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1

Fractures of Facial Bones  

PubMed Central

A detailed review was made of 1025 consecutive patients with “face-bone” fractures admitted to four Montreal hospitals over the five-year period 1958-1962, inclusive. In addition a survey was carried out of the other general hospitals in Greater Montreal in order to obtain admission figures for facial-bone fractures and for total hospital cases. In the study group the common causes of face-bone fractures were found to be fights, traffic accidents, falls, and athletic pursuits. Very few of these injuries occurred in industrial settings. A distinctly vulnerable group is made up of males between ages 16 and 35 years. In order of frequency of occurrence these injuries involve the nose, lower jaw, cheekbone, upper jaw, and zygomatic arch. The experience throughout metropolitan Montreal indicated that more persons with face-bone fractures require hospital treatment each year, but the increase is approximately parallel to the upward trend of total hospital admissions.

Gerrie, John W.; Hakstian, Robert W.

1964-01-01

2

Metatarsal-slide lengthening without bone grafting.  

PubMed

Brachymetatarsia is a condition of premature closure of the epiphyseal plate of a metatarsal. The authors present a case of brachymetatarsia of the second metatarsal. Utilizing a review of the literature, various surgical procedures are discussed. Treatment in this case consisted of a metatarsal-slide lengthening osteotomy, a modification of the Giannestras step-down procedure. PMID:3950333

Tabak, B; Lefkowitz, H; Steiner, I

1986-01-01

3

Bone mineralization at the callotasis site after completion of lengthening.  

PubMed

We studied the course of bone mineralization of regenerate bone after callotasis lengthening. Twenty-three patients (eight boys) (mean age at operation 11.5 years, range 4-17 years; leg length discrepancy [LLD] at surgery ranging from 4 to 13 cm) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning weekly during the distraction phase, at 2 week intervals until removal of the fixator, and at the time of their out-patient visits thereafter, for a mean of 794 +/- 420 days after removal of the apparatus. At removal of the fixator, the bone mineral content (BMC) of the regenerate was nearly 70% of the normal contralateral limb. With time, this value gradually increased, and tended to reach normal values, with no significant difference between femur and tibia. With time, the BMC of the regenerate tends to return to the value of the normal contralateral limb. Probably, once the limb length discrepancy has been equalized, the mechanical stimuli imparted through weight-bearing to the lengthened limb are of the same magnitude bilaterally. In this instance, then, the newly formed bone, responding to these physical stimuli, would normalize its mineral content, confirming that bone remodeling continues well after lengthening is terminated. Mineralization of the regenerate after completion of the lengthening process reaches values significantly greater than at removal of the fixator, with an increase of >50% of the prelengthening values, regardless of the underlying pathology. The final value of this increased BMC is not significantly different than in the normal contralateral unoperated limb. At least part of the increase in bone mineralization following callotasis lengthening is due to the normal process of growth and development. PMID:10495137

Maffulli, N; Cheng, J C; Sher, A; Ng, B K; Ng, E

1999-09-01

4

A comprehensive approach to long-standing facial paralysis based on lengthening temporalis myoplasty.  

PubMed

Long-standing peripheral monolateral facial paralysis in the adult has challenged otolaryngologists, neurologists and plastic surgeons for centuries. Notwithstanding, the ultimate goal of normality of the paralyzed hemi-face with symmetry at rest, and the achievement of a spontaneous symmetrical smile with corneal protection, has not been fully reached. At the beginning of the 20(th) century, the main options were neural reconstructions including accessory to facial nerve transfer and hypoglossal to facial nerve crossover. In the first half of the 20(th) century, various techniques for static correction with autologous temporalis muscle and fascia grafts were proposed as the techniques of Gillies (1934) and McLaughlin (1949). Cross-facial nerve grafts have been performed since the beginning of the 1970s often with the attempt to transplant free-muscle to restore active movements. However, these transplants were non-vascularized, and further evaluations revealed central fibrosis and minimal return of function. A major step was taken in the second half of the 1970s, with the introduction of microneurovascular muscle transfer in facial reanimation, which, often combined in two steps with a cross-facial nerve graft, has become the most popular option for the comprehensive treatment of long-standing facial paralysis. In the second half of the 1990s in France, a regional muscle transfer technique with the definite advantages of being one-step, technically easier and relatively fast, namely lengthening temporalis myoplasty, acquired popularity and consensus among surgeons treating facial paralysis. A total of 111 patients with facial paralysis were treated in Caen between 1997 and 2005 by a single surgeon who developed 2 variants of the technique (V1, V2), each with its advantages and disadvantages, but both based on the same anatomo-functional background and aim, which is transfer of the temporalis muscle tendon on the coronoid process to the lips. For a comprehensive treatment of the paralysis, the eyelids are usually managed by Paul Tessier's technique to lengthen the levator muscle of the upper eyelid by aponeurosis interposition, combined with external blepharorrhaphy with Krastinova-Lolov's technique. Facial reanimation using lengthening temporalis myoplasty is a dynamic procedure that has its roots in the techniques of Gillies and McLaughlin. This method is a true lengthening myoplasty procedure using no intermediate grafts. In general, the results with a 1-stage combination of lengthening temporalis myoplasty and static correction of the lagophthalmos appear comparable with the major series in the literature using free microneurovascular transfers combined with cross-facial nerve grafts for longstanding peripheral monolateral facial paralysis. The obvious advantages of temporalis elongation myoplasty consist in its technical ease, a single step, low incidence of complications and markedly reduced operating time. PMID:22767978

Labbè, D; Bussu, F; Iodice, A

2012-06-01

5

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone formation and bone loss during limb lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on bone formation and disuse osteoporosis sustained during limb lengthening in a double-blind study. Seven males (mean age 13 years, range 11–19 years) and six females (mean age 12 years, range 9–19 years) were randomly allocated to receive either an active or an inactive PEMF coil. Limb lengthening was performed by

K. S. Eyres; M. Saleh; J. A. Kanis

1996-01-01

6

[Lengthening temporalis myoplasty: A new approach to facial rehabilitation with the "mirror-effect" method].  

PubMed

Peripheral facial paralysis often reveals two conditions that are hard to control: labial occlusion and palpebral closure. Today, there are efforts to go beyond the sole use of muscle stimulation techniques, and attention is being given to cerebral plasticity stimulation? This implies using the facial nerves' efferent pathway as the afferent pathway in rehabilitation. This technique could further help limit the two recalcitrant problems, above. We matched two groups of patients who underwent surgery for peripheral facial paralysis by lengthening the temporalis myoplasty (LTM). LTM is one of the best ways to examine cerebral plasticity. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed nerve and is both motor and sensory. After a LTM, patients have to use the trigeminal nerve differently, as it now has a direct role in generating the smile. The LTM approach, using the efferent pathway, therefore, creates a challenge for the brain. The two groups followed separate therapies called "classical" and "mirror-effect". The "mirror-effect" method gave a more precise orientation of the patient's cerebral plasticity than did the classical rehabilitation. The method develops two axes: voluntary movements patients need to control their temporal smile; and spontaneous movements needed for facial expressions. Work on voluntary movements is done before a "digital mirror", using an identical doubled hemiface, providing the patient with a fake copy of his face and, thus, a 7 "mirror-effect". The spontaneous movements work is based on what we call the "Therapy of Motor Emotions". The method presented here is used to treat facial paralysis (Bell's Palsies type), whether requiring surgery or not. Importantly, the facial nerve, like the trigeminal nerve above, is also a mixed nerve and is stimulated through the efferent pathway in the same manner. PMID:23598073

Blanchin, T; Martin, F; Labbe, D

2013-12-01

7

Insufficient Bone Regenerate after Intramedullary Femoral Lengthening: Risk Factors and Classification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Control of distraction rate with an intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor (ISKD) may be problematic and a high distraction\\u000a rate may result in insufficient bone regenerate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  Are distraction problems preventable when using the ISKD, and what are the risk factors for and radiologic types of insufficient\\u000a bone regenerate during ISKD lengthening?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  We analyzed 37 consecutive ISKD femoral lengthening procedures

Mohamed Kenawey; Christian Krettek; Emmanouil Liodakis; Rupert Meller; Stefan Hankemeier

2011-01-01

8

[Facial nerve and petrous bone cholesteatoma].  

PubMed

The diagnosis and treatment of petrous bone cholesteatoma is a challenge to aural surgeons. Seven patients with extensive petrous bone cholesteatomas which invaded the labyrinth and fallopian canal are presented. These cholesteatomas originated as secondary to acquired lesions. The cases were evaluated according to the clinical features, the intraoperative findings, the radiological findings, and the surgical approaches. In this series, six patients presented with facial paralysis associated with profound or total deafness. The transtemporal lateral approach was used in all the cases. Acute facial nerve palsy or facial nerve pareses progressing to palsy in patients with chronic ear disease should be studied radiographically for petrous bone cholesteatoma, even if there is no physical evidence of cholesteatoma. PMID:8031580

Li, Z

1993-01-01

9

Petrous bone cholesteatoma and facial paralysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes a series of patients with a petrous temporal bone cholesteatoma paying particular attention to the complications and their management. Sixteen patients who underwent surgery in our department were reviewed. Topographically, the petrous bone cholesteatomas were grouped into five categories according to the classification proposed by Sanna et al. There were five massive labyrinthine; five infralabyrinthine; one apical; four supralabyrinthine; and one infralabyrinthine-apical. Clinically, the presenting symptom of these lesions were facial nerve paralysis (10 patients) and unilateral deafness (13 patients). Total removal of the cholesteatomas was achieved in all patients using different surgical approaches according to their site and extent. Recurrences were observed in two patients after 8 months and 24 months, respectively. The facial nerve was infiltrated and compressed by the cholesteatoma in eight patients. Seven were managed with cable grafts using sural nerve. One of these patients was treated using a facial-hypoglossal anastomosis because of the failure of the graft. In the remaining patient, a baby-sitter procedure was employed. In the other two patients, the preoperative facial paralysis was due to compression by the cholesteatoma, and its removal allowed partial recovery of facial function. The rationale of the surgical management of petrous bone cholesteatoma is its radical and total removal. Our present policy is to prefer approaches which result in a closed cavity obliterating the eustachian tube and closing the auditory canal as a blind sac. Facial nerve function is the main complication of these lesions, Facial nerve involvement requires rapid management because the duration of the paralysis is directly related to poor recovery of facial function. PMID:9669076

Magliulo, G; Terranova, G; Sepe, C; Cordeschi, S; Cristofar, P

1998-06-01

10

Facial nerve and medially invasive petrous bone cholesteatomas.  

PubMed

Eight patients with extensive petrous bone cholesteatomas that invaded the labyrinth and fallopian canal are presented. The eight cases are added to a tabulation of prior literature reports to elucidate concepts of routes of extension of medially invasive temporal bone cholesteatoma. Medially invasive petrous bone cholesteatoma develops insidiously, often without symptoms other than facial palsy and/or unilateral deafness. Typically, a history of chronic ear disease can be obtained. While hearing is unlikely to be preserved in this group of patients, facial nerve function can usually be preserved, and a facial nerve graft was not necessary in our series. Acute facial nerve palsy or facial nerve paresis progressing to palsy in patients with a history of chronic ear disease should be studied radiographically for petrous bone cholesteatoma, even if there is no physical evidence of cholesteatoma. PMID:2018289

Bartels, L J

1991-04-01

11

Surgical management of facial paralysis resulting from temporal bone fractures.  

PubMed

Abstract Conclusion: To achieve good facial reanimation in cases with facial paralysis resulting from temporal bone fractures, the ideal timing for surgical intervention is at least within 1 month of injury and an appropriate surgical approach should be selected depending on the site of facial nerve injury. Objective: This paper aimed to address the ideal time for surgical intervention and the appropriate surgical approach for patients with facial paralysis resulting from temporal bone fractures. Methods: We retrospectively investigated 60 patients with facial paralysis due to temporal bone fractures who underwent facial nerve decompression via different operative approaches within 1 month after trauma, of which 48 were surgically treated by the middle cranial fossa approach (80%), 8 by a pure transmastoid approach (13.3%), and four by a combined transmastoid and middle cranial fossa approach (6.7%). The House-Brackmann (H-B) grading system was used to evaluate the recovery of facial nerve function. Results: The follow-up period for all the patients was 1 year. Among 60 patients who were surgically treated, 39 achieved grade I of facial nerve function, 18 achieved grade II, two achieved grade III, and one achieved grade IV according to the H-B grading system. PMID:24665853

Liu, Yiqing; Han, Jie; Zhou, Xuanchen; Gao, Kun; Luan, Deheng; Xie, Fengyang; Wang, Xiaoting; Zong, Guangxin; Ding, Ling

2014-06-01

12

Brachymetatarsia of the fourth metatarsal, lengthening scarf osteotomy with bone graft.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old girl presented with left fourth metatarsal shortening causing significant psychological distress. She underwent lengthening scarf osteotomy held with an Omnitech(®) screw (Biotech International, France) with the addition of two 1 cm cancellous cubes (RTI Biologics, United States). A lengthening zplasty of the extensor tendons and skin were also performed. At 6 weeks the patient was fully weight bearing and at one-year follow up, the patient was satisfied and discharged. A modified technique of lengthening scarf osteotomy is described for congenital brachymatatarsia. This technique allows one stage lengthening through a single incision with graft incorporation by 6 weeks. PMID:24191181

Desai, Ankit; Lidder, Surjit; R Armitage, Andrew; S Rajaratnam, Samuel; D Skyrme, Andrew

2013-01-01

13

Brachymetatarsia of the Fourth Metatarsal, Lengthening Scarf Osteotomy with Bone Graft  

PubMed Central

A 16-year-old girl presented with left fourth metatarsal shortening causing significant psychological distress. She underwent lengthening scarf osteotomy held with an Omnitech® screw (Biotech International, France) with the addition of two 1 cm cancellous cubes (RTI Biologics, United States). A lengthening zplasty of the extensor tendons and skin were also performed. At 6 weeks the patient was fully weight bearing and at one-year follow up, the patient was satisfied and discharged. A modified technique of lengthening scarf osteotomy is described for congenital brachymatatarsia. This technique allows one stage lengthening through a single incision with graft incorporation by 6 weeks.

Desai, Ankit; Lidder, Surjit; R. Armitage, Andrew; S. Rajaratnam, Samuel; D. Skyrme, Andrew

2013-01-01

14

Facial nerve palsy associated with a cystic lesion of the temporal bone.  

PubMed

Facial nerve palsy results in the loss of facial expression and is most commonly caused by a benign, self-limiting inflammatory condition known as Bell palsy. However, there are other conditions that may cause facial paralysis, such as neoplastic conditions of the facial nerve, traumatic nerve injury, and temporal bone lesions. We present a case of facial nerve palsy concurrent with a benign cystic lesion of the temporal bone, adjacent to the tympanic segment of the facial nerve. The patient's symptoms subsided after facial nerve decompression via a transmastoid approach. PMID:24652558

Kim, Na Hyun; Shin, Seung-Ho

2014-03-01

15

Bone lengthening osteogenesis, a combination of intramembranous and endochondral ossification: an experimental study in sheep  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the morphological features of the newly formed tissue in an experimental model of tibial callotasis lengthening on 24 lambs, aged from 2 to 3 months at the time of operation. A unilateral external fixator prototype Monotube Triax® (Stryker Howmedica Osteonics, New Jersey) was applied to the left tibia. A percutaneous osteotomy was performed in a minimally traumatic manner using a chisel. Lengthening was started 7 days after surgery and was continued to 30 mm. The 24 animals were randomly divided into three groups of 8 animals each: in Group 1, lengthening took place at a rate of 1 mm/day for 30 days; in Group 2, at a rate of 2 mm/day for 15 days; in Group 3, at a rate of 3 mm/day for 10 days. In each group, 4 animals were killed 2 weeks after end of lengthening, and the other 4 animals at 4 weeks after end of lengthening. To assess bony formation in the distraction area, radiographs were taken every 2 weeks from the day of surgery. To study the process of vascularization, we used Spalteholz’s technique. After killing, the tibia of each animal was harvested, and sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and Safranin-O. Immunohistochemistry was performed, using specific antibodies to detect collagens I and II, S100 protein, and fibronectin. A combination of intramembranous and endochondral ossification occurred together at the site of distraction. Our study provides a detailed structural characterization of the newly formed tissue in an experimental model of tibial lengthening in sheep and may be useful for further investigations on callotasis.

Forriol, Francisco; Denaro, Luca; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Taira, Hirofumi; Denaro, Vincenzo

2010-01-01

16

Bone lengthening with extra-articular arthrodesis of the hip using external fixation  

PubMed Central

This is a case series of 11 children and adolescents who underwent femoral lengthening and percutaneous hip arthrodesis using a method of extra-articular joint compression in combination with callotasis. Clinical review indicated a significant improvement in physical function and psychological well-being. The average lengthening was 5.3 cm or 16% of the initial length. Complications were more frequent in patients older than 14 years (P = 0.034) as was a higher maturation index (P = 0.021). No additional operations were required to achieve the surgical objective.

2008-01-01

17

Facial asymmetry with enlarged frontal sinus and hyperplasia of the cranial, nasal, and mandible bones.  

PubMed

The conditions of facial asymmetry are caused by congenital or acquired diseases, and several unclassifiable syndromes with unknown etiologies exist. In this report, a case of facial asymmetry with enlarged frontal sinus and hyperplasia of the frontal cranial bone and nasal bone is presented.Although the etiology of the facial malformation was clear, it was thought that the cause of the enlarged frontal sinus was related to the unidentified bony hyperplasia and facial asymmetry related to hemimandibular hyperplasia. PMID:24978687

Taguchi, Rie; Yamashita, Masanobu; Kawakami, Shigehiko

2014-07-01

18

Continuous local infusion of fibroblast growth factor-2 enhances consolidation of the bone segment lengthened by distraction osteogenesis in rabbit experiment.  

PubMed

Experimental tibial lengthening was achieved in 61 rabbits to examine the effect of continuous local infusion of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 (rhFGF-2) on bone healing of the lengthened segment. The tibial diaphysis was separated by osteotomy and was subjected to slow progressive distraction (rate: 0.35 mm/12 h) using a monolateral external fixator. There were a lag phase for 1 week, a distraction phase for 2 weeks, and a consolidation phase for 5 weeks in this experiment. At various stages of distraction, rhFGF-2 was infused continuously for 2 weeks into the lengthened segment (rate: 14.28 microg/60 microl/day) using an osmotic pump implanted under the skin. Bone healing was significantly accelerated when rhFGF-2 was infused in the beginning of consolidation phase, but not in the distraction phase or in the lag phase. Infusion of normal saline (N/S) using the same osmotic pump had no effect. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) studies demonstrated that rhFGF-2-treated tibia had increased bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and cortical bone thickness (CBT) when compared with N/S-treated tibia. Three-point bending test demonstrated that rhFGF-2-treated bone had significantly stronger mechanical properties than N/S-treated bone. Finally, distribution of the infused materials was checked by using Indian ink or radio-opaque. The dyes distributed widely but exclusively in the lengthened segment. Based on these results, we conclude that direct delivery of rhFGF-2 into the lengthened segment can shorten the consolidation phase of limb lengthening and the method is applicable to the clinical treatment. PMID:17939975

Abbaspour, Aziz; Takata, Shinjiro; Sairyo, Koichi; Katoh, Shinsuke; Yukata, Kiminori; Yasui, Natsuo

2008-01-01

19

Transgenic mouse model for neurocristopathy: Schwannomas and facial bone tumors.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a strain of double transgenic mice with simian virus 40 large tumor antigen and prokaryotic lacZ under the control of the myelin basic protein promoter that develops spindle-cell sarcomas and osteogenic sarcomas at 5-7 months of age. Although poorly differentiated, the spindle-cell sarcomas were characterized as malignant Schwannomas based on their neural association, the presence of basal lamina, and expression of Schwann cell-specific genes. The osteogenic sarcomas were often multiple and appeared predominantly in the facial bones, less frequently in the ribs and vertebral column, and only rarely in the appendicular skeleton. Benign osteoblastic lesions were often observed adjacent to these sarcomas. Both the osteoblastic cells in the facial skeleton and Schwann cells are regarded as neural crest derivatives. The biological properties and anatomical location of these tumors suggest that they may share a common origin from the neural crest or its derivatives. R.P. Bolande [Hum. Pathol. (1974) 5, 409-429] introduced the term neurocristopathy as a unifying concept to describe such lesions arising from the neural crest or its derivatives. Cell lines established from both bone and Schwann cell tumors arising in these transgenic mice express simian virus 40 large tumor antigen mRNA as well as functional large tumor antigen. Such cell lines are potentially valuable in the search for markers that identify mammalian neural crest derivatives. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Jensen, N A; Rodriguez, M L; Garvey, J S; Miller, C A; Hood, L

1993-01-01

20

Intra-temporal facial nerve centerline segmentation for navigated temporal bone surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approaches through the temporal bone require surgeons to drill away bone to expose a target skull base lesion while evading vital structures contained within it, such as the sigmoid sinus, jugular bulb, and facial nerve. We hypothesize that an augmented neuronavigation system that continuously calculates the distance to these structures and warns if the surgeon drills too close, will aid in making safe surgical approaches. Contemporary image guidance systems are lacking an automated method to segment the inhomogeneous and complexly curved facial nerve. Therefore, we developed a segmentation method to delineate the intra-temporal facial nerve centerline from clinically available temporal bone CT images semi-automatically. Our method requires the user to provide the start- and end-point of the facial nerve in a patient's CT scan, after which it iteratively matches an active appearance model based on the shape and texture of forty facial nerves. Its performance was evaluated on 20 patients by comparison to our gold standard: manually segmented facial nerve centerlines. Our segmentation method delineates facial nerve centerlines with a maximum error along its whole trajectory of 0.40+/-0.20 mm (mean+/-standard deviation). These results demonstrate that our model-based segmentation method can robustly segment facial nerve centerlines. Next, we can investigate whether integration of this automated facial nerve delineation with a distance calculating neuronavigation interface results in a system that can adequately warn surgeons during temporal bone drilling, and effectively diminishes risks of iatrogenic facial nerve palsy.

Voormolen, Eduard H. J.; van Stralen, Marijn; Woerdeman, Peter A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.; Noordmans, Herke J.; Regli, Luca; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, Jan W.; Viergever, Max A.

2011-03-01

21

Regional shape change in adult facial bone curvature with age.  

PubMed

Life expectancies have increased dramatically over the last 100 years, affording greater opportunities to study the impact of age on adult craniofacial morphology. This article employs a novel application of established geometric morphometric methods to examine shape differences in adult regional facial bone curvature with age. Three-dimensional semilandmarks representing the curvature of the orbits, zygomatic arches, nasal aperture, and maxillary alveolar process were collected from a cross-sectional cranial sample of mixed sex and ancestry (male and female; African- and European-American), partitioned into three age groups (young adult = 18-39; middle-aged = 40-59 years; and elderly = 60+ years). Each facial region's semilandmarks were aligned into a common coordinate system via generalized Procrustes superimposition. Regional variation in shape was then explored via a battery of multivariate statistical techniques. Age-related shape differences were detected in the orbits, zygomatic arches, and maxillary alveolar process. Interactions between age, sex, and ancestry were also identified. Vector plots revealed patterns of superoinferior compression, lateral expansion, and posterior recession depending on the population/subpopulation, location, and age groups examined. These findings indicate that adult craniofacial curvature shape is not static throughout human life. Instead, age-related spatial modifications occur in various regions of the craniofacial skeleton. Moreover, these regional alterations vary not only through time, but across human populations and the sexes. PMID:20949614

Williams, Shanna E; Slice, Dennis E

2010-11-01

22

The facial-bone fractures among fatally injured car occupants in frontal collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retrospective study was performed of all deceased car-occupants in frontal car collisions in order to identify persons with facial-bone fractures. The sample consisted of 482 cases: 378 males and 104 females, average age of 39.59±16.01years. There were 239 car-drivers, 194 front-seat passengers, and 49 rear-seat passengers. In 46 of 482 cases, single fracture of upper facial bones was established:

S. D. Nikolic; T. C. Atanasijevic; V. M. Popovic; M. V. Soc

2009-01-01

23

The facial-bone fractures among fatally injured car occupants in frontal collisions.  

PubMed

The retrospective study was performed of all deceased car-occupants in frontal car collisions in order to identify persons with facial-bone fractures. The sample consisted of 482 cases: 378 males and 104 females, average age of 39.59+/-16.01 years. There were 239 car-drivers, 194 front-seat passengers, and 49 rear-seat passengers. In 46 of 482 cases, single fracture of upper facial bones was established: nasal fractures were the most common, followed by zygomatic. In 118 of 482 cases, fracture of upper facial bones was established, as well as 70 cases of jawbone. The fractured facial bones either of the upper or lower face could not be a factor that predicts the position of the deceased in the motor vehicle at the moment of injury (lambda=0.989, p>0.05). The multi-fractured facial-bones were very often associated with the multi-fractured cranial bones - 85 cases (chi(2) =138.75, df=8, p<0.001), as well as jawbone fracture - 35 cases (chi(2) =20.52, df=4, p<0.001). Brain injuries were more present and more severe (coup and contrecoup-contusion and brain laceration) if more facial-bone fractures were involved (chi(2) =147.99, df=8, p<0.001). Cases with only contrecoup brain contusions, associated with multi-fractured facial-bones, were rare - 6 of 118. These fractures are very often associated with cranial fractures, as well as with brain injuries and were caused by intensive contact of the deceased's head with the car's pillar. PMID:19264531

Nikolic, S D; Atanasijevic, T C; Popovic, V M; Soc, M V

2009-04-01

24

Limb lengthening in achondroplasia by Ilizarov's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In achondroplasts limb lengthening can restore the normal proportion of the body. The Ilizarov method of limb lengthening has been used in 37 patients, 23 of whom have had an adequate follow-up after operation. In this technique the cortex of the bone is partially cut, leaving the medulla intact; the two bone segments are then subjected to distraction by means

R. Cattaneo; A. Villa; M. Catagni; L. Tentori

1988-01-01

25

Limb lengthening in Turner syndrome.  

PubMed

We report the results and complications of eight consecutive patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthenings for dwarfism associated with Turner syndrome. Lengthening was performed via distraction osteogenesis with monolateral external fixation. Tibias were lengthened an average distance of 9.2 centimeters or 33 percent of the original tibial length. The average total treatment time was 268 days. The overall complication rate was 169 percent for each tibia lengthened and each segment required an average of 1.7 additional procedures. Seven cases (44 percent) required Achilles tendon lengthening and nine cases (56 percent) developed angulation before or after fixator removal; six of these segments required corrective osteotomy for axial malalignment. Two cases (12.5 percent) developed distraction site nonunion and required plating and bone grafting. From this series we conclude that tibial lengthening via distraction osteogenesis can be used to treat disproportionate short stature in patients with Turner syndrome. However, the benefit of a cosmetic increase in height may not compensate for the high complication rate. Efforts to determine the psychosocial and functional benefits of limb lengthening in patients with short stature is necessary to determine the true cost-benefit ratio of this procedure. PMID:9234980

Noonan, K J; Leyes, M; Forriol, F

1997-01-01

26

Experimental model for bone regeneration in oral and cranio-maxillo-facial surgery.  

PubMed

Bone and tooth loss, as a result of trauma, anatomical or congenital reasons, cancer, and periodontal disease, is a common therapeutic problem in the fields of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery and periodontics. The proposed techniques for the treatment of various bone defects encountered include bone grafts, bone substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, and distraction osteogenesis as well as their combinations. In addition, dental implants have been successfully utilized for the restoration of full or partial edentulism. The introduction and development of new therapeutic approaches and devices demand the use of appropriate animal models that present bone anatomy and healing comparable to human. Among other animal models, the pig is extensively documented in several biomedical areas and has been largely used in maxillo-facial surgery and implants dentistry-related research. Anatomical and physiological similarities with human in size, physiology, and bone biology contribute to a successful involvement of this animal to understand and treat various osseous lesions. However, improvements and standardization are requested with respect to consistency and discrimination abilities. The aim of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature related to swine models for the evaluation of cranio-maxillo-facial osseous defect healing, regeneration, and bone-implant interface. This review should assist researchers in the field to select the most appropriate model for each dedicated purpose and also contribute to stimulate an innovative thinking on the use of porcine models. PMID:23957784

Mardas, Nikos; Dereka, Xanthippi; Donos, Nikolaos; Dard, Michel

2014-02-01

27

Unusual Presentation of a Metastatic Tumor to the Temporal Bone: Severe Otalgia and Facial Paralysis  

PubMed Central

Metastatic temporal bone tumors are rare diseases and they are usually clinically asymptomatic, so it is difficult to diagnose them. Breasts are the most common sites of temporal bone metastasis. Tumors of lung, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, prostate gland, larynx and thyroid gland are the other sites. The pathogenesis of the temporal bone is most commonly related to the hematogenous route. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with facial paralysis combined with severe otalgia. This patient was initially diagnosed with Bell's palsy. However, based on the radiologic findings, the patient was diagnosed with lung cancer with temporal bone metastasis.

Choi, Sung Ho; Park, Il-Seok; Kim, Young Bok

2014-01-01

28

Unusual presentation of a metastatic tumor to the temporal bone: severe otalgia and facial paralysis.  

PubMed

Metastatic temporal bone tumors are rare diseases and they are usually clinically asymptomatic, so it is difficult to diagnose them. Breasts are the most common sites of temporal bone metastasis. Tumors of lung, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, prostate gland, larynx and thyroid gland are the other sites. The pathogenesis of the temporal bone is most commonly related to the hematogenous route. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with facial paralysis combined with severe otalgia. This patient was initially diagnosed with Bell's palsy. However, based on the radiologic findings, the patient was diagnosed with lung cancer with temporal bone metastasis. PMID:24782949

Choi, Sung Ho; Park, Il-Seok; Kim, Young Bok; Hong, Seok Min

2014-04-01

29

Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

2011-03-01

30

Bad to the bone: facial structure predicts unethical behaviour  

PubMed Central

Researchers spanning many scientific domains, including primatology, evolutionary biology and psychology, have sought to establish an evolutionary basis for morality. While researchers have identified social and cognitive adaptations that support ethical behaviour, a consensus has emerged that genetically determined physical traits are not reliable signals of unethical intentions or actions. Challenging this view, we show that genetically determined physical traits can serve as reliable predictors of unethical behaviour if they are also associated with positive signals in intersex and intrasex selection. Specifically, we identify a key physical attribute, the facial width-to-height ratio, which predicts unethical behaviour in men. Across two studies, we demonstrate that men with wider faces (relative to facial height) are more likely to explicitly deceive their counterparts in a negotiation, and are more willing to cheat in order to increase their financial gain. Importantly, we provide evidence that the link between facial metrics and unethical behaviour is mediated by a psychological sense of power. Our results demonstrate that static physical attributes can indeed serve as reliable cues of immoral action, and provide additional support for the view that evolutionary forces shape ethical judgement and behaviour.

Haselhuhn, Michael P.; Wong, Elaine M.

2012-01-01

31

Bad to the bone: facial structure predicts unethical behaviour.  

PubMed

Researchers spanning many scientific domains, including primatology, evolutionary biology and psychology, have sought to establish an evolutionary basis for morality. While researchers have identified social and cognitive adaptations that support ethical behaviour, a consensus has emerged that genetically determined physical traits are not reliable signals of unethical intentions or actions. Challenging this view, we show that genetically determined physical traits can serve as reliable predictors of unethical behaviour if they are also associated with positive signals in intersex and intrasex selection. Specifically, we identify a key physical attribute, the facial width-to-height ratio, which predicts unethical behaviour in men. Across two studies, we demonstrate that men with wider faces (relative to facial height) are more likely to explicitly deceive their counterparts in a negotiation, and are more willing to cheat in order to increase their financial gain. Importantly, we provide evidence that the link between facial metrics and unethical behaviour is mediated by a psychological sense of power. Our results demonstrate that static physical attributes can indeed serve as reliable cues of immoral action, and provide additional support for the view that evolutionary forces shape ethical judgement and behaviour. PMID:21733897

Haselhuhn, Michael P; Wong, Elaine M

2012-02-01

32

Radiation dose to the lens in sequential and spiral CT of the facial bones and sinuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tendency for over-utilization of the radiological examinations of facial bones and sinuses has been observed. The radiosensitive\\u000a lens is exposed to radiation during such examination. Comparison of routine roentgenography and spiral axial and coronal CT\\u000a in sequential and spiral acquisition modes with different mAs values was undertaken using Alderson Rando Phantom. The spiral-CT\\u000a technique with pitch 1.5 performed in

J. Czechowski; J. Janeczek; G. Kelly; J. Johansen

2001-01-01

33

Bone and body segment lengthening and widening: A 7-year follow-up study in pubertal girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

During growth bone increases in length and width as does the body size. The aim of this paper was to examine the growth pattern of body height and weight, and the width and length of various body segments, and to establish the timing of peak growth velocity (PV) in relation to time of menarche in a cohort of Finnish girls

Eszter Völgyi; Frances A. Tylavsky; Leiting Xu; Jian Lu; Qin Wang; Markku Alén; Sulin Cheng

2010-01-01

34

Bone and body segment lengthening and widening: a 7-year follow-up study in pubertal girls.  

PubMed

During growth bone increases in length and width as does the body size. The aim of this paper was to examine the growth pattern of body height and weight, and the width and length of various body segments, and to establish the timing of peak growth velocity (PV) in relation to time of menarche in a cohort of Finnish girls followed from age 10 until 18. The study was a 7-year longitudinal cohort study. Widths and lengths of body segments and bones were measured from DXA scan images using bone landmarks in 396 girls aged 10 to 13 years at baseline, and in 255 mothers and 159 grandmothers. The girls' growth velocities (rate of change with time) peaked at 13.5 months prior to menarche for height, 14.4 months for weight, and 15.4 months for BMI. Shoulder width peaked at 18.2 months, lesser pelvis width at 13.5 months and greater pelvis width at 11.6 months prior to menarche. The PV of various body segment lengths showed that the femur peaked earliest at 20.7 months prior to menarche, followed by the humerus (at 18.0 months), radius (at 17.4 months), tibia (at 17.5 months), and trunk (at 11.8 months), respectively. All the long bones were linearly correlated with height while the flat and irregular bones had a nonlinear growth relationship with height (r(2)=0.73-0.88). By the age of 18 years the girls had reached their mothers' height (101%) and humerus, radius, femur and tibia lengths (100-101%), but not their mothers' shoulder, great pelvis and lesser pelvis widths (98%, 95% and 93%, respectively). Our data confirmed that, after bone elongation had ceased, segment width continued to increase, although at a slower speed, into early adulthood. The wide variations in growth velocity of these anthropomorphic measurements underscore the need to optimize nutrition and physical activity from early puberty onward in order to maximize bone development. PMID:20637322

Völgyi, Eszter; Tylavsky, Frances A; Xu, Leiting; Lu, Jian; Wang, Qin; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

2010-10-01

35

CT Imaging of facial trauma. Role of different types of reconstruction. Part I - bones  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Injury to the facial skeleton and the adjoining soft tissues is a frequently occurring condition. The main aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial skeleton injury. The authors attempted to answer the following questions: Are there particular mechanisms and types of injuries or locations of fractures which can be diagnosed significantly more effectively by conducting additional multiplanar image reconstructions? Do 3D image reconstructions contribute to the diagnostic process, to what extent? Compared to other imaging techniques, is the spiral CT data acquisition a more convenient for the patient and a faster investigation method of diagnosing post-injury lesions involving the facial skeleton? Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton were referred for emergent CT scanning. Each patient underwent a CT scan with the use of a GE HiSpeed Qx/i scanner. The scans were conducted with the use of spiral data acquisition technique in the transverse plane. The following secondary image reconstructions were conducted for each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR). Post-injury lesions of the facial skeleton were assessed and the presence of any loose displaced bone fragments was taken into consideration. Results: As far as fracture imaging is concerned, the 2D image reconstruction and volume rendering proved to be the most effective in the majority of locations. 3D image reconstructions proved the most sensitive in most cases of loose displaced bone fragments, except for fine structures such as the ethmoid bone and the inferior orbital wall. Conclusions: 1. Multiplanar computer reconstructions increase the effectiveness of visualisation of fractures, especially in the case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. 2. 3D reconstructions are a good complementary technique allowing to locate loose bone fragments precisely and to assess the degree of displacement. 3. Spiral CT data acquisition increases patient’s convenience due to shorter time required for examination, and allows to conduct reconstructions of satisfactory value.

Myga-Porosilo, Jolanta; Skrzelewski, Stanislaw; Sraga, Wojciech; Borowiak, Hanna; Jackowska, Zuzanna; Kluczewska, Ewa

2011-01-01

36

Late intracranial haemorrhage and subsequent carotid-cavernous sinus fistula after fracture of the facial bones.  

PubMed

Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is an arteriovenous fistula between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and is usually caused by a traumatic tear or a ruptured aneurysm of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. We describe a rare case of delayed intracranial haemorrhage and carotid-cavernous sinus fistula that presented 3 weeks after fracture of the facial bones. The patient developed orbital apex syndrome including ptosis of upper eyelid, pulsatile exophthalmos, chemosis, loss of ocular motility, monocular blindness on the right, and numbness of the right infraorbital region. After transcatheter intra-arterial embolisation, the ptosis and chemosis improved. PMID:23958350

Chang, Chien-Ming; Cheng, Chi-Sheng

2013-12-01

37

A Case of Malignant Small Round Cell Tumor of Temporal Bone with Facial Paralysis  

PubMed Central

Malignant small round cell tumor is very rare, especially in the head and neck area. It is also difficult to make a differential diagnosis due to their undifferentiated or primitive character. Immunohistochemical staining and chromosomal study is useful to categorize these tumors. Since these are rare tumors, treatment protocols are is not well established. While combined treatments (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) is currently being applied, the tumor still has a poor prognosis. We present a rare case of a rapidly growing temporal bone malignant small round cell tumor which initially showed facial paralysis.

Lee, Jae-Hong; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Park, Kyung-Ho

2012-01-01

38

Limb lengthening over plate  

PubMed Central

Background: The limb lengthening over plate eliminates the associated risk of infection with limb lengthening over intramedullary nail. We present our experience of limb lengthening in 15 patients with a plate fixed on the proximal segment, followed by corticotomy and application of external fixator. Materials and Methods: 15 patients (7 females, 8 males) were included in this consecutive series. The average age was 18.1 years (range 8–35 years). Fifteen tibiae and one femur were lengthened in 15 patients. Lengthening was achieved at 1 mm/day followed by distal segment fixation with three or four screws on reaching the target length. Results: The preoperative target length was successfully achieved in all patients at a mean of 4.1 cm (range 1.8–6.5 cm). The mean duration of external fixation was 75.3 days (range 33–116 days) with the mean external fixation index at 19.2 days/cm (range 10.0–38.3 days/cm). One patient suffered deep infection up to the plate, three patients had mild procurvatum deformities, and one patient developed mild tendo achilles contracture. Conclusion: Lengthening over a plate allows early removal of external fixator and eliminates the risk of creating deep intramedullary infection as with lengthening over nail. Lengthening over plate is also applicable to children with open physis.

Kulkarni, Ruta; Singh, Nishant; Kulkarni, Govind S; Kulkarni, Milind; Kulkarni, Sunil; Kulkarni, Vidisha

2012-01-01

39

Facial features and hyoid bone position in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate facial features and hyoid bone position in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by cephalometric radiography. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. Twenty-nine children in the 3-6 year age bracket were evaluated: 14 children with OSAS and 15 nasal-breathing children. All children underwent otorhinolaryngologic examination, and those with OSAS also underwent in-laboratory polysomnography for diagnostic confirmation. The children were then submitted to orthodontic evaluation and cephalometry. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from children with OSAS were compared to those of nasal-breathing children. We found no differences between the two groups regarding the linear and angular measurements of the face. However, the children with OSAS presented, already at the preschool age, with an inferiorly positioned hyoid bone, thus increasing the pharyngeal area. In children with OSAS, the hyoid bone appears to be in a significantly inferior position at an early age. Our findings provide evidence that there is a relationship between the position of the hyoid bone and OSAS in children, which could contribute to the persistence of OSAS into adulthood. PMID:24162766

Vieira, Bruno B; Itikawa, Carla E; de Almeida, Leila A; Sander, Heidi H; Aragon, Davi C; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T; Matsumoto, Mirian; Valera, Fabiana C P

2014-05-01

40

Investigation of a progressive facial deformity and stridor in an adult horse with a bone sequestrum and subsequent sinonasal abscess  

PubMed Central

Advanced diagnostic imaging and histopathological investigation were performed in an adult horse with chronic facial swelling due to a bone sequestrum and abscessation. In contrast to other cases, there were no draining tracts, difficulty eating, weight loss, head shaking, or fistula formation between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus.

Marques, Fernando J.; Sharma, Ajay; Wilson, David G.

2012-01-01

41

Current concepts of leg lengthening.  

PubMed

Any lower limb discrepancy may be equalised by conservative means (insoles, prosthesis and orthosis). However, their long-term acceptance is low in regard to function, costs, expenditure and appearance. Timely epiphysiodesis is the best option in uniplanar deformities with adequate remaining growth and for patients whose predicted final body height is above the 50th percentile. However, many patients present late or with multi-planar deformities, which warrant more sophisticated operative approaches. The history of surgical bone lengthening comprises 100 exciting years of struggling, development and ongoing learning. The initial strategy of acute or rapid incremental distraction had lasted almost half a century until Ilizarov recognised the benefits of biological periosteum-preserving osteotomies and incremental lengthening at slow rates (1 mm/day) at a 4 × 0.25-mm daily rhythm, well appreciated as callotasis. In parallel, ring and wire constructs made complex three-dimensional axial, translational and rotational bone moulding possible. Taylor Spatial Frames-built on hexapod strut-linked platform technology as known from flight simulators-took limb correction to a more reliable, more precise and aesthetical level, all the more that the whole process became web-based. It represents state-of-the-art methodology and technology for complex, multi-plane deformities. Due to the significant risk of secondary malalignment, indications for lengthening by unilateral fixation have shrunken to moderate amounts of length disparity and uni- to bi-planar deformities in patients with still open physes. Mechanical or motorised, minimally invasively placed nails prevent muscle fixation and, therefore, ease rehabilitation, increase patient comfort and potentially shorten the overall time of sick leave and refrain from sports activities. Hence, they offer a valuable alternative for low-grade complexity situations. It remains to be proved if the significantly higher implant costs are compensated by lower treatment costs. Overall, limb lengthening, particularly in combination with multi-planar deformity correction, can still be an arduous endeavour. In any case, wise judgement of the patient's deformity, medical and biological situation, psychosocial environment, selection of the appropriate method and hardware, as well as meticulous operating technique by an experienced surgeon are the cornerstones of successful outcomes. PMID:23730339

Hasler, Carol C; Krieg, Andreas H

2012-06-01

42

Quantitative evaluation of alveolar cortical bone density in adults with different vertical facial types using cone-beam computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the cortical bone densities of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes in adults with different vertical facial types using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods CBCT images (n = 142) of adult patients (20-45 years) were classified into hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent groups on the basis of linear and angular S-N/Go-Me measurements. The cortical bone densities (in Hounsfield units) at maxillary and mandibular interdental sites from the distal aspect of the canine to the mesial aspect of the second molar were measured on the images. Results On the maxillary buccal side, female subjects in the hyperdivergent group showed significantly decreased bone density, while in the posterior region, male subjects in the hyperdivergent group displayed significantly decreased bone density when compared with corresponding subjects in the other groups (p<0.001). Furthermore, the subjects in the hyperdivergent group had significantly lower bone densities on the mandibular buccal side than hypodivergent subjects. The maxillary palatal bone density did not differ significantly among groups, but female subjects showed significantly denser palatal cortical bone. No significant difference in bone density was found between the palatal and buccal sides in the maxillary premolar region. Overall, the palatal cortical bone was denser anteriorly and buccal cortical bone was denser posteriorly. Conclusion Adults with the hyperdivergent facial type tend to have less-dense buccal cortical bone in the maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes. Clinicians should be aware of the variability of cortical bone densities at mini-implant placement sites.

Ozdemir, Fulya; Tozlu, Murat

2014-01-01

43

Contributing factors for osteogenesis in children's limb lengthening.  

PubMed

A progressive bone lengthening procedure according to the Wagner and Ilizarov technique and our own protocol was performed on 24 children (32 bones). Wagner's (transverse midshaft osteotomy, intraoperative lengthening of 1 cm and postoperative distraction of 1 mm/day) led to a marked reduction in osteogenic capacities. Patients operated on according to the Ilizarov technique had osteogenic reactions in the medullary cavity and on the posterior aspect of bone segments. Our own method, which included bone decortication, 5-7 days of neutral fixation without distraction, led to massive bone production in the medullary canal and around the bone segments. Rigid osseous bridging was present as early as 3 months after surgery. Neither the type of external fixator nor the location or shape of osteotomy had any specific influence on this massive bone reaction. Osteogenesis in limb lengthening is thus closely related to surgical management. PMID:1860942

Lokietek, W; Legaye, J; Lokietek, J C

1991-01-01

44

Accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography in locating facial nerve injury sites in temporal bone trauma.  

PubMed

In this study, high-resolution, multislice computed tomography findings are compared with surgical findings in terms of the fracture location in patients with traumatic facial paralysis. Patients with traumatic facial paralysis with grade VI House-Brackmann scale who met the criteria for surgical decompression between 2008 and 2012 were included in this study. All the patients underwent a multislice high-resolution, multislice computed tomography (HRCT) using 1-mm-thick slices with a bone window algorithm. The anatomical areas of the temporal bone (including the Fallopian canal) were assessed by CT and during the surgery (separately by the radiologist and the surgeon), and fracture line involvement was recorded. Forty-one patients entered this study. The perigeniculate area was the most commonly involved region (46.34 %) of the facial nerve. The sensitivity and specificity of HRCT to detect a fracture line seems to be different in various sites, but the overall sensitivity and specificity were 77.5 and 77.7 %, respectively. Although HRCT is the modality of choice in traumatic facial paralysis, the diagnostic value may differ according to the fracture location. The results of HRCT should be considered with caution in certain areas. PMID:24081792

Rajati, Mohsen; Pezeshki Rad, Masoud; Irani, Shirin; Khorsandi, Mohammad Taghi; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud

2014-08-01

45

Onlay bone grafting simultaneous with facial soft tissue augmentation in a hemifacial microsomia patient using de-epithelialized orthograde submental flap: a technical note  

PubMed Central

Summary Soft tissue augmentation in hemifacial microsomia patients is a challenging procedure. Free microvascular flap transfer is considered usually as the most accepted choice. On the other hand, bone grafting, simultaneous with facial soft tissue augmentation using de-epithelialized orthograde submental flap, is a suggested procedure. Moreover, preoperative evaluation of facial artery and anterior belly of the digastric muscle are essential steps for success in such flaps. Furthermore, bone suture technique helps achieve more predictable results and reduces the need for postoperative bulky dressing.

Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

2014-01-01

46

Translational Research: Palatal-derived Ecto-mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Palate: A New Hope for Alveolar Bone and Cranio-Facial Bone Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The management of facial defects has rapidly changed in the last decade. Functional and esthetic requirements have steadily increased along with the refinements of surgery. In the case of advanced atrophy or jaw defects, extensive horizontal and vertical bone augmentation is often unavoidable to enable patients to be fitted with implants. Loss of vertical alveolar bone height is the most common cause for a non primary stability of dental implants in adults. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure loss of vertical alveolar bone height and achieve optimal pre-implantological bone regeneration before dental implant placement. Recently, it has been found that specific populations of stem cells and/or progenitor cells could be isolated from different dental resources, namely the dental follicle, the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament. Our research group has cultured palatal-derived stem cells (paldSCs) as dentospheres and further differentiated into various cells of the neuronal and osteogenic lineage, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. In this publication will be shown whether paldSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate alveolar bone tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Furthermore, using these data we have started a proof of principle clinical- and histological controlled study using stem cell-rich palatal tissues for improving the vertical alveolar bone augmentation in critical size defects. The initial results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat alveolar bone defects in humans.

Grimm, Wolf Dieter; Dannan, Aous; Giesenhagen, Bernd; Schau, Ingmar; Varga, Gabor; Vukovic, Mark Alexander; Sirak, Sergey Vladimirovich

2014-01-01

47

Management of facial paralysis resulting from temporal bone fractures: Our experience in 115 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this study was to review decision factors and overall results regarding surgical and nonsurgical management of post-traumatic facial nerve paralysis (FP). Study design: A retrospective study and literature review were performed. Methods: Between 1984 and 1990, 115 cases of post-traumatic FP were handled. Patients were evaluated through clinical, audiologic, radiologic, and electromyogram assessment. Depending on examination

Vincent Darrouzet; Jean-Yves Duclos; Dominique Liguoro; Yves Truilhe; Camille De Bonfils; Jean-Pierre Bebear

2001-01-01

48

Humeral lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: a safe procedure?  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the safety of humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame. We retrospectively reviewed 26 humeral segments in 17 patients that were lengthened at our department between 1993 and 2011. There were varying aetiologies including achondroplasia, epiphyseal dysplasia, Oilier disease, trauma or infection of the proximal humeral growth-plate, unicameral bone cyst and brachial plexus injury. Mean age at start of surgery was 17.05 years (range : 5-40). The mean lengthening achieved was 8.85 (3-13) cm. Mean lengthening percentage was 353% (range : 10-48). Average healing index was 30.56 days/cm (range : 17.46-4232). There was a significant difference in healing index between achondroplasia patients (28.79 days/cm) compared to others (33.41 days/cm). Minor problems included pin tract infection (14 segments). More important obstacles were temporary elbow flexion contracture (7 segments), premature consolidation (6 segments), radial nerve dysaesthesia (6 segments) and loosening of a Schanz screw (1 segment). Complications included one fracture and one progressive bowing after frame removal. One planned lengthening was not completely achieved. Despite a lot of obstacles, humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame provided a reliable method to treat the functional or cosmetic problems of upper limb shortening. PMID:24563967

Ruette, Peter; Lammens, Johan

2013-12-01

49

Leg Lengthening With a Motorized Nail in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Leg lengthening by external fixation is associated with various difficulties. We evaluated eight adolescent patients who underwent leg lengthening with a motorized intramedullary lengthening device. We asked whether this method could reduce the time of hospitalization and rehabilitation and whether the incidence of complications commonly associated with external fixators could be reduced. We compared our preliminary results with those from other reports, with a focus on leg length achieved, time of rehabilitation, and rate of complications. The average leg-length discrepancy was 3.8 cm (range, 3–5 cm). The average lengthening distance was 3.8 cm (range, 2.9–4.7 cm). In six patients, leg lengthening was combined with successful correction of the mechanical axis alignment. The consolidation index averaged 26 days/cm (range, 19–41 days/cm). The average hospital stay was 9.6 days. No bone or soft tissue infections were observed. In comparison to other studies (1.0–2.8 complications/patient), our results suggest that the difficulties commonly associated with external fixators can be reduced with this method. It also allows good angular correction in patients with mechanical axis deviation. These features combined with a short time of hospitalization and rehabilitation make it a promising procedure for limb lengthening. Level of Evidence: Level IV Therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Speth, Bernhard M.; Foster, Bruce K.

2008-01-01

50

Limb lengthening and correction of deformity in the lower limbs of children with osteogenesis imperfecta.  

PubMed

We performed limb lengthening and correction of deformity of nine long bones of the lower limb in six children (mean age, 14.7 years) with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). All had femoral lengthening and three also had ipsilateral tibial lengthening. Angular deformities were corrected simultaneously. Five limb segments were treated using a monolateral external fixator and four with the Ilizarov frame. In three children, lengthening was done over previously inserted femoral intramedullary rods. The mean lengthening achieved was 6.26 cm (mean healing index, 33.25 days/cm). Significant complications included one deep infection, one fracture of the femur and one anterior angulation deformity of the tibia. The abnormal bone of OI tolerated the external fixators throughout the period of lengthening without any episodes of migration of wires or pins through the soft bone. The regenerate bone formed within the time which is normally expected in limb-lengthening procedures performed for other conditions. We conclude that despite the abnormal bone characteristics, distraction osteogenesis to correct limb-length discrepancy and angular deformity can be performed safely in children with OI. PMID:15046443

Saldanha, K A N; Saleh, M; Bell, M J; Fernandes, J A

2004-03-01

51

Free bone graft reconstruction of irradiated facial tissue: Experimental effects of basic fibroblast growth factor stimulation  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to evaluate the potential utility of basic fibroblast growth factor in the induction of angiogenesis and osseous healing in bone previously exposed to high doses of irradiation. Thirty New Zealand rabbits were evaluated by introducing basic fibroblast growth factor into irradiated mandibular resection sites either prior to or simultaneous with reconstruction by corticocancellous autografts harvested from the ilium. The fate of the free bone grafts was then evaluated at 90 days postoperatively by microangiographic, histologic, and fluorochrome bone-labeling techniques. Sequestration, necrosis, and failure to heal to recipient osseous margins was observed both clinically and histologically in all nontreated irradiated graft sites as well as those receiving simultaneous angiogenic stimulation at the time of graft placement. No fluorescent activity was seen in these graft groups. In the recipient sites pretreated with basic fibroblast growth factor prior to placement of the graft, healing and reestablishment of mandibular contour occurred in nearly 50 percent of the animals. Active bone formation was evident at cortical margins adjacent to the recipient sites but was absent in the more central cancellous regions of the grafts.

Eppley, B.L.; Connolly, D.T.; Winkelmann, T.; Sadove, A.M.; Heuvelman, D.; Feder, J. (Plastic Surgery Section, Indiana University Medical Center (USA))

1991-07-01

52

Evaluation of postoperative stability after BSSRO to correct facial asymmetry depending on the amount of bone contact between the proximal and distal segment.  

PubMed

Sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) benefits patients through the wide bone contact between the proximal and distal segment, which contributes to postoperative stability. Recently, a posterior bending osteotomy (PBO), an additional vertical osteotomy performed posterior to the second molar after SSRO, has been introduced to avoid positional changes of the condyle from bony interference in patients with facial asymmetry, which leads to decreases in bone contact. The aim of this study was to investigate postoperative stability after SSRO with PBO. Forty patients with facial asymmetry were enrolled and divided into two groups according to the surgical method used on the deviated side: PBO (n = 18) and grinding method (n = 22). Cephalometric analysis was performed. In addition, adaptation and bone healing of the PBO segments were assessed with 3-month postoperative three-dimensional computed tomography depending on the fixation of the PBO segment. The two groups showed no significant difference in postoperative relapse. Most PBO segments were well-adapted to the proximal segment. Twelve segments with fixation exhibited good bone healing. Two of three segments without fixation, however, had poor bone healing. In summary, PBO did not cause postoperative instability, and the PBO segments were well-healed with rigid fixation. PMID:24011465

Yang, Hoon Joo; Hwang, Soon Jung

2014-07-01

53

Marfanoid habitus, inguinal hernia, advanced bone age, and distinctive facial features: a new collagenopathy?  

PubMed

We report on two sibs, a girl, and a boy, with tall stature, long, and triangular faces, prominent foreheads with high frontal hairlines, telecanthus, downward slanting of the palpebral fissures, ptosis of the eyelids, everted lower eyelids, large ears, long noses, full, and everted vermilions, highly arched and narrow palates, tooth crowding, thin and long uvulae, coloboma of the alae, hyperextensible joints, long digits, positive thumb signs, flat feet, slightly diminished muscle strength, myopia, astigmatia, inguinal hernia, and vesical diverticula. Total body X-rays showed the presence of advanced bone age in both sibs and bilateral hallux valgus in the girl. Array-CGH did not reveal any pathological CNV. Molecular analysis of FBN1, FBN2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and CHST14 gene was normal, and SNP linkage analysis excluded more candidate genes. Differential diagnoses and the possibility that we might be reporting on a hitherto unreported syndrome are discussed. PMID:22489068

Mégarbané, André; Hanna, Nadine; Chouery, Eliane; Jalkh, Nadine; Mehawej, Cybel; Boileau, Catherine

2012-05-01

54

Clinical utility of three-dimensional facial computed tomography in the treatment of nasal bone fractures: a new modality involving an air-bone view with a volume rendering technique.  

PubMed

To evaluate the utility of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction when planning the surgical treatment of nasal bone fractures. The axial scan of high-resolution facial bone CT was reconstructed in 3D using the program V-works 4.0 (CyberMed, Seoul, Korea) with a volume and surface rendering technique. For detailed stereoscopic examination of the nasal valve area, an air-bone view with the volume rendering technique was obtained using thresholds for air, cartilage, and bone. In most nasal bone fractures, 2D and 3D CT had similar detection rates. However, to determine the fracture angle and dimpled area, and identify multiple fractures, surgeons can get better information to help with the reduction of the fractured bone from 3D reconstruction images. Additionally, with a septal deformity, this view helps in deciding on the need for septal surgery during nasal reduction. The air view of the nasal passage provides clues to obstruction of the nasal cavity. We could identify the contour and location of the fracture site accurately from 3D CT images. The detection rate of fractures was similar to that of 2D CT. However, 3D CT enabled the accurate determination of the distance and direction of the fractured bony fragment from normal bone structure. Additionally, a stereoscopic image of the fracture site facilitated an understanding of the location and range of reduction. The air-bone view gave more information about the pathological obstruction of the nasal air passage. PMID:24427648

Song, Sun Wha; Jun, Beom Cho; Chae, Soo Ryang; Kim, Byung Guk

2013-08-01

55

Treatment of posttraumatic radial club hand with distraction lengthening.  

PubMed

The clinical and radiological results of distraction lengthening in cases with posttraumatic radial club hand were evaluated. Five patients (3 men and 2 women, with average age of 21 years) with traumatic radial shortening (3 patients had nonunited fracture of distal end radius with bone loss and 2 patients had short radius after malunited fracture of radius or growth arrest of distal radial epiphysis, the average shortening was 4.2 cm) were treated with distraction lengthening using Ilizarov fixator and hybrid fixation technique. Patients were evaluated clinically for hand function and appearance, and radiologically for union. The average follow-up was 25 months. The preplanned length was achieved in all cases with good union and no bone graft was needed, clinically there was much improvement in hand function (the range of motion of the wrist increased and the power of hand grip increased) and appearance. Pin tract infection occurred in 3 cases, broken pin in 1 case, and stiff wrist in 1 case. These complications were treated and did not affect the final results. Acquired radial club hand is difficult to treat. Treatment with distraction lengthening is a good option with excellent results and mild complications that did not affect the overall results. PMID:24126335

Hosny, Gamal A; Kandel, Wael A

2013-11-01

56

Crown lengthening in the maxillary anterior region: a 6-month prospective clinical study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess osseous parameters and stability of maxillary anterior teeth following crown lengthening surgery. Thirty-six patients requiring facial crown lengthening of 277 maxillary anterior and first premolar teeth were included. Presurgical and intraoperative clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months postsurgery at midfacial, mesiofacial, and distofacial line angles. The data presented here suggest that when crown lengthening anterior maxillary teeth, the distance between the desired gingival margin and alveolar crest is usually insufficient to allow for biologic width. In addition, there is significant tissue rebound that may stabilize by 6 months. Tissue rebound appears related to flap position relative to the alveolar crest at suturing. These findings suggest that clinicians should establish proper anterior crown length with osseous resection. PMID:24804287

Deas, David E; Mackey, Scott A; Sagun, Ruben S; Hancock, Raymond H; Gruwell, Scott F; Campbell, Casey M

2014-01-01

57

Limb Lengthening and Then Insertion of an Intramedullary Nail: A Case-matched Comparison  

PubMed Central

Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for lengthening, deformity correction, and treatment of nonunions and bone defects. The classic method uses an external fixator for both distraction and consolidation leading to lengthy times in frames and there is a risk of refracture after frame removal. We suggest a new technique: lengthening and then nailing (LATN) technique in which the frame is used for gradual distraction and then a reamed intramedullary nail inserted to support the bone during the consolidation phase, allowing early removal of the external fixator. We performed a retrospective case-matched comparison of patients lengthened with LATN (39 limbs in 27 patients) technique versus the classic (34 limbs in 27 patients). The LATN group wore the external fixator for less time than the classic group (12 versus 29 weeks). The LATN group had a lower external fixation index (0.5 versus 1.9) and a lower bone healing index (0.8 versus 1.9) than the classic group. LATN confers advantages over the classic method including shorter times needed in external fixation, quicker bone healing, and protection against refracture. There are also advantages over the lengthening over a nail and internal lengthening nail techniques. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Kleinman, Dawn; Fragomen, Austin T.; Ilizarov, Svetlana

2008-01-01

58

Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning  

PubMed Central

Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity.

Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

2014-01-01

59

Three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A short clinical crown may lead to poor retention form thereby leading to improper tooth preparation. Surgical crown lengthening procedure is done to increase the clinical crown length without violating the biologic width. Several techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening which includes gingivectomy, apically displaced flap with or without resective osseous surgery, and surgical extrusion using periotome. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare clinically the three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening procedures. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients who reported to the department of Periodontology, were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, which include patients who underwent gingivectomy (Group A), apically repositioned flap (Group B) and surgical extrusion using periotome (Group C). Clinical measurements such as clinical crown length, gingival zenith, interdental papilla height were taken at baseline and at 3rd month post-operatively. Results: Clinical and radiographic evaluation at 3rd month suggest that surgical extrusion technique offers several advantages over the other conventional surgical techniques such as preservation of the interproximal papilla, gingival margin position and no marginal bone loss. Conclusions: This technique can be used to successfully treat a grossly damaged crown structure as a result of tooth fracture, dental caries and iatrogenic factors especially in the anterior region, where esthetics is of great concern.

Nethravathy, Ramya; Vinoth, Santhana Krishnan; Thomas, Ashwin Varghese

2013-01-01

60

Biomechanical advantage of lengthening of the femur with an external fixator over an intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

The present experimental study investigated biomechanical differences in methods of femoral lengthening using a monolateral external fixator only and using an external fixator over an intramedullary nail. Three materials, namely polyvinyl chloride rods, composite synthetic bone, and cadaver-bone, were tested using the MTS machine. We evaluated the differences of axial stiffness according to the presence of a nail or the numbers of half-pins (two or three half-pins) that were fixed at each side of osteotomy. The addition of a nail may increase the axial stiffness of the frame of monolateral external fixator for limb lengthening. Additionally, it is enough to distract the femur with fixing two half-pins at each side, when using the technique of lengthening over a nail. PMID:17159532

Min, Woo-Kie; Min, Byung-Guk; Oh, Chang-Wug; Song, Hae-Ryong; Oh, Jong-Keon; Ahn, Hyung-Soo; Park, Byung-Chul; Kim, Poong-Taek

2007-01-01

61

Clinical crown lengthening in the esthetic zone.  

PubMed

Periodontal surgical procedures consisting of gingival flaps and osseous recontouring are indicated for crown lengthening of several contiguous teeth in the esthetic zone; both in cases where restorations are required and in cases where no restorations are planned, such as in patients with excessive gingival display due to altered passive eruption. Forced tooth eruption via orthodontic extrusion is the technique of choice when clinical crown lengthening is necessary on isolated teeth in the esthetic zone. PMID:17915591

Camargo, Paulo M; Melnick, Philip R; Camargo, Luciano M

2007-07-01

62

Distraction Osteogenesis of the Facial Skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Distraction osteogenesis of the facial skeleton has provided both a powerful tool to those who are interested in studying\\u000a the biology of bone and has added a powerful technique to the armamentarium of surgeons who treat facial disfi gurement. The\\u000a application of bone distraction to the facial skeleton has been largely derived from prior work in the lower extremity, and

Robert J. Havlik

63

[Limb lengthening in children and osteogenesis using the technics of Wagner and Ilizarov and their modifications].  

PubMed

Different methods of lower limb lengthening are reviewed, related to delays in strengthening and type of callus: Wagner's technique (5 cases), decortication 3 weeks before osteotomy (1 case), and Ilizarov's technique (10 cases on 8 tibiae and 6 femurs). In 5 cases, decortication with osteotomy-closure and waiting 2 weeks before beginning lengthening, was performed. This was carried out at 1 mm/day. The type of fixator is unimportant. This technique allows a restitution of the tubular bone structure in 3 or 4 months in a periosteo-cortico-medullary callus. PMID:2801072

Lokietek, W; Legaye, J

1989-01-01

64

Caffeine lengthens circadian rhythms in mice.  

PubMed

Although caffeine alters sleep in many animals, whether or not it affects mammalian circadian clocks remains unknown. Here, we found that incubating cultured mammalian cell lines, human osteosarcoma U2OS cells and mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cells, with caffeine lengthened the period of circadian rhythms. Adding caffeine to ex vivo cultures also lengthened the circadian period in mouse liver explants from Per2::Luciferase reporter gene knockin mice, and caused a phase delay in brain slices containing the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), where the central circadian clock in mammals is located. Furthermore, chronic caffeine consumption ad libitum for a week delayed the phase of the mouse liver clock in vivo under 12 h light-dark conditions and lengthened the period of circadian locomotor rhythms in mice under constant darkness. Our results showed that caffeine alters circadian clocks in mammalian cells in vitro and in the mouse ex vivo and in vivo. PMID:21684260

Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ishida, Norio

2011-07-01

65

Callus patterns in femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to evaluate callus patterns seen in femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail by Li classification regarding shape and type and to predict the result while using the nail to reduce the external fixation period and its complications. Eight hundred digital radiographs of 15 patients with 15 segments of femur shortening who underwent femoral lengthening with a monolateral external fixator over an intramedullary nail were analyzed retrospectively by four observers. Each radiograph was studied for callus shape, feature type, and callus density using pixel values. The classification was tested for concurrence and reproducibility by interobserver studies and callus patterns were compared with treatment indices to evaluate how they correlated with the outcome. Mean length gained was 4.5?cm (range: 2-8?cm). External fixator index (EFI) was 21.68?days/cm. Average distraction consolidation index (DCI) was 48.49?days/cm. Fusiform callus was seen in three cases, cylindrical in seven, and lateral in five. The homogenous pathway had higher DCI (43.7) than the heterogeneous pathway (32.9), and mixed pathways making up the rest had a DCI of 50.1. Pixel value of callus showed gradual increase in density until 20-24 weeks, then density gradually fell for 8 weeks, again increased after 32 weeks, again gradually fell, and was comparable to adjacent normal bone by 44-48 weeks. Our results suggest that the Li classification can be satisfactorily applied to lengthening procedures over intramedullary nails. The radiologic pattern and pixel value of regenerate can be correlated with the clinical outcome and can be an aid of prognostic value for the surgeon. PMID:21284034

Muzaffar, Nasir; Hafeez, Arifa; Modi, Hitesh; Song, Hae-Ryong

2011-07-01

66

Is progressive lengthening of the distal phalanx of a child's index finger possible and safe?  

PubMed

Progressive lengthening using an external fixator has only recently been applied to the phalanges of the hand. A number of technical challenges exist, especially in pediatric cases, such as the size of the bone involved, the existence of the physis, and the risk of infection and neurovascular compromise. Here, we report a case of lengthening of a short distal phalanx following osteomyelitis in a 7-year-old child with a uniplanar mini-external fixator. Elongation of 63% was obtained, reaching 80% of the contralateral phalanx, with complete resolution of the preoperative functional impairment, and an acceptable cosmetic result for the patient. A mild limitation of the distal interphalangeal joint flexion as well as mild effort-related discomfort was still present at the last follow-up. No complications were recorded. Gradual lengthening of the phalanges using uniplanar minifixators can be performed safely in children with good results as long as appropriate indications and technical limitations are respected. PMID:24201073

Issa, Majed; Yaacoub, Jean-Jacques; Mansour, Elie; Ghanem, Ismat

2014-03-01

67

Facial fractures.  

PubMed Central

Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a

Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.

1994-01-01

68

Refinements in smile reanimation: 10-year experience with the lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty.  

PubMed

The lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty (LTM) is an innovative dynamic facial reanimation procedure that has been used to great effect following its conception during the early 1990s by the senior author. Since its first description in the literature the technique has been refined and it has become clear from correspondence that certain technical aspects of the procedure require particular attention to detail. We discuss from experience of more than a hundred cases and highlight not only the important technical aspects of the procedure but also the importance of pre-operative assessment and the avoidance of complications. PMID:22445694

Nduka, Charles; Hallam, Marc-James; Labbe, Daniel

2012-07-01

69

Facial tics  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010;33:641-655. Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ... Malhotra R. Review and update of involuntary facial movement disorders presenting in the ophthalmological setting. Surv Ophthalmol. 2011; ...

70

Flapless postextraction socket implant placement in the esthetic zone: part 1. The effect of bone grafting and/or provisional restoration on facial-palatal ridge dimensional change-a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The dental literature has reported vertical soft tissue changes that can occur with immediate implant placement, bone grafting, and provisional restoration ranging from a gain or loss of 1.0 mm. However, little is known of the effects of facial-palatal collapse of the ridge due to these clinical procedures. Based upon treatment modalities rendered, an ensuing contour change can occur with significant negative esthetic consequences. The results of a retrospective clinical cohort study evaluating the change in horizontal ridge dimension associated with implant placement in anterior postextraction sockets are presented for four treatment groups: (1) group no BGPR = no bone graft and no provisional restoration; (2) group PR = no bone graft, provisional restoration; (3) group BG = bone graft, no provisional restoration; and (4) group BGPR = bone graft, provisional restoration. Bone grafting at the time of implant placement into the gap in combination with a contoured healing abutment or a provisional restoration resulted in the smallest amount of ridge contour change. Therefore, it is recommended to place a bone graft and contoured healing abutment or provisional restoration at the time of flapless postextraction socket implant placement. PMID:24804283

Tarnow, Dennis P; Chu, Stephen J; Salama, Maurice A; Stappert, Christian F J; Salama, Henry; Garber, David A; Sarnachiaro, Guido O; Sarnachiaro, Evangelina; Gotta, Sergio Luis; Saito, Hanae

2014-01-01

71

Acute correction of lower limb deformity and simultaneous lengthening with a monolateral fixator.  

PubMed

We have reviewed, retrospectively, all children with a lower limb deformity who underwent an acute correction and lengthening with a monolateral fixator between 1987 and 1996. The patients were all under the age of 19 years and had a minimum follow-up of eight months after removal of the fixator. A total of 41 children had 57 corrections and lengthening. Their mean age was 11.3 years (3.2 to 18.7) and there were 23 girls and 18 boys. The mean maximum correction in any one plane was 23 degrees (7 to 45). In 41 bony segments (either femur or tibia) a uniplanar correction was made while various combinations were carried out in 16. The site of the osteotomy was predominantly diaphyseal, at a mean of 47% (17% to 73%) of the total bone length and the mean length gained was 6.4 cm (1.0 to 17.0). Univariate analysis identified a moderately strong relationship between the bone healing index (BHI), length gained, maximum correction and grade-II to grade-III complications. For logistic regression analysis the patients were binary coded into two groups; those with a good outcome (BHI < or = 45 days/cm) and those with a poor outcome (BHI > 45 days/cm). Various factors which may influence the outcome were then analysed by calculating odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. This analysis suggested a dose response between increasing angular correction and poor BHI which only reached statistical significance for corrections of larger magnitude. Longer lengthenings were associated with a better BHI while age and the actual bone lengthened had little effect. Those patients with a maximum angulatory correction of less than 30 degrees in any one plane had an acceptable consolidation time with few major complications. The technique is suitable for femoral deformity and shortening, but should be used with care in the tibia since the risk of a compartment syndrome or neurapraxia is much greater. PMID:12678363

Donnan, Leo T; Saleh, Michael; Rigby, Alan S

2003-03-01

72

Cochlear Orientation and Dimensions of the Facial Recess in Cochlear Implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the dimensions of the facial recess and the spatial relationship between the facial recess and the cochlea, using CT scanning in cochlear implantees. Method: In 29 cochlear implantees, preoperative CT scans of the temporal bone were compared with findings done at surgery. The dimensions of the facial recess and the relationship between the facial recess and the

Robert H. R. Bettman; Alex M. M. F. Appelman; Adriaan F. van Olphen; Frans W. Zonneveld; Egbert H. Huizing

2003-01-01

73

Hemangioma of the Facial Nerve  

PubMed Central

Hemangioma of the facial nerve may occur more frequently than previously recognized. This benign vascular tumor most often arises in the area of the geniculate ganglion, although the reason for this site of predilection is not known. Using silicon injection and cross-sectional vessel counts, we recently demonstrated the presence of a geniculate capillary plexus (GCP) in the cat. The present study was designed to identify a similar GCP in man, if present, and to relate if to the site of predilection of hemangioma of the facial nerve. Twenty-five human facial nerves were studied in horizontally sectioned temporal bones. A clinical case of hemangioma arising at the geniculate ganglion is presented. The human geniculate ganglion has a very rich capillary plexus in contrast to the poor intrinsic vasculature of the adjacent labyrinthine segment and nioderate vasculature of the tympanic segment of the facial nerve. We hypothesize that the GCP is the origin of most hemangiomas of facial nerve. The anatomic distinctness of the geniculate gangion and GCP from the facial nerve may allow removal of these tumors with preservation of motor function in certain cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Balkany, Thomas; Fradis, Milo; Jafek, Bruce W.; Rucker, Nolan C.

1991-01-01

74

Leg lengthening by distraction osteogenesis using the Ilizarov apparatus: a novel concept of tibia callus subsidence and its influencing factors  

PubMed Central

This article studies the incidence and magnitude of delayed callus subsidence, which will also help in study the hypothesis of three cortex corticalisation to determine the time of fixator removal during distraction osteogenesis (DO). Eighty-one tibia segments with mean lengthening of 7.7?±?2.9 cm were studied with age, gender, skeletal maturity, amount and percentage of lengthening, callus pattern, callus shape, number of cortices seen at the time of fixator removal, bone mineral density (BMD) ratio, and callus diameter ratio analysed for their effect on callus subsidence. All segments had tibia callus subsidence ranging from 4 mm to 3.2 cm with 54% having significant subsidence of more than 1 cm. Multivariate regression analysis revealed only the amount of lengthening and callus patterns to be significant. In conclusion, we can say that tibia callus subsidence is a significant delayed complication and factors affecting it can be used to determine the time of fixator removal.

Shyam, Ashok K.; Singh, Surya Udai; Modi, Hitesh N.; Lee, Seok-Hyun; An, Hyonggin

2008-01-01

75

Distraction by a monotube fixator to achieve limb lengthening: predictive factors for tibia trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons’ experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. Methods A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. Patient’s informed consent and institutional ethical committee approval were obtained. Bio-data, clinical and healing indexes were documented. DMF was applied for patient that met inclusion criteria. The Statistic tests used included the Chi-square, the Student’s two-tailed t test, and the Wilcox on rank-sum test when appropriate. Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for poor outcome potential risk factors were recorded. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were evaluated. Significance level was set at a p value <0.05. Results Thirty-six patients with mean age, 37.2?±?10.3 year and male/female ratio of 1:1.25 had DMF applied. Motorcycle accident accounted for 50.0% of patients and diaphyseal segment was most commonly affected 25 (69.4%). The mean bone lengthened was 10.1?±?4.0 cm (range: 5-21 cm) and mean duration of bone transport was 105.6?±?38.2 days. The means of rate of distraction, healing index and percentage of lengthening were 0.99?±?0.14 mm/day, 15.6?±?4.3 days/cm and 38.0?±?14.3 respectively. The mean follow up was 9.7 ±4.9 months (range: 2–17.0). Per operative complications varied and outcome was satisfactory in 30 (83.3%). Obesity (p <0.0001), multiple surgery (p?=?0.012) and transfusion (p?=?0.001) correlated to poor outcome. Percentage lengthening???50%, bone gap >10 cm, anemia, blood transfusion, general anesthesia administration, distraction rate >1 mm/day, osteomyelitis and prolong partial weight bearing were significant predictive factors for poor outcome in post traumatic tibia distraction. Conclusion Distraction by a monotube fixator appears effective in achieving correction >38.0% original tibia lengthening following traumatic bone gap. Predictive factors for poor outcome were useful for prognostication.

2013-01-01

76

Telomere length maintenance, shortening, and lengthening.  

PubMed

Telomeres maintain chromosome stability and cell replicative capacity. Telomere shortening occurs concomitant with aging. Short telomeres are associated with some diseases, such as dyskeratosis congenita, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and aplastic anemia. Telomeres are longer in pluripotent stem cells than in somatic cells and lengthen significantly during preimplantation development. Furthermore, telomere elongation during somatic cell reprogramming is of great importance in the acquisition of authentic pluripotency. This review focuses primarily on regulatory mechanisms of telomere length maintenance in pluripotent cells, telomere length extension in early embryo development, and also telomere rejuvenation in somatic cell reprogramming. Telomere related diseases are also discussed in this review. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1323-1329, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24374808

Zhao, Zhenrong; Pan, Xinghua; Liu, Lin; Liu, Na

2014-10-01

77

Energetics of lengthening in mouse and toad skeletal muscles.  

PubMed Central

1. The energetics of lengthening were studied in amphibian and mammalian skeletal muscle. The aims were to determine whether energy absorption during stretch is a general property of skeletal muscle and to investigate the influence of lengthening velocity on energy absorption. 2. Experiments were performed in vitro (21 degrees C) using bundles of muscle fibres from fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus and slow-twitch soleus muscles of the mouse and tibialis anterior muscles of a toad, Bufo marinus. Initial heat production and mechanical work done on muscles were measured during isovelocity lengthening. Enthalpy output during lengthening was calculated as the difference between the amount of heat produced and the work done. 3. For all three muscle types, more energy was put into muscles as work than was produced as heat. Thus, part of the energy put into muscles to stretch them must have been absorbed. 4. For all three muscle types, the amount of energy absorbed was constant at velocities exceeding approximately 0.5 Vmax (Vmax is the maximum shortening velocity), but was significantly lower at slow velocities of lengthening. The same amount of energy was absorbed by all three muscles when lengthened at > or = 0.5 Vmax. 5. It was concluded that absorption of energy during lengthening occurs in mammalian as well as amphibian muscle and that lengthening velocity has only a small effect on the amount of energy absorbed.

Constable, J K; Barclay, C J; Gibbs, C L

1997-01-01

78

Geared up to stretch: pennate muscle behavior during active lengthening.  

PubMed

Many locomotor activities require muscles to actively lengthen, dissipate energy and decelerate the body. These eccentric contractions can disrupt cytoskeletal structures within myofibrils and reduce force output. We examined how architectural features of pennate muscles can provide a protective mechanism against eccentric muscle damage by limiting fascicle lengthening. It has been previously shown that the angled fibers of pennate muscles change orientation when shortening. This change in fiber orientation can amplify fascicle shortening, resulting in a velocity advantage at the level of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) that is characterized by a gear ratio (MTU velocity/fascicle velocity). A muscle's architectural gear ratio (AGR) has been shown to vary as a function of force during shortening, while AGR during lengthening remains largely unknown. We independently measured fascicle length and MTU length in vitro in the bullfrog plantaris. We characterized the muscle's force-velocity curve and AGR during both shortening and lengthening across a broad range of forces (10-190% peak isometric force). AGR was measured during the isotonic portion of each contraction, to eliminate possible contributions of series elasticity to MTU length changes. We found that gear ratio varies with force during both shortening and lengthening contractions. The highest AGR was observed during lengthening contractions, indicating that lengthening of the MTU can occur with relatively little stretch of the fascicle. As fascicle strain is considered an important determinant of muscle damage, a high gear ratio may afford pennate muscles protection against the damaging effects of active lengthening. PMID:24477610

Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J

2014-02-01

79

Femoral lengthening with a rail external fixator: tips and tricks  

PubMed Central

Lengthening the femur with an external fixator is commonly practised for a wide variety of pathologies. This technical report includes tips derived from observation and experience in a busy limb reconstruction unit. It focuses on the use of a rail fixator, although some of the descriptions are applicable to lengthening by circular fixators.

2010-01-01

80

Distal fibular lengthening after premature growth arrest: a case report.  

PubMed

Post-traumatic premature closure of the distal fibular growth plate is a rare entity leading to shortening of the lateral malleolus. We report on a 14-year old boy who presented with a 4-year history of worsening, diffuse discomfort and swelling of his left ankle, as well as fibular shortening and talar malreduction. He had sustained a distal tibial fracture 4 years earlier and had been treated with closed reduction. He reported instability of the ankle and difficulty with running. There was 1-cm shortening of the left fibula, 1-cm shortening of the proximal fibula, and slight widening of the medial clear space. Both tibial and fibular growth plates were already closed and the left ankle joint space was slightly narrowed. He was treated with late fibular lengthening and autogenous iliac crest tricortical bone grafting and achieved anatomic restoration of the distal tibiofibular relationship. At one-year follow-up, the ankle-hindfoot score had improved from 69 to 100. PMID:23255659

Manoudis, Grigorios N; Kontogeorgakos, Vasileios A; Badras, Leonidas S

2012-12-01

81

Crown lengthening: basic principles, indications, techniques and clinical case reports.  

PubMed

Sometimes, in order to properly restore teeth, surgical intervention in the form of a crown-lengthening procedure is required. Crown lengthening is a periodontal resective procedure, aimed at removing supporting periodontal structures to gain sound tooth structure above the alveolar crest level. Periodontal health is of paramount importance for all teeth, both sound and restored. For the restorative dentist to utilize crown lengthening, it is important to understand the concept of biologic width, indications, techniques and other principles. This article reviews these basic concepts of clinical crown lengthening and presents four clinical cases utilizing crown lengthening as an integral part of treatments, to restore teeth and their surrounding tissues to health. PMID:15615335

Yeh, Simon; Andreana, Sebastiano

2004-11-01

82

Helping anesthesiologists understand facial fractures.  

PubMed

Injuries to the oral and maxillofacial region are commonly encountered, and the appropriate management of patients with these injuries frequently requires the expertise of an anesthesiologist. Injuries to this region may involve any combination of soft tissue, bone, and teeth. Injuries to these structures often produce anesthesia-related challenges, which must be overcome to achieve optimal outcomes. This article addresses the common challenges faced by anesthesiologists specific to patients with facial fractures. PMID:24021626

Robertson, Chad G; Doucet, Jean Charles

2013-11-01

83

Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on rabbit skeletal muscle during extremity lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Extremity lengthening through distraction osteogenesis is limited by the surrounding skeletal muscle and neurovascular structures\\u000a rather than the bone itself. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on skeletal\\u000a muscle during distraction osteogenesis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. Right tibia of all rabbits was distracted

A. Sabri Atesalp; Yuksel Yurttas; Ozkan Kose; Bahtiyar Demiralp; Cemil Yildiz; Mustafa Kurklu; Bulent Kurt; Ozgur Karacalioglu; Taner Ozgurtas; Emin Oztas; Mustafa Basbozkurt

2009-01-01

84

Estimation of Patient Dose and Associated Radiogenic Risks from Limb Lengthening  

PubMed Central

Limb-lengthening procedures include a series of radiographic examinations to follow the lengthening process and callus formation. We quantified ionizing radiation exposure during lengthening treatment and estimated the risks associated with this exposure in 53 patients undergoing lengthening procedures. Field size and tube voltage of all radiographs and fluoroscopy time during surgery were recorded. According to conversion factor tables of organ doses, the cumulative organ dose was estimated. Location of lengthening, age, complications during lengthening procedure, range of lengthening, healing index, and other factors affecting the duration of the lengthening procedures were analyzed. Average lengthening was 4.8 cm (range, 3.0–12.5 cm). The average cumulative organ dose for a straight lengthening procedure was 3.1 mSv (range, 0.2–12.5 mSv). The average organ dose per centimeter of lengthening was 0.7 mSv/cm (range, 0.03–5.9 mSv/cm). Doses for patients with tibial lengthening (0.3 mSv/cm) were less than doses for patients with femoral lengthening (1.1 mSv/cm). Age, complications, range of lengthening, and healing index did not influence the dosage of radiation per centimeter lengthening. We judge the average patient’s exposure during a limb-lengthening procedure as tolerable, but femur lengthening results in a higher cumulative organ dose. Level of Evidence: Level II, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Buller, Tim C.; Rodl, Robert

2008-01-01

85

Longitudinal Bunch Lengthening Compensation in a High Charge RF Photoinjector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In high charge RF photoinjectors for wakefield two beam acceleration studies, due to the strong longitudinal space charge, bunch lengthening between the photocathode and photoinjector exit is a critical issue. We present beam dynamics studies of bunch len...

C. Adolphsen S. Pei

2008-01-01

86

Facial features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

87

[Facial ageing and cosmetic facial surgery].  

PubMed

The aim of cosmetic facial surgery is to enhance facial beauty by reducing the effects of ageing or by beautifying certain aspects of the face. The face can be subdivided anatomically into the skin, the fat compartments, the ligaments (the links between the skin and the underlying facial skeleton), the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and the masticatory and mimic musculature. As a result of the influence of gravity and ageing, changes which progress according to a fixed pattern take place at all levels of the soft tissue of the face. The supporting facial skeleton also reduces in volume in a characteristic manner. A thorough knowledge of the facial anatomy and the ageing process is essential for safe, effective and predicable facial rejuvenating surgery. The dentist generally has a long-lasting relationship with his patients and therefore may play an important role in advising patients with respect to the (im)possibilities of cosmetic facial surgery. PMID:24684134

Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Jaspers, G W C; Vissink, A

2014-03-01

88

Progress on bunch lengthening at the NSLS VUV ring  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the basic theory and experimental results on bunch lengthening at the NSLS VUV ring. Emphasis will be placed on result of experiments conducted since the last report. A fourth harmonic cavity is used to provide the necessary conditions for bunch lengthening. Recent experiments have been included using the harmonic cavity in a beam excited mode as well as using an external generator to provide the desired conditions. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Biscardi, R.; Broome, W.; Buda, S.; Keane, J.; Ramirez, G.; Wachtel, J.; Wang, J.M.

1991-01-01

89

[Endoscopic subperiosteal facial rejuvenation].  

PubMed

It is just recently that video endoscopic techniques began to be applied to facial rejuvenation in China. Since July 1995, the authors have performed 15 operations of subperiosteal rejuvenation under the video endoscope, combined with liposuction of the sub-mandible region and the nasolabial fold. The operation uses small incisions, produces satisfactory results with less edema, less numbness and without alopecia. The indications, instrumentation, surgical technique and results and presented and discussed. According to our clinical experience, the best candidates for this operation are those aged from 40 to 55. For the patients about sixty years old, a mini multiplane facelift should be carried out in the cheek and neck region following the subperiosteal facelift. The more elderly patients are not candidates for this operation. We emphasize that the dissected scalp flap should be uplifted to the maximum and anchored on the cranial bone to ensure a satisfactory result. PMID:10452040

Song, Y; Xie, Y

1997-09-01

90

A system for facial reconstruction using distraction and symmetry considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the system presented in this paper is to support several facial surgeries that are aiming to transform an unsymmetrical face to a symmetric one. There are two main techniques to achieve this goal: distraction of the lower jaw and adding or removing tissue or bone at certain facial regions. Both planning tasks are done based on segmented

Oliver Burgert; Tobias Salb; Tilo Gockel; Rüdiger Dillmann; Stefan Haßfeld; Robert Krempien; S. Walz; Joachim Mühling

2001-01-01

91

Identification of Nasal Bone Fractures on Conventional Radiography and Facial CT: Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy in Different Imaging Modalities and Analysis of Interobserver Reliability  

PubMed Central

Background There has been no study to compare the diagnostic accuracy of an experienced radiologist with a trainee in nasal bone fracture. Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy between conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) for the identification of nasal bone fractures and to evaluate the interobserver reliability between a staff radiologist and a trainee. Patients and Methods A total of 108 patients who underwent conventional radiography and CT after acute nasal trauma were included in this retrospective study. Two readers, a staff radiologist and a second-year resident, independently assessed the results of the imaging studies. Results Of the 108 patients, the presence of a nasal bone fracture was confirmed in 88 (81.5%) patients. The number of non-depressed fractures was higher than the number of depressed fractures. In nine (10.2%) patients, nasal bone fractures were only identified on conventional radiography, including three depressed and six non-depressed fractures. CT was more accurate as compared to conventional radiography for the identification of nasal bone fractures as determined by both readers (P <0.05), all diagnostic indices of an experienced radiologist were similar to or higher than those of a trainee, and ? statistics showed moderate agreement between the two diagnostic tools for both readers. There was no statistical difference in the assessment of interobserver reliability for both imaging modalities in the identification of nasal bone fractures. Conclusion For the identification of nasal bone fractures, CT was significantly superior to conventional radiography. Although a staff radiologist showed better values in the identification of nasal bone fracture and differentiation between depressed and non-depressed fractures than a trainee, there was no statistically significant difference in the interpretation of conventional radiography and CT between a radiologist and a trainee.

Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Lee, Yoo Jin

2013-01-01

92

Fibula-related complications during bilateral tibial lengthening  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Complications related to the fibula during distraction osteogenesis could cause malalignment. Most published studies have analyzed only migration of the fibula during lengthening, with few studies examining the effects of fibular complications. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 120 segments (in 60 patients) between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent bilateral tibial lengthening of more than 5 cm. The mean follow-up time was 4.9 (2.5–6.9) years. Results The average lengthening percentage was 34% (21–65). The ratio of mean fibular length to tibial length was 1.05 (0.91–1.11) preoperatively and 0.83 (0.65–0.95) postoperatively. The mean proximal fibular migration (PFM) was 15 (4–31) mm and mean distal fibular migration (DFM) was 9.7 (0–24) mm. Premature consolidation occurred in 10 segments, nonunion occurred in 12, and angulation of fibula occurred in 8 segments after lengthening. Valgus deformities of the knee occurred in 10 segments. Interpretation PFM induced valgus deformity of the knee, and premature consolidation of the fibula was associated with the distal migration of the proximal fibula. These mechanical malalignments could sometimes be serious enough to warrant surgical correction. Thus, during lengthening repeated radiographic examinations of the fibula are necessary to avoid complications.

2012-01-01

93

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

94

Facial Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

95

Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of:\\u000a1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection),\\u000a2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial components or describing the texture of the skin in a facial area;

Maja Pantic; S. Li; A. Jain

2009-01-01

96

Facial expression accompanying pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of facial expression accompanying pain is of both practical and theoretical importance. It has been suggested that nonverbal behavior may provide accurate information on pain states to supplement self-report and that perhaps facial expressions could even serve as accurate measures of pain in the absence of verbal report. Recent studies of specific facial expressions accompanying pain have benefited

Linda LeResche; Samuel F. Dworkin

1984-01-01

97

Bifocal femoral deformity correction and lengthening using a circular fixator construct in a dog.  

PubMed

A 7 mo old male rottweiler was evaluated for a right hind limb lameness caused by malunion of a Salter-Harris type II fracture. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT) revealed that the right distal femur had valgus, procurvatum, external rotation, and was 35% (70 mm) shorter than the contralateral femur. Distal femoral wedge ostectomies were performed to acutely correct the angular and rotational deformities. Lengthening of the femur was accomplished by distraction osteogenesis performed over 53 days at a second, proximal diaphyseal osteotomy using a circular fixator construct. This bifocal approach yielded approximately 30 mm of femoral lengthening and a confluent column of regenerate bone that bridged the distraction gap. When evaluated 14 mo after surgery, the dog held the right hip, stifle, and hock in a slightly extended posture when standing and had a subtle asymmetric hind limb gait. The stride of the right hind limb was slightly shortened with compensatory circumduction of the left hind limb during the swing phase of the stride. PMID:23535751

Coutin, Julia V; Lewis, Daniel D; Kim, Stanley E; Reese, David J

2013-01-01

98

The telomere lengthening conundrum--artifact or biology?  

PubMed Central

Recent longitudinal studies of age-dependent leukocyte telomere length (LTL) attrition have reported that variable proportions of individuals experience LTL lengthening. Often, LTL lengthening has been taken at face value, and authors have speculated about the biological causation of this finding. Based on empirical data and theoretical considerations, we show that regardless of the method used to measure telomere length (Southern blot or quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based methods), measurement error of telomere length and duration of follow-up explain almost entirely the absence of age-dependent LTL attrition in longitudinal studies. We find that LTL lengthening is far less frequent in studies with long follow-up periods and those that used a high-precision Southern blot method (as compared with quantitative polymerase chain reaction determination, which is associated with larger laboratory error). We conclude that the LTL lengthening observed in longitudinal studies is predominantly, if not entirely, an artifact of measurement error, which is exacerbated by short follow-up periods. We offer specific suggestions for design of longitudinal studies of LTL attrition to diminish this artifact.

Steenstrup, Troels; Hjelmborg, Jacob v. B.; Kark, Jeremy D.; Christensen, Kaare; Aviv, Abraham

2013-01-01

99

Humeral lengthening and deformity correction with the multiaxial correction system.  

PubMed

Limb lengthening for humeral length discrepancy is typically accomplished using a traditional monolateral external fixator frame or an Ilizarov-type device, which have distinct shortcomings for the correction of concomitant deformity and application to the upper extremity, respectively. A new monolateral frame, the multiaxial correction (MAC) system, provides advantage over other monolateral frames and Ilizarov-type devices for humeral lengthening and may achieve similar outcomes. The purpose of this study was to report on the use of the MAC system for limb lengthening in pediatric patients, each with humeral length discrepancy and deformity. Surgical technique for applying the frame to the humerus is described briefly. A retrospective review of all pediatric patients with humeral length discrepancy treated with the MAC system by one orthopedic surgeon at a major teaching hospital was performed. Clinical data, operative records, and radiographs were reviewed for each patient. A total of three humeri in three children were lengthened over a 3-year period. There were two girls and a boy, with a mean age of 10.3 ± 1.9 years. Etiologies for their discrepancies were osteomyelitis and posttraumatic physeal arrest. Mean initial humeral length discrepancy was 9.4 ± 2.3 cm. All patients had proximal varus deformities, which were partially corrected during treatment. Mean lengthening was 6.5 ± 0.8 cm, and mean healing index was 27.1 ± 4.1 days/cm. Mean follow-up was 23.0 ± 9.9 months. There were no major complications. In conclusion, the MAC system is well suited to the correction of humeral length discrepancies and associated humeral deformities in children. Level of evidence: level IV case series. PMID:21099438

McLawhorn, Alexander S; Sherman, Seth L; Blyakher, Arkady; Widmann, Roger F

2011-03-01

100

Overview of facial aging.  

PubMed

Facial aging is a multidimensional, multifactorial process. The aging face has traditionally been treated by each specialty in a different manner. However, by understanding the process from the perspective of different specialties, each physician may better treat the spectrum of facial aging. Whether or not the facial plastic surgeon injects products to restore volume, uses lasers to resurface the epidermis and dermis, incorporates cosmeceuticals to enhance and maintain improvements in the skin integrity and appearance, or relaxes muscles with botulinum toxins, he or she can best advise patients and address facial aging by having a functional understanding of these various modalities. With this knowledge, the facial plastic surgeon can parse the component of facial aging that enables him or her to correct each with the appropriate treatment. PMID:20024868

Beer, Kenneth; Beer, Jacob

2009-12-01

101

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery.

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

102

Contemporary facial reanimation.  

PubMed

The facial nerve is the most commonly paralyzed nerve in the human body. Facial paralysis affects aesthetic appearance, and it has a profound effect on function and quality of life. Management of patients with facial paralysis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, and physical therapists. Regardless of etiology, patients with facial paralysis should be evaluated systematically, with initial efforts focused upon establishing proper diagnosis. Management should proceed with attention to facial zones, including the brow and periocular region, the midface and oral commissure, the lower lip and chin, and the neck. To effectively compare contemporary facial reanimation strategies, it is essential to employ objective intake assessment methods, and standard reassessment schemas during the entire management period. PMID:24810125

Bhama, Prabhat K; Hadlock, Tessa A

2014-04-01

103

Facial Moulage Impressions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shows how models of the face make excellent preoperative and postoperative records for the surgeon, otolaryngologist, and prosthodontist. Demonstrates the technique for the construction of a facial moulage.

1994-01-01

104

Facial expression recognition with facial parts based sparse representation classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions play important role in human communication. The understanding of facial expression is a basic requirement in the development of next generation human computer interaction systems. Researches show that the intrinsic facial features always hide in low dimensional facial subspaces. This paper presents facial parts based facial expression recognition system with sparse representation classifier. Sparse representation classifier exploits sparse representation to select face features and classify facial expressions. The sparse solution is obtained by solving l1 -norm minimization problem with constraint of linear combination equation. Experimental results show that sparse representation is efficient for facial expression recognition and sparse representation classifier obtain much higher recognition accuracies than other compared methods.

Zhi, Ruicong; Ruan, Qiuqi

2009-10-01

105

Analysis of the karyotype of expanded human adipose-derived stem cells for bone reconstruction of the maxillo-facial region.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were recently proposed for bone maxillofacial reconstruction in association with biomaterials. For this application MSC must be ex-vivo expanded in order to obtain, for a given volume of implanted biomaterial, a relevant number of bone forming cells. Previously conducted pre-clinical studies suggested that a concentration of 6 x 10(8) ASC associated with 900 mg of anorganic bovine bone (ABB) could be effective for human maxillary sinus floor elevation. A keystone issue to guarantee the quality and safety of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products containing expanded MSC and ASC is their chromosome stability in culture: this topic has been widely investigated and conflicting results have been published. Abnormal karyotype of human ex-vivo expanded MSC and ASC was found by some authors, while, at the same time, several other studies showed the MSC and ASC karyotype to be normal. It is therefore important that all the results obtained on MSC and ASC karyotype analysis be published. Given this context, the aim of this manuscript, aim of this manuscript is to verify the karyotype stability of ASC in view of their applications in clinical trials. ASC obtained from the adipose tissue of 4 donors were expanded over extended culture time. Based on previous ASC expansions we hypothesized to be able to obtain 6 x 10(8) cells by passage 7. Karyotype analysis of 30 metaphases was planned to be investigated at passage 2, 7, and 15 in all the cultures. No abnormalities were found in the karyotype of two donors at all the passages tested, while a translocation was found in 2 metaphases of a donor at passage 7, but not at passage 15, and in the fourth donor in 5 metaphases a trisomy was found at passage 15. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected only after extended ASC expansion. Whether these anomalies can be related to risk for the patient's safety will have to be demonstrated by in-vivo studies. PMID:24046944

Bellotti, C; Stanco, D; Ragazzini, S; Romagnoli, L; Martella, E; Lazzati, S; Marchetti, C; Donati, D; Lucarelli, E

2013-01-01

106

Microsurgical pedicle lengthening for pedicled thoracodorsal artery perforator flap transfer.  

PubMed

The pedicled thoracodorsal artery perforator flap has been shown to be an effective option for reconstruction of various regions, including the breast, axilla, upper arm, lateral chest, and shoulder area. However, the original length of the pedicle limits the flap's reach to remote locations. We devised a technique that involves microsurgical lengthening of the pedicle to extend the arc of rotation of the pedicled perforator flap. After exposure of the subscapular vascular tree, we divided the thoracodorsal vessel at the point of bifurcation to the serratus branch and then the pedicle was reconnected to the distal end of the serratus branch. Here, we present 2 cases in which this technique was effectively applied to reconstruct a defect of the elbow using a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap with a pedicle lengthening procedure. PMID:23528633

Park, Bo Young; Seo, Sung Wook; Mun, Goo-Hyun

2014-08-01

107

Performance of bilayer-lengthened LDPC codes under joint decoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an LDPC code design for decode-and-forward (DF) relay systems. Our design is based on the graphical family of the bilayer-lengthened LDPC codes (BL-LDPC) when joint decoding is performed over the overall expanded graph. To design the BL-LDPC codes under joint decoding, we use the framework of the multi-edge type LDPC (MET-LDPC) codes to represent and optimize the

Marwan H. Azmi; Jinhong Yuan

2009-01-01

108

Arthroscopically assisted Z-lengthening of extensor hallucis longus tendon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensor hallucis longus tendon contracture can lead to hyperextension deformity of the big toe. We describe an endoscopic\\u000a approach of Z-lengthening of the tendon. Extensor hallucis longus tendoscopy is performed with a distal portal at the level\\u000a of the metatarsal neck and a proximal portal at the level of the navicular. At the distal portal, the medial half of the

T. H. Lui

2007-01-01

109

Isotonic lengthening and shortening movements of cat soleus muscle  

PubMed Central

1. By supplying pulses to different subdivisions of the ventral nerve roots in rotation it was possible to obtain smooth contractions of cat soleus with low rates of stimulation. 2. After contracting isometrically the muscle was subjected to `step' changes in tension after which it lengthened or shortened isotonically. 3. Isotonic lengthening movements usually began relatively slowly but proceeded with increasing velocity; this acceleration was most conspicuous when low rates of stimulation were used. 4. At low rates of stimulation the isotonic lengthening movement often continued beyond the length at which the muscle could have generated that tension in an isometric contraction. The muscle then shortened slowly back toward that length. 5. Isotonic shortening movements began relatively rapidly, but as shortening continued the movement became slower, and often had an irregular oscillatory course. 6. The isotonic movements are discussed in relation to the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction. 7. The compliance of the series elastic elements was calculated from the relative amplitudes of the `step' changes in tension and length. The stiffness of this component increased with increasing muscle tension.

Joyce, G. C.; Rack, P. M. H.

1969-01-01

110

Long-term adaptations differ for shortening and lengthening contractions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether practice of a sinusoidal task induces different neural adaptations for shortening and lengthening contractions performed within a task. Fourteen young adults were instructed to accurately match a sinusoidal target by lifting and lowering a light load (15% of 1 repetition maximum; 1-RM) with their index finger for 35 s. Each subject performed a total of 50 practice trials during the practice session. After 48 h, subjects performed five trials with the same sinusoidal target at each of three loading conditions: 15% (retention/savings), 7.5% (transfer to a lighter load), and 30% (transfer to a heavier load) of 1-RM. Movement error was quantified as the root mean square error of the movement trace from the target, while movement variability was quantified as the standard deviation of the acceleration of the index finger. First dorsal interosseus muscle activation was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). The frequency structure of the acceleration and EMG signals were obtained using wavelets. Subjects were able to retain the trained task for both shortening and lengthening contractions; however, they exhibited better savings for the shortening contractions. Additionally, for the lowering segments of the task subjects exhibited better transfer to the lighter load. Short-term adaptation and transfer results may be related to changes in the agonist muscle neural activation. Finally, we found greater movement variability during lengthening contractions which was related to both the frequency structure of the acceleration and EMG signals. PMID:22350459

Neto, Osmar Pinto; Lindheim, Hillary; de Miranda Marzullo, Ana Carolina; Baweja, Harsimran S; Christou, Evangelos A

2012-11-01

111

Limb lengthening and peripheral nerve function--factors associated with deterioration of conduction  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Limb lengthening is performed for a diverse range of orthopedic problems. A high rate of complications has been reported in these patients, which include motor and sensory loss as a result of nerve damage. We investigated the effect of limb lengthening on peripheral nerve function. Patients and methods 36 patients underwent electrophysiological testing at 3 points: (1) preoperatively, (2) after application of external fixator/corticotomy but before lengthening, and (3) after lengthening. The limb-length discrepancy was due to a congenital etiology (n = 19), a growth disturbance (n = 9), or a traumatic etiology (n = 8). Results 2 of the traumatic etiology patients had significant changes evident on electrophysiological testing preoperatively. They both deteriorated further with lengthening. 7 of the 21 patients studied showed deterioration in nerve function after lengthening, but not postoperatively, indicating that this was due to the lengthening process and not to the surgical procedure. All of these patients had a congenital etiology for their leg-length discrepancy. Interpretation As detailed electrophysiological tests were carried out before surgery, after surgery but before lengthening, and finally after completion of lengthening, it was possible to distinguish between the effects of the operation and the effects of lengthening on nerve function. The results indicate that the etiology, site (femur or tibia), and nerve (common peroneal or tibial) had a bearing on the risk of nerve injury and that these factors had a far greater effect than the total amount of lengthening.

2013-01-01

112

Holistic facial expression classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

2005-06-01

113

Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2007-01-01

114

Facial image processing for facial analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a methodology for improved image processing for human facial analysis and tries to integrate results from the visible images with the corresponding thermal images. First, an enhanced face detection algorithm in color images is described. The performance of Haar Classifiers is known as a fast real-time face detection algorithm. However, it generates false detection. The suggested solution

Moi Hoon Yap; Hassan Ugail; Reyer Zwiggelaar; Bashar Rajoub

2010-01-01

115

Realistic modeling for facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major unsolved problem in computer graphics is the construc- tion and animation of realistic human facial models. Traditionally, facial models have been built painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by ad hoc parametrically controlled facial mesh defor- mations or kinematic approximation of muscle actions. Fortunately, animators are now able to digitize facial geometries through the use of scanning range

Yuencheng Lee; Demetri Terzopoulos; Keith Walters

1995-01-01

116

Facial soft tissue changes after transverse palatal distraction in adult patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study investigated the 3-D facial soft-tissue response to transverse palatal bone-anchored osteodistraction in 18 adult patients. Laser-scanned facial surface data were obtained for all patients before (T0), 6 months (T1) and 1 year (T2) after transverse palatal distraction. The averaged facial morphologies at T0, T1 and T2 were calculated and compared. Sagittal and vertical measurements were obtained from

G. A. Ramieri; A. Nasi; A. Dell’Acqua; L. Verzé

2008-01-01

117

Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction  

PubMed Central

Background Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A), which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. Methods/Design The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5–21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont). Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group) intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. Discussion BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the context of limb lengthening and deformity correction. Trial Registration NCT00412035

Hamdy, Reggie C; Montpetit, Kathleen; Ruck-Gibis, Joanne; Thorstad, Kelly; Raney, Ellen; Aiona, Michael; Platt, Robert; Finley, Allen; Mackenzie, William; McCarthy, James; Narayanan, Unni

2007-01-01

118

Modified penis lengthening surgery: review of 52 cases.  

PubMed

A modified surgical method for penis lengthening was, for the first time, set up in this laboratory. The procedure involves covering the dissected corpus cavernosum with either a scrotal flap or a skin graft after releasing the superficial ligament and even some deep suspensory ligament. The advantage of the scrotal flap is emphasized to cover the wound, and a V-Y suture was made to avoid the traction. The results, both in appearance and increased length, were satisfactory in 52 cases. Among the 52 patients, 39 suffered from congenital short penis and 13 from traumatic injuries. The significance and the blood supply of the penis are discussed. PMID:10697166

Shirong, L; Xuan, Z; Zhengxiang, W; Dongli, F; Julong, W; Dongyun, Y

2000-02-01

119

Screening for spinal stenosis in achondroplastic patients undergoing limb lengthening.  

PubMed

The need for a screening programme for spinal stenosis in children with achondroplasia undergoing limb lengthening was identified in a tertiary limb reconstruction service. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether screening would identify the 'at risk' group. A total of 26 achondroplastic patients underwent our screening programme. Canal diameters were measured by MRI. Neurosurgical interventions were recorded. Of the patients, 13 had severe foramen magnum narrowing. Six patients required single or multiple surgical decompressions. We identified female sex, delayed milestones and a tight cervicomedullary junction as high risks. We stress upon the importance of developing a nationalized screening programme with guidelines to identify a high-risk group. PMID:24345918

Fernandes, James A; Devalia, Kailash L; Moras, Prem; Pagdin, Jonathan; Jones, Stanley; Mcmullan, John

2014-03-01

120

Alternative lengthening of telomeres in normal mammalian somatic cells.  

PubMed

Some cancers use alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a mechanism whereby new telomeric DNA is synthesized from a DNA template. To determine whether normal mammalian tissues have ALT activity, we generated a mouse strain containing a DNA tag in a single telomere. We found that the tagged telomere was copied by other telomeres in somatic tissues but not the germline. The tagged telomere was also copied by other telomeres when introgressed into CAST/EiJ mice, which have telomeres more similar in length to those of humans. We conclude that ALT activity occurs in normal mouse somatic tissues. PMID:23307865

Neumann, Axel A; Watson, Catherine M; Noble, Jane R; Pickett, Hilda A; Tam, Patrick P L; Reddel, Roger R

2013-01-01

121

Towards Realistic Facial Modeling and Re-Rendering of Human Skin Aging Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial aging simulation and animation are aspiring goals and challenging tasks because the growth and ag- ing processes are greatly influence the facial shape and its structure. The face structure, the size of the bones, and the skin texture change, the skin fattens or sags, wrin- kles appear and even muscular activities change in terms of intensity. This paper proposes

Hussein Karam Hussein

2002-01-01

122

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

PubMed

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities. PMID:23529088

Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

2013-07-01

123

FRONTAL FACIAL EXPRESSION SYNTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

When inputting image sequence that is from the frontal- view neutral face to the side-view facial expression, our research wants to separate the rigid head motion and non-rigid facial expression and removes the head motion by incremental perspective motion model with three sub-regions. As to three sub-regions of the warping result, our research could overcome the edge problem of the

Chih-Wei Fang; Te-Hsun Wang; Tzung-Heng Lai; Sung-Hsien Hsieh; Chun-Hao Chang; Jing-Ye Lin; Jenn-Jier James Lien

124

Emotion and Facial Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Facial expression is usually synthesized or predicted on the basis of a given emotion. The prototypical expressions for basic\\u000a emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger, and fear) as postulated by discrete emotion psychologists are rather\\u000a consistently produced and interpreted among different cultures, and can be used as icons to represent a basic emotion. However,\\u000a these facial expressions are actually rarely

Thomas Wehrle; Susanne Kaiser

1999-01-01

125

Application of Skeletal Buttress Analogy in Composite Facial Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Reconstructive algorithms for composite craniofacial defects have focused on soft tissue flaps with or without bone grafts. However, volumetric loss over time limits long-term preservation of facial contour. Application of craniofacial skeletal buttress principles to high-energy trauma or oncologic defects with composite vascularized bone flaps restores the soft tissue as well as the buttresses and ultimately preserves facial contour. We conducted a retrospective review of 34 patients with craniofacial defects treated by a single surgeon with composite bone flaps at R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center and Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2001 to 2007. Data collected included age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of defect, type of reconstructive procedures, and outcome. Thirty-four patients with composite tissue loss, primarily males (n?=?24) with an average age of 37.4 years, underwent reconstruction with vascularized bone flaps (28 fibula flaps and 6 iliac crest flaps). There were 4 cranial defects, 8 periorbital defects, 18 maxillary defects, and 4 maxillary and periorbital defects. Flap survival rate was 94.1% with an average follow-up time of 20.5 months. Restoration of facial height, width, and projection is achieved through replacement of skeletal buttresses and is essential for facial harmony. Since 2001, our unit has undergone a paradigm shift with regard to treatment of composite oncologic and traumatic defects, advocating vascularized bone flaps to achieve predictable long-term outcomes.

Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Rodriguez, Eduardo D.

2009-01-01

126

Can Beauty Be Ignored? Effects of Facial Attractiveness on Covert Attention  

PubMed Central

Facial beauty has both important social and biological implications. Research has shown that people tend to look longer at attractive than unattractive faces. However, little is known about whether an attractive face presented outside foveal vision can capture attention. The effect of facial attractiveness on covert attention was investigated in a spatial cuing task. Participants were asked to judge the orientation of a cued target presented to the left or right visual field while ignoring a task-irrelevant face image flashed in the opposite field. Relative to unattractive faces, the presence of attractive faces significantly lengthened task performance. The results suggest that facial beauty automatically competes with an ongoing cognitive task for spatial attention.

Sui, Jie; Liu, Chang Hong

2012-01-01

127

Unilateral facial myokymia in a dog with an intracranial meningioma.  

PubMed

A 23-month-old castrated male Cavalier King Charles spaniel was evaluated because of a 6-month history of unusual rippling/undulating movements of the right facial muscles that were continuous and persisted during sleep. Neurological examination revealed narrowing of the right palpebral fissure and unilateral right-sided facial myokymia that was characterised by myokymic, and to a lesser degree, neuromyotonic discharges on concentric needle electromyographic examination. After persisting unchanged for almost 2.5 years from its onset, the facial myokymia gradually disappeared over a 6-month period concomitant with the emergence of a persistent ipsilateral facial paralysis and head tilt. At 5 years and 9 months after the first examination, signs of ipsilateral lacrimal, pharyngeal and laryngeal dysfunction became evident and the dog was euthanased. Postmortem examination identified a malignant (WHO grade III) meningioma in the right cerebellopontomedullary angle that compressed the ventrolateral cranial medulla, effaced the jugular foramen and internal acoustic meatus and extended into the facial canal of the petrous temporal bone. Novel findings were the unique observation of isolated unilateral facial myokymia preceding diagnosis of a meningioma affecting facial nerve function within the caudal cranial fossa and the remarkably long duration of neurological signs (75 months) attributable to the neoplasm. PMID:20726972

Holland, C T; Holland, J T; Rozmanec, M

2010-09-01

128

Computed tomography of facial fractures.  

PubMed

Facial skeletal fractures are common, potentially serious, and frequently associated with other life-threatening conditions, such as traumatic brain injuries. Facial fractures can be simple or complex and sometimes involve serious complications. Computed tomography has revolutionized the rapid and precise assessment of craniofacial and neck fractures in patients with severe facial trauma. This article introduces readers to the epidemiology, skeletal anatomy and biomechanics, complications, and diagnostic imaging of facial fractures. In addition, this article describes efforts to develop and validate a quantitative scoring system for facial fracture severity and reviews treatment strategies for facial skeletal fractures. PMID:24806070

Furlow, Bryant

2014-01-01

129

Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects  

PubMed Central

Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology.

Federspil, Philipp A.

2012-01-01

130

Posttraumatic Cholesteatoma Complicated by a Facial Paralysis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The posttraumatic cholesteatoma is a rare complication of different types of the temporal bone damage. Its diagnosis is often done after several years of evolution, sometimes even at the stage of complications. A case of posttraumatic cholesteatoma is presented that was revealed by a facial nerve paralysis 23 years after a crash of the external auditory canal underlining the importance of the otoscopic and radiological regular monitoring of the patients with a traumatism of the temporal bone.

Chihani, M.; Aljalil, A.; Touati, M.; Bouaity, B.; Ammar, H.

2012-01-01

131

Physiological role of stalk lengthening in Caulobacter crescentus  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus forms a thin polar stalk, which mediates its attachment to solid surfaces. Whereas stalks remain short (1 µm) in nutrient-rich conditions, they lengthen dramatically (up to 30 µm) upon phosphate starvation. A long-standing hypothesis is that the Caulobacter stalk functions as a nutrient scavenging “antenna” that facilitates phosphate uptake and transport to the cell body. The mechanistic details of this model must be revisited, given our recent identification of a protein-mediated diffusion barrier, which prevents the exchange of both membrane and soluble proteins between the stalk extension and the cell body. In this report, we discuss the potential of stalks to facilitate nutrient uptake and propose additional physiological roles for stalk elongation in Caulobacter cells.

Klein, Eric A; Schlimpert, Susan; Hughes, Velocity; Brun, Yves V; Thanbichler, Martin; Gitai, Zemer

2013-01-01

132

Physiological role of stalk lengthening in Caulobacter crescentus.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus forms a thin polar stalk, which mediates its attachment to solid surfaces. Whereas stalks remain short (1 µm) in nutrient-rich conditions, they lengthen dramatically (up to 30 µm) upon phosphate starvation. A long-standing hypothesis is that the Caulobacter stalk functions as a nutrient scavenging "antenna" that facilitates phosphate uptake and transport to the cell body. The mechanistic details of this model must be revisited, given our recent identification of a protein-mediated diffusion barrier, which prevents the exchange of both membrane and soluble proteins between the stalk extension and the cell body. In this report, we discuss the potential of stalks to facilitate nutrient uptake and propose additional physiological roles for stalk elongation in Caulobacter cells. PMID:23986806

Klein, Eric A; Schlimpert, Susan; Hughes, Velocity; Brun, Yves V; Thanbichler, Martin; Gitai, Zemer

2013-07-01

133

Personalized facial expression recognition in indoor environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression recognition is one of the most popular topics in emotion analysis. Most facial expression recognition systems are implemented using general expression models. Since facial expressions may be expressed differently by different people, inaccurate results are unavoidable. The proposed facial expression recognition system recognizes facial expressions using the facial features of an individual user. A radial basis function neural

Chuan-Yu Chang; Yan-Chiang Huang

2010-01-01

134

Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies provide conclusive evidence that there is a pancultural element in facial expressions of emotion. This element must be the particular associations between movements of specific facial muscles and emotions, since the results obtained in the judgeme...

P. Ekman

1971-01-01

135

Z-lengthening of the Achilles Tendon with Transverse Skin Incision  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of various complications after Achilles tendon lengthening is mainly related to the length of surgical exposure and the lengthening method. A comprehensive technique to minimize the complications is required. Methods The treatment of Achilles tendon tightness in 57 patients (95 ankles) were performed by using a short transverse incision on a skin crease of the heel and by Z-lengthening of the tendon. In the severe cases, two or three transverse incisions were required for greater lengthening of the tendon, and a serial cast or Ilizarov apparatus was applied for the gradual correction. The results of these 95 ankles were compared to those of 18 ankles, which underwent percutaneous sliding lengthening, and to the 19 ankles, which received Z-lengthening with a medial longitudinal incision. Results The functional and cosmetic satisfaction was achieved among those who underwent the tendon lengthening with the new technique. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score improved from 56.1 to 81.8. The second operations to correct recurrence were performed in the two cerebral palsy patients. Conclusions The new technique has a low rate of complications such as scarring, adhesion, total transection, excessive lengthening, and recurrence of shortening. The excellent cosmesis and the short operation time are the additional advantages.

Oh, Jong Seok; Lee, Jong Seo; Lee, Tae Hoon

2014-01-01

136

Acneiform facial eruptions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management.

Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

2005-01-01

137

Facial reanimation after facial nerve injury using hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis: the gruppo otologico experience.  

PubMed

To evaluate the results of facial nerve reanimation after facial nerve injury by means of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis. Retrospective case review. Private neuro-otologic and cranial base quaternary referral center. Sixty patients underwent hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis for facial nerve reanimation between April 1987 and December 2010. Only forty patients completed a minimal follow up of 24 months at the time of evaluation and were included in the study population. Facial nerve paralysis was present for a mean duration of 11.3 months (range 2-42 months) and all the patients had a HB grade VI prior their surgery. Final facial nerve motor function. The most common cause of facial paralysis was vestibular Schwannoma surgery. All the patients achieved a postoperative HB grade III or IV after a mean follow-up time of 20 months. The facial movements were detected after a period that ranged from ranged from 5 to 9 months. Only 4 patients suffered from difficulties during eating and drinking and three of them had associated lower cranial nerve deficit. Despite the various techniques in facial reanimation following total facial nerve paralysis, the end to end of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis remains one of the best treatments in cases of viable distal facial stump and nonatrophic musculature. PMID:24427588

Tanbouzi Husseini, Sami; Kumar, David Victor; De Donato, Giuseppe; Almutair, Tamama; Sanna, Mario

2013-12-01

138

Secondary nerve lengthening to obtain full knee extension in popliteal pterygium syndrome.  

PubMed

Microsurgical nerve lengthening was performed in two siblings presenting a popliteal pterigium syndrome with a knee flexion contracture of 80 degrees. After the first attempt for nerve lengthening and knee extension elsewhere, a repeated lengthening was required due to continuing tip-toe walking and recurrent knee contracture at the age of 3 years. An extensive external and internal interfascicular microsurgical neurolysis resulted in a lengthening of the nerves. A full length of leg procedure had to be performed, inclusive of Achilles tendon lengthening to obtain a complete extension of the knee and a 90-degree ankle flexion. Maintaining the leg in a fully extended position was obtained with a dynamic splinting in the first month after the operation. When timing the operation we have to consider the importance of adequate precision of the microsurgical neurolysis, down to the identification of the Fontana bands, and the adequate postoperative splinting. PMID:24683134

Boeckx, Willy; Misani, Marta; Vandermeeren, Liesbeth; Franck, Diane; Zirak, Christophe; Demey, Albert

2014-05-01

139

Influence of femoral lengthening on hip joint space in posttraumatic femoral shortening.  

PubMed

We performed femoral lengthening for post-traumatic femoral shortening in 14 patients (10 men). The mean age was 26 (17-33) years. The callotasis method was employed using an Orthofix or Hifixator monolateral external fixator. The average length gained was 6 (3-13) cm, equal to 16 (7-36)%. The mean narrowing ratio of the hip joint space during lengthening was 9 (0-26)% and the narrowing persisted at the final follow-up. Cases with narrowing greater than 5% had a longer time between the development of the shortening and the lengthening than the others (p = 0.03). Our findings indicate that femoral lengthening for posttraumatic femoral shortening should be done as early as possible to prevent the development of joint space narrowing during the lengthening procedure. PMID:9462353

Hung, S C; Nakamura, K; Matsushita, T; Okazaki, H; Shiro, R; Mamada, K; Tanaka, K; Ou, W; Kurokawa, T

1997-12-01

140

Advanta facial implants.  

PubMed

Advanta facial implants represent a new method of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) technology and appear to be different from previous ePTFE products. The implants appear to work well when used for lip augmentation. The author has 18 months' experience with this implant. Placement of these implants is simple and predictable. The complication rate is low and the implants are serviceable. The procedure is reversible without extensive damage to normal tissue. The Advanta facial implant appears to be a useful option in the armamentarium of the cosmetic oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:18088762

Niamtu, Joseph

2005-02-01

141

[An individual facial shield for a sportsman with an orofacial injury].  

PubMed

Facial shields are used when practising contact sports, high speed sports, sports using hard balls, sticks or bats, sports using protective shields or covers, and sports using hard boardings around the sports ground. Examples of facial shields are commercially available, per branch of sport standardised helmets. Fabricating individual protective shields is primarily restricted to mouth guards. In individual cases a more extensive facial shield is demanded, for instance in case of a surgically stabilised facial bone fracture. In order to be able to fabricate an extensive individual facial shield, an accurate to the nearest model of the anterior part of the head is required. An accurate model can be provided by making an impression of the face, which is poured in dental stone. Another method is producing a stereolithographic model using computertomography or magnetic resonance imaging. On the accurate model the facial shield can be designed and fabricated from a strictly safe material, such as polyvinylchloride or polycarbonate. PMID:15932045

de Baat, C; Peters, R; van Iperen-Keiman, C M; de Vleeschouwer, M

2005-05-01

142

Perceptually guided expressive facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of current facial animation approaches largely focus on the accuracy or efficiency of their algorithms, or how to optimally utilize pre-collected facial motion data. However, human perception, the ultimate measuring stick of the visual fidelity of synthetic facial animations, was not effectively exploited in these approaches. In this paper, we present a novel perceptually guided computational framework for expressive

Zhigang Deng; Xiaohan Ma

2008-01-01

143

Lasers for Facial Rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser and laser-like assisted facial rejuvenation has become very popular during the last decade. Although a myriad of techniques are available, such approaches can be divided into four basic approaches. There are those that (i) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and provide a significant thermal effect (CO2 lasers); (ii) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and minimal thermal effects

David J. Goldberg

2003-01-01

144

Prophylactic titanium elastic nailing (TEN) following femoral lengthening (Lengthening then rodding) with one or two nails reduces the risk for secondary interventions after regenerate fractures: a cohort study in monolateral vs. bilateral lengthening procedures  

PubMed Central

Background Femoral fracture rates of up to 30% have been reported following lengthening procedures using fixators. “Lengthening then rodding” uses one or two titanium elastic nails (TENs) for prophylactic intramedullary nailing to reduce this complication. The aim of the study was to decide if usage of only one TEN is safe or has it a higher risk of getting a fracture? And we asked if there is a difference between patients with monolateral or bilateral lengthening procedures according to their fracture rate? Methods One or two TENs were implanted in two groups of patients (monolateral and bilateral) after femoral lengthening procedures. The regenerate quality was classified using the Li system and fractures were categorized using the Simpson and Kenwright classification. The follow-up period was at least 1 year after removal of the frame. Results Sixty-seven patients with 101 femoral lengthening procedures were included in 2007–2011. Group A included 34 patients with bilateral lengthening due to congenital short stature. Group B consisted of 33 patients with congenital disorders with leg length discrepancies. Seven fractures in six patients were seen in group A and five fractures in group B. One patient had residual shortening of 1 cm, and 11 fractures healed without relevant deviation (< 5°) or shortening (< 5 mm). A soft-tissue infection in one patient led to early removal of one TEN. Conclusions Fractures occurred in both groups of patients in total in 12 of the 101 cases (12%). The rate of secondary interventions was markedly reduced. Usage of one or two TENs did not influence the fracture rate.

2013-01-01

145

Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.  

PubMed

The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences. PMID:23469703

Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

2012-01-01

146

How precise is the PRECICE compared to the ISKD in intramedullary limb lengthening?  

PubMed

Background and purpose - The PRECICE intramedullary limb lengthening system uses a new technique with a magnetic rod and a motorized external remote controller (ERC) with rotational magnetic field. We evaluated the reliability and safety of the PRECICE system. Methods - We compared our preliminary results with PRECICE in 24 patients (26 nails) with the known difficulties in the use of mechanical lengthening devices such as the ISKD. We used the Paley classification for evaluation of problems, obstacles, and complications. Results - 2 nails were primarily without function, and 24/26 nails lengthened over the desired distance. Lengthening desired was 38 mm and lengthening obtained was 37 mm. There were 2 nail breakages, 1 in the welding seam and 1 because of a fall that occurred during consolidation. ERC usage was problematic mostly in patients with femoral lengthening. Adjustment of the ERC was necessary in 10 of 24 cases. 15 cases had implant-associated problems, obstacles were seen in 5 cases, and complications were seen in each of 4 cases. Interpretaion - The reliability of the PRECICE system is comparable to that of other intramedullary lengthening devices such as the ISKD. The motorized external remote controller and its application by the patients is a weak point of the system and needs strict supervision. PMID:24758320

Schiedel, Frank M; Vogt, Björn; Tretow, Henning L; Schuhknecht, Britta; Gosheger, Georg; Horter, Melanie J; Rödl, Robert

2014-06-01

147

How precise is the PRECICE compared to the ISKD in intramedullary limb lengthening?  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The PRECICE intramedullary limb lengthening system uses a new technique with a magnetic rod and a motorized external remote controller (ERC) with rotational magnetic field. We evaluated the reliability and safety of the PRECICE system. Methods We compared our preliminary results with PRECICE in 24 patients (26 nails) with the known difficulties in the use of mechanical lengthening devices such as the ISKD. We used the Paley classification for evaluation of problems, obstacles, and complications. Results 2 nails were primarily without function, and 24/26 nails lengthened over the desired distance. Lengthening desired was 38 mm and lengthening obtained was 37 mm. There were 2 nail breakages, 1 in the welding seam and 1 because of a fall that occurred during consolidation. ERC usage was problematic mostly in patients with femoral lengthening. Adjustment of the ERC was necessary in 10 of 24 cases. 15 cases had implant-associated problems, obstacles were seen in 5 cases, and complications were seen in each of 4 cases. Interpretaion The reliability of the PRECICE system is comparable to that of other intramedullary lengthening devices such as the ISKD. The motorized external remote controller and its application by the patients is a weak point of the system and needs strict supervision.

Vogt, Bjorn; Tretow, Henning L; Schuhknecht, Britta; Gosheger, Georg; Horter, Melanie J; Rodl, Robert

2014-01-01

148

Facial paralysis and lymphocytic facial neuritis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) positive for simian retrovirus type D2.  

PubMed

Simian retrovirus type D (SRVD) is a naturally occurring betaretrovirus in nonhuman primates of the genus Macaca. Infection can lead to a variety of clinical, hematologic, and histopathologic abnormalities. We report an unusual clinical presentation of facial paralysis and histologic lymphocytic neuritis in an SRVD type 2 (SRVD2)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a catheter-associated vena caval thrombus, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and multisystemic lymphoid hyperplasia. At initial presentation, a right atrial mass was detected by echocardiography. The macaque was clinically asymptomatic but had persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and later neutropenia. It was seropositive for SRV and PCR-positive for SRVD 2. Approximately 1 mo after initial presentation, the macaque developed right facial paralysis and was euthanized. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic aggregates affecting multiple organs, consistent with SRV-related lymphoid hyperplasia. The right facial nerve showed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. The nerve itself was negative immunohistochemically for SRV antigen, but antigen was present infrequently in pericapillary lymphoid cells within the facial nerve and abundantly within lymphoid aggregates in the adjacent parotid salivary gland, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Known neurotropic viruses could not be identified. Given the widespread inflammation in this macaque, particularly in the area surrounding the facial nerve, lymphocytic neuritis and facial paralysis likely were an indirect effect of SRV infection due to local extension of SRV-related inflammation in the surrounding tissue. PMID:22330582

Hampton, Anna L; Colby, Lesley A; Bergin, Ingrid L

2011-12-01

149

Facial Paralysis and Lymphocytic Facial Neuritis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Positive for Simian Retrovirus Type D2  

PubMed Central

Simian retrovirus type D (SRVD) is a naturally occurring betaretrovirus in nonhuman primates of the genus Macaca. Infection can lead to a variety of clinical, hematologic, and histopathologic abnormalities. We report an unusual clinical presentation of facial paralysis and histologic lymphocytic neuritis in an SRVD type 2 (SRVD2)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a catheter-associated vena caval thrombus, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and multisystemic lymphoid hyperplasia. At initial presentation, a right atrial mass was detected by echocardiography. The macaque was clinically asymptomatic but had persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and later neutropenia. It was seropositive for SRV and PCR-positive for SRVD 2. Approximately 1 mo after initial presentation, the macaque developed right facial paralysis and was euthanized. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic aggregates affecting multiple organs, consistent with SRV-related lymphoid hyperplasia. The right facial nerve showed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. The nerve itself was negative immunohistochemically for SRV antigen, but antigen was present infrequently in pericapillary lymphoid cells within the facial nerve and abundantly within lymphoid aggregates in the adjacent parotid salivary gland, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Known neurotropic viruses could not be identified. Given the widespread inflammation in this macaque, particularly in the area surrounding the facial nerve, lymphocytic neuritis and facial paralysis likely were an indirect effect of SRV infection due to local extension of SRV-related inflammation in the surrounding tissue.

Hampton, Anna L; Colby, Lesley A; Bergin, Ingrid L

2011-01-01

150

Penetrating facial injury from angle grinder use: management and prevention.  

PubMed

Injuries resulting from the use of angle grinders are numerous. The most common sites injured are the head and face. The high speed disc of angle grinders does not respect anatomical boundaries or structures and thus the injuries produced can be disfiguring, permanently disabling or even fatal. However, aesthetically pleasing results can be achieved with thorough debridement, resection of wound edges and careful layered functional closure after reduction and fixation of facial bone injuries. A series of penetrating facial wounds associated with angle grinder use are presented and the management and prevention of these injuries discussed. PMID:18215305

Carter, Lachlan M; Wales, Craig J; Varley, Iain; Telfer, Martin R

2008-01-01

151

Penetrating facial injury from angle grinder use: management and prevention  

PubMed Central

Injuries resulting from the use of angle grinders are numerous. The most common sites injured are the head and face. The high speed disc of angle grinders does not respect anatomical boundaries or structures and thus the injuries produced can be disfiguring, permanently disabling or even fatal. However, aesthetically pleasing results can be achieved with thorough debridement, resection of wound edges and careful layered functional closure after reduction and fixation of facial bone injuries. A series of penetrating facial wounds associated with angle grinder use are presented and the management and prevention of these injuries discussed.

Carter, Lachlan M; Wales, Craig J; Varley, Iain; Telfer, Martin R

2008-01-01

152

Studies of RF Noise Induced Bunch Lengthening at the LHC  

SciTech Connect

Radio Frequency (RF) noise induced bunch lengthening can strongly affect the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) performance through luminosity reduction, particle loss, and other effects. This work presents measurements from the LHC that better quantify the relationship between the RF noise and longitudinal emittance blowup and identify the performance limiting RF components. The experiments presented in this paper confirmed the predicted effects on the LHC bunch length growth. Dedicated measurements were conducted in the LHC to gain insight in the effect of RF noise to the longitudinal beam diffusion. It was evident that the growth rate of the bunch length is strongly related to the accelerating voltage phase noise power spectral density around f{sub s} + kf{sub rev}, as predicted in [4]. The noise threshold for 2.5 ps/hr growth was estimated to -101 dBc/Hz (SSB flat noise spectral density from f{sub s} to the edge of the closed loop bandwidth). A 9 dB margin is achieved with the current RF configuration and the BPL on. With this formalism it is now possible to estimate the effect of different operational and technical RF configurations on the LHC beam diffusion. This formalism could also be useful for the design of future RF systems and the budgeting of the allowed noise.

Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; Fox, J.D.; Baudrenghien, P.; Butterworth, A.; Molendijk, J.; /SLAC /CERN

2011-08-17

153

Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

2014-01-01

154

[Facial osteotomies without fixation].  

PubMed

The authors first review the problems associated with inter-maxillary blockage and of classical methods of immobilisation used in all types of facial osteotomy. Their experience of osteosynthesis in traumatology has led them to use whenever possible osteosynthesis alone with screw fixed microplates. The other methods are used only as secondary assistance in the case of necessity. Osteosynthesis without blockage prevents recurrence and does not compromise the result as far as satisfactory dental articulation is concerned. PMID:266266

Champy, M; Wilk, A; Lodde, J P; Grasset, D

1977-01-01

155

Human facial beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that human faces judged to be attractive by people possess two features—averageness and symmetry—that promoted\\u000a adaptive mate selection in human evolutionary history by way of production of offspring with parasite resistance. Facial composites\\u000a made by combining individual faces are judged to be attractive, and more attractive than the majority of individual faces.\\u000a The composites possess both symmetry

Randy Thorrthill; Steven W. Gangestad

1993-01-01

156

Foot pressure and radiographic outcome measures of lateral column lengthening for pes planovalgus deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to establish and characterize the relationship between foot pressure analysis and radiographic measurements in children that underwent a lateral column lengthening procedure for pes planovalgus (PPV). Eight children (13 feet) with PPV that had failed non-operative treatment underwent a lateral column lengthening procedure. Pre-operative and post-operative standing AP and lateral radiographs and foot pressure

Donna J Oeffinger; Richard W Pectol; Chester M Tylkowski

2000-01-01

157

Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis in children: a report of 22 cases.  

PubMed

We present our experience of forearm lengthening in children with various conditions performed by a single surgeon between 1995 and 2009. A total of 19 children with a mean age of 9.8 years (2.1 to 15.9) at the time of surgery had 22 forearm lengthenings using either an Ilizarov/spatial and Ilizarov circular frame or a monolateral external fixator. The patients were divided into two groups: group A, in whom the purpose of treatment was to restore the relationship between the radius and the ulna, and group B, in whom the objective was to gain forearm length. The mean follow-up after removal of the frame was 26 months (13 to 53). There were ten patients (11 forearms) in group A with a mean radioulnar discrepancy of 2.4 cm (1.5 to 3.3) and nine patients (11 forearms) in group B. In group A, the mean lengthening achieved was 2.7 cm (1.0 to 5.5), with a lengthening index of 11.1 weeks/cm. Equalisation or overcorrection of the discrepancy was achieved in seven of 11 forearms, but lengthening was only partially successful at preventing subluxation or dislocation of the radial head. In group B, the mean lengthening achieved was 3.8 cm (1.9 to 6.8), with a lengthening index of 7.25 weeks/cm. Common complications in both groups were pin-site infection and poor regenerate formation. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis is a worthwhile procedure in children that can improve cosmesis and function, particularly in patients with shortening of both radius and ulna. PMID:22058310

Hill, R A; Ibrahim, T; Mann, H A; Siapkara, A

2011-11-01

158

Tension regulation during lengthening and shortening actions of the human soleus muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated tension regulation in the human soleus (SOL) muscle during controlled lengthening and\\u000a shortening actions. Eleven subjects performed plantar flexor efforts on an ankle torque motor through 30° of ankle displacement\\u000a (75°–105° internal ankle angle) at lengthening and shortening velocities of 5, 15 and 30°?·?s?1. To isolate the SOL from the remainder of the triceps

G. J. Pinniger; J. R. Steele; A. Thorstensson; A. G. Cresswell

2000-01-01

159

The biomechanical effects of limb lengthening and botulinum toxin type A on rabbit tendon.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have examined the effects of distraction osteogenesis (DO) on bone, but relatively fewer have explored muscle adaptation, and even less have addressed the concomitant alterations that occur in the tendon. The purpose herein was to characterize the biomechanical properties of normal and elongated rabbit (N = 20) tendons with and without prophylactic botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) treatment. Elastic and viscoelastic properties of Achilles and Tibialis anterior (TA) tendons were evaluated through pull to failure and stress relaxation tests. All TA tendons displayed nonlinear viscoelastic responses that were strain dependent. A power law formulation was used to model tendon viscoelastic responses and tendon elastic responses were fit with a microstructural model. Distraction-elongated tendons displayed increases in compliance and stress relaxation rates over undistracted tendons; BTX-A administration offset this result. The elastic moduli of distraction-lengthened TA tendons were diminished (p = 0.010) when distraction was combined with gastrocnemius (GA) BTX-A administration, elastic moduli were further decreased (p = 0.004) and distraction following TA BTX-A administration resulted in TA tendons with moduli not different from contralateral control (p > 0.05). Compared to contralateral control, distraction and GA BTX-A administration displayed shortened toe regions, (p = 0.031 and 0.038, respectively), while tendons receiving BTX-A in the TA had no differences in the toe region (p > 0.05). Ultimate tensile stress was unaltered by DO, but stress at the transition from the toe to the linear region of the stress-stretch curve was diminished in all distraction-elongated TA tendons (p < 0.05). The data suggest that prophylactic BTX-A treatment to the TA protects some tendon biomechanical properties. PMID:20719314

Olabisi, Ronke M; Best, Thomas M; Hurschler, Christof; Vanderby, Ray; Noonan, Kenneth J

2010-12-01

160

[Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].  

PubMed

This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain. PMID:24748087

Koyama, Shinichi

2014-04-01

161

Combined contraction and distraction of the facial skeleton in staged treatment of an atypical facial cleft using distraction devices.  

PubMed

The purpose of this clinical report was to present a case of a rare Tessier 2/12 craniofacial cleft, which was treated by using mandibular distractors in a reverse manner for the reapproximation of the craniofacial skeleton allowing for closure of the soft tissue component and palate of this cleft. The changes in the bony portions of the cleft were accomplished without osteotomies taking advantage of the mobility of the facial bones involving both normal bony sutures and the cleft bone. The bone movement allowed for easier adhesion of the midline lower facial soft tissue during the first year of life. The outcomes were both functionally and aesthetically satisfactory. Although the ability of distractor devices to regenerate bone is well documented, they can also accomplish the same effect in a reverse manner. This new use of distraction devices in a reverse manner to contract the craniofacial skeleton without osteotomies to the author's knowledge has not been previously reported and adds a valuable tool to closing large facial clefts. However, considering the severity and complexity of the deformities, long-term follow-up will be necessary to assess the benefits of the surgical interventions and the patient's quality of life. PMID:24717313

Konofaos, Petros; Alvarez, Sonia; Wallace, Robert D

2014-05-01

162

The Facial Skeleton in Patients with Osteoporosis: A Field for Disease Signs and Treatment Complications  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis affects all bones, including those of the facial skeleton. To date the facial bones have not drawn much attention due to the minimal probability of morbid fractures. Hearing and dentition loss due to osteoporosis has been reported. New research findings suggest that radiologic examination of the facial skeleton can be a cost-effective adjunct to complement the early diagnosis and the follow up of osteoporosis patients. Bone-mass preservation treatments have been associated with osteomyelitis of the jawbones, a condition commonly described as osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ). The facial skeleton, where alimentary tract mucosa attaches directly to periosteum and teeth which lie in their sockets of alveolar bone, is an area unique for the early detection of osteoporosis but also for the prevention of treatment-associated complications. We review facial bone involvement in patients with osteoporosis and we present data that make the multidisciplinary approach of these patients more appealing for both practitioners and dentists. With regard to ONJ, a tabular summary with currently available evidence is provided to facilitate multidisciplinary practice coordination for the treatment of patients receiving bisphosphonates.

Kyrgidis, Athanassios; Tzellos, Thrasivoulos-George; Toulis, Konstantinos; Antoniades, Konstantinos

2011-01-01

163

Easy facial analysis using the facial golden mask.  

PubMed

For over 2000 years, many artists and scientists have tried to understand or quantify the form of the perfect, ideal, or most beautiful face both in art and in vivo (life). A mathematical relationship has been consistently and repeatedly reported to be present in beautiful things. This particular relationship is the golden ratio. It is a mathematical ratio of 1.618:1 that seems to appear recurrently in beautiful things in nature as well as in other things that are seen as beautiful. Dr. Marquardt made the facial golden mask that contains and includes all of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometric golden elements formed from the golden ratio. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the golden facial mask. In 40 cases, the authors applied the facial golden mask to preoperative and postoperative photographs and scored each photograph on a 1 to 5 scale from the perspective of their personal aesthetic views. The score was lower when the facial deformity was severe, whereas it was higher when the face was attractive. Compared with the average scores of facial mask applied photographs and nonapplied photographs using a nonparametric test, statistical significance was not reached (P > 0.05). This implies that the facial golden mask may be used as an analytical tool. The facial golden mask is easy to apply, inexpensive, and relatively objective. Therefore, the authors introduce it as a useful facial analysis. PMID:17538332

Kim, Yong-Ha

2007-05-01

164

Computer-assisted facial reproduction.  

PubMed

Electronic imaging equipment originally developed to illustrate aging of missing persons has been utilized in facial reproduction from skeletal remains. The technique produces rapid, economical, and realistic facial images in a manner that eliminates the need for photography and maximizes interaction and communication between the artist and the anthropologist. PMID:1545196

Ubelaker, D H; O'Donnell, G

1992-01-01

165

Unusual delayed presentation of head trauma complicating outcome of facial nerve decompression surgery.  

PubMed

Late presentation of head trauma is rare. A young boy presented with a traumatic facial paralysis after head trauma. A CT scan of the head showed temporal bone fracture without intracranial insult. Facial nerve decompression was performed and paralysis started improving. However, he presented with vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss after 2 months. Clinical examination also showed cerebellar sign. We suspected iatrogenic injury to the cochlea; however, brain MRI showed haemorrhage in the area of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient was managed conservatively and the vertigo improved. This case stresses on unusual late presentation of head trauma and cerebellar artery injury that complicated the outcome of facial nerve paralysis. PMID:23964046

Thakur, J S; Shekar, Vidya; Saluja, Manika; Mohindroo, N K

2013-01-01

166

Management of Chronic Facial Pain  

PubMed Central

Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies.

Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.

2009-01-01

167

Femoral lengthening over elastic stable intramedullary nailing in children using the monolateral external fixator.  

PubMed

The authors report preliminary results of femoral lengthening performed with monolateral external fixation over elastic stable intramedullary nailing in children. Seven femoral lengthenings were performed in six patients, at a mean age at surgery of 6.6 years (range 1.5-12 years). All lengthenings were performed due to limb length discrepancy (congenital hypoplasia in four patients, growth arrest secondary to neonatal infective osteoarthritis in one, type II sacral agenesis in one). In six cases the elastic nails realised a bipolar ascending construct, in one case a descending construct. Cases were reviewed at a mean time from removal of external fixator of 34.2 months (range 15-75 months). The mean lengthening obtained was 4.8 cm (range 3.8-6.0 cm). Mean consolidation index was 42.9 days/cm. No case of axial deviation requiring surgery and no case of deep infection were recorded. No case of fracture of the regenerate occurred after removal of the external fixator. There were two premature consolidations requiring mobilisation under general anaesthesia, and a case of failure of consolidation requiring surgery. The technique reported provides indisputable biomechanical advantages, particularly increasing stability at the site of osteotomy. The characteristics of implants make this method ideal for lengthenings in children. PMID:19711002

Lampasi, Manuele; Launay, Franck; Jouve, Jean Luc; Bollini, Gerard

2009-09-01

168

Neural control of shortening and lengthening contractions: influence of task constraints  

PubMed Central

Although the performance capabilities of muscle differ during shortening and lengthening contractions, realization of these differences during functional tasks depends on the characteristics of the activation signal discharged from the spinal cord. Fundamentally, the control strategy must differ during the two anisometric contractions due to the lesser force that each motor unit exerts during a shortening contraction and the greater difficulty associated with decreasing force to match a prescribed trajectory during a lengthening contraction. The activation characteristics of motor units during submaximal contractions depend on the details of the task being performed. Indexes of the strategy encoded in the descending command, such as coactivation of antagonist muscles and motor unit synchronization, indicate differences in cortical output for the two types of anisometric contractions. Furthermore, the augmented feedback from peripheral sensory receptors during lengthening contractions appears to be suppressed by centrally and peripherally mediated presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents, which may also explain the depression of voluntary activation that occurs during maximal lengthening contractions. Although modulation of the activation during shortening and lengthening contractions involves both supraspinal and spinal mechanisms, the association with differences in performance cannot be determined without more careful attention to the details of the task.

Duchateau, Jacques; Enoka, Roger M

2008-01-01

169

Primary aneurysmal bone cyst of coronoid process  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal bone cysts are relatively uncommon in the facial skeleton. These usually affect the mandible but origin from the coronoid process is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a coronoid process aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as temporal fossa swelling. CASE PRESENTATION: A 17 year old boy presented with a progressively

Amit Goyal; Isha Tyagi; Rajan Syal; Tanu Agrawal; Manoj Jain

2006-01-01

170

Gradual bone distraction in craniosynostosis. Preliminary results in seven cases.  

PubMed

Seven patients with craniosynostosis (mean age 8 years, Apert syndrome, n = 4, Crouzon's disease, n = 3) underwent lengthening of the skull by gradual bone distraction. Three patients (group A) were treated by coronal craniectomy reaching the orbital fissure and gradual bone distraction. The other four (group B) underwent monobloc craniofacial disjunction and gradual bone distraction. The patients' progress was monitored clinically as well as by radiographs and photographs. The results showed that craniofacial disjunction followed by gradual bone distraction produced complete correction of exophthalmus and an improvement in the functional and aesthetic aspects of the middle third of the face without the need for bone grafts. PMID:9075285

do Amaral, C M; Di Domizio, G; Tiziani, V; Galhardi, F; Buzzo, C L; Rinco, T; Kharmandayan, P; Bueno, M A; Bolzani, N; Sabbatini, R M; Lopes, L D; Lopes, P F; Paiva, B; Paiva, R M; Turchiari, L A

1997-03-01

171

Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?  

PubMed Central

Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

2012-01-01

172

Facial Action Unit Detection using Probabilistic Actively Learned Support Vector Machines on Tracked Facial Point Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system that could enable fast and robust facial expression recognition would have many applications in behavioral science, medicine, security and human-machine interaction. While working toward that goal, we do not attempt to recognize prototypic facial expressions of emotions but analyze subtle changes in facial behavior by recognizing facial muscle action units (AUs, i.e., atomic facial signals) instead. By detecting

M. F. Valstar; I. Patras; M. Pantic

2005-01-01

173

Measuring facial expressions by computer image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions provide an important behavioral measure for the study of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The Facial Action Coding System ~Ekman & Friesen, 1978! is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. We applied computer image analysis to the problem of automatically detecting facial actions in sequences of images. Three approaches were compared:

MARIAN STEWART BARTLETT; JOSEPH C. HAGER; PAUL EKMAN; TERRENCE J. SEJNOWSKI

1999-01-01

174

Support Vector Clustering of Facial Expression Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression recognition is an active research area that finds a potential application in human emotion analysis. This work presents an efficient approach of facial expression features clustering based on Support Vector Clustering (SVC). Common approaches to facial expression features clustering are designed considering two main parts: (1) features extraction, and (2) features clustering. In the process of facial expression

Shu-ren Zhou; Xi-ming Liang; Can Zhu

2008-01-01

175

Real Time Facial Expression Recognition with Adaboost  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel method for facial expression recognition. The facial expression is extracted from human faces by an expression classifier that is learned from boosting Haar feature based Look-Up- Table type weak classifiers. The expression recognition system consists of three modules, face detection, facial feature landmark extraction and facial expression recognition. The implemented system can automatically

Yubo Wang; Haizhou Ai; Bo Wu; Chang Huang

2004-01-01

176

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

PubMed

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

2011-01-01

177

Foot pressure and radiographic outcome measures of lateral column lengthening for pes planovalgus deformity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to establish and characterize the relationship between foot pressure analysis and radiographic measurements in children that underwent a lateral column lengthening procedure for pes planovalgus (PPV). Eight children (13 feet) with PPV that had failed non-operative treatment underwent a lateral column lengthening procedure. Pre-operative and post-operative standing AP and lateral radiographs and foot pressure data were obtained. The relationships between the radiographic and foot pressure measurements were investigated. The findings from this study demonstrated strong relationships between these parameters. The relationships seen in this study indicate that the addition of foot pressure analysis provides objective documentation of the improvement in foot pressure distribution following a lateral column lengthening. Also, there is a direct, positive relationship between the key radiographic and foot pressure measurements. PMID:11154928

Oeffinger, D J; Pectol, R W; Tylkowski, C M

2000-12-01

178

Tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator for the treatment of leg length discrepancy or short stature. This retrospective study was performed on 18 tibiae (13 patients) in which attempts were made to reduce complications. We used an Ilizarov external fixator and a nail (10 mm diameter in 17 tibiae and 11 mm in one tibia) in combination. Average limb lengthening was 4.19 cm (range, 2.5–5.5). The mean duration of external fixation was 12.58 days per centimetre gain in length, and the mean consolidation index was 40.53 (range, 35.45–51.85). All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. Gradual limb lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and circular external fixation in combination was found to be reliable and effective and reduced external fixation time with fewer complications.

Kim, Hayoung; Kim, Kap Jung; Ahn, Jae Hoon; Choy, Won Sik; Kim, Yong In; Koo, Jea Yun

2008-01-01

179

Secondary stem lengthening in palms: response to commentary by Tomlinson and Quinn.  

PubMed

In this response, we address the criticisms put forth by Tomlinson and Quinn (American Journal of Botany 100: 461-464) about our original publication on secondary stem lengthening in Iriartea deltoidea palms (American Journal of Botany 99: 607-613) and find areas on which we may agree. We address our figure of a typical palm vascular bundle; the location, timing, and species where secondary lengthening would likely occur; and our measurement of internodes in various palms as well as our choice of individuals. Our original observations were a novel finding in the field of palm biology, and we invite more research and investigation on this subject. PMID:23455482

Renninger, Heidi J; Phillips, Nathan

2013-03-01

180

Full mouth rehabilitation of partially and fully edentulous patient with crown lengthening procedure: a case report  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In order to restore severely attrited teeth properly, surgical intervention in the form of a crown-lengthening procedure may be required. And also, proper diagnosis and treatment sequencing is critical to obtain a successful results. Adequate diagnostic wax-up ensures good esthetics and healthy periodontal tissue. CASE DESCRIPTION This clinical case report describes a diagnostically based protocol for restoration on mandibular anterior teeth with crown lengthening procedure and the treatment of partially edentulous mandible combined with an edentulous maxilla. In addition, the effort to prevent the combination syndrome was described. CLINICAL IMPLICATION An interdisciplinary diagnosis and examination through visualization of the desired results ensure conservative and more predictable outcome.

Seol, Hyon-Woo; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun

2010-01-01

181

Power loss is greater following lengthening contractions in old versus young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with isometric and dynamic velocity-constrained (isokinetic) tasks, less is known regarding velocity-dependent (isotonic)\\u000a muscle power and recovery in older adults following repeated fatiguing lengthening contractions. We investigated voluntary\\u000a and evoked neuromuscular properties of the dorsiflexors in nine old (68.3?±?6.1 years) and nine young women (25.1?±?1.3 years)\\u000a during and following 150 lengthening contractions for up to 30 min of recovery. At baseline, the

Geoffrey A. Power; Brian H. Dalton; Charles L. Rice; Anthony A. Vandervoort

182

Facial Activation Control Effect (FACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was the rst in line of a series of ex- periments investigating the possibilities of using voluntarily produced physiological signals in computer-assisted therapy. The current aim was to nd out whether computer-guided voluntary facial activations have an eect on autonomous nervous system activity. Twenty-seven partic- ipants performed a series of voluntary facial muscle activations, while wireless electrocardiography

Toni Vanhala; Veikko Surakka

2007-01-01

183

Petrous bone cholesteatoma.  

PubMed

Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. PMID:17170912

Sanna, M; Zini, C; Gamoletti, R; Frau, N; Taibah, A K; Russo, A; Pasanisi, E

1993-01-01

184

Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma  

PubMed Central

Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. ImagesFigure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18

Sanna, Mario; Zini, Carlo; Gamoletti, Roberto; Frau, Niccolo; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Russo, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Enrico

1993-01-01

185

Botulinum toxin (Botox) to enhance facial macroesthetics: a literature review.  

PubMed

Dental implants have emerged as a predictable treatment option for partial edentulism. Their ability to preserve bone and soft tissue yields highly esthetic results in the long term. Increasingly, patients are demanding not only enhancements to their dental (micro) esthetics but also to their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Dynamic wrinkles (caused by hyperfunctional muscles) in the perioral, glabellar, and forehead regions can cause a patient's expressions to be misinterpreted as angry, anxious, fearful, or fatigued. An emerging treatment option to address these issues is the use of a paralyzing material such as botulinum toxin A (Botox) to decrease the appearance of the wrinkles, which yields a more esthetic and youthful facial appearance. Botox is a deadly poison that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and causes muscle paralysis by inhibiting acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. When used in areas of hyperfunctional muscles, a transient partial paralysis occurs that diminishes the appearances of wrinkles, Therefore, wrinkles not attributable to hyperfunctional muscles (e.g., wrinkles caused by aging, gravity, photodamage, trauma, and scarring) will not be amenable to treatment with the toxin. As a result, proper case selection is essential. A thorough understanding of the indications, techniques, dosages, and complications and their management is imperative to achieve a satisfactory result. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles as well as the history, techniques, clinical controversies, and other important considerations for successful treatment of facial wrinkles with Botox. PMID:17674683

Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

2007-01-01

186

Stapes fixation accompanied with abnormal facial nerve pathway.  

PubMed

The patient was a 52-year-old woman. She had been aware of her bilateral hearing loss since she was 20 years old. The hearing in her left ear started to deteriorate at the age of 49. Pure-tone audiometry showed a bilateral mixed hearing loss. The hearing levels for the right ear and the left ear were 52dB and 68dB, respectively. There were no remarkable findings in a computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bone. We suspected that she had otosclerosis, and an operation was performed on her left ear. When the incudostapedial joint (I-S joint) was exposed to investigate the movement of the stapes, a soft white band that ran under the superstructure of the stapes was noted. By using a nerve monitoring system, we confirmed that the white band was the bare facial nerve. The ossicular chain was normal, except for a malformed stape due to the facial nerve, and the footplate of the stapes was fixed. Therefore, she was diagnosed as having otosclerosis with an abnormal facial nerve pathway. The malformed superstructure of the stapes was removed carefully. When the ectopic facial nerve was shifted to anteroinferior side, the oval window could be seen. Stapedotomy using a Teflon piston prosthesis was performed with no complications. PMID:24581447

Inagaki, Taro; Kawano, Atsushi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Shimizu, Masaaki; Negishi, Miho; Kawada, Yuri; Suzuki, Mamoru

2014-06-01

187

Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

2008-01-01

188

Correlation of Myocyte Lengthening to Chamber Dilation in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic congestive heart failure of various etiologies is characterized by progressive chamber dilation. Although myocyte lengthening is involved, it is not known if this cellular change can account for all of the chamber dilation. The controversy is due largely to technical limitations in collecting data on chamber circumference, myocyte length, and sarcomere length simultaneously. To address this issue, the contributions

Tetsutaro Tamura; Tatsuyuki Onodera; Suleman Said; A. Martin Gerdes

1998-01-01

189

Changes in pennate muscle architecture after gradual tibial lengthening in goats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the changes in unipennate muscle architecture after distraction osteogenesis. Nine adult goats underwent 20% tibial lengthening in one of the hind limbs. Immediately after distraction, lengthened and contralateral (untreated) tibialis caudalis (TC) muscles were harvested. Lengths of the muscle belly, muscle fiber (FL), sarcomere (SL), tendon (TL), and superficial aponeurosis, as well as muscle mass, pennation angle (PA), and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), were compared between the treated and contralateral sides. Lengthened TC muscle demonstrated 20.8% increase in belly length, 4.39% increase in TL, and 36.7% increase in FL, while PA decreased by 37.2% (P = 008). Muscle length increase was mainly due to lengthening of muscle belly, which resulted both from FL increase and 15.3% length increase in the aponeurosis component of muscle belly, without significant effect of the PA decrease. The FL increase was due to SL increase, not to sarcomere neogenesis, while mass and PCSA did not change. We concluded that although muscle architecture can be adversely affected by distraction because of deficient sarcomere neogenesis, PCSA can remain unchanged, giving false impression of preserved function. Change in PA plays only minimal role in muscle adaptation to distraction. PMID:17373691

Elsalanty, Mohammed; Makarov, Marina; Cherkashin, Alexander; Birch, John; Samchukov, Mikhail

2007-05-01

190

Langa Salvor foer Effektiviserad Tillredning (Improvement Due to Lengthening Blasting Techniques).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A joint venture project between LKAB, Atlas Copco MCT AB and SveDeFo has been carried out in order to investigate if larger advances in drifting can be achieved through mechanized drill steel lengthening and improved blasting technique. The aim with the p...

B. Niklasson K. Olsson S. Schoerling R. Holmberg

1986-01-01

191

Use of Ultrasound in Detection and Treatment of Nerve Compromise in a Case of Humeral Lengthening  

PubMed Central

The development of iatrogenic nerve lesions during and following limb lengthening procedures present a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Early treatment of nerve damage is critical in salvaging full function of the nerve. Precise location of damage, however, must be determined in order to appropriately administer treatment. We report a patient with a short humerus caused by a growth arrest undergoing a 7-cm lengthening who developed a neurapraxic injury of the radial nerve. Nerve compromise was noted 1 month into the lengthening program. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography could not be used to determine the precise site of injury. Likewise, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were contraindicated and inconclusive, respectively, due to the presence of a metallic external fixation device. High-resolution ultrasonography (US) findings, however, correlated with our clinical examination of the patient's radial nerve function and permitted identification of the precise site of nerve involvement. Treatment was administered by removing a causative half-pin. Several days following treatment, nerve function returned to normal. There are a limited number of articles in the literature regarding nerve injuries associated with limb lengthening and their corrective treatments. The outcome of this case underscores the usefulness of US over various other diagnostic techniques under certain circumstances.

Fryman, Craig; Bigman, Daniel; Adler, Ronald

2010-01-01

192

Crossbridge and non-crossbridge contributions to force in shortening and lengthening muscle.  

PubMed

Analysis of tension responses to ramp length changes in muscle can provide important information about the crossbridge cycle. During a ramp length change, the force response of an active muscle shows an early change in slope (the P? transition) followed by a later, gradual change in slope (the P? transition). Modeling shows that the first transition reflects the tension change associated with the crossbridge power stroke in shortening and with its reversal in lengthening; the reduction in slope at the second transition occurs when most of the crossbridges (myosin heads) that were attached at the start of the ramp become detached; the steady tension during shortening is borne mainly by post-stroke heads whereas tension during lengthening is borne mostly by pre-stroke heads. After the P? transition, the tension reaches a steady level in the model whereas in the experiments the tension continues to increase during lengthening or to decrease during shortening; this tension change is seen at a wide range of sarcomere lengths and even when active force is reduced by a myosin inhibitor. It appears that some non-crossbridge components in muscle fibers stiffen upon activation and contribute to the continued tension rise during lengthening; release of such tension leads to tension decline during shortening. Thus, non-crossbridge visco-elasticity in sarcomeres may also contribute to energy storage and release during in situ muscle function. PMID:20824528

Ranatunga, K W; Roots, H; Pinniger, G J; Offer, G W

2010-01-01

193

The Fate of Porous Hydroxyapatite Granules Used in Facial Skeletal Augmentation  

PubMed Central

Facial appearance is largely determined by the morphology of the underlying skeleton. Hydroxyapatite is one of several materials available to enhance projection of the facial skeleton. This study evaluated the long-term maintenance of augmented bony projection when porous hydroxyapatite granules are used on the facial skeleton. Ten female patients aged 28–58 years were studied following aesthetic augmentation of the facial skeleton at 24 sites using porous hydroxyapatite granules. Postoperative CT scans at 3 months served as the baseline measurement and compared with scans taken at 1 and 2 years, with the thickness of the hydroxyapatite measured in axial and coronal planes. Thickness of original bone plus overlay of hydroxyapatite, thickness of the overlying soft tissue, and the overall projection (bone plus soft tissue) were recorded. It was found that 99.7% of the hydroxyapatite was maintained at 2 years, with no statistical difference (t test) from the baseline measurement. The overall projection (bony and soft tissue) was maintained as there was no evidence of native bone resorption or soft tissue atrophy. Radiographic results confirmed that the use of porous hydroxyapatite granules for enhancement of the facial skeleton is not only a predictable procedure, but maintains full bony projection at 2 years.

Jacobson, Steve R.; Lavoipierre, Alain M.; Huggins, Richard J.

2010-01-01

194

A Comparative Evaluation for Biologic Width following Surgical Crown Lengthening Using Gingivectomy and Ostectomy Procedure.  

PubMed

Surgical crown lengthening has been proposed as a means of facilitating restorative procedures and preventing injuries in teeth with structurally inadequate clinical crown or exposing tooth structure in the presence of deep, subgingival pathologies which may hamper the access for proper restorative measures. Histological studies utilizing animal models have shown that postoperative crestal resorption allowed reestablishment of the biologic width. However, very little has been done in humans. Aims. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potential changes in the periodontal tissues, particularly the biologic width, following surgical crown lengthening by two surgical procedures before and after crown placement. Methods and Material. Twenty (20) patients who needed surgical crown lengthening to gain retention necessary for prosthetic treatment and/or to access caries, tooth fracture, or previous prosthetic margins entered the study. The following parameters were obtained from line angles of treated teeth (teeth requiring surgical crown lengthening) and adjacent sites: Plaque and Gingival Indices (PI) & (GI), Position of Gingival Margin from reference Stent (PGMRS), Probing depth (PD), and Biologic Width (BW). Statistical Analysis Used. Student "t" Test. Results. Initial baseline values of biologic width were 2.55?mm (Gingivectomy procedure B1 Group) and 1.95?mm (Ostectomy procedure B2 Group) and after surgical procedure the values were 1.15?mm and 1.25?mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the study the biologic width, at treated sites, was re-established to its original vertical dimension by 3 months. Ostectomy with apically positioned flap can be considered as a more effective procedure than Gingivectomy for Surgical Crown Lengthening. PMID:22969804

Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Patil, Veena Ashok; John, Jiji

2012-01-01

195

A Comparative Evaluation for Biologic Width following Surgical Crown Lengthening Using Gingivectomy and Ostectomy Procedure  

PubMed Central

Surgical crown lengthening has been proposed as a means of facilitating restorative procedures and preventing injuries in teeth with structurally inadequate clinical crown or exposing tooth structure in the presence of deep, subgingival pathologies which may hamper the access for proper restorative measures. Histological studies utilizing animal models have shown that postoperative crestal resorption allowed reestablishment of the biologic width. However, very little has been done in humans. Aims. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potential changes in the periodontal tissues, particularly the biologic width, following surgical crown lengthening by two surgical procedures before and after crown placement. Methods and Material. Twenty (20) patients who needed surgical crown lengthening to gain retention necessary for prosthetic treatment and/or to access caries, tooth fracture, or previous prosthetic margins entered the study. The following parameters were obtained from line angles of treated teeth (teeth requiring surgical crown lengthening) and adjacent sites: Plaque and Gingival Indices (PI) & (GI), Position of Gingival Margin from reference Stent (PGMRS), Probing depth (PD), and Biologic Width (BW). Statistical Analysis Used. Student “t” Test. Results. Initial baseline values of biologic width were 2.55?mm (Gingivectomy procedure B1 Group) and 1.95?mm (Ostectomy procedure B2 Group) and after surgical procedure the values were 1.15?mm and 1.25?mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the study the biologic width, at treated sites, was re-established to its original vertical dimension by 3 months. Ostectomy with apically positioned flap can be considered as a more effective procedure than Gingivectomy for Surgical Crown Lengthening.

Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Patil, Veena Ashok; John, Jiji

2012-01-01

196

The Influence of Prior Hamstring Injury on Lengthening Muscle Tissue Mechanics  

PubMed Central

Hamstring strain injuries often occur near the proximal musculotendon junction (MTJ) of the biceps femoris. Post-injury remodeling can involve scar tissue formation, which may alter contraction mechanics and influence re-injury risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the affect of prior hamstring strain injury on muscle tissue displacements and strains during active lengthening contractions. Eleven healthy and eight subjects with prior biceps femoris injuries were tested. All previously injured subjects had since returned to sport and exhibited evidence of residual scarring along the proximal aponeurosis. Subjects performed cyclic knee flexion-extension on an MRI-compatible device using elastic and inertial loads, which induced active shortening and lengthening contractions, respectively. CINE phase-contrast imaging was used to measure tissue velocities within the biceps femoris during these tasks. Numerical integration of the velocity information was used to estimate two-dimensional tissue displacement and strain fields during muscle lengthening. The largest tissue motion was observed along the distal MTJ, with the active lengthening muscle exhibiting significantly greater and more homogeneous tissue displacements. First principal strains magnitudes were largest along the proximal MTJ for both loading conditions. The previously injured subjects exhibited less tissue motion and significantly greater strains near the proximal MTJ. We conclude that localized regions of high tissue strains during active lengthening contractions may predispose the proximal biceps femoris to injury. Furthermore, post-injury remodeling may alter the in-series stiffness seen by muscle tissue and contribute to the relatively larger localized tissue strains near the proximal MTJ, as was observed in this study.

Silder, Amy; Reeder, Scott B.; Thelen, Darryl G.

2010-01-01

197

Bone scanning in otolaryngology.  

PubMed

Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described. PMID:470539

Noyek, A M

1979-09-01

198

Chondroid tissue in the early facial morphogenesis of the chick embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcified tissues involved in the early morphogenesis of the so-called intramembranous bones of the facial skeleton were studied by microradiographic and histological techniques in 22 chick embryos at the 9th, 12th and 14 th days of incubation. On the 9th day, the bones of the upper face and palatal vault are made up of thin sheets of chondroid tissue,

B. Lengelé; J. Schowing; A. Dhem

1996-01-01

199

[Bilateral facial palsy and acute myeloid leukemia: an unusual association].  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant disease of the hematopoietic tissue. The disease presentation may be related to the loss of bone marrow function or with general symptoms of neoplastic diseases. Extramedullary involvement is responsible for less frequent presentations that may hinder early diagnosis. Gingival enlargement is not uncommon in AML but cases of bilateral facial palsy are rare. In this article the authors present the case of a man of 70 who comes up with gingival hypertrophy that initially was not valued and that developed after three weeks, a bilateral facial palsy. The myelogram revealed an AML. With directed chemotherapy the patient reached complete remission but kept the symptoms of disease presentation. PMID:23079253

Pereira, Marta Sofia; Faria, Frederica; Menezes Falcão, Luiz

2012-01-01

200

Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).  

PubMed

Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients. PMID:24053080

Basi?-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanovi?; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

2013-06-01

201

Facial Recognition Vendor Test, 2000. Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biggest change in the facial recognition community since the completion of the FERET program has been the introduction of facial recognition products to the commercial market. Open market competitiveness has driven numerous technological advances in a...

D. M. Blackburn M. Bone P. J. Phillips

2001-01-01

202

The contribution of different cues of facial movement to the emotional facial expression adaptation aftereffect.  

PubMed

Probing emotional facial expression recognition with the adaptation paradigm is one way to investigate the processes underlying emotional face recognition. Previous research suggests that these processes are tuned to dynamic facial information (facial movement). Here we examined the tuning of processes involved in the recognition of emotional facial expressions to different sources of facial movement information. Specifically we investigated the effect of the availability of rigid head movement and intrinsic facial movements (e.g., movement of facial features) on the size of the emotional facial expression adaptation effect. Using a three-dimensional (3D) morphable model that allowed the manipulation of the availability of each of the two factors (intrinsic facial movement, head movement) individually, we examined emotional facial expression adaptation with happy and disgusted faces. Our results show that intrinsic facial movement is necessary for the emergence of an emotional facial expression adaptation effect with dynamic adaptors. The presence of rigid head motion modulates the emotional facial expression adaptation effect only in the presence of intrinsic facial motion. In a second experiment we show these adaptation effects are difficult to explain by merely the perceived intensity and clarity (uniqueness) of the adaptor expressions. Together these results suggest that processes encoding facial expressions are differently tuned to different sources of facial movements. PMID:23335323

de la Rosa, Stephan; Giese, Martin; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Curio, Cristóbal

2013-01-01

203

A method for quantifying facial muscle movements in the smile during facial expression training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to propose an evaluation method capable of quantifying facial expressions during facial expression training that is intended to achieve a more expressive face. The specific aim was to investigate methods of estimating facial muscle movements from facial images and display our estimation results in an understandable way, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness

Ai Takami; Kyoko Ito; Shogo Nishida

2008-01-01

204

[Therapy for atypical facial pain].  

PubMed

Atypical facial pain is a pain in the head, neck and the face, without organic causes. It is treated at departments of physical medicine, such as dental, oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, cerebral surgery, or head and neck surgery. In primary care, it is considered to be a medically unexplained symptom (MUS), or a somatoform disorder, such as somatization caused by a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) by psychiatrists. Usually, patients consult departments of physical medicine complaining of physical pain. Therefore physicians in these departments should examine the patients from the holistic perspective, and identify organic diseases. As atypical facial pain becomes chronic, other complications, including psychiatric complaints other than physical pain, such as depression may develop. Moreover, physical, psychological, and social factors affect the symptoms by interacting with one another. Therefore, in examining atypical facial pain, doctors specializing in dental, oral and maxillofacial medicine are required to provide psychosomatic treatment that is based on integrated knowledge. PMID:19768920

Ishida, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko

2009-09-01

205

Realistic 3D Human Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction and animation of realistic human facial models is an important research field in computer graphics. How to simulate the motions of human faces on 3D facial models in real-time to generate realistic facial expressions is still a challenge. In this paper, a technique to simulate the human facial animation realistically in real-time is presented. First of all, the 3D

ZHANG Qing-Shan; CHEN Guo-Liang

2003-01-01

206

Modeling of Layered Fuzzy Facial Expression Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposed a layered fuzzy model of facial expression generation, in which the layers of physiological model at low\\u000a level, emotional model at middle level and social rules at high level determine the fuzzy facial expression generation. In\\u000a the layered fuzzy facial expression generation system, facial expressions of 26 emotions can be fuzzily generated, as well\\u000a as social expressions

Yu-li Xue; Xia Mao; Zheng Li; Wei-he Diao

2007-01-01

207

Do Facial Expressions Develop before Birth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFetal facial development is essential not only for postnatal bonding between parents and child, but also theoretically for the study of the origins of affect. However, how such movements become coordinated is poorly understood. 4-D ultrasound visualisation allows an objective coding of fetal facial movements.Methodology\\/FindingsBased on research using facial muscle movements to code recognisable facial expressions in adults and adapted

Nadja Reissland; Brian Francis; James Mason; Karen Lincoln

2011-01-01

208

Facial mimicry is not necessary to recognize emotion: Facial expression recognition by people with Moebius syndrome.  

PubMed

According to the reverse simulation model of embodied simulation theory, we recognize others' emotions by subtly mimicking their expressions, which allows us to feel the corresponding emotion through facial feedback. Previous studies examining whether facial mimicry is necessary for facial expression recognition were limited by potentially distracting manipulations intended to artificially restrict facial mimicry or very small samples of people with facial paralysis. We addressed these limitations by collecting the largest sample to date of people with Moebius syndrome, a condition characterized by congenital bilateral facial paralysis. In this Internet-based study, 37 adults with Moebius syndrome and 37 matched control participants completed a facial expression recognition task. People with Moebius syndrome did not differ from the control group or normative data in emotion recognition accuracy, and accuracy was not related to extent of ability to produce facial expressions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that reverse simulation with facial mimicry is necessary for facial expression recognition. PMID:19882440

Rives Bogart, Kathleen; Matsumoto, David

2010-01-01

209

Color stability of facial prostheses.  

PubMed

The limited service of facial prostheses is the result of degradation of the elastomer and color instability. Deterioration may be caused by many factors, which include environmental exposure and changes in humidity. This investigation assessed the efficacy of an additive, intrinsic, broad-spectrum ultraviolet light absorber on the color stability of a pigmented facial elastomer. Samples were weathered artificially and outdoors at exposure levels of radiant energy of 150 to 450 kJ/m2. The samples changed color slightly but perceptibly. Artificial aging caused a greater change than outdoor aging. The ultraviolet light absorber UV-5411 did not protect the samples from color changes. PMID:8778386

Lemon, J C; Chambers, M S; Jacobsen, M L; Powers, J M

1995-12-01

210

INFERENCE MODEL OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND EMOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mentions an inference model of facial expressions and emotion from the viewpoint that non-verbal information as well as verbal information is useful in human computer interaction, and that especially, facial expressions are useful since they reflect human emotion well. First this paper considers the inference model of human emotion from only facial expressions. Next this paper considers the

Sachiko KITAZAKI; Takehisa ONISAWA

211

Factor analysis of essential facial features  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of an exploratory factor analysis to determine the minimum number of facial features required for recognition. In the introduction, we provide an overview of research we have done in the area of the evaluation of facial recognition systems. In the next section, we provide a description of the facial recognition process (including signal processing operations such

V. Ivancevic; A. K. Kaine; B. A. MCLindin; J. Sunde

2003-01-01

212

Nasoalveolar molding with active columellar lengthening in severe bilateral cleft lip/palate: a clinical report.  

PubMed

Severe bilateral cleft-lip/palate patients are difficult to manage even if nasoalveolar molding therapy is advocated before surgical repair. A 5-day-old male infant with bilateral cleft-lip-palate was managed with the nasoalveolar molding technique. Periodic adjustments of the appliance were continued every week to mold the nasoalveolar complex into the desired shape for the 5 months of infancy. The cleft width of 12 mm on the right and 14 mm on the left side was completely reduced, and the absent columella was lengthened to 6 mm with the active molding appliance. The horizontal bar of the nasal stent of the appliance was modified by adding an additional 1 mm layer of resilient liner on the tissue surface to achieve rapid columellar lengthening. In severe bilateral cleft-lip/palate cases, simple modifications in the appliance can achieve rapid results. PMID:22946934

Patil, Pravinkumar G; Patil, Smita P; Sarin, Soumil

2013-02-01

213

Functional outcome after lengthening with and without deformity correction in polio patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poliomyelitis is one of the causes of limb length discrepancy. The aim of lengthening and deformity correction in such patients\\u000a is to improve the functional mobility of the patient. This study aims to find out whether or not improvement of limb length\\u000a inequality with or without deformity correction affects or improves ambulation. This prospective study included 32 skeletally\\u000a mature patients

Khaled M. Emara; Ahmed Khames

2008-01-01

214

Treatment of patella infera by patellar tendon lengthening and augmentation with tibialis anterior tendon allograft.  

PubMed

Management of patella infera remains a difficult therapeutic endeavor. We report a case of a 21-year-old man, who had development of patella infera and knee flexion contracture after a patella fracture. Patella infera was treated by patellar tendon lengthening and augmentation with a tibialis anterior tendon allograft fixed with bioabsorbable cross-pins. The patient regained an anatomic patellar position and full range of motion at two years after surgery. PMID:24231623

Jeong, Ju Seon; Wang, Joon Ho

2014-03-01

215

[Dynamics of induced EEG in the intervals between a target and trigger stimuli during formation of a set to emotionally negative facial expression].  

PubMed

A visual set was used as a model to study the influence of the increased memory load on the recognition of facial expression in 70 healthy adults. In order to additionally load the working memory, we lengthened the time gap between target (faces) and trigger stimuli. Such a lengthening from 1 to 8 s resulted in an increase of set plasticity (fewer mistakes in facial expression recognition). It also led to a reduction of the reaction time and less number of contrast illusions in recognition. We analyzed theta- and alpha-band EEG changes during individual segments of the time gap and suggested that repeated trials with a certain fixed interval between stimuli formed an inner representation of the interval duration. This inner representation up-regulates the visual attention in case of anticipation of a relevant event (stimulus) and down-regulates the attention when the stimulus is not expected. In case of the plastic set, the induced EEG synchronization in the alpha band is stronger in the trials with correct recognition in the middle of the inter-stimulus time gap. We think this synchronization reflects the action of the top-down cognitive control that suppresses the influence of irrelevant information on the brain activity. Theta-band dynamics in the inter-stimulus time gap can be associated with the emotional strain caused by the fact that a person had to retain in memory (for several seconds) the result of facial expression recognition. PMID:22891577

Kostandov, É A; Cheremushkin, E A; Ashkinazi, M L

2012-01-01

216

Topical management of facial burns.  

PubMed

The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed. PMID:18538480

Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

2008-11-01

217

Intermittent facial flushing and diarrhea.  

PubMed

A 67-year-old man presented with a history of vague abdominal discomfort on the right side, intermittent diarrhea, and episodes of facial flushing every 2 to 3 days. He reported no history of ingestion of alcohol or other precipitants of flushing. PMID:25014690

Mc Cormack, Orla; Reynolds, John V

2014-07-17

218

Dynamic Model of Facial Cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent modifications to windchill forecasting have motivated the development of a rate-of-tissue-cooling model for the purpose of predicting facial cooling times. The model assumes a hollow cylindrical geometry with a fixed internal boundary temperature and adherence to the dimensions and tissue thermal properties of the cheek. Convective and radiative heat exchanges at the skin surface are also taken into account.

Peter Tikuisis; Randall J. Osczevski

2002-01-01

219

A Model of Facial Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

We wish to model the way in which faces move in video sequences. We represent facial behaviour as a sequence of short actions. Each action is a sample from a statisti- cal model representing the variability in the way it is per- formed. The ordering of actions is defined using a variable length Markov model. Action models and variable length

Franck Bettinger; Timothy F. Cootes

2004-01-01

220

Automated Facial Expression Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heightened concerns about the treatment of individuals during interviews and interrogations have stimulated efforts to develop ldquonon-intrusiverdquo technologies for rapidly assessing the credibility of statements by individuals in a variety of sensitive environments. Methods or processes that have the potential to precisely focus investigative resources will advance operational excellence and improve investigative capabilities. Facial expressions have the ability to communicate

Andrew Ryan; Jeffery F. Cohn; Simon Lucey; Jason Saragih; Patrick Lucey; Fernando De la Torre; Adam Rossi

2009-01-01

221

Facial recognition at the CIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an

Susan Gragg

1997-01-01

222

Kinect-based facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demo we present our system for performance-based character animation that enables any user to control the facial expressions of a digital avatar in realtime. Compared to existing technologies, our system is easy to deploy and does not require any face markers, intrusive lighting, or complex scanning hardware. Instead, the user is recorded in a natural environment using the

Thibaut Weise; Sofien Bouaziz; Hao Li; Mark Pauly

2011-01-01

223

Facial Pyoderma Gangrenosum in Senescence  

PubMed Central

Clinically, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is characterized by a rapidly progressive, painful cutaneous ulcer with an irregular, violaceous and undermined border. PG occurs most frequently on the lower extremities and the trunk of middle-aged individuals. The face is only very rarely affected. We present an 89- and a 90-year-old patient, who developed a facial ulcer consistent with PG.

Kratzsch, Dorothea; Ziemer, Mirjana; Milkova, Linda; Wagner, Justinus A.; Simon, Jan C.; Kendler, Michael

2013-01-01

224

Facial filler and neurotoxin complications.  

PubMed

Botulinum neuromodulators and injectable dermal fillers have become part of the armamentarium in the treatment of facial aging. Their successful use requires a fundamental knowledge of anatomy and physiology and a sound understanding of their risks and complications. Although neuromodulators and fillers continue to demonstrate a strong record of safety, several notable risks exist. PMID:22723229

Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

2012-06-01

225

The facial interpersonal perception inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop an interpersonal perception inventory which would demonstrate that various ratings of facial caricature drawings when made by a husband and wife can be used as a predictor of marital adjustment. The subjects in this study were 30 operationally defined adjusted and 30 non-adjusted couples. A series of three tests were administered to

Joseph J. Luciani

1979-01-01

226

Bilateral facial synkinesis in leprosy  

PubMed Central

Leprosy is an important cause of cranial nerve palsy in endemic areas where it may be seen in upto 17.6% patients. The authors herein describe a rare case of bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis with video documentation and modified blink reflex. A 35-year-old gentleman presented with numbness involving right half of his face for 8 months and abnormal stretching sensations over both sides of his nose for one and a half months. Sensory and motor involvement of the right trigeminal nerve was detected along with bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis involving orbicularis oculi and nasalis. R1 and R2 responses consistent with mis-reinnervation were recorded on the left-side using orbicularis oculi and nasalis muscles. Skin biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli and sural nerve biopsy, the presence of granulomas. After 3 months of follow-up on WHO multi-drug therapy, an improvement in facial sensations was observed but without any change in facial synkinetic movements.

Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Goel, Madhu Mati; Jain, Amita; Gupta, Arvind; Lalla, Rakesh; Singh, Gyan Prakash

2012-01-01

227

The facial reflex of allergy.  

PubMed

The facial reflex, originally described by Franz Chvostek, is shown to be of value in allergy by assessing the relative irritability of muscle tissue (cardic, smooth, skeletal) and the effect of certain drugs frequently used by allergists upon them. PMID:222174

Breneman, J C

1979-06-01

228

Facial Expressions, Emotions, and Sign Languages  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as “surprise” to complex and culture specific concepts such as “carelessly.” The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by referring to three dimensions on which facial expressions vary: semantic, compositional, and iconic.

Elliott, Eeva A.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2013-01-01

229

Heavy water lengthens the period of free-running rhythms in lesioned hamsters bearing SCN grafts.  

PubMed

Heavy water (D2O) lengthens the period of free-running circadian rhythms in most organisms. We compared the effect of D2O on free-running locomotor activity rhythms in intact and SCN-lesioned (SCN-X) hamsters that had recovered circadian rhythmicity following implantation of SCN grafts. The animals were housed individually in cages equipped with running wheels, and locomotor activity was monitored using a computer-based data acquisition system. At the end of the behavioral tests, animals were anesthetized and perfused. Brain sections were immunostained for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and vasopressin (VP) to evaluate the extent of the lesion and the presence of a functional graft. The D2O similarly lengthened the period of free-running activity without affecting amount of activity in both intact and in SCN-X grafted animals. The results indicate that D2O acts directly on the SCN to lengthen the free-running period, and suggest that coupling between pacemakers within the grafted SCN is as efficient as in the intact SCN. PMID:8415956

Lesauter, J; Silver, R

1993-09-01

230

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (pcl) Reconstruction by Transtibial Tunnel:. Suggestions of Lengthening and Slippage Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examined the biomechanical fatigue behavior of Achilles tendon autograft after posterior cruciate ligament (PLC) reconstructions. It experimented with various fixation devices and locations on the degree of initial lengthening and slippage to investigate the relationship between lengthening and slippage ratios among calcaneal and soft tissue fixation methods. Eight specimens of proximal tibia and Achilles tendon grafts were harvested from cadavers and classified into four groups according to the type of transtibial fixation technique. A cyclic load ranging from 50N to 250N was applied to each graft when fixed to the proximal tibia at 55 degrees. The soft tissue fixation method, which uses an interference screw, demonstrated a 56.4% ratio of slippage to total elongation. The use of a double cross-pin with the same method demonstrated a 45.4% slippage ratio. The former was associated with approximately 2 mm less total elongation and 13% more slippage than lengthening compared to the latter. This result was predominantly due to the poor standard of fixation compared to the same method using a double cross-pin.

Kim, Jay-Jung; Kim, Cheol-Woong

231

Gait analysis before and after gastrocnemius fascia lengthening in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Equinus deformity is a common problem in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Persistent deformity that interferes with function is treated by surgically lengthening the triceps surae. Surgical approaches carry a recurrence risk of equinus deformity or over correction with the development of calcaneal deformity, crouch and diminished strength for push-off during gait. These aspects interfere with the basic function of the gastrocnemius/soleus complex. This study aimed to analyze kinematic and kinetic effects of gastrocnemius fascia lengthening on gait pattern in children with CP and, in particular, the evaluation of push-off ability before and after treatment. Twenty children with CP were evaluated by clinical examination and three-dimensional gait analysis (GA) before and after (12 months) gastrocnemius fascia lengthening surgery (modified Vulpius' technique) to improve equinus foot and walking. The results showed a significant reduction in equinus foot, represented by a re-duction in the â angle (the angle between the foot and the ground on the sagittal plane) at initial contact (IC), closer to healthy children, and increased ankle power generation during push-off. Even if this result was not of a statistically significant level, it is important because it means that the surgery did not produce a functional weakness. Kinetic results showed an improvement (ankle joint power absorbed and generated) related to a more functional walking behavior. Some improvements concerning the knee joint are significant, in particular, the value of the knee angle at IC and of peak during the swing phase. PMID:20799229

Galli, M; Cimolin, V; Crivellini, M; Albertini, G

2005-01-01

232

Analysis of scar formation after lower limb lengthening: influence on cosmesis and patient satisfaction.  

PubMed

Limb lengthening aims to reduce limb length discrepancy, improve cosmesis, and permit more functional mobility. Scarring, however, is a major concern of patients. In this study 25 patients (27 lengthening sites) were assessed; 6 sites were lengthened with Orthofix and 21 sites with Ilizarov. Altogether, 452 pin tract scars were assessed. The mean scar length was 11.5 mm in the Ilizarov group (n=415) and 54.1 mm in the Orthofix group (n=37). The mean scar width was 5.6 mm in the Ilizarov group and 11.5 mm in the Orthofix group. The mean patient satisfaction was 7.3 in the Orthofix group and 5.5 in the Ilizarov group. The mean Vancouver score was 0.66 in the Ilizarov group and 3.1 in the Orthofix group. The scars were shorter and cosmetically better in the Ilizarov group, but patients were more satisfied in the Orthofix group because there were fewer scars. Patients were also more satisfied with the thigh scars than with the leg scars because clothing can easily cover the thigh scars. PMID:15502574

Karlen, Law Ka Pui; Yinusa, Wahab; Yan, Lam Shuk; Wang, Kwan Wing; Hoi, Li Yun; John, Leong Chi Yan

2004-01-01

233

Anastomoses of the vestibular, cochlear, and facial nerves.  

PubMed

The internal auditory canal (IAC) is 10 to 17 mm in length, and the facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve, which consist of the cochlear nerve, the superior vestibular nerve, and the inferior vestibular nerve, run together in the IAC packaged in dura mater. Oort first described the vestibulocochlear anastomoses in 1918, which is important for the understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of otologic disorders. The current study documents the existence of vestibulofacial and vestibulocochlear neural connections and topographical relationship of the nerves as part of a radiologic evaluation of 73 human temporal bones from brainstem to the lateral portion of IAC. PMID:22948657

Ünel, Sacide; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Albayram, Sait; I??k, Zehra; Ceyhan, Elvan; Isildak, Huseyin; Teixido, Michael; Savas, Yildiray; Kiris, Adem

2012-09-01

234

Three new patients with congenital unilateral facial nerve palsy due to chromosome 22q11 deletion.  

PubMed

We report three unrelated patients with congenital facial nerve palsy and chromosome 22q11 deletion, a condition hitherto poorly recognized. In the first case, facial palsy was associated with aortic coarctation, ductus arteriosus, and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. In the second case, facial palsy was associated with ostium secundum atrial septal defect, obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction, double ureteropelvic-calicial system, and distal metaphyseal widening of the forearm and leg bones. In both cases, facial palsy was the presenting feature. In the third case, an ostium secundum atrial septal defect was also present, but involvement of cranial nerves III, VI, and VIII, in addition to hypoplastic structures of cerebellar and cerebral peduncles, were the predominant features. There were no inherited deletions within chromosome band 22q11 and the de novo deletions detected in each case belonged to the paternally derived chromosome 22. Association of facial nerve palsy and congenital heart disease versus cardiofacial syndrome are different only on clinical grounds, so both conditions can be genetically identical and form part of the spectrum of defects associated with chromosome 22q11 deletions. We recommend investigation for chromosome 22q11 deletions in patients with complete nerve facial palsy. PMID:11417615

Puñal, J E; Siebert, M F; Angueira, F B; Lorenzo, A V; Castro-Gago, M

2001-06-01

235

Morbidity Profile and Functional Outcome of Modified Facial Translocation Approaches for Skull Base Tumors  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of this study was to evaluate morbidity associated with facial translocation approaches for skull base and results of various technical modifications. Forty consecutive patients who underwent facial translocation approaches for accessing skull base tumors from July 2005 to June 2010 were included in this study. There were 25 patients who underwent standard facial translocation, 4 patients medial mini, and 11 patients underwent extended facial translocation. Thirteen patients had benign disease and 27 patients had malignant disease. Resection was R0 in 36 and R1 in 4 patients. Most patients had acceptable cosmetic results. None of the patients had problems related to occlusion or speech and swallowing. The commonest complication observed was nasal crusting in 16 patients. Grade 2 trismus and exposure of mini plate was seen in three patients. Two patients developed necrosis of translocated bone. Three patients developed palatal fistula before modification of palatal incision. Facial translocation provides a satisfactory access for adequate clearance of skull base tumors with satisfactory aesthetic and functional results. With modifications of the surgical technique and implementation of new surgical tools, the morbidity of facial translocation approaches will continue to decrease.

Kekatpure, Vikram D.; Rajan, Gunesh P.; Patel, Daxesh; Trivedi, Nirav P.; Arun, P.; Iyer, Subramania; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

2011-01-01

236

[Neurological disease and facial recognition].  

PubMed

To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system. PMID:22764352

Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

2012-07-01

237

Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions  

PubMed Central

The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions.

Milutinovic, Jovana

2014-01-01

238

Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review  

PubMed Central

Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers.

Gupta, Sachin; Mends, Francine; Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish; Roehm, Pamela C.

2013-01-01

239

Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.  

PubMed

For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

2014-02-01

240

Facial subcutaneous emphysema after tonsillectomy  

PubMed Central

Background Tonsillectomy is a commonly performed and relatively safe surgical procedure. However, it can potentially be associated with several complications. We report a case of facial subcutaneous emphysema that occurred after elective tonsillectomy. Case Tonsillectomy was performed on a patient with a history of frequent tonsillitis. After surgery, the patient developed facial subcutaneous emphysema that resolved within a few days without any further complications. Conclusion Subcutaneous emphysema is a rare complication of tonsillectomy. Tonsil should be removed along the tonsilar capsule. If its removal causes a deeper than usual mucosal tear up to the level of the muscles, then air might potentially pass through the pharyngeal wall to the parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal and prevertebral spaces.

2014-01-01

241

Facial Expression Synthesis and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exist a number of applications that make use of automatic facial expression synthesis and analysis, especially for interaction or communication between human and computers. This paper proposes a novel approach for facial expression synthesis that can generate realistic expressions for a new person with natural expression details. This approach is based on local geometry preserving between the input face image and the target expression image. In order to generate expressions with arbitrary intensity and mixed expression types, this paper also develops an expression analysis scheme based on Supervised Locality Preserving Projections (SLPP) that aligns different subjects and different intensities on a generalized expression manifold. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Wang, Hao

242

Realistic 3D facial animation in virtual space teleconferencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our work on color texture synthesis, real-time animation of facial wrinkles and 3D shape deformation enhances realism with minimal computational expense and gives a total control of the wrinkling process during facial expressions within the virtual space teleconferencing system. Facial wrinkles are synthesized on a scanned facial texture using the bump mapping technique by detecting wrinkles in a real facial

Lhassan MOUBARAKI; Jun OHYA; Fumio KISHINO

1995-01-01

243

Facial model estimation from stereo\\/mono image sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial model coding is an integral part in MPEG-4 related applications. The generation of the facial model usually requires stereoscopic view of the face in the pre-processing stage. Although facial model can be successfully estimated from two stereo facial images, the occlusion effect and imprecise location of the feature point prohibit obtaining an accurate facial model. In this paper, several

Chung J. Kuo; Tsang-gang Lin; Ruey-song Huang; Souheil F. Odeh

2003-01-01

244

Motion history for facial action detection in video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enabling computer systems to recognize human facial expressions is a challenging research problem with many applications in behavioral science, medicine, security, and human-machine interaction. Instead of being another approach to automatic detection of prototypic facial expressions of emotion, this work attempts to analyze subtle changes in facial behavior by recognizing facial action units (AUs, i.e. atomic facial signals) that produce

Michel François Valstar; Maja Pantic; Ioannis Patras

2004-01-01

245

Techniques of facial nerve block.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure was measured and lid motility determined on a subjective score scale. Whereas the modified O'Brien and lid blocks nearly abolished the muscle activity recorded in the EMG (p < 0.003), the Atkinson and van Lint blocks did not significantly affect these variables. The O'Brien and lid blocks decreased the force of lid closure and lid movements far more effectively than the Atkinson and van Lint blocks (p < 0.0001). The topographic distribution of a mixture of metrizamide and lignocaine solutions was evaluated radiographically in eight additional patients, to assess potential causes for differences in the efficacy of the block techniques. The radiological results showed involvement of the region of the facial nerve trunk and its temporal and cervical divisions by the modified O'Brien block. The lid block, on the other hand, affected terminal branches of the facial nerve's temporal division. In this study, complete lid akinesia was achieved by both the modified O'Brien block and the lid block. However, because the modified O'Brien block involves the risk of neural injury to the facial nerve or its main divisions, the lid block is recommended as the most effective and safe method to achieve akinesia of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Images

Schimek, F; Fahle, M

1995-01-01

246

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is the most common contiguous gene deletion syndrome in humans, caused by a microdeletion from chromosome 22 at the q11.2 locus. Moreover, it is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes associated with congenital heart disease and is certainly the most common syndrome causing conotruncal heart anomalies. The population prevalence of this syndrome is probably increasing

Robert J. Shprintzen

2005-01-01

247

Facial Resurfacing With Coblation Technology  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe our experience with coblation technology for facial resurfacing Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients treated with coblation at our institution Results Twenty-four patients (22 female) underwent a total of 29 coblation procedures for aging face (n = 21) or acne scarring (n = 3). The perioral region was the most frequently treated aesthetic subunit (n = 14), followed by the lower eyelid (n = 7). Five patients underwent full-face coblation. Three patients underwent a second coblation procedure for aging face while a single patient with severe acne scarring underwent 3 procedures. Repeat coblation was delayed at least 5 months (mean, 9 months). Seventeen coblation procedures (59%) were performed concurrently with procedures including, but not limited to, injection treatment, rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, or combined face/necklift; no adverse events occurred. Seven procedures, including a full-face coblation, were performed in the office under local anesthesia and oral sedation without any adverse events. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1 week to 24 months). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the results after their final coblation treatment. Conclusions Facial coblation is a safe and effective treatment modality for facial resurfacing.

Weber, Stephen M.; Downs, Brian W.; Ferraz, Mario B.J.; Wang, Tom D.; Cook, Ted A.

2008-01-01

248

The biology of facial fillers.  

PubMed

The biologic behavior of a facial filler determines its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to look at the relevant biology as part of a logical basis for making treatment decisions. Historical perspectives and biologic characteristics such as local tissue reaction (including phagocytosis and granulomatous inflammation) cross-linking, particle concentration, immunogenicity, biofilm formation, gel hardness, and collagen neogenesis are considered. Bovine collagen is the most immunogenic facial filler. Porcine and bioengineered human collagen implants have very low immunogenicity, but allergic reactions and elevations of IgG are possible. Cross-linking and concentration affect the longevity of collagen and hyaluronic acid fillers. Gel hardness affects how a hyaluronic acid filler flows through the syringe and needle. Calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-L-lactic acid, and polymethylmethacrylate fillers have been shown to stimulate collagen neogenesis. It appears that any facial filler can form a granuloma. Bacterial biofilms may play a role in the activation of quiescent granulomas. Various authors interpret the definition and significance of a granuloma differently. PMID:19415574

Bentkover, Stuart H

2009-05-01

249

The effectiveness of neuromuscular facial retraining combined with electromyography in facial paralysis rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe study goal was to present the effectiveness of neuromuscular facial retraining techniques used in combination with electromyography for improving facial function even in cases of longstanding paralysis.

Gaye W Cronin; Ronald Leif Steenerson

2003-01-01

250

Assessment Method of Facial Palsy by Amount of Feature Point Movements at Facial Expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present in medical field, the 40 point method and facial nerve grading system (House-Brackmann method) are generally used for assessment of facial palsy. However, those methods have limitation in the precise assessment, because of subjectivity in diagnosis. Purpose of this paper is to propose objective and quantitative assessment of facial palsy based on the amount of feature point movements on the face. Facial nerve symptoms generally appear in either of right and left side on the face. In facial expression of palsy subjects, the motion on the diseased side becomes smaller than that on the healthy side. We defined some indices of palsy severity from the observation of facial expression. Those indices showed the asymmetry of the facial motion quantitatively. We confirmed that our proposed method was valid for assessment of the facial palsy by comparison with the 40 point method.

Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nemoto, Junko; Ohta, Manami; Kunihiro, Takanobu

251

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

PubMed

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

2013-06-01

252

Can persistent drop foot after calf muscle lengthening be predicted preoperatively?  

PubMed

Calf muscle lengthening usually corrects equinus gait satisfactorily in stance. While in swing, the foot remains in drop foot in approximately half the limbs. The aim of this study was to evaluate if any preoperative clinical findings or kinematic and kinetic data could predict the outcome regarding drop foot. The study included 34 children with cerebral palsy. The average age was 9.3 years. Only children with preoperative maximum ankle dorsiflexion in stance and maximum ankle dorsiflexion in swing more than 2 standard deviations below the normal mean were included. The children underwent preoperative and postoperative clinical examination and gait analysis. Forty calf muscle lengthenings were performed (26 tendo-achilles lengthenings, 14 gastrocnemius recessions). Nineteen of 40 limbs remained in drop foot despite satisfactory correction in stance. There was a significant association between postoperative drop foot and increased preoperative maximum plantar flexion in initial swing (P = .004; odds ratio, 0.906). A limited number of tests of preoperative selective motor control of dorsiflexion of the ankle indicated that normal function is strongly indicative of postoperative normal swing phase. There were no significant associations between postoperative drop foot and preoperative clinical findings, gait function, type of gait pattern, type of cerebral palsy, and type of operation. Preoperative maximum plantar flexion in an initial swing of less than -42 degrees and a preoperative normal selective motor control of dorsiflexion of the ankle are strongly indicative of postoperative normal swing phase. A lower selective motor control score rather than normal function is not predictive of either normal swing or drop foot. Level of Evidence: 2. PMID:19857817

Lofterød, Bjørn; Fosdahl, Merete Aarsland; Terjesen, Terje

2009-01-01

253

The mechanical properties of cat soleus muscle during controlled lengthening and shortening movements  

PubMed Central

1. By supplying pulses to different subdivisions of the ventral nerve roots in rotation, it was possible to obtain smooth contractions of cat soleus with low rates of stimulation. 2. After contracting isometrically the muscle was subjected to constant velocity lengthening or shortening movements. 3. During shortening the tension always fell below the isometric value. The fall in tension was usually greatest when low rates of stimulation were used. 4. The effect of lengthening on tension depended on the rate of stimulation. At high rates of stimulation the tension during lengthening always rose above the isometric tension. At lower rates of stimulation (5-15 pulses/sec) the tension rose at the beginning of an extension, but decreased later in the movement to a level that was often less than the isometric tension corresponding to that muscle length. At these stimulus rates the tension during isometric contraction was usually higher than during a sustained movement in either direction. 5. At low rates of stimulation longitudinal vibratory movements of more than 0·1 mm also reduced the tension far below the isometric value, whereas the reduction was quite slight when the rate of stimulation was high. 6. The isometric tension during smooth contractions at low stimulus rates was remarkable in the following respects: it developed rather slowly, it was higher than the tension during or immediately after movements, and it was only slowly regained after movement had ceased. 7. The results are discussed in relation to the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction, which, with certain assumptions, provides an explanation for many of the findings.

Joyce, G. C.; Rack, P. M. H.; Westbury, D. R.

1969-01-01

254

[Treatment of petrous bone cholesteatoma].  

PubMed

Cholesteatoma involving the petrous compartment of the temporal bone is rare and is a difficult surgical challenge for the neuro-otological surgeon. A series of 60 cases of petrous bone cholesteatoma is presented. The diagnosis, surgical treatment, results, and complications are discussed. Our present surgical attitude is based on closed obliterative procedures that allow a wide field exposure with radical removal excision, control and protection of vital structures, and management of problems related to the facial nerve. The treatment of dura mater involved by matrix is still unsolved. Regular follow-up with CT and MRI is mandatory. PMID:8068355

Sanna, M; Mazzoni, A; Landolfi, M; Aristegui, M

1994-01-01

255

Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

256

Surgical Approaches to Facial Nerve Deficits  

PubMed Central

The facial nerve is one of the most commonly injured cranial nerves. Once injured, the effects on form, function, and psyche are profound. We review the anatomy of the facial nerve from the brain stem to its terminal branches. We also discuss the physical exam findings of facial nerve injury at various levels. Finally, we describe various reconstructive options for reanimating the face and restoring both form and function.

Birgfeld, Craig; Neligan, Peter

2011-01-01

257

A Modified Surgical Technique for Lengthening of a Metatarsal Using an External Fixator  

PubMed Central

Brachymetatarsia is a congenital or developmental condition that results in a short metatarsal. Problems that arise from this condition can include pain, difficulty with shoe wear, and cosmetic concerns. Multiple techniques have been described that successfully correct the deformity, including both acute and gradual distraction. We describe a modification of the technique of gradual lengthening by way of distraction osteogenesis in which an axial transarticular K-wire is incorporated into a monolateral frame, thereby increasing the stability of the construct and potentially minimizing complications.

Blyakher, Arkady; Krantzow, Michael

2010-01-01

258

A modified surgical technique for lengthening of a metatarsal using an external fixator.  

PubMed

Brachymetatarsia is a congenital or developmental condition that results in a short metatarsal. Problems that arise from this condition can include pain, difficulty with shoe wear, and cosmetic concerns. Multiple techniques have been described that successfully correct the deformity, including both acute and gradual distraction. We describe a modification of the technique of gradual lengthening by way of distraction osteogenesis in which an axial transarticular K-wire is incorporated into a monolateral frame, thereby increasing the stability of the construct and potentially minimizing complications. PMID:21886542

Scher, David M; Blyakher, Arkady; Krantzow, Michael

2010-09-01

259

Facial Nerve Monitoring under Neuromuscular Blockade  

PubMed Central

The characteristics of facial nerve electromyography at various levels of neuromuscular blockade are unclear. Partial blockade is well known to facilitate anesthetic safety and management. However, the use of neuromuscular blockage in many skull base procedures is avoided to allow intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. We studied the influence of various levels of neuromuscular blockade on facial nerve stimulation in the New Zealand white rabbit. The facial nerve was exposed in the middle ear of six rabbits. Using electromyographic-type facial nerve monitor, we recorded the facial electromyography signals in these rabbits at increasing levels of vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. All animals demonstrated reliable facial electromyography response at all levels of partial neuromuscular blockade (P < .02). Five of the six animals could be monitored throughout complete blockade. These results clearly demonstrate that rabbit facial electromyography monitoring is possible under neuromuscular blockade. The effect of neuromuscular blockers on facial electromyography monitoring deserves further study, as partial blockade would greatly facilitate the management of anesthesia in otologic, neurotologic, and skull base surgery.

Hester, T. Oma; Hasan, Akbar; McDonnell, Francis; Valentino, Joseph; Jones, Raleigh

1995-01-01

260

Aneurysmal bone cyst of the ethmoid sinus: A case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Aneurysmal bone cyst is an expansile bone lesion, non-neoplastic in nature, occurring most commonly in long bones. It is uncommon in facial bones and exceptionally rare in ethmoid bone. Ten cases of aneurysmal bone cysts of ethmoid bone have been reported so far. Case Report: A young adolescent presented with decreased vision and pain in the right eye. MRI revealed an expansile lesion having conspicuous fluid levels with a multiloculated appearance in the right ethmoid bone extending to the right orbit. CT was done to characterize better bone details. Both biopsy of the lesion and histopathology of resected specimen confirmed aneurysmal bone cyst. Conclusions: A characteristic appearance on MRI and CT examinations helped to confidently diagnose a relatively common lesion in an exceedingly rare location.

Sinha, Nitin Raj; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Khanna, Maneesh

2010-01-01

261

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874...Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a...

2010-04-01

262

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874...Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a...

2009-04-01

263

Your Bones  

MedlinePLUS

... like other parts of your body. Calcium builds strong bones, so what's your favorite way to get ... as compact bone, but it is still very strong. In many bones, the cancellous bone protects the ...

264

Stretching versus strength training in lengthened position in subjects with tight hamstring muscles: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Stretching is used to modify muscle length. However, its effects seem to be temporary. There is evidence in animal models that strengthening in a lengthened position may induce long lasting changes in muscle length. The objective of this study was to compare changes in hamstrings flexibility, peak torque angle and stretch tolerance after two training programs: stretching and strengthening in a lengthened position. Forty-five subjects with tight hamstrings were randomly assigned into three groups: control, stretching and strength training in lengthened position. The interventions were performed three times a week for eight weeks. The subjects were assessed before and after the end of the programs. Data provided by an isokinetic dynamometer were used to assess hamstrings flexibility, peak torque angle, and stretch tolerance. The data analysis demonstrated that strengthening in lengthened position changed peak torque angle in the direction of knee extension (p=0.001). No change in flexibility was observed (p=0.449). Both experimental groups showed an increase in stretch tolerance (p=0.001). The results demonstrated that strengthening in a lengthened position produced a shift of the torque-angle curve, which suggests an increase in muscle length. Conversely, stretching did not produce modification of torque-angle curve and flexibility; its effects appear restricted to increases in stretch tolerance. PMID:19632878

Aquino, Cecília F; Fonseca, Sérgio T; Gonçalves, Gabriela G P; Silva, Paula L P; Ocarino, Juliana M; Mancini, Marisa C

2010-02-01

265

Bone transport and compression-distraction in the treatment of bone loss of the lower limbs.  

PubMed

A clinical series of 17 adult patients operated due to significant by bone loss of the long bones of the lower extremity (3 femurs and 11 tibias), is presented. Their management consisted of 6 bone transports (6 tibias) and 11 compression distraction procedures (3 femurs and 8 tibiae) using monolateral external fixators. Bone loss ranged from 3.9 cm to 14.7 cm. Mean healing time was 301 days with a mean healing index of 45.6 days for cm of lengthening achieved. The clinical and radiological results were excellent in 9, good in 6 and fair in 2 patients according to the utilised criteria of assessment. Consolidation was achieved in all but one patient who developed an aseptic stiff non-union. Two patients developed residual limb-length discrepancy less than 1.5 cm, three tibias ended up with less than 5° of valgus deviation. In two cases the half-pins were re-inserted due to early loosening. In two cases reoperation was needed for late bending of the callus after fixator removal. Three cases of bone transport and 1 case of compression distraction needed bone grafting at the docking site. Bone transport and compression-distraction are effective methods for treating bone loss in the lower extremity. It is suggested that the compression-distraction technique is preferable, since this is associated with a lower incidence of complications than bone transport procedures. The deciding factor, however, is the actual extent of the bone loss. PMID:20943220

Lavini, Franco; Dall'Oca, Carlo; Bartolozzi, Pietro

2010-11-01

266

Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

2007-01-01

267

Manual stimulation of facial muscles improves functional recovery after hypoglossal–facial anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafting of the facial nerve in adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facial nerve in humans is often prone to injuries requiring surgical intervention. In the best case, nerve reconstruction is achieved by a facial–facial anastomosis (FFA), i.e. suture of the proximal and distal stumps of the severed facial nerve. Although a method of choice, FFA rarely leads to a satisfactory functional recovery. We have recently devised and validated, in an

Orlando Guntinas-Lichius; Gregor Hundeshagen; Thomas Paling; Michael Streppel; Maria Grosheva; Andrey Irintchev; Emmanouil Skouras; Athanasia Alvanou; Srebrina K. Angelova; Stefanie Kuerten; Nektarios Sinis; Sarah A. Dunlop; Doychin N. Angelov

2007-01-01

268

Distal fascia lata lengthening: an alternative surgical technique for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis  

PubMed Central

This article presents a simple technique for fascia lata lengthening that is less aggressive, can be performed under local anaesthetic with little morbidity and disability, and has excellent results. Eleven patients (13 hips) were enrolled in this study. Mean age was 54.6 years, there was one man and ten women. Outcomes were assessed by using a visual analog pain scale, Harris hip score and Lickert scale (satisfaction). There was a mean follow-up time of 43 months (range 15–84). All patients were scored by the Harris hip scale with a mean improvement from 61 (range 48–77) to 91 (range 76–95) after surgery. The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score improved from 83 (range 60–99) to 13 (range 0–70). We had 12 of 13 patients reporting a good result. Mean surgical time was 15 min, and only one seroma was reported as a complication. No inpatient management was needed. In conclusion, distal “Z” lengthening of the fascia lata appears to be a good alternative for treatment of this condition.

Ortega, Javier; Garcia-Rayo, Ramon; Resines, Carlos

2009-01-01

269

Facial development disorders due to inhibition to endochondral ossification of mandibular condyle process caused by malnutrition.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the effect of protein restriction on histomorphometric parameters of bone remodeling in mandibular condyle process and its possible influence in facial development in growing rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats weaned at the age of 21 days were assigned to one of the following groups: control (fed a regular hard diet ad libitum) and protein restricted (PR) (fed a hard diet lacking in protein ad libitum). The animals were euthanized on day 35 after the onset of the experiment. Mandibles were resected, fixed in 10% formalin, hemisected at the symphysis, and then radiographed in order to perform cephalometric studies of the condylar process length and the height of the lower alveolar process. Mandibles were then processed for light microscopy, and histomorphometric determinations were performed on histologic sections of the condylar process subchondral bone. Results: The PR group showed a significantly lower body weight than control group at the end of the experiment. The length of the condylar process was lower in the PR group; however, the diet used in this study did not affect the height of the lower alveolar process. The histomorphometric analysis showed that the PR group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in bone formation and bone volume in condylar process subchondral bone. Conclusion: Protein restriction inhibits bone formation and longitudinal growth in the mandibular condylar process. This result suggest that protein restriction can alter normal facial development. PMID:24160994

Martín, Adrián E; Pani, Maria Del R; Holgado, Nora Ruiz; López Miranda, Laura I; Meheris, Héctor E; Garat, Juan A

2014-05-01

270

Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

2014-01-01

271

Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.  

PubMed

Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age. PMID:24269646

Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yi?it, B

2014-07-01

272

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed.

SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

2007-01-01

273

Classification Algorithms Research on Facial Expression Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the reliability of facial expression recognition system, and reduce the chance of false positives caused by error, classification strategy is important in recognition process. In the process, the k-nearest neighbor algorithm is improved. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is excellent when it is applied to facial expression recognition system.

Ou, Jun

274

Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

2008-01-01

275

Shape analysis of female facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that female facial attractiveness is associated with exaggerated sex-specific facial traits and averageness. Here we applied geometric morphometrics, a method for multivariate statistical analysis of shape, to measure geometric averageness and geometric sexual dimorphism of natural female face profiles. Geometric averageness and geometric sexual dimorphism correlate with attractiveness ratings. However, principal component analysis extracted a shape

Dario Riccardo Valenzano; Andrea Mennucci; Giandonato Tartarelli; Alessandro Cellerino

2006-01-01

276

Pose invariant facial component-landmark detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial landmark detection has proved to be a very challenging task in biometrics due to the numerous sources of variation. In this work, we present an algorithm for robust detection of facial component-landmarks. Specifically, we address the variation due to extreme pose and illumination. To achieve robust detection for extreme poses, we use a set of independent pose and landmark

B. Efraty; M. Papadakis; A. Profitt; S. Shah; I. A. Kakadiaris

2011-01-01

277

Effects of Facial Hair in Oxygen Masks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to determine whether or not hazards are associated with facial hair on Naval aircrewmen using oxygen breathing equipment. The study showed that undesirable conditions do exist because of facial hair, but there is no evidence...

D. G. Naber

1972-01-01

278

The Ideal of Facial Beauty: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review article we examine the question as to which parameters of facial attraction are amenable to measurement and which tools are available to perform these measurements. The evaluation of facial images, artistic standards, cephalometry, and anthropometry are discussed. Furthermore, we consider how the attractiveness of a face is influenced by symmetry, averageness and distinguishing features such as dental

Mirjam Hönn; Gernot Göz

2007-01-01

279

An unusual cause of unilateral facial pain.  

PubMed

Cardiac pain that is referred to the face is a common symptom in patients with angina pectoris, but unilateral facial pain referred from a non-ischaemic cardiac source is rare. We report a case of unilateral facial pain that occurred in relation to a large pericardial effusion and which resolved on drainage of the effusion. PMID:10563079

Chukwuemeka, A O; John, L C

1999-06-01

280

Comprehensive Database for Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past decade, significant effort has occurred in developing methods of facial expression analysis. Because most investigators have used relatively limited data sets, the generalizability of these various methods remains unknown. We describe the problem space for facial expression analysis, which includes level of description, transitions among expression, eliciting conditions, reliability and validity of training and test data, individual

Takeo Kanade; Ying-li Tian; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2000-01-01

281

Automatic Recognition of Human Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new idea for detecting an unknown human face in input imagery and recognizing his\\/her facial expression represented in the deformation of the two dimensional net, called potential net. The method deals with the facial information, faceness and expressions, as an overall pattern of the net activated by edges in a single input image of face, rather

Katsuhiro Matsunot; Chil-woo Lee; Satoshi Kimura; Saburo Tsuji

1995-01-01

282

Petrous bone cholesteatoma: clinical longitudinal study.  

PubMed

The object of this retrospective study was to describe a series of patients with petrous bone cholesteatomas, paying particular attention to classification, diagnosis, surgical strategy, results, complications and recurrences. Furthermore, the study was designed to evaluate the impact of imaging techniques on an early diagnosis. Topographically, the petrous bone cholesteatomas of the present series were grouped using Sanna's classification and different surgical approaches were used. High resolution CT and/or MRI were used to follow-up the patients. The case notes of 52 patients with petrous bone cholesteatomas who were referred to our hospital for surgery between 1987 and 2003 were reviewed postoperatively. There were 45 primary cases and 7 recurrences. The facial nerve had been infiltrated and compressed by the cholesteatoma in 18 patients. Fourteen were managed with cable grafts using sural nerve or great auricular nerves. About 26 patients with preoperative grade I confirmed their normal facial function in 23 cases. In the other ten patients, the preoperative facial paralysis was due to compression by the cholesteatoma and its removal provided partial recovery of facial function in four patients. Our study compared two observation periods (1987-1996 and 1997-2003) when the diffusion and the availability of imaging techniques in our national health system had considerably increased. Two important factors emerged: firstly, the number of less extensive surgical approaches was higher in the more recent observation period, proving that cholesteatomas smaller in size had been diagnosed. Secondly, preoperative facial paralysis was less frequent in the same period-falling to 25% of cases of total facial paralysis from the 45.8% of the earlier period-practically half as much. The partial paralyses instead increased slightly, demonstrating that otologists have become more sensitive to and pay more attention to this symptom. PMID:17082945

Magliulo, Giuseppe

2007-02-01

283

Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

2014-06-01

284

Localization of facial region in digital images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

2011-04-01

285

Robust facial expression recognition via compressive sensing.  

PubMed

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks. PMID:22737035

Zhang, Shiqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Lei, Bicheng

2012-01-01

286

Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing  

PubMed Central

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

Zhang, Shiqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Lei, Bicheng

2012-01-01

287

[Jugular bulb diverticular and facial paralysis].  

PubMed

The authors report a case where a woman presents a right jugular bulb procidence already known and responsible of a perception deafness. Secondarily, a right facial paralysis is appeared progressively and not regressive even with medical treatment. When the computed tomography as shown an intrapetrous diverticular, the facial paralysis treatment was surgical to decompress the facial nerve. The literature study shoes the rarity of this association facial paralysis and jugular bulb procidence (only two cases), more often responsible of deafness, tinnitus, and vertigo. The diagnosis is given by computed tomography. M.R.I. has not still be evaluated. Then the authors insist on the progressive character of the facial paralysis and on the necessity of a surgical treatment. PMID:10371865

Gal, M; Darrouzet, V; Pescio, P; Vincey, P; Bébéar, J P

1999-01-01

288

Mutual information-based facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

2013-12-01

289

Cyclosporine-associated facial paralysis in a child with renal transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclosporine (CsA)-associated neurotoxicity has been reported in recipients of solid organ and bone marrow transplants. These neurological side effects are usually mild and resolve with temporary reduction or withdrawal of CsA. We report a 16-year-old renal transplant recipient who developed tremor, tinnitus, and peripheral facial paralysis during oral CsA treatment. Her serum magnesium level was below the normal range and

Ozan Ozkaya; Süleyman Kalman; Sevcan Bakkalo?lu; Necla Buyan; O?uz Söylemezo?lu

2002-01-01

290

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM), facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD), genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

2010-01-01

291

[Fragmentary osteotomy of maxilla back parts for dentoalveolar lengthening as preparation stage before dental prosthetics making on implants].  

PubMed

Conditions for dental implantation are not always ideal that decrease the method possibilities and makes surgeons-implantologists to resort to additional interventions in order to increase the hard and soft tissues volume in the region of the planned implantation. Considerably rare an implantologist comes across with abutment tissues surplus when considerable dentoalveolar lengthening happens with expressed diminution of interalveolar distance. Orthognatic surgery as the method of surgical correction of expressed dentoalveolar lengthening of some teeth group is the most effective when there is no possibility to such deformation elimination by other methods - orthodontic or prosthetic. PMID:20436408

Seniuk, A N; Mokhirev, M A

2010-01-01

292

Silhouette sutures for treatment of facial aging: facial rejuvenation, remodeling, and facial tissue support.  

PubMed

During facial aging, a series of physical and biochemical changes leading to tissue hypotrophy, sagging, and wrinkles takes place not only at the level of the skin but also in the fatty tissue, muscle, and other structures. One of these changes is the decrease in volume and elasticity of the tissue because of alteration of collagen fiber formation. The intermittent use of silhouette sutures (partially reabsorbable) is aimed at preventing and treating the tissue sagginess and reinforcing the soft tissue of the face. PMID:18922301

Isse, Nicanor

2008-10-01

293

A rare cause of facial nerve palsy in children: hyperostosis corticalis generalisata (Van Buchem disease). Three new pediatric cases and a literature review.  

PubMed

Differential diagnosis of facial nerve palsy in children is extensive. We report on three pediatric cases presenting with facial nerve palsy caused by hyperostosis corticalis generalisata (Van Buchem disease). This autosomal recessive disease is characterized by progressive bone overgrowth, with narrowing of the neuroforamina in the skull causing cranial neuropathies. These three new cases of Van Buchem disease are of interest because of exceptionally early presentation of symptoms. Furthermore, this is the first report describing bilateral papilledema in a child with Van Buchem disease. Head computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed thickened calvarium, skull base and mandible in all three children, with narrowed facial nerve canals. Bone mineral density (BMD) was markedly increased at all measured points and biochemical markers of bone formation were significantly elevated. Diagnosis of Van Buchem disease was genetically confirmed. The cases are unique in that these are the first well-documented pediatric cases of Van Buchem disease. PMID:22445802

van Egmond, M E; Dikkers, F G; Boot, A M; van Lierop, A H J M; Papapoulos, S E; Brouwer, O F

2012-11-01

294

Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.  

PubMed

The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane

2013-01-01

295

[Callus distraction lengthening of the tibia with the intramedullary kinetic nail (case report)].  

PubMed

In this report the first experience with callus distraction lengthening using the intramedullary kinetic nail is described. This was performed on a left tibia with a total shortening of 34 mm. The distraction phase lasted 36 days and the rate of distraction was 0.95 mm per day. The full weight-bearing of the treated lower extremity was allowed at 12 weeks after surgery. Complete consolidation of the callus was achieved at 112 days and the consolidation index was 3.21 days/mm. No serious complications were recorded during the post-operative period. At 12 months after surgery, the patient showed a full range of motion in the knee, his ankle range of motion was S 15-0-35, and he achieved an excellent functional outcome on evaluation by Paley's classification. PMID:17877947

Visna, P; Beitl, E; Smídl, Z; Kalvach, J; Jaganjac, E

2007-08-01

296

Rapid induction of alternative lengthening of telomeres by depletion of the histone chaperone ASF1.  

PubMed

The mechanism of activation of the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway of mammalian chromosome-end maintenance has been unclear. We have now discovered that co-depletion of the histone chaperones ASF1a and ASF1b in human cells induced all hallmarks of ALT in both primary and cancer cells. These included the formation of ALT-associated PML (promyelocytic leukemia) bodies (APBs), the presence of extrachromosomal telomeric DNA species, an elevated frequency of telomeric sister chromatid exchanges (t-SCE) events and intertelomeric exchange of an integrated tag. The induction of ALT characteristics in this setting led to the simultaneous suppression of telomerase. We determined that ALT induction is positively regulated by the proteins RAD17 and BLM and negatively regulated by EXO1 and DNA2. The induction of ALT phenotypes as a consequence of ASF1 depletion strongly supports the hypothesis that ALT is a consequence of histone management dysfunction. PMID:24413054

O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Arnoult, Nausica; Lackner, Daniel H; Oganesian, Liana; Haggblom, Candy; Corpet, Armelle; Almouzni, Genevieve; Karlseder, Jan

2014-02-01

297

Cluster reduction and compensatory lengthening in the acquisition of possessive -s.  

PubMed

Previous research shows that two-year-olds' third person singular -s and plural -s are produced more accurately in utterance-final compared to utterance-medial position. However, only the third person singular is affected by coda complexity. This study explores these effects with possessive -s. Acoustic analysis of twelve two-year-olds' elicited imitations examined the use of simple versus complex codas (e.g. Sue's vs. Doug's ) both utterance-medially and utterance-finally. Morpheme production was surprisingly robust across contexts, though coda clusters were often simplified to a lengthened -s morpheme utterance-medially (e.g., Dou's [d?z]). The findings raise many questions about the development of speech planning processes across populations. PMID:23680453

Mealings, Kiri Trengove; Demuth, Katherine

2014-05-01

298

Group velocity and pulse lengthening of mismatched laser pulses in plasma channels  

SciTech Connect

Analytic solutions are presented to the non-paraxial wave equation describing an ultra-short, low-power, laser pulse propagating in a plasma channel. Expressions for the laser pulse centroid motion and laser group velocity are derived, valid for matched and mismatched propagation in a parabolic plasma channel, as well as in vacuum, for an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. The group velocity of a mismatched laser pulse, for which the laser spot size is strongly oscillating, is found to be independent of propagation distance and significantly less than that of a matched pulse. Laser pulse lengthening of a mismatched pulse owing to laser mode slippage is examined and found to dominate over that due to dispersive pulse spreading for sufficiently long pulses. Analytic results are shown to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions of the full Maxwell equations coupled to the plasma response. Implications for plasma channel diagnostics are discussed.

Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Tilborg, J. van; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2011-08-15

299

Group velocity and pulse lengthening of mismatched laser pulses in plasma channels  

SciTech Connect

Analytic solutions are presented to the non-paraxial wave equation describing an ultra-short, low-power, laser pulse propagating in aplasma channel. Expressions for the laser pulse centroid motion and laser group velocity are derived, valid for matched and mismatchedpropagation in a parabolic plasma channel, as well as in vacuum, for an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. The group velocity of amismatched laser pulse, for which the laser spot size is strongly oscillating, is found to be independent of propagation distance andsignificantly less than that of a matched pulse. Laser pulse lengthening of a mismatched pulse owing to laser mode slippage isexamined and found to dominate over that due to dispersive pulse spreading for sufficiently long pulses. Analytic results are shown tobe in excellent agreement with numerical solutions of the full Maxwell equations coupled to the plasma response. Implications for plasmachannel diagnostics are discussed.

Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim

2011-07-07

300

Electromyographic and nerve conduction changes after tibial lengthening by the Ilizarov method.  

PubMed

Clinical observation of several hundred Ilizarov patients has demonstrated prolonged muscle weakness in the involved limb after treatment. The etiology may be either neuropathic or myopathic. Direct intraoperative neural injury is unusual but generally is detected immediately postoperatively. We wished to determine the etiology of this clinical problem. Six consecutive patients completing tibial lengthening by the Ilizarov method were examined by electrodiagnostic methods. All patients were clinically normal. Electrodiagnostic testing showed abnormalities in six of six deep peroneal nerves. Five of six demonstrated abnormalities in the superficial peroneal sensory responses. In addition, two of six patients demonstrated abnormalities related to the posterior tibial nerve. Concomitantly, sequential perioperative limb compartment pressure studies were performed in nine patients undergoing 12 tibial applications of the Ilizarov technique. Increases in mean compartment pressures to between 20 and 30 mm Hg were demonstrated after tibial osteotomy and in the first 18 hours postoperatively. PMID:8396595

Young, N L; Davis, R J; Bell, D F; Redmond, D M

1993-01-01

301

Lengthening of the duration of xylogenesis engenders disproportionate increases in xylem production.  

PubMed

In cold climates, the expected global warming will lead to earlier cambial resumptions in spring, with a resultant lengthening of the growing season but unknown consequences on forest productivity. The phenological traits of cambium activity and xylem formation were analyzed at a short time scale along a thermal gradient represented by an alti-latitudinal range from the 48th to 53rd parallels and covering the whole closed black-spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] forest in Quebec, Canada. A hypothesis was tested that warmer temperatures influence cambium phenology, allowing longer duration and higher intensity of growth, and resulting in proportionally increased xylem production. From April to October 2012, cell division in cambium and post-cambial differentiation of xylem were observed on anatomical sections obtained from microcores collected weekly from the stem of fifty trees. The southern and warmer site was characterized by the highest radial growth, which corresponded to both the highest rates and longest durations of cell production. The differences in terms of xylem phenology and growth were marginal between the other sites. Xylem growth was positively correlated with rate and duration of cell production, with the latter explaining most variability in growth. Within the range analyzed, the relationship between temperature and most phenological phases of xylogenesis was linear. On the contrary, temperature was related with cell production according to an exponential pattern. Periods of xylogenesis of 14 days longer (+13.1%) corresponded to a massive increase in cell production (33 cells, +109%). This disproportionate change occurred at a May-September average temperature of ca. 14 °C and a snow-free period of 210-235 days. At the lower boundary of the distribution of black spruce, small environmental changes allowing marginal lengthening of the period of cell division could potentially lead to disproportionate increases in xylem cell production, with substantial consequences for the productivity of this boreal species. PMID:24259354

Rossi, Sergio; Girard, Marie-Josée; Morin, Hubert

2014-07-01

302

Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA  

PubMed Central

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers.

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

2014-01-01

303

Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications. PMID:25076447

Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

2014-08-01

304

Mucosal perforators from the facial artery.  

PubMed

The cutaneous perforators of the facial artery have been well described, but to our knowledge the oral mucosal perforators have not. We studied 10 facial arteries from 10 hemifaces in 5 cadavers. The arteries were injected with latex, and we studied all perforators that extended from the facial artery and headed directly to the oral mucosa. The diameter and length of the facial artery and its mucosal perforators were measured and compared. We found 52 oral mucosal perforators in the 10 facial arteries injected with latex. Their mean (SD) diameter was 0.5 (0.2) mm and the mean (SD) number/facial artery was 5.2 (1.1). Their mean (SD) length was 16.4 (5.3) mm. Most of those to the cheek were localised between the branching-off points of the inferior and superior labial arteries. The facial artery has perforators to the oral mucosa of the cheek, most of them between the points at which the labial arteries emerge. PMID:24703773

Coronel-Banda, Mauricio E; Serra-Renom, Jose M; Lorente, Marian; Larrea-Terán, Wendy P

2014-07-01

305

Modeling 3D facial shape from DNA.  

PubMed

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E; Pearson, Laurel N; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S; Absher, Devin M; Puts, David A; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K; Boster, James S; Shriver, Mark D

2014-03-01

306

Theoretical and applied evaluations of facial composite systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police often use facial composites during their investigations, yet research suggests that facial composites are generally not effective. The present research included two experiments on facial composites. The first experiment was designed to test the usefulness of the encoding specificity principle for determining when facial composites will be effective. Instructions were used to encourage holistic or featural cues at encoding.

Christine Edeburn Koehn

1995-01-01

307

Respirator Fit and Facial Dimensions of Two Minority Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seal of a respirator to a worker's face can be influenced by the worker's facial dimensions. Males and females of the same and different racial\\/ethnic backgrounds exhibit different facial dimension measurements. This research was conducted to ascertain the relationship between facial dimensions influenced by race\\/ethnicity and gender to respirator fit. Facial dimensions and respirator fit were measured on 186

William J. Brazile; Roy M. Buchan; Del R. Sandfort; Walter Melvin; Janet A. Johnson; Michael Charney

1998-01-01

308

Emotion recognition with consideration of facial expression and physiological signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emotion recognition system with consideration of facial expression and physiological signals is proposed in this paper. A specific designed mood induction experiment is performed to collect facial expressing images and physiological signals of subjects. We detected 14 feature points and extracted 12 facial features from facial expression images. Meanwhile, we measure the skin conductivity, finger temperature and heart rate

Chuan-Yu Chang; Jeng-Shiun Tsai; Chi-Jane Wang; Pau-Choo Chung

2009-01-01

309

The intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor (ISKD): first clinical results of a new intramedullary nail for lengthening of the femur and tibia.  

PubMed

In 1986, a programme was initiated by the senior author to develop a reliable, mechanically activated, intramedullary lengthening device with a non-invasive means of measuring the progress of lengthening without X-ray. We report results of design, biomechanical testing, in vivo animal testing and clinical implantation of the first 20 intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractors (ISKDs) in adult patients with limb-length discrepancies. Twenty ISKD devices were implanted in 18 patients (14 males and four females). Lengthening was required due to infection (ten), trauma (six), polio (one) and burn (one). Six femurs and 14 tibias were lengthened. Mean patient age was 40 years (range, 18-65 years). No implant related infections, non-unions, malunions or joint contractures were observed. A design change was made following two initial hardware failures, after which there were no further breakages. Average lengthening was 49 mm (range, 29-110 mm). The average lengthening rate was 0.82 mm/day (range, 1.7-0.4 mm/day). Ability to work, walk and drive before, during and after treatment with the ISKD compared favourably with that of similar patients undergoing lengthening using the 'monorail' method in our practice. The ISKD appears to be a safe and cost-effective alternative to external fixators that reduces lifestyle disruption and complications during adult limb-lengthening procedures. PMID:11812486

Cole, J D; Justin, D; Kasparis, T; DeVlught, D; Knobloch, C

2001-12-01

310

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

PubMed Central

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges.

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

311

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

PubMed Central

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners.

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

312

Rapid facial mimicry in geladas.  

PubMed

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

313

Facial recognition at the CIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an 'electronic mug book.' Using some simple collateral information about a suspect (height, age and sex) and a photograph, the system gives users the ability to identify an unknown person with a reasonable probability. The system matches information extracted from the photographs with similar information extracted from a database of photographs of existing suspects. The technology was subsequently transferred to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for use by the Border Patrol.

Gragg, Susan

1997-01-01

314

Intratemporal Hemangiomas Involving the Facial Nerve  

PubMed Central

Intratemporal vascular tumors involving the facial nerve are rare benign lesions. Because of their variable clinical features, they are often misdiagnosed preoperatively. This study presents a series of 21 patients with such lesions managed from 1977 to 1994. Facial nerve dysfunction was the most common complaint, present in 60% of the cases, followed by hearing loss, present in 40% of cases. High-resolution computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium, and a high index of clinical suspicion is required for preoperative diagnosis of these lesions. Early surgical resection of these tumors permits acceptable return of facial nerve function in many patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Bhatia, Sanjaya; Karmarkar, Sandeep; Calabrese, V.; Landolfi, Mauro; Taibah, Abdelkader; Russo, Alessandra; Mazzoni, Antonio; Sanna, Mario

1995-01-01

315

The history of facial palsy and spasm  

PubMed Central

Although Sir Charles Bell was the first to provide the anatomic basis for the condition that bears his name, in recent years researchers have shown that other European physicians provided earlier clinical descriptions of peripheral cranial nerve 7 palsy. In this article, we describe the history of facial distortion by Greek, Roman, and Persian physicians, culminating in Razi's detailed description in al-Hawi. Razi distinguished facial muscle spasm from paralysis, distinguished central from peripheral lesions, gave the earliest description of loss of forehead wrinkling, and gave the earliest known description of bilateral facial palsy. In doing so, he accurately described the clinical hallmarks of a condition that we recognize as Bell palsy.

Sajadi, Mohamad-Reza M.; Tabatabaie, Seyed Mahmoud

2011-01-01

316

An efficient method for facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an efficient method for human facial expression recognition is presented. Our method includes two major techniques: spatially maximum occurrence model (SMOM), which is used to describe the different facial expressions; and elastic shape-texture matching (ESTM), which is used to compute the similarity between two images. The combination of these two techniques, namely the SMOM-ESTM method, is used to classify the facial expressions. With our approach, the recognition rate based on the AR database is 94.5%.

Xie, Xudong; Lam, Kin-Man

2005-07-01

317

Measurement of non-compensated angular dispersion and the subsequent temporal lengthening of femtosecond pulses in a CPA laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closed analytical formulae are given for the residual angular dispersion resulted from the non-parallel surfaces of both a grating pair and a prism pair pulse compressor. Accurate measurements of the angular dispersion of pulses leaving the misaligned pulse compressors agree well with the first principle simulation curves. The corresponding lengthening of the transform limited 18 fs pulses was also determined.

K. Osvay; A. P. Kovács; G. Kurdi; Z. Heiner; M. Divall; J. Klebniczki; I. E. Ferincz

2005-01-01

318

Myofascial force transmission between antagonistic rat lower limb muscles: Effects of single muscle or muscle group lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of lengthening of the whole group of anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA+EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) on myofascial interaction between synergistic EDL and TA+EHL muscles, and on myofascial force transmission between anterior crural and antagonistic peroneal muscles, were investigated. All muscles were either passive or maximally active. Peroneal muscles were kept at

Hanneke J. M. Meijer; Josina M. Rijkelijkhuizen; Peter A. Huijing

2007-01-01

319

Medium Term Follow-up of Achilles Tendon Lengthening in the Treatment of Ankle Equinus in Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The optimal treatment for equinus of the ankle in ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy is not known. This study assessed the medium term follow-up results of treatment of spastic ankle equinus deformity in cerebral palsy using Hoke or coronal Z-lengthening of the Achilles tendon. It was hypothesized that the use of Achilles tendon lengthening (TAL) as a treatment for spastic ankle equinus during gait results in a high rate of over-weakening of the triceps surae resulting in crouch gait. We also investigated patient characteristics that could identify which patients are at risk for crouch gait due to triceps surae weakening from Achilles tendon lengthening. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients (114 procedures) who had undergone Achilles lengthening were retrospectively reviewed to determine how many patients developed crouch gait with dorsiflexion of the ankle throughout stance phase requiring anterior-floor-reaction bracing. The following patient characteristics were evaluated: age at surgery, geographic type of cerebral palsy, length of follow-up, need for anterior-floor-reaction bracing, length of time after surgery when brace was prescribed, age at time of need for bracing, side of surgery, technique used, additional procedures performed at time of TAL, previous or later procedures performed, and walking ability. Results: The average age at the time of TAL was 7 years and 3 months, and the average follow-up was seven years. The geographic type of cerebral palsy greatly affected the outcome. None of the twenty-three hemiplegic patients required bracing. Fourteen of 34 (41%) patients with spastic diplegia and seven of fourteen (50%) patients with spastic quadriplegia required bracing. There was no significant difference in outcome between the Hoke and the Z-lengthening procedures. Patients who underwent more procedures and bilateral procedures were more likely to require anterior-floor-reaction bracing. Conclusions: Achilles tendon lengthening as practiced by the senior author results in a high rate of over weakening of the triceps surae as defined by the need for a floor reaction brace. Results are best in patients with hemiplegia and non-hemiplegic patients who require only single leg surgery, and who do not require concomitant or subsequent surgery. Alternative treatment, such as gastrocnemius fascial lengthening, or non-surgical treatment may be the optimal treatment of ambulatory patients with spastic diplegia and quadriplegia who have spastic ankle equinus during gait.

Dietz, Frederick R; Albright, Jay C; Dolan, Lori

2006-01-01

320

Bovine Dermal Matrix as Coverage of Facial Nerve Grafts  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Soft tissue defects over functional structures represent a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Often complex, reconstructive procedures are required. Occasionally, elderly or sick patients do not qualify for these extensive procedures. Case. We present the case of a 91-year-old lady with large hemifacial defect with exposed bone and nerves after tumor resection. We first performed radical resection including the fascia of the temporalis muscle and the frontal branch of the facial nerve. Due to the moribund elderly patient with a potentially high perioperative risk, we decided against flap reconstruction but to use bovine collagen/elastin matrix and split thickness skin graft. Results. No postoperative complications occurred and STSG and matrix healed uneventfully. Discussion. In selected cases, where complex reconstruction is not appropriate, this procedure can be a safe, easy, and fast alternative for covering soft tissue defects even on wound grounds containing nerve grafts.

Kappos, E. A.; Engels, P. E.; Wettstein, R.; Schaefer, D. J.; Kalbermatten, D. F.

2014-01-01

321

The Voluntary Facial Action Technique: A Method to Test the Facial Feedback Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, facial muscles do not only express emotions, they also have the ability to modulate\\u000a subjective experiences of emotions and to initiate emotions. This study examined the voluntary facial action technique, where\\u000a participants were instructed to react with the Zygomatic major muscle (smile) or the Corrugator supercilii muscle (frown) when exposed to different stimuli. The

Ulf Dimberg; Sven Söderkvist

2011-01-01

322

Otosteon for localization of the horizontal segment of facial nerve on multislice CT multiplanar reconstruction images.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to find out the relationship between the horizontal segment of facial nerve (HFN) and otosteon to facilitate prediction of the location of HFN during facial nerve decompression. The plane perpendicular to the line between the superior border of meatus acusticus externus and supraorbital margin was named the base plane. Parameters of 150 patients (300 observations) with healthy middle ears were measured on high-resolution spiral multislice computed tomographic multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images that were parallel to the base plane. Geniculate ganglion was considered as the beginning of HFN. The shortest distances between HFN and head of malleus (HM), neck of malleus (NM), short limb of incus (SI), long limb of incus (LI), and stapes (S) were measured respectively on different MPR images. The data gained were analyzed by statistical method and were also analyzed with respect to side and gender. On average, HFN-HM was 0.6546 cm, HFN-NM was 0.3680 cm, HFN-SI was 0.2731 cm, HFN-LI was 0.2275 cm, and HFN-S was 0.2162 cm. HFN-NM and HFN-SI were longer on the right side than those of the left (P < 0.05). HFN-SI and HFN-LI were longer in males than those of females on the right side (P < 0.05). Otosteon is considered an excellent bone landmark which easily showed on computed tomographic images and can easily be found in facial nerve decompression. Otosteon could be used to find the location of HFN during surgery. Furthermore, facial nerve localization is the key to facial nerve decompression. Our results may provide more detailed information to predict the location of HFN during facial nerve decompression. PMID:23524762

Li, Ting; Liu, Jin Hui; Feng, Yan; Li, You Qiong; Xia, Chang Li; Tian, Yong

2013-03-01

323

Facial Trait Code and Its Application to Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the Facial Trait Code (FTC) to encode human facial images. The proposed FTC is motivated by the discovery of the\\u000a basic types of local facial features, called facial trait bases, which can be extracted from a large number of faces. In addition, the fusion of these facial trait bases can accurately\\u000a capture the appearance of a face. Extraction

Ping-han Lee; Gee-sern Hsu; Tsuhan Chen; Yi-ping Hung

2008-01-01

324

Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

2014-01-01

325

Judgment of gender through facial parts.  

PubMed

Japanese male and female undergraduate students judged the gender of a variety of facial images. These images were combinations of the following facial parts: eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, and the face outline (cheek and chin). These parts were extracted from averaged facial images of Japanese males and females aged 18 and 19 years by means of the Facial Image Processing System. The results suggested that, in identifying gender, subjects performed identification on the basis of the eyebrows and the face outline, and both males and females were more likely to identify the faces as those of their own gender. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies, with particular attention paid to the matter of race differences. PMID:24601037

Yamaguchi, Masami K; Hirukawa, Tastu; Kanazawa, So

2013-01-01

326

Judgment of gender through facial parts.  

PubMed

Japanese male and female undergraduate students judged the gender of a variety of facial images. These images were combinations of the following facial parts: eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, and the face outline (cheek and chin). These parts were extracted from averaged facial images of Japanese males and females aged 18 and 19 years by means of the Facial Image Processing System. The results suggested that, in identifying gender, subjects performed identification on the basis of the eyebrows and the face outline, and both males and females were more likely to identify the faces as those of their own gender. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies, with particular attention paid to the matter of race differences. PMID:7567430

Yamaguchi, M K; Hirukawa, T; Kanazawa, S

1995-01-01

327

The neural response to facial attractiveness.  

PubMed

What are the neural correlates of attractiveness? Using functional MRI (fMRI), the authors addressed this question in the specific context of the apprehension of faces. When subjects judged facial beauty explicitly, neural activity in a widely distributed network involving the ventral occipital, anterior insular, dorsal posterior parietal, inferior dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices correlated parametrically with the degree of facial attractiveness. When subjects were not attending explicitly to attractiveness, but rather were judging facial identity, the ventral occipital region remained responsive to facial beauty. The authors propose that this region, which includes the fusiform face area (FFA), the lateral occipital cortex (LOC), and medially adjacent regions, is activated automatically by beauty and may serve as a neural trigger for pervasive effects of attractiveness in social interactions. PMID:19254086

Chatterjee, Anjan; Thomas, Amy; Smith, Sabrina E; Aguirre, Geoffrey K

2009-03-01

328

Laptop Computer: Based Facial Recognition System Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrollin...

R. A. Cain G. B. Singleton

2001-01-01

329

Biometrics: A Look at Facial Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 2002 General Assembly, Delegate H. Morgan Griffith sponsored legislation that would set legal parameters for public sector use of facial recognition technology in Virginia. The legislation, known as House Bill No. 454 (included as an Appendix),...

J. D. Woodward C. Horn J. Gatune A. Thomas

2003-01-01

330

3D Facial Pattern Analysis for Autism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to use recently developed 3D shape acquisition technologies and advanced computational techniques to define the autism face and determine whether there is a statistically significant facial phenotype. During this report period,...

Y. Duan

2010-01-01

331

3D Facial Pattern Analysis for Autism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to use recently developed 3D shape acquisition technologies and advanced computational techniques to define the autism face and determine whether there is a statistically significant facial phenotype. During this report period,...

Y. Duan

2009-01-01

332

Effects of diazepam on facial emotion recognition  

PubMed Central

Objective There have been few studies of the pharmacologic modulation of facial emotion recognition. The present study aimed to replicate and extend the finding that recognition of facial anger was selectively impaired by diazepam. The hypothesis was that, in comparison with placebo, diazepam would impair the recognition of facial anger in healthy volunteers, but not the recognition of 5 other basic emotions: happiness, surprise, fear, sadness and disgust. Design A randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects comparison of diazepam with placebo. Setting A university psychopharmacology research unit. Participants Healthy male (n = 6) and female (n = 22) volunteers, aged 18–45 years. Procedures Subjects were tested on 2 tasks following the administration of diazepam, 15 mg, and placebo on separate occasions. In the first “multimorph” task, images of facial expressions were morphed to produce continua between the neutral and full expressions of 6 basic emotions. Accuracy and identification thresholds were assessed for stimuli in which the intensity of expression gradually increased. In the second “emotional hexagon” task, facial expressions were morphed between pairs of emotions. Single images were presented, and accuracy and speed of response were assessed. Results Diazepam produced broad impairments in response accuracy, recognition thresholds and response speed on the facial emotion tasks that were not limited to angry expressions. Conclusions The present study found that diazepam, 15 mg, impaired facial emotion recognition, but not selectively. In the emotional hexagon task, a reaction-time analysis suggested that the identification of facial anger might be differentially sensitive to variations in stimulus duration, complicating the interpretation of this paradigm.

Coupland, Nick J.; Singh, Anita J.; Sustrik, Ryan A.; Ting, Patricia; Blair, R. James

2003-01-01

333

Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in remote locations. Remote users could perform real-time searches where network connectivity is not available. As images are enrolled at the remote locations, periodic database synchronization is necessary.

R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

2001-03-01

334

Computer Aided Photogrammetry for Facial Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to determine facial soft tissue differences among Malays in Peninsular Malaysia by applying geometric morphometric\\u000a method with digital photograph. The photo was captured using digital SLR camera and analyzed using MorphoStudio™ software. Fifteen homologous landmarks on each 20 frontal facial photo of male subject of Jawa and Rawa were defined and\\u000a J-links with Procustes means were computed.

Z. A. Rajion; A. Y. Yusdirman

335

The velo-cardio-facial (Shprintzen) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight patients (three sporadic, five from two families) with the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) or Shprintzen syndrome\\u000a are reported. Major clinical findings of this syndrome include a characteristic pattern of facial dysmorphisms, cleft palate,\\u000a cardio-vascular malformations, and (mostly mild-to-moderate) mental retardation or learning difficulties.\\u000a \\u000a The syndrome probably is caused by a dominant gene with very variable expression. From previous reports mostly

P. Meinecke; F. A. Beemer; A. Schinzel; T. Kushnick

1986-01-01

336

Dynamic reanimation for facial palsy: an overview.  

PubMed

Facial paralysis can have a profound effect on the patient from both an aesthetic and functional point of view. The symptoms depend on which branch of the nerve has been damaged and the severity of the injury. The purpose of this paper is to review currently available treatments for dynamic reanimation of a damaged facial nerve, and the goals are a symmetrical and coordinated smile. Careful selection of patients and use of the appropriate surgical technique can have excellent results. PMID:23385066

Coyle, Margaret; Godden, Andrew; Brennan, Peter A; Cascarini, Luke; Coombes, Darryl; Kerawala, Cyrus; McCaul, James; Godden, Daryl

2013-12-01

337

Fuzzy Classification of Facial Component Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel type-2 Fuzzy logic System to define the Shape of\\u000aa facial component with the crisp output. This work is the part of our main\\u000aresearch effort to design a system (called FASY) which offers a novel face\\u000aconstruction approach based on the textual description and also extracts and\\u000aanalyzes the facial components from a face

Santanu Halder; Debotosh Bhattacharjee; Mita Nasipuri; Dipak Kumar Basu; Mahantapas Kundu

2010-01-01

338

Blink detection robust to various facial poses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications based on eye-blink detection have increased, as a result of which it is essential for eye-blink detection to be robust and non-intrusive irrespective of the changes in the user's facial pose. However, most previous studies on camera-based blink detection have the disadvantage that their performances were affected by the facial pose. They also focused on blink detection using only

Won Oh Lee; Eui Chul Lee; Kang Ryoung Park

2010-01-01

339

Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation. PMID:22575677

Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren

2012-08-01

340

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

PubMed

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2013-05-01

341

Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability  

PubMed Central

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: 1) DS individuals (n=55); 2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n=55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n=55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence.

Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2013-01-01

342

Whale bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrates, or animals that have a skeletal structure for body support, leave bones behind after their death. These bones can be placed together to recreate the skeletal frame of that animal. Bones can be examined to determine what animal the bones came from.

N/A N/A (Go Card USA;)

2007-12-21

343

Rubber Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

Houston, Children'S M.

2011-01-01

344

Facial reconstruction: utilization of computerized tomography to measure facial tissue thickness in a mixed racial population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of human faces on skeletal remains is dependant on the facial tissue thickness measurements most of which have been derived from cadaver material using the needle probe technique. Dehydration of soft tissue after death casts doubt on the efficacy of these measurements. No study exists in which the facial tissues of a mixed population group in South Africa have

V. M. Phillips; N. A. Smuts

1996-01-01

345

FaceXpress: An Integrated Software Suite for Facial Emotion Stimulus Manipulation and Facial Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterisation of facial expression through landmark-based analysis methods such as FACEM (Pilowsky & Katsikitis, 1994) has a variety of uses in psychiatric and psychological research. In these systems, important structural relationships are ex- tracted from images of facial expressions by the analysis of a pre-defined set of feature points. These relationship measures may then be used, for instance, to

Thomas Byrne; Frans Henskens; Pat Johnston; Mary Katsikitis

2003-01-01

346

Automated facial image analysis: detecting improvement in abnormal facial movement after treatment with botulinum toxin A.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of Automated Facial Image Analysis (AFA) to detect changes in facial motion after Botox injections in patients with facial nerve disorders accompanied by abnormal muscle activity. Eight subjects received Botox for oral to ocular synkinesis (n = 6), ocular to oral synkinesis (n = 1), and/or depressor anguli oris overactivity (n = 3). Subjects were video-recorded during 2 directed facial action tasks before and after Botox treatment. AFA measurement and Facial Grading System (FGS) scores were used to evaluate the effects of Botox. After Botox, AFA detected a decrease in abnormal movements of the eyelids in all patients with oral to ocular synkinesis, a decrease in oral commissure movement for the patients with ocular to oral synkinesis, and an increase in oral commissure movement in all patients with depressor overactivity. The FGS scores failed to demonstrate any change in facial movement for the case of ocular to oral synkinesis and for 2 cases of depressor overactivity. AFA enables recognition of subtle changes in facial movement that may not be adequately measured by observer based ratings of facial function. PMID:17197940

Rogers, Carolyn R; Schmidt, Karen L; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Wachtman, Galen S; Manders, Ernest K; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B

2007-01-01

347

Facial bite wounds: management update.  

PubMed

Bite wounds are frequently located on the face; injuries inflicted by dogs are most common, especially in children. Bacteriology of infected dog and cat bite wounds includes Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, and oral anaerobes. Infected human bites yield a similar spectrum of bacteria except for Pasteurellae and C. canimorsus; instead human bites are frequently complicated by Eikenella corrodens. Antibiotic therapy against these bacteria is indicated both for infected bite wounds and fresh wounds considered at risk for infection. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (and other combinations of extended-spectrum penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors) and moxifloxacin offer the best in vitro coverage of the pathogenic flora. Initial wound management consisting in irrigation and debridement is at least equally important with antibiotics for prevention of infection. The need for prophylaxis against systemic infectious complications, particularly tetanus, should also be evaluated. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice for most clinically uninfected facial bite wounds, whereas delayed closure should be reserved for certain high risk or already infected wounds. Avulsive injuries with significant tissue loss represent the most difficult cases for definitive management and are also those most likely to require hospitalization. PMID:16053863

Stefanopoulos, P K; Tarantzopoulou, A D

2005-07-01

348

Multidisciplinary treatment of peripheral osteoma arising from mandibular condyle in patient presenting with facial asymmetry.  

PubMed

While osteomas often occur in the orofacial area, it is relatively rare for one to occur in the temporomandibular joint area. Here, we report a patient who underwent multidisciplinary treatment including high condylectomy for peripheral osteoma arising in the left mandibular condyle. The patient was a 46-year-old woman with the chief complaint of facial asymmetry. Cephalometric analysis revealed skeletal anterior crossbite due to anterior deviation of the mandible, with chin deviation of 10 mm to the right. A computed tomography scan revealed bone hyperplasia in the mesiodistal and inner areas of the left mandibular condyle, which exhibited outward anterior displacement. Bone scintigraphy showed a circular area of strong radioisotope accumulation with indistinct boundaries, consistent with the lesion in the left mandibular condyle. The above findings led to a diagnosis of skeletal mandibular prognathism with facial asymmetry due to peripheral osteoma originating in the left mandibular condyle. After orthodontic treatment and surgical resection of the tumor and mandibular condyle, preservation and prosthetic treatment were undertaken. A well-balanced facial appearance and good occlusion were achieved. PMID:24717929

Nojima, Kunihiko; Niizuma-Kosaka, Fumiko; Nishii, Yasushi; Sueishi, Kenji; Yamakura, Daiki; Ikumoto, Hideyuki; Ohata, Hitoshi; Inoue, Takashi

2014-01-01

349

Alternative mechanisms of telomere lengthening: permissive mutations, DNA repair proteins and tumorigenic progression  

PubMed Central

Telomeres protect chromosome termini to maintain genomic stability and regulate cellular lifespan. Maintenance of telomere length is required for neoplastic cells after the acquisition of mutations that deregulate cell cycle control and increase cellular proliferation, and can occur through expression of the enzyme telomerase or in a telomerase-independent manner termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are unknown, although cellular origin may favor one or the other mechanisms. ALT pathways are incompletely understood to date; however, recent publications have increasingly broadened our understanding of how ALT is activated, how it proceeds, and how it influences tumor growth. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation, as mutations in genes that suppress recombination and/or alterations in the regulation of telomerase expression are associated with ALT. Once engaged, ALT uses DNA repair proteins to maintain telomeres in the absence of telomerase; experiments that manipulate the expression of specific proteins in cells using ALT are illuminating some of its mechanisms. Furthermore, ALT may influence tumor growth, as experimental and clinical data suggest that telomerase expression may favor tumor progression. This review summarizes recent findings in mammalian cells and models, as well as clinical data, that identify the genetic mutations permissive to ALT, the DNA repair proteins involved in ALT mechanisms and the importance of telomere maintenance mechanisms for tumor progression. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that permit tumor cell immortalization will be important for identifying novel therapeutic targets in cancer.

Sandy Gocha1, April Renee; Harris, Julia; Groden, Joanna

2012-01-01

350

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres is characterized by reduced compaction of telomeric chromatin  

PubMed Central

Proper telomeric chromatin configuration is thought to be essential for telomere homeostasis and stability. Previous studies in mouse suggested that loss of heterochromatin marks at telomeres might favor onset of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway, by promoting homologous recombination. However, analysis of chromatin status at human ALT telomeres has never been reported. Here, using isogenic human cell lines and cellular hybrids, which rely either on telomerase or ALT to maintain telomeres, we show that chromatin compaction is reduced at ALT telomeres and this is associated with a global decrease in telomeric H3K9me3. This, subsequently, leads to upregulation of telomere transcription. Accordingly, restoration of a more condensed telomeric chromatin through telomerase-dependent elongation of short ALT telomeres reduces telomere transcription. We further show that loss of ATRX chromatin remodeler function, a frequent characteristic of ALT cells, is not sufficient to decrease chromatin condensation at telomeres nor to increase the expression of telomeric RNA species. These results offer new insight on telomeric chromatin properties in ALT cells and support the hypothesis that telomeric chromatin decondensation is important for ALT pathway.

Episkopou, Harikleia; Draskovic, Irena; Van Beneden, Amandine; Tilman, Gaelle; Mattiussi, Marina; Gobin, Matthieu; Arnoult, Nausica; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Decottignies, Anabelle

2014-01-01

351

Prevalence of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Telomere Maintenance Mechanism in Human Cancer Subtypes  

PubMed Central

Approximately 10% to 15% of human cancers lack detectable telomerase activity, and a subset of these maintain telomere lengths by the telomerase-independent telomere maintenance mechanism termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The ALT phenotype, relatively common in subtypes of sarcomas and astrocytomas, has rarely been reported in epithelial malignancies. However, the prevalence of ALT has not been thoroughly assessed across all cancer types. We therefore comprehensively surveyed the ALT phenotype in a broad range of human cancers. In total, two independent sets comprising 6110 primary tumors from 94 different cancer subtypes, 541 benign neoplasms, and 264 normal tissue samples were assessed by combined telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence labeling for PML protein. Overall, ALT was observed in 3.73% (228/6110) of all tumor specimens, but was not observed in benign neoplasms or normal tissues. This is the first report of ALT in carcinomas arising from the bladder, cervix, endometrium, esophagus, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and lung. Additionally, this is the first report of ALT in medulloblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas, schwannomas, and pediatric glioblastoma multiformes. Previous studies have shown associations between ALT status and prognosis in some tumor types; thus, further studies are warranted to assess the potential prognostic significance and unique biology of ALT-positive tumors. These findings may have therapeutic consequences, because ALT-positive cancers are predicted to be resistant to anti-telomerase therapies.

Heaphy, Christopher M.; Subhawong, Andrea P.; Hong, Seung-Mo; Goggins, Michael G.; Montgomery, Elizabeth A.; Gabrielson, Edward; Netto, George J.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Lotan, Tamara L.; Westra, William H.; Shih, Ie-Ming; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Maitra, Anirban; Li, Qing K.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Taube, Janis M.; Rakheja, Dinesh; Kurman, Robert J.; Wu, T.C.; Roden, Richard B.; Argani, Pedram; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Terracciano, Luigi; Torbenson, Michael; Meeker, Alan K.

2011-01-01

352

Molecular and Morphologic Correlates of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Phenotype in High Grade Astrocytomas  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that the telomere maintenance mechanism known as Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is relatively more common in specific glioma subsets and strongly associated with ATRX mutations. We retrospectively examined 116 high grade astrocytomas (32 pediatric glioblastomas, 65 adult glioblastomas,19 anaplastic astrocytomas) with known ALT status using tissue microarrays to identify associations with molecular and phenotypic features. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against ATRX, DAXX, p53 and IDH1R132H mutant protein. EGFR amplification was evaluated by FISH. When focusing on histologic subtypes, almost half of fibrillary and gemistocytic astrocytomas (44%) demonstrated ALT. Conversely all gliosarcomas (n=4), epithelioid (n=2), giant cell (n=2) and adult small cell astrocytomas (n=7) were ALT negative. The ALT phenotype was positively correlated with the presence of round cells (p=0.002), microcysts (p<0.0002), IDH1 mutant protein (p<0.0001), ATRX protein loss (p<0.0001), strong P53 expression (p<0.0001), and absence of EGFR amplification (p=0.004). There was no significant correlation with DAXX expression. We conclude that ALT represents a specific phenotype in high grade astrocytomas with distinctive pathologic and molecular features. Future studies are required to clarify the clinical and biological significance of ALT in high grade astrocytomas, and its possible utility as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic target.

Nguyen, Doreen N.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; de Wilde, Roeland F.; Orr, Brent A.; Odia, Yazmin; Eberhart, Charles G.; Meeker, Alan K.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

2013-01-01

353

Duration of xylogenesis in black spruce lengthened between 1950 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Reconstructions have identified the 20th century as being uniquely warm in the last 1000 years. Changes in the phenology of primary meristems converged toward increases in length of the growing season. Has the phenology of secondary meristem changed during the last century, and to what extent? Methods Timings of wood formation in black spruce, Picea mariana, were monitored for 9 years on a weekly timescale at four sites in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Models for assessing xylem phenology were defined and applied to reconstruct onset, ending and duration of xylogenesis between 1950 and 2010 using thermal thresholds on chronologies of maximum and minimum temperatures. Key Results All sites exhibited increasing trends of both annual and May–September temperatures, with the greatest changes observed at the higher latitudes. Phenological events in spring were more affected than those occurring in autumn, with cambial resumptions occurring 0·5–0·8 d decade?1 earlier. The duration of xylogenesis has lengthened significantly since 1950, although the models supplied wide ranges of variations, between 0·07 and 1·5 d decade?1, respectively. Conclusions The estimated changes in past cambial phenology demonstrated the marked effects of the recent increase in temperature on the phenological traits of secondary meristems. In the long run, the advancement of cambial activity could modify the short time window for growth of boreal species and dramatically affect the dynamics and productivity of trees in these temperature-limited ecosystems.

Boulouf Lugo, Jacqueline; Deslauriers, Annie; Rossi, Sergio

2012-01-01

354

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction12  

PubMed Central

Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth.

Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

2013-01-01

355

Cranio-facial fibrous dysplasia in a 38-year-old African woman: a case history.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old woman sought treatment with cranio-facial dysplasia involving the cranium, maxilla and the mandible. Her chief complaint was a mandibular swelling, which had appeared about 2 years previously, had gradually enlarged, and was associated with spontaneous pain. X-ray film examination revealed a ground-glass opacity with blurred demarcation and a 99 Tc medronate bone scan disclosed an increase in tracer uptake in the cranium, maxilla and mandible. The rest of the skeleton was not affected. Histological examination of the lesions revealed solid proliferation of spindle-shaped cells associated with islands of osteid and bone trabecullae with Chinese letter pattern and numerous multinucleated giant cells consistent with fibrous dysplasia. The continued osteoblastic activity of involved bones, coupled with the medical condition of the patient, restricted the management of the patient to largely supportive and palliative care. PMID:10483072

Simon, E; Matee, M; Shubi, F; Mselle, T

1999-07-01

356

Association of Interleukin6 Signalling with the Muscle Stem Cell Response Following Muscle-Lengthening Contractions in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe regulation of muscle stem cells in humans in response to muscle injury remains largely undefined. Recently, interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in muscle stem cell (satellite cell)-mediated muscle hypertrophy in animals; however, the role of IL-6 in the satellite cell (SC) response following muscle-lengthening contractions in humans has not been studied.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsEight subjects (age 22±1 y; 79±8 kg) performed

Bryon R. McKay; Michael de Lisio; Adam P. W. Johnston; Ciara E. O'Reilly; Stuart M. Phillips; Mark A. Tarnopolsky; Gianni Parise; Neil Hotchin

2009-01-01

357

Can fast-twitch muscle fibres be selectively recruited during lengthening contractions? Review and applications to sport movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature examining the recruitment order of motor units during lengthening (eccentric) contractions was reviewed to determine if fast-twitch motor units can be active while lower threshold slow-twitch motor units are not active. Studies utilizing surface electromyogram (EMG) amplitude, single motor unit activity, spike amplitude–frequency analyses, EMG power spectrum, mechanomyographic, and phosphocreatine-to-creatine ratio (PCr\\/Cr) techniques were reviewed. Only single motor unit

Gordon R. Chalmers

2008-01-01

358

Unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills.  

PubMed

Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practice without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) was shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant's response or the sender's true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several similarities and differences between the unsupervised improvement of facial decoding skills observed in the current study, unsupervised perceptual learning of simple stimuli described in previous studies and practice effects often observed in cognitive tasks. PMID:24578686

Huelle, Jan O; Sack, Benjamin; Broer, Katja; Komlewa, Irina; Anders, Silke

2014-01-01

359

Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature.

Fatouros-Bergman, H.; Spang, J.; Merten, J.; Preisler, G.; Werbart, A.

2012-01-01

360

Higher-level mechanisms detect facial symmetry  

PubMed Central

The role of symmetry detection in early visual processing and the sensitivity of biological visual systems to symmetry across a wide range of organisms suggest that symmetry can be detected by low-level visual mechanisms. However, computational and functional considerations suggest that higher-level mechanisms may also play a role in facial symmetry detection. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether symmetry detection is better for faces than comparable patterns, which share low-level properties with faces. Symmetry detection was better for upright faces than for inverted faces (experiment 1) and contrast-reversed faces (experiment 2), implicating high-level mechanisms in facial symmetry detection. In addition, facial symmetry detection was sensitive to spatial scale, unlike low-level symmetry detection mechanisms (experiment 3), and showed greater sensitivity to a 45° deviation from vertical than is found for other aspects of face perception (experiment 4). These results implicate specialized, higher-level mechanisms in the detection of facial symmetry. This specialization may reflect perceptual learning resulting from extensive experience detecting symmetry in faces or evolutionary selection pressures associated with the important role of facial symmetry in mate choice and ‘mind-reading’ or both.

Rhodes, Gillian; Peters, Marianne; Lee, Kieran; Morrone, M. Concetta; Burr, David

2005-01-01

361

Higher-level mechanisms detect facial symmetry.  

PubMed

The role of symmetry detection in early visual processing and the sensitivity of biological visual systems to symmetry across a wide range of organisms suggest that symmetry can be detected by low-level visual mechanisms. However, computational and functional considerations suggest that higher-level mechanisms may also play a role in facial symmetry detection. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether symmetry detection is better for faces than comparable patterns, which share low-level properties with faces. Symmetry detection was better for upright faces than for inverted faces (experiment 1) and contrast-reversed faces (experiment 2), implicating high-level mechanisms in facial symmetry detection. In addition, facial symmetry detection was sensitive to spatial scale, unlike low-level symmetry detection mechanisms (experiment 3), and showed greater sensitivity to a 45 degrees deviation from vertical than is found for other aspects of face perception (experiment 4). These results implicate specialized, higher-level mechanisms in the detection of facial symmetry. This specialization may reflect perceptual learning resulting from extensive experience detecting symmetry in faces or evolutionary selection pressures associated with the important role of facial symmetry in mate choice and 'mind-reading' or both. PMID:16006321

Rhodes, Gillian; Peters, Marianne; Lee, Kieran; Morrone, M Concetta; Burr, David

2005-07-01

362

Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC). Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI) between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

Trontel, Haley G.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Bigler, Erin D.; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B.D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Travers, Brittany G.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Alexander, Andrew; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.

2014-01-01

363

Fetal facial abnormalities identified during obstetric sonography.  

PubMed

The orbits and, if readily accessible, the facial profile were visualized as part of a brief fetal anatomy survey during approximately 7100 low-risk and high-risk obstetric sonographic examinations. This examination identified 17 facial abnormalities in 11 fetuses. There were seven abnormalities of the eyes, including three instances of absence of both eyes, two of hypertelorism, one of proptosis, and one of relative prominence. There were seven abnormalities of the nose, including three instances of marked flattening, one of absence, one of a proboscis, one of a single nostril, and one of a sunken appearance. There were two abnormally small chins. There was one marked cleft that involved the nose, lip, and palate. At least two fetuses with abnormal faces were missed entirely and coexistent facial abnormalities were missed in another three fetuses. Of the 11 fetuses with facial abnormalities identified, eight had other structural abnormalities as well, and the other three had either polyhydramnios or a history of teratogen exposure. A brief facial examination done as part of the fetal anatomy survey helps to identify abnormalities in high-risk fetuses but is considerably less productive in low-risk fetuses. PMID:3543386

Hegge, F N; Prescott, G H; Watson, P T

1986-12-01

364

Contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions.  

PubMed

Participants viewed dynamic facial expressions that moved from a neutral expression to varying degrees of angry, happy, or sad or from these emotionally expressive faces to neutral.A contrast effect was observed for expressions that moved to a neutral state. That is, a neutral expression that began as angry was rated as having a mildly positive expression, whereas the same neutral expression was rated as negatively valenced when it began with a smile. In Experiment 2, static expressions presented sequentially elicited contrast effects, but they were weaker than those following dynamic expressions. Experiment 3 assessed a broad range of facial movements across varying degrees of angry and happy expressions. We observed momentum effects for movements that ended at mildly expressive points (25% and 50% expressive). For such movements, affect ratings were higher, as if the perceived expression moved beyond their endpoint. Experiment 4 assessed sad facial expressions and found both contrast and momentum effects for dynamic expressions to and from sad faces. These findings demonstrate new and potent contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions and highlight the importance of facial movements in social-emotional communication. PMID:23505959

Marian, Diane E; Shimamura, Arthur P

2013-01-01

365

3D facial expression modeling for recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

2005-03-01

366

Should Physicians Have Facial Piercings?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians. DESIGN Survey. SETTING Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians. INTERVENTIONS First, patrons were shown photographs of models with a nontraditional piercing and asked about the appropriateness for a physician or medical student. In the second phase, patrons blinded to the purpose of the study were shown identical photographs of physician models with or without piercings and asked about competency and trustworthiness. The third phase was an assessment of attitudes of faculty regarding piercings. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Nose and lip piercings were felt to be appropriate for a physician by 24% and 22% of patrons, respectively. Perceived competency and trustworthiness of models with these types of piercings were also negatively affected. An earring in a male was felt to be appropriate by 35% of patrons, but an earring on male models did not negatively affect perceived competency or trustworthiness. Nose and eyebrow piercings were felt to be appropriate by only 7% and 5% of faculty physicians and working with a physician or student with a nose or eyebrow piercing would bother 58% and 59% of faculty, respectively. An ear piercing in a male was felt to be appropriate by 20% of faculty, and 25% stated it would bother them to work with a male physician or student with an ear piercing. CONCLUSIONS Many patrons and physicians feel that some types of nontraditional piercings are inappropriate attire for physicians, and some piercings negatively affect perceived competency and trustworthiness. Health care providers should understand that attire may affect a patient's opinion about their abilities and possibly erode confidence in them as a clinician.

Newman, Alison W; Wright, Seth W; Wrenn, Keith D; Bernard, Aline

2005-01-01

367

Loss of Wild-Type ATRX Expression in Somatic Cell Hybrids Segregates with Activation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres  

PubMed Central

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is a non-telomerase mechanism of telomere lengthening that occurs in about 10% of cancers overall and is particularly common in astrocytic brain tumors and specific types of sarcomas. Somatic cell hybridization analyses have previously shown that normal telomerase-negative fibroblasts and telomerase-positive immortalized cell lines contain repressors of ALT activity, indicating that activation of ALT results from loss of one or more unidentified repressors. More recently, ATRX or DAXX was shown to be mutated both in tumors with telomere lengths suggestive of ALT activity and in ALT cell lines. Here, an ALT cell line was separately fused to each of four telomerase-positive cell lines, and four or five independent hybrid lines from each fusion were examined for expression of ATRX and DAXX and for telomere lengthening mechanism. The hybrid lines expressed either telomerase or ALT, with the other mechanism being repressed. DAXX was expressed normally in all parental cell lines and in all of the hybrids. ATRX was expressed normally in each of the four telomerase-positive parental cell lines and in every telomerase-positive hybrid line, and was abnormal in the ALT parental cells and in all but one of the ALT hybrids. This correlation between ALT activity and loss of ATRX expression is consistent with ATRX being a repressor of ALT.

Cole, Sara L.; Dagg, Rebecca A.; Lau, Loretta M. S.; Duncan, Emma L.; Moy, Elsa L.; Reddel, Roger R.

2012-01-01

368

Structural Dynamics in Metal Tris-hydroxyquinolines: Interconversion of Meridianal and Facial Alq3 Isomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While previous work investigating the charge transport properties of Alq3 has indicated that the meridianal (mer) conformation of Alq3 is predominant species, recent work suggesting identification of a facial (fac) form raises again the question of heterogeneity. Electronic structure computations from our group have noted that the energy difference(in parenthesis) between the mer and fac conformations is highly sensitive to basis set description (8.6 kcal/mol//3-21g*/SCF; 6.9 kcal/mol//6-31g*/SCF), electron correlation (6.0 kcal/mol//3-21g*/MP2; 4.7 kcal/mol//6-31g*/MP2), and solvent effects (4.4 kcal/mol/3-21g*/SCF/DMSO). Given these small energy differences, we have conducted a series of Hartree-Fock and first principles electronic structure computations on the interconversion of these structural forms, and will report on the structural and energetic aspects of the transformation. The likely reaction path involves lengthening of the Al-N bond to the point where a pentacoordinate intermediate or transition state would be formed, followed by flipping of the ligand through rotation around the Al-O bond. Following Schmidbauer's earlier work, we note that transformation involving only one ligand will actually lead to a facial isomer. Preliminary characterization of this transition state suggests that the activation energy is approximately 20-25 kcal/mol above the mer conformation. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences Division.

Ferris, Kim; Sapochak, Linda; Burrows, Paul; Rodovsky, Deanna; Marmolejo, Theresa

2004-03-01

369

Sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures in patients with craniomaxillofacial trauma.  

PubMed

Background and Purpose Sphenoid bone fractures and sphenoid sinus fractures have a high morbidity due to its association with high-energy trauma. The purpose of this study is to describe individuals with traumatic injuries from different mechanisms and attempt to determine if there is any relationship between various isolated or combined fractures of facial skeleton and sphenoid bone and sphenoid sinus fractures. Methods We retrospectively studied hospital charts of all patients who reported to the trauma center at Hospital de San José with facial fractures from December 2009 to August 2011. All patients were evaluated by computed tomography scan and classified into low-, medium-, and high-energy trauma fractures, according to the classification described by Manson. Design This is a retrospective descriptive study. Results The study data were collected as part of retrospective analysis. A total of 250 patients reported to the trauma center of the study hospital with facial trauma. Thirty-eight patients were excluded. A total of 212 patients had facial fractures; 33 had a combination of sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures, and facial fractures were identified within this group (15.5%). Gender predilection was seen to favor males (77.3%) more than females (22.7%). The mean age of the patients was 37 years. Orbital fractures (78.8%) and maxillary fractures (57.5%) were found more commonly associated with sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. Conclusions High-energy trauma is more frequently associated with sphenoid fractures when compared with medium- and low-energy trauma. There is a correlation between facial fractures and sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. A more exhaustive multicentric case-control study with a larger sample and additional parameters will be essential to reach definite conclusions regarding the spectrum of fractures of the sphenoid bone associated with facial fractures. PMID:24436756

Cantini Ardila, Jorge Ernesto; Mendoza, Miguel Ángel Rivera; Ortega, Viviana Gómez

2013-09-01

370

Dynamics Analysis of Facial Expressions for Person Identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for analyzing the dynamics of facial expressions to identify persons using Active Appearance Models and accurate facial feature point tracking. Several methods have been proposed to identify persons using facial images. In most methods, variations in facial expressions are one trouble factor. However, the dynamics of facial expressions are one measure of personal characteristics. In the proposed method, facial feature points are automatically extracted using Active Appearance Models in the first frame of each video. They are then tracked using the Lucas-Kanade based feature point tracking method. Next, a temporal interval is extracted from the beginning time to the ending time of facial expression changes. Finally, a feature vector is obtained. In the identification phase, an input feature vector is classified by calculating the distance between the input vector and the training vectors using dynamic programming matching. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method using smile videos from the MMI Facial Expression Database.

Tanaka, Hidenori; Saito, Hideo

371

Cross-Cultural Generality of Communication via Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When facial expressions are studied at the system level, there is evidence for regular, rather general rules of affective meaning shared by all language culture communities, indicating the cross-cultural nature of communication via facial expressions. (Author/RB)

Saral, Tulsi B.

1972-01-01

372

The many facets of facial interactions in mammals.  

PubMed

Facial interactions are prominent behaviors in primates. Primate facial signaling, which includes the expression of emotions, mimicking of facial movements, and gaze interactions, is visually dominated. Correspondingly, in primate brains an elaborate network of face processing areas exists within visual cortex. But other mammals also communicate through facial interactions using additional sensory modalities. In rodents, multisensory facial interactions are involved in aggressive behaviors and social transmission of food preferences. The eusocial naked mole-rat, whose face is dominated by prominent incisors, uses facial aggression to enforce reproductive suppression. In burrow-living mammals like the naked mole-rat in particular, and in rodents in general, somatosensory face representations in cortex are enlarged. Diversity of sensory domains mediating facial communication might belie underlying common mechanisms. As a case in point, neurogenetics has revealed strongly heritable traits in face processing and identified gene defects that disrupt facial interactions both in humans and rodents. PMID:22209040

Brecht, Michael; Freiwald, Winrich A

2012-04-01

373

Living Bones, Strong Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about engineering, nutrition, and physical activity, learners design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increasing amounts of weight. This activity contains several engaging mini-activities and stresses the importance of the scientific method. Learners can complete this activity as part of NASA's Fit Explorer Challenge, in which learners train like astronauts, set goals, track their progress, and accumulate points to progress through Exploration Levels and earn certificates.

Center, Nasa J.

2012-06-26

374

Manifold based methods in facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel method for facial expression recognition based on non-linear manifold techniques. The graph-based algorithms are designed to treat structure in data, and regularize accordingly. This same goal is shared by several other algorithms, from linear method principal components analysis (PCA) to modern variants such as Laplacian eigenmaps. In this paper we focus on manifold learning for dimensionality reduction and clustering using Laplacian eigenmaps for facial expression recognition. We evaluate the algorithm by using all the pixels and selected features respectively and compare the performance of the proposed non-linear manifold method with the previous linear manifold approach, and the non linear method produces higher recognition rate than the facial expression representation using linear methods.

Xie, Kun

2013-07-01

375

The history of injectable facial fillers.  

PubMed

In an attempt to maintain a youthful appearance or to reconstruct facial deformities, physicians have greeted new technologies with excitement. In the late 1800 s, shortly after the invention of the syringe, chemical agents were used for facial augmentation. Unfortunately, history has taught us that new technologies must be used with care, because complications can occur, sometimes many years after initial treatment. The first injectable filling agent was paraffin, whose use was abandoned after complications of migration, embolization, and granuloma formation were described. More recently, silicone use was banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) because of similar complications. In 1981, bovine collagen was the first agent to be approved by the FDA for cosmetic injection. Since its approval, dozens of injectable filling agents have been developed, and many are already FDA approved for cosmetic use. This article will review the highlights of the evolution of facial filling agents. PMID:19415573

Kontis, Theda C; Rivkin, Alexander

2009-05-01

376

Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis complicated with peripheral facial palsy.  

PubMed

A 36-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination of an acute febrile illness with liver dysfunction. A peripheral blood smear displayed atypical lymphocytes. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) mononucleosis was diagnosed based on the detection of CMV-specific IgM and conventional CMV pp65 antigen. The physical examination on admission revealed signs of lower motor neuron right facial palsy. There were no significant cerebrospinal fluid findings, nor were there other neurological abnormalities. After receiving a short-course of oral corticosteroids, the patient gradually recovered from the facial paralysis. A one-month follow-up examination indicated that she had fully recovered neurologically, showing disappearance of CMV-DNA and a significant increase in the anti-CMV IgG titer. To our knowledge, there has been only one previous report describing CMV as the cause of an isolated facial palsy combined with CMV mononucleosis. PMID:24681941

Hirano, Taichi; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

2014-03-01

377

Facial dysostoses: Etiology, pathogenesis and management.  

PubMed

Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981

Trainor, Paul A; Andrews, Brian T

2013-11-01

378

Using infrared facial imagery for positive identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positive identification or verification of identity of an individual is a major part of the security, legal, banking, and police task of granting or denying authority to take an action. Work is being done using IR facial imaging and computer technology to perform the human recognition task rapidly, accurately, and nonintrusively. Three basic principles have been demonstrated: every human IR facial image (or thermogram) is unique to that individual; an IR camera can be used to capture human thermograms; and captured thermograms can be digitized, stored, and matched using a computer and certain mathematical algorithms. A three- part development effort has been undertaken using IR facial recognition in an access control application. The first, an opertor assisted proof-of-concept effort, has been successfully completed. The second, an automated access control unit, has been completed and is undergoing independent testing in a simulated controlled access environment. Work on the third developmental effort is planned for this summer.

Evans, David C.

1995-05-01

379

Arc/Forearc Lengthening at Plate Triple Junctions and the Formation of Ophiolitic Soles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal enigma of large obducted ophiolite slabs is that they clearly must have been generated by some form of organized sea-floor spreading/plate-accretion, such as may be envisioned for the oceanic ridges, yet the volcanics commonly have arc affinity (Miyashiro) with boninites (high-temperature/low-pressure, high Mg and Si andesites), which are suggestive of a forearc origin. PT conditions under which boninites and metamorphic soles form and observations of modern forearc systems lead us to the conclusion that ophiolite formation is associated with overidding plate spreading centers that intersect the trench to form ridge-trench-trench of ridge-trench-tranform triple junctions. The spreading centers extend and lengthen the forearc parallel to the trench and by definition are in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) settings. Many ophiolites likewise have complexly-deformed associated mafic-ultramafic assemblages that suggest fracture zone/transform t along their frontal edges, which in turn has led to models involving the nucleation of subduction zones on fracture zones or transpressional transforms. Hitherto, arc-related sea-floor-spreading has been considered to be either pre-arc (fore-arc boninites) or post-arc (classic Karig-style back arc basins that trench-parallell split arcs). Syn-arc boninites and forearc oceanic spreading centers that involve a stable ridge/trench/trench triple or a ridge-trench-transform triple junction, the ridge being between the two upper plates, are consistent with large slab ophiolite formation in a readied obduction settting. The direction of subduction must be oblique with a different sense in the two subduction zones and the oblique subduction cannot be partitioned into trench orthogonal and parallel strike-slip components. As the ridge spreads, new oceanic lithosphere is created within the forearc, the arc and fore-arc lengthen significantly, and a syn-arc ophiolite forearc complex is generated by this mechanism. The ophiolite ages along arc-strike; a distinctive diachronous MORB-like to boninitic to arc volcanic stratigraphy develops vertically in the forearc and eruption centers progressively migrate from the forearc back to the main arc massif with time. Dikes in the ophiolite are highly oblique to the trench (as are back-arc magnetic anomalies. Boninites and high-mg andesites are generated in the fore-arc under the aqueous, low pressure/high temperature, regime at the ridge above the instantaneously developed subducting and dehydrating slab. Subducted slab refrigeration of the hanging wall ensues and accretion of MORB metabasites to the hanging wall of the subduction channel initiates. Mafic protolith garnet/two pyroxene granulites to greenschists accrete and form the inverted P and T metamorphic sole prior to obduction. Sole accretion of lithosphere begins at about 1000°C and the full retrogressive sole may be fully formed within ten to fifteen million years of accretion, at which time low grade subduction melanges accrete. Obduction of the SSZ forearc ophiolite with its subjacent metamorphic sole occurs whenever the oceanic arc attempts subduction of a stable buoyant continental or back arc margin.

Casey, John; Dewey, John

2013-04-01

380

Compensatory muscle activation caused by tendon lengthening post-Achilles tendon rupture.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between the lengthening of the Achilles tendon post-rupture and surgical repair to muscle activation patterns during walking in order to serve as a reference for post-surgical assessment. METHOD: The Achilles tendon lengths were collected from 4 patients with an Achilles tendon rupture 6 and 12 months post-surgery along with 5 healthy controls via ultrasound. EMG was collected from the triceps surae muscles and tibialis anterior during overground walking. RESULTS: Achilles lengths at 6 and 12 months post-surgery were significantly longer (p < 0.05) on the involved side compared to the uninvolved side, but there were no side-to-side differences in the healthy controls. The integrated EMG (iEMG) of the involved side was significantly higher than the uninvolved side in the lateral gastrocnemius at 6 months and for the medial gastrocnemius at 12 months in the patients with Achilles tendon rupture; no side-to-side difference was found in the healthy controls. The triceps surae muscles' activations were fair to moderately correlated to the Achilles lengths (0.38 < r < 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: The increased Achilles tendon length and iEMG from the triceps surae muscles indicate that loss of function is primarily caused by anatomical changes in the tendon and the appearance of muscle weakness is due to a lack of force transmission capability. This study indicates that when aiming for full return of function and strength, an important treatment goal appears to be to minimize tendon elongation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic prospective case series, Level IV. PMID:23609529

Suydam, Stephen M; Buchanan, Thomas S; Manal, Kurt; Silbernagel, Karin Gravare

2013-04-23

381

Nonlinear Dynamic Shape and Appearance Models for Facial Motion Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for tracking large facial deformations using nonlinear dynamic shape and appearance model based upon\\u000a local motion estimation. Local facial deformation estimation based on a given single template fails to track large facial\\u000a deformations due to significant appearance variations. A nonlinear generative model that uses low dimensional manifold representation\\u000a provides adaptive facial appearance templates depending upon the

Chan-su Lee; Ahmed M. Elgammal; Dimitris N. Metaxas

2007-01-01

382

A muscle model for animation three-dimensional facial expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a parameterized facial muscle process, that incorporates the use of a model to create realistic facial animation is described.Existing methods of facial parameterization have the inherent problem of hard-wiring performable actions. The development of a muscle process that is controllable by a limited number of parameters and is non-specific to facial topology allows a richer vocabulary and

Keith Waters

1987-01-01

383

Machine analysis of facial behaviour: naturalistic and dynamic behaviour  

PubMed Central

This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in these specific subproblem areas in particular, are discussed and recommendations for accomplishing a better facial expression measurement technology are outlined.

Pantic, Maja

2009-01-01

384

Facial action recognition in face profile image sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust way to discern facial gestures in images of faces, insensitive to scale, pose, and occlusion, is still the key research challenge in the automatic facial-expression analysis domain. A practical method recognized as the most promising one for addressing this problem is through a facial-gesture analysis of multiple views of the face. Yet, current systems for automatic facial-gesture analysis

Maja Pantic; Ioannik Patras; L. Rothkruntz

2002-01-01

385

[Petrous bone cholesteatoma: surgical strategy].  

PubMed

Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathology which grows slowly and is often asymptomatic. This work presents a series of 25 cases of Petrous bone cholesteatoma and discusses the diagnostic impact, the surgical approach, the results and the complications. Currently our surgical orientation favors translabyrinthine and transcochlear approaches which, better than other ones, allow both radical excision of the lesion and preservation of the main neuro-vascular structures. Out of the 25 patients undergoing surgery, 22 were treated with the translabyrinthine (6 cases) or transcochlear (16 cases) approaches, in 1 case an infratemporal type A approach was used while the remaining 2 were treated with a median cranial fossa approach. Paralysis of the facial nerve is the most dreaded complication, particularly when a deficit is already present prior to surgery. In just a few cases did the hearing justify an attempt at preservation but in no case should this compromise radical removal of the cholesteatoma. PMID:11771343

Pareschi, R; Destito, D; Righini, S; Falco Raucci, A; Mincione, A; Colombo, S

2001-08-01

386

The intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor (ISKD): first clinical results of a new intramedullary nail for lengthening of the femur and tibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, a programme was initiated by the senior author to develop a reliable, mechanically activated, intramedullary lengthening device with a non-invasive means of measuring the progress of lengthening without X-ray. We report results of design, biomechanical testing, in vivo animal testing and clinical implantation of the first 20 intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractors (ISKDs) in adult patients with limb-length discrepancies.Twenty

J. Dean Cole; Daniel Justin; Tagus Kasparis; Derk DeVlught; Carl Knobloch

2001-01-01

387

In Vivo Open-Bore MRI Reveals Region- and Sub-Arc-Specific Lengthening of the Unloaded Human Posterior Cruciate Ligament  

PubMed Central

Open-bore MRI scanners allow joint soft tissue to be imaged over a large, uninterrupted range of flexion. Using an open-bore scanner, 3D para-sagittal images of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were collected from seven healthy subjects in unloaded, recumbent knee extension and flexion. PCL length was measured from one 2D MRI slice partition per flexion angle, per subject. The anterior surface of the PCL lengthened significantly between extension and flexion (p<0.001). Conversely, the posterior surface did not. Changes were not due to the PCL moving relative to the 2D slice partition; measurements made from 3D reconstructions, which compensated for PCL movement, did not differ significantly from measurements made from 2D slice partitions. In a second experiment, videos of knee flexion were made by imaging two subjects at several flexion angles. Videos allowed soft tissue tracking; examples are included. In a third experiment, unloaded knees of seven healthy, recumbent subjects were imaged at extension and at 40°, 70°, 90°, 100°, 110° and 120° flexion. The distance between PCL attachments increased between extension and 100°, and then decreased (p<0.001). The anterior surface of the PCL lengthened over the flexion angles measured (p<0.01). The posterior surface of the PCL lengthened between extension and 40° and then shortened (p<0.001). Both attachment separation and anterior surface length increased dramatically between extension and 40°, but varied less afterwards. Results indicate that PCL dynamics differ between terminal extension and active function sub-arcs. Also, attachment separation cannot predict the lengthening of all parts of the PCL, nor can lengthening of one part of the PCL predict the lengthening of another part. A potential connection between lengthening and loading is discussed. We conclude that low-field MRI can assess ligament lengthening during flexion, and that the dynamics of the PCL for any given region and sub-arc should be measured directly.

King, Alison J.; Deng, Qunli; Tyson, Randy; Sharp, Jonathan C.; Matwiy, Jarod; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Dunn, Jeff F.

2012-01-01

388

Similar increases in muscle size and strength in young men after training with maximal shortening or lengthening contractions when matched for total work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training exclusively with eccentric (lengthening) contractions can result in greater muscular adaptations than training with\\u000a concentric (shortening) contractions. We aimed to determine whether training-induced increases in muscle size and strength\\u000a differed between muscles performing maximal lengthening (LC) or maximal shortening (SC) contractions when total external work\\u000a is equivalent. Nine healthy young males completed a 9-week isokinetic (0.79 rad\\/s) resistance training program

Daniel R. Moore; Mark Young; Stuart M. Phillips

389

Chronic facial pain: a multidisciplinary problem  

PubMed Central

Atypical facial pain is an unrecognised and unhelpful diagnosis but one which describes chronic pains that do not fit the present classification system. Due to the site of the pain, patients may seek and, indeed, receive treatment from dental practitioners and specialists, but the pain is often unresponsive and may have more in common with unexplained medical symptoms affecting other areas of the body, than with other dental symptoms. This review suggests a need for a diagnostic category of "chronic facial pain", which demands a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management.??

Madland, G; Feinmann, C

2001-01-01

390

Use of respiratory and facial protection.  

PubMed

Infectious microorganisms can be transmitted by various routes. Respiratory and facial protection is needed to prevent infection with organisms that are usually transmitted through the droplet/airborne route, or when airborne particles have been artificially created, for example during aerosol-generating procedures. Recent experiences with severe acute respiratory syndrome and pandemic (H1N1) influenza in 2009 highlighted that health professionals may have difficulty in choosing the correct facial and respiratory protection. The Scientific Development Committee of the Healthcare Infection HealtSociety established a working group to develop guidance addressing this issue. PMID:24592631

Coia, John E; Ritchie, Lisa; Fry, Carole

391

Morphometric Analysis of Facial Profile in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim:\\u000a   Are centroid size, principal component analysis (PCA) and thin-plate splines (TPS) sufficient for determining facial morphology?\\u000a Is it possible to identify relationships between cranial morphology, gender and facial profile?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and Methods:\\u000a   Profile photos of 110 adult patients were measured according to A.M. Schwarz landmarks using Onyx Ceph™. Centroid size was\\u000a calculated from x and y-coordinates. After Procrustes

Karl-Friedrich Krey; Karl-Heinz Dannhauer

2008-01-01

392

Facial nerve palsy and kawasaki disease.  

PubMed

Kawasaki Disease (KD) is a vasculitic disease and can affect any organ system in the body. The development of coronary artery aneurysms is the most common and life threatening complication of KD and makes this disease the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in the developed world. Facial nerve palsy has been reported as a possible marker of more severe disease and increased risk of coronary artery involvement in KD. Herein, the authors report an 8-mo-old infant who had left sided facial nerve palsy and multiple coronary aneurysms associated with KD. PMID:23423832

Kocaba?, Abdullah; Kardelen, F?rat; Aldemir-Kocaba?, Bilge; Akçurin, Gayaz; Ertu?, Halil

2014-02-01

393

A review of facial image analysis for delineation of the facial phenotype associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.  

PubMed

The facial anomalies associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), some of which are also present in individuals with less severe forms of the broader category of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), are typically identified with the aid of linear distance measurements taken between facial landmarks. Digital facial imaging methods are increasingly being used in syndrome delineation. Distance measurements derived from stereo-photogrammetry and facial surface imaging have been used to study the FAS facial anomalies. Geometric morphometric methods capture the spatial arrangement between landmarks, providing a statistical platform for comparison of facial shapes, and have been shown to hold promise for characterizing the FAS facial shape. We review the progression in the use of imaging and image analysis methods in studies on the facial phenotype associated with FAS. PMID:20101703

Douglas, Tania S; Mutsvangwa, Tinashe E M

2010-02-01

394

Broken bone  

MedlinePLUS

... However, DO NOT move the person if a head, neck, or back injury is suspected. CHECK BLOOD CIRCULATION ... There is a suspected broken bone in the head, neck, or back. There is a suspected broken bone ...

395

Bone Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... the bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ... risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and ...

396

Imitating emotions: Shared and dissociable neural substrates for facial mimicry  

Microsoft Academic Search

physiological modules that interact with each other intimately. The relationship between facial muscle activity and emotional processing is reciprocal. Emotional imagery is accompanied by changes in facial EMG that reflect the valence of one's thoughts. Conversely, intentionally adopting a particular facial expression can elicit subjective feelings (and autonomic bodily state) corresponding to the expressed emotion (i.e. smiling can make one

Oliver Josephs; Raymond J Dolan; Hugo D Critchley

397

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Results indicated that, independent of trait

Steven J. Kirsh; Jeffrey R. W. Mounts; Paul V. Olczak

2006-01-01

398

Machine analysis of facial behaviour: Naturalistic and dynamic behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in

Maja Pantic

2009-01-01

399

Targeting specific facial variation for different identification tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework that allows faces to be studied and compared objectively with biological validity is presented. The framework is a logical extension of modern morphometrics and statistical shape analysis techniques. Three dimensional (3D) facial scans were collected from 255 healthy young adults. One scan depicted a smiling facial expression and another scan depicted a neutral expression. These facial scans

Gillian Aeria; Peter Claes; Dirk Vandermeulen; John Gerald Clement

2010-01-01

400

A blendshape model for mapping facial motions to an android  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important part of natural, and therefore effective, communication is facial motion. The android Repliee Q2 should therefore display realistic facial motion. In computer graphics animation, such motion is created by mapping human motion to the animated character. This paper proposes a method for mapping human facial motion to the android. This is done using a linear model of the

Freerk Pieter Wilbers; Carlos Toshinori Ishi; Hiroshi Ishiguro

2007-01-01

401

Judging the Accuracy of Facial Expressions: A Methodological Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which human facial expressions are universal and cross-culturally recognizable has been the subject of considerable debate. Two approaches have been used in studies of facial expressions: the judgment approach entails showing examples of facial expressions to various cultures or groups of people and determining whether they interpret…

Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.

402

Neural repair in facial paralysis: Clinical and experimental studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute facial nerve injuries involving the total facial nerve (n = 202) and its segmental branches (n = 63) were repaired with a variety of neural (n = 225) and myofascial transfer (n = 40). A system for evaluating results based on facial symmetry and tone at rest, recovery of voluntary mimetic activity,\\u000a synkinesis, and recovery of selective function in

J. G. Spector

1997-01-01

403

Facial subdermal vascular network flap: anatomic study and clinical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the numerous flaps for facial reconstruction that have been described, the search for the ideal flap with good color matching and minimal donor-site morbidity continues. In the past 3 years we have repaired 13 facial defects with success using the lateral genicervical flap - a type of facial subdermal vascular network flap (SVNF) - with a pedicle located on

S.-H. Xiong; X.-D. Cheng; D.-C. Xu; N. Li; L. Yan; T.-L. Zhao; L. Yu; H. Liao; F. Suwa; A. Takemura; I. Toda; H. Ike; Y.-R. Fang

2002-01-01

404

Facial soft tissue thickness in skeletal type I Japanese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology require knowledge of the facial soft tissue thickness of each race if facial features are to be reconstructed correctly. If this is inaccurate, so also will be the reconstructed face. Knowledge of differences by age and sex are also required. Therefore, when unknown human skeletal remains are found, the forensic anthropologist investigates for

Hajime Utsuno; Toru Kageyama; Toshio Deguchi; Yasunobu Umemura; Mineo Yoshino; Hiroshi Nakamura; Hiroo Miyazawa; Katsuhiro Inoue

2007-01-01

405

Facial expression recognition from near-infrared video sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions can be thought as specific dynamic textures where local appearance and motion information need to be taken into account. We utilize local spatiotemporal operators to describe facial expressions. All current facial expression recognition databases are captured in visible light spectrum. Visual light usually changes with locations, and can also vary with time, which can cause significant variations in

Matti Taini; Guoying Zhao; Stan Z. Li; Matti Pietikäinen

2008-01-01

406

Imitating expressions: emotion-specific neural substrates in facial mimicry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentionally adopting a discrete emotional facial expression can modulate the subjective feelings corresponding to that emotion; however, the underlying neural mechanism is poorly understood. We therefore used functional brain imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to examine brain activity during intentional mimicry of emotional and non-emotional facial expressions and relate regional responses to the magnitude of expression-induced facial movement. Eighteen healthy

Tien-Wen Lee; Oliver Josephs; Raymond J. Dolan; Hugo D. Critchley

2006-01-01

407

Facial Vein Catheterization for Transvenous Embolization of the Cavernous Sinus  

PubMed Central

Summary We describe three cases of transvenous embolization of arteriovenous fistulas of the cavernous sinus, achieved through the facial vein approach. The facial vein was catheterized from a jugular vein access. This cervical approach offered good stability to the guiding catheter that permitted us to negotiate difficult curves of the facial vein and to recanalize venous thrombosis in one case.

Karygiannis, M.N.; Szatmary, Z.; Claudino, P.A.; Houdart, E.

2006-01-01

408

The development of bone formation in hydroxyapatite-fibrin implants: a histological, histochemical and ultrastructural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of skeletal defects can be carried out by implantation of autologous bone removed from the iliac crest by surgery.\\u000a To avoid this operation, and to achieve more favourable conditions of implantation, autologous bone can be replaced by biomaterials.\\u000a For this reason, a morphological investigation has been carried out on the ossification process promoted by implantation in\\u000a cranio-facial bones of

Ermanno Bonucci

1999-01-01

409

Bone Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about the two main components of bone - collagen and minerals (like calcium) - and how they each contribute to its flexibility and strength. Learners will submerge 3 chicken bones in water, bleach, and vinegar, wait 24 hours, then observe and test each bone. This resource includes information about how nanoscientists are trying to produce artificial analogs to these components and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Bone Regrowth.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

410

Bone Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The danger of disuse osteoporosis under weightless condition in space led to extensive research into measurements of bone stiffness and mass by the Biomedical Research Division of Ames and Stanford University. Through its Technology Utilization Program, NASA funded an advanced SOBSA, a microprocessor-controlled bone probe system. SOBSA determines bone stiffness by measuring responses to an electromagnetic shaker. With this information, a physician can identify bone disease, measure deterioration and prescribe necessary therapy. The system is now undergoing further testing.

1985-01-01

411

Bone Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... 70 years old. Any bone can be involved. Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is the second most common bone cancer. It occurs in two or three new people ... opinion to con? rm it. If you have bone cancer, the treatment team may include several specialists. These ...

412

Atrophic femoral nonunion with bone loss: treatment with monorail transport: a case report.  

PubMed

Nonunions are an uncommon outcome of femoral fractures. Atrophic nonunions with a leg length discrepancy secondary to bone loss are often the most difficult to treat, and the treatment options are limited. We present a case that uses concomitant monolateral external fixation and intramedullary nailing to heal a nonunion and perform a simultaneous 7-cm lengthening procedure in a 33-year-old female. PMID:15289694

Gay, David M; Voss, Frank R

2004-08-01

413

Aspectos indicativos de envelhecimento facial precoce em respiradores orais adultos***** Indicative factors of early facial aging in mouth breathing adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: early facial aging in mouth breathing adults. Aim: to verify the presence of indicative factors of early facial aging and to characterize the measurements of the projection of the nasogeniane fold to the tragus and of the face width in mouth and nose breathing adults. Method: aspects of early facial aging were observed in 60 individuals (presence of dark

Aline Cabral de Oliveira; César Antônio; Lira dos Anjos; Érika Henriques de Araújo; Alves da Silva; Pedro de Lemos Menezes

414

Dynamics of Facial Expression: Recognition of Facial Actions and Their Temporal Segments From Face Profile Image Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic analysis of human facial expression is a challenging problem with many applications. Most of the existing automated systems for facial expression analysis attempt to recognize a few prototypic emotional expressions, such as anger and happiness. Instead of representing another approach to machine analysis of prototypic facial expressions of emotion, the method presented in this paper attempts to handle a

Maja Pantic; Ioannis Patras

2006-01-01

415

Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application  

PubMed Central

Background Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. Case presentation In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in the lower part of her face following a dental operation. The patient also exhibited dyskinesia of her caudal mimic musculature that was triggered by specific movements. Several attempts at therapy had been unsuccessful. We performed local injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) into the affected region of the patient's face. Pain relief was immediate following each set of botulinum toxin injections. The follow up time amounts 62 weeks. Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can be a safe and effective therapy for certain forms of facial pain syndromes.

Junghans, Katharina; Rohrbach, Saskia; Ellies, Maik; Laskawi, Rainer

2007-01-01

416

Facial Caricaturing Robot “COOPER" for Proposing New Facial Media and Its Field Test at EXPO2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed the facial caricaturing robot “COOPER” that was exhibited at the Prototype Robot Exhibition of EXPO 2005, Aichi Japan during 11 days from Jun.9 to Jun.19. COOPER watches the face of a person seated at the chair, obtains facial images, and analyzes the images to extract 251 feature points to generate his facial line drawings with deformation. It is noted that the caricature was drawn on the specialized “Shrimp rice cracker” in about 4 minutes. To do this, we customized the original system PICASSO by coping with the illumination circumstances in EXPO pavilion. This paper illustrates the outline of the COOPER and the details of the image processing in it. And we discuses on the prospects of the future subjects based on more than 352 facial caricatures obtained at EXPO2005.

Funahashi, Takuma; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takashi; Tokuda, Naoya; Takino, Fuminori; Koshimizu, Hiroyasu

417

FACSGen: A Tool to Synthesize Emotional Facial Expressions Through Systematic Manipulation of Facial Action Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the perception of emotional facial expressions, researchers rely on shared sets of photos or videos, most often\\u000a generated by actor portrayals. The drawback of such standardized material is a lack of flexibility and controllability, as\\u000a it does not allow the systematic parametric manipulation of specific features of facial expressions on the one hand, and of\\u000a more general properties

Etienne B. Roesch; Lucas Tamarit; Lionel Reveret; Didier Grandjean; David Sander; Klaus R. Scherer

2011-01-01

418

Rigid internal fixation of mandibular fractures using autologous bone grafts: the autologous bone plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandible is the second most commonly fractured part of the maxillofacial skeleton because of its position and prominence.\\u000a Over the past three decades, many different techniques and approaches have been described in the literature to surgically\\u000a correct facial fractures. The present study has attempted to study the role of bone grafts in open reduction and internal\\u000a fixation of mandibular

Arun Kumar Singh; Devi Prasad Mohapatra; Vijay Kumar

2010-01-01

419

Anthropometric definitions of dysmorphic facial signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photoanthropometric method is presented, which enables an objective definition of facial structures. It may support the clinical description of patients with dysmorphic syndromes. Eighteen parameters were studied. The measuring points were elected on the base of anthropological criteria. The measurements were related to reference values in the same face. The obtained indices were compared to an age related control

S. Stengel-Rutkowski; P. Schimanek; A. Wernheimer

1984-01-01

420

Association between facial cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and meningitis.  

PubMed Central

The skin is frequently a site of extrapulmonary dissemination in patients with coccidioidomycosis. Clinical experience in an endemic area suggests an association between facial cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and meningitis. Awareness of this association is important because coccidioidal meningitis is the most ominous site of spread in coccidioidomycosis. In this study, we assess whether cutaneous dissemination involving the face is associated with meningitis to a greater degree than that limited to the body. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 201 patients from 1987 to 1996 with disseminated coccidioidomycosis and found 30 patients with cutaneous involvement. Their mean age was 29.5 +/- 11.6 years; 20 patients were male; 14 were African American, 12 were Hispanic, 3 were white, and 1 was Asian. Nineteen patients had facial involvement, and 11 had isolated body involvement. Meningitis developed in 11 patients, 10 with facial involvement and 1 with only body involvement. Patients with facial lesions were more likely to have meningitis (odds ratio, 11.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 529, P = .023). The identification of a subgroup of patients at significant risk of developing meningitis may allow earlier detection and perhaps improved management of patients with meningeal disease.

Arsura, E L; Kilgore, W B; Caldwell, J W; Freeman, J C; Einstein, H E; Johnson, R H

1998-01-01

421

Degloving facial injury treated with hydroconductive dressing.  

PubMed

COMPLEX, OPEN MAXILLOFACIAL FRACTURES ARE OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY EXTENSIVE CONTAMINATION, CRUSH, OR AVULSION OF THE OVERLYING SOFT TISSUE, THERE HAVE BEEN TWO ALTERNATIVES TO TREATMENT: either radical debridement of all contaminated tissue, fixation of the underlying fractures, and soft tissue closure by pedicle flap or graft is done; or more conservative debridement is repeated multiple times until the contaminated tissue is removed and fracture fixation is deemed safe. Debridement is usually accomplished by sharp debridement or with high-pressure intermittent irrigation or some combination of both modalities. The problems with this standard treatment in the face are that facial features may be distorted, superficial branches of the facial and/or trigeminal nerve can be inadvertently sacrificed (even with the use of nerve stimulators), and scarring can distort contours and radically change facial appearance. A serious facial degloving injury with necrotic malodorous tissue and no clear anatomical delineations demanded special attention. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the management of a soft tissue avulsive contaminated injury of the face with underlying maxillofacial fractures. PMID:23662267

Perumal, Colin; Bouckaert, Michael; Robson, Martin

2013-01-01

422

Degloving facial injury treated with hydroconductive dressing  

PubMed Central

Complex, open maxillofacial fractures are often accompanied by extensive contamination, crush, or avulsion of the overlying soft tissue, there have been two alternatives to treatment: either radical debridement of all contaminated tissue, fixation of the underlying fractures, and soft tissue closure by pedicle flap or graft is done; or more conservative debridement is repeated multiple times until the contaminated tissue is removed and fracture fixation is deemed safe. Debridement is usually accomplished by sharp debridement or with high-pressure intermittent irrigation or some combination of both modalities. The problems with this standard treatment in the face are that facial features may be distorted, superficial branches of the facial and/or trigeminal nerve can be inadvertently sacrificed (even with the use of nerve stimulators), and scarring can distort contours and radically change facial appearance. A serious facial degloving injury with necrotic malodorous tissue and no clear anatomical delineations demanded special attention. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the management of a soft tissue avulsive contaminated injury of the face with underlying maxillofacial fractures.

Perumal, Colin; Bouckaert, Michael; Robson, Martin

2013-01-01

423

Analysis of Facial Deformities in Korean Leprosy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The clinical features of various facial deformities in Korean leprosy patients were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Methods One hundred ninety six patients with leprosy were examined for various facial deformities using a nasal speculum, endoscope, and digital camera. The frequency and severity of external nasal deformities and septal perforations were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Eye deformities, ear deformities, and facial palsy were also assessed. Results Seventy-one patients (36.2%) displayed external nasal deformities: 28 minimal contractures, three cartilage contractures, two bony-cartilage contractures, and 38 skin defects. The external nasal deformity and severe form deformity in lepromatous types were more frequent compared to other types (P<0.05 for each variable). Twenty-three patients (9%) displayed septal perforations, among whom 11 had cartilaginous perforations and 12 had bony-cartilaginous perforations. The frequency of septal and bony-cartilaginous perforations did not differ significantly between the types of leprosy (P>0.05 for each variable). Sixty-one patients (31.1%) had eye deformities and 19 patients (9.7%) had facial nerve palsy, common in the borderline type. No cases of ear deformities were observed. Conclusion Korean patients had characteristic deformities according to the type of leprosy. They were different from those seen in the prior analyses of Caucasian populations.

Kim, Ji Heui; Lee, Ok Joo

2013-01-01

424

Percutaneous trigeminal tractotomy for facial pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Eighteen patients who underwent percutaneous trigeminal tractotomy for relief of intractable facial pain are reported. The author uses a new method of radiographic delineation of the obex with emulsified Pantopaque. RF current passed through the correctly placed electrode results in analgesia and pain relief with preservation of touch sensation in cancer patients.

J. L. Fox

1973-01-01

425

Annotation: Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), the most frequent known interstitial deletion identified in man, is associated with chromosomal microdeletions in the q11 band of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS are reported to have a characteristic behavioural phenotype with high rates of behavioural, psychiatric, neuropsychological and…

Murphy, K. C.

2005-01-01

426

Facial feature extraction based on GSLDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a general and efficient facial feature extraction approach, global search linear discriminant analysis (GSLDA), is presented. It is designed to solve the puzzle of standard linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for small sample size problems (SSSP). Compared with PCA-LDA, in GSLDA, raw data dimension can be greatly decreased without discarding important discriminant information. In this process, all basis

Li Meng; Yong Cai; Yuanxing Li; Min Wang

2009-01-01

427

Facial expression recognition using emotion avatar image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing facial expression recognition techniques analyze the spatial and temporal information for every single frame in a human emotion video. On the contrary, we create the Emotion Avatar Image (EAI) as a single good representation for each video or image sequence for emotion recognition. In this paper, we adopt the recently introduced SIFT flow algorithm to register every frame with

Songfan Yang; Bir Bhanu

2011-01-01

428

Evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate facial nerve function, the visual assessment method proposed by the Japan Society of Facial Research is used frequently. It is of great value clinically, but the method has several weak points concerning objective and quantitative assessment. This study uses moire topography to solve these problems. mA moire camera, FM3013, of the lattice irradiation type was used for measurement of the face. Five moire photographs were taken: at rest, wrinkling the forehead, closing the eyes lightly, blowing out the cheeks and grinning. The degree of facial palsy was determined by the Asymmetry Index (AI) as a measure of the degree of facial deviation. Total AI was expressed as the average AI based on calculations of the measurement in 5 photos. Severe paralysis is represented by an AI of more than 20%. Partial paralysis has a range of 20-8%. Nearly normal is judged to be less than 8%. Ten normal individuals are measured as control and show an AI of 3% or less. Moire topography is useful in assessing the recovery process because it has the benefit of making the site and grade of palsy easily achieved by the AI and the deviation in its patterns. The authors propose that the moire method is better for an objective and quantitative evaluation than the society's method.

Inokuchi, Ikuo; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Maeta, Manabu; Masuda, Yu

1991-08-01

429

Laser ablation of facial cosmetic tattoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of facial cosmetic tattoos (eyeliner, lipliner, and rouge) has become popular over the past five years and has resulted in an increasing number of patients requesting removal of these permanent cosmetics. Poor positioning or misapplication of the tattoo pigment has been the most common reason for requesting removal. Because of the almost inevitable probability of scarring, removal of

Richard E. Fitzpatrick; Mitchel P. Goldman; Christine Dierickx

1994-01-01

430

Facial feature extraction for face characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of image processing and facial recognition has presented many interesting challenges. This research focuses on feature extraction but touch upon other topics such as Face detection. Simply put face detection attempts to accurately pick out a human face in an arbitrary scene, while feature extraction is the attempt to accurately isolate the desired portion of a

Jeff Mcdermott

2006-01-01

431

Contourlet structural similarity for facial expression recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel classification method based on perceptual image quality metrics for facial expression recognition. The features are extracted based on Contourlet sub-bands. Then, the optimum features are selected using minimum redundancy and maximum relevance algorithm (MRMR). The selected features are classified by structural similarity metric in contourlet domain. The proposed method has been extensively assessed using two

Seyed Mehdi Lajevardi; Zahir M. Hussain

2010-01-01

432

Constructing Facial Identity Surfaces for Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to face recognition by constructing facial identity structures across views and over time, referred to as identity surfaces, in a Kernel Discriminant Analysis (KDA) feature space. This approach is aimed at addressing three challenging problems in face recognition: modelling faces across multiple views, extracting non-linear discriminatory features, and recognising faces over time. First, a multi-view

Yongmin Li; Shaogang Gong; Heather M. Liddell

2003-01-01

433

Facial classification using artificial neural network techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in illumination condition, pose, facial expression and others are challenging task in recognizing face images. Solving these problems requires a feature extractor that can generate distinct features for each class of image as well as classifier that able to recognize and classify the face image precisely. This paper presents a facial recognition system using Artificial Neural network (ANN) techniques namely Radial basis function and Feed forward neural networks. Invariant continuous orthogonal moment that is Zernike moment (ZM) at order 2 to 12 is used to extract 47 features which are the inputs to the neural network. The experiments were carried out on the database face images from the AT&T Laboratories Cambridge University consisting of 40 distinct subjects of 10 non-similar images each. For some subjects, the images were taken at different times, varying the lighting, facial expressions (open/closed eyes, smiling/not smiling), facial details (with and without spectacles) and different face scale. From the experiments, Radial basis function outperforms feed forward in terms of percentage classification. However the classification error of feed forward neural network is below 5%.

Nor'aini, A. J.; Fatimah, Z.; Norzilah, R.

2011-10-01

434

Until they have faces: the ethics of facial allograft transplantation.  

PubMed

The ethical discussion of facial allograft transplantation (FAT) for severe facial deformity, popularly known as facial transplantation, has been one sided and sensationalistic. It is based on film and fiction rather than science and clinical experience. Based on our experience in developing the first IRB approved protocol for FAT, we critically discuss the problems with this discussion, which overlooks the plight of individuals with severe facial deformities. We discuss why FAT for facial deformity is ethically and surgically justified despite its negative portrayal in the media. PMID:16319234

Agich, G J; Siemionow, M

2005-12-01

435

Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and J. H. J. Schaminée (2010), A new European Landscape Classification (LANMAP): A transparent, flexible and user-oriented methodology to distinguish landscapes, Ecological Indicators, 10(1), 87-103. Stöckli, R., and P. L. Vidale (2004), European plant phenology and climate as seen in a 20-year AVHRR land-surface parameter dataset, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25(17), 3303-3330. White, M. A., et al. (2009), Intercomparison, interpretation, and assessment of spring phenology in North America estimated from remote sensing for 1982-2006, Global Change Biology, 15(10), 2335-2359.

Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

2013-12-01

436

Recognition of 3D facial expression from posed data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although recognition of facial expression in 3D facial images has been an active research area, most of the prior works are limited to using full frontal facial images. These techniques primarily project 3D facial image on 2D and manually select landmarks in 2D projection to extract relevant features. Face recognition in 2D images can be challenging due to unconstrained conditions such as head pose, occlusion, and resulting loss of data. Similarly, pose variation in 3D facial imaging can also result in loss of data. In most of the current 3D facial recognition works, when 3D posed face data are projected onto 2D, additional data loss may render 2D facial expression recognition even more challenging. In comparison, this work proposes novel feature extraction directly from the 3D facial posed images without the need of manual selection of landmarks or projection of images in 2D space. This feature is obtained as the angle between consecutive 3D normal vectors on the vertex points aligned either horizontally or vertically across the 3D facial image. Our facial expression recognition results show that the feature obtained from vertices aligned vertically across the face yields the best accuracy for classification with an average 87.8% area under the ROC. The results further suggest that the same feature outperforms its horizontal counterpart in recognizing facial expressions for pose variation between 35º - 50º with average accuracy of 80% - 60%, respectively.

Samad, Manar D.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

2013-05-01