsequent experiments using perfusion MRI demonstrated reproducible increases in CBF throughout the forebrain that manifested bilaterally, albeit with an ipsilateral predominance. These experiments support the development of a non-invasive pulsed magnetic facial nerve stimulator that will increase CBF as a treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:23850647

Borsody, Mark K; Yamada, Chisa; Bielawski, Dawn; Heaton, Tamara; Lyeth, Bruce; Garcia, Andrea; Castro Prado, Fernando; Azpiroz, Joaquín; Sacristan, Emilio

2013-08-28

264

Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae utilizing tissue expanders with embodiment injection site: case report.  

PubMed

Although highly specialized burn centers have significantly reduced mortality rates following extensive total body surface area burns, survivors are often left with grotesque facial disfigurement. Hypertrophic scars and tissue defects are the most common cause of functional and aesthetic problems in the head and neck region. Plastic surgeons use full-thickness or split-thickness skin grafts, pedicled flaps, free flaps, transplantation of bone or cartilage and tissue expansion. The authors present a case of a patient who suffered from third-degree flame burns to the face. Prior skin grafting procedures left him with severe scar deformity of the face. The patient was treated utilizing multiple tissue expansion. Facial animation has retained and facial integrity has been aesthetically restored and, with the use of make-up, it is near normal in social settings at conversational distances. The tissue expansion technique is advantageous in facial reconstruction because it makes it possible to resurface even wider defects with neighboring skin, similar in colour and texture, and superior to skin obtained elsewhere. PMID:17165599

Foustanos, A; Zavrides, H

2006-01-01

265

Topological optimization for designing patient-specific large craniofacial segmental bone replacements  

PubMed Central

Restoring normal function and appearance after massive facial injuries with bone loss is an important unsolved problem in surgery. An important limitation of the current methods is heuristic ad hoc design of bone replacements by the operating surgeon at the time of surgery. This problem might be addressed by incorporating a computational method known as topological optimization into routine surgical planning. We tested the feasibility of using a multiresolution three-dimensional topological optimization to design replacements for massive midface injuries with bone loss. The final solution to meet functional requirements may be shaped differently than the natural human bone but be optimized for functional needs sufficient to support full restoration using a combination of soft tissue repair and synthetic prosthetics. Topological optimization for designing facial bone tissue replacements might improve current clinical methods and provide essential enabling technology to translate generic bone tissue engineering methods into specific solutions for individual patients. PMID:20628014

Sutradhar, Alok; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Miller, Michael J.; Nguyen, Tam H.

2010-01-01

266

Facial allograft transplantation, personal identity and subjectivity  

PubMed Central

An analysis of the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation is provided in this paper. The identity issues involved in organ transplantation in general, under both theoretical accounts of personal identity and subjective accounts provided by organ recipients, are examined. It is argued that the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation are similar to those involved in organ transplantation in general, but much stronger because the face is so closely linked with personal identity. Recipients of facial allograft transplantation have the potential to feel that their identity is a mix between their own and the donor's, and the donor's family is potentially likely to feel that their loved one “lives on”. It is also argued that facial allograft transplantation allows the recipients to regain an identity, because they can now be seen in the social world. Moreover, they may regain expressivity, allowing for them to be seen even more by others, and to regain an identity to an even greater extent. Informing both recipients and donors about the role that identity plays in facial allograft transplantation could enhance the consent process for facial allograft transplantation and donation. PMID:17664301

Swindell, J S

2007-01-01

267

Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability  

PubMed Central

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: 1) DS individuals (n=55); 2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n=55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n=55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2013-01-01

268

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

PubMed

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2013-05-01

269

Bifocal Compression-Distraction in the Acute Treatment of Grade III Open Tibia Fractures With Bone and Soft-Tissue Loss: A Report of 24 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the results of bifocal compression-distraction method for the acute treatment of open tibia fractures with bone and soft- tissue loss. Design: Patients were selected for bifocal compression-distraction (shortening and lengthening) who had open tibia fractures with bone and soft-tissue loss and a Mangled Extremity Severe Score of 6 and below indicating good leg viability. Patients: Bifocal compression-distraction

Mehmet Kocaoglu; Cengiz Sen

270

Reinnervation of facial muscles with only a cross-facial nerve graft in a 25-year-old patient with congenital facial palsy.  

PubMed

The standard method for managing chronic facial palsy is the two-stage free-muscle flap. We report a case involving a 25-year-old patient who had facial palsy from her birth. Twelve months after the first stage of a cross-facial nerve graft, we found that the voluntary movements of her facial muscles had returned. Within the following 12 months, she gained complete recovery of her movements on the affected side, as confirmed by electromyography studies. This case demonstrates that neurotization of facial muscles in chronic facial palsy is possible. However, further studies are needed to define the trophic effects or trophic mediators that can restore function to atrophied facial muscles and to determine which patients might benefit from the cross-facial nerve graft procedure without the free-muscle graft procedure. PMID:25025423

Seyed-Forootan, Kamal; Karimi, Hamid; Hasani, Esmaiil

2014-07-01

271

Bone poroelasticity.  

PubMed

Poroelasticity is a well-developed theory for the interaction of fluid and solid phases of a fluid-saturated porous medium. It is widely used in geomechanics and has been applied to bone by many authors in the last 30 years. The purpose of this work is, first, to review the literature related to the application of poroelasticity to the interstitial bone fluid and, second, to describe the specific physical and modeling considerations that establish poroelasticity as an effective and useful model for deformation-driven bone fluid movement in bone tissue. The application of poroelasticity to bone differs from its application to soft tissues in two important ways. First, the deformations of bone are small while those of soft tissues are generally large. Second, the bulk modulus of the mineralized bone matrix is about six times stiffer than that of the fluid in the pores while the bulk moduli of the soft tissue matrix and the pore water are almost the same. Poroelasticity and electrokinetics can be used to explain strain-generated potentials in wet bone. It is noted that strain-generated potentials can be used as an effective tool in the experimental study of local bone fluid flow, and that the knowledge of this technique will contribute to the answers of a number of questions concerning bone mineralization, osteocyte nutrition and the bone mechanosensory system. PMID:10093022

Cowin, S C

1999-03-01

272

Computed Tomographic Evaluation Before Cranial Bone Harvesting to Avoid Unexpected Hazards During Aesthetic Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nowadays, cranium is the preferred bone-graft donor site for facial aesthetic operations. Preoperative information about\\u000a the quality of cranial bone, such as bone thickness or presence of the diplopic space, can be useful to minimize intracranial\\u000a complications. This fact is neglected in reconstructive and aesthetic surgery. The aim of this study is to assess the reliability\\u000a of Computed Tomography

Ali Teoman Tellio?lu; Sevda Y?lmaz; ?enol Baydar; ?brahim Tekdemir; Atilla Halil Elhan

2001-01-01

273

Bone Lesions and Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms » Bone Damage Bone Lesions and Damage Bone lesions from multiple myeloma ... have some degree of bone loss. Causes of bone destruction in myeloma Normally, osteoclasts function with bone- ...

274

Facial Pain Followed by Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Case Report with Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection. The treatment included extraction of the associated tooth followed by endodontic treatment of the neighboring tooth which resulted in recovery of facial nerve plasy. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making any diagnosis. It is essential to rule out other causes of facial paralysis before making the definitive diagnosis, which implies the intervention. The authors hereby, report a case of 32-year-old male patient who developed unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection with a good prognosis after appropriate treatment. PMID:25302280

GV, Sowmya; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

275

Recordings from the facial nucleus in the rat: signs of abnormal facial muscle response  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of results of electrophysiological studies in patients undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) operations to relieve hemifacial spasm (HFS), we have postulated that the abnormal muscle response characteristically found in patients with HFS is the result of irritation of the facial nerve by the blood vessel that is compressing the facial nerve near its exit from the brainstem in

A. R. Møller; C. N. Sen

1990-01-01

276

Running head: IMPORTANCE OF FACIAL DYNAMICS Deciphering the Enigmatic Face: The Importance of Facial Dynamics  

E-print Network

displays of intense emotions. As a result of this limited focus on exaggerated static facial expressions focused on static displays of intense expressions. Consequently, researchers may have underestimated while others are subtle and fleeting. Despite the great diversity of facial expression displays

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

277

Facial reconstruction: The art of the science Facial reconstruction has now become a very important part  

E-print Network

important part of research considerations in Forensic Sciences. Part of the rea- son for this has been and animates any human face. Eventually, the results of this kind of work would be extremely useful to forensicEDITORIAL Facial reconstruction: The art of the science Facial reconstruction has now become a very

Frey, Pascal

278

Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition  

E-print Network

Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Beat derived descriptions are computed by Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and Probabilistic Latent Semantic and Retrieval]: Content Analysis and Indexing--Indexing Methods General Terms Algorithms, Theory Keywords Latent

Gatica-Perez, Daniel

279

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been established systematically to detect structural muscular changes after facial nerve lesion. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate quantitative assessment of MRI muscle volume data for facial muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with facial palsy were recruited. Using manual or semiautomatic segmentation of 3T MRI, volume measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control. Results: All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex or age effects were not seen (all P > 0.05). There was no facial asymmetry with exception of the zygomaticus major (larger on the left side; P = 0.012). The exploratory examination of 5 patients revealed considerably smaller muscle volumes on the palsy side 2 months after facial injury. One patient with chronic palsy showed substantial muscle volume decrease, which also occurred in another patient with incomplete chronic palsy restricted to the involved facial area. Facial nerve reconstruction led to mixed results of decreased but also increased muscle volumes on the palsy side compared with the healthy side. Conclusions: First systematic quantitative MRI volume measures of 5 different clinical presentations of facial paralysis are provided. PMID:25289366

Volk, Gerd F.; Karamyan, Inna; Klingner, Carsten M.; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.

2014-01-01

280

Impaired neuromuscular function during isometric, shortening, and lengthening contractions after exercise-induced damage to elbow flexor muscles.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise-induced damage of the elbow flexor muscles on steady motor performance during isometric, shortening, and lengthening contractions. Ten healthy individuals (age 22+/-4 yr) performed four tasks with the elbow flexor muscles: a maximum voluntary contraction, a one repetition maximum (1 RM), an isometric task at three joint angles (short, intermediate, and long muscle lengths), and a constant-load task during slow (approximately 7 degrees/s) shortening and lengthening contractions. Task performance was quantified as the fluctuations in wrist acceleration (steadiness), and electromyography was obtained from the biceps and triceps brachii muscles at loads of 10, 20, and 40% of 1 RM. Tasks were performed before, immediately after, and 24 h after eccentric exercise that resulted in indicators of muscle damage. Maximum voluntary contraction force and 1-RM load declined by approximately 45% immediately after exercise and remained lower at 24 h ( approximately 30% decrease). Eccentric exercise resulted in reduced steadiness and increased biceps and triceps brachii electromyography for all tasks. For the isometric task, steadiness was impaired at the short compared with the long muscle length immediately after exercise (P<0.01). Furthermore, despite no differences before exercise, there was reduced steadiness for the shortening compared with the lengthening contractions after exercise (P=0.01), and steadiness remained impaired for shortening contractions 24 h later (P=0.01). These findings suggest that there are profound effects for the performance of these types of fine motor tasks when recovering from a bout of eccentric exercise. PMID:18556432

Turner, Tanya S; Tucker, Kylie J; Rogasch, Nigel C; Semmler, John G

2008-08-01

281

Face processing in children with autism spectrum disorder: independent or interactive processing of facial identity and facial expression?  

PubMed

The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity disregarding emotional expression. Typically developing children processed facial identity independently from facial expressions but processed facial expressions in interaction with identity. Children with autism processed both facial expression and identity independently of each other. They selectively directed their attention to one facial parameter despite variations in the other. Results indicate that there is no interaction in processing facial identity and emotional expression in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:20839043

Krebs, Julia F; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-06-01

282

Hereditary family signature of facial expression  

PubMed Central

Although facial expressions of emotion are universal, individual differences create a facial expression “signature” for each person; but, is there a unique family facial expression signature? Only a few family studies on the heredity of facial expressions have been performed, none of which compared the gestalt of movements in various emotional states; they compared only a few movements in one or two emotional states. No studies, to our knowledge, have compared movements of congenitally blind subjects with their relatives to our knowledge. Using two types of analyses, we show a correlation between movements of congenitally blind subjects with those of their relatives in think-concentrate, sadness, anger, disgust, joy, and surprise and provide evidence for a unique family facial expression signature. In the analysis “in-out family test,” a particular movement was compared each time across subjects. Results show that the frequency of occurrence of a movement of a congenitally blind subject in his family is significantly higher than that outside of his family in think-concentrate, sadness, and anger. In the analysis “the classification test,” in which congenitally blind subjects were classified to their families according to the gestalt of movements, results show 80% correct classification over the entire interview and 75% in anger. Analysis of the movements' frequencies in anger revealed a correlation between the movements' frequencies of congenitally blind individuals and those of their relatives. This study anticipates discovering genes that influence facial expressions, understanding their evolutionary significance, and elucidating repair mechanisms for syndromes lacking facial expression, such as autism. PMID:17043232

Peleg, Gili; Katzir, Gadi; Peleg, Ofer; Kamara, Michal; Brodsky, Leonid; Hel-Or, Hagit; Keren, Daniel; Nevo, Eviatar

2006-01-01

283

Bone tissue remodeling and development: focus on matrix metalloproteinase functions.  

PubMed

Bone-forming cells originate from distinct embryological layers, mesoderm (axial and appendicular bones) and ectoderm (precursor of neural crest cells, which mainly form facial bones). These cells will develop bones by two principal mechanisms: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. In both cases, condensation of multipotent mesenchymal cells occurs, at the site of the future bone, which differentiate into bone and cartilage-forming cells. During long bone development, an initial cartilaginous template is formed and replaced by bone in a coordinated and refined program involving chondrocyte proliferation and maturation, vascular invasion, recruitment of adult stem cells and intense remodeling of cartilage and bone matrix. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the most important enzymes for cleaving structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), as well as other non-ECM molecules in the ECM space, pericellular perimeter and intracellularly. Thus, the bioactive molecules generated act on several biological events, such as development, tissue remodeling and homeostasis. Since the discovery of collagenase in bone cells, more than half of the MMP members have been detected in bone tissues under both physiological and pathological conditions. Pivotal functions of MMPs during development and bone regeneration have been revealed by knockout mouse models, such as chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, osteoclast recruitment and function, bone modeling, coupling of bone resorption and formation (bone remodeling), osteoblast recruitment and survival, angiogenesis, osteocyte viability and function (biomechanical properties); as such alterations in MMP function may alter bone quality. In this review, we look at the principal properties of MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs and RECK), provide an up-date on their known functions in bone development and remodeling and discuss their potential application to Bone Bioengineering. PMID:25157440

Paiva, Katiucia Batista Silva; Granjeiro, José Mauro

2014-11-01

284

Pathologies o Bone Fracture and Bone Repair  

E-print Network

(Bone Cancer) o Paget's Disease o Overuse Damage (Stress Fractures) o Considerations for Bioengineers1 Bone Pathologies o Bone Fracture and Bone Repair o Degenerative Changes Associated with Aging o TOPICS 1 Bone Fracture and Bone Repair A radiograph of a torsional bone fracture from a skiing accident

Gefen, Amit

285

A Newly Recognized Syndrome With Characteristic Facial Features, Skeletal Dysplasia, and Developmental Delay  

PubMed Central

We describe a series of seven male patients from six different families with skeletal dysplasia, characteristic facial features, and developmental delay. Skeletal findings include patellar dislocation, short tubular bones, mild metaphyseal changes, brachymetacarpalia with stub thumbs, short femoral necks, shallow acetabular roofs, and platyspondyly. Facial features include: a flattened midface with broad nasal bridge, cleft palate or bifid uvula and synophrys. All of the patients demonstrated pre-school onset of a cognitive developmental delay with a shortened attention span. Some of the cognitive delay was masked by a warm and engaging personality. We posit that these individuals have a newly recognized syndrome characterized by the described features. There is some phenotypic overlap between these patients and Desbuquois dysplasia; however molecular testing demonstrated that this is a distinct disorder. Given the family information available for each patient, we are suspicious that the constellation of findings reported herein could be an X-linked recessive syndrome. PMID:22711505

Baratela, Wagner A.R.; Bober, Michael B.; Tiller, George E.; Okenfuss, Ericka; Ditro, Colleen; Duker, Angela; Krakow, Deborah; Stabley, Deborah L.; Sol-Church, Katia; Mackenzie, William; Lachman, Ralph; Scott, Charles I.

2014-01-01

286

Bendy Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 19-24 of PDF), learners soak chicken bones or eggshells in vinegar for several days. Learners observe what happens to the material as the acid dissolves the calcium that provides the strength to the material. The lesson includes information about calcium, calcium-rich foods that keep bones strong, and an explanation of how the acidic vinegar solution causes the bone or eggshell to become weak.

Omsi

2004-01-01

287

Should Physicians Have Facial Piercings?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians. DESIGN Survey. SETTING Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians. INTERVENTIONS First, patrons were shown photographs of models with a nontraditional piercing and asked about the appropriateness for a physician or medical student. In the second phase, patrons blinded to the purpose of the study were shown identical photographs of physician models with or without piercings and asked about competency and trustworthiness. The third phase was an assessment of attitudes of faculty regarding piercings. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Nose and lip piercings were felt to be appropriate for a physician by 24% and 22% of patrons, respectively. Perceived competency and trustworthiness of models with these types of piercings were also negatively affected. An earring in a male was felt to be appropriate by 35% of patrons, but an earring on male models did not negatively affect perceived competency or trustworthiness. Nose and eyebrow piercings were felt to be appropriate by only 7% and 5% of faculty physicians and working with a physician or student with a nose or eyebrow piercing would bother 58% and 59% of faculty, respectively. An ear piercing in a male was felt to be appropriate by 20% of faculty, and 25% stated it would bother them to work with a male physician or student with an ear piercing. CONCLUSIONS Many patrons and physicians feel that some types of nontraditional piercings are inappropriate attire for physicians, and some piercings negatively affect perceived competency and trustworthiness. Health care providers should understand that attire may affect a patient's opinion about their abilities and possibly erode confidence in them as a clinician. PMID:15836523

Newman, Alison W; Wright, Seth W; Wrenn, Keith D; Bernard, Aline

2005-01-01

288

Facial Feature Extraction Based on Wavelet Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial feature extraction is one of the most important processes in face recognition, expression recognition and face detection. The aims of facial feature extraction are eye location, shape of eyes, eye brow, mouth, head boundary, face boundary, chin and so on. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic facial feature extraction system, which is able to identify the eye location, the detailed shape of eyes and mouth, chin and inner boundary from facial images. This system not only extracts the location information of the eyes, but also estimates four important points in each eye, which helps us to rebuild the eye shape. To model mouth shape, mouth extraction gives us both mouth location and two corners of mouth, top and bottom lips. From inner boundary we obtain and chin, we have face boundary. Based on wavelet features, we can reduce the noise from the input image and detect edge information. In order to extract eyes, mouth, inner boundary, we combine wavelet features and facial character to design these algorithms for finding midpoint, eye's coordinates, four important eye's points, mouth's coordinates, four important mouth's points, chin coordinate and then inner boundary. The developed system is tested on Yale Faces and Pedagogy student's faces.

Hung, Nguyen Viet

289

Facial Diplegia in Plasmodium vivax Malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Facial diplegia has diverse etiologies, including viral and bacterial infections such as diphtheria, syphilis and Lyme disease, and also protozoal infection in very rarely cases. Case Report A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital due to bilateral weakness of the upper and lower facial muscles. Examination revealed that the patient had a facial diplegia of the peripheral type. A peripheral blood smear demonstrated the presence of the asexual trophozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax with ring-form trophozoites, which led to a diagnosis of malaria. A serum work-up revealed increased IgG titers of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein and ganglioside GD1b. The patient was administered antimalarial treatment, 1 week after which he showed signs of recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of facial diplegia after malaria infection, providing evidence that the mechanism underlying the condition is related to immune-mediated disease. Conclusions Facial diplegia can manifest after P. vivax infection. PMID:20607050

Sim, Jae Eun; Choi, Young-Chul

2010-01-01

290

Mesh Achilles tendon lengthening--a new method to treat equinus deformity in patients with spastic cerebral palsy: surgical technique and early results.  

PubMed

Equinus of the ankle is a common deformity in spastic cerebral palsy. Many methods have been developed to lengthen the Achilles tendon to correct the deformity. A new mesh Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) procedure that might decrease immobilization and promote recovery was performed in 36 tendons with equinus deformity (22 patients, average age=6.2). The results were compared with those of two other methods: the Vulpius group and the Z-lengthening group. The corrected dorsiflexion angle of the ankle at a subsequent 2-year follow-up of the mesh ATL and Vulpius groups matched (25.5±3.0 and 27.1±3.5°, respectively), whereas that of the Z-lengthening group was higher (33.9±3.8°). Nevertheless, statistics of the timing of each patient's readiness to begin rehabilitation and walking as well as gaining better stability for running and one-legged hopping indicated that the mesh ATL group recovered significantly quicker than the Vulpius and Z-lengthening groups. The mesh ATL procedure achieves a successful correction of the equinus deformity in spastic cerebral palsy comparable with that of the Vulpius procedure, with the advantage of preserving the gastrocnemius without a complete section. This confers greater antigravity stability and quicker recovery in patients. PMID:23192252

Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Chii-Jeng; Huang, Ming-Tung; Su, Wei-Ren; Wu, Tung-Tai

2013-01-01

291

Break-Induced Replication Requires DNA Damage-Induced Phosphorylation of Pif1 and Leads to Telomere Lengthening  

PubMed Central

Broken replication forks result in DNA breaks that are normally repaired via homologous recombination or break induced replication (BIR). Mild insufficiency in the replicative ligase Cdc9 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in a population of cells with persistent DNA damage, most likely due to broken replication forks, constitutive activation of the DNA damage checkpoint and longer telomeres. This telomere lengthening required functional telomerase, the core DNA damage signaling cascade Mec1-Rad9-Rad53, and the components of the BIR repair pathway – Rad51, Rad52, Pol32, and Pif1. The Mec1-Rad53 induced phosphorylation of Pif1, previously found necessary for inhibition of telomerase at double strand breaks, was also important for the role of Pif1 in BIR and telomere elongation in cdc9-1 cells. Two other mutants with impaired DNA replication, cdc44-5 and rrm3?, were similar to cdc9-1: their long telomere phenotype was dependent on the Pif1 phosphorylation locus. We propose a model whereby the passage of BIR forks through telomeres promotes telomerase activity and leads to telomere lengthening. PMID:25329304

Vasianovich, Yulia; Harrington, Lea A.; Makovets, Svetlana

2014-01-01

292

A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Spontaneous Facial Action Modeling and Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression is a natural and powerful means of human communication. Recognizing spontaneous facial actions, however, is very challenging due to subtle facial deformation, frequent head movements, and ambiguous and uncertain facial motion measurements. Because of these challenges, current research in facial expression recognition is limited to posed expressions and often in frontal view. A spontaneous facial expression is characterized

Yan Tong; Jixu Chen; Qiang Ji

2010-01-01

293

Genetics Home Reference: Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Research studies OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (often shortened to CCFDN ) ... definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is CCFDN? Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (CCFDN) is a rare ...

294

Personalized low polygon count facial models for real time applications  

E-print Network

Low polycount facial models are useful in interactive applications such as games or interactive virtual reality environments. In this thesis, I present an approach to create a wide range of low polygon count facial models. Using this approach, I...

Mitchell, Ryan Troy

2012-06-07

295

About face, computergraphic synthesis and manipulation of facial imagery  

E-print Network

A technique of pictorially synthesizing facial imagery using optical videodiscs under computer control is described. Search, selection and averaging processes are performed on a catalogue of whole faces and facial features ...

Weil, Peggy

1982-01-01

296

Relationships among Facial Mimicry, Emotional Experience, and Emotion Recognition  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on scales of valence and arousal for experienced emotions (Study 1) and for experienced and recognized emotions (Study 2) while participants viewed dynamic and static facial expressions of negative and positive emotions. Path analyses showed that the facial EMG activity consistently predicted the valence ratings for the emotions experienced in response to dynamic facial expressions. The experienced valence ratings in turn predicted the recognized valence ratings in Study 2. Conclusion These results suggest that facial mimicry influences the sharing and recognition of emotional valence in response to others' dynamic facial expressions. PMID:23536774

Sato, Wataru; Fujimura, Tomomi; Kochiyama, Takanori; Suzuki, Naoto

2013-01-01

297

On the ethics of facial transplantation research.  

PubMed

Transplantation continues to push the frontiers of medicine into domains that summon forth troublesome ethical questions. Looming on the frontier today is human facial transplantation. We develop criteria that, we maintain, must be satisfied in order to ethically undertake this as-yet-untried transplant procedure. We draw on the criteria advanced by Dr. Francis Moore in the late 1980s for introducing innovative procedures in transplant surgery. In addition to these we also insist that human face transplantation must meet all the ethical requirements usually applied to health care research. We summarize the achievements of transplant surgery to date, focusing in particular on the safety and efficacy of immunosuppressive medications. We also emphasize the importance of risk/benefit assessments that take into account the physical, aesthetic, psychological, and social dimensions of facial disfiguration, reconstruction, and transplantation. Finally, we maintain that the time has come to move facial transplantation research into the clinical phase. PMID:16192123

Wiggins, Osborne P; Barker, John H; Martinez, Serge; Vossen, Marieke; Maldonado, Claudio; Grossi, Federico; Francois, Cedric; Cunningham, Michael; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Kon, Moshe; Banis, Joseph C

2004-01-01

298

Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

2009-02-01

299

Facial Dysostoses: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Management  

PubMed Central

Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in-utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981

Trainor, Paul A.; Andrews, Brian T.

2013-01-01

300

Facial dysostoses: Etiology, pathogenesis and management.  

PubMed

Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981

Trainor, Paul A; Andrews, Brian T

2013-11-01

301

Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis (NICO). Osteomyelitis in 224 jawbone samples from patients with facial neuralgia.  

PubMed

A somewhat obscure etiologic theory for facial neuralgias presumes a low-grade osteomyelitis of the jaws that produces neural degeneration with subsequent production of inappropriate pain signals. Animal investigations and treatment successes with human patients based on this theory lend it credence. The present study examined 224 tissue samples removed from alveolar bone cavities in 135 patients with trigeminal neuralgia or atypical facial neuralgia. All tissue samples demonstrated clear evidence of chronic intraosseous inflammation. The most common microscopic features included dense marrow fibrosis or "scar" formation, a sprinkling of lymphocytes in a relative absence of other inflammatory cells (especially histiocytes), and smudged, nonresorbing necrotic bone flakes. Very little healing or new bone formation was visible. These lesions were able to burrow several centimeters to initiate distant cavities. The present preliminary investigation cannot prove etiology, but the presence of intraosseous inflammation in every single jawbone specimen in these patients and certain clinical and treatment aspects of these lesions (to be reported later) has led the authors to recommend the term neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis or NICO for these lesions. PMID:1545963

Bouquot, J E; Roberts, A M; Person, P; Christian, J

1992-03-01

302

Immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, facial anomalies syndrome (ICF)  

PubMed Central

The Immunodeficiency, Centromeric region instability, Facial anomalies syndrome (ICF) is a rare autosomal recessive disease described in about 50 patients worldwide and characterized by immunodeficiency, although B cells are present, and by characteristic rearrangements in the vicinity of the centromeres (the juxtacentromeric heterochromatin) of chromosomes 1 and 16 and sometimes 9. Other variable symptoms of this probably under-diagnosed syndrome include mild facial dysmorphism, growth retardation, failure to thrive, and psychomotor retardation. Serum levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and/or IgA are low, although the type of immunoglobulin deficiency is variable. Recurrent infections are the presenting symptom, usually in early childhood. ICF always involves limited hypomethylation of DNA and often arises from mutations in one of the DNA methyltransferase genes (DNMT3B). Much of this DNA hypomethylation is in 1qh, 9qh, and 16qh, regions that are the site of whole-arm deletions, chromatid and chromosome breaks, stretching (decondensation), and multiradial chromosome junctions in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes. By an unknown mechanism, the DNMT3B deficiency that causes ICF interferes with lymphogenesis (at a step after class switching) or lymphocyte activation. With the identification of DNMT3B as the affected gene in a majority of ICF patients, prenatal diagnosis of ICF is possible. However, given the variety of DNMT3B mutations, a first-degree affected relative should first have both alleles of this gene sequenced. Treatment almost always includes regular infusions of immunoglobulins, mostly intravenously. Recently, bone marrow transplantation has been tried. PMID:16722602

Ehrlich, Melanie; Jackson, Kelly; Weemaes, Corry

2006-01-01

303

Talking Bones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

2002-01-01

304

Bear Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.

Science Update;

2004-03-08

305

A muscle model for animation three-dimensional facial expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a parameterized facial muscle process, that incorporates the use of a model to create realistic facial animation is described.Existing methods of facial parameterization have the inherent problem of hard-wiring performable actions. The development of a muscle process that is controllable by a limited number of parameters and is non-specific to facial topology allows a richer vocabulary and

Keith Waters

1987-01-01

306

Quantitative parameters of facial motor evoked potential during vestibular schwannoma surgery predict postoperative facial nerve function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Facial motor evoked potential (FMEP) amplitude ratio reduction at the end of the surgery has been identified as a good predictor\\u000a for postoperative facial nerve outcome. We sought to investigate variations in FMEP amplitude and waveform morphology during\\u000a vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection and to correlate these measures with postoperative facial function immediately after\\u000a surgery and at the last follow-up.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Intraoperative

Marcus André Acioly; Alireza Gharabaghi; Marina Liebsch; Carlos Henrique Carvalho; Paulo Henrique Aguiar; Marcos Tatagiba

2011-01-01

307

Considerations in non-Caucasian facial rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Aging of the face is inevitable and undeniable. This process includes a loss of skeletal support, soft tissue volume depletion, and a decrease in skin elasticity. The contribution of these 3 factors varies between individuals with noticeable hereditary influence. Characteristic ethnic features have been described in the literature, but as societies have changed, many of these ethnic variations have blended together. Facial cosmetic procedures must to be tailored to address these variations in anatomy, and consideration must be given to enhancing the facial skeleton, adequately lifting the soft tissues, and planning careful incisions to be closed under no tension. PMID:25049130

Sykes, Jonathan M; Nolen, David

2014-08-01

308

Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Background?Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods?We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results?The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions?This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy. PMID:25083397

Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Gidley, Paul W.

2014-01-01

309

Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma.  

PubMed

Background?Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods?We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results?The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions?This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy. PMID:25083397

Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Gidley, Paul W

2014-08-01

310

Psychological management and body image issues in facial transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial transplantation, although controversial, is proposed as a major advance in facial reconstructive surgery, with the first partial transplant having taken place in France in November 2005. Although the psychological impact of facial transplantation will not be understood until several procedures have been carried out, this article examines the psychological issues likely to arise with particular reference to body image.

Simon E. Brill; Alex Clarke; David M. Veale; Peter E. M. Butler

2006-01-01

311

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Results indicated that, independent of trait

Steven J. Kirsh; Jeffrey R. W. Mounts; Paul V. Olczak

2006-01-01

312

Facial Expression Recognition as A Creative Interface Roberto Valenti1  

E-print Network

1 Facial Expression Recognition as A Creative Interface Roberto Valenti1 , Alejandro Jaimes2 , Nicu.jaimes@idiap.ch ABSTRACT We present an audiovisual creativity tool that automatically recognizes facial expressions in real, sonification, facial therapy interface, gesture-based interaction. ACM Classification Keywords H5.2. User

Sebe, Nicu

313

Sensing Facial Emotions in a Continuous 2D Affective Space  

E-print Network

expressive manner humans display emotions is through facial expressions. Facial expression is the mostSensing Facial Emotions in a Continuous 2D Affective Space Isabelle Hupont Reference Centre for emotional sensing and it constitutes an indispensable part of affective Human Computer Interface designs

Baldassarri, Sandra

314

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph.…

Kirsh, Steven J.; Mounts, Jeffrey R. W.; Olczak, Paul V.

2006-01-01

315

Intelligent Expression Blending for Performance Driven Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance-Driven Facial Animation (PDFA) allows an animator to specify the desired facial action in terms of detected face movements of a performer. The animation system works by mimicking the actions of the performer on an animated character. Research efforts in PDFA have mostly concentrated on efficient tracking and re-targeting of facial expressions; very little attention has been paid to the

Assia Khanam; Muid Mufti

2007-01-01

316

Impact of Orthodontic Decompensation on Bone Insertion  

PubMed Central

There has always been concern in determining the relationship between orthodontic tooth movement and the consequent biological costs to the periodontium and tooth root. The possibility of evaluating the tooth and bone morphology by CBCT allows more accurate analysis of qualitative and quantitative aspects of these processes. This paper presents a case report of a 20-year-old male patient with Class III malocclusion and hyperdivergent facial pattern, who was surgically treated. A significant amount of labial movement of mandibular incisors was performed during orthodontic treatment before surgery. CBCT was used for evaluation of buccal and lingual bone plates before and after tooth decompensation. The changes in the bone insertion level of maxillary and mandibular incisors in the present case encourage a reflection on the treatment protocol in individuals with dentoskeletal discrepancies.

Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Nary Filho, Hugo; Borgo, Evandro José; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida

2014-01-01

317

Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-01-01

318

Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

2008-01-01

319

Rapid facial reactions to emotional facial expressions in typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social–emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study evaluated mechanisms underlying RFRs during childhood and examined possible impairment in children with

Paula M. Beall; Eric J. Moody; Daniel N. McIntosh; Susan L. Hepburn; Catherine L. Reed

2008-01-01

320

Facial Caricaturing Robot “COOPER" for Proposing New Facial Media and Its Field Test at EXPO2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed the facial caricaturing robot “COOPER” that was exhibited at the Prototype Robot Exhibition of EXPO 2005, Aichi Japan during 11 days from Jun.9 to Jun.19. COOPER watches the face of a person seated at the chair, obtains facial images, and analyzes the images to extract 251 feature points to generate his facial line drawings with deformation. It is noted that the caricature was drawn on the specialized “Shrimp rice cracker” in about 4 minutes. To do this, we customized the original system PICASSO by coping with the illumination circumstances in EXPO pavilion. This paper illustrates the outline of the COOPER and the details of the image processing in it. And we discuses on the prospects of the future subjects based on more than 352 facial caricatures obtained at EXPO2005.

Funahashi, Takuma; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takashi; Tokuda, Naoya; Takino, Fuminori; Koshimizu, Hiroyasu

321

Bone Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into fossil hunting and identification. Groups of learners will sift through a commercially prepared owl pellet, looking for bone pieces that they will attempt to match to an identification chart and subsequently arrange into a rough skeleton. Learners use this exercise to consider how animal skeletons help researchers determine what kinds of animals live together in an ecosystem as well compare the bones they find to the bones in their own body. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Dinosaurs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

322

Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mech- anism of FMN (facial motoneuron) survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system)-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenyl- ate cyclase-activating polypeptide) is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results

Derek A Wainwright; Junping Xin; Nichole A Mesnard; Taylor R Beahrs; Christine M Politis; Virginia Sanders; Kathryn Jones

2009-01-01

323

Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring (IFNM) Predicts Facial Nerve Outcome after Resection of Vestibular Schwannoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IFNM) is a suitable technique for intraoperative facial nerve identification and\\u000a dissection, especially in large vestibular schwannomas (VS) (acoustic neuroma). To evaluate its feasibility for estimating\\u000a functional nerve outcome after VS resection 60 patients underwent surgery using IFNM. Out of this group the last 40 patients\\u000a were included in a prospective study evaluating the prognostic

S. B. Sobottka; G. Schackert; S. A. May; M. Wiegleb; G. Reiß

1998-01-01

324

Automated Prediction of Preferences Using Facial Expressions  

E-print Network

on covert videos of the observers' faces. The two algorithms are almost as accurate as human judges stimuli are preferred by human observers just by viewing covertly recorded videos of the observers' faces, tends to focus on the six basic emotions defined by [10], and the Facial Action Coding System [11

Todorov, Alex

325

Stereotactic Mesencephalotomy for Cancer - Related Facial Pain  

PubMed Central

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

Kim, Deok-ryeong; Lee, Sang-won

2014-01-01

326

A facial electromyographic investigation of affective contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective contrast refers to the tendency for stimuli to be judged as less evocative when preceded by more evocative same- valence stimuli. The authors used facial electromyographic (EMG) activity over corrugator supercilii, which is inversely related to affective valence, to determine if context influences underlying affective reactions. In Experiment 1, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when

J. IAN

327

A facial electromyographic investigation of affective contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective contrast refers to the tendency for stimuli to be judged as less evocative when preceded by more evocative same-valence stimuli. The authors used facial electromyographic (EMG) activity over corrugator supercilii , which is inversely related to affective valence, to determine if context influences underlying affective reactions. In Experiment 1, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when

Jeff T. Larsen; J. Ian Norris

2009-01-01

328

Facial Appearance, Gender, and Emotion Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western gender stereotypes describe women as affiliative and more likely to show happiness and men as dominant and more likely to show anger. The authors assessed the hypothesis that the gender-stereotypic effects on perceptions of anger and happiness are partially mediated by facial appearance markers of dominance and affiliation by equating men's and women's faces for these cues. In 2

Ursula Hess; Robert E. Kleck

2004-01-01

329

Flexible signal generator for facial nerve detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

During surgical intervention on patient face, the facial nerve must be protected. To avoid the risk of its damage, we propose an electronic device that could detect the presence of this nerve. Thanks to its excitability, it was possible therefore to record a noticeable muscular electric reaction on the face. An active stimulating electrode would be placed on the patient

Habib ELKHORCHANI; Hamadi GHARIANI; A. Benhamida; M. Ghorbel

2004-01-01

330

?-Facial Selectivity of Diels-Alder Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most fundamental and important reactions for organic synthesis. In this chapter we review the studies of the ?-facial selectivity in the Diels-Alder reactions of the dienes having unsymmetrical ?-plane. The theories proposed as the origin of the selectivity are discussed.

Ishida, Masaru; Inagaki, Satoshi

331

Facial displays, emotional expressions and conversational acts  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Emotional expression is multifaceted – expression is determined both by a person’s reaction to an event and by the attempt to manipulate this expression for strategic reasons in social interaction.” (Scherer, 2001). In this\\u000apaper we present some thoughts on the relation between emotion, facial expression and dialogue that have lead us to develop a model of dialogue in which

Dirk Heylen; R. Trappl

2006-01-01

332

Hierarchical Ranking of Facial Attributes Ankur Datta  

E-print Network

containing physical traits of a person (e.g., red hat, beard, and sunglasses), and an input database of face to queries containing facial attributes, such as baldness, presence of beard, sunglasses, eyeglasses, hat (e.g., bald, sunglasses, etc.), and an input database of face images, our goal is to retrieve

California at Santa Barbara, University of

333

Atypical facial pain and orbital cancer.  

PubMed

A patient complaining of facial pain was found to have primary squamous cell cancer of the orbit. The treatment included surgery and radiotherapy. The patient having this extremely rare disease has been followed up for seven years with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:3985856

Ruff, T; Lenis, A; Diaz, J A

1985-05-01

334

Stereotactic mesencephalotomy for cancer - related facial pain.  

PubMed

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

Kim, Deok-Ryeong; Lee, Sang-Won; Son, Byung-Chul

2014-07-01

335

Facial feature extraction based on GSLDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a general and efficient facial feature extraction approach, global search linear discriminant analysis (GSLDA), is presented. It is designed to solve the puzzle of standard linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for small sample size problems (SSSP). Compared with PCA-LDA, in GSLDA, raw data dimension can be greatly decreased without discarding important discriminant information. In this process, all basis

Li Meng; Yong Cai; Yuanxing Li; Min Wang

2009-01-01

336

Facial mimicry in the animal kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large variety of animals have developed facial likenesses to common vertebrates, presumably serving to deter attack by their predators. Likenesses run the gamut from unbelievable artistic perfection to ridiculous (to us) caricatures. These images of mock predators may either remain as a constantly visible deterrent or be flashed when an attack is pressed home and combined with rhythmic display

John Langerholc

1991-01-01

337

Constructing Facial Identity Surfaces for Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to face recognition by constructing facial identity structures across views and over time, referred to as identity surfaces, in a Kernel Discriminant Analysis (KDA) feature space. This approach is aimed at addressing three challenging problems in face recognition: modelling faces across multiple views, extracting non-linear discriminatory features, and recognising faces over time. First, a multi-view

Yongmin Li; Shaogang Gong; Heather M. Liddell

2003-01-01

338

Until they have faces: the ethics of facial allograft transplantation.  

PubMed

The ethical discussion of facial allograft transplantation (FAT) for severe facial deformity, popularly known as facial transplantation, has been one sided and sensationalistic. It is based on film and fiction rather than science and clinical experience. Based on our experience in developing the first IRB approved protocol for FAT, we critically discuss the problems with this discussion, which overlooks the plight of individuals with severe facial deformities. We discuss why FAT for facial deformity is ethically and surgically justified despite its negative portrayal in the media. PMID:16319234

Agich, G J; Siemionow, M

2005-12-01

339

Multi-curve spectrum representation of facial movements and expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method of multi-curve spectrum representation of facial movements and expressions. Based on 3DMCF (3D muscle-controlled facial) model, facial movements and expressions are controlled by 21 virtual muscles. So, facial movements and expressions can be described by a group of time-varying curves of normalized muscle contraction, called multi-curve spectrum. The structure and basic characters of multi-curve spectrum is introduced. The performance of the proposed method is among the best. This method needs small quantity of data, and is easy to apply. It can also be used to transplant facial animation between different faces.

Pei, Li; Zhang, Zhijiang; Chen, Zhixiang; Zeng, Dan

2009-07-01

340

Perception and memory of facial affect following brain injury.  

PubMed

Brain-lesioned patients and controls were shown a series of happy, sad, fearful, and angry faces and asked to identify verbally the facial emotion and later freely recall the affect when shown some of the faces having neutral expressions. Greater misperception of facial affect was associated with posterior lesions when bilateral lesions were removed from data analysis. Unilateral and bilateral frontal lesions, however, were associated with memory deficits for facial affect. As a group, right versus left hemisphere-lesioned patients were not different from each other in the perception or memory of facial affect. Right frontal lesions, however, seemed especially to disrupt recall of facial emotion. PMID:7099895

Prigatano, G P; Pribram, K H

1982-06-01

341

Accurate landmarking of three-dimensional facial data in the presence of facial expressions and occlusions using a three-dimensional statistical facial feature model.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional face landmarking aims at automatically localizing facial landmarks and has a wide range of applications (e.g., face recognition, face tracking, and facial expression analysis). Existing methods assume neutral facial expressions and unoccluded faces. In this paper, we propose a general learning-based framework for reliable landmark localization on 3-D facial data under challenging conditions (i.e., facial expressions and occlusions). Our approach relies on a statistical model, called 3-D statistical facial feature model, which learns both the global variations in configurational relationships between landmarks and the local variations of texture and geometry around each landmark. Based on this model, we further propose an occlusion classifier and a fitting algorithm. Results from experiments on three publicly available 3-D face databases (FRGC, BU-3-DFE, and Bosphorus) demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in terms of landmarking accuracy and robustness, in the presence of expressions and occlusions. PMID:21622076

Zhao, Xi; Dellandréa, Emmanuel; Chen, Liming; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

2011-10-01

342

Rational treatment for multiple digit congenital absence: case report of nonvascularized toe phalangeal transfers and distraction lengthening for symbrachydactyly.  

PubMed

A case is discussed in which a young male was born with symbrachydactyly of multiple digits in whom nonvascularized proximal toe phalanges were transferred to the aphalangic digits when he was an infant. This initial surgical procedure was later followed by webspace deepening and ultimately by distraction lengthening of the digits. At 8 years of age, he has a very functional hand with mobile metacarpophalangeal joints in all reconstructed fingers. In fact, he uses this reconstructed right hand as his dominant extremity. The case is discussed in context of phalangeal growth potential, specific indications for this type of reconstruction, and final long-term outcome. This case also helps to recommend rational treatment protocols for similar congenital hand anomalies. PMID:16432336

Netscher, David T; Richards, Winston T

2006-02-01

343

Broken bone  

MedlinePLUS

Bone - broken; Fracture; Stress fracture ... as those caused by running, can cause stress fractures of the foot, ankle, tibia, or hip ... circulation. Press firmly over the skin beyond the fracture site. (For example, if the fracture is in ...

344

Force enhancement in lengthening contractions of cat soleus muscle in situ: transient and steady-state aspects  

PubMed Central

Force enhancement (FE) associated with lengthening is a well-accepted phenomenon of active skeletal muscle, but the underlying mechanism(s) remain unknown. Similar to force depression (FD) following active shortening, the mechanism of FE may be attributed, at least in part, to cross-bridge kinetics. To examine this relationship, a post hoc analysis was performed on the transient force relaxation phase of previous in-situ FE experiments in soleus muscle-tendon units of anesthetized cats. For each muscle (n = 8), nine eccentric lengthenings (3 amplitudes, 3 velocities) were performed while tetanically stimulated (3T at 30 Hz, 3× ? motorneuron, 35 ± 1°C). To determine transient aspects of FE, the period immediately following stretching was fit with an exponential decay function (R2 > 0.95). Statistical analyses revealed that total steady-state FE (FESS) increased with stretching amplitude and applied mechanical work. A positive relationship was observed between the active FESS and rate of force decay (k), indicating that a kinetic mechanism may explain active FE. However, for all muscles and stretch conditions, there was no correlation between the total amount of FESS and rate of decay. Therefore, FE cannot be explained solely by an active FE mechanism involving the interaction of actin and myosin. Rather, these findings suggest a combination of underlying mechanisms, including a kinetic mechanism for active FE, contributions of a passive elastic element, and possibly an activatable passive component operating outside of actin–myosin cross-bridging. Moreover, this transient analysis identifies that FE is not simply the opposite of FD, and its underlying mechanism(s) cannot simply be the opposite in nature. PMID:24303106

Koppes, Ryan A; Herzog, Walter; Corr, David T

2013-01-01

345

Effects of gastrocnemius fascia lengthening on gait pattern in children with cerebral palsy using the Gait Profile Score.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of the GPS regarding the quantification of changes in gait following the gastrocnemius fascia lengthening in children with CP. Nineteen children with CP were selected and evaluated in the preoperative period (PRE session) and approximately one year postoperatively (POST session; mean 13.1 ± 5.1 months) using 3D gait analysis and computing the GPS and GVSs. As the GPS represents the difference between the patient's data and the average from the reference dataset, the higher the value of GPS is, more compromised gait of the subject. A statistically significant improvement in mean GPS was found in the POST session (PRE: 13.38 ± 5°; POST: 10.26 ± 2.41°; p<0.05), with an improvement close to 23%. Moreover, the GVSs demonstrated statistically significant improvements in ankle dorsi-plantarflexion (PRE: 22.20 ± 16.36°; POST: 11.50 ± 6.57°; p<0.05) and pelvic rotation (PRE: 9.53 ± 3.87°; POST: 6.47 ± 2.98°; p<0.05). A strong correlation (r=0.75; p<0.05) was found between the preoperative GPS and the percentage of GPS improvement. The results demonstrated that the gastrocnemius fascia lengthening produced a global gait pattern improvement, as showed by the GPS value, which decreased after surgery. Besides this, the GVS permitted to better evidence the joints more compromised by the pathology and their improvement due to the surgery, in this case not only the GVS of the ankle joint but also of the pelvis were characterized by higher GVS values. PMID:24642227

Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Cimolin, Veronica; Costici, Pier Francesco; Albertini, Giorgio; Oliveira, Claudia Santos; Galli, Manuela

2014-05-01

346

Linear elastic properties of the facial soft tissues using an aspiration device: towards patient specific characterization.  

PubMed

Biomechanical modeling of the facial soft tissue behavior is needed in aesthetic or maxillo-facial surgeries where the simulation of the bone displacements cannot accurately predict the visible outcome on the patient's face. Because these tissues have different nature and elastic properties across the face, depending on their thickness, and their content in fat or muscle, individualizing their mechanical parameters could increase the simulation accuracy. Using a specifically designed aspiration device, the facial soft tissues deformation is measured at four different locations (cheek, cheekbone, forehead, and lower lip) on 16 young subjects. The stiffness is estimated from the deformations generated by a set of negative pressures using an inverse analysis based on a Neo Hookean model. The initial Young's modulus of the cheek, cheekbone, forehead, and lower lip are respectively estimated to be 31.0 kPa ± 4.6, 34.9 kPa ± 6.6, 17.3 kPa ± 4.1, and 33.7 kPa ± 7.3. Significant intra-subject differences in tissue stiffness are highlighted by these estimations. They also show important inter-subject variability for some locations even when mean stiffness values show no statistical difference. This study stresses the importance of using a measurement device capable of evaluating the patient specific tissue stiffness during an intervention. PMID:25186433

Luboz, V; Promayon, E; Payan, Y

2014-11-01

347

Facial reanimation surgery utilizing the Mitek anchor system: A case report.  

PubMed

A flaccid hemi-face is frequently the most noticeable and cosmetically unacceptable consequence of facial nerve palsy, whether due to trauma, Bell's palsy or other etiologies. A variety of face-lift and reanimation techniques have been utilized in the past, but with time, these frequently require further surgery. We describe the use of Mitek (Norwood, MA) suture anchors for cheek resuspension in a patient with facial palsy. This system is composed of a drill guide, drill, inserter, and anchor. Although the titanium alloy anchors come in multiple sizes, the Mini GII Anchor is typically most appropriate for use in facial procedures. The actual size of the Mini GII Anchor is 1.8 mm in diameter and 5.4 mm in length. Two small arched prongs extend from the body of the anchor, and an eyelet at the superior surface is used for suture placement. When placed into a pre-drilled hole with the insertion tool, the prongs extend, effectively fixing the anchor in place. The drill guide protects adjacent soft tissues during the drilling process and allows drilling to a predetermined fixed depth. Sutures attached to the anchor may then be used for soft tissue fixation to bone. PMID:12045915

Carlsen, J; Cowen, D E.; O'Halloran, H S.

2001-09-01

348

Comparison of ultrasonography with computed tomography in the diagnosis of nasal bone fractures  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study is to compare ultrasonography with CT in the diagnosis of nasal bone fractures. Methods 40 patients (9 female and 31 male) with mid-facial fractures, which were suspected nasal bone fractures, were included. All of the patients had mid-facial CT images. Ultrasonography with a 7.5 MHz transducer (Aloka 3500, Tokyo, Japan) was used to evaluate the nasal bone fractures. All of the sonograms were compared with CT findings for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. A ?2 test was applied to the data to assess statistical significance. Results CT diagnosed nasal bone fractures in 24 of the 40 patients (9 unilateral fractures and 15 bilateral fractures) while ultrasonography diagnosed the fractured bones in 23 patients (9 unilateral fractures and 14 bilateral fractures). Ultrasonography missed one fractured bone in a bilateral fractured case and a unilateral fracture was also missed (two false-negative results). The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in assessing nasal bone fracture in comparison with CT were 94.9% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of ultrasonographic evaluation of the nasal bone fractures were 100% and 95.3%, respectively. The ?2 test did not show any significant difference between CT and ultrasonography in diagnosis of nasal bone fractures (P = 0.819). Conclusion Ultrasonography can be used as a first line of diagnostic imaging for evaluating nasal bone fractures, especially in children and pregnant women. PMID:22065797

Javadrashid, R; Khatoonabad, M; Shams, N; Esmaeili, F; Jabbari Khamnei, H

2011-01-01

349

Mutant Telomeric Repeats in Yeast Can Disrupt the Negative Regulation of Recombination-Mediated Telomere Maintenance and Create an Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres-Like Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some human cancers maintain telomeres using alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a process thought to be due to recombination. In Kluyveromyces lactis mutants lacking telomerase, recombinational telomere elongation (RTE) is induced at short telomeres but is suppressed once telomeres are moderately elongated by RTE. Recent work has shown that certain telomere capping defects can trigger a different type of RTE

Laura H. Bechard; Bilge D. Butuner; George J. Peterson; Will McRae; Zeki Topcu; Michael J. McEachern

2009-01-01

350

Xrcc3 and Nbs1 Are Required for the Production of Extrachromosomal Telomeric Circles in Human Alternative Lengthening of Telomere Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of telomere length is essential for the indefinite proliferation of cancer cells. This is most often achieved by the activation of telomerase; however, a substan- tial number of cancers lack detectable telomerase activity and are classified as using an alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. We showed recently that ALT cells have a high level of extrachromosomal telomeric

Sarah A. Compton; Jun-Hyuk Choi; Anthony J. Cesare; Sezgin Ozgur; Jack D. Griffith

2007-01-01

351

Anatomic study of full facial and scalp allografts without cutaneous facial scars.  

PubMed

Conventional reconstructive procedures for face and scalp reconstruction fall short of aesthetic and functional goals because of the unique quality and quantity of facial and scalp soft tissue. The purpose of this cadaver study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a flap design for full face and scalp composite tissue allotransplantation, without cutaneous facial scars. Six fresh human cadavers were dissected with sagittal scalp and mucosal incisions for full face and scalp harvest without cutaneous facial incisions. Sub-galeal and sub-SMAS dissection allowed for inclusion of the external carotid and internal jugular systems. Time of facial-scalp flap harvesting, length of the arterial and venous pedicles, length of sensory nerves (that were included in the facial flaps) and approximate surface area of the flaps were measured. Three of six flaps were transferred to recipient cadavers and the time of transfer was recorded. As a proof of concept, the external carotid arteries of one of six cadavers was flushed to remove clots and perfused with a radio-opaque latex polymer, Microfil (Flow Tech Inc.), to study flap perfusion by X-ray imaging. In the donor cadaver, the mean harvesting time of the total facial-scalp flap was 105 ± 19 minutes. The mean length of the supraorbital, infraorbital, mental and great auricular nerves were 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.1, and 4.8 ± 0.6 cm, respectively. The mean length of the external carotid artery and external jugular vein were 8.7 ± 0.3 and 9.2 ± 0.4 cm, respectively. The approximate area of the harvested flap was 1063 ± 60 cm(2). In preparation for full face and scalp allotransplantation in humans, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of a full face and scalp flap without visible facial incisions. PMID:23647571

Bastidas, Nicholas; Runyan, Christopher M; Jones, Donna C; Taylor, Jesse A

2013-12-01

352

Bone marrow transplant  

MedlinePLUS

Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

353

RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals  

PubMed Central

Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio) in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans). We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans), and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face length in carnivorans, this relationship is not conserved across mammals in general. PMID:22741925

2012-01-01

354

Soccer-related Facial Trauma: Multicenter Experience in 2 Brazilian University Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background: Soccer is the most popular sport in Brazil and a high incidence of related trauma is reported. Maxillofacial trauma can be quite common, sometimes requiring prolonged hospitalization and invasive procedures. To characterize soccer-related facial fractures needing surgery in 2 major Brazilian Centers. Methods: A retrospective review of trauma medical records from the Plastic Surgery Divisions at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo–Escola Paulista de Medicina and the Hospital das Clinicas–Universidade de São Paulo was carried out to identify patients who underwent invasive surgical procedures due to acute soccer-related facial fractures. Data points reviewed included gender, date of injury, type of fracture, date of surgery, and procedure performed. Results: A total of 45 patients (31 from Escola Paulista de Medicina and 14 from Universidade de São Paulo) underwent surgical procedures to address facial fractures between March 2000 and September 2013. Forty-four patients were men, and mean age was 28 years. The fracture patterns seen were nasal bones (16 patients, 35%), orbitozygomatic (16 patients, 35%), mandibular (7 patients, 16%), orbital (6 patients, 13%), frontal (1 patient, 2%), and naso-orbito-ethmoid (1 patient, 2%). Mechanisms of injury included collisions with another player (n = 39) and being struck by the ball (n = 6). Conclusions: Although it is less common than orthopedic injuries, soccer players do sustain maxillofacial trauma. Knowledge of its frequency is important to first responders, nurses, and physicians who have initial contact with patients. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems in the physiological actions of breathing, vision, and chewing. PMID:25289361

Dini, Gal M.; Pereira, Max D.; Gurgel, Augusto; Bastos, Endrigo O.; Nagarkar, Purushottam; Gemperli, Rolf; Ferreira, Lydia M.

2014-01-01

355

Event-Related Alpha Suppression in Response to Facial Motion  

PubMed Central

While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors. PMID:24586735

Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J.; Spencer, Janine V.; O'Brien, Justin M. D.

2014-01-01

356

Computer-Aided Design and Rapid Prototyping–Assisted Contouring of Costal Cartilage Graft for Facial Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Complex 3-D defects of the facial skeleton are difficult to reconstruct with freehand carving of autogenous bone grafts. Onlay bone grafts are hard to carve and are associated with imprecise graft-bone interface contact and bony resorption. Autologous cartilage is well established in ear reconstruction as it is easy to carve and is associated with minimal resorption. In the present study, we aimed to reconstruct the hypoplastic orbitozygomatic region in a patient with left hemifacial microsomia using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping to facilitate costal cartilage carving and grafting. A three-step process of (1) 3-D reconstruction of the computed tomographic image, (2) mirroring the facial skeleton, and (3) modeling and rapid prototyping of the left orbitozygomaticomalar region and reconstruction template was performed. The template aided in donor site selection and extracorporeal contouring of the rib cartilage graft to allow for an accurate fit of the graft to the bony model prior to final fixation in the patient. We are able to refine the existing computer-aided design and rapid prototyping methods to allow for extracorporeal contouring of grafts and present rib cartilage as a good alternative to bone for autologous reconstruction. PMID:23730421

Lee, Shu Jin; Lee, Heow Pueh; Tse, Kwong Ming; Cheong, Ee Cherk; Lim, Siak Piang

2012-01-01

357

Intradiploic hematoma of the frontal bone with secondary exophthalmos in a mare.  

PubMed

A 13-year-old cob mare was presented with exophthalmos and periocular swelling of the left eye. The diagnostic work-up included ocular ultrasound, sonographic examination through the thinned frontal bone, radiography, standing computed tomography of the skull and exploratory osteoplastic surgery. Histopathology was consistent with an organized hematoma. An intradiploic hematoma of the frontal bone was diagnosed 5 years after head trauma, with progressive expansion and deformation of the skull resulting in exophthalmos. Exophthalmos with facial bone deformation was the only clinical finding of intradiploic hematoma. Standing computed tomography (CT) aided the diagnosis to differentiate intradiploic hematoma from other, more common causes of facial bone distortion associated with paranasal sinus diseases. Intradiploic hematoma of possible traumatic origin is a differential diagnosis for sinonasal disease and exophthalmos in the horse. PMID:23953510

Kafarnik, Christiane; Donaldson, David; Payne, Richard; Holloway, Andrew

2014-07-01

358

Processes underlying congruent and incongruent facial reactions to emotional facial expressions.  

PubMed

The present electromyographic study is a first step toward shedding light on the involvement of affective processes in congruent and incongruent facial reactions to facial expressions. Further, empathy was investigated as a potential mediator underlying the modulation of facial reactions to emotional faces in a competitive, a cooperative, and a neutral setting. Results revealed less congruent reactions to happy expressions and even incongruent reactions to sad and angry expressions in the competition condition, whereas virtually no differences between the neutral and the cooperation condition occurred. Effects on congruent reactions were found to be mediated by cognitive empathy, indicating that the state of empathy plays an important role in the situational modulation of congruent reactions. Further, incongruent reactions to sad and angry faces in a competition setting were mediated by the emotional reaction of joy, supporting the assumption that incongruent facial reactions are mainly based on affective processes. Additionally, strategic processes (specifically, the goal to create and maintain a smooth, harmonious interaction) were found to influence facial reactions while being in a cooperative mindset. Now, further studies are needed to test for the generalizability of these effects. PMID:21668100

Likowski, Katja U; Mühlberger, Andreas; Seibt, Beate; Pauli, Paul; Weyers, Peter

2011-06-01

359

Exogenous attention to facial vs non-facial emotional visual stimuli  

PubMed Central

The capacity of the two types of non-symbolic emotional stimuli most widely used in research on affective processes, faces and (non-facial) emotional scenes, to capture exogenous attention, was compared. Negative, positive and neutral faces and affective scenes were presented as distracters to 34 participants while they carried out a demanding digit categorization task. Behavioral (reaction times and number of errors) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials—ERPs) indices of exogenous attention were analyzed. Globally, facial expressions and emotional scenes showed similar capabilities to attract exogenous attention. Electrophysiologically, attentional capture was reflected in the P2a component of ERPs at the scalp level, and in left precentral areas at the source level. Negatively charged faces and scenes elicited maximal P2a/precentral gyrus activity. In the case of scenes, this negativity bias was also evident at the behavioral level. Additionally, a specific effect of facial distracters was observed in N170 at the scalp level, and in the fusiform gyrus and inferior parietal lobule at the source level. This effect revealed maximal attention to positive expressions. This facial positivity offset was also observed at the behavioral level. Taken together, the present results indicate that faces and non-facial scenes elicit partially different and, to some extent, complementary exogenous attention mechanisms. PMID:22689218

Kessel, Dominique; Carboni, Alejandra; Lopez-Martin, Sara; Albert, Jacobo; Tapia, Manuel; Mercado, Francisco; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, Jose A.

2013-01-01

360

Facial reconstruction - anatomical art or artistic anatomy?  

PubMed Central

Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury. PMID:20447245

Wilkinson, Caroline

2010-01-01

361

Injectable fillers for facial rejuvenation: a review.  

PubMed

Health care practices are moving toward a more preventative focus. In addition to leading healthier lives and seeking help to eradicate disease, patients are enlisting the help of plastic surgeons to reduce the visible signs of aging. Traditionally, facial rejuvenation focused on skin tightening through resection and resurfacing. In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on minimally invasive cosmetic improvement. Today, plastic surgeons combat the effects of aging with a variety of non-incisional methods such as soft-tissue augmentation with facial fillers. A multitude of soft-tissue fillers exist, each with their own chemical constituents, indications, and effectiveness. It is imperative that plastic surgeons understand these agents when treating patients with cosmetic complaints. PMID:18951862

Buck, Donald W; Alam, Murad; Kim, John Y S

2009-01-01

362

Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Bilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a rare condition, representing less than 2% of all cases of FNP. Majority of these patients have underlying medical conditions, ranging from neurologic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, or metabolic disorders. Objective. The differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive and hence can present as a diagnostic challenge. Emergency physicians should be aware of these various diagnostic possibilities, some of which are potentially fatal. Case Report. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with sequential bilateral facial nerve paralysis which could not be attributed to any particular etiology and, hence, presented a diagnostic dilemma. Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant. PMID:23326715

Pothiawala, Sohil; Lateef, Fatimah

2012-01-01

363

Facial Experience During the First Year  

PubMed Central

Parents of 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-month-olds used two scales we developed to provide information about their infants’ facial experience with familiar and unfamiliar individuals during one week. Results showed large discrepancies in the race, sex, and age of faces that infants experience during their first year with the majority of their facial experience being with their primary caregiver, females, and other individuals of the same race and age as their primary caregiver. The infant’s age and an unfamiliar individual’s sex were predictive of their time spent interacting with one another. Moreover, an unfamiliar individual’s sex was predictive of the attention infants allocated during social interactions. Differences in frequency and length of interactions with certain types of faces, as well as in infant attention toward certain individuals, all likely contribute to the development of expertise in processing commonly experienced face types and deficiencies in processing less commonly experienced face types. PMID:18554724

Rennels, Jennifer L.; Simmons, Rachel E.

2008-01-01

364

Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

2014-06-01

365

Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations  

PubMed Central

The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is discussed. PMID:19503770

Bowler, Patrick J

2009-01-01

366

Facial Expression Recognition in Nonvisual Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents two novel approaches that allow computer vision applications to perform human facial expression recognition\\u000a (FER). From a prob lem standpoint, we focus on FER beyond the human visual spectrum, in long-wave infrared imagery, thus allowing\\u000a us to offer illumination-independent solutions to this important human-computer interaction problem. From a methodological\\u000a stand point, we introduce two different feature extraction

Gustavo Olague; Riad Hammoud; Leonardo Trujillo; Benjamín Hernández; Eva Romero

2009-01-01

367

Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome.  

PubMed

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case. PMID:21731335

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-04-01

368

Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters\\u000a of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections,\\u000a trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the\\u000a presence of typical symptoms

Josef Finsterer

2008-01-01

369

[Hemiparesis and facial palsy caused by methotrexate].  

PubMed

Methotrexate used in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia, can cause neurotoxicity, including a rare presentation with hemiparesis. We describe two teenagers, who during the implementation of the M phase of the protocol, suffered hemiparesis, facial paresis and dysarthria which quickly reversed. Leukemia involvement of the central nervous system and stroke, were ruled out. We briefly review the pathophysiology of methotrexate neurotoxicity, the characteristics of the focal paresis presentation and magnetic resonance image findings. PMID:23786802

Rueda Arenas, E; García Corzo, J; Franco Ospina, L

2013-12-01

370

LIFE-THREATENING ORO-FACIAL INFECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Four cases of oro-facial infection leading to life- threatening complications are reported. Although all had been treated with antibiotics prior to con- sultation, lack of surgical intervention had allowed the infection to progress. These cases are a re- minder that acute spreading odontogenic infection can be life-threatening. Definitive treatment in- cludes airway management, adequate resuscitation and optimization of pre-existing

E. K. AMPONSAH; P. DONKOR

371

Facial Fracture Management in Northwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial fracture is gradually become a public health problem in our community due to the attendant morbidity and mortality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the pattern of facial fracture in Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to provide information regarding gender, age, etiology, and diagnosis of patients with maxillofacial fractures. Materials and Methods: A 1-year review of patients diagnosed and treated for facial fractures in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital between January 2011 and December 2011. The diagnosis was based on radiographic data and clinical examination. The main analysis outcome measures were etiology, age, gender, site, and treatment. Data were organized and presented by means of descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: A total of 40 patients were treated in this period. Over 95% were male, 81% were caused by road traffic crash (RTC) and 86.4% were in the 21-30 years group. Most patients (52%) had mandibular fractures, and the most common site was the body. Most patients with midfacial fractures had fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary region (36%), while fractures of the parasymphyseal region were more common in the mandible 156 (31%). The most common treatment for jaw fractures was mandibulomaxillary fixation (MMF). Stable zygomatic complex fractures were reduced (elevated) intraorally, and unstable ones were supported by antral packs. Conclusions: This study highlights facial fractures secondary to RTC as a serious public health problem in our environment. Preventive strategies remain the cheapest way to reduce direct and indirect costs of the sequelae of RTC. It also bring to the fore the necessity to shift to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of fractures. PMID:24741422

Taiwo, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Godwin, Ndubuizi Ugochukwu; Ibikunle, Adebayo Aremu

2013-01-01

372

Some Results of Our Research on Composite Facial Allograft Transplantation in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite facial allograft transplantation is a complicated surgical procedure, requiring evaluation of several questions. How should the facial allograft be preserved? What are the proper surgical skills to reduce surgery duration? Can composite facial allograft transplantation rebuild the motor functions of the facial muscles? In our research, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution was used to preserve canine facial tissue. We

D. Yu; Q. Li; S. Zheng; H. Wang; Q. Liu

2010-01-01

373

Voiceless Arabic vowels recognition using facial EMG.  

PubMed

This work attempts to recognize the Arabic vowels based on facial electromyograph (EMG) signals, to be used for people with speech impairment and for human computer interface. Vowels were selected since they are the most difficult letters to recognize by people in Arabic language. Twenty subjects (7 females and 13 males) were asked to pronounce three Arabic vowels continuously in a random order. Facial EMG signals were recorded over three channels from the three main facial muscles that are responsible for speech. The EMG signals are then pre-processed to eliminate noise and interference signals. Segmentation procedure was implemented to extract the time event that corresponds to each vowel based on a moving standard deviation window. The accuracy of the segmentation procedure was found to be 94%. The recognition of the vowels was carried out by extracting features from the EMG in three domains: the temporal, the spectral, and the time frequency using the wavelet packet transform. Classification of the extracted features was then finally performed using different classification methods implemented in the WEKA software. The random forest classifier with time frequency features showed the best performance with an accuracy of 77% evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation. PMID:21409427

Fraiwan, Luay; Lweesy, Khaldon; Al-Nemrawi, Ayat; Addabass, Sondos; Saifan, Rasha

2011-07-01

374

Color stability of polymers for facial prosthesis.  

PubMed

Color stability of resin and silicone is an important factor for longevity of facial prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resins and silicone for facial prostheses. Three brands of acrylic resin and 1 of facial silicone were evaluated considering pigment incorporation for the colorless materials. Ten samples of each material were fabricated and submitted to measurements of chromatic alteration initially and after 252, 504, and 1008 hours of weathering through visual analysis and spectrophotometry. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey test (P < 0.05). Results showed a statistically significant difference in color alteration among materials independent of aging. According to visual analysis, the color difference between pigmented and colorless Silastic MDX4-4210 and between pigmented and colorless Classico acrylic resin was statistically significant for the 3 weathering periods. Aging for 1008 hours represented a significant influence on color alteration of all resins. All materials presented chromatic alteration after accelerated artificial aging. PMID:20061973

dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Ribeiro, Paula do Prado; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho

2010-01-01

375

Geometric Facial Gender Scoring: Objectivity of Perception  

PubMed Central

Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

2014-01-01

376

Geometric facial gender scoring: objectivity of perception.  

PubMed

Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

2014-01-01

377

Bone lesion biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... A special drill needle is usually used. The biopsy needle is pushed and twisted into the bone. ... are applied, and covered with a bandage. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ...

378

Bone biopsy (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

379

Bone Graft Alternatives  

MedlinePLUS

... or during a surgical procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone ... bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous bone grafts for spinal ...

380

What Is Bone?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publication available in: PDF (206 KB) Related Resources Bone Health for Life Bone Density Measurement Bone Density Measurement ( ... Density Measurement) Partner Resources Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis Surgeon General's Report: What It Means ...

381

What Is Bone Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

Normal bone tissue Bone is the supporting framework of your body. Most bones are hollow. The outer part of ... tissues can develop into a cancer. Types of bone tumors Most of the time when someone with ...

382

Bone marrow culture  

MedlinePLUS

... of your pelvic bone or front of your breast bone. This is done with a small needle inserted into your bone. The process is called a bone marrow aspiration or a biopsy. The tissue sample is sent to a lab. ...

383

Facial Expression Generation from Speaker's Emotional States in Daily Conversation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework for generating facial expressions from emotional states in daily conversation is described. It provides a mapping between emotional states and facial expressions, where the former is represented by vectors with psychologically-defined abstract dimensions, and the latter is coded by the Facial Action Coding System. In order to obtain the mapping, parallel data with rated emotional states and facial expressions were collected for utterances of a female speaker, and a neural network was trained with the data. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by a subjective evaluation test. As the result, the Mean Opinion Score with respect to the suitability of generated facial expression was 3.86 for the speaker, which was close to that of hand-made facial expressions.

Mori, Hiroki; Ohshima, Koh

384

Facial symmetry detection ability changes across the menstrual cycle.  

PubMed

The effects of menstrual cycle phase and hormones on women's visual ability to detect symmetry and visual preference for symmetry were examined. Participants completed tests of symmetry detection and preference for male facial symmetry at two of three menstrual cycle phases (menses, periovulatory, and luteal). Women were better at detecting facial symmetry during the menses than luteal phase of their cycle. A trend indicated the opposite pattern for dot symmetry detection. Similarly, change in salivary progesterone levels across the cycle was negatively related to change in facial symmetry detection scores. However, there was no clear evidence of a greater preference for facial symmetry at any cycle phase, despite an overall preference for facial symmetry across phases. These findings suggest a menses phase advantage and a low progesterone advantage in women's ability to detect facial symmetry. The results are discussed in the context of hormonal, evolutionary mate selection, and functional neurocognitive theories. PMID:17316956

Oinonen, Kirsten A; Mazmanian, Dwight

2007-05-01

385

Morphometric analysis of facial landmark data to characterize the facial phenotype associated with fetal alcohol syndrome  

PubMed Central

Procrustes analysis and principal component analysis were applied to stereo-photogrammetrically obtained landmarks to compare the facial features associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in subjects with FAS and normal controls. Two studies were performed; both compared facial landmark data of FAS and normal subjects, but they differed in the number of landmarks chosen. The first study compared landmarks representing palpebral fissure length, upper lip thinness and philtrum smoothness and revealed no significant difference in shape. The second study added to the landmarks used in the first those affected by mid-face hypoplasia, and revealed significant differences in shape between the two groups, broadly confirming the FAS gestalt reported in the literature. Some disagreement in the characteristic FAS facial shape between our results and those reported in the literature may be due to ethnic variation. PMID:17310546

Mutsvangwa, Tinashe; Douglas, Tania S

2007-01-01

386

Intraoperative Monitoring and Facial Nerve Outcomes after Vestibular Schwannoma Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the predictive value of proximal fa- cial nerve electrical threshold and proximal-to-distal facial muscle compound action potential amplitude ratio on facial nerve outcomes after resection of vestibular schwannomas. Study Design: Retrospective case review. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Patients: Two hundred twenty-nine patients undergoing resec- tion of vestibular schwannomas with intraoperative facial nerve monitoring at a single institution.

Brandon Isaacson; Paul R. Kileny; Hussam El-Kashlan

2003-01-01

387

Histopathologic and functional effects of facial nerve following electrical stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to investigate the functional and histopathologic changes in facial nerve due to the application of\\u000a various violent and numerous electrical stimuli to the facial nerve. The study was carried out with Wistar rats weighing between\\u000a 200 and 300 g. The facial nerves of the subjects were located and stimulated with electrical stimulator. Then five groups

Emrah Sapmaz; Irfan Kaygusuz; Hayrettin Cengiz Alpay; Nusret Akpolat; Erol Keles; Turgut Karlidag; Israfil Orhan; Sinasi Yalcin

2010-01-01

388

Model of Facial Expressions Management for an Embodied Conversational Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a model of facial behaviour encompassing interpersonal relations for an Embodied Conversational Agent\\u000a (ECA). Although previous solutions of this problem exist in ECA’s domain, in our approach a variety of facial expressions\\u000a (i.e. expressed, masked, inhibited, and fake expressions) is used for the first time. Moreover, our rules of facial behaviour\\u000a management are consistent with

Radoslaw Niewiadomski; Catherine Pelachaud

2007-01-01

389

Congenital Cholesteatoma of the Temporal Bone: MR Findings and Comparison with CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe the MR findings of temporal bone congenital cholesteatoma and MR usefulness in preoperative diagnosis and follow-up, in comparison with CT. METHODS: Seven patients underwent CT and MR studies for facial palsy (n 5 3), deafness (n 5 3), vertigo (n 5 1), tinnitus (n 5 1), and otalgia (n 5 1). Three patients had for congenital cholesteatoma

Y. Robert; S. Carcasset; N. Rocourt; C. Hennequin; F. Dubrulle; L. Lemaitre

390

Bone remodelling in osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bone remodelling, a highly regulated succession of events, is the temporal sequence of osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. Bone loss with age and in osteoporotic patients is due to a desequilibrium between both processus. Bone histomorphometry was the method used to measure these events. Its shows clearly that, with age, the quantity of bone formed in one

M. C. de VERNEJOUL

1989-01-01

391

Enhancing Facial Aesthetics with Muscle Retraining Exercises-A Review  

PubMed Central

Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. ‘Smile’ is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects. PMID:25302289

D'souza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; D'souza, Henston; Shetty, Omkar

2014-01-01

392

A clinician's dilemma: Sturge-Weber syndrome 'without facial nevus'!!  

PubMed Central

Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare, sporadic neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by a classical triad of facial port wine nevus, ipsilateral leptomeningeal angiomatosis (LAM) and glaucoma. The incidence of SWS is 1/50,000 live births, although it is more often underreported. The incidence of SWS without facial nevus is not known, although very few patients without facial nevus have been reported. In these patients, the diagnosis of SWS is made by the findings of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathology. Here, we report three patients with SWS from our cohort of 28 patients with SWS without facial nevus and discuss their clinical profile and outcome. PMID:23661980

Jagtap, Sujit A.; Srinivas, G.; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Harsha, K. J.

2013-01-01

393

78 FR 73502 - Multistakeholder Process To Develop Consumer Data Privacy Code of Conduct Concerning Facial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Privacy Code of Conduct Concerning Facial Recognition Technology AGENCY: National Telecommunications...concerning the commercial use of facial recognition technology. This Notice announces the...privacy and promote trust regarding facial recognition technology in the commercial...

2013-12-06

394

Aberrant Patterns of Visual Facial Information Usage in Schizophrenia Cameron M. Clark  

E-print Network

Aberrant Patterns of Visual Facial Information Usage in Schizophrenia Cameron M. Clark University emotion perception have been linked to poorer functional outcome in schizophrenia. However understand the nature of facial emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we used the Bubbles Facial

Gosselin, Frédéric

395

Delayed onset facial nerve dysfunction following acoustic neuroma surgery.  

PubMed

Delayed onset facial nerve dysfunction following acoustic neuroma surgery is an under-appreciated phenomenon. The authors have recently reviewed long-term (> 1 year) facial nerve outcome in 129 patients who underwent acoustic neuroma removal with the aid of cranial nerve monitoring between 1986 and 1990. The facial nerve was anatomically preserved in 99.2% of the patients, and at one year, 90% of all the patients had House-Brackmann (H-B) grade I or II facial nerve function. Delayed onset worsening of facial nerve function was noted in 38 of 129 (29%) patients, most of which occurred in the first few postoperative days. The incidence increases to 41% (38 of 93) when corrected for those with immediate H-B grade VI weakness, and who therefore could not manifest further deterioration. The facial nerve function either deteriorated from normal to abnormal or increased in severity of weakness. Delayed facial palsy was not related to the size of tumor or the surgical approach. The most common occurrence was that of a patient with H-B grade I or II facial nerve function worsening to H-B grade VI in the postoperative period. The prognosis for recovery of facial nerve function following delayed palsy was excellent. In the majority of cases, the recovery was complete within the first 6 months without specific treatment. Comparable to the patients without delayed palsies, 89% (34 of 38) of the cases had H-B grade I or II and 97% (37 of 38) had H-B grade III or better facial nerve function at 1 year. This review suggests a surprisingly high incidence of delayed facial palsy following acoustic neuroma surgery, which fortunately has an excellent prognosis for spontaneous recovery. PMID:8572138

Lalwani, A K; Butt, F Y; Jackler, R K; Pitts, L H; Yingling, C D

1995-11-01

396

From Bone Biology to Bone Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has great potential to enhance our understanding of bone development. The usefulness of densitometry in children and adolescents would be increased

E. Schoenau; G. Saggese; F. Peter; G. I. Baroncelli; N. J. Shaw; N. J. Crabtree; Z. Zadik; C. M. Neu; C. Noordam; G. Radetti; Z. Hochberg

2004-01-01

397

From Dials to Facial Coding: Automated Detection of Spontaneous Facial Expressions for Media Research  

E-print Network

media research. Television shows and movies aim to interest and entertain millions. Before a TV show media preference to those from automated facial analysis on two television programs, a sitcom the reports will not match their true state. The human face is a powerful channel for communicat- ing valence

398

3D Facial Landmark Localization3D Facial Landmark Localization using Combinatorial Search and  

E-print Network

Schizophrenia Bipolar disorder Fetal alcohol syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome as an index of early brain dysmorphogenesis in neuropsychiatric disorders Down syndrome Autism Cornelia de Large syndrome Joubert syndrome ... Patterns tend to be subtle #12;07/10/2012 2 Facial

Whelan, Paul F.

399

Measurement of facial movements with Photoshop software during treatment of facial nerve palsy*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Evaluating the function of facial nerve is essential in order to determine the influences of various treatment methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate and assess the agreement of Photoshop scaling system versus the facial grading system (FGS). METHODS: In this semi-experimental study, thirty subjects with facial nerve paralysis were recruited. The evaluation of all patients before and after the treatment was performed by FGS and Photoshop measurements. RESULTS: The mean values of FGS before and after the treatment were 35 ± 25 and 67 ± 24, respectively (p < 0.001). In Photoshop assessment, mean changes of face expressions in the impaired side relative to the normal side in rest position and three main movements of the face were 3.4 ± 0.55 and 4.04 ± 0.49 millimeter before and after the treatment, respectively (p < 0.001). Spearman's correlation coefficient between different values in the two methods was 0.66 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating the facial nerve palsy using Photoshop was more objective than using FGS. Therefore, it may be recommended to use this method instead. PMID:22973325

Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Zadmehr, Hassan; Hossaini, Mohsen

2011-01-01

400

Bone image segmentation.  

PubMed

Characteristics of microscopic structures in bone cross sections carry essential clues in age determination in forensic science and in the study of age-related bone developments and bone diseases. Analysis of bone cross sections represents a major area of research in bone biology. However, traditional approaches in bone biology have relied primarily on manual processes with very limited number of bone samples. As a consequence, it is difficult to reach reliable and consistent conclusions. In this paper we present an image processing system that uses microstructural and relational knowledge present in the bone cross section for bone image segmentation. This system automates the bone image analysis process and is able to produce reliable results based on quantitative measurements from a large number of bone images. As a result, using large databases of bone images to study the correlation between bone structural features and age-related bone developments becomes feasible. PMID:10230135

Liu, Z Q; Liew, H L; Clement, J G; Thomas, C D

1999-05-01

401

Major facial trauma after helicopter landing.  

PubMed

Injuries in civil aviation can occur as a consequence of work-related accidents happening in airport. The ground crew can sustain slips, trips, falls, and machinery accidents. Most such accidents are observed when aircraft is departing. This clinical report describes a case of an airport ground assistant severely injured by a helicopter after the strike with a main rotor blade that was slowing after that the craft was landed and the engine was stopped, and reports surgical emergency treatment of life-threatening facial lesions. PMID:21778853

Becelli, Roberto; Morello, Roberto; Renzi, Giancarlo; Matarazzo, Giorgio; Dominici, Chiara

2011-07-01

402

[Progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome].  

PubMed

Two children with progressive facial atrophia are described. In both asymmetria of the face was the reason for neuropediatric examination. Discrete neurological symptoms of this neurocutaneous syndrome were found. In patient 1 atrophia of one side of the face had developed shortly after surgical treatment of a mandibular exostose on the other side of the face. In patient 2 first signs of hemifacial atrophia were found in the newborn. Both children showed only discrete neurological symptoms. Etiology of this rare disease is still unknown, causal treatment is not possible. PMID:8114772

Menges-Wenzel, E M; Kurlemann, G; Pawlowitzki, J H

1993-12-01

403

Lengthening plus shortening of river-to-lake connection times in the Mackenzie River Delta respectively via two global change mechanisms along the arctic coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

River deltas along the circumpolar arctic coast are lake-rich and poorly understood ecosystems, set in a region expected to change rapidly. Over the past 30+ years annual river-to-lake connection times in the Mackenzie Delta have lengthened (>30 days) in the lowest elevation lakes and may have shortened in the highest elevation lakes, respectively via sea level rise and declining effects

Lance F. W. Lesack; Philip Marsh

2007-01-01

404

Comparison of the tension responses to ramp shortening and lengthening in intact mammalian muscle fibres: crossbridge and non-crossbridge contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the tension responses to ramp shortening and lengthening over a range of velocities (0.1–5 L\\u000a 0\\/s) and at 20°C and 30°C in tetanized intact fibre bundles from a rat fast (flexor hallucis brevis) muscle; fibre length (L\\u000a 0) was 2.2 mm and sarcomere length ?2.5 ?m. The tension change during ramp releases as well as ramp stretches showed an early

H. Roots; G. W. Offer; K. W. Ranatunga

2007-01-01

405

Relation between facial morphology, personality and the functions of facial make-up in women.  

PubMed

Our external appearance plays a key role in everyday life's social interactions. Hence, taking care of our appearance allows us to adjust and protect ourselves, as well as communicate emotional disposition (i.e. sympathy or aversion) and social information (i.e. values, status). However, some discrete body parts or characteristics appear to be more salient than others in contributing to global body image. For example, authors showed that facial attractiveness is one of the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness and represent one of the primary factors influencing global self-esteem. Make-up is therefore ought to play a major influence in these parameters. Moreover, in a previous study whose subject was to explain the reasons that motivate women to make-up, we showed a high implication of specific psychological traits in correlation with two make-up functions (i.e. psycho-behavioural profiles 'Seduction' and 'Camouflage'; group S and group C, respectively). The purpose of this study was to assess the possible relation between our two psycho-behavioural profiles and some morphological parameters know to be involved in facial attraction (i.e. facial asymmetry and skin visual quality). First of all, our study revealed for women from the group C a greater asymmetry of the lower face (i.e. mouth area) that could be related to a possible larger amount of negative emotional experiences. Concerning make-up behaviour, women from the group S more extensively manipulated their relative facial attractiveness, by using a large range of colours, but also through a significantly longer make-up process used to adjust their visual asymmetry and therefore increase their potential of attractiveness. On the overall, our results suggest that make-up is used differentially, according to stable psychological profiles of women, to manipulate specific visual/morphological facial features involved in attractiveness. PMID:21284661

Korichi, R; Pelle-de-Queral, D; Gazano, G; Aubert, A

2011-08-01

406

Similar increases in muscle size and strength in young men after training with maximal shortening or lengthening contractions when matched for total work.  

PubMed

Training exclusively with eccentric (lengthening) contractions can result in greater muscular adaptations than training with concentric (shortening) contractions. We aimed to determine whether training-induced increases in muscle size and strength differed between muscles performing maximal lengthening (LC) or maximal shortening (SC) contractions when total external work is equivalent. Nine healthy young males completed a 9-week isokinetic (0.79 rad/s) resistance training program of the elbow flexors whereby they performed LC with one arm and an equivalent volume of total external work with the contralateral arm as SC. Training increased isometric peak torque for both LC (~10%) and SC (~20%) with no difference (P = 0.14) between conditions. There were also similar increases in isokinetic peak torque at both slow (0.79 rad/s) and fast (5.24 rad/s) shortening and lengthening peak torque for both LC (~8-10%) and SC (~9-20%). Training increased work per repetition similarly for both LC (~17%) and SC (~22%), in spite of ~40% greater work per repetition with LC. The increase in muscle cross-sectional area with training was also similar (P = 0.37) between LC (~6.5%) and SC (~4.6%). We conclude that increases in muscle size and strength with short-term unilateral resistance training are unrelated to muscle contraction type when matched for both exercise intensity (i.e. maximal contractions) and total external work. PMID:21755358

Moore, Daniel R; Young, Mark; Phillips, Stuart M

2012-04-01

407

Facial Expressions of Emotions and Schizophrenia: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally agreed that schizophrenia patients show a markedly reduced ability to perceive and express facial emotions. Previous studies have shown, however, that such deficits are emotion-specific in schizophrenia and not generalized. Three kinds of studies were examined: decoding studies dealing with schizophrenia patients' ability to perceive universally recognized facial expressions of emotions, encoding studies deal- ing with schizophrenia

Manas K. Mandal; Rakesh Pandey; Akhouri B. Prasad

1998-01-01

408

Recognition of facial affect in girls with conduct disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired recognition of facial affect has been reported in youths and adults with antisocial behavior. However, few of these studies have examined subjects with the psychiatric disorders associated with antisocial behavior, and there are virtually no data on females. Our goal was to determine if facial affect recognition was impaired in adolescent girls with conduct disorder (CD). Performance on the

Kathleen Pajer; Lisa Leininger; William Gardner

2010-01-01

409

Performance-driven muscle-based facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system to synthesize facial expressions by editing captured performances. For this purpose, we use the actuation of expression muscles to control facial expres- sions. We note that there have been numerous algorithms already developed for editing gross body motion. While the joint angle has direct effect on the configuration of the gross body, the muscle actuation has

Byoungwon Choe; Hanook Lee

2001-01-01

410

Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

2010-01-01

411

Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial

Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

2008-01-01

412

A dynamic appearance descriptor approach to facial actions temporal modeling.  

PubMed

Both the configuration and the dynamics of facial expressions are crucial for the interpretation of human facial behavior. Yet to date, the vast majority of reported efforts in the field either do not take the dynamics of facial expressions into account, or focus only on prototypic facial expressions of six basic emotions. Facial dynamics can be explicitly analyzed by detecting the constituent temporal segments in Facial Action Coding System (FACS) Action Units (AUs)-onset, apex, and offset. In this paper, we present a novel approach to explicit analysis of temporal dynamics of facial actions using the dynamic appearance descriptor Local Phase Quantization from Three Orthogonal Planes (LPQ-TOP). Temporal segments are detected by combining a discriminative classifier for detecting the temporal segments on a frame-by-frame basis with Markov Models that enforce temporal consistency over the whole episode. The system is evaluated in detail over the MMI facial expression database, the UNBC-McMaster pain database, the SAL database, the GEMEP-FERA dataset in database-dependent experiments, in cross-database experiments using the Cohn-Kanade, and the SEMAINE databases. The comparison with other state-of-the-art methods shows that the proposed LPQ-TOP method outperforms the other approaches for the problem of AU temporal segment detection, and that overall AU activation detection benefits from dynamic appearance information. PMID:23757539

Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel; Martinez, Brais; Pantic, Maja

2014-02-01

413

ORIGINAL ARTICLES Amygdala Response to Facial Expressions in Children  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLES Amygdala Response to Facial Expressions in Children and Adults Kathleen M. Thomas to facial expressions in adults and children. Methods: Six adults and 12 children were scanned in a 1.5-T in activation in these regions with repeated exposure to the faces. Adults showed increased left amyg- dala

Whalen, Paul J.

414

manuscript number 3033 Facial Attractiveness: Beauty and the Machine  

E-print Network

as individuals and as part of a society; its impact is obvious by the amounts of money spent on plastic surgery for datasets of facial images and used various techniques for learning the attractiveness of a face the application of machine learning techniques. We construct a machine which learns from facial images

Ruppin, Eytan

415

Facial expression recognition from video sequences: temporal and static modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this work we report on several advances we have made in building a system for classification of facial expressions from continuous video input. We introduce and test different Bayesian network classifiers for classifying expressions from video, focus- ing on changes in distribution assumptions and feature dependency structures. In

Ira Cohen; Nicu Sebe; Ashutosh Garg; Lawrence S. Chen; Thomas S. Huang

2003-01-01

416

Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Stimulation on Facial Nerve Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if exposure to electromag- netic fields influences regeneration of the transected fa- cial nerve in the rat. Design and Methods: The left facial nerve was tran- sected in the tympanic section of the fallopian canal in 24 rats randomly assigned to 2 groups. The cut ends of the facial nerve were reapproximated without sutures within the fallopian

John M. Byers; Keith F. Clark; Glenn C. Thompson

1998-01-01

417

Computer Simulation of Antidromic Facial Nerve Response Waveform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion: An assessment of facial nerve (FN) damage on the basis of antidromic facial nerve response (AFNR) was established by computer simulation analysis. Computer simulation has the advantage of being able to assume any type of lesion. In the near future, computer analysis should provide another experimental method which displaces animal experiments, thus circumventing the ethical dilemma associated with animal

Mitsuru Iwai; Taizo Takeda; Hiroaki Nakatani; Akinobu Kakigi

2009-01-01

418

A Bayesian Approach to Automated Creation of Tactile Facial Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portrait photos (facial images) play important social and emotional roles in our life. This type of visual media is unfortunately inaccessible by users with visual impairment. This paper proposes a systematic approach for automatically converting human facial images into a tactile form that can be printed on a tactile printer and explored by a user who is blind. We propose

Zheshen Wang; Baoxin Li

2010-01-01

419

Cultural Dialects of Real and Synthetic Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the aspects of designing facial expressions for Virtual Humans with a specific culture. We review psychological experiments on cross-cultural perception of emotional facial expressions and look at case studies with Virtual Humans. By identifying the culturally critical issues of data collection and interpretation with both real and virtual humans, we aim at providing a methodological

Zsófia Ruttkay

420

Cultural dialects of real and synthetic emotional facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we discuss the aspects of designing facial expressions for virtual humans (VHs) with a specific culture. First we explore the notion of cultures and its relevance for applications with a VH. Then we give a general scheme of designing emotional facial expres- sions, and identify the stages where a human is involved, either as a real person

Zsófia Ruttkay

2009-01-01

421

Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for

Paul Ekman; E. Richard Sorenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1969-01-01

422

FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION FROM VIDEO SEQUENCES , Nicu Sebe2  

E-print Network

, to emphasize a certain part of the speech, and display of emotions. Emotions are displayed by visual, vocal Recognizing human facial expression and emotion by computer is an interesting and challenging problem. In this paper we propose a method for recognizing emotions through facial expressions dis- played in video

Sebe, Nicu

423

Evaluation of proximal facial nerve conduction by transcranial magnetic stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic stimulator was used for direct transcutaneous stimulation of the intracranial portion of the facial nerve in 15 normal subjects and in patients with Bell's palsy, demyelinating neuropathy, traumatic facial palsy and pontine glioma. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) thus elicited in the orbicularis oris muscle of controls were of similar amplitude but longer latency (1.3 SD 0.15 ms)

T N Schriefer; K R Mills; N M Murray; C W Hess

1988-01-01

424

The facial expression of pain in patients with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facial expression of pain has emerged as an important pain indicator in demented patients, who have difficulties in providing self-report ratings. In a few clinical studies an increase of facial responses to pain was observed in demented patients compared to healthy controls. However, it had to be shown that this increase can be verified when using experimental methods, which

Miriam Kunz; Siegfried Scharmann; Uli Hemmeter; Karsten Schepelmann; Stefan Lautenbacher

2007-01-01

425

Perception of facial attractiveness from static and dynamic stimuli.  

PubMed

Although people we meet in real life are usually seen in motion, research on facial attractiveness has predominantly been conducted on static facial images. This raises a question about ecological validity of results obtained in such studies. Recently, several studies endeavoured to determine the concordance between attractiveness of faces seen on photos and video clips, but their results are markedly divergent, frequently indicating no concordance. In the present study, the association between attractiveness of facial images and clips was tested on a larger sample than has previously been reported (106 females, 102 males), and features under the face owner's control (scalp and facial hair, makeup, mouth expression) were controlled for. Two types of facial images were used: photographs and frames extracted from films. Correlation coefficients between attractiveness of static and dynamic faces were high (about 0.7), did not depend on facial sex or image type (photograph/frame), and did not diminish when the covariates were controlled for. Furthermore, the importance of facial averageness, femininity/ masculinity, symmetry, fattiness, skin health, and mouth expression for attractiveness proved similar for static and dynamic stimuli. This leads to the optimistic conclusion that results of studies relying on attractiveness assessments of static facial images are ecologically valid. PMID:23700955

Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

426

Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…

Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.

2007-01-01

427

Design facial appearance for roles in video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roles in video games often serve as avatars of players. Different game players may have their particular preferences on a role’s facial appearance. It would be desirable to allow players to customize the design of roles. This paper presents two methods for recommending a roles’ facial appearance for a particular game player and illustrates the two methods by using heroic

Shang Hwa Hsu; Ching-han Kao; Muh-cherng Wu

2009-01-01

428

Facial EMG as an indicator of palatability in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to observe the sensory hedonic responses and facial EMG activities elicited from different tastes. In Experiment 1, 25 subjects tasted flavors of apple juice, Gatorade, water, soybean milk, and pickle juice. In Experiment 2, 21 subjects tasted a sugar solution, a salt solution, and water. Subjects' sensory hedonic reports and facial EMG activity in the levator

Senqi Hu; Kathryn A Player; Kathleen A Mcchesney; Maria D Dalistan; Catherine A Tyner; Jason E Scozzafava

1999-01-01

429

A practice-led approach to facial animation research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In facial expression research, it is well established that certain emotional expressions are universally recognized. Studies into the observer perception of dynamic expressions have built upon this research by highlighting the importance of particular facial regions, timings, and temporal configurations to perception and interpretation. In many studies, the stimuli for such studies have been generated through posing by non-experts or

Robin J. S. Sloan; Brian Robinson; Ken Scott-Brown; Fhionna Moore; Malcolm Cook

2010-01-01

430

Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. METHODS: Seventy-six adult laypeople evaluated sets of photographs of 64 adolescents on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100.

Rosemie M. A. Kiekens; Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtman; Martin A. van't Hof; Bep E. van't Hof; Jaap C. Maltha

2008-01-01

431

EMPATH: A Neural Network that Categorizes Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two competing theories of facial expression recognition. Some researchers have suggested that it is an example of categorical perception. In this view, expression categories are considered to be discrete entities with sharp boundaries, and discrimination of nearby pairs of expressive faces is enhanced near those boundaries. Other researchers, however, suggest that facial expression perception is more graded and

Matthew N. Dailey; Garrison W. Cottrell; Curtis Padgett; Ralph Adolphs

2002-01-01

432

Relationships between Facial Discrimination and Social Adjustment in Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-two adults with mental retardation of heterogeneous etiology performed four facial emotion discrimination tasks and two facial nonemotion tasks. Staff members familiar with the participants completed measures of social adjustment (the Socialization and Communication domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Social Performance…

Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.; Hoch, Theodore A.

2006-01-01

433

Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlackova syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an…

Shprintzen, Robert J.

2008-01-01

434

Automatic construction of 3D animatable facial avatars  

E-print Network

Automatic construction of 3D animatable facial avatars By Yujian Gao*, Qinping Zhao, Aimin Hao, T a good animatable avatar automatically, given only a 3D static triangle mesh of the head. An automatic mechanism is devised for constructing multi- layer animatable facial avatars for unseen faces. We evaluate

Sezgin, Metin

435

Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.  

PubMed

Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

2014-01-01

436

Minimally invasive facial rejuvenation endolaser mid-face lift.  

PubMed

Endolaser mid-face lift was performed on patients in a multi-center study over a 36-month period (Feb. 1998 to Feb. 2001). It permits significant facial rejuvenation through small incisions. This technique achieves aesthetic results and wider rejuvenation while being less traumatic and creating minimal morbidity. Combined with other procedures, it rejuvenates the face by three strategic methods: soft tissue suspension, reversal of photo aging, and correction of the depletion of volume. To achieve this triple result, the mid-face lift is performed by endoscopic approach, and in every case is combined with the endoscopic lift of the frontal area. Laser resurfacing was used to reverse skin photo damage. The Ultrapulse CO2 laser and/or the Ultrafine Erbium YAG(Coherent, Inc, Palo Alto, CA) were used. The third combined procedure was the introduction of fat graft to compensate the atrophy/ptosis of fat and the depletion of bone mass (other filling materials besides fat may be used, depending on the preference of the surgeon). Our method of fixation using the Casagrande Needle (an evolution of Reverdin Needle) makes the mechanical purchase on the tissues to be suspended much easier, permitting the intra-oral and/or infra-orbital incisions to be eliminated. The present study of the technical evolution of the endolaser mid-face lift method allows us to conclude that a very satisfactory outcome has been reached, offering patients a minimally invasive procedure, which can be performed under local anesthesia, with low morbidity, imperceptible incisions, and an excellent long-term result. PMID:11731852

Badin, A Z; Casagrande, C; Roberts, T; Saltz, R; Moraes, L M; Santiago, M; Chiaratti, M G

2001-01-01

437

Uncommon methods of flexor tendon and tendon-bone repairs and grafting.  

PubMed

The conventional practices used in flexor tendon repair have remained unchanged in many units. Because clinical cases vary considerably, some situations may merit more unusual methods. Here the author describes a few methods that have been used in flexor tendon repair. This article discusses a few methods that are clinically useful in treating some patients but are not commonly described. The newer tendon-bone junction methods exemplified here would likely replace the pull-out suture. Late direct repair and lengthening plasty require the accumulation of clinical experience. Allograft tendon reconstruction has shown successful midterm results, but long-term follow-up is certainly necessary. PMID:23660057

Tang, Jin Bo

2013-05-01

438

Interactive searching of facial image databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of psychological facial descriptors has been devised to enable computerized searching of criminal photograph albums. The descriptors have been used to encode image databased of up to twelve thousand images. Using a system called FACES, the databases are searched by translating a witness' verbal description into corresponding facial descriptors. Trials of FACES have shown that this coding scheme is more productive and efficient than searching traditional photograph albums. An alternative method of searching the encoded database using a genetic algorithm is currenly being tested. The genetic search method does not require the witness to verbalize a description of the target but merely to indicate a degree of similarity between the target and a limited selection of images from the database. The major drawback of FACES is that is requires a manual encoding of images. Research is being undertaken to automate the process, however, it will require an algorithm which can predict human descriptive values. Alternatives to human derived coding schemes exist using statistical classifications of images. Since databases encoded using statistical classifiers do not have an obvious direct mapping to human derived descriptors, a search method which does not require the entry of human descriptors is required. A genetic search algorithm is being tested for such a purpose.

Nicholls, Robert A.; Shepherd, John W.; Shepherd, Jean

1995-09-01

439

Pathology Case Study: Left Facial Numbness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 56-year-old woman developed left facial numbness, followed by right peripheral facial weakness, left hand weakness, and left side hearing loss and tinnitus. The patientâÂÂs medical history and detailed description of her symptoms after admittance to the hospital are included in the âÂÂPatient Historyâ section. Results from a cranial magnetic resonance (MR) scan along with a microscopic description and images of a sural nerve biopsy are provided here to help aid in understanding the diagnosis. The âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section contains the attending doctorâÂÂs notes on the patient with commentary, and a detailed pathology. References are also included in this section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of neuropathology.

Heyman, Rock A.; Lacomis, David

2009-07-22

440

Mandibular facial talon cusp: Case report  

PubMed Central

Background Talon cusp is a supernumerary structure projecting from the dento-enamel junction to a variable distance towards the incisal edge of an anterior tooth. Studies have shown that it consists of enamel, dentine and a variable amount of pulp tissue. Hyperactivity of the enamel organ during morphodifferentiation has been attributed to its formation. Most previous reports have been made concerning the occurrence of this structure on primary and permanent teeth and mostly on the palatal aspect. Only few have been reported on the facial aspect of the teeth. When it occurs, the effects are mainly aesthetic and functional and so early detection and treatment is essential in its management to avoid complications. Case presentation An unusual case of talon cusp on the facial aspect of a mandibular central incisor is reported. Its presence resulted in attrition of the opposing tooth. Reduction of the cusp and topical application of fluoride gel was initiated. Conclusion The management and treatment outcome of talon cusp depends on the size, presenting complications and patient cooperation. PMID:16336661

Oredugba, Folakemi A

2005-01-01

441

Nongoitrous autoimmune thyroiditis with facial palsy  

PubMed Central

We report a case of severe hypothyroidism with nongoitrous, autoimmune thyroiditis and pituitary hyperplasia in a 13-year-old boy, who presented with sudden palsy on the left side of his face. Prednisolone and antiviral medication was administered. However, the facial palsy did not improve completely. The medications were replaced with thyroxine, and the facial palsy recovered. Endocrinological testing showed severe hypothyroidism as follows: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level >100 µIU/mL, T4 of 1.04 µg/dL, T3 of 0.31 ng/mL, and free T4 of 0.07 ng/dL. Level of serum antithyroid peroxidase antibodies was 1,933.39 IU/mL, and that of antithyroglobulin antibodies was 848.16 IU/mL. Level of TSH receptor antibodies was >40 IU/L. Bioassay result for TSH receptor stimulating antibodies was negative. Thyroid sonography revealed no increase in the size or vascularity of the bilateral gland. Thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc showed decreased uptake, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enlarged pituitary gland. PMID:24904880

Lee, Hyung Jik

2013-01-01

442

Neural network based facial recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers have for many years tried to develop machine recognition systems using video images of the human face as the input, with limited success. This paper presents a technique for recognizing individuals based on facial features using a novel multi-layer neural network architecture called `PWRNET'. We envision a real-time version of this technique to be used for high security applications. Two systems are proposed. One involves taking a grayscale video image and using it directly, the other involves decomposing the grayscale image into a series of binary images using the isodensity regions of the image. Isodensity regions are the areas within an image where the intensity is within a certain range. The binary image is produced by setting the pixels inside this intensity range to one, and the rest of the pixels in the image to zero. Features based on moments are subsequently extracted from these grayscale images. These features are then used for classification of the image. The classification is accomplished using an artificial neural network called `PWRNET', which produces a polynomial expression of the trained network. There is one neural network for each individual to be identified, with an output value which is either positive or negative identification. A detailed development of the design is presented, and identification for small population of individuals is presented. It is shown that the system is effective for variations in both scale and translation, which are considered to be reasonable variations for this type of facial identification.

Luebbers, Paul G.; Uwechue, Okechukwu A.; Pandya, Abhijit S.

1994-03-01

443

Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.  

PubMed

Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A; Kamshilin, Alexei A; Närhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Giniatullin, Rashid

2013-01-01

444

Computer-aided forensics: facial reconstruction.  

PubMed

The 3D reconstruction of facial features from skeletal remains is a key component to the identification of missing persons and victims of violent crime. A comprehensive Computed Tomography (CT) head-scan database is currently being collected which will enable a new approach to forensic facial reconstruction. Using this unique resource, we show how a face space can be tailored to a specific unknown, or questioned skull. A set of database derived estimates of the questioned face is constructed by first computing non-rigid transformations between the known head-scan skulls and the questioned skull followed by application of these transformations to the known head-scan faces. This effectively factors out influences due to skeletal variation. A tailored face space is formed by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to this ensemble of estimates of the questioned face. Thus, the face space is a direct approximation of correlated soft tissue variance indicative of the population. Ours is the first mathematical representation of the face continuum associated with a given skull. Embedded in this space resides the elements needed for recognition. PMID:16404119

Turner, Wesley; Tu, Peter; Kelliher, Timothy; Brown, Rebecca

2006-01-01

445

Facial Firework Injury: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future. PMID:25035740

Tadisina, Kashyap Komarraju; Abcarian, Ariane; Omi, Ellen

2014-01-01

446

Alternative lengthening of telomeres is enriched in, and impacts survival of TP53 mutant pediatric malignant brain tumors.  

PubMed

Although telomeres are maintained in most cancers by telomerase activation, a subset of tumors utilize alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to sustain self-renewal capacity. In order to study the prevalence and significance of ALT in childhood brain tumors we screened 517 pediatric brain tumors using the novel C-circle assay. We examined the association of ALT with alterations in genes found to segregate with specific histological phenotypes and with clinical outcome. ALT was detected almost exclusively in malignant tumors (p = 0.001). ALT was highly enriched in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (12 %), choroid plexus carcinomas (23 %) and high-grade gliomas (22 %). Furthermore, in contrast to adult gliomas, pediatric low grade gliomas which progressed to high-grade tumors did not exhibit the ALT phenotype. Somatic but not germline TP53 mutations were highly associated with ALT (p = 1.01 × 10(-8)). Of the other alterations examined, only ATRX point mutations and reduced expression were associated with the ALT phenotype (p = 0.0005). Interestingly, ALT attenuated the poor outcome conferred by TP53 mutations in specific pediatric brain tumors. Due to very poor prognosis, one year overall survival was quantified in malignant gliomas, while in children with choroid plexus carcinoma, five year overall survival was investigated. For children with TP53 mutant malignant gliomas, one year overall survival was 63 ± 12 and 23 ± 10 % for ALT positive and negative tumors, respectively (p = 0.03), while for children with TP53 mutant choroid plexus carcinomas, 5 years overall survival was 67 ± 19 and 27 ± 13 % for ALT positive and negative tumors, respectively (p = 0.07). These observations suggest that the presence of ALT is limited to a specific group of childhood brain cancers which harbor somatic TP53 mutations and may influence the outcome of these patients. Analysis of ALT may contribute to risk stratification and targeted therapies to improve outcome for these children. PMID:25315281

Mangerel, Joshua; Price, Aryeh; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Brzezinski, Jack; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Merino, Diana; Baskin, Berivan; Wasserman, Jonathan; Mistry, Matthew; Barszczyk, Mark; Picard, Daniel; Mack, Stephen; Remke, Marc; Starkman, Hava; Elizabeth, Cynthia; Zhang, Cindy; Alon, Noa; Lees, Jodi; Andrulis, Irene L; Wunder, Jay S; Jabado, Nada; Johnston, Donna L; Rutka, James T; Dirks, Peter B; Bouffet, Eric; Taylor, Michael D; Huang, Annie; Malkin, David; Hawkins, Cynthia; Tabori, Uri

2014-12-01

447

HP1-Mediated Formation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres-Associated PML Bodies Requires HIRA but Not ASF1a  

PubMed Central

Approximately 10% of cancers use recombination-mediated Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) instead of telomerase to prevent telomere shortening. A characteristic of cells that utilize ALT is the presence of ALT-associated PML nuclear bodies (APBs) containing (TTAGGG)n DNA, telomere binding proteins, DNA recombination proteins, and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). The function of APBs is unknown and it is possible that they are functionally heterogeneous. Most ALT cells lack functional p53, and restoration of the p53/p21 pathway in these cells results in growth arrest/senescence and a substantial increase in the number of large APBs that is dependent on two HP1 isoforms, HP1? and HP1?. Here we investigated the mechanism of HP1-mediated APB formation, and found that histone chaperones, HIRA and ASF1a, are present in APBs following activation of the p53/p21 pathway in ALT cells. HIRA and ASF1a were also found to colocalize inside PML bodies in normal fibroblasts approaching senescence, providing evidence for the existence of a senescence-associated ASF1a/HIRA complex inside PML bodies, consistent with a role for these proteins in induction of senescence in both normal and ALT cells. Moreover, knockdown of HIRA but not ASF1a significantly reduced p53-mediated induction of large APBs, with a concomitant reduction of large HP1 foci. We conclude that HIRA, in addition to its physical and functional association with ASF1a, plays a unique, ASF1a-independent role, which is required for the localization of HP1 to PML bodies and thus for APB formation. PMID:21347226

Jiang, Wei-Qin; Nguyen, Akira; Cao, Ying; Chang, Andy C.-M.; Reddel, Roger R.

2011-01-01

448

Discrimination of gender using facial image with expression change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By carrying out marketing research, the managers of large-sized department stores or small convenience stores obtain the information such as ratio of men and women of visitors and an age group, and improve their management plan. However, these works are carried out in the manual operations, and it becomes a big burden to small stores. In this paper, the authors propose a method of men and women discrimination by extracting difference of the facial expression change from color facial images. Now, there are a lot of methods of the automatic recognition of the individual using a motion facial image or a still facial image in the field of image processing. However, it is very difficult to discriminate gender under the influence of the hairstyle and clothes, etc. Therefore, we propose the method which is not affected by personality such as size and position of facial parts by paying attention to a change of an expression. In this method, it is necessary to obtain two facial images with an expression and an expressionless. First, a region of facial surface and the regions of facial parts such as eyes, nose, and mouth are extracted in the facial image with color information of hue and saturation in HSV color system and emphasized edge information. Next, the features are extracted by calculating the rate of the change of each facial part generated by an expression change. In the last step, the values of those features are compared between the input data and the database, and the gender is discriminated. In this paper, it experimented for the laughing expression and smile expression, and good results were provided for discriminating gender.

Kuniyada, Jun; Fukuda, Takahiro; Terada, Kenji

2005-12-01

449

Facial nerve demyelination and vascular compression are both needed to induce facial hyperactivity: A study in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It is generally assumed that hemifacial spasm (HFS) is caused by vascular compression of the facial nerve at the root exit zone (REZ), but the mechanism for the development of HFS is not known. Evidence has been previously presented that the signs of HFS are caused by hyperactivity of the facial motonucleus that is caused by the irritation to

A. Kuroki; A. R. Møller

1994-01-01

450

Facial mimicry and the mirror neuron system: simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e., facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis' facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry) of male and female avatar characters. During picture presentation, the BOLD signal as well as M. zygomaticus major and M. corrugator supercilii activity were recorded simultaneously. Results show prototypical patterns of facial mimicry after correction for MR-related artifacts: enhanced M. zygomaticus major activity in response to happy and enhanced M. corrugator supercilii activity in response to sad and angry expressions. Regression analyses show that these congruent facial reactions correlate significantly with activations in the IFG, SMA, and cerebellum. Stronger zygomaticus reactions to happy faces were further associated to increased activities in the caudate, MTG, and PCC. Corrugator reactions to angry expressions were further correlated with the hippocampus, insula, and STS. Results are discussed in relation to core and extended models of the mirror neuron system (MNS). PMID:22855675

Likowski, Katja U.; Muhlberger, Andreas; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Pauli, Paul; Weyers, Peter

2012-01-01

451

Proximal Tibial Bone Graft  

MedlinePLUS

... the Smaller Toes AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

452

Anthropological Facial Approximation in Three Dimensions (AFA3D): Computer-Assisted Estimation of the Facial Morphology Using Geometric Morphometrics.  

PubMed

This study presents Anthropological Facial Approximation in Three Dimensions (AFA3D), a new computerized method for estimating face shape based on computed tomography (CT) scans of 500 French individuals. Facial soft tissue depths are estimated based on age, sex, corpulence, and craniometrics, and projected using reference planes to obtain the global