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1

Evolution and development of facial bone morphology in threespine sticklebacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do developmental mechanisms evolve to control changing skeletal morphology, the shapes and sizes of individual bones? We address this question with studies of the opercle (OP), a large facial bone that has undergone marked morphological evolution in the ray-finned fish. Attributes for developmental analysis motivated us to examine how OP shape and size evolve and develop in threespine sticklebacks,

Charles B. Kimmel; Bonnie Ullmann; Charline Walker; Catherine Wilson; Mark Currey; Patrick C. Phillips; Michael A. Bell; John H. Postlethwait; William A. Cresko

2005-01-01

2

Midface Membranous Bone Lengthening: A One-Year Histological and Morphological Follow-Up of Distraction Osteogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Midface bone lengthening was performed on three young, adult sheep using distraction osteogenesis following osteotomy of\\u000a the maxilla and mounting of an extraoral fixation device. The midface was gradually distracted, 2 mm\\/day, for 21 days, up\\u000a to approximately 40 mm. A marked midface advancement was noted. Following a further 6 weeks of retention, the device was removed\\u000a and the

A. Rachmiel; D. Lewinson; I. T. Jackson

1998-01-01

3

Bone lengthening with extra-articular arthrodesis of the hip using external fixation  

PubMed Central

This is a case series of 11 children and adolescents who underwent femoral lengthening and percutaneous hip arthrodesis using a method of extra-articular joint compression in combination with callotasis. Clinical review indicated a significant improvement in physical function and psychological well-being. The average lengthening was 5.3 cm or 16% of the initial length. Complications were more frequent in patients older than 14 years (P = 0.034) as was a higher maturation index (P = 0.021). No additional operations were required to achieve the surgical objective.

2008-01-01

4

Distraction Lengthening of the Forearm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven patients aged six to 25 underwent progressive distraction lengthening of the forearm. Five had lengthening of the ulna and two of the radius. Four cases had multiple exostoses, two had posttraumatic distal epiphyseal arrests and one had dyschondrosteosis. Two methods were used: the Wagner technique of diaphyseal distraction and bone grafting, or diaphyseal corticotomy and callus distraction without bone

J. C. Y. CHENG

1991-01-01

5

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma with Multiple Metastases to Facial and Cranial Bones: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Female breast cancer is one of the major causes of death among women. Metastatic tumors to the maxillo-facial bones are rare. We present diagnosis and treatment of multiple metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma involving massive and early stage the left half of the mandibular body, the floor of the orbit, maxilla, left parietal bone, the iliac bone and cervical and thoracal vertebras in a 36 years old female one and half years after operated.

Ertas, Umit; Yalcin, Ertan; Erdogan, Fazli

2010-01-01

6

Hyperbaric oxygen in the therapeutic management of osteoradionecrosis of the facial bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews all 17 cases of facial bone osteoradionecrosis (ORN) which were treated in Adelaide, South Australia, in a nine-year period (1987–1996). This was 1.2% of all cases of head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT). Fourteen cases received treatment following the Marx principles of staging and the protocols of hyperbaric oxygen plus or minus surgery. The three

S. Vudiniabola; C. Pirone; J. Williamson; A. N. Goss

2000-01-01

7

Limb lengthening over plate  

PubMed Central

Background: The limb lengthening over plate eliminates the associated risk of infection with limb lengthening over intramedullary nail. We present our experience of limb lengthening in 15 patients with a plate fixed on the proximal segment, followed by corticotomy and application of external fixator. Materials and Methods: 15 patients (7 females, 8 males) were included in this consecutive series. The average age was 18.1 years (range 8–35 years). Fifteen tibiae and one femur were lengthened in 15 patients. Lengthening was achieved at 1 mm/day followed by distal segment fixation with three or four screws on reaching the target length. Results: The preoperative target length was successfully achieved in all patients at a mean of 4.1 cm (range 1.8–6.5 cm). The mean duration of external fixation was 75.3 days (range 33–116 days) with the mean external fixation index at 19.2 days/cm (range 10.0–38.3 days/cm). One patient suffered deep infection up to the plate, three patients had mild procurvatum deformities, and one patient developed mild tendo achilles contracture. Conclusion: Lengthening over a plate allows early removal of external fixator and eliminates the risk of creating deep intramedullary infection as with lengthening over nail. Lengthening over plate is also applicable to children with open physis.

Kulkarni, Ruta; Singh, Nishant; Kulkarni, Govind S; Kulkarni, Milind; Kulkarni, Sunil; Kulkarni, Vidisha

2012-01-01

8

CT Imaging of facial trauma. Role of different types of reconstruction. Part I - bones  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Injury to the facial skeleton and the adjoining soft tissues is a frequently occurring condition. The main aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial skeleton injury. The authors attempted to answer the following questions: Are there particular mechanisms and types of injuries or locations of fractures which can be diagnosed significantly more effectively by conducting additional multiplanar image reconstructions? Do 3D image reconstructions contribute to the diagnostic process, to what extent? Compared to other imaging techniques, is the spiral CT data acquisition a more convenient for the patient and a faster investigation method of diagnosing post-injury lesions involving the facial skeleton? Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton were referred for emergent CT scanning. Each patient underwent a CT scan with the use of a GE HiSpeed Qx/i scanner. The scans were conducted with the use of spiral data acquisition technique in the transverse plane. The following secondary image reconstructions were conducted for each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR). Post-injury lesions of the facial skeleton were assessed and the presence of any loose displaced bone fragments was taken into consideration. Results: As far as fracture imaging is concerned, the 2D image reconstruction and volume rendering proved to be the most effective in the majority of locations. 3D image reconstructions proved the most sensitive in most cases of loose displaced bone fragments, except for fine structures such as the ethmoid bone and the inferior orbital wall. Conclusions: 1. Multiplanar computer reconstructions increase the effectiveness of visualisation of fractures, especially in the case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. 2. 3D reconstructions are a good complementary technique allowing to locate loose bone fragments precisely and to assess the degree of displacement. 3. Spiral CT data acquisition increases patient’s convenience due to shorter time required for examination, and allows to conduct reconstructions of satisfactory value.

Myga-Porosilo, Jolanta; Skrzelewski, Stanislaw; Sraga, Wojciech; Borowiak, Hanna; Jackowska, Zuzanna; Kluczewska, Ewa

2011-01-01

9

Facial bone distraction osteogenesis for correction of malocclusion: a more than 70-year-old concept in craniofacial surgery.  

PubMed

Bone distraction has been used increasingly since McCarthy and associates showed in their clinical investigation new osseous formation in the elongated area while performing mandibular distraction in 1992. However, at the craniofacial skeletal level, the initial description of the classic technique of distraction osteogenesis should be credited to German craniofacial surgeons Rosenthal (for bone lengthening of the mandible in a microgenia patient around 1927) and Wassmund (for the clinical advancement of a maxilla in a patient with hypoplasia of the upper jaw in 1926). Both procedures are described, and their original schedules and cases are presented. PMID:11786789

Hönig, Johannes Franz; Grohmann, Ulrike Anna; Merten, Hans Albert

2002-01-01

10

Current concepts of leg lengthening.  

PubMed

Any lower limb discrepancy may be equalised by conservative means (insoles, prosthesis and orthosis). However, their long-term acceptance is low in regard to function, costs, expenditure and appearance. Timely epiphysiodesis is the best option in uniplanar deformities with adequate remaining growth and for patients whose predicted final body height is above the 50th percentile. However, many patients present late or with multi-planar deformities, which warrant more sophisticated operative approaches. The history of surgical bone lengthening comprises 100 exciting years of struggling, development and ongoing learning. The initial strategy of acute or rapid incremental distraction had lasted almost half a century until Ilizarov recognised the benefits of biological periosteum-preserving osteotomies and incremental lengthening at slow rates (1 mm/day) at a 4 × 0.25-mm daily rhythm, well appreciated as callotasis. In parallel, ring and wire constructs made complex three-dimensional axial, translational and rotational bone moulding possible. Taylor Spatial Frames-built on hexapod strut-linked platform technology as known from flight simulators-took limb correction to a more reliable, more precise and aesthetical level, all the more that the whole process became web-based. It represents state-of-the-art methodology and technology for complex, multi-plane deformities. Due to the significant risk of secondary malalignment, indications for lengthening by unilateral fixation have shrunken to moderate amounts of length disparity and uni- to bi-planar deformities in patients with still open physes. Mechanical or motorised, minimally invasively placed nails prevent muscle fixation and, therefore, ease rehabilitation, increase patient comfort and potentially shorten the overall time of sick leave and refrain from sports activities. Hence, they offer a valuable alternative for low-grade complexity situations. It remains to be proved if the significantly higher implant costs are compensated by lower treatment costs. Overall, limb lengthening, particularly in combination with multi-planar deformity correction, can still be an arduous endeavour. In any case, wise judgement of the patient's deformity, medical and biological situation, psychosocial environment, selection of the appropriate method and hardware, as well as meticulous operating technique by an experienced surgeon are the cornerstones of successful outcomes. PMID:23730339

Hasler, Carol C; Krieg, Andreas H

2012-03-21

11

Investigation of a progressive facial deformity and stridor in an adult horse with a bone sequestrum and subsequent sinonasal abscess  

PubMed Central

Advanced diagnostic imaging and histopathological investigation were performed in an adult horse with chronic facial swelling due to a bone sequestrum and abscessation. In contrast to other cases, there were no draining tracts, difficulty eating, weight loss, head shaking, or fistula formation between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus.

Marques, Fernando J.; Sharma, Ajay; Wilson, David G.

2012-01-01

12

Strict X-ray beam collimation for facial bones examination can increase lens exposure  

PubMed Central

Objectives It is well accepted that collimation is a cost-effective dose-reducing tool for X-ray examinations. This phantom-based study investigated the impact of X-ray beam collimation on radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid along with the effect on image quality in facial bone radiography. Methods A three-view series (occipitomental, occipitomental 30 and lateral) was investigated, and radiation doses to the lenses and thyroid were measured using an Unfors dosemeter. Images were assessed by six experienced observers using a visual grading analysis and a total of 5400 observations were made. Results Strict collimation significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid when using a fixed projection-specific exposure. With a variable exposure technique (fixed exit dose, to simulate the behaviour of an automatic exposure control), while strict collimation was again shown to reduce thyroid dose, higher lens doses were demonstrated when compared with larger fields of exposure. Image quality was found to significantly improve using strict collimation, with observer preference being demonstrated using visual grading characteristic curves. Conclusion The complexities of optimising radiographic techniques have been shown and the data presented emphasise the importance of examining dose-reducing strategies in a comprehensive way.

Powys, R; Robinson, J; Kench, P L; Ryan, J; Brennan, P C

2012-01-01

13

Leg lengthening and shortening  

MedlinePLUS

... of the cut bone will be joined. A metal plate with screws or a nail down the center ... the same length. REMOVAL OF IMPLANTED METAL DEVICES Metal pins, screws, staples, or plates may be used to hold the bone in ...

14

Metacarpal and phalangeal lengthening by callus distraction.  

PubMed

Twelve metacarpals and two phalanges in 14 patients (nine males and five females) were lengthened between August 1992 and March 1999 by the callus distraction technique using a small external fixator (Orthofix). The indications were traumatic amputation (10 cases), aplasia (three cases) and hypoplasia owing to premature epiphyseal closure of the metacarpal (one case). All patients were reviewed with a median follow-up time of 39 (range, 9-88) months. The median age of the patients was 15 (range, 4-39) years. The median lengthening was 21 (range, 13-34) mm which was a median of 82% (range, 38-162) of the original bone length. The median times for callus distraction and consolidation were 4.5 and 7.5 weeks respectively. All except one patient tolerated the procedure well and were satisfied with the results. Functional improvement was seen in 13 out of 14 patients, but non-union was observed in one patient. PMID:11162007

Houshian, S; Ipsen, T

2001-02-01

15

Mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells within polyglycolic acid tube observed in vivo after six weeks enhance facial nerve regeneration.  

PubMed

Autografting is the gold-standard method for facial nerve repair with tissue loss. Its association with high-quality scaffolds and cell implants has disclosed distinct experimental outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and histological effects of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) combined with polyglycolic acid tube (PGAt) in autografted rat facial nerves. After neurotmesis of the mandibular branch of the rat facial nerve, surgical repair consisted of nerve autografting (groups A-E) contained in pGAT (groups B-E), filled with basement membrane matrix (groups C-E) with undifferentiated BMSC (group D) or Schwann-like cells that had differentiated from BMSC (group E). Axon morphometrics and an objective compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) analysis were conducted. Immunofluorescence assays were carried out with Schwann cell marker S100 and anti-?-galactosidase to label exogenous cells. Six weeks after surgery, animals from either cell-containing group had mean CMAP amplitudes significantly higher than control groups. Differently from other groups, facial nerves with Schwann-like cell implants had mean axonal densities within reference values. This same group had the highest mean axonal diameter in distal segments. We observed expression of the reporter gene lacZ in nerve cells in the graft and distally from it in groups D and E. Group-E cells had lacZ coexpressed with S100. In conclusion, regeneration of the facial nerve was improved by BMSC within PGAt in rats, yet Schwann-like cells were associated with superior effects. Accordingly, groups D and E had BMSC integrated in neural tissue with maintenance of former cell phenotype for six weeks. PMID:23542586

Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi; Ferreira Bento, Ricardo; Salomone, Raquel; Azzi-Nogueira, Deborah; Zanatta, Daniela B; Paulino Costa, Márcio; da Silva, Ciro Ferreira; Strauss, Bryan E; Haddad, Luciana A

2013-03-28

16

Analysis of 809 Facial Bone Fractures in a Pediatric and Adolescent Population  

PubMed Central

Background Facial fractures are infrequent in children and adolescents and have different clinical features from those in adults. The low incidence in children and adolescents reflects the flexibility and underdevelopment of their facial skeletons, as well as their more protected environments. Only a few reports have reviewed such patients in Korea. The authors performed a retrospective study to analyze the characteristics of facial fractures in the Korean pediatric population. Methods We conducted a retrospective review on a series of 741 patients, aged <18 years, with facial fractures who had been treated at our hospital between 2006 and 2010. The following parameters were evaluated: age, sex, cause, location and type of fractures, associated injuries, treatment and complications. Results A total of 741 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. The ratio of boys to girls was 5.7:1. Facial fractures most commonly occurred in patients between 13 and 15 years of age (36.3%). The most common causes of injury was violence. The nasal fracture was the most common type of fracture (69%) and the blowout fracture was the second most common (20%). Associated injuries occurred in 156 patients (21%). Conclusions The incidence of pediatric facial fractures caused by violence is high in Korea. Our results show that as age increases, etiological factors and fracture patterns gradually shift towards those found in adults. This study provides an overview of facial fractures in these age groups that helps illustrate the trends and characteristics of the fractures and may be helpful in further evaluation and management.

Kim, Sang Hun; Lee, Soo Hyang

2012-01-01

17

Percutaneous Z Tendon Achilles Lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Achilles tendon lengthening is a delicate procedure whereby the risk of over lengthening (creating calcaneus), rupture, and\\u000a weakening of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle is devastating. The Silfverskiöld test is clinically performed to differentiate\\u000a gastrocnemius equinus from gastrocnemius-soleus equinus. Many surgical techniques have been developed to treat negative results\\u000a of the Silfverskiöld test. The authors prefer a gastrocnemius-soleus recession in order to

Bradley M. Lamm; Dror Paley

18

Management of facial paralysis resulting from temporal bone fractures: Our experience in 115 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this study was to review decision factors and overall results regarding surgical and nonsurgical management of post-traumatic facial nerve paralysis (FP). Study design: A retrospective study and literature review were performed. Methods: Between 1984 and 1990, 115 cases of post-traumatic FP were handled. Patients were evaluated through clinical, audiologic, radiologic, and electromyogram assessment. Depending on examination

Vincent Darrouzet; Jean-Yves Duclos; Dominique Liguoro; Yves Truilhe; Camille De Bonfils; Jean-Pierre Bebear

2001-01-01

19

Osteotomy and autograft lengthening for intra-articular malunion of the proximal ulna: a case report.  

PubMed

An osteotomy with interposition of iliac crest bone graft and lengthening of the proximal ulna can be used to restore ulnohumeral congruency after a malunited comminuted olecranon fracture treated with figure-of-eight tension band wiring. PMID:20029671

Doornberg, Job N; Marti, René K

2009-12-15

20

Osteotomy and Autograft Lengthening for Intra-Articular Malunion of the Proximal Ulna: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

An osteotomy with interposition of iliac crest bone graft and lengthening of the proximal ulna can be used to restore ulnohumeral congruency after a malunited comminuted olecranon fracture treated with figure-of-eight tension band wiring.

Doornberg, Job N.; Marti, Rene K.

2009-01-01

21

Comparison of alloplastic implants for facial bones by scintigraphy and histology: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of bone defects and contour irregularities in the craniofacial region is difficult and often requires complex\\u000a solutions. This study investigated the tissue response, vascularization and bone ingrowth, in hydroxyapatite, porous polyethylene\\u000a and silicone elastomer when used as bone graft substitutes. 24 albino rabbits (8 rabbits for each implant) were used in this\\u000a investigation. Hydroxyapatite 500 particles, silicone rubber and

A. C. Aygit; A. Sarikaya; L. Candan; M. S. Ayhan; T. F. Çermik

1999-01-01

22

Vulpius and Z-lengthening.  

PubMed

An evaluation of ankle function in gait after 22 Vulpius lengthenings of the gastrocnemius fascia and 27 Z-lengthenings of the Achilles tendon was performed in 33 ambulatory cerebral palsy patients. Simultaneous hip or knee surgeries or both were performed in most instances. Gait analysis including ankle motion, moment, and power data was obtained before surgery and approximately 1 year after. The ankle moments were improved and approached normal in the majority of cases in each group. There were no significant differences between the Vulpius and Z-lengthening groups at follow-up in any of the parameters. There were significant differences between the initial and follow-up measurements of each group. The Vulpius group showed a notable presence of abnormal midstance work initially and had a significant decrease at follow-up. The Z-lengthening group showed a notable presence of equinus and a notable lack of push-off work initially and had a significant decrease in equinus and a significant increase in push-off work at follow-up. Each procedure appears to give satisfactory results because the follow-up results were similar. PMID:8906648

Yngve, D A; Chambers, C

23

Reduced bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A signaling in neural-crest-derived cells causes facial dysmorphism  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor type 1A (BMPR1A) mutations are associated with facial dysmorphism, which is one of the main clinical signs in both juvenile polyposis and chromosome 10q23 deletion syndromes. Craniofacial development requires reciprocal epithelial/neural crest (NC)-derived mesenchymal interactions mediated by signaling factors, such as BMP, in both cell populations. To address the role of mesenchymal BMP signaling in craniofacial development, we generated a conditional knockdown mouse by expressing the dominant-negative Bmpr1a in NC-derived cells expressing the myelin protein zero(Mpz)-Cre transgene. At birth, 100% of the conditional mutant mice had wide-open anterior fontanelles, and 80% of them died because of cleft face and cleft palate soon after birth. The other 20% survived and developed short faces, hypertelorism and calvarial foramina. Analysis of the NC-derived craniofacial mesenchyme of mutant embryos revealed an activation of the P53 apoptosis pathway, downregulation of both c-Myc and Bcl-XL, a normal growth rate but an incomplete expansion of mesenchymal cells. These findings provide genetic evidence indicating that optimal Bmpr1a-mediated signaling is essential for NC-derived mesenchymal cell survival in both normal nasal and frontal bone development and suggest that our model is useful for studying some aspects of the molecular etiology of human craniofacial dysmorphism.

Saito, Hiromitsu; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Noboru

2012-01-01

24

Implants in management of gunshot injuries of teeth, facial bones and jaws.  

PubMed

The use of implants in management of gunshot injuries of teeth, face and jaws presents novelty that is manifested in primary surgical treatment, reduction and fixation of bone fragments and teeth, replacement of lost parts of bone tissues as well as preparation for definitive prosthetic management. At the Clinic for Maxillofacial Surgery of the MMA 173 implants of different types and purposes have been placed in the period 1991-1997, in rehabilitation of the patients injured during the civil war. Although this number of placed implants is significant, the conclusive estimate about benefit of using implants may be obtained only after a longer period of time. Early results are satisfactory. PMID:9354133

Cvetinovi?, M; Skundri?, A; Mati?, S; Lazi?, Z; Odavi?, M

25

Free bone graft reconstruction of irradiated facial tissue: Experimental effects of basic fibroblast growth factor stimulation  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to evaluate the potential utility of basic fibroblast growth factor in the induction of angiogenesis and osseous healing in bone previously exposed to high doses of irradiation. Thirty New Zealand rabbits were evaluated by introducing basic fibroblast growth factor into irradiated mandibular resection sites either prior to or simultaneous with reconstruction by corticocancellous autografts harvested from the ilium. The fate of the free bone grafts was then evaluated at 90 days postoperatively by microangiographic, histologic, and fluorochrome bone-labeling techniques. Sequestration, necrosis, and failure to heal to recipient osseous margins was observed both clinically and histologically in all nontreated irradiated graft sites as well as those receiving simultaneous angiogenic stimulation at the time of graft placement. No fluorescent activity was seen in these graft groups. In the recipient sites pretreated with basic fibroblast growth factor prior to placement of the graft, healing and reestablishment of mandibular contour occurred in nearly 50 percent of the animals. Active bone formation was evident at cortical margins adjacent to the recipient sites but was absent in the more central cancellous regions of the grafts.

Eppley, B.L.; Connolly, D.T.; Winkelmann, T.; Sadove, A.M.; Heuvelman, D.; Feder, J. (Plastic Surgery Section, Indiana University Medical Center (USA))

1991-07-01

26

Pull-out strength of screws from cortical bone in the maxillo-facial region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fixation of maxillofacial fractures is an important clinical procedure, which may be achieved by the attachment of plates across the fracture. The stability of the fracture will depend on the stiffness of the fracture fixation plates and the security of the fixation screws to the thin maxillofacial cortical bone. The design of screws, manufactured by Champy and AO were

J. C. Shelton; R. A. Loukota

1996-01-01

27

Free bone graft reconstruction of irradiated facial tissue: Experimental effects of basic fibroblast growth factor stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate the potential utility of basic fibroblast growth factor in the induction of angiogenesis and osseous healing in bone previously exposed to high doses of irradiation. Thirty New Zealand rabbits were evaluated by introducing basic fibroblast growth factor into irradiated mandibular resection sites either prior to or simultaneous with reconstruction by corticocancellous autografts harvested from

Barry L. Eppley; Daniel T. Connolly; Thomas Winkelmann; A. Michael Sadove; Deborah Heuvelman; Joseph Feder

1991-01-01

28

Limb lengthening for post-traumatic shortening over a pre-implanted femoral locking plate.  

PubMed

Attempts have been made to refine techniques involved in distraction osteogenesis to improve patient compliance and reduce complications. The prolonged use of external fixators for limb lengthening is associated with a number of problems, and in addition patient satisfaction with a cumbersome external fixator may be low. To reduce the complication rate and facilitate early removal of the external fixator by protecting the regenerate bone, lengthening over an intramedullary nail is being increasingly described. These techniques have limitations when used in skeletally immature patients and carry a risk of deep intramedullary infection. Post-traumatic limb length discrepancy is not uncommon after high-energy injuries are fixed in a shortened position secondary to bone loss. The plate applied at the time of injury may be incorporated into any subsequent lengthening process. A detailed description of the technique of lengthening over a pre-implanted distal femoral plate is followed by presentation of 2 case examples. PMID:22648038

Kosuge, Dennis D; Pugh, Hannah; Timms, Anna; Barry, Matthew

2013-03-01

29

Long-term functional outcome in facial nerve graft by fibrin glue in the temporal bone and cerebellopontine angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of facial nerve repair with fibrin glue in end-to-end anastomosis and intermediate nerve graft. Thirty-six patients undergoing facial nerve repair by end–to-end anastomosis or facial nerve grafting using exclusively fibrin glue between 1986 and 1999 were included in this retrospective study. The population comprised ten vestibular schwannomas (28%), nine

Alexis Bozorg Grayeli; Isabelle Mosnier; Nicolas Julien; Hani El Garem; Didier Bouccara; Olivier Sterkers

2005-01-01

30

Treatment of posttraumatic radial club hand with distraction lengthening.  

PubMed

The clinical and radiological results of distraction lengthening in cases with posttraumatic radial club hand were evaluated. Five patients (3 men and 2 women, with average age of 21 years) with traumatic radial shortening (3 patients had nonunited fracture of distal end radius with bone loss and 2 patients had short radius after malunited fracture of radius or growth arrest of distal radial epiphysis, the average shortening was 4.2 cm) were treated with distraction lengthening using Ilizarov fixator and hybrid fixation technique. Patients were evaluated clinically for hand function and appearance, and radiologically for union. The average follow-up was 25 months. The preplanned length was achieved in all cases with good union and no bone graft was needed, clinically there was much improvement in hand function (the range of motion of the wrist increased and the power of hand grip increased) and appearance. Pin tract infection occurred in 3 cases, broken pin in 1 case, and stiff wrist in 1 case. These complications were treated and did not affect the final results. Acquired radial club hand is difficult to treat. Treatment with distraction lengthening is a good option with excellent results and mild complications that did not affect the overall results. PMID:24126335

Hosny, Gamal A; Kandel, Wael A

2013-11-01

31

Biologic rationale of esthetic crown lengthening using innovative proportion gauges.  

PubMed

Research shows that practitioners tend to underestimate the amount of tooth structure that must be exposed during a crown lengthening procedure. In the anterior portion of the mouth, this can lead to biologic width problems and subsequent cosmetic issues. This paper presents a biologically based, step-by-step approach to periodontal esthetic crown lengthening. Using a series of innovative measuring gauges, the ideal clinical crown length of a tooth as well as the proper occlusogingival placement of the interproximal papilla will be determined based on established, documented tooth proportion relationships. The biologic crown length of the tooth, defined as the distance from the incisal edge to the bone crest, will subsequently be determined as a function of the clinical crown length, with the ultimate goals being adequate tooth structure for the placement of a restorative margin, establishment of a healthy dentogingival complex, and the placement of an esthetically pleasing definitive restoration. PMID:21845247

Fletcher, Paul

32

Reconstruction of #7 facial cleft with distraction-assisted in situ osteogenesis (DISO): role of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 with Helistat-activated collagen implant.  

PubMed

A case involving concomitant presentation of a #7 lateral facial cleft with a complete cleft of the ipsilateral lip, alveolus, and palate is presented. The mandibular defect was Pruzansky III with a foreshortened body, absent ramus and absent masseter. Taking advantage of developmental field theory, reconstruction of the osseous defect was undertaken using the autogenous periosteum as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Expansion of the periosteum was followed by implantation of Helistat (Integra Life Sciences, Plainsboro, NJ) collagen sponge saturated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Stimulation of this distraction-induced envelope by rhBMP-2 resulted in abundant production of bicortical membranous bone in situ within 12 weeks. The neoramus was subsequently suspended from the cranial base, and a temporalis muscle transfer was used to provide motor control of the jaw. Synthesis of bone in this manner is termed DISO (distraction-assisted in situ osteogenesis). The biologic rationale and clinical implications of DISO are discussed. PMID:16327550

Carstens, Michael H; Chin, Martin; Ng, Theodore; Tom, William K

2005-11-01

33

Surgical treatment of equinus deformity in cerebral palsy by aponeurosis lengthening and Z-lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical treatment of equines deformity in cerebral palsy can be carried out successfully by Achilles tendon lengthening and gastrocnemius aponeurosis lengthening. From 1993 to 1998, we performed 59 operations in 37 cerebral palsied patients with equinus deformity using Z-lengthening in 30 cases and a modified Baker’s procedure in 29 cases. The operations, associated with other hip and knee procedures in

A. Tirelli; S. Artiaco; F. Zanchini

2004-01-01

34

Crown lengthening: a surgical flap approach.  

PubMed

In many instances it is not possible to place a restoration margin without encroaching on the periodontal attachment apparatus. A surgical crown-lengthening procedure can provide a good solution to this common clinical problem. This article discusses indication and contraindication for surgical crown-lengthening procedures and presents an appropriate surgical technique. PMID:9161156

Lundergan, W; Hughes, W R

1996-09-01

35

Lower limb lengthening and deformity correction using the Fitbone motorized nail system in the adolescent patient.  

PubMed

Leg lengthening by an external fixation is associated with various difficulties. Pin-tract infections are commonly encountered, and muscle contractures and joint stiffness are additional complications associated with this method. Several researchers explored a purely intramedullary solution for leg lengthening since the 1970s. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of 10 adolescent patients who underwent leg lengthening with a motorized intramedullary lengthening device (the Fitbone System). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Fitbone system in deformity correction and lengthening of the femur and tibia in the pediatric and adolescent patients looking at whether the incidence of complications commonly associated with external fixators could be reduced. We compared our preliminary results with those from other reports, with a focus on leg length achieved and rate of complications. Ten patients were included, nine femoral nails and five tibial nails were implanted. The average lengthening distance was 4.8 cm (range, 2.8-10 cm). In 10 patients, leg lengthening was combined with successful correction of the mechanical axis alignment in three patients. The consolidation index averaged 24 days/cm (range, 20-39 days/cm). The average hospital stay was 8 days. No bone or soft tissue infections were observed. Only one patient had irritation and pain from the antenna system after lengthening and recovered fully after antenna removal. Our results suggest that the difficulties commonly associated with external fixators can be reduced with this method. It also allows good angular correction in patients with mechanical axis deviation. These features combined with a short time of hospitalization make it a promising procedure for limb lengthening in adolescent patients. PMID:22301429

Al-Sayyad, Mohammed J

2012-03-01

36

Caffeine lengthens circadian rhythms in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although caffeine alters sleep in many animals, whether or not it affects mammalian circadian clocks remains unknown. Here, we found that incubating cultured mammalian cell lines, human osteosarcoma U2OS cells and mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cells, with caffeine lengthened the period of circadian rhythms. Adding caffeine to ex vivo cultures also lengthened the circadian period in mouse liver explants from Per2::Luciferase

Hideaki Oike; Masuko Kobori; Takahiro Suzuki; Norio Ishida

2011-01-01

37

Structural changes in the lengthened rabbit muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the histological changes in muscle tissue after limb lengthening in skeletally mature and immature rabbits\\u000a and assessed the most vulnerable level of striated muscle. Twenty-three male domestic white rabbits, divided into six groups,\\u000a were operated on and different lengthening protocols were used in the mature and immature rabbits. The histopathological changes\\u000a were analysed by a semi-quantitative method

Károly Pap; Sándor Berki; Tamás Shisha; Sándor Kiss; György Sz?ke

2009-01-01

38

Structural changes in the lengthened rabbit muscle  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the histological changes in muscle tissue after limb lengthening in skeletally mature and immature rabbits and assessed the most vulnerable level of striated muscle. Twenty-three male domestic white rabbits, divided into six groups, were operated on and different lengthening protocols were used in the mature and immature rabbits. The histopathological changes were analysed by a semi-quantitative method according to the scoring system of Lee et al. (Acta Orthop Scand 64(6):688–692, 1993). After the evaluation of the five main degenerative parameters (muscle atrophy, muscle nuclei internalisation, degeneration of the muscle fibre, perimysial and endomysial fibrosis, haematomas), it is evident that the adults lengthened at a rate of 1.6 mm/day showed more degenerative changes than those lengthened at 0.8 mm/day. The adult 1.6 mm/day lengthened group presented significantly higher damage in the muscle and lower regenerative signs compared with the young 1.6 mm/day lengthened group, according to the summarised degenerative scores.

Berki, Sandor; Shisha, Tamas; Kiss, Sandor; Szoke, Gyorgy

2008-01-01

39

Congenital absence of the lumbar spine and sacrum: one-stage reconstruction with subsequent two-stage spine lengthening.  

PubMed

This is a case report of a child born with severe, type IV lumbosacral agenesis. At age 6 years, she had surgical reconstruction of her absent spine and thoracic-pelvic instability with Harrington rods and autogenous bone obtained from simultaneous bilateral knee disarticulations. This arthrodesis healed solidly, and at the age of 10 years 6 months and again at age 12 years 6 months, she underwent spine lengthening by osteotomy and distraction instrumentation, the first time with Moe rods and the second time with Cotrel-Dubousset rods. Both lengthening osteotomies healed without difficulty. The spine lengthening achieved was 5.0 cm. PMID:1918358

Winter, R B

40

[Development of a set of instruments and tools for fixation of facial bones by the Osipov-Ermolaev-Kulagov technic].  

PubMed

A kit of instruments and devices for the fixation of the facial skeleton according to Osipov-Ermolyaev-Kulagov method has been worked out to replace the two manufactured kits of similar purpose. The above kit has parts and devices with higher functional characteristics, the total number of instruments and the cost have been reduced. PMID:3362047

Akhmetov, A A; Miasnik, B I; Osipov, G I

41

The role of free periosteal grafts in improving the survival of autogenous onlay bone grafts to the facial bones in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison is made between the survival of two groups of autogenous onlay bone grafts with periosteum taken from the ilium and applied to the nasal bones, in rabbits. In one group the periosteum on the graft surface was left undisturbed, while in the other an overlay of free periosteum was applied to the de-periostealised bone graft at the recipient site.

Noel Thompson; A. W. Lewis

1976-01-01

42

TGF-beta1 and VEGF after fresh frozen bone allograft insertion in oral-maxillo-facial surgery.  

PubMed

Bone regeneration technique using allografts is widely used in oral surgery to repair alveolar defects and to increase alveolar volume for endosseous implant insertions. Bone allografts promote the reabsorption and neo-synthesis of bone tissue, which are regulated by numerous cytokines, proteins and growth factors. In this study, six patients with insufficient alveolar volume for endosseous implant insertions, were treated with bone regeneration technique using Fresh Frozen Bone (FFB) allografts collected from the femoral head or the hip. Samples of bone graft collected during graft insertion surgery and biopsies collected six months later during implantology were fixed, decalcified and analyzed histomorphologically and morphometrically by haematoxylin-eosin staining. In addition, TGF-beta1 and VEGF were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The histological analysis of FFBs showed wide areas of calcified bone organized in osteons intermingled with areas of non-calcified matrix containing osteoblasts. However, the regenerated alveolar bone, collected six months after the graft insertion surgery, showed wide areas of non-calcified matrix. TGF-beta1 and VEGF were less expressed in FFB than in regenerated alveolar bone. PMID:20183799

Rodella, L F; Favero, G; Boninsegna, R; Borgonovo, A; Rezzani, R; Santoro, F

2010-04-01

43

Surgical extrusion technique for clinical crown lengthening: report of three cases.  

PubMed

Although a number of techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening procedures, all have some limitation in terms of function and esthetics. This report presents the clinical and radiographic results of a surgical extrusion technique for clinical crown lengthening. Atraumatic surgical extrusion using a specially designed instrument (Periotome) was performed in three cases in which it was expected that extensive resective osseous surgery would have to be used for crown lengthening. Full-thickness mucoperiosteal flaps were raised both labially and palatally. The tooth was carefully luxated and extruded to the desired position without damaging the marginal bone area or root apex. No rigid splint was applied. Clinical examinations performed for more than 1 year after surgery revealed probing depths < or = 3 mm around the teeth at all sites, without bleeding on probing. The teeth functioned normally, with near-normal mobility. Radiographs showed normal periodontal contour consistent with new bone formation in the periapical area. Radiographic analysis did not show any evidence of root or crestal bone resorption or endodontic problems. The technique presented could constitute an alternative surgical approach to performing crown lengthening; it does not induce functional or esthetic deformities, especially in the anterior region. PMID:15506022

Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Chai, Jung-Kiu; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Cho, Kyoo-Sung

2004-10-01

44

Callus patterns in femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to evaluate callus patterns seen in femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail by Li classification regarding shape and type and to predict the result while using the nail to reduce the external fixation period and its complications. Eight hundred digital radiographs of 15 patients with 15 segments of femur shortening who underwent femoral lengthening with a monolateral external fixator over an intramedullary nail were analyzed retrospectively by four observers. Each radiograph was studied for callus shape, feature type, and callus density using pixel values. The classification was tested for concurrence and reproducibility by interobserver studies and callus patterns were compared with treatment indices to evaluate how they correlated with the outcome. Mean length gained was 4.5?cm (range: 2-8?cm). External fixator index (EFI) was 21.68?days/cm. Average distraction consolidation index (DCI) was 48.49?days/cm. Fusiform callus was seen in three cases, cylindrical in seven, and lateral in five. The homogenous pathway had higher DCI (43.7) than the heterogeneous pathway (32.9), and mixed pathways making up the rest had a DCI of 50.1. Pixel value of callus showed gradual increase in density until 20-24 weeks, then density gradually fell for 8 weeks, again increased after 32 weeks, again gradually fell, and was comparable to adjacent normal bone by 44-48 weeks. Our results suggest that the Li classification can be satisfactorily applied to lengthening procedures over intramedullary nails. The radiologic pattern and pixel value of regenerate can be correlated with the clinical outcome and can be an aid of prognostic value for the surgeon. PMID:21284034

Muzaffar, Nasir; Hafeez, Arifa; Modi, Hitesh; Song, Hae-Ryong

2011-01-31

45

Growth factors in human serum during operative tibial lengthening with the ilizarov method.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread clinical use of distraction osteogenesis for limb lengthening, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which this surgical treatment promotes new bone formation in humans are not well understood. The aim of the research was to study the levels of growth factors (GFs) in the serum of patients that were undergoing tibial lengthening with the Ilizarov method of distraction osteogenesis. Those were patients with unilateral congenital discrepancy of the tibia (n?=?12), unilateral posttraumatic tibial shortening (n?=?7), and healthy patients that underwent cosmetic bilateral tibial lengthening (n?=?10). The study established that unlike the congenital group, the posttraumatic group and healthy subjects showed a significantly evident increase in the levels of angiogenic GFs in their serum on day 10 of distraction. In the congenital group, the changes were not significant at this time point. The levels of TGF-?, TGF-?1, and TGF-?2 tended to decrease on day 10 of distraction and on day 30 of the post-distraction period in the cosmetic and posttraumatic groups while they grew in the congenital group. Most dynamic changes in the GFs levels during tibial lengthening were noted in the subjects undergoing cosmetic lengthening, and the least ones were in the congenital group. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1966-1970, 2013. PMID:23893880

Stogov, Maksim V; Luneva, Svetlana N; Novikov, Konstantin I

2013-07-24

46

Minimizing the Losses in Penile Lengthening: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. The technique most commonly used for penile lengthening is the release of the suspensory ligament in combination with an inverted V-Y skin plasty. This technique has drawbacks such as the possibility of reattach- ment of the penis to the pubis, a hump that forms at the base of the penis, in addition to alteration in the angle of erection.

Osama Shaeer; Kamal Shaeer; Ashraf El-Sebaie

2005-01-01

47

Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in Infant Vocalizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) has been extensively examined in infant vocalizations in order to determine whether its basis is biological or learned. Findings suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for FSL. The present study sought to verify this pattern and to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL. Eight normally hearing infants, aged 0 ; 3 to

Suneeti Nathani; D. Kimbrough Oller; ALAN B. COBO-LEWIS

2003-01-01

48

Surgical lengthening of the clinical crown.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the changes in the periodontal tissue levels as an immediate result of the surgical crown lengthening procedure and over a 6-months healing period. 25 patients ranging between 20 to 81 years of age were included in the study. A total of 85 teeth (43 test and 42 control teeth not exposed to surgery) were evaluated over 6 months. After initial therapy, the indication for crown lengthening comprised need for increased retention and accessibility to deep subgingival preparation margins hampering impression taking. During surgery, the alveolar crest was reduced, thereby creating a distance of 3 mm to the future reconstruction margin. The results of this study demonstrated that the mean probable changes in the levels of the periodontal tissues from those defined after surgery were minimal, resulting in changes comparable to the shifts observed at control teeth not exposed to any surgical procedures. Frequency analysis of the number of sites with dislocation of the free gingival margin demonstrated that 12% of the sites with crown lengthening procedure showed 2-4 mm recession of the free gingival margin between 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. In esthetically critical, visible areas of the dentition, recessions must be closely observed in the healing period after surgical crown lengthening, when prosthetic reconstructions are planned on such teeth. PMID:1732311

Brägger, U; Lauchenauer, D; Lang, N P

1992-01-01

49

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An external facial fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2010-04-01

50

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An external facial fracture fixation appliance is a metal apparatus intended to be used during surgical reconstruction and repair to immobilize maxillofacial bone fragments in their proper facial relationship. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2009-04-01

51

Development, characterization and clinical use of a biodegradable composite scaffold for bone engineering in oro-maxillo-facial surgery  

PubMed Central

We have developed a biodegradable composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications with a pore size and interconnecting macroporosity similar to those of human trabecular bone. The scaffold is fabricated by a process of particle leaching and phase inversion from poly(lactideco-glycolide) (PLGA) and two calcium phosphate (CaP) phases both of which are resorbable by osteoclasts; the first a particulate within the polymer structure and the second a thin ubiquitous coating. The 3–5 ?m thick osteoconductive surface CaP abrogates the putative foreign body giant cell response to the underlying polymer, while the internal CaP phase provides dimensional stability in an otherwise highly compliant structure. The scaffold may be used as a biomaterial alone, as a carrier for cells or a three-phase drug delivery device. Due to the highly interconnected macroporosity ranging from 81% to 91%, with macropores of 0.8?1.8 mm, and an ability to wick up blood, the scaffold acts as both a clot-retention device and an osteoconductive support for host bone growth. As a cell delivery vehicle, the scaffold can be first seeded with human mesenchymal cells which can then contribute to bone formation in orthotopic implantation sites, as we show in immune-compromised animal hosts. We have also employed this scaffold in both lithomorph and particulate forms in human patients to maintain alveolar bone height following tooth extraction, and augment alveolar bone height through standard sinus lift approaches. We provide a clinical case report of both of these applications; and we show that the scaffold served to regenerate sufficient bone tissue in the wound site to provide a sound foundation for dental implant placement. At the time of writing, such implants have been in occlusal function for periods of up to 3 years in sites regenerated through the use of the scaffold.

Matta, Rano; Mendes, Vanessa C; Perri de Carvalho, Paulo S

2010-01-01

52

Microtrauma to Rat Superficial Masseter Muscles Following Lengthening Contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive lengthening contractions have been predicted as a mechanism causing injury, pain, and delayed soreness in the hyperactive masticatory muscle. This mechanism was examined by the mechanical lengthening of the contracted superficial masseter (SM) muscle in anesthetized rats. Repetitive stimulation of the left SM to tetanic tension was followed by mechanical lengthening, which stressed contracted muscle. The contralateral muscle was

M. O. Hutchins; H. S. Skjonsby

1990-01-01

53

A New Apparatus for the Lengthening of Legs  

PubMed Central

Rexford L. Diveley was born in Bazine, Kansas, in 1892, to the owner of a variety store. The family moved to the Oklahoma Territory (which had been opened for settlement in 1890). He returned to his home state, graduated from Hutchinson High School, and obtained his undergraduate and medical degrees (1917) from the University of Kansas. During WW I he served as head of a radiology unit in Limoges, France. After the armistice, he spent a year at Johns Hopkins in medicine, and then briefly went into private practice in St. Joseph’s, Missouri, north of Kansas City. He then established a radiology unit at Mercy Hospital in Kansas City. Shortly thereafter, he began working with Dr. Frank Dickson at the Christian Church Hospital, and changed his practice to orthopaedic surgery. In 1927 they established the Dickson-Diveley Clinic and by 1928 moved their practice to the St. Luke’s Hospital. Dr. Diveley’s travels resulted in his becoming a member of the British and Italian Orthopaedic Societies and the Sir Robert Jones Dinner Club. He served as treasurer of the AOA, President of the Clinical Orthopaedic Society, and the Mid-Central States Orthopaedic Society. He was also a member of the Board of Governors of the American College of Surgeons. Dr. Diveley coauthored a number of articles with Dr. Dickson and other colleagues at the Dickson-Diveley Clinic. We reprint here two brief articles. The apparatus he and Dickson described for limb lengthening used Kirschner wires, rather than larger pins, thus causing less soft-tissue damage [2]. Their technique was based on that described a few years earlier by Abbott [1] and presaged the device and technique described and popularized by Ilizarov [4]. The second article described a modification for Syme amputations which allowed a relatively cosmetic appearance for a Syme amputation [3]. Diveley and Kiene noted the bulbous and objectionable appearance of the traditional prosthesis, particularly for women (“A Syme amputation, which is the most conservative below-the-knee amputation and which provides the best functioning stump for weight-bearing, has been rarely recommended for women, because the unsightly prosthesis is objectionable.”). Their modifications include a lightweight, thin prosthesis made of laminated plastic reinforced with glass cloth and a posterior cutout to allow the large stump to slip through the prosthesis without enlarging the entire length.Rexford L. Diveley, MD is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983. References Abbott LC. The operative lengthening of the tibia and fibula. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1927;9:128–152. Dickson FD, Diveley RL. A new apparatus for the lengthening of legs. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1932;14:194–196. Diveley RL, Kiene RH. An improved prosthesis for a Syme amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1956;38:219–221. Ilizarov GA, Deviatov AA. Surgical lengthening of the shin with simultaneous correction of deformities [in Russian]. Ortop Travmatol Protez. 1969;30:32?37.

2008-01-01

54

Unconscious Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies reveal that when people are exposed to emotional facial expressions, they spontaneously react with distinct facial elec- tromyographic (EMG) reactions in emotion-relevant facial muscles. These reactions reflect, in part, a tendency to mimic the facial stimuli. We investigated whether corresponding facial reactions can be elic- ited when people are unconsciously exposed to happy and angry facial expressions. Through use

Ulf Dimberg; Monika Thunberg; Kurt Elmehed

2000-01-01

55

Bones  

MedlinePLUS

Sections Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Chapters Biology of the Musculoskeletal System Bones Bone, although strong, is a constantly changing tissue that has several functions. Bones serve as rigid structures to ...

56

Ankle arthrodesis combined with tibial lengthening using the Ilizarov apparatus.  

PubMed

We report our experience using the Ilizarov method to perform combined ankle arthrodesis and tibial lengthening in six patients (mean age 47 years; range 25-66 years). The average distraction length was 4.1 cm (range 1.1-6.8 cm), and the mean period of follow-up was 36 months (range 26-44 months). Three patients had active infection of the ankle. Four patients had undergone previous surgery, two of which were primary ankle arthrodeses. We performed compression-distraction in three patients and bone transport in three. In the compression-distraction group, the mean length gained was 1.9 cm, the mean external fixation index (EFI) was 144 days/cm, and the mean external fixation time was 246 days. In the bone transport group, the mean length gained was 6.2 cm, the mean EFI was 35.4 days/cm, and the mean external fixation time was 233 days. All cases achieved a good clinical result with a solid ankle arthrodesis and no infection, deformity, or need for additional support. The Ilizarov method may be practically applied for ankle arthrodesis, especially in complicated cases. The EFI and external fixation time tended to increase for patients with a length gain of 3 cm or less. PMID:12560881

Sakurakichi, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Kenji; Kabata, Tamon; Yamashiro, Teruhisa; Tomita, Katsuro

2003-01-01

57

An interactive facial expression generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to generate vivid facial expressions by computers has been an inter- esting and challenging problem for a long time. Some research adopts an anatomical approach by studying the relationships between the expressions and the underlying bones and muscles. On the other hand, MPEG4's SNHC (synthetic\\/natural hybrid coding) provides mechanisms which allow detailed descriptions of facial expressions and animations. Unlike

Chuan-kai Yang; Wei-ting Chiang

2008-01-01

58

A Facial Aging Simulation Method Using flaccidity deformation criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the fact that the aging human face encompasses skull bones, facial muscles, and tissues, we render it using the effects of flaccidity through the observation of family groups categorized by sex, race and age. Considering that patterns of aging are consistent, facial ptosis becomes manifest toward the end of the fourth decade. In order to simulate facial aging

Alexandre Cruz Berg; Francisco José Perales Lopez; Manuel González Hidalgo

2006-01-01

59

Fixator-assisted nailing and consecutive lengthening over an intramedullary nail for the correction of tibial deformity.  

PubMed

We report the results of using a combination of fixator-assisted nailing with lengthening over an intramedullary nail in patients with tibial deformity and shortening. Between 1997 and 2007, 13 tibiae in nine patients with a mean age of 25.4 years (17 to 34) were treated with a unilateral external fixator for acute correction of deformity, followed by lengthening over an intramedullary nail with a circular external fixator applied at the same operating session. At the end of the distraction period locking screws were inserted through the intramedullary nail and the external fixator was removed. The mean amount of lengthening was 5.9 cm (2 to 8). The mean time of external fixation was 90 days (38 to 265). The mean external fixation index was 15.8 days/cm (8.9 to 33.1) and the mean bone healing index was 38 days/cm (30 to 60). One patient developed an equinus deformity which responded to stretching and bracing. Another developed a drop foot due to a compartment syndrome, which was treated by fasciotomy. It recovered in three months. Two patients required bone grafting for poor callus formation. We conclude that the combination of fixator-assisted nailing with lengthening over an intramedullary nail can reduce the overall external fixation time and prevent fractures and deformity of the regenerated bone. PMID:20044694

Bilen, F E; Kocaoglu, M; Eralp, L; Balci, H I

2010-01-01

60

Distraction by a monotube fixator to achieve limb lengthening: predictive factors for tibia trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons’ experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. Methods A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. Patient’s informed consent and institutional ethical committee approval were obtained. Bio-data, clinical and healing indexes were documented. DMF was applied for patient that met inclusion criteria. The Statistic tests used included the Chi-square, the Student’s two-tailed t test, and the Wilcox on rank-sum test when appropriate. Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for poor outcome potential risk factors were recorded. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were evaluated. Significance level was set at a p value <0.05. Results Thirty-six patients with mean age, 37.2?±?10.3 year and male/female ratio of 1:1.25 had DMF applied. Motorcycle accident accounted for 50.0% of patients and diaphyseal segment was most commonly affected 25 (69.4%). The mean bone lengthened was 10.1?±?4.0 cm (range: 5-21 cm) and mean duration of bone transport was 105.6?±?38.2 days. The means of rate of distraction, healing index and percentage of lengthening were 0.99?±?0.14 mm/day, 15.6?±?4.3 days/cm and 38.0?±?14.3 respectively. The mean follow up was 9.7 ±4.9 months (range: 2–17.0). Per operative complications varied and outcome was satisfactory in 30 (83.3%). Obesity (p <0.0001), multiple surgery (p?=?0.012) and transfusion (p?=?0.001) correlated to poor outcome. Percentage lengthening???50%, bone gap >10 cm, anemia, blood transfusion, general anesthesia administration, distraction rate >1 mm/day, osteomyelitis and prolong partial weight bearing were significant predictive factors for poor outcome in post traumatic tibia distraction. Conclusion Distraction by a monotube fixator appears effective in achieving correction >38.0% original tibia lengthening following traumatic bone gap. Predictive factors for poor outcome were useful for prognostication.

2013-01-01

61

Telomere recombination and alternative telomere lengthening mechanisms.  

PubMed

Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes that protect them from being recognized as DNA double stranded breaks. Telomeres shorten with every cell division and in the absence of the checkpoint mechanisms critical telomere shortening leads to chromosome end fusions and genomic instability. Cancer cells achieve immortality by engaging in one of the two known mechanisms for telomere maintenance: elongation by telomerase or through recombination. Recombination based elongation of telomeres, also known as alternative lengthening of telomeres or ALT, is prevalent among cancers of mesenchymal origin. However, the conditions favoring ALT emergence are not known. Here we will discuss possible players in ALT mechanisms, including recruitment of telomeres to recombination centers, alterations of telomere associated proteins and modifications at the level of chromatin that could generate recombination permissive conditions at telomeres. PMID:23276906

Draskovic, Irena; Londono Vallejo, Arturo

2013-01-01

62

Cochlear Orientation and Dimensions of the Facial Recess in Cochlear Implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the dimensions of the facial recess and the spatial relationship between the facial recess and the cochlea, using CT scanning in cochlear implantees. Method: In 29 cochlear implantees, preoperative CT scans of the temporal bone were compared with findings done at surgery. The dimensions of the facial recess and the relationship between the facial recess and the

Robert H. R. Bettman; Alex M. M. F. Appelman; Adriaan F. van Olphen; Frans W. Zonneveld; Egbert H. Huizing

2003-01-01

63

Facial morphogenesis of the earliest europeans.  

PubMed

The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900-800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor. PMID:23762314

Lacruz, Rodrigo S; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Martinón-Torres, María; O'Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G

2013-06-06

64

Columellar Lengthening Using the Interdigitation of Triangular Flaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The most common and striking feature of the bilateral cleft lip nose deformities is a short columella. This problem can be\\u000a resolved by lengthening the columella. In this article the authors lengthen the columella using the interdigitation of triangular\\u000a flaps in the upper lip tissue. The columellar elongation is made by an advancement of nostril tissue and an interdigitation

Kyung Suck Koh; Jae Jin Ock

2002-01-01

65

Optimum loading mode for axial stiffness testing in limb lengthening.  

PubMed

The axial stiffness of the regenerate is an indicator of bone healing after fracture or distraction osteogenesis. The axial stiffness may be assessed clinically by measuring the sharing of load between fixator and limb during loading. The aim of this study was to find out how to perform the stiffness test in order to minimize the influence of confounding factors to the test result. We investigated whether the test score was influenced by two factors: 1) the magnitude of the external load applied to the limb during the test; and 2) the patient's position during the test. The problem was approached by both a clinical study and by theoretical calculations. Thirty-three patients undergoing leg lengthening were tested regularly during the consolidation period. The stiffness test was executed with both high and low load, and in a standing and sitting position. There were significant differences in results between both the tests with high and low load, and between the standing and sitting tests. This indicated that both the magnitude of force and patient position during the test influenced the test result. Accordingly, these factors represent sources of error and must be taken into consideration when performing an axial stiffness test. The result of the theoretical calculations confirmed the result. We recommend performing the test while the patient is sitting, and to apply no more than 20% of the individual's body weight. It is also recommended that the same load be used in every test, when testing a patient several times during the treatment period. PMID:16479567

Aarnes, Gudrun T; Steen, Harald; Kristiansen, Leif Pål; Festø, Ellinor; Ludvigsen, Per

2006-03-01

66

Fibula-related complications during bilateral tibial lengthening  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Complications related to the fibula during distraction osteogenesis could cause malalignment. Most published studies have analyzed only migration of the fibula during lengthening, with few studies examining the effects of fibular complications. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 120 segments (in 60 patients) between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent bilateral tibial lengthening of more than 5 cm. The mean follow-up time was 4.9 (2.5–6.9) years. Results The average lengthening percentage was 34% (21–65). The ratio of mean fibular length to tibial length was 1.05 (0.91–1.11) preoperatively and 0.83 (0.65–0.95) postoperatively. The mean proximal fibular migration (PFM) was 15 (4–31) mm and mean distal fibular migration (DFM) was 9.7 (0–24) mm. Premature consolidation occurred in 10 segments, nonunion occurred in 12, and angulation of fibula occurred in 8 segments after lengthening. Valgus deformities of the knee occurred in 10 segments. Interpretation PFM induced valgus deformity of the knee, and premature consolidation of the fibula was associated with the distal migration of the proximal fibula. These mechanical malalignments could sometimes be serious enough to warrant surgical correction. Thus, during lengthening repeated radiographic examinations of the fibula are necessary to avoid complications.

2012-01-01

67

Traumatic facial nerve injuries: review of diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Both blunt and penetrating craniofacial trauma may lead to severe facial nerve injury and sequelae of facial paralysis. Initial evaluation involves quantitation of motor deficits using a clinical grading system, such as the House-Brackmann scale. High resolution computed tomography is used for localization of nerve injury in suspected cases of temporal bone trauma. In the absence of gross radiographic abnormalities, electrophysiologic testing helps predict the likelihood of spontaneous recovery. In patients with deteriorating facial nerve injuries by electroneuronography, surgical exploration is the preferred management. Primary end-to-end neurorrhaphy is the preferred management for transection injuries, while facial nerve decompression may benefit other forms of high-grade nerve trauma. Secondary facial reanimation procedures, such as cranial nerve crossovers, dynamic muscle slings or various static procedures, are useful adjuncts when initial facial nerve repair is unsuccessful or impossible. A review of facial nerve trauma management and case illustrations are presented. PMID:11951487

Davis, R E; Telischi, F F

1995-01-01

68

[Peripheral facial nerve palsy].  

PubMed

Facial palsy can be defined as a decrease in function of the facial nerve, the primary motor nerve of the facial muscles. When the facial palsy is peripheral, it affects both the superior and inferior areas of the face as opposed to central palsies, which affect only the inferior portion. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis is good in most cases. In cases with significant cosmetic sequelae, a variety of surgical procedures are available (such as hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, temporalis myoplasty and Tenzel external canthopexy) to rehabilitate facial aesthetics and function. PMID:23627995

Pons, Y; Ukkola-Pons, E; Ballivet de Régloix, S; Champagne, C; Raynal, M; Lepage, P; Kossowski, M

2013-04-28

69

Nonvascularized toe phalangeal transfer and distraction lengthening for symbrachydactyly.  

PubMed

Symbrachydactyly describes a spectrum of congenital hand differences consisting of digital loss resulting in fused short fingers. As the principles for distraction lengthening have evolved, the technique of nonvascularized toe phalangeal transfer to the hand with shortened digits has provided patients with improved outcomes. Nonvascularized toe phalanx to hand transplant with distraction lengthening restores functional length to a skeletally deficient, poorly functioning hand while maintaining an overlying layer of vascular and sensate tissue. The primary goal is improvement of digital length to enhance mechanical advantage and prehension. We describe the technique of nonvascularized toe phalangeal transfer and distraction lengthening for symbrachydactyly, including the following steps: nonvascularized proximal toe phalanx harvest, toe phalanx transfer to hand, pin placement, osteotomy, and closure. PMID:20353864

Patterson, Ryan W; Seitz, William H

2010-04-01

70

A physical model of facial tissue and muscle articulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physically-based facial tissue model of the epidermis, subcutaneous fatty tissue, and skeletal facial foundation is presented. The tissue model is represented by a lattice of nonlinear spring units with varying viscoelastic properties. Muscle force vectors are constructed from fibres that are rigidly attached to the bone at one end and blended into the dermis layer at the other. A

Keith Waters; Demetri Terzopoulos

1990-01-01

71

Stretching Skeletal Muscle: Chronic Muscle Lengthening through Sarcomerogenesis  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09m to 3.51m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance treatment for patients with ill proportioned limbs, tendon lengthening, tendon transfer, tendon tear, and chronically retracted muscles.

Zollner, Alexander M.; Abilez, Oscar J.; Bol, Markus; Kuhl, Ellen

2012-01-01

72

Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09[Formula: see text]m to 3.51[Formula: see text]m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance treatment for patients with ill proportioned limbs, tendon lengthening, tendon transfer, tendon tear, and chronically retracted muscles. PMID:23049683

Zöllner, Alexander M; Abilez, Oscar J; Böl, Markus; Kuhl, Ellen

2012-10-01

73

Recurrence after Achilles tendon lengthening in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

We performed a retrospective review of all hemiplegic and diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) patients who had tendo-Achillis lengthening by open Z-plasty between 1974 and 1985. Fifty-seven patients with 77 heelcord lengthening were followed approximately 10 years. Our postoperative regimen did not routinely include bracing and physiotherapy, but our recurrence rates of 18 and 41% for diplegic and hemiplegic patients, respectively, are comparable to those reported in the literature. Children aged > or = 6 years at initial operation did not have recurrence. Diplegic patients who were operated on before age 4 years or patients who had longitudinal incisions had statistically significantly higher recurrence rates. PMID:8459008

Rattey, T E; Leahey, L; Hyndman, J; Brown, D C; Gross, M

74

Staged Lengthening Arthroplasty for Pediatric Osteosarcoma around the Knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Orthopaedic oncologists often must address leg-length discrepancy after resection of tumors in growing patients with osteosarcoma.\\u000a There are various alternatives to address this problem. We describe a three-stage procedure: (1) temporary arthrodesis, (2)\\u000a lengthening by Ilizarov apparatus, and (3) tumor prosthesis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/Purposes   We asked (1) to what extent are affected limbs actually lengthened; (2) how many of the patients who

Chang-Bae Kong; Soo-Yong Lee; Dae-Geun Jeon

2010-01-01

75

Dissociation of sad facial expressions and autonomic nervous system responding in boys with disruptive behavior disorders  

PubMed Central

Although deficiencies in emotional responding have been linked to externalizing behaviors in children, little is known about how discrete response systems (e.g., expressive, physiological) are coordinated during emotional challenge among these youth. We examined time-linked correspondence of sad facial expressions and autonomic reactivity during an empathy-eliciting task among boys with disruptive behavior disorders (n = 31) and controls (n = 23). For controls, sad facial expressions were associated with reduced sympathetic (lower skin conductance level, lengthened cardiac preejection period [PEP]) and increased parasympathetic (higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) activity. In contrast, no correspondence between facial expressions and autonomic reactivity was observed among boys with conduct problems. Furthermore, low correspondence between facial expressions and PEP predicted externalizing symptom severity, whereas low correspondence between facial expressions and RSA predicted internalizing symptom severity.

Marsh, Penny; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Williams, Bailey

2009-01-01

76

Delayed presentation of popliteal artery injury during Ilizarov limb lengthening.  

PubMed

Major vascular injury can result during use of the Ilizarov technique for lower extremity limb lengthening. Vascular reconstruction may be accomplished while leaving the external fixation ring in place. Continued distraction is made possible by leaving sufficient redundancy in the vascular graft. PMID:9571682

Waldhausen, J; Mosca, V; Johansen, K; Schaller, R

1998-04-01

77

Using distraction forces to drive an autodistractor during limb lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distraction osteogenesis can result in high forces developing in the limb. To determine and control the distraction forces (DF), a motorized distractor driven by feedback from DF was developed and used to lengthen the tibiae of 6 sheep undergoing distraction osteogenesis. The forces were measured continually, and, in 4 of the sheep, a force threshold was set, above which an

Jinyong Wee; Tariq Rahman; Robert E. Akins; Rahamim Seliktar; David G. Levine; Dean W. Richardson; George R. Dodge; Ahmed M. Thabet; Laurens Holmes; William G. Mackenzie

2011-01-01

78

Total facial nerve decompression: technique to avoid complications.  

PubMed

Exposure of the facial nerve from the brainstem to the parotid can be accomplished without injury to the nerve, tympanic membrane, external auditory canal, ossicular chain, inner ear or structures within the cerebello-pontine angle. The procedure has reliably provided good results for patients who have had the proper indications with facial paralysis from Bell's palsy, herpes zoster oticus, infection, hemi-facial spasm, temporal bone fracture and tumors. The current technique for exposure through the mastoid, middle cranial fossa and retrolabyrinthine combined approaches are described. This technique, properly performed, is a valuable treatment for facial nerve lesions. PMID:8764701

Pulec, J L

1996-07-01

79

Use of ultrasonography in evaluation of new bone formation in patients treated by the method of Ilizarov.  

PubMed

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Background: Lengthening of bones by gradually distracting bone fragments using an external apparatus by Ilizarov, is a long process with numerous complications. The greatest threats in limb lengthening are poor new bone formation as well as premature consolidation of the newly generated bone. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of ultrasonography in evaluation of bone formation in limb lengthening. Patients and Methods: The study involved 31 patients, in whom 52 long bones were lengthened by the Ilizarov method at the University Clinic for Orthopaedic Surgery in Skopje from 2006 to 2010. The study revealed the results of ultrasonographic analysis of new bone formation at four various stages of limb lengthening. The analysis of the results of ultrasonographic examination of bones throughout the lengthening process was based on the form and dimensions of the obtained ultrasonographic parameters - indicators of new bone formation - as well as on the appearance of the cortical margin at the distraction site. Results: Tiny, solitary and confluent hypo-echogenic foci developed on sonograms approximately 2 weeks after distraction was commenced. At stage I a new cortical margin was detected in 30.77%. The number of initial small indicators significantly decreased throughout lengthening. At stage IV the solitary indicators rate was 9.51%, whereas the linear indicators rate significantly increased from 22.12% at the first stage to 54.3% at the last stage. the cortical margin was presented in all 52 bones at III and IV stage of lengthening. Discussion and Conclusions: Ultrasonography enabled an evaluation of the degree of new bone formation and it preceded the radiographic changes at the distraction site. This helped to determine the surgical lengthening and to avoid numerous complications. Key words: Limb lengthening, new bone formation, ultrasonography. PMID:22952105

Poposka, A; Atanasov, N; Dzoleva-Tolevska, R

2012-07-01

80

Ultrex Cylinders: Problems with Uncontrolled Lengthening (The S-Shaped Deformity)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe investigated whether the AMS Ultrex [dagger] cylinder, developed to provide cylinder lengthening while controlling girth expansion, acted as a tissue expander and, thus, promoted penile lengthening.[dagger] American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, Minnesota.

Steven K. Wilson; Mario A. Cleves; John R. Delk

1996-01-01

81

Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Hygiene Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and Spas Hygiene Etiquette ... Patient Admission Video Division of Oral Health Water Fluoridation Leadership Advocacy, Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water ...

82

Children and Facial Paralysis  

MedlinePLUS

... en Español About Otolaryngology ENT History Children and Facial Paralysis About 40,000 people in the United States develop facial paralysis each year with children comprising a small percentage ...

83

Epidemiology of facial clefting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was performed of patients with facial clefts notified between 1960 and 1982 to the Liverpool Congenital Malformations Registry. From 1960-82 there were 325 727 births in the area surveyed and 544 cases of facial clefting were notified. When 88 patients with recognised syndromes and multiple congenital anomalies were excluded, the overall prevalence of facial clefts alone was 1.4

J R Owens; J W Jones; F Harris

1985-01-01

84

Classifying Facial Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) (23) is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images.

Gianluca Donato; Marian Stewart Bartlett; Joseph C. Hager; Paul Ekman; Terrence J. Sejnowski

1999-01-01

85

Anomalous laser induced bunch lengthening on the ACO storage ring free electron laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser induced bunch lengthening has been measured on the ACO Storage Ring Free Electron Laser (SRFEL) in the anomalous bunch lengthening regime. The experimental results show correlations between the appearance of coherent modes in the electron bunch and anomalous behavior in the presence of the laser. Simultaneous time resolved laser induced bunch lengthening, mode strength, bunch length, and synchrotron sideband

K. E. Robinson; J. M. J. Madey; M. F. Velghe; D. A. G. Deacon

1983-01-01

86

Anomalous laser induced bunch lengthening on the ACO Storage Ring Free Electron Laser. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser induced bunch lengthening has been measured on the ACO Storage Ring Free Electron Laser (SRFEL) in the anomalous bunch lengthening regime. The experimental results show correlations between the appearance of coherent modes in the electron bunch and anomalous behavior in the presence of the laser. Simultaneous time resolved laser induced bunch lengthening, mode strength, bunch length, and synchrotron sideband

K. E. Robinson; J. M. J. Madey; M. F. Velghe; D. A. G. Deacon

1983-01-01

87

Impact of leg lengthening on viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the morphological alterations of the deep fascia subjected to leg lengthening have been investigated in cellular and extracellular aspects, the impact of leg lengthening on viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia remains largely unknown. This study aimed to address the changes of viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia during leg lengthening using uniaxial tensile test. METHODS: Animal model

Hai-Qiang Wang; Yi-Yong Wei; Zi-Xiang Wu; Zhuo-Jing Luo

2009-01-01

88

Pediatric bilateral facial paralysis.  

PubMed

Bilateral facial paralysis is an unusual clinical entity that occurs in less than 1% of patients with facial paralysis. In children bilateral facial paralysis is even more rare, and establishing its etiology can be challenging. Four pediatric patients ranging in age from 3 to 17 years are presented who developed bilateral facial paralysis as a result of acute otitis media, Lyme disease, recurrent central nervous system leukemia, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bilateral facial paralysis are reviewed, as well as the pertinent literature. PMID:9546263

Smith, V; Traquina, D N

1998-04-01

89

Limb Lengthening and Deformity Correction by the Ilizarov Technique in Type III Fibular Hemimelia: An Alternative to Amputation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Fibular hemimelia is partial or total aplasia of the fibula; it represents the most frequent congenital defect of the long\\u000a bones. It usually is associated with other anomalies of the tibia, femur, and foot.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We reviewed 32 patients with Type III fibular hemimelia treated by successive lower limb lengthening and deformity correction\\u000a using the Ilizarov method. We had three aims;

Maurizio A. Catagni; Makram Radwan; Luigi Lovisetti; Francesco Guerreschi; Nabil A. Elmoghazy

2011-01-01

90

Facial soft tissue thickness of Colombian adults.  

PubMed

Facial reconstruction is a widely used technique in forensic sciences to identify human bone remains and, for such, it is necessary to be aware of the values of facial soft tissue thickness characteristic for each population group. In Colombia, no conclusive values exist regarding facial soft tissue thickness for populations of mixed racial origin that also consider the nutritional state. The study used images from 30 live subjects from both genders, 26 males and four females, age range from 18 to 35 years, The images were obtained through cone beam computed tomography in mestizo population from the city of Cali (Colombia), taken in sitting position and 0.3 mm resolution. The height and weight of all subjects were determined and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Seventeen facial thicknesses were measured over the corresponding anatomical landmarks of the skull. No significant difference was found associated to gender for most anatomical landmarks. However, where differences were found, these were mainly located on the anatomical landmarks of the medial line and particularly with greater value among males. Differences were observed in thicknesses for Colombian population when compared to other studies. The values of facial thickness characterize the Colombian population of mixed racial origin and permit greater approximation in facial reconstructions with forensic purposes. PMID:23587676

Perlaza Ruiz, Néstor Alonso

2013-04-12

91

[Facial nerve paralysis and mandibular fracture].  

PubMed

The authors describe three cases of peripheral facial nerve paralysis in patients with a mandibular fracture. In two cases, in which the onset of palsy was uncertain, the facial nerve injury was contralateral to the fractured side. Topodiagnostic tests showed neural damage at the third intrapetrosal portion and at the genicular ganglion. In one of the two patients tomography revealed a fracture line through the anterio-superior wall of the external auditory canal homolateral to the facial palsy. In the third subject palsy set in immediately after the trauma and was ipsilateral to the mandibular fracture; the facial lesion was localized at the genicular ganglion. In the first two cases, functional recovery was spontaneous (40 and 0 days after the trauma respectively). In the third subject, the nerve was decompressed surgically with a complete functional recovery two months later. The functional and clinical findings of these three cases show that a contralateral facial palsy secondary to a mandibular fracture resolves spontaneously while the traumatic displacement of the mandibular condyle may determine a temporal bone fracture sometimes followed by a lesion in the intratemporal portion of the facial nerve. An event such as the latter may delay functional recovery and thus warrant surgery such as in cases of Bell's palsy. PMID:1298156

Salonna, I; Fanizzi, P; Quaranta, A

92

Facial fractures from dog bite injuries.  

PubMed

Dog bites are commonly associated with soft-tissue injury to the face but rarely result in facial fractures. This article reports six new cases of facial fractures associated with dog bites and reviews additional cases reported in the literature. The demographics of the patients attacked, the location of facial fractures, and the characteristics of associated soft-tissue injuries or complications developing from the dog bite are described. With six new cases and 10 from the literature, this article reviewed a total of 16 cases involving 27 facial fractures. Eighty-seven percent of the cases involved children less than 16 years of age. The periorbital or nasal bones were involved in 69 percent of the cases. Lacerations were the most frequently associated soft-tissue injury. Additional injuries included facial nerve damage, lacrimal duct damage requiring stenting and reconstruction, ptosis from levator transection, and blood loss requiring transfusion. Although facial fractures are not commonly considered to be associated with dog bite injuries, the index of suspicion for a fracture should be raised when the injury occurs in a child, particularly when injury occurs near the orbit, nose, and cheek. PMID:11964976

Tu, Alexander H; Girotto, John A; Singh, Navin; Dufresne, Craig R; Robertson, Bradley C; Seyfer, Alan E; Manson, Paul N; Iliff, Nicholas

2002-04-01

93

Laser induced bunch lengthening on the ACO storage ring FEI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced bunch lengthening has been measured on the ACO storage ring FEL. The experimental data at low current generally confirms the existing theoretical models, while the high current data is dominated by anomalous effects. As part of the LURE/Stanford Free Electron Laser Project at Orsay, France, we have developed a sensitive method to measure the laser induced change in the electron bunch length. This method is capable of measuring the absolute bunch with a precision of 1%, and fractional changes in electron bunch length as small as 1 part in 100,000. Using this system, we have measured the steady state and time dependent laser induced bunch lengthening as a function of electron current, external laser intensity, RF cavity voltage, the undulator magnetic field, and the detection frequency.

Robinson, K. E.; Deacon, D. A. G.; Velghe, M. F.; Madey, J. M.

1982-09-01

94

A geometric method of calculating tendo Achillis lengthening.  

PubMed

Twenty-six open "Z-type" tendo Achillis lengthenings were performed on 20 children with equinus contractures secondary to spastic cerebral palsy. The patients' average age was 8.6 years (range 4.0-17.5 years). A preoperative calculation of the amount of lengthening needed to accomplish a satisfactory correction of equinus was used before all procedures in the hope of avoiding iatrogenic overlengthening. This calculation was done with simple clinical measurements on the foot and ankle and is based on elementary lever arm and geometric principles. After an average follow-up of 3.1 years (range 6 months to 7 years), there were no instances of overlengthening, nor was there residual equinus. PMID:4044816

Garbarino, J L; Clancy, M

95

Tibial Lengthening: Extraarticular Calcaneotibial Screw to Prevent Ankle Equinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 2003 and 2006, we used an extraarticular, cannulated, fully threaded posterior calcaneotibial screw to prevent equinus\\u000a contracture in 10 patients (four male and six female patients, 14 limbs) undergoing tibial lengthening with the intramedullary\\u000a skeletal kinetic distractor. Diagnoses were fibular hemimelia (two), mesomelic dwarfism (two), posteromedial bow (one), hemihypertrophy\\u000a (one), poliomyelitis (one), achondroplasia (one), posttraumatic limb-length discrepancy (one), and

Mohan V. Belthur; Dror Paley; Gaurav Jindal; Rolf D. Burghardt; Stacy C. Specht; John E. Herzenberg

2008-01-01

96

Deformity correction followed by lengthening with the Ilizarov method.  

PubMed

Deformity combined with shortening of 18 lower limb segments of 17 patients was treated with the Ilizarov method. Limb lengthening was done at the same treatment (monofocal treatment) or a separate osteotomy (bifocal treatment) was done after acute or gradual correction of the deformity using the Ilizarov hinge system. The external fixation time, amount of deformity correction, length gained, and incidence of complications were examined. Results were compared between monofocal versus bifocal treatment groups and between femoral versus tibial procedures. The average deformity corrected was 22.3 degrees, and the average lengthening was 44.4 mm. The external fixation index was 49.3 days/cm on average, ranging from 24.4 to 90 days/cm, and the mean duration of external fixation was 198 days, ranging from 77 to 352 days. Major complications requiring surgical treatment, such as premature consolidation and fracture, were seen in four patients. There were no statistically significant differences between the results for monofocal and bifocal treatment or treatment indices for femoral and tibial operations. The Ilizarov method was very effective for treatment of limb deformity combined with shortening. Monofocal treatment might be better if the total amounts of lengthening required are short to reduce surgical invasion. Longer treatment indices for tibial operations could not be verified from the current study. PMID:12218482

Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Kenji; Abdel-Wanis, Mohamed E; Sakurakichi, Keisuke; Kabata, Tamon; Tomita, Katsuro

2002-09-01

97

Palate lengthening by buccinator myomucosal flaps for velopharyngeal insufficiency.  

PubMed

Objective : To assess the outcome of palate lengthening by myomucosal buccinator flaps for velopharyngeal insufficiency both in terms of speech and changes in palate length. Design : Thirty-two consecutive patients who underwent the buccinator flap procedure were reviewed retrospectively. Palate length and the presence or absence of a velopharyngeal gap were assessed on pre- and postoperative videofluoroscopic recordings using a calibrated image analysis system. Hypernasality, nasal emission, nasal turbulence, and passive cleft type articulation errors were evaluated blindly by a speech-language pathologist external to the team using pre- and postoperative speech recordings. Setting : Multidisciplinary cleft team based in a tertiary referral center. Results : In 81% of patients, speech outcome was such that no further velopharyngeal surgery was considered necessary at the time of follow-up. The buccinator flap procedure resulted in a mean palate lengthening of 7.5 mm (±5.5 SD). After the operation, there was a complete elimination of the velopharyngeal gap on lateral videofluoroscopy in 77% of patients. There were significant decreases in hypernasality ratings and passive cleft type articulation errors postoperatively. Conclusion : Palatal lengthening with myomucosal buccinator flaps in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency is effective and safe. It has become one of our routinely practiced procedures for velopharyngeal insufficiency. PMID:23237471

Hens, G; Sell, D; Pinkstone, M; Birch, M J; Hay, N; Sommerlad, B C; Kangesu, L

2012-12-13

98

Tracking facial features with occlusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression recognition consists of determining what kind of emotional content is presented in a human face. The problem presents a complex area for exploration, since it encompasses face acquisition, facial feature tracking, facial ex- pression classification. Facial feature tracking is of the most interest. Active Appearance Model (AAM) enables accurate tracking of facial features in real-time, but lacks occlusions

MARKIN Evgeny

2006-01-01

99

Identity Transfer and Identity Restoration in Facial Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Objective: Facial allotransplantation is fast becoming a reconstructive option for severely disfigured individuals, but it is still in experimental stage. Facial allotransplantation will be considered fully ethical only when it addresses the recipient's identity concerns. There exist no such studies that quantify and predict identity changes following change in geometry of underlying facial skeleton and overlying soft tissue morphology. I objectively address these identity concerns in the present study. Methods: Using software (Mimics version 14.0, Materialise, Plymouth, Michigan), I developed 3-dimensional facial models from the computed tomographic images of 4 identical and 1 nonidentical twin pairs. On the basis of cranial base anatomy, 3-dimensional coordinate values of selected landmark locations were measured (Surgicase, Materialise, Plymouth, Michigan) and a morphometric method was applied to quantify identity differences between them. Identity parameters were drawn on a diagrammatic chart that depicted the biophysical identity range. Using software (Mimics version 14.0), facial allotransplant simulation was done involving most of the nasal bone, maxilla, and zygoma. Morphological parameters of resulting new identity were drawn on diagrammatic chart and if they fell within the chart, facial allotransplantation resulted in identity transfer. Moreover, a scale was used to quantify identity transfer and identity restoration resulting from facial allotransplantation. Results: Identity changes of facial allotransplantation are objectively quantified that can be used as a communication tool in consent taking process. Conclusion: My findings suggest that donor facial allograft may be identified on the recipient's face depending upon underlying craniofacial morphology and accordingly, identity changes can be suitably predicted.

Modgil, Ajay

2011-01-01

100

Analysis of the karyotype of expanded human adipose-derived stem cells for bone reconstruction of the maxillo-facial region.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were recently proposed for bone maxillofacial reconstruction in association with biomaterials. For this application MSC must be ex-vivo expanded in order to obtain, for a given volume of implanted biomaterial, a relevant number of bone forming cells. Previously conducted pre-clinical studies suggested that a concentration of 6 x 10(8) ASC associated with 900 mg of anorganic bovine bone (ABB) could be effective for human maxillary sinus floor elevation. A keystone issue to guarantee the quality and safety of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products containing expanded MSC and ASC is their chromosome stability in culture: this topic has been widely investigated and conflicting results have been published. Abnormal karyotype of human ex-vivo expanded MSC and ASC was found by some authors, while, at the same time, several other studies showed the MSC and ASC karyotype to be normal. It is therefore important that all the results obtained on MSC and ASC karyotype analysis be published. Given this context, the aim of this manuscript, aim of this manuscript is to verify the karyotype stability of ASC in view of their applications in clinical trials. ASC obtained from the adipose tissue of 4 donors were expanded over extended culture time. Based on previous ASC expansions we hypothesized to be able to obtain 6 x 10(8) cells by passage 7. Karyotype analysis of 30 metaphases was planned to be investigated at passage 2, 7, and 15 in all the cultures. No abnormalities were found in the karyotype of two donors at all the passages tested, while a translocation was found in 2 metaphases of a donor at passage 7, but not at passage 15, and in the fourth donor in 5 metaphases a trisomy was found at passage 15. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected only after extended ASC expansion. Whether these anomalies can be related to risk for the patient's safety will have to be demonstrated by in-vivo studies. PMID:24046944

Bellotti, C; Stanco, D; Ragazzini, S; Romagnoli, L; Martella, E; Lazzati, S; Marchetti, C; Donati, D; Lucarelli, E

101

Facial Expression Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter introduces recent advances in facial expression analysis and recognition. The first part discusses general structure\\u000a of AFEA systems. The second part describes the problem space for facial expression analysis. This space includes multiple\\u000a dimensions: level of description, individual differences in subjects, transitions among expressions, intensity of facial expression,\\u000a deliberate versus spontaneous expression, head orientation and scene complexity, image

Yingli Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

102

Facial Expression Recognition Using 3D Facial Feature Distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel approach for facial expression analysis and recognition. The proposed approach relies on\\u000a the distance vectors retrieved from 3D distribution of facial feature points to classify universal facial expressions. Neural\\u000a network architecture is employed as a classifier to recognize the facial expressions from a distance vector obtained from\\u000a 3D facial feature locations. Facial expressions

Hamit Soyel; Hasan Demirel

2007-01-01

103

Facial Moulage Impressions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shows how models of the face make excellent preoperative and postoperative records for the surgeon, otolaryngologist, and prosthodontist. Demonstrates the technique for the construction of a facial moulage.

1994-01-01

104

Facial expression recognition with facial parts based sparse representation classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions play important role in human communication. The understanding of facial expression is a basic requirement in the development of next generation human computer interaction systems. Researches show that the intrinsic facial features always hide in low dimensional facial subspaces. This paper presents facial parts based facial expression recognition system with sparse representation classifier. Sparse representation classifier exploits sparse representation to select face features and classify facial expressions. The sparse solution is obtained by solving l1 -norm minimization problem with constraint of linear combination equation. Experimental results show that sparse representation is efficient for facial expression recognition and sparse representation classifier obtain much higher recognition accuracies than other compared methods.

Zhi, Ruicong; Ruan, Qiuqi

2009-10-01

105

Clinical evaluation of the biological width following surgical crown-lengthening procedure: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the positional changes of the periodontal tissues, particularly the biological width, following surgical crown-lengthening in human subjects. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial study involving 15 patients was carried out for a period of 6 months. Sites were divided into 3 groups: treated (TT) sites, adjacent (AD) sites and nonadjacent (NAD) sites. Free gingival margin [FGM], attachment level, pocket depth, bone level, biological width [BW] were recorded at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Direct bone level after flap reflection was recorded before and after osseous resection at baseline only. Level of osseous crest was lowered based on BW, and supracrestal tooth structure needed using a combination of rotary and hand instruments. Statistical Analysis: Student t test and ANOVA were used. Results: Overall, apical displacement of FGM at TT, AD and NAD sites was statistically significant compared to baseline. The apical displacement of FGM at TT site was more when compared to that at AD and NAD sites at 3 and 6 months. The BW at the TT site was smaller at 1, 3 and 6 months compared to that at baseline. However, at all sites, BW was reestablished to the baseline value at the end of 6 months. Interpretation and Conclusion: The BW at TT sites was reestablished to its original vertical dimension by 6 months. In addition, a consistent 2-mm gain of coronal tooth structure was observed at the 1, 3 and 6-month examinations.

Shobha, K. S.; Mahantesha; Seshan, Hema; Mani, R.; Kranti, K

2010-01-01

106

The epidemiology of facial fractures in automotive collisions.  

PubMed

This study examines the pattern of facial fractures in automotive collisions using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System. The database was examined for trends within collision and occupant descriptors among occupants sustaining facial fractures. Drivers and right front passengers were included in an analysis of frontal collisions. Side impacts were assessed separately by identifying occupants exposed to near and far side collisions. The distribution of facial bone fractures and injury sources were demonstrated for each impact configuration. Risk ratios were used to demonstrate the effects of restraint use and airbag deployment. Seatbelts were found to reduce the risk of sustaining a facial fracture by 74% in frontal impacts. Facial fractures are associated with severe impacts with a risk of 5% at a Delta-V of 40 km/h and 65 km/h for unbelted and belted occupants respectively. PMID:20184842

Cormier, Joseph; Duma, Stefan

2009-10-01

107

The Epidemiology of Facial Fractures in Automotive Collisions  

PubMed Central

This study examines the pattern of facial fractures in automotive collisions using the National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System. The database was examined for trends within collision and occupant descriptors among occupants sustaining facial fractures. Drivers and right front passengers were included in an analysis of frontal collisions. Side impacts were assessed separately by identifying occupants exposed to near and far side collisions. The distribution of facial bone fractures and injury sources were demonstrated for each impact configuration. Risk ratios were used to demonstrate the effects of restraint use and airbag deployment. Seatbelts were found to reduce the risk of sustaining a facial fracture by 74% in frontal impacts. Facial fractures are associated with severe impacts with a risk of 5% at a Delta-V of 40 km/h and 65 km/h for unbelted and belted occupants respectively.

Cormier, Joseph; Duma, Stefan

2009-01-01

108

A heterotopic primate model for facial composite tissue transplantation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a nonhuman primate model for heterotopic composite tissue facial transplantation in which to study the natural history of facial transplantation and evaluate immunosuppressive regimens.A composite oromandibular facial segment transplant based on the common carotid artery was evaluated. Flaps from 7 cynomolgus monkeys were transplanted to the groins of 7 recipients at the superficial femoral artery and vein. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of thymoglobulin, rapamycin, and tacrolimus. Allograft survival ranged from 6 to 129 days. Histology performed in the long-term survivor at the time of necropsy revealed extensive inflammation and necrosis of the allograft skin; however, muscle and bone elements were viable, with minimal inflammation. This heterotopic facial transplantation model avoids the potential morbidity of mandibular resection and orthotopic facial transplantation. Our work also concurs with the work of other groups who found that the skin component is the most antigenic. PMID:18216518

Silverman, Ronald P; Banks, Nia D; Detolla, Louis J; Shipley, Steven T; Panda, Aruna; Sanchez, Rigoberto A; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Pierson, Richard N; Wang, Donghua; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Holton, Luther H; Bartlett, Stephen T

2008-02-01

109

Recurrence of Diabetic Pedal Ulcerations Following Tendo-Achilles Lengthening  

PubMed Central

Foot and ankle surgeons are frequently challenged by the devastating systemic consequences of diabetes mellitus manifested through neuropathy, integumentary and joint breakdown, delayed healing, decreased ability to fight infection, and fragile tendon/ligaments. Diabetic neuropathic pedal ulcerations lead to amputations at an alarming rate and also carry a high mortality rate. This article will discuss causes of diabetic pedal ulcerations that persist or recur after tendo-Achilles lengthening and will highlight areas that need to be addressed by the practitioner such as infection, vascular and nutritional status, glucose control, off-loading, biomechanics, and patient compliance.

Weiner, Richard D.; Hlad, Lee M.; McKenna, Danielle R.

2011-01-01

110

LOCATION OF MYOFIBER DAMAGE IN SKELETAL MUSCLE AFTER LENGTHENING CONTRACTIONS  

PubMed Central

High-force lengthening contractions are associated with muscle damage and pain, and the muscle–tendon junction is commonly cited as the primary area where myofiber damage occurs. We induced injury in the rat tibialis anterior muscle and acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images postinjury. We also assayed membrane damage and quantified the number of centrally nucleated myofibers throughout the injured muscles. Results suggest that myofiber injury occurs primarily in the middle portion of the muscle, with interstitial edema in the middle and distal portions.

LOVERING, RICHARD M.; MCMILLAN, ALAN B.; GULLAPALLI, RAO P.

2012-01-01

111

Alternative lengthening of telomeres in normal mammalian somatic cells  

PubMed Central

Some cancers use alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a mechanism whereby new telomeric DNA is synthesized from a DNA template. To determine whether normal mammalian tissues have ALT activity, we generated a mouse strain containing a DNA tag in a single telomere. We found that the tagged telomere was copied by other telomeres in somatic tissues but not the germline. The tagged telomere was also copied by other telomeres when introgressed into CAST/EiJ mice, which have telomeres more similar in length to those of humans. We conclude that ALT activity occurs in normal mouse somatic tissues.

Neumann, Axel A.; Watson, Catherine M.; Noble, Jane R.; Pickett, Hilda A.; Tam, Patrick P.L.; Reddel, Roger R.

2013-01-01

112

Superior oblique tendon lengthening for acquired superior oblique overactions.  

PubMed Central

Two patients who presented with compensatory head postures and diplopia are described. They both had marked unilateral superior oblique overaction, in one patient due to a large, incomitant skew deviation. Each underwent a superior oblique tendon lengthening procedure using a segment of silicone 240 retinal band as an expander, in combination with a contralateral superior rectus recession. Both achieved an excellent result with an improvement of the compensatory head posture and an increase in the field of binocular single vision. This surgical procedure is proposed as an option in the management of superior oblique overaction, including certain cases of skew deviation. Images

Manners, R M; O'Flynn, E; Morris, R J

1994-01-01

113

Safety and efficacy of botox injection in alleviating post-operative pain and improving quality of life in lower extremity limb lengthening and deformity correction  

PubMed Central

Background Distraction osteogenesis is the standard treatment for the management of lower limb length discrepancy of more than 3 cm and bone loss secondary to congenital anomalies, trauma or infection. This technique consists of an osteotomy of the bone to be lengthened, application of an external fixator, followed by gradual and controlled distraction of the bone ends. Although limb lengthening using the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis principle yields excellent results in most cases, the technique has numerous problems and is not well tolerated by many children. The objective of the current study is to determine if Botulinum Toxin A (BTX-A), which is known to possess both analgesic and paralytic actions, can be used to alleviate post-operative pain and improve the functional outcome of children undergoing distraction osteogenesis. Methods/Design The study design consists of a multi centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Patients between ages 5–21 years requiring limb lengthening or deformity correction using distraction will be recruited from 6 different sites (Shriners Hospital for Children in Montreal, Honolulu, Philadelphia and Portland as well as DuPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware and Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont). Approximately 150 subjects will be recruited over 2 years and will be randomized to either receive 10 units per Kg of BTX-A or normal saline (control group) intraoperatively following the surgery. Functional outcome effects will be assessed using pain scores, medication dosages, range of motion, flexibility, strength, mobility function and quality of life of the patient. IRB approval was obtained from all sites and adverse reactions will be monitored vigorously and reported to IRB, FDA and Health Canada. Discussion BTX-A injection has been widely used world wide with no major side effects reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time BTX-A is being used under the context of limb lengthening and deformity correction. Trial Registration NCT00412035

Hamdy, Reggie C; Montpetit, Kathleen; Ruck-Gibis, Joanne; Thorstad, Kelly; Raney, Ellen; Aiona, Michael; Platt, Robert; Finley, Allen; Mackenzie, William; McCarthy, James; Narayanan, Unni

2007-01-01

114

Mandibula distraction osteogenesis for lengthening the mandibula to correct a malocclusion: a more than 70-year-old German concept in craniofacial surgery.  

PubMed

Bone distraction is still on the rise again since McCarthy et al. presented in their clinical investigation new osseous formation in the elongated area while performing the distraction of the mandible in 1992. But at the level of craniofacial skeleton, the initial description to the technique of distraction osteogenesis should be credited to the German craniofacial surgeons Rosenthal for the bone lengthening of the mandible in a microgen patient in 1927. The procedure is described and the original schedules and case are presented. PMID:11887003

Hönig, Johannes Franz; Grohmann, Ulrike Anna; Merten, Hans Albert

2002-01-01

115

Side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis via transposition of the intratemporal facial nerve.  

PubMed

The technique of facial nerve repair with side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis is presented and evaluated in five patients who were operated on for facial nerve paralysis after acoustic schwannoma surgery, or had cranial base trauma. The end-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis is accompanied by hemilingual paralysis, with difficulty in swallowing, chewing and speaking. In this new technique, the facial nerve is mobilised in the temporal bone, transected at the second genu and transposed to the hypoglossal nerve where a tensionless side-to-end anastomosis is performed. The hypoglossal nerve is transected in oblique fashion to about one third of its circumference. We were able to achieve a tensionless anastomosis in all patients. The idea is to bring about re-innervation of the previously denervated tissue via a collateral sprouting of axons of the donor nerve through the site of coaptation without sacrificing the innervation of the donor nerve's original targets. With side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, two patients attained a House- Brackmann grade of III (one of them with independent movement of eyelids and mouth); one achieved grade IV, another grade V and grade VI. No patient had hemilingual atrophy nor any problems associated with swallowing or chewing. PMID:16493524

Rebol, J; Milojkovi?, V; Didanovic, V

2006-02-23

116

Facial Expression in Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made to see whether the optimal degree of satisfaction portrayed in the facial expression of an advertisement varies with the commodity advertised. A subsidiary problem was to determine whether the apparent satisfaction in the facial expression of a photograph corresponds to the actual satisfaction felt by the subject who posed for it. Two sets of material were

H. E. Burtt; J. C. Clark

1923-01-01

117

Authentic Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that for the computer to be able to interact with humans, it needs to have the communication skills of humans. One of these skills is the ability to understand the emotional state of the person. The most expressive way humans dis- play emotions is through facial expressions. In most facial expression systems and databases, the emotion data

Nicu Sebe; Michael S. Lew; Ira Cohen; Yafei Sun; Theo Gevers; Thomas S. Huang

2004-01-01

118

Improving posttraumatic facial scars.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic soft-tissue injuries of the face are often the most lasting sequelae of facial trauma. The disfigurement of posttraumatic scarring lies in both their physical deformity and psychosocial ramifications. This review outlines a variety of techniques to improve facial scars and limit their lasting effects. PMID:24138743

Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Shaye, David A; Hilger, Peter A

2013-09-04

119

Facial artery flaps in facial oncoplastic reconstruction.  

PubMed

The face is one of the common sites for cutaneous cancer localization. It is well known that the face is the localization of more than 50% of skin cancers. Nowadays, the principles of modern "oncoplasty" recommend the complete excision of the cancer and the reconstruction with respect to cosmetic features of the face in terms of good color, good softness, and good texture of the flaps, utilized in cancer repair. The oncological and cosmetic results of facial reconstruction are strictly linked and the modern plastic and reconstructive surgeon must respect both oncological and cosmetic aspects. For that reason the best solution in facial cancer repair is the utilization of locoregional flaps based on the tributary vessels of the facial artery. In consideration of the dimension of recipient area to repair, the retroangular flap (RAF) or the submental flap could be used. This article is voted to illustrate a very large and long-term casuistry dedicated to these flaps. PMID:24037925

Fabrizio, Tommaso

2013-09-13

120

Temporal bone fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal bone injury is frequently associated with severe brain injury which limits the clinical evaluation and detracts from\\u000a the clinical signs of temporal bone fracture such as sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, and facial nerve\\u000a paralysis. Radiologists are often the first to note the presence of temporal bone fractures and should be familiar with common\\u000a types of injuries and

Piya V. Saraiya; Nafi Aygun

2009-01-01

121

Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2007-01-01

122

Computer Animation of Facial Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer facial animation still remains a very challenging topic within the computer graphics community. In this paper, a realistic and expressive computer facial animation system is developed by automated learning from Vicon Nexus facial motion capture data. Facial motion data of different emotions collected using Vicon Nexus are processed using dimensionality reduction techniques such as PCA and EMPCA. EMPCA was

Choong Seng Chan; Flora S. Tsai

2010-01-01

123

Chapter 11. Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions are the facial changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. Facial expression analysis has been an active research topic for behavioral scientists since the work of Darwin in 1872 [18, 22, 25, 71]. Suwa et al. [76] presented an early attempt to automatically analyze facial expressions by tracking the motion of 20

Ying-Li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

124

Facial soft tissue changes after transverse palatal distraction in adult patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal study investigated the 3-D facial soft-tissue response to transverse palatal bone-anchored osteodistraction in 18 adult patients. Laser-scanned facial surface data were obtained for all patients before (T0), 6 months (T1) and 1 year (T2) after transverse palatal distraction. The averaged facial morphologies at T0, T1 and T2 were calculated and compared. Sagittal and vertical measurements were obtained from

G. A. Ramieri; A. Nasi; A. Dell’Acqua; L. Verzé

2008-01-01

125

Detection of alternative lengthening of telomeres by telomere quantitative PCR  

PubMed Central

Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is one of the two known telomere length maintenance mechanisms that are essential for the unlimited proliferation potential of cancer cells. Existing methods for detecting ALT in tumors require substantial amounts of tumor material and are labor intensive, making it difficult to study prevalence and prognostic significance of ALT in large tumor cohorts. Here, we present a novel strategy utilizing telomere quantitative PCR to diagnose ALT. The protocol is more rapid than conventional methods and scrutinizes two distinct characteristics of ALT cells concurrently: long telomeres and the presence of C-circles (partially double-stranded circles of telomeric C-strand DNA). Requiring only 30 ng of genomic DNA, this protocol will facilitate large-scale studies of ALT in tumors and can be readily adopted by clinical laboratories.

Lau, Loretta M. S.; Dagg, Rebecca A.; Henson, Jeremy D.; Au, Amy Y. M.; Royds, Janice A.; Reddel, Roger R.

2013-01-01

126

Alternative lengthening of telomeres: remodeling the telomere architecture  

PubMed Central

To escape from the normal limits on proliferative potential, cancer cells must employ a means to counteract the gradual telomere attrition that accompanies semi-conservative DNA replication. While the majority of human cancers do this by up-regulating telomerase enzyme activity, most of the remainder use a homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Many molecular details of the ALT pathway are unknown, and even less is known regarding the mechanisms by which this pathway is activated. Here, we review current findings about telomere structure in ALT cells, including DNA sequence, shelterin content, and heterochromatic state. We speculate that remodeling of the telomere architecture may contribute to the emergence and maintenance of the ALT phenotype.

Conomos, Dimitri; Pickett, Hilda A.; Reddel, Roger R.

2013-01-01

127

Physiological role of stalk lengthening in Caulobacter crescentus  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus forms a thin polar stalk, which mediates its attachment to solid surfaces. Whereas stalks remain short (1 µm) in nutrient-rich conditions, they lengthen dramatically (up to 30 µm) upon phosphate starvation. A long-standing hypothesis is that the Caulobacter stalk functions as a nutrient scavenging “antenna” that facilitates phosphate uptake and transport to the cell body. The mechanistic details of this model must be revisited, given our recent identification of a protein-mediated diffusion barrier, which prevents the exchange of both membrane and soluble proteins between the stalk extension and the cell body. In this report, we discuss the potential of stalks to facilitate nutrient uptake and propose additional physiological roles for stalk elongation in Caulobacter cells.

Klein, Eric A; Schlimpert, Susan; Hughes, Velocity; Brun, Yves V; Thanbichler, Martin; Gitai, Zemer

2013-01-01

128

Determinants of the Repeated Bout Effect Following Lengthening Contractions  

PubMed Central

Objective Stresses to skeletal muscle often result in injury. A subsequent bout of the same activity performed days or even weeks after an initial bout results in significantly less damage. The underlying causes of this phenomenon, termed the “repeated bout effect” (RBE), are unclear. This study compared the protective effect of two different injury protocols on the ankle dorsiflexors in the rat. We hypothesized that the RBE would occur soon after the initial injury and persist for several weeks, and that the RBE would occur even if the second injury was performed under different biomechanical conditions than the first. Design In this controlled laboratory study, the dorsiflexor muscles in the left hindlimbs of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 75) were subjected to 10 repetitions of large-strain lengthening contractions or 150 repetitions of small-strain lengthening contractions. Results Both protocols induced a significant (P < 0.001) and similar loss of isometric torque (~50%) following the first bout of contractions. The RBE occurred as early as 2 days after injury and remained high for 14 days (P < 0.001), but diminished by 28 days and was lost by 42 days. The small-strain contractions offered a protective effect against a subsequent large-strain contraction, but not vice-versa. Although the RBE did not occur sooner than day 2, the early recovery following a second large strain injury performed 8 h after the first was two-fold greater than following a single injury. Conclusions The RBE is both rapid in onset and prolonged, and some but not all injuries can protect against different types of subsequent injury.

DiPasquale, Dana M.; Bloch, Robert J.; Lovering, Richard M.

2011-01-01

129

The force–velocity relationship of the human soleus muscle during submaximal voluntary lengthening actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments on isolated animal muscle, the force produced during active lengthening contractions can be up to twice the isometric force, whereas in human experiments lengthening force shows only modest, if any, increase in force. The presence of synergist and antagonist muscle activation associated with human experiments in situ may partly account for the difference between animal and human studies.

G. J. Pinniger; J. R. Steele; A. G. Cresswell

2003-01-01

130

Impact of intestinal lengthening on the nutritional outcome for children with short bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival among children with short bowel syndrome has increased with the use of supportive nutritional techniques including parenteral and enteral nutrition. Further improvement in outcome has been sought by using intestinal lengthening procedures to lengthen the bowel, improve intestinal motility, initiate a progressive increase in intestinal mucosal mass, and thereby improve tolerance to enteral nutrition. The authors examine the growth

Reinaldo Figueroa-Colon; Paul R Harris; Elizabeth Birdsong; Frank A Franklin; Keith E Georgeson

1996-01-01

131

The Elastic Internal Traction (EIT): an effective method to reduce the displaced facial fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open reduction and rigid fixation are commonly used to treat displaced fractures of the facial skeleton. Manual reduction can be performed by means of forceps or transosseus wires to close the bone fragments. In order to reduce facial fractures, we used a technique, called Elastic Internal Traction (EIT), based on the elastic action of rubber bands stretched between screws placed

C. Taglialatela Scafati; E. Facciuto; F. Aliberti

132

The Elastic Internal Traction (EIT): an effective method to reduce the displaced facial fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open reduction and rigid fixation are commonly used to treat displaced fractures of the facial skeleton. Manual reduction can be performed by means of forceps or transosseus wires to close the bone fragments. In order to reduce facial fractures, we used a technique, called Elastic Internal Traction (EIT), based on the elastic action of rubber bands stretched between screws placed

C. Taglialatela Scafati; E. Facciuto; F. Aliberti

2004-01-01

133

Understanding facial nerve paralysis.  

PubMed

Facial nerve paralysis has many causes and can be acute or chronic. Understanding the signs and symptoms, performing a careful patient evaluation, and obtaining appropriate diagnostic testing can help guide clinicians and improve outcomes. PMID:24153089

Matthaeus, Jaime; Hayden, Richard; Kim, Michael; Donald, Carrlene

2013-11-01

134

Cosmetic Facial Surgery  

PubMed Central

Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6

Adamson, Peter A.

1987-01-01

135

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

PubMed

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities. PMID:23529088

Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

2013-03-20

136

Computerized forensic facial reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions\\/approximations to stimulate recognition and identification.\\u000a Over the past 25 years, many computer-based systems have been developed, and with the recent rapid advances in medical imaging\\u000a and computer technology, the current systems claim high levels of efficiency, objectivity, and flexibility. The history of\\u000a computerized facial approximation\\/reconstruction is presented, along with a discussion of the advantages

Caroline Wilkinson

2005-01-01

137

Traumatic facial nerve injury.  

PubMed

Facial nerve trauma can be a devastating injury resulting in functional deficits and psychological distress. Deciding on the optimal course of treatment for patients with traumatic facial nerve injuries can be challenging, as there are many critical factors to be considered for each patient. Choosing from the great array of therapeutic options available can become overwhelming to both patients and physicians, and in this article, the authors present a systematic approach to help organize the physician's thought process. PMID:24138740

Lee, Linda N; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Boahene, Kofi Derek O

2013-09-05

138

Functional outcome after lengthening with and without deformity correction in polio patients  

PubMed Central

Poliomyelitis is one of the causes of limb length discrepancy. The aim of lengthening and deformity correction in such patients is to improve the functional mobility of the patient. This study aims to find out whether or not improvement of limb length inequality with or without deformity correction affects or improves ambulation. This prospective study included 32 skeletally mature patients managed using the Ilizarov technique and external fixation for limb lengthening with or without deformity correction. Functional Mobility Scale scoring was used for assessment of ambulation before lengthening and at the final follow-up. The average duration of follow-up was 2 years and 9 months. Lengthening alone did not change the Functional Mobility Scale score. While lengthening associated with deformity correction improved the mobility scale at 5 m only (in the house), it had no effect on the 50 and 500 m score.

Khames, Ahmed

2007-01-01

139

Classifying Facial Actions  

PubMed Central

The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions.

Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

2010-01-01

140

Early mobilization after sliding and Z-lengthening of heel cord: a preliminary experimental study in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sliding lengthening and Z-lengthening techniques are widely used in heel cord lengthening. Even though most surgeons performing\\u000a these procedures apply a short leg cast after surgery, their postoperative immobilization intervals vary from 3 to 7 weeks.\\u000a Nather et al. showed that there was no need for immobilization after the musculotendinous lengthening of long, deep flexor\\u000a tendons. In the present study,

Seref Aktas; Selcuk Ercan; Latife Candan; Ulker Moralar; Erol Akata

2001-01-01

141

Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects  

PubMed Central

Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology.

Federspil, Philipp A.

2012-01-01

142

2004 ASB Clinical Biomechanics Award Do the hamstrings operate at increased muscle-tendon lengths and velocities after surgical lengthening?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with crouch gait frequently walk with improved knee extension during the terminal swing and stance phases following hamstrings lengthening surgery; however, the mechanisms responsible for these improvements are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that surgical lengthening enables the hamstrings of persons with cerebral palsy to operate at longer muscle-tendon lengths or lengthen at faster muscle-tendon velocities during walking.

Allison S. Arnold; May Q. Liu; Michael H. Schwartz; Sylvia Ounpuu; Luciano S. Dias; Scott L. Delp

143

Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.  

PubMed

Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:18539550

Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

2008-06-09

144

Effects of facial color on virtual facial image synthesis for dynamic facial color and expression under laughing emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human facial color was applied to the affect display of virtual facial image, emotional evaluation, individual identification, and remote health care. We dynamically analyzed facial color under the emotional change of laughing by the simultaneous measurement of facial image and facial skin temperature, and proposed a dynamic facial color model. In this paper, on the basis of the proposed dynamic

Takashi YAMADA; T. Watanabe

2004-01-01

145

Isolated calf lengthening in cerebral palsy. Outcome analysis of risk factors.  

PubMed

We assessed the medium-term outcome of three methods of isolated calf lengthening in cerebral palsy by clinical examination, observational gait analysis and, where appropriate, instrumented gait analysis. The procedures used were percutaneous lengthening of tendo Achillis, open Z-lengthening of tendo Achillis and lengthening of the gastrosoleus aponeurosis (Baker's procedure). We reviewed 195 procedures in 134 children; 45 had hemiplegia, 65 diplegia and 24 quadriplegia. We established the incidence of calcaneus and recurrent equinus and identified 'at-risk' groups for each. At follow-up, 42% had satisfactory calf length, 22% had recurrent equinus and 36% calcaneus. The incidence of calcaneus in girls at follow-up was significantly higher (p = 0.002) while boys had an increased rate of recurrent equinus (p = 0.012). Children with diplegia who had surgery when aged eight years or younger had a 44% risk of calcaneus, while those over eight years had a 19% risk (p = 0.046). Percutaneous lengthening of tendo Achillis in diplegia was the least predictable, only 38% having a satisfactory outcome compared with 50% in the other procedures. The incidence of recurrent equinus in hemiplegic patients was 38%. Only 4% developed calcaneus. The type of surgery did not influence the outcome in patients with hemiplegia or quadriplegia. Severity of involvement, female gender, age at operation of less than eight years and percutaneous lengthening of tendo Achillis were 'risk factors' for calcaneus. Hemiplegia, male gender, and an aponeurosis muscle lengthening increased the risk of recurrent equinus. PMID:11341421

Borton, D C; Walker, K; Pirpiris, M; Nattrass, G R; Graham, H K

2001-04-01

146

Reactive oxygen species generation is not different during isometric and lengthening contractions of mouse muscle.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscles can be injured by lengthening contractions, when the muscles are stretched while activated. Lengthening contractions produce structural damage that leads to the degeneration and regeneration of damaged muscle fibers by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated at the time of injury may initiate degenerative or regenerative processes. In the present study we hypothesized that lengthening contractions that damage the muscle would generate more ROS than isometric contractions that do not cause damage. To test our hypothesis, we subjected muscles of mice to lengthening contractions or isometric contractions and simultaneously monitored intracellular ROS generation with the fluorescent indicator 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (CM-DCFH), which is oxidized by ROS to form the fluorescent product CM-DCF. We found that CM-DCF fluorescence was not different during or shortly after lengthening contractions compared with isometric controls, regardless of the amount of stretch and damage that occurred during the lengthening contractions. The only exception was that after severe stretches, the increase in CM-DCF fluorescence was impaired. We conclude that lengthening contractions that damage the muscle do not generate more ROS than isometric contractions that do not cause damage. The implication is that ROS generated at the time of injury are not the initiating signals for subsequent degenerative or regenerative processes. PMID:23948772

Sloboda, Darcée D; Brooks, Susan V

2013-08-15

147

Radial forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's lengthening pendulum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner, radial driving can easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergraduate physics classroom, where investigations into pendulums and oscillations are commonplace.

McMillan, Matthew; Blasing, David; Whitney, Heather M.

2013-09-01

148

Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring: results in 20 children.  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) is increasingly favoured as a treatment for short-bowel syndrome. In a personal series, 20 children underwent LILT between 1962 and 1997. There was negligible morbidity (hemiloop anastomotic stenosis in 2) and no operative mortality. At a mean follow-up of 6.4 years overall survival was 45%, and certain features were clearly related to outcome. Survivors had > 40 cm of residual small bowel (commonly jejunum) and had little hepatic dysfunction despite parenteral nutrition of similar time and nature as non-survivors. Children who did not survive had < 40 cm of residual small bowel and developed early lethal hepatic dysfunction of unclear aetiology. Outcome did not seem to be influenced by the presence of the ileocaecal valve or the length of residual colon. Children born with short-bowel should be offered LILT at an early stage when still in good physical condition, so as to avoid liver-damaging intraluminal stasis and bacterial translocation and to enhance intestinal adaptation and hepatoprotective factors.

Bianchi, A

1997-01-01

149

Studies of RF Noise Induced Bunch Lengthening at the LHC  

SciTech Connect

Radio Frequency (RF) noise induced bunch lengthening can strongly affect the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) performance through luminosity reduction, particle loss, and other effects. This work presents measurements from the LHC that better quantify the relationship between the RF noise and longitudinal emittance blowup and identify the performance limiting RF components. The experiments presented in this paper confirmed the predicted effects on the LHC bunch length growth. Dedicated measurements were conducted in the LHC to gain insight in the effect of RF noise to the longitudinal beam diffusion. It was evident that the growth rate of the bunch length is strongly related to the accelerating voltage phase noise power spectral density around f{sub s} + kf{sub rev}, as predicted in [4]. The noise threshold for 2.5 ps/hr growth was estimated to -101 dBc/Hz (SSB flat noise spectral density from f{sub s} to the edge of the closed loop bandwidth). A 9 dB margin is achieved with the current RF configuration and the BPL on. With this formalism it is now possible to estimate the effect of different operational and technical RF configurations on the LHC beam diffusion. This formalism could also be useful for the design of future RF systems and the budgeting of the allowed noise.

Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; Fox, J.D.; Baudrenghien, P.; Butterworth, A.; Molendijk, J.; /SLAC /CERN

2011-08-17

150

Telomere lengthening and telomerase activation during human B cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

The function of the immune system is highly dependent on cellular differentiation and clonal expansion of antigen-specific lymphocytes. However, little is known about mechanisms that may have evolved to protect replicative potential in actively dividing lymphocytes during immune differentiation and response. Here we report an analysis of telomere length and telomerase expression, factors implicated in the regulation of cellular replicative lifespan, in human B cell subsets. In contrast to previous observations, in which telomere shortening and concomitant loss of replicative potential occur in the process of somatic cell differentiation and cell division, it was found that germinal center (GC) B cells, a compartment characterized by extensive clonal expansion and selection, had significantly longer telomeric restriction fragments than those of precursor naive B cells. Furthermore, it was found that telomerase, a telomere-synthesizing enzyme, is expressed at high levels in GC B cells (at least 128-fold higher than those of naive and memory B cells), correlating with the long telomeres in this subset of B cells. Finally, both naive and memory B cells were capable of up-regulating telomerase activity in vitro in response to activation signals through the B cell antigen receptor in the presence of CD40 engagement and/or interleukin 4. These observations suggest that a novel process of telomere lengthening, possibly mediated by telomerase, functions in actively dividing GC B lymphocytes and may play a critical role in humoral immune response by maintaining the replicative potential of GC and descendant memory B cells.

Weng, Nan-ping; Granger, Lawrence; Hodes, Richard J.

1997-01-01

151

Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies provide conclusive evidence that there is a pancultural element in facial expressions of emotion. This element must be the particular associations between movements of specific facial muscles and emotions, since the results obtained in the judgeme...

P. Ekman

1971-01-01

152

Identity transfer and identity restoration in facial allotransplantation.  

PubMed

Objective: Facial allotransplantation is fast becoming a reconstructive option for severely disfigured individuals, but it is still in experimental stage. Facial allotransplantation will be considered fully ethical only when it addresses the recipient's identity concerns. There exist no such studies that quantify and predict identity changes following change in geometry of underlying facial skeleton and overlying soft tissue morphology. I objectively address these identity concerns in the present study. Methods: Using software (Mimics version 14.0, Materialise, Plymouth, Michigan), I developed 3-dimensional facial models from the computed tomographic images of 4 identical and 1 nonidentical twin pairs. On the basis of cranial base anatomy, 3-dimensional coordinate values of selected landmark locations were measured (Surgicase, Materialise, Plymouth, Michigan) and a morphometric method was applied to quantify identity differences between them. Identity parameters were drawn on a diagrammatic chart that depicted the biophysical identity range. Using software (Mimics version 14.0), facial allotransplant simulation was done involving most of the nasal bone, maxilla, and zygoma. Morphological parameters of resulting new identity were drawn on diagrammatic chart and if they fell within the chart, facial allotransplantation resulted in identity transfer. Moreover, a scale was used to quantify identity transfer and identity restoration resulting from facial allotransplantation. Results: Identity changes of facial allotransplantation are objectively quantified that can be used as a communication tool in consent taking process. Conclusion: My findings suggest that donor facial allograft may be identified on the recipient's face depending upon underlying craniofacial morphology and accordingly, identity changes can be suitably predicted. PMID:21559317

Modgil, Ajay

2011-04-29

153

[Craniofacial bone abnormalities in von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis].  

PubMed

Cases of cranio-facial bone anomalies were observed in 40 cases of neurofibromatosis. The cranio-facial skeletal manifestations are numerous and varied. Radiographic investigation is important to confirm the diagnosis, when neurologic and cutaneous signs are absent. The diagnosis should be easily confirmed by a conventional radiographic study. PMID:7503538

Abassi-Bakir, D; Graiess-Tlili, K; Turky, A; Gharbi, H; Bouzaiene, M; Kraiem, C; Bakir, A

1995-01-01

154

Complications of Ilizarov leg lengthening: a comparative study between patients with leg length discrepancy and short stature  

PubMed Central

The Ilizarov technique has been used to treat severe limb length discrepancy and short stature. However, complications of this treatment are frequent. Between 1984 and 2001, 57 patients (94 tibias) had an Ilizarov procedure for limb lengthening. Twenty patients had limb discrepancy and 37 had short stature. Their mean age was 20.2 years (range 15–34). The average limb lengthening was 8.37 cm (range 3.2–14.7), which was equivalent to 26% (range 9.2–60%) average tibial lengthening. A total of 90 complications were observed. Thirty-three unplanned procedures were required during the lengthening programme. Two patients stopped the lengthening programme. There was no difference in the complications in leg lengthening using Ilizarov technique between the group of patients with leg length discrepancy and the group with short stature. A good knowledge of the Ilizarov technique is necessary to perform a lengthening programme with a low rate of complications.

Vargas Barreto, B.; Merabet, Z.; Panisset, J. C.; Pracros, J. P.

2006-01-01

155

[Telomere lengthening by trichostatin A treatment in cloned pigs].  

PubMed

Telomeres are repeated GC rich sequences at the end of chromosomes, and shorten with each cell division due to DNA end replication problem. Previously, reprogrammed somatic cells of cloned animals display variable telomere elongation. However, it was reported that the cloned animals including Dolly do not reset telomeres and show premature aging. In this study, we investigated telomere function in cloned or transgenic cloned pigs, including the cloned Northeast Min pigs, eGFP, Mx, and PGC1? transgenic cloned pigs, and found that the telomere lengths of cloned pigs were significantly shorter than the nuclear donor adult fibroblasts and age-matched noncloned pigs (P<0.05), indicating that nuclear reprogramming did not restore cellular age of donor cells after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has proven to enhance the efficiency of nuclear reprogramming in several species. In order to test whether TSA also can effectively enhance reprogramming of telomeres, TSA (40 nmol/L) was used to treat porcine cloned embryos at 1-cell stage for 24 h. Consistent with previous reports, the developmental rate of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage was significantly increased compared with those of the control group (16.35% vs. 27.09%, 21.60% vs. 34.90%, P<0.05). Notably, the telomere length of cloned porcine blastocysts was also significantly elongated (P<0.05). Although TSA did not improve the cloning efficiency (1.3% vs. 1.7%, TSA vs. control), the telomere lengths of cloned pig-lets were significantly longer compared with those of the control group and the donor fibroblasts (P<0.05). In conclusion, telomeres have not been effectively restored by SCNT in pigs but TSA can effectively lengthen the telomere lengths of cloned pigs. PMID:23262106

Xie, Bing-Teng; Ji, Guang-Zhen; Kong, Qing-Ran; Mao, Jian; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Shi-Chao; Wu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Juan; Liu, Lin; Liu, Zhong-Hua

2012-12-01

156

Effects of distal hamstring lengthening on sagittal motion in patients with diplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine the effect of distal hamstring lengthening (DHL) on hip and knee sagittal kinematics, and to investigate the validity of modeled hamstring length for clinical use. Patient group consisted of 28 patients (56 limbs, mean age 7.4 years) with spastic diplegia who underwent bilateral DHL and tendo-Achilles lengthening with\\/without rectus femoris transfer (RFT) (DHL+RFT subgroup,

Moon Seok Park; Chin Youb Chung; Sang Hyeong Lee; In Ho Choi; Tae-Joon Cho; Won Joon Yoo; B. S. Myoung Yl Park; Kyoung Min Lee

2009-01-01

157

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Is Characterized by High Rates of Telomeric Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomere maintenance activity is a hallmark of cancer. In some telom- erase-negative tumors, telomeres become lengthened by alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a recombination-mediated DNA replica- tion process in which telomeres use other telomeric DNA as a copy template. Using chromosome orientation fluorescence in situ hybridiza- tion, we found that postreplicative exchange events involving a telomere and another TTAGGG-repeat tract

J. Arturo Londono-Vallejo; Hera Der-Sarkissian; Lucien Cazes; Silvia Bacchetti; Roger R. Reddel

2004-01-01

158

Digital facial engraving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution introduces the basic techniques for digital facial engraving, which imitates traditional copperplate engraving. Inspired by traditional techniques, we first establish a set of basic rules thanks to which separate engraving layers are built on the top of the original photo. Separate layers are merged according to sim- ple merging rules and according to range shift\\/scale masks spe- cially

Victor Ostromoukhov

1999-01-01

159

Facial attractiveness predicts longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current investigation, 20 undergraduate students rated 50 high school yearbook photographs from the 1920s on two measures, attractiveness and perceived health. These measures were then correlated with each other and with the photographed subjects' longevity. Facial attractiveness was found to predict future longevity, but perceived health did not. The results are discussed in terms of sexual selection theory.

Joshua J. A. Henderson; Jeremy M. Anglin

2003-01-01

160

Mutilating Facial Sarcoidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a patient with massive facial sarcoidosis. While skin involvement is a common manifestation of sarcoidosis, it is unusual to see it in the dramatic form of cutaneous tumors with mutilation of the central face. There are few reports of tumoral cutaneous sarcoidosis like that of our patient.

S. M. Dumitrescu; R. A. Schwartz; S. Baredes; J. A. Whitworth; R. McDonald; M. Zarbin; P. Langer; A. Ho; W. C. Lambert

1999-01-01

161

MMN evidence for asymmetry in detection of IOI shortening and lengthening at behavioral indifference tempo.  

PubMed

Most behavioral investigations indicated an indifference interval of 500-700 ms, at which the detection of inter-onset interval (IOI) shortening and lengthening are equally difficult and no perceptual bias would be expected. However, some event-related potential (ERPs) studies showed that even at this behavioral indifference time, the detection of shortening and lengthening might rely on different aspects of information processing. This work was aimed to investigate whether the pre-attentive processing of local tempo perturbations, i.e., IOI shortening and lengthening, are different when the basic tempo is at the behavioral indifference area. Tempo perturbations were introduced by shortening or lengthening the third IOI by 10% of the base IOI of the 5-beat isochronous sequence. ERPs recorded in a passive experiment showed that both tempo perturbations elicited a distinct frontal mismatch negativity (MMN). The low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) source estimation indicated a left prefrontal predominance activity around the MMN peak, implicating an important role of the frontal lobe in the processing of local tempo perturbations. Statistical analysis revealed that the MMN to IOI shortening had an earlier and greater peak than that to IOI lengthening, implying that IOI shortening might be more easily to be detected than IOI lengthening even at indifference tempo. Our results suggested that local IOI perturbations at behavioral indifference area have an asymmetric effect on the pre-attentive processing of temporal variation detection. PMID:21029729

Lai, Yongxiu; Tian, Yin; Yao, Dezhong

2010-10-26

162

Facial attractiveness, symmetry and cues of good genes.  

PubMed Central

Cues of phenotypic condition should be among those used by women in their choice of mates. One marker of better phenotypic condition is thought to be symmetrical bilateral body and facial features. However, it is not clear whether women use symmetry as the primary cue in assessing the phenotypic quality of potential mates or whether symmetry is correlated with other facial markers affecting physical attractiveness. Using photographs of men's faces, for which facial symmetry had been measured, we found a relationship between women's attractiveness ratings of these faces and symmetry, but the subjects could not rate facial symmetry accurately. Moreover, the relationship between facial attractiveness and symmetry was still observed, even when symmetry cues were removed by presenting only the left or right half of faces. These results suggest that attractive features other than symmetry can be used to assess phenotypic condition. We identified one such cue, facial masculinity (cheek-bone prominence and a relatively longer lower face), which was related to both symmetry and full- and half-face attractiveness.

Scheib, J E; Gangestad, S W; Thornhill, R

1999-01-01

163

Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.  

PubMed

The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences. PMID:23469703

Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

2012-01-01

164

The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal  

PubMed Central

Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

Yetiser, Sertac

2012-01-01

165

Facial Paralysis and Lymphocytic Facial Neuritis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Positive for Simian Retrovirus Type D2  

PubMed Central

Simian retrovirus type D (SRVD) is a naturally occurring betaretrovirus in nonhuman primates of the genus Macaca. Infection can lead to a variety of clinical, hematologic, and histopathologic abnormalities. We report an unusual clinical presentation of facial paralysis and histologic lymphocytic neuritis in an SRVD type 2 (SRVD2)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a catheter-associated vena caval thrombus, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and multisystemic lymphoid hyperplasia. At initial presentation, a right atrial mass was detected by echocardiography. The macaque was clinically asymptomatic but had persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and later neutropenia. It was seropositive for SRV and PCR-positive for SRVD 2. Approximately 1 mo after initial presentation, the macaque developed right facial paralysis and was euthanized. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic aggregates affecting multiple organs, consistent with SRV-related lymphoid hyperplasia. The right facial nerve showed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. The nerve itself was negative immunohistochemically for SRV antigen, but antigen was present infrequently in pericapillary lymphoid cells within the facial nerve and abundantly within lymphoid aggregates in the adjacent parotid salivary gland, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Known neurotropic viruses could not be identified. Given the widespread inflammation in this macaque, particularly in the area surrounding the facial nerve, lymphocytic neuritis and facial paralysis likely were an indirect effect of SRV infection due to local extension of SRV-related inflammation in the surrounding tissue.

Hampton, Anna L; Colby, Lesley A; Bergin, Ingrid L

2011-01-01

166

Penetrating facial injury from angle grinder use: management and prevention  

PubMed Central

Injuries resulting from the use of angle grinders are numerous. The most common sites injured are the head and face. The high speed disc of angle grinders does not respect anatomical boundaries or structures and thus the injuries produced can be disfiguring, permanently disabling or even fatal. However, aesthetically pleasing results can be achieved with thorough debridement, resection of wound edges and careful layered functional closure after reduction and fixation of facial bone injuries. A series of penetrating facial wounds associated with angle grinder use are presented and the management and prevention of these injuries discussed.

Carter, Lachlan M; Wales, Craig J; Varley, Iain; Telfer, Martin R

2008-01-01

167

Exploration of the facial nerve canal by high-resolution computed tomography: Anatomy and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlative study of the anatomy and the radiological appearance of the intratemporal course of the facial nerve canal was carried out. Isolated temporal bones and temporal bones of cadaver heads were examined with thin-section high-resolution computed tomography in the axial, coronal and Stenvers' projections, then sectioned with a microtome and the radiologic and anatomic images were correlated. Appropriate projections

A. Valavanis; S. Kubik; M. Oguz

1983-01-01

168

Reflex excitability of human soleus motoneurones during voluntary shortening or lengthening contractions.  

PubMed Central

1. We investigated the possibility that increase or decrease in the monosynaptic reflex excitability of the soleus muscle in man might play a role in matching the muscle mechanical output to the voluntary command aimed at performing isotonic contractions or relaxations, at various velocities. 2. Rectified and integrated electromyographic activity (e.m.g.) and the H reflex of soleus were measured during plantar flexions against a constant load (shortening contractions) or dorsal flexions resisting the load (lengthening contraction), performed without activation of pretibial muscles. 3. At the same ankle joint angle, integrated e.m.g. was larger during shortening contractions than during lengthening contractions. During shortening contractions, integrated e.m.g. increased as a function of the velocity of plantar flexion. During lengthening contractions, integrated e.m.g. decreased as a function of dorsal flexion and angular velocity and nearly disappeared in the last part of the most rapid lengthening contractions. 4. During shortening contractions, the H reflex increased beyond the extent expected for the level of e.m.g. activity; during lengthening contractions, reduction of the H reflex below control values at rest occurred in spite of background e.m.g. activity. 5. When the level of e.m.g. activity was kept constant, the above changes in H reflex were larger in both directions as a function of the velocity of the movement. 6. Passive rotation in the dorsal direction contributed to the inhibition observed during lengthening contractions. 7. It is suggested that these changes in the excitability of the H reflex, probably presynaptic in origin, serve the purpose of appropriately modulating the rate and extent of motoneurone recruitment during shortening and lengthening contractions. This allows the foot to follow a constant-velocity path in spite of the perturbing effects of the spindle afferent inputs and of the muscle characteristics described by the force--length and force--velocity diagrams.

Romano, C; Schieppati, M

1987-01-01

169

Facial plastic surgery database.  

PubMed

Every facial plastic surgeon accumulates a vast library of professional slides and photographs that document his work. Manual cataloguing of the clinical and operative documentation is time consuming and provides limited analysis capabilities. The facial plastic surgery database is a state-of-the-art computer programme that allows the surgeon to sort and locate slides and photographs. Designed for the computer novice, it utilises a simple coding system to permit rapid data input. The codes can be tailored to allow for new procedures or alternative practice styles. There are sophisticated searching routines to quickly find slides and photographs based on any combination of patients and operative criteria. The database also includes an online colour atlas and workspace for recording of presentations. There are automated routines to analyse patients' clinical features, operative trends, and surgical results. Ultimately, examination of this data can be used to facilitate peer review, research, and self-education. PMID:8170012

Mendelsohn, M; Conrad, K

1994-02-01

170

Human facial beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that human faces judged to be attractive by people possess two features—averageness and symmetry—that promoted\\u000a adaptive mate selection in human evolutionary history by way of production of offspring with parasite resistance. Facial composites\\u000a made by combining individual faces are judged to be attractive, and more attractive than the majority of individual faces.\\u000a The composites possess both symmetry

Randy Thorrthill; Steven W. Gangestad

1993-01-01

171

Robust Facial Feature Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a robust technique for tracking a set of pre-determined points on a human face. To achieve robustness, the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi point tracker is extended and specialised to work on facial features by embedding knowledge about the configuration and visual characteristics of the face. The resulting tracker is designed to recover from the loss of points caused by tracking drift

Fabrice Bourel; Claude C. Chibelushi; Adrian A. Low

2000-01-01

172

A Humanlike Predictor of Facial Attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a method for estimating human facial attractiveness, based on supervised learning techniques. Numerous facial features that describe facial geometry, color and texture, combined with an average human attractiveness score for each facial image, are used to train various predictors. Facial attractiveness ratings produced by the final predictor are found to be highly correlated with human ratings, markedly

Amit Kagian; Gideon Dror; Tommer Leyvand; Daniel Cohen-or; Eytan Ruppin

2006-01-01

173

Large facial nerve schwannomas without facial palsy: case reports and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although approximately 30% of facial nerve schwannoma cases present with no facial palsy, a large facial nerve schwannoma extending to the middle and posterior cranial fossa quite rarely presents without facial palsy. The authors encountered two patients with large facial nerve schwannoma who presented with only hearing impairment and no facial palsy. The first patient was a 64-year-old woman who

Yuichi Kubota; Takakazu Kawamata; Osami Kubo; Hidetoshi Kasuya; Yoshihiro Muragaki; Tomokatsu Hori

2005-01-01

174

The contractile response during steady lengthening of stimulated frog muscle fibres.  

PubMed Central

1. Steady lengthenings at different velocities (0.025-1.2 microns/s per half-sarcomere; temperature 2-5.5 degrees C) were imposed on isolated frog muscle fibres at the isometric tetanus plateau by means of a loudspeaker motor. The lengthening at the sarcomere level was measured by means of a striation follower either in fixed-end or in length-clamp mode. The force response was measured by a capacitance gauge transducer (resonance frequency 50 kHz). Preparations showing gross non-homogeneity during lengthening were excluded. 2. A steady tension was in all cases reached after about 20 nm per half-sarcomere of lengthening. Tension during this steady phase rose with speed of elongation up to 0.25-0.4 micron/s per half-sarcomere, when tension was 1.9-2 times isometric tetanic force (T0). Further increase in speed produced only very little increase in the steady tension. 3. During the transitory phase, before steady tension was reached, the tension rose monotonically if speed of lengthening was less than 0.25-0.3 micron/s per half-sarcomere; at higher speed the tension rose above the steady level, reaching a peak when extension was 10-14 nm per half-sarcomere, and then fell to the steady level. Tension at the peak continued to rise with speed of lengthening above 0.3 micron/s per half-sarcomere. 4. During the tension rise within the transitory phase of force response the segment elongated at a speed 15-20% lower than that imposed on the whole fibre, as a consequence of tendon compliance. 5. During the steady phase, non-homogeneity of lengthening speed began above a speed of lengthening which varied from fibre to fibre. At speeds below this value, segments elongated at the same speed as that imposed on the fibre. 6. Tension responses to large step stretches (up to 12 nm per half-sarcomere), applied at the plateau of isometric tetanus, showed that the instantaneous elasticity of contractile machinery is not responsible for the limit in force attained with high-speed lengthening. 7. Instantaneous stiffness was determined during the steady state of force response by superposing small steps (less than 1.5 nm per half-sarcomere) on steady lengthening at different velocities. Stiffness was 10-20% larger during lengthening than at the plateau of isometric tetanus and remained practically constant, independent of lengthening velocity, in the range of velocities used. 8. The results indicate that steady lengthening of a tetanized fibre induces a cross-bridge cycle characterized by fast detachment of the cross-bridge extended beyond a critical level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Lombardi, V; Piazzesi, G

1990-01-01

175

Management of facial soft tissue injuries in children.  

PubMed

Pediatric facial trauma can present a challenge to even the more experienced plastic surgeon. Injuries to the head and neck may involve bone and soft tissues with an assortment of specialized organs and tissue elements involved. Because of the active nature of children, facial soft tissue injuries can be diverse and extensive as well as some of the more common injuries a plastic surgeon is asked to treat. In 2007, approximately 800,000 patients younger than 15 years presented to emergency departments around the country with significant open wounds of the head that required treatment.In this review, we present the different types and regions of pediatric soft tissue facial trauma, as well as treatment options and goals of plastic surgery wound management. Special aspects, such as bite wounds, burns, pediatric analgesia, and antibiotic therapy, are also discussed. PMID:21772187

Vasconez, Henry C; Buseman, Jason L; Cunningham, Larry L

2011-07-01

176

Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)  

SciTech Connect

Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. (Univ. of Toronto School of Medicine, Ontario (Canada))

1989-12-01

177

Infant-directed speech: Final syllable lengthening and rate of speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speech rate has been reported to be slower in infant-directed speech (IDS) than in adult-directed speech (ADS). Studies have also found phrase-final lengthening to be more exaggerated in IDS compared with ADS. In our study we asked whether the observed overall slower rate of IDS is due to exaggerated utterance-final syllable lengthening. Two mothers of preverbal English-learning infants each participated in two recording sessions, one with her child, and another with an adult friend. The results showed an overall slower rate in IDS compared to ADS. However, when utterance-final syllables were excluded from the calculation, the speech rate in IDS and ADS did not differ significantly. The duration of utterance-final syllables differed significantly for IDS versus ADS. Thus, the overall slower rate of IDS was due to the extra-long final syllable occurring in relatively short utterances. The comparable pre-final speech rate for IDS and ADS further accentuates the final syllable lengthening in IDS. As utterances in IDS are typically phrases or clauses, the particularly strong final-lengthening cue could potentially facilitate infants' segmentation of these syntactic units. These findings are consistent with the existing evidence that pre-boundary lengthening is important in the processing of major syntactic units in English-learning infants.

Church, Robyn; Bernhardt, Barbara; Shi, Rushen; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

2005-04-01

178

The use of acoustic emission in facial fracture detection.  

PubMed

This study describes a method for utilizing Acoustic Emission (AE) in facial fracture detection and demonstrates the association between fracture and acoustic emission magnitude. AE sensors were mounted to the frontal bone and mandible of cadaver skulls (n=14) exposed to impacts to the frontal bone, nasal bone, maxilla and mandible. The presence of AE during fracture and non-fracture tests necessitated the development of a threshold to distinguish AE associated with fracture. Based on the obtained data, a threshold of 9 volts was established. The association between above-threshold AE and fracture was demonstrated by performing low-severity impacts on pre-fractured frontal bones. These tests demonstrated that above threshold AE is produced as a result of high-severity impacts, resulting in fracture as well as low-severity impacts on prefracture bone. The results of these tests indicate that above threshold AE was associated with the fracture process and not a function of the force applied to the facial bones. PMID:19141907

Cormier, Joseph; Manoogian, Sarah; Bisplinghoff, Jill; McNally, Craig; Duma, Stefan

2008-01-01

179

INHIBITION OF DIRECT BONE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC ETHANOL EXPOSURE IN A MOUSE MODEL OF DISTRACTIONOSTEOGENESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excessive alcohol consumption has been reported to interfere with human bone homeostasis and repair in multiple ways. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic ethanol (EtOH) exposure in the rat inhibits direct bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO, limb lengthening). The opportun...

180

Reduced voluntary activation of human skeletal muscle during shortening and lengthening contractions in whole body hyperthermia.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of whole body hyperthermia on the voluntary activation of exercised and non-exercised skeletal muscle performing a series of lengthening and shortening contractions. Thirteen subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer at 60% of maximal oxygen consumption until voluntary exhaustion in ambient conditions of approximately 40 degrees C and 60% relative humidity. Before and immediately following the cycle protocol, subjects performed a series of 25 continuous isokinetic shortening and lengthening maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the leg extensors and forearm flexors. Voluntary activation for shortening and lengthening contractions for the forearm and leg was assessed prior to and following the 25 MVCs by superimposing a paired electrical stimulus to the femoral nerve and the biceps brachii during additional MVCs. Exercise to exhaustion increased rectal temperature to 39.35+/-0.50 degrees C. Voluntary activation remained unchanged following the prehyperthermia endurance set of shortening and lengthening maximal contractions in both the forearm flexors and leg extensors. Similarly, voluntary activation remained at prehyperthermic levels for the single MVCs immediately following the cycle trial. However, by the time of completion of the posthyperthermia endurance contractions, voluntary activation had declined significantly by 5.87+/-7.56 and 8.46+/-9.26% in the shortening and lengthening phases, respectively, for the leg extensors but not for the forearm flexors. These results indicate that the central nervous system (CNS) reduces voluntary drive to skeletal muscle performing both shortening and lengthening contractions following exercise-induced hyperthermia. The reductions in voluntary activation were only observed following a series of dynamic movements, indicating that the CNS allows for initial and brief 're-activation' of skeletal muscle following exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:15604113

Martin, Peter G; Marino, Frank E; Rattey, Jodie; Kay, Derek; Cannon, Jack

2004-12-16

181

The effect on the extracellular matrix of the deep fascia in response to leg lengthening  

PubMed Central

Background Whereas the alterations of diverse tissues in cellular and molecular levels have been investigated during leg lengthening via microscopy and biochemical studies, little is known about the response of deep fascia. This study aims to investigate the changes of the extracellular matrix in deep fascia in response to leg lengthening. Methods Animal model of leg lengthening was established in New Zealand white rabbits. Distraction was initiated at a rate of 1 mm/day and 2 mm/day in two steps, and preceded until increases of 10% and 20% in the initial length of tibia had been achieved. Alcian blue stain and picrosirius-polarization method were used for the study of the extracellular matrix of deep fascia samples. Leica DM LA image analysis system was used to investigate the quantitative changes of collagen type I and III. Results Alcian blue stain showed that glycosaminoglycans of fascia of each group were composed of chondroitin sulphate and heparin sulphate, but not of keratan sulphate. Under the polarization microscopy, the fascia consisted mainly of collagen type I. After leg lengthening, the percentage of collagen type III increased. The most similar collagen composition of the fascia to that of the normal fascia was detected at a 20% increase in tibia length achieved via a distraction rate of 1 mm/d. Conclusion The changes in collagen distribution and composition occur in deep fascia during leg lengthening. Although different lengthening schemes resulted in varied matrix changes, the most comparable collagen composition to be demonstrated under the scheme of a distraction rate of 1 mm/day and 20% increase in tibia length. Efficient fascia regeneration is initiated only in certain combinations of the leg load parameters including appropriate intensity and duration time, e.g., either low density distraction that persist a relatively short time or high distraction rates.

Wang, Hai-Qiang; Li, Xin-Kui; Wu, Zi-Xiang; Wei, Yi-Yong; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

2008-01-01

182

Evolutionary Psychology of Facial Attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human face communicates an impressive number of visual signals. Although adults' ratings of facial attractiveness are consistent across studies, even cross-culturally, there has been considerable controversy surrounding attempts to identify the facial features that cause faces to be judged attractive or unattractive. Studies of physical attractiveness have attempted to identify the features that contribute to attractiveness by studying the

Bernhard Fink; Ian Penton-Voak

2002-01-01

183

PLANNING RECONSTRUCTION FOR FACIAL ASYMMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of 3D shape modeling to plan reconstructive facial surgery for children born with facial asymmetry. The study used 3D images synthesized from high resolution CT scans. The images were manipulated using geometric morphometrics and the principal components of variation were derived. The software developed allows the user to either reconstruct how the whole face would

ALLAN PONNIAH; HELEN WITHEROW; ROBERT EVANS; DAVID DUNAWAY; ROBIN RICHARDS; CLIFF RUFF

184

Emotional Facial Expressions in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we review empirical evidence regarding the relationship between facial expression and emotion during infancy. We focus on differential emotions theory’s view of this relationship because of its theoretical and methodological prominence. We conclude that current evidence fails to support its proposal regarding a set of pre-specified facial expressions that invariably reflect a corresponding set of discrete emotions

Linda A. Camras; Jennifer M. Shutter

2010-01-01

185

Facial expression and piano performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies (Caterina et al. 2004) carried out on the body and facial expressions of pianists during thei r per- formances, have shown that there is a specific rela tion be- tween non verbal expressions and music structure. We tried to compare the value of single facial acti on unit movements- such as eyebrow raising and frowning - f ound

Luisa Bonfiglioli; Roberto Caterina; Iolanda Incasa; Mario Baroni

2006-01-01

186

Facial Attractiveness and Physical Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has documented that more facially attractive people are perceived by others to be physically healthier. Using self-reports, observer ratings, daily diary methodology, and psychophysiological assessments, this study provides limited empirical evidence that more facially attractive people (N = 100) may be physically healthier than unattractive people. Discussion suggests the value of an evolutionary psychological perspective for understanding the

Todd K. Shackelford; Randy J. Larsen

1999-01-01

187

Resolution of obstructive sleep apnea following facial surgery.  

PubMed

Compared to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), maxillo-facial surgery is rarely performed in Canada for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. However, in patients with retrolingual obstruction, UPPP cannot be expected to result in good surgical outcome. We describe a patient with retrognathia causing airway obstruction at the base of the tongue, in whom sagittal mandibular osteotomy with hyoid bone advancement resulted in resolution of snoring and sleep apnea. PMID:1960789

Metes, A; Direnfeld, V; Haight, J S; Hoffstein, V

1991-10-01

188

Vertical facial distraction in the treatment of arhinia.  

PubMed

Arhinia is a rare congenital malformation characterized by lack of the formation of external and internal nasal structures. Restricted midfacial growth is secondary to the loss of the midfacial growth centers. Staged reconstruction of the nasal passage and external nose is required. Vertical distraction osteogenesis is a beneficial step in the overall reconstructive program. This provides for additional bone and soft tissue for both improved aesthetic facial proportions and later surgical interventions. PMID:15253197

Feledy, Jules A; Goodman, Cynthia M; Taylor, Terry; Stal, Samuel; Smith, Brian; Hollier, Larry

2004-06-01

189

Facial injury: a review of biomechanical studies and test procedures for facial injury assessment.  

PubMed

A review of biomechanical studies that have attempted to measure fracture tolerances of facial bones has been carried out. The particular bones of interest were the mandible, the zygoma, the maxilla and the nasal bones. Numerical values have been given for the peak force and pressure fracture tolerances for these bones. A study of these values illustrates just how variable the bone strength of various individuals is. A review of various methods that have attempted to measure and quantify the physical effects of a blow to the face has also been carried out. Three major types of test procedure exist, namely frangible elements, peak force and pressure sensing elements and deformable elements. Frangible and deformable elements generally replace the face of a standard test dummy, fracturing and deforming at appropriate impact force levels, respectively. These surrogate face forms are used for two different reasons; either they are used to measure the damage to the human face for some impact scenario or they are simply used to better simulate the response of the whole head to impact by simulating the compliance of the face. Peak force and pressure sensing elements take the form of piezoelectric sensors and pressure-sensitive, colour 'Fuji film'. Both these methods are complicated and really only suitable for research purposes only. Finally, it is recommended that a mathematical model approach be used to establish the principal injury mechanism and support further development of an acceptable face form test. PMID:7852433

Hampson, D

1995-01-01

190

First experiences with simultaneous skeletal and soft tissue reconstruction of noma-related facial defects.  

PubMed

Noma victims suffer from a three-dimensional facial soft-tissue loss. Some may also develop complex viscerocranial defects, due to acute osteitis, chronic exposure, or arrested skeletal growth. Reconstruction has mainly focused on soft tissue so far, whereas skeletal restoration was mostly avoided. After successful microvascular soft tissue free flap reconstruction, we now included skeletal restoration and mandibular ankylosis release into the initial step of complex noma surgery. One free rib graft and parascapular flap, one microvascular osteomyocutaneous flap from the subscapular system, and two sequential chimeric free flaps including vascularized bone were used as the initial steps for facial reconstruction. Ankylosis release could spare the temporomandibular joint. Complex noma reconstruction should include skeletal restoration. Avascular bone is acceptable in cases with complete vascularized graft coverage. Microsurgical chimeric flaps are preferable as they can reduce the number and complexity of secondary operations and provide viable, infection-resistant bone supporting facial growth. PMID:21780014

Giessler, Goetz A; Borsche, André; Lim, Paul K; Schmidt, Andreas B; Cornelius, C-Peter

2011-07-21

191

What Is Expected of the Facial Nerve in Michel Aplasia? Anatomic Variation  

PubMed Central

We sought better understanding about the facial nerve anatomy in the rare inner ear Michel anomaly to help better define this aplasia and prevent potential complications in surgery on these patients. The data from computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance images of six Michel aplastic ears (three patients) were evaluated for a facial nerve course. Facial nerve course and anatomic landmarks were noted. Based on data obtained from this group of very rare patients, three different facial nerve anatomies were encountered. The first patient had normal-looking mastoid cells, normal middle ear ossicles, and a completely formed facial nerve canal through the middle ear. The second patient had pneumatized mastoid air cells despite an anomalous ossicular chain. This patient also had a facial nerve canal but not through the middle ear. In the third patient, although mastoid cells were present, neither ossicles nor a definite facial nerve canal could be detected. With guidance provided by the anatomy of the other parts of the ear, such as air cells and the ossicular chain, the danger zones posing a high probability of facial nerve injury can be predicted. Although all Michel aplasias may have aplastic petrous bone in common, there are some degrees of variation.

Zarandy, Masoud Motasaddi; Kouhi, Ali; Kashany, Shervin Sharif; Rabiei, Sohrab; Hajimohamadi, Fatemeh; Rabbani-Anari, Mahtab

2010-01-01

192

Candidate chromosomal regions for genes involved in activation of alternative lengthening of telomeres in human immortal cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Either telomerase or alternative mechanisms known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) are activated in human immortal cells to maintain or lengthen their telomeres. To screen candidate chromosomes harboring gene(s) involved in activation of the telomere maintenance mechanisms that are repressed in normal, mortal cells and lost in immortal cells, we examined loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on the 22 autosomes

Nobumasa Shigeeda; Minoru Uchida; J. Carl Barrett; Takeki Tsutsui

2003-01-01

193

Bone tumor  

MedlinePLUS

Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondard bone tumor ... malignant) bone tumors include: Chondrosarcoma Ewing's sarcoma Fibrosarcoma Osteosarcomas The cancers that most often spread to the ...

194

An improved empirical equation for bunch lengthening in electron storage rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an improved empirical equation for the bunch lengthening in electron storage rings. The comparisons are made between the analytical and experimental results, and the agreements are quite well. This improved equation can be equally applied to the case where a storage ring is very resistive (such as the improved SLC damping rings) instead of inductive

Jie Gao

2000-01-01

195

Severe progressive deformities after limb lengthening in type-II fibular hemimelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ntil recently the accepted treatment of choice for severe type-II fibular hemimelia has been Syme's or Boyd's amputation. The alternative of distraction lengthening using the Ilizarov technique is now available. We report three patients (four limbs) with type-II fibular hemimelia who were treated by the Ilizarov technique and followed up for two to six years. Severe progressive procurvatum and valgus

Jack C. Y. Cheng; K. W. Cheung; B. K. W. Ng

1998-01-01

196

Time–frequency changes in electromyographic signals after hamstring lengthening surgery in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased knee flexion during stance is a common gait deviation in the child with cerebral palsy (CP), with distal hamstring lengthening surgeries being an accepted course of treatment. Post-operatively, improvements in gait kinematics have been reported, however little change is noted in the patterns of muscle activity as portrayed by onset and offset timing in the surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals.

Richard T. Lauer; Brian T. Smith; Patricia A. Shewokis; James J. McCarthy; Carole A. Tucker

2007-01-01

197

Isovelocity investigation of the lengthening behaviour of the erector spinae muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the force-velocity (F\\/) relationship for the erector spinae muscles in submaximal activation movements, with particular attention to their response during lengthening movements and at lower shortening contraction velocities. Dynamic models that predict lower back muscle forces require reasonable representations of the modulating effect of instantaneous velocity. Ten males were observed performing trunk

Chrisanto G. Sutarno; Stuart M. McGill

1995-01-01

198

Coexistence of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres and Telomerase in hTERT-Transfected GM847 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown previously that some immortalized human cells maintain their telomeres in the absence of significant levels of telomerase activity by a mechanism referred to as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Cells utilizing ALT have telomeres of very heterogeneous length, ranging from very short to very long. Here we report the effect of telomerase expression in the ALT

KILIAN PERREM; LOREL M. COLGIN; AXEL A. NEUMANN; THOMAS R. YEAGER; ROGER R. REDDEL

2001-01-01

199

Weakness inMouseMasticatory Muscles byRepetitive Contractions withForced Lengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theetiology ofmyofascial tenderness andpainof masticatory muscles inhumansisdifficult tounderstand. Parafunctional oralhabits suchastoothgrinding or vigorous chewing arethought tobefactors. Theobjective of this study wastodetermine ifmasticatory muscles are susceptible toweakness andinjury induced byrepetitive, dynamic, forced-lengthening contractions. Results would support thehypothesis thatcontraction-induced injuries could occurinhyperactive masticatory muscles ofhumans inresponse toparafunctional oralhabits. Micewere anesthetized andrandomly assigned tothree groups: non- treated controls, treated byrepetitive passive jawopening, ortreated

M. O. Hutchins; H. S. Skjonsby; G. A. Brazeaul; U. K. Parikh; M. Jenkins

2010-01-01

200

Skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to isometric, lengthening, and shortening training bouts of equivalent duration.  

PubMed

Movements generated by muscle contraction generally include periods of muscle shortening and lengthening as well as force development in the absence of external length changes (isometric). However, in the specific case of resistance exercise training, exercises are often intentionally designed to emphasize one of these modes. The purpose of the present study was to objectively evaluate the relative effectiveness of each training mode for inducing compensatory hypertrophy. With the use of a rat model with electrically stimulated (sciatic nerve) contractions, groups of rats completed 10 training sessions in 20 days. Within each training session, the duration of the stimulation was equal across the three modes. Although this protocol provided equivalent durations of duty cycle, the torque integral for the individual contractions varied markedly with training mode such that lengthening > isometric > shortening. The results indicate that the hypertrophy response did not track the torque integral with mass increases of isometric by 14%, shortening by 12%, and lengthening by 11%. All three modes of training resulted in similar increases in total muscle DNA and RNA. Isometric and shortening but not lengthening mode training resulted in increased muscle insulin-like growth factor I mRNA levels. These results indicate that relatively pure movement mode exercises result in similar levels of compensatory hypertrophy that do not necessarily track with the total amount of force generated during each contraction. PMID:15075307

Adams, Gregory R; Cheng, Daniel C; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M

2004-05-01

201

Virtual Facial Image Synthesis with Facial Color Enhancement and Expression under Emotional Change ofAnger  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we demonstrate the effects of the affect display of anger by virtual facial image synthesis with facial color enhancement and expression on the basis of the analysis of facial color under the emotional change of anger. First, we examine the relationship between the change in the facial color and the physiological index of facial skin temperature, which

Takashi YamadaI; Tomio Watanabe

2007-01-01

202

Facial Expression and Speech: Neuroanatomical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the neuroanatomy and pathology of facial expression and findings on the neuroanatomical connections between expressions of the face and speech. The facial musculature is briefly dealt with in terms of its innervation by the facial nerve and its relationship to the soft palate at the peripheral system level. After considering the facial nuclei, the supranuclear innervation of

Ronald S. Van Gelder; Leo Van Gelder

1990-01-01

203

Left hemisphere representations of emotional facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have suggested that the right hemisphere is superior at processing emotional facial expressions because it contains stored perceptual ‘templates’ of facial expressions. We tested each hemisphere of a split-brain patient on two tasks involving emotional facial expressions. Both hemispheres performed equally well and significantly above chance matching facial expressions with emotion words. The subject's right hemisphere consistently performed well

Valerie E. Stone; Laura Nisenson; James C. Eliassen; Michael S. Gazzaniga

1996-01-01

204

Facial Shape Localization Using Probability Gradient Hints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter proposes a novel method to localize facial shape represented by a series of facial landmarks. In our method, the problem of facial shape localization is formulated with a Bayesian inference. Specifically, given a face image, the posterior probability of the facial shape is naturally decomposed into two parts: the likelihood function of local textures and the prior constraints

Zhiheng Niu; Shiguang Shan; Xilin Chen

2009-01-01

205

Facial Attractiveness: Beauty and the Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we explore the notion of facial attractiveness through the appli- cation of machine learning techniques. We construct a machine that learns from facial images and their respective attractiveness ratings to produce human-like evaluation of facial attractiveness. Our work is based on the un- derlying theory that there are objective regularities in facial attractiveness to be analyzed and

Yael Eisenthal; Gideon Dror; Eytan Ruppin

2006-01-01

206

Facial Gunshot Wounds: Trends in Management  

PubMed Central

Facial gunshot wounds, often comprising significant soft and bone tissue defects, pose a significant challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Whether resulting from assault, accident, or suicide attempt, a thorough assessment of the defects is essential for devising an appropriate tissue repair and replacement with a likely secondary revision. Immediately after injury, management is centered on advanced trauma life support with patient stabilization as the primary goal. Thorough examination along with appropriate imaging is critical for identifying any existing defects. Whereas past surgical management advocated delayed definitive treatment using serial debridement, today’s management favors use of more immediate reconstruction. Recent advances in microsurgical technique have shifted favor from local tissue advancement to distant free flap transfers, which improve cosmesis and function. This has resulted in a lower number of surgeries required to achieve reconstruction. Because of the diversity of injury and the complexity of facial gunshot injuries, a systematic algorithm is essential to help manage the different stages of healing and to ensure that the best outcome is achieved.

Kaufman, Yoav; Cole, Patrick; Hollier, Larry H.

2009-01-01

207

A Comparative Evaluation for Biologic Width following Surgical Crown Lengthening Using Gingivectomy and Ostectomy Procedure  

PubMed Central

Surgical crown lengthening has been proposed as a means of facilitating restorative procedures and preventing injuries in teeth with structurally inadequate clinical crown or exposing tooth structure in the presence of deep, subgingival pathologies which may hamper the access for proper restorative measures. Histological studies utilizing animal models have shown that postoperative crestal resorption allowed reestablishment of the biologic width. However, very little has been done in humans. Aims. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potential changes in the periodontal tissues, particularly the biologic width, following surgical crown lengthening by two surgical procedures before and after crown placement. Methods and Material. Twenty (20) patients who needed surgical crown lengthening to gain retention necessary for prosthetic treatment and/or to access caries, tooth fracture, or previous prosthetic margins entered the study. The following parameters were obtained from line angles of treated teeth (teeth requiring surgical crown lengthening) and adjacent sites: Plaque and Gingival Indices (PI) & (GI), Position of Gingival Margin from reference Stent (PGMRS), Probing depth (PD), and Biologic Width (BW). Statistical Analysis Used. Student “t” Test. Results. Initial baseline values of biologic width were 2.55?mm (Gingivectomy procedure B1 Group) and 1.95?mm (Ostectomy procedure B2 Group) and after surgical procedure the values were 1.15?mm and 1.25?mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the study the biologic width, at treated sites, was re-established to its original vertical dimension by 3 months. Ostectomy with apically positioned flap can be considered as a more effective procedure than Gingivectomy for Surgical Crown Lengthening.

Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Patil, Veena Ashok; John, Jiji

2012-01-01

208

The Influence of Prior Hamstring Injury on Lengthening Muscle Tissue Mechanics  

PubMed Central

Hamstring strain injuries often occur near the proximal musculotendon junction (MTJ) of the biceps femoris. Post-injury remodeling can involve scar tissue formation, which may alter contraction mechanics and influence re-injury risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the affect of prior hamstring strain injury on muscle tissue displacements and strains during active lengthening contractions. Eleven healthy and eight subjects with prior biceps femoris injuries were tested. All previously injured subjects had since returned to sport and exhibited evidence of residual scarring along the proximal aponeurosis. Subjects performed cyclic knee flexion-extension on an MRI-compatible device using elastic and inertial loads, which induced active shortening and lengthening contractions, respectively. CINE phase-contrast imaging was used to measure tissue velocities within the biceps femoris during these tasks. Numerical integration of the velocity information was used to estimate two-dimensional tissue displacement and strain fields during muscle lengthening. The largest tissue motion was observed along the distal MTJ, with the active lengthening muscle exhibiting significantly greater and more homogeneous tissue displacements. First principal strains magnitudes were largest along the proximal MTJ for both loading conditions. The previously injured subjects exhibited less tissue motion and significantly greater strains near the proximal MTJ. We conclude that localized regions of high tissue strains during active lengthening contractions may predispose the proximal biceps femoris to injury. Furthermore, post-injury remodeling may alter the in-series stiffness seen by muscle tissue and contribute to the relatively larger localized tissue strains near the proximal MTJ, as was observed in this study.

Silder, Amy; Reeder, Scott B.; Thelen, Darryl G.

2010-01-01

209

Plating after tibial lengthening: unilateral monoaxial external fixator and locking plate.  

PubMed

Several studies recently reported the usefulness of plating methods following limb lengthening with external fixators. This study describes modification at the time of plate insertion, selection of a locking plate, and the direction of plating. From April 2006 to July 2009, 12 consecutive patients, mean age 17.8 years, were enrolled in the study. The mean follow-up period was 36.5 months. All lengthening procedures were performed at the tibia. After proximal tibial osteotomy, a monoaxial external fixator was maintained on the lateral side of the tibia. At the end of distraction, a manually bent locking plate was inserted on the anteromedial side of the tibia, and the external fixator was removed. The mean final lengthening amount was 4.23 cm (range, 3.6-5.0 cm). The mean duration of the external fixator was 54.9 days (range, 47-67 days) and the mean external fixator index was 13.0 days/cm (range, 12.3-14.4 days/cm). The mean time to bony consolidation was 195.7 days (range, 150-264 days) and the mean healing index was 46.1 days/cm (range, 38.4-55 days). There were only minor complications in four patients. This case series showed that, especially with tibia lengthening, our method allows for successful early removal of the external fixator as compared with other methods (plating after lengthening), is associated with fewer complications, and is an effective alternative. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. PMID:23924852

Cha, Soo-Min; Shin, Hyun-Dae; Kim, Kyung-Cheon; Song, Jae-Hwang

2013-11-01

210

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

PubMed

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

211

A 3D Facial Expression Database For Facial Behavior Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, human facial expressions have been studied using either 2D static images or 2D video sequences. The 2D-based analysis is incapable of handing large pose variations. Although 3D modeling techniques have been extensively used for 3D face recognition and 3D face animation, barely any research on 3D facial expression recognition using 3D range data has been reported. A primary factor

Lijun Yin; Xiaozhou Wei; Yi Sun; Jun Wang; Matthew J. Rosato

2006-01-01

212

Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma  

PubMed Central

Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. ImagesFigure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18

Sanna, Mario; Zini, Carlo; Gamoletti, Roberto; Frau, Niccolo; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Russo, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Enrico

1993-01-01

213

Facial nerve hemangioma: a case report.  

PubMed

Although hemangiomas are relatively common in the head and neck, those that originate in the facial nerve are extremely rare. These benign tumors have the potential to compress or invade the adjacent facial nerve and thereby produce facial paralysis and other associated symptoms. We present a case of facial nerve hemangioma in a 15-year-old girl that initially manifested as unilateral facial weakness. We also discuss the diagnostic imaging and management options. PMID:23780592

Wu, Edward C; Rothholtz, Vanessa S; Zardouz, Shawn; Lee, Alice D; Djalilian, Hamid R

2013-06-01

214

Clinical advances in bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Understanding of the biology of bone regeneration has been increasing rapidly, with greater appreciation for the importance of biochemical aspects as well as the mechanical requirements for bone to heal. There are a number of situations where there is difficulty in bone healing such as fracture non-union; or growth such as osteogenesis imperfecta; or a requirement for surplus bone to reconstruct defects such as following surgery for tumour excision or limb lengthening. There is a greater understanding of the complex interplay between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and the chemical mediators that provide signalling along complex pathways. Although we have known about substances such as Bone Morphogenic Proteins and Growth Hormones for some time, their application in clinical practice is still not widespread, and we need to study them more to understand their role in bone healing. With newer technologies such as stem cells and gene therapy being developed there is the potential for vast improvement in bone regenerative techniques, although we are not at a stage where we can be confident that these techniques will work. In this review article we discuss the basic healing process of bone and how our understanding of this has led to improved techniques as well as the potential for future developments in new technologies. PMID:23317467

Siddiqui, Nashat A; Owen, John M

2013-05-01

215

Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change in a speaker's emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description

Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Glenn I. Roisman; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Thomas S. Huang

2006-01-01

216

Ulnar lengthening using a half-ring sulcated external fixator for ulnar longitudinal deficiency: a case report.  

PubMed

Ulnar longitudinal deficiency (ULD) is a rare condition of the upper limbs. Although radius lengthening for radial longitudinal deficiencies (RLD) was found to be successful, no ulnar lengthening for ULD without RLD and hand deformities has been reported. Herein, we present a Bayne type II ULD case report of the ulnar lengthening and gradual reduction of the dislocated radial head in an 11-year-old boy using a half-ring sulcated external fixator. For ulnar lengthening/radial longitudinal traction for radial head reduction, transverse osteotomy in mid ulna was performed and half-ring sulcated external fixator was used for ulnar distraction lengthening. Radial longitudinal traction and stabilization of external fixator were achieved by transverse pins through ulna and radius. Distraction (1 mm/day) began at 5th day and was completed at 95th postoperative day. External fixator was applied for 7 months. Successful ulnar lengthening (81 mm; 62 % gain) was achieved 1-year after the surgery and the range of elbow motion at 2 years was >40°. Forearm rotation and wrist extension/flexion were also preserved with no complaints of pain. We concluded that ulnar distraction lengthening and gradual reduction of radial head could improve appearance of the arm and were of significant benefit to the patient. PMID:23504634

Chen, Guang-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-An; Yang, Liu

2013-11-01

217

Craniofacial Bone Grafting: Wolff's Law Revisited  

PubMed Central

Bone grafts are used for the reconstruction of congenital and acquired deformities of the facial skeleton and, as such, comprise a vital component of the craniofacial surgeon's armamentarium. A thorough understanding of bone graft physiology and the factors that affect graft behavior is therefore essential in developing a more intelligent use of bone grafts in clinical practice. This article presents a review of the basic physiology of bone grafting along with a survey of pertinent concepts and current research. The factors responsible for bone graft survival are emphasized.

Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Tong, Lawrence; Buchman, Steven R.

2008-01-01

218

Nasoalveolar molding with active columellar lengthening in severe bilateral cleft lip/palate: a clinical report.  

PubMed

Severe bilateral cleft-lip/palate patients are difficult to manage even if nasoalveolar molding therapy is advocated before surgical repair. A 5-day-old male infant with bilateral cleft-lip-palate was managed with the nasoalveolar molding technique. Periodic adjustments of the appliance were continued every week to mold the nasoalveolar complex into the desired shape for the 5 months of infancy. The cleft width of 12 mm on the right and 14 mm on the left side was completely reduced, and the absent columella was lengthened to 6 mm with the active molding appliance. The horizontal bar of the nasal stent of the appliance was modified by adding an additional 1 mm layer of resilient liner on the tissue surface to achieve rapid columellar lengthening. In severe bilateral cleft-lip/palate cases, simple modifications in the appliance can achieve rapid results. PMID:22946934

Patil, Pravinkumar G; Patil, Smita P; Sarin, Soumil

2012-09-04

219

Characterization of Free-Electron Laser bunch lengthening on the ACO Storage Ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the basic low-current, laser-induced bunch-lengthening measurements that have been made on the ACO Storage-Ring Free-Electron Laser (SRFEL). The measurements provide verification of both the functional dependence and absolute magnitude of SRFEL theoretical models. The method of measurement, which is is explained, exploits frequency-domain techniques and is capable of accuracies comparable to those of a streak camara. The

K. E. Robinson; D. A. G. Deacon; J. M. J. Madey; M. F. Velghe; C. Bazin; M. Bergher; M. Billardon; P. Elleaume; J. M. Ortega; Y. Petroff

1985-01-01

220

Achilles Tendon Rupture: Avoiding Tendon Lengthening during Surgical Repair and Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Achilles tendon rupture is a serious injury for which the best treatment is still controversial. Its primary goal should be to restore normal length and tension, thus obtaining an optimal function. Tendon elongation correlates significantly with clinical outcome; lengthening is an important cause of morbidity and may produce permanent functional impairment. In this article, we review all factors that may influence the repair, including the type of surgical technique, suture material, and rehabilitation program, among many others.

Maquirriain, Javier

2011-01-01

221

A Simple Method for Evaluating Abnormal Lengthening of the QT Interval During the Face Immersion Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The slope of the relation between the unadjusted QT interval and heart rate during the face immersion test has been reported\\u000a to be useful as an index for predicting an abnormal lengthening of the QT interval for children with nonfamilial long QT syndrome.\\u000a Our goals were to determine whether we can replace the slope of the QT\\/heart rate relation calculated

J. Kamimura; M. Yoshinaga; Y. Kono; S. Yanagi; J. Nishi; Y. Nomura; T. Fukushige; R. Kusubae; R. Shinkura; K. Miyata

2002-01-01

222

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (pcl) Reconstruction by Transtibial Tunnel:. Suggestions of Lengthening and Slippage Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examined the biomechanical fatigue behavior of Achilles tendon autograft after posterior cruciate ligament (PLC) reconstructions. It experimented with various fixation devices and locations on the degree of initial lengthening and slippage to investigate the relationship between lengthening and slippage ratios among calcaneal and soft tissue fixation methods. Eight specimens of proximal tibia and Achilles tendon grafts were harvested from cadavers and classified into four groups according to the type of transtibial fixation technique. A cyclic load ranging from 50N to 250N was applied to each graft when fixed to the proximal tibia at 55 degrees. The soft tissue fixation method, which uses an interference screw, demonstrated a 56.4% ratio of slippage to total elongation. The use of a double cross-pin with the same method demonstrated a 45.4% slippage ratio. The former was associated with approximately 2 mm less total elongation and 13% more slippage than lengthening compared to the latter. This result was predominantly due to the poor standard of fixation compared to the same method using a double cross-pin.

Kim, Jay-Jung; Kim, Cheol-Woong

223

[Facial nerve injuries caused by firearms].  

PubMed

In the period from 1990 to 1994, 52 facial nerve injuries caused by fragments firearm projectiles were managed. Their features (localization, severity and extensiveness) were correlated with 37 nerve injuries in blunt head injuries with fracture of temporal bone. In blunt head injuries, 81.1% patients were with the nerve lesion in the area of geniculate ganglion (labyrinthine and tympanic segment). Compression of nerve with bone fragments of fallopian tube was found in 56.8% cases, the cleft of neural sheath and intraneural hematoma were rarer, while the nerve tear was not found in any injured. The distal part of mastoid and beginning part of parotid nerve segment were injured in over 70% cases of gunshot injuries, and in 38.5% cases the injury was multiple. Direct suture was performed in 8 nerve injuries, neuroplasty in 6, and the other injuries were managed by skeletization of fallopian tube, nerve decompression or some other microsurgical procedure. Micro-surgery was performed 7-14 days after the injury. PMID:9612121

Haralampiev, K; Risti?, B; Kitanoski, B; Jakovljevi?, B; Lili?, V

224

Clinical use of the Er,Cr: YSGG laser for osseous crown lengthening: redefining the standard of care.  

PubMed

To design the optimal outcome for a patient during aesthetic enhancement, the restorative dentist must seek to create a symmetrical and harmonious relationship between the lips, gingival architecture, and the positions of the natural dentate forms. In the author's experience, the Er,Cr: YSGG laser has been a useful adjunct for performing aesthetic surgical crown lengthening procedures. This article will highlight the associated biological principles and demonstrate techniques for the application of this laser in closed and open crown lengthening procedures. Learning Objectives: This article demonstrates the use of the Er,Cr: YSGG laser for osseous crown lengthening . Upon reading this article, the reader should have: Enhanced awareness of criteria for developing a biologically stable free gingival margin. Greater familiarity with the open and closed crown lengthening procedures, including case selection and surgical approaches. PMID:16792253

Lowe, Robert A

2006-05-01

225

Systematic Characterization of the Molecular Mechanisms That Regulate and Mediate Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Breast Carcinoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a mechanism utilized by several cancer types to maintain telomeres. The aim of this project is to characterize the mechanisms that mediate and regulate ALT activity in breast cancer, by utilizing proteomic and...

Y. Zwang

2013-01-01

226

Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).  

PubMed

Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients. PMID:24053080

Basi?-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanovi?; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

2013-06-01

227

Recognizing Upper Face Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop an automatic system to analyze subtle changes in upper face expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal image sequence. Our system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression based on Facial Action Coding System (FACS) action units (AUs). Multi-state facial component models are proposed

Ying-li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2000-01-01

228

Computer facial animation: framework, problems, and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is devoted to the problems of automatic computer facial animation. Based on the experience of Intel Facial Animation Library (IFAL) development, animation framework, methods, problems and perspectives are analyzed. IFAL is used as a part of \\

A. Fedorov; T. Firsova; V. Kuriakin; E. Martinova; V. Zhislina

229

Facial Expression Analysis by Computational Intelligence Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study involved two research fields: facial expression (i.e. psychological as well as computer-vision facets of the facial-expression-analysis problem domain) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The thesis begins, therefore, with two introductory chapte...

M. Pantic

2000-01-01

230

Learning from essential facial parts and local features for automatic facial expression recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop an automatic facial expression recognition system which establishes relations between facial expressions and the facial parts changes. Here, the differences between neutral and emotional states are used to help locating and identifying the essential facial parts for human expressions. For face description, region-based method to compute LBP features is applied then the most important ones

Yi Ji; Khalid Idrissi

2010-01-01

231

Bilateral sequential facial palsy during chickenpox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial palsy is a rare neurological complication of chickenpox. A 5-year-old girl exhibited a right facial palsy followed\\u000a by the appearance of the characteristic chicken pox exanthem. Subsequently she suffered a left facial palsy. In this patient\\u000a both pathophysiological mechanisms responsible and their relation to the phase of infection are illustrated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion Facial palsy as a complication of chickenpox can

M. van der Flier; C. van Koppenhagen; F. J. M. Disch; H. W. Mauser; J. H. G. M. Bistervels; J. A. A. M. van Diemen-Steenvoorde

1999-01-01

232

Real-Time Facial Feature Point Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localization of facial feature points is an important step for many subsequent facial image analysis tasks. In this paper,\\u000a we proposed a new coarse-to-fine method for extracting 20 facial feature points from image sequences. In particular, the Viola-Jones\\u000a face detection method is extended to detect small-scale facial components with wide shape variations, and linear Kalman filters\\u000a are used to smoothly

Ce Zhan; Wanqing Li; Philip Ogunbona; Farzad Safaei

2007-01-01

233

Face Recognition Based on Multiple Facial Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic face recognition system based on multiple facial features is described in this paper. Each facial fea- ture is represented by a Gabor-based complex vector and is localized by an automatic facial feature detection scheme. Two face recognition approaches, named Two-Layer Near- est Neighbor (TLNN) and Modular Nearest Feature Line (MNFL) respectively, are proposed. Both TLNN and MNFL are

Rui Liao; Stan Z. Li

2000-01-01

234

New “golden” ratios for facial beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four experiments, we tested the existence of an ideal facial feature arrangement that could optimize the attractiveness of any face given its facial features. Participants made paired comparisons of attractiveness between faces with identical facial features but different eye–mouth distances and different interocular distances. We found that although different faces have varying attractiveness, individual attractiveness is optimized when the

Pamela M. Pallett; Stephen Link; Kang Lee

2010-01-01

235

Automatic Facial Skin Defect Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin analysis is one of the most important procedures before medical cosmetology. Most conventional skin analysis systems are semi-automatic. They often require human intervention. In this study, an automatic facial skin defect detection approach is proposed. The system first detects human face in the facial image. Based on the detected face, facial features are extracted to locate regions of interest.

Chuan-Yu Chang; Shang-Cheng Li; Pau-Choo Chung; Jui-Yi Kuo; Yung-Chin Tu

2010-01-01

236

Skin Aging Estimation by Facial Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a layered facial simulation model for skin aging with wrinkles, which includes muscle, connective tissue and skin layer. Our aim is to simulate relevant facial animation and aging with the guidance of general facial tissue anatomy, so that the model can be extended to medical and cosmetic applications. B-spline muscle patches are automatically adapted to each individual face

Yin Wu; Pierre Beylot; Nadia Magnenat-thalmann

1999-01-01

237

Feature selection for facial expression recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In daily interactions, humans convey their emotions through facial expression and other means. There are several facial expressions that reflect distinctive psychological activities such as happiness, surprise or anger. Accurate recognition of these activities via facial image analysis will play a vital role in natural human-computer interfaces, robotics and mimetic games. This paper focuses on the extraction and selection of

P. Li; Son Lam Phung; A. Bouzerdom; F. H. C. Tivive

2010-01-01

238

A novel method for evaluating facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beauty is an abstract concept that is inherently difficult to quantify and evaluate. The analysis of facial attractiveness has received much research attention in the past. Recent work has shown that facial attractiveness can be learned by machine, using supervised learning techniques. This paper proposes a computational method for estimating facial attractiveness based on Gabor features and support vector machine

Yili Chen; Huiyun Mao; Lianwen Jin

2010-01-01

239

Human Maxilla Bone Response to 30? Oriented Impacts and Comparison With Frontal Bone Impacts  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to compare the responses of human maxilla and frontal bones under 30°-oriented impacts. Maxilla and frontal bones of the same subject were impacted by a guided horizontal steel cylinder. Linear acceleration time histories and force time histories were plotted and corridors were proposed for maxilla bone response. Sensitivity of head dynamics in regard to impact energy level and localization showed the protection of the intracranial contents by the facial bones crushing. Injury risk curves were established for impact on frontal bone, showing a 50% risk injury for impact energy of 265 J or impact force of 7500 N.

Karine, BRUYERE; Francois, BERMOND; Robert, BOUQUET; Yves, CAIRE; Michelle, RAMET; Eric, VOIGLIO

2000-01-01

240

Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development,

Luba Kalaydjieva

2006-01-01

241

Facial recognition at the CIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an

Susan Gragg

1997-01-01

242

Facial Sculpting and Tissue Augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. Until recently, deep facial sculpting was exclu- sively the domain of surgical interventions. Recent advances in the available array of dermal and subdermal fillers combined with an esthetic appreciation by both surgeons and nonsurgeons alike of the positive effect of filling the volume-depleted face have led to an expansion in the indications for the use of soft tissue augmenting

JEAN D. A. CARRUTHERS; ALASTAIR CARRUTHERS

243

Facial pain in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Facial pain is a debilitating disorder if left untreated. It has been suggested that the most commonly undiagnosed facial pain conditions include neuropathic and myofascial pains because their pathophysiologies are not well understood. Facial neuralgias are otherwise rare in children. They are not acknowledged in most paediatric tests, there are few published reports on them, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) has not been described in children. Some of the most common forms of facial pain will be considered and some considerations concerning the problem of atypical facial pain in young age and its treatment will be discussed. PMID:15926004

Grazzi, L; Usai, S; Rigamonti, A

2005-05-01

244

Facial Expressions, Emotions, and Sign Languages  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as “surprise” to complex and culture specific concepts such as “carelessly.” The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by referring to three dimensions on which facial expressions vary: semantic, compositional, and iconic.

Elliott, Eeva A.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2013-01-01

245

Volume conservation principle involved in cell lengthening and nucleus movement during tissue morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Tissue morphogenesis is the process in which coordinated movements and shape changes of large numbers of cells form tissues, organs, and the internal body structure. Understanding morphogenetic movements requires precise measurements of whole-cell shape changes over time. Tissue folding and invagination are thought to be facilitated by apical constriction, but the mechanism by which changes near the apical cell surface affect changes along the entire apical–basal axis of the cell remains elusive. Here, we developed Embryo Development Geometry Explorer, an approach for quantifying rapid whole-cell shape changes over time, and we combined it with deep-tissue time-lapse imaging based on fast two-photon microscopy to study Drosophila ventral furrow formation. We found that both the cell lengthening along the apical–basal axis and the movement of the nucleus to the basal side proceeded stepwise and were correlated with apical constriction. Moreover, cell volume lost apically due to constriction largely balanced the volume gained basally by cell lengthening. The volume above the nucleus was conserved during its basal movement. Both apical volume loss and cell lengthening were absent in mutants showing deficits in the contractile cytoskeleton underlying apical constriction. We conclude that a single mechanical mechanism involving volume conservation and apical constriction-induced basal movement of cytoplasm accounts quantitatively for the cell shape changes and the nucleus movement in Drosophila ventral furrow formation. Our study provides a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the fast dynamics of whole-cell shape changes during tissue folding and points to a simplified model for Drosophila gastrulation.

Gelbart, Michael A.; He, Bing; Martin, Adam C.; Thiberge, Stephan Y.; Wieschaus, Eric F.; Kaschube, Matthias

2012-01-01

246

Management of Temporal Bone Trauma  

PubMed Central

The temporal bones are paired structures located on the lateral aspects of the skull and contribute to the skull base. Trauma is usually the result of blunt head injury and can result in damage to the brain and meninges, the middle and internal ear, and the facial nerve. Complications can include intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral contusion, CSF leak and meningitis, hearing loss, vertigo, and facial paralysis. To prevent these complications, diagnosis followed by appropriate medical and surgical management is critical. Diagnosis relies primarily on physical signs and symptoms as well as radiographic imaging. Emergent intervention is required in situations involving herniation of the brain into the middle ear cavity or hemorrhage of the intratemporal carotid artery. Patients with declining facial nerve function are candidates for early surgical intervention. Conductive hearing loss can be corrected surgically as an elective procedure, while sensorineural hearing loss carries a poor prognosis, regardless of management approach. Children generally recover from temporal bone trauma with fewer complications than adults and experience a markedly lower incidence of facial nerve paralysis.

Patel, Alpen; Groppo, Eli

2010-01-01

247

[Neurological disease and facial recognition].  

PubMed

To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system. PMID:22764352

Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

2012-07-01

248

The lengthening hour: time and the demise of psychoanalysis as therapy.  

PubMed

Time is an under-researched area in the social sciences. Rationales concerning its use govern all forms of work activity. The case of psychoanalysis is considered as an example of a therapeutic enterprise that has foundered on its temporal recipes. The demand for shorter, sharper, faster therapeutic procedures is making analysis increasingly marginal as therapy. The writings of psychoanalysts from Freud to Lacan on time and analysis are considered and contrasted with more recent concepts of appropriate therapeutic temporal formats. It is suggested that the concept of faith as well as the unsuccessful search for an effective therapy need to be considered as explanations of psychoanalysis's inexorable lengthening. PMID:4012370

Starkey, K P

1985-01-01

249

Affect bursts: dynamic patterns of facial expression.  

PubMed

Affect bursts consist of spontaneous and short emotional expressions in which facial, vocal, and gestural components are highly synchronized. Although the vocal characteristics have been examined in several recent studies, the facial modality remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the facial correlates of affect bursts that expressed five different emotions: anger, fear, sadness, joy, and relief. Detailed analysis of 59 facial actions with the Facial Action Coding System revealed a reasonable degree of emotion differentiation for individual action units (AUs). However, less convergence was shown for specific AU combinations for a limited number of prototypes. Moreover, expression of facial actions peaked in a cumulative-sequential fashion with significant differences in their sequential appearance between emotions. When testing for the classification of facial expressions within a dimensional approach, facial actions differed significantly as a function of the valence and arousal level of the five emotions, thereby allowing further distinction between joy and relief. The findings cast doubt on the existence of fixed patterns of facial responses for each emotion, resulting in unique facial prototypes. Rather, the results suggest that each emotion can be portrayed by several different expressions that share multiple facial actions. PMID:21707163

Krumhuber, Eva G; Scherer, Klaus R

2011-08-01

250

Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

251

Mucormycosis in maxilla: Rehabilitation of facial defects using interim removable prostheses: A clinical case report.  

PubMed

Maxilla is one of the facial bones with rich vascular supply. Necrosis of maxillary bone is rare and may occur due to infection, trauma and rare metabolic disorders. Maxilla is essential bone forming the roof of oral cavity. Mucormycosis is one of the most common fungal infection, which affects maxilla especially in diabetes and immunocompromised patients. We report a case of maxillary necrosis due to mucormycosis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity of this lethal fungal infection. PMID:23956598

Kumar, Jayaraman Arun; Babu, Parthiban; Prabu, Komagan; Kumar, Prem

2013-07-01

252

Mucormycosis in maxilla: Rehabilitation of facial defects using interim removable prostheses: A clinical case report  

PubMed Central

Maxilla is one of the facial bones with rich vascular supply. Necrosis of maxillary bone is rare and may occur due to infection, trauma and rare metabolic disorders. Maxilla is essential bone forming the roof of oral cavity. Mucormycosis is one of the most common fungal infection, which affects maxilla especially in diabetes and immunocompromised patients. We report a case of maxillary necrosis due to mucormycosis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity of this lethal fungal infection.

Kumar, Jayaraman Arun; Babu, Parthiban; Prabu, Komagan; Kumar, Prem

2013-01-01

253

Tessier number 4 bilateral orbito-facial cleft: a 26-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Orbito-facial number 4 clefts are the rarest craniofacial clefts and only a few cases have been reported. We report a case of a complete bilateral Tessier number 4 cleft, and our approach to surgical correction. We analyse the patient's treatment plan over a 26-year follow-up period. We comment on the age at which the first surgical procedure is commonly performed with or without a primary bone graft, as well as the use of the facial plasty technique with interdigitating Z-plasty flaps and rotation-transposition flaps. Closure of the cleft can constitute an emergency when the patient's globe is exposed. PMID:19586777

Laure, Boris; Picard, Arnaud; Bonin-Goga, Béatrice; Letouze, Anne; Petraud, Anaïs; Goga, Dominique

2009-07-08

254

An unusual case of facial nerve palsy following soccer related minor head injury.  

PubMed

A 16 year old amateur soccer player sustained a minor head injury while contesting a ball in the air. He was unconscious for two minutes and remained "dizzy" for about an hour. After two days he developed a profound left lower motor neurone facial nerve palsy. He was found to have a complex fracture of the left petrous temporal bone, with fluid in the left middle ear and left mastoid. Treatment was conservative with oral steroids and oral co-amoxiclav and a left myringotomy to decompress his middle ear. The spectrum of aetiology, presentation, and prognosis for facial nerve injuries is discussed. PMID:16556777

Leitch, E F; Hanson, J R

2006-04-01

255

An unusual case of facial nerve palsy following soccer related minor head injury  

PubMed Central

A 16 year old amateur soccer player sustained a minor head injury while contesting a ball in the air. He was unconscious for two minutes and remained “dizzy” for about an hour. After two days he developed a profound left lower motor neurone facial nerve palsy. He was found to have a complex fracture of the left petrous temporal bone, with fluid in the left middle ear and left mastoid. Treatment was conservative with oral steroids and oral co?amoxiclav and a left myringotomy to decompress his middle ear. The spectrum of aetiology, presentation, and prognosis for facial nerve injuries is discussed.

Leitch, E F; Hanson, J R

2006-01-01

256

Outcome of limb lengthening in fibular hemimelia and a functional foot  

PubMed Central

Background The decision to recommend either reconstructive or ablative surgery to the parents of children with fibular hemimelia is difficult and debatable in the orthopaedic literature. Methods This is a retrospective study reporting our experience of the treatment of eight children (eight limbs) with fibular hemimelia with limb lengthening using Ilizarov or Taylor spatial frames. All of these children had type 1 or 2a fibular hemimelia (Achterman and Kalamchi). We used the number of rays present in the foot as a guide to decide on the treatment option. Children with more than three rays at the time of presentation were considered for limb reconstruction using Taylor spatial or Ilizarov frames. Results All patients were ambulatory and mobile with acceptable leg lengths and limb alignment at the time of last follow-up. All of them were satisfied with the outcome. Knee stiffness was a significant problem in the majority of the patients following lengthening. Conclusions We conclude that limb reconstruction in children with less severe forms of fibular hemimelia is a good option.

Changulani, M.; Ali, F.; Mulgrew, E.; Day, J. B.

2010-01-01

257

Observations of bunch lengthening effects in the APS 7-GeV storage ring  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the bunch length and horizontal beam size at a dispersive point in the lattice versus single-bunch current have been done on the Advanced Photo Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring. These data are relevant to issues (limits) of obtaining high peak currents for storage-ring-based FELs. Bunch lengths from {sigma}{sub {tau}} {approx} 25 to 70 ps were measured using a Hamamatsu C5680 dual-sweep streak camera. Additional complementary data on energy spread deduced from horizontal beam size at a dispersive point in the lattice were also tracked versus single-bunch current. Both optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) and x-ray synchrotron radiation (XSR) techniques were used. For the set of data taken at a synchrotron frequency of 1.2 kHz (indicating rf gap voltage {<=} 6 MV), the significant bunch lengthening without a comparable horizontal size change ({Delta}E growth) is consistent with the potential well distortion model rather than the predictions of a microwave instability calculation. With higher rf gap voltage, peak currents up to 400 A were observed. A bunch-lengthening effect in multibunch mode was also observed as the stored-beam current approached the available rf power limit.

Lumpkin, A.H.; Yang, B.X.; Chae, Y.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US). Advanced Photon Source

1996-12-31

258

The application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein on absorbable collagen sponge (rhBMP-2\\/ACS) to reconstruction of maxillofacial bone defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facial skeleton supports a diverse variety of functions, and thus its morphology is equally diverse. In addition, the\\u000a facial bones are altered from normal by a wide variety of processes including trauma, infection, cysts, neoplasms, congenital\\u000a defects, developmental deformities, periodontal disease, tooth extraction, atrophy, and edentulous bone loss. The potential\\u000a for successful reconstruction of these defects is based upon

Daniel B. Spagnoli

259

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

PubMed Central

Non-verbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this paper we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and non-verbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of non-verbal visual behaviour during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions.

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

260

[Facial palsy in Equatorial Africa].  

PubMed

The author presents the analysis of 29 cases of facial palsy collected in Shaba, Zaire (former Katanga, Belgian Congo) between 1984-1988 in the region called Copperbelt. Because to date there has been no work done on these problems in this part of Africa, it would be interesting to present a short report. Patients with facial palsy came to the ENT Department mostly for other reasons, and very late. Only 5 patients came before 3 mos after the onset. The different etiologies were as follows: 2--post traumatic, 7--otogenic, 9--tumors, 4--iatrogenic, 6--Bells palsy, 1--other. The assessment, comparison and the treatment of such cases in an underdeveloped country is very difficult or almost impossible. The small number of cases is insufficient for any conclusions, but the author tried to get some data, which would be a starting point in the future researches. PMID:8255587

Pietruski, J

1993-01-01

261

Cosmetic eyelid and facial surgery.  

PubMed

The goal of cosmetic surgery is to reverse anatomical changes that occur in the face with aging. It is a rapidly growing subdiscipline of ophthalmic plastic surgery and includes forehead, eyelid, mid-face, lower face, and neck surgery, most performed by ophthalmic plastic surgeons. The current article reviews updates in cosmetic eyelid and facial surgery, including minimally invasive techniques such as cable suspensions, injections, and fillers. PMID:18929758

Ben Simon, Guy J; McCann, John D

262

Body image and facial burns.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: To provide the wound care practitioner with a framework for managing altered body image. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, the reader should be able to: 1. Describe theories and research relating to normal and altered body image. 2. Discuss the effect of facial burns on body image. PMID:19096284

Sainsbury, David C G

2009-01-01

263

Predicting Facial Beauty without Landmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A fundamental task in artificial intelligence and computer vision is to build machines that can behave like a human in recognizing\\u000a a broad range of visual concepts. This paper aims to investigate and develop intelligent systems for learning the concept\\u000a of female facial beauty and producing human-like predictors. Artists and social scientists have long been fascinated by the notion of

Douglas Gray; Kai Yu; Wei Xu; Yihong Gong

2010-01-01

264

Congenital Cataracts - Facial Dysmorphism - Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key words Disease name\\/synonyms Definition\\/diagnostic criteria Epidemiology Abstract Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. To date, it has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity;

Marianne de Visser

265

Facial Rehabilitation: A Neuromuscular Reeducation, Patient-Centered Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with facial paralysis and distorted facial expressions and movements secondary to a facial neuromotor disorder experience substantial physical, psychological, and social disability. Previously, facial rehabilitation has not been widely available or considered to be of much benefit. An emerging rehabilitation science of neuromuscular reeducation and evidence for the efficacy of facial neuromuscular reeducation, a process of facilitating the return

Jessie VanSwearingen

2008-01-01

266

Facial Resurfacing With Coblation Technology  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe our experience with coblation technology for facial resurfacing Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients treated with coblation at our institution Results Twenty-four patients (22 female) underwent a total of 29 coblation procedures for aging face (n = 21) or acne scarring (n = 3). The perioral region was the most frequently treated aesthetic subunit (n = 14), followed by the lower eyelid (n = 7). Five patients underwent full-face coblation. Three patients underwent a second coblation procedure for aging face while a single patient with severe acne scarring underwent 3 procedures. Repeat coblation was delayed at least 5 months (mean, 9 months). Seventeen coblation procedures (59%) were performed concurrently with procedures including, but not limited to, injection treatment, rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, or combined face/necklift; no adverse events occurred. Seven procedures, including a full-face coblation, were performed in the office under local anesthesia and oral sedation without any adverse events. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1 week to 24 months). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the results after their final coblation treatment. Conclusions Facial coblation is a safe and effective treatment modality for facial resurfacing.

Weber, Stephen M.; Downs, Brian W.; Ferraz, Mario B.J.; Wang, Tom D.; Cook, Ted A.

2008-01-01

267

Numerical modeling of facial aging.  

PubMed

Facial aging is a biological phenomenon. Skin properties change with time, and gravity and facial expressions exert mechanical deformation. Knowledge of these alterations may suggest ways to reverse them by identifying the corresponding distortional forces. The aim of this study was to determine a pattern of change for parameters of the face during the aging process, based on the numerical fitting of measures from a sample of patients. The first aspect of this study was to define adequate facial parameters and means of measuring them. Subsequently, each parameter was defined individually, and these data were analyzed as a set. The sample for the research was restricted to a group of 40 white female patients with a history of limited exposure to the sun, with ages ranging from 25 to 65. The reason for choosing this sample was the availability of frontal pattern photographs at different ages. The parameters for each patient were measured at two different ages. A strong correlation was found between age and behavior of the parameters. This aging model can be verified qualitatively by comparing photographs of a patient with manipulated photographs simulating aging. The quantitative verification of the model was done through the comparison of the measured and the predicted parameters. PMID:9655428

Pitanguy, I; Pamplona, D; Weber, H I; Leta, F; Salgado, F; Radwanski, H N

1998-07-01

268

The biology of facial fillers.  

PubMed

The biologic behavior of a facial filler determines its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to look at the relevant biology as part of a logical basis for making treatment decisions. Historical perspectives and biologic characteristics such as local tissue reaction (including phagocytosis and granulomatous inflammation) cross-linking, particle concentration, immunogenicity, biofilm formation, gel hardness, and collagen neogenesis are considered. Bovine collagen is the most immunogenic facial filler. Porcine and bioengineered human collagen implants have very low immunogenicity, but allergic reactions and elevations of IgG are possible. Cross-linking and concentration affect the longevity of collagen and hyaluronic acid fillers. Gel hardness affects how a hyaluronic acid filler flows through the syringe and needle. Calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-L-lactic acid, and polymethylmethacrylate fillers have been shown to stimulate collagen neogenesis. It appears that any facial filler can form a granuloma. Bacterial biofilms may play a role in the activation of quiescent granulomas. Various authors interpret the definition and significance of a granuloma differently. PMID:19415574

Bentkover, Stuart H

2009-05-04

269

Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death.

Tan, Pearlie W.W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

270

Short bones  

MedlinePLUS

Short bones in the human body are often cubelike -- the length, width, and height measurements are all about the same. Short bones include the carpal bones (hands, wrist) and tarsal bones (feet, ankles)

271

Repeated short presentations of morphed facial expressions change recognition and evaluation of facial expressions.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether sensitivity to and evaluation of facial expressions varied with repeated exposure to non-prototypical facial expressions for a short presentation time. A morphed facial expression was presented for 500 ms repeatedly, and participants were required to indicate whether each facial expression was happy or angry. We manipulated the distribution of presentations of the morphed facial expressions for each facial stimulus. Some of the individuals depicted in the facial stimuli expressed anger frequently (i.e., anger-prone individuals), while the others expressed happiness frequently (i.e., happiness-prone individuals). After being exposed to the faces of anger-prone individuals, the participants became less sensitive to those individuals' angry faces. Further, after being exposed to the faces of happiness-prone individuals, the participants became less sensitive to those individuals' happy faces. We also found a relative increase in the social desirability of happiness-prone individuals after exposure to the facial stimuli. PMID:23179582

Moriya, Jun; Tanno, Yoshihiko; Sugiura, Yoshinori

2012-11-21

272

The effectiveness of neuromuscular facial retraining combined with electromyography in facial paralysis rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe study goal was to present the effectiveness of neuromuscular facial retraining techniques used in combination with electromyography for improving facial function even in cases of longstanding paralysis.

Gaye W Cronin; Ronald Leif Steenerson

2003-01-01

273

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

PubMed

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Man Wai Li, Liman

2013-03-15

274

Facial baroparesis caused by scuba diving.  

PubMed

Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkable bulging of the right tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear. PMID:22953110

Kamide, Daisuke; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

2012-02-19

275

Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving  

PubMed Central

Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkable bulging of the right tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear.

Kamide, Daisuke; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

2012-01-01

276

Facial adiposity: a cue to health?  

PubMed

Facial symmetry, averageness, sexual dimorphism, and skin colour/texture all serve as cues to attractiveness, but their role in the perception of health is less clear. This ambiguity could reflect the fact that these facial traits are not the only cues to health. We propose that adiposity is an important, but thus far disregarded, facial cue to health. Our results demonstrate two important prerequisites for any health cue. First, we show that facial adiposity, or the perception of weight in the face, significantly predicts perceived health and attractiveness. Second, we show that perceived facial adiposity is significantly associated with measures of cardiovascular health and reported infections. Perceived facial adiposity, or a correlate thereof, is therefore an important and valid cue to health that should be included in future studies. PMID:20120267

Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I; Stephen, Ian D

2009-01-01

277

Aging and facial changes--documenting clinical signs, part 1: clinical changes of the aging face.  

PubMed

The process of aging induces the transformation of the face with changes that are usually classified as either chronological or photo induced and that affect the shape, the texture, and the color of the face. Facial shape is mainly transformed by the evolution of bones and soft tissues (muscles, fat, and skin) in addition to noticeable effects of gravity. Skin texture is mainly determined by wrinkles, which arise from atrophy of the skin layers, elastosis, and facial expressions. Skin color is related to the distribution of skin chromophores and the structure of the dermis, which affects light scattering. All facial changes are dependant on sex, ethnicity, and lifestyle. They affect self-perception and social interactions and can sometimes be slowed down or reversed using appropriate clinical procedures (e.g., dermatological, surgical, and cosmetic interventions). PMID:23163070

Nkengne, Alex; Bertin, Christiane

278

Facial symmetry and the perception of beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary, as well as cultural, pressures may contribute to our perceptions of facial attractiveness. Biologists predict\\u000a that facial symmetry should be attractive, because it may signal mate quality. We tested the prediction that facial symmetry\\u000a is attractive by manipulating the symmetry of individual faces and observing the effect on attractiveness, and by examining\\u000a whether natural variations in symmetry (between faces)

Gillian Rhodes; Fiona Proffitt; Jonathon M. Grady; Alex Sumich

1998-01-01

279

A history of facial and ocular prosthetics.  

PubMed

This article traces the history of facial and ocular prosthetics. Creative individuals who have made significant contributions are highlighted and the evolution of techniques and materials is presented. In view of the significance placed upon facial beauty in today's society, it becomes incumbent upon us to recognize the ingenuity and skill of those in the past to gain appreciation for the present state of the art and to provide incentive for improving facial and ocular prosthetic restorations in the future. PMID:2248700

Reisberg, D J; Habakuk, S W

1990-01-01

280

Facial nerve palsy aboard a commercial aircraft.  

PubMed

Facial baroparesis is facial nerve palsy secondary to barotrauma. This phenomenon is frequently seen in divers, but is under-reported there and has rarely been described in aviators or passengers aboard commercial aircraft. We describe a 24-yr-old healthy aviator who experienced an episode of facial nerve palsy during ascent while traveling as a passenger aboard a commercial flight. The probable pathogenesis of this phenomenon in this case is described. PMID:15619863

Grossman, Alon; Ulanovski, David; Barenboim, Erez; Azaria, Bella; Goldstein, Liav

2004-12-01

281

Welfare Interface Using Multiple Facial Features Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose a welfare interface using multiple facial features tracking, which can efficiently implement various mouse operations.\\u000a The proposed system consist of five modules: face detection, eye detection, mouth detection, facial features tracking, and\\u000a mouse control. The facial region is first obtained using skin-color model and connected-component analysis (CCs). Thereafter\\u000a the eye regions are localized using neural network (NN)-based texture

Yunhee Shin; Eun Yi Kim

2006-01-01

282

Automated Tracking of Facial Features in Patients with Facial Neuromuscular Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial neuromuscular dysfunction severely impacts adaptive and expressive behavior and emotional health. Appropriate treatment is aided by quantitative and effi- cient assessment of facial motion impairment. We vali- dated a newly developed method of quantifying facial motion, automated face analysis (AFA), by comparing it with an established manual marking method, the Maximal Static Response Assay (MSRA). In the AFA, motion

Galen S. Wachtman; Jeffrey F. Cohn; Jessie M. VanSwearingen; Ernest K. Manders

2001-01-01

283

The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused

Kathrin Kaulard; Douglas W. Cunningham; Heinrich H. Bülthoff; Christian Wallraven

2012-01-01

284

The use of facial motion and facial form during the processing of identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that facial motion can carry information about age, gender, emotion and, at least to some extent, identity. By combining recent computer animation techniques with psychophysical methods, we show that during the computation of identity the human face recognition system integrates both types of information: individual non-rigid facial motion and individual facial form. This has important implications

Barbara Knappmeyer; Ian M. Thornton

2003-01-01

285

Facial animation reflecting personal characteristics by automatic head modeling and facial muscle adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new automatic character modeling system which can generate an individualized head model only from a facial range scan data and an individualized facial animation with expression change. The head modeling system consists of two core modules: the head modeling module which can generate a head model from a personal facial range scan data using automatic mesh completion,

Akinobu Maejima; Hiroyuki Kubo; Shigeo Morishima

2010-01-01

286

Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. CASE PRESENTATION: In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in

Katharina Junghans; Saskia Rohrbach; Maik Ellies; Rainer Laskawi

2007-01-01

287

Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.  

PubMed Central

Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. Images Figs. 1 a and b. Fig. 1c., Fig. 1d. Fig. 1f. Fig. 1g. Fig. 1h. Fig. 1i. Fig. 1m. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b., Fig. 2c., Fig. 2d. Fig. 2e. Figs. 3 a and b. Fig. 3d., Fig. 3e. Fig. 3f. Fig. 4a., Fig. 4b. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b., Fig. 5c. Figs. 5d and e. Fig. 5f. Figs. 5g. and 5h. Fig. 6a., Fig. 6b. Fig. 6c. Fig. 7a. Fig. 7b. Figs. 7e and f. Fig. 8a. Fig. 8b. Fig. 8c. Fig. 8d., Fig. 8e. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Figs. 9c. and d. Fig. 9e. Fig. 9f. Figs. 9g. and h. Figs. 11a, b, and c. Figs. 11d, e, f.

Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

1975-01-01

288

Observations of bunch-lengthening effects in the APS 7-GeV storage ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the bunch length and horizontal beam size at a bending magnet source point in the lattice versus single-bunch current have been done on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring. These data are relevant to issues (limits) of obtaining higher volume charge densities for storage-ring-based FELs. Bunch lengths from ?? ~ 25 to 70 ps were measured using a Hamamatsu C5680 dual-sweep streak camera. Additional complementary data on energy spread deduced from horizontal beam size at a dispersive point in the lattice were also tracked versus single-bunch current. Both optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) and X-ray synchrotron radiation (XSR) techniques were used. The significant bunch lengthening observed without a comparable horizontal size change (?E growth) is consistent with the potential-well distortion model rather than the predictions of a microwave instability calculation. With higher RF gap voltage, peak currents up to 400 A were observed.

Lumpkin, A. H.; Yang, B. X.; Chae, Y. C.

1997-02-01

289

Width of the normal facial canal measured by high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography.  

PubMed

Abstract Conclusions: In the facial canal, discrepancies between left and right side measurements at each point may be useful in the assessment and diagnosis of facial canal-related pathologies. Objectives: This study was performed to obtain accurate and high-resolution images of the normal facial canal and measure its widths on cross-sections of the canal at anatomically and clinically important sites using high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: CBCT volume data of bilateral temporal bones were obtained from 28 healthy adult volunteers. The widths of the bony facial canals were measured at the meatal foramen, the cochleariform process, the stapes, the pyramidal eminence, and the point of emergence of the chorda tympani in the vertical segment. Results: The widths of the facial canal at each point were similar bilaterally (r?=?0.54-0.85, p?

Komori, Masahiro; Yamada, Kazuomi; Hinohira, Yasuyuki; Aritomo, Hiroshi; Yanagihara, Naoaki

2013-11-01

290

Side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis via transposition of the intratemporal facial nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The technique of facial nerve repair with side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis is presented and evaluated in five patients\\u000a who were operated on for facial nerve paralysis after acoustic schwannoma surgery, or had cranial base trauma.\\u000a \\u000a The end-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis is accompanied by hemilingual paralysis, with difficulty in swallowing, chewing\\u000a and speaking. In this new technique, the facial nerve is mobilised in

J. Rebol; V. Milojkovi?; V. Didanovi?

2006-01-01

291

Facial nerve mapping and monitoring in lymphatic malformation surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEstablish the efficacy of preoperative facial nerve mapping and continuous intraoperative EMG monitoring in protecting the facial nerve during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

Jospeh Chiara; Greg Kinney; Jefferson Slimp; Gi Soo Lee; Sepehr Oliaei; Jonathan A. Perkins

2009-01-01

292

Histomorphometric evaluation of short-term changes in masseter muscle after lengthening the rabbit mandible by distraction osteogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Structural changes in muscles may affect the process during and after distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the mandible. However, the response of the masticatory muscles is still not well defined after gradual lengthening of the mandible. In this experimental study, short-term structural changes in masseter muscles of the rabbits are evaluated after mandibular DO. Materials and Methods: Left mandibles of

Reha S. Kisnisci

2003-01-01

293

Successful repair of popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm after tibial lengthening osteotomy in a 7-year-old boy.  

PubMed

Popliteal artery injury is a known but rare complication of elective orthopedic procedures. This case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of a popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula after a tibial lengthening osteotomy in a 7-year-old boy. PMID:18621890

Bowman, Jonathan N; Ellozy, Sharif H; Ting, Jess; Ghiassi, Saber

2008-07-11

294

Evaluation of triceps surae muscle length and resistance to passive lengthening in patients with acquired brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine changes in muscle length and resistance to passive lengthening in the triceps surae muscles in patients with recently acquired brain injury.Background. Increased passive resistance in the triceps surae muscles is common following acquired brain injury. Adaptive shortening secondary to relative immobility, and increased stiffness due to rheologic changes within the musculo-tendinous unit, may be exacerbated by plantarflexor

B Singer; J Dunne; K. P Singer; G Allison

2002-01-01

295

Storage ring free electron laser dynamics, with the inclusion of bunch lengthening and energy spread increasing effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a rate equation model of the Storage Ring Free Electron Laser dynamics, which includes bunch lengthening and energy spread increasing effects, due to the combined mechanism of potential well distortion and collective random excitations. The model is based on the ordinary storage ring Free Electron Laser equations, coupled to Haissinski-type equations, accounting for the previously quoted effects. The

G. Dattoli; L. Mezi; M. Migliorati; A. Renieri

1999-01-01

296

Lower excitability of the corticospinal tract to transcranial magnetic stimulation during lengthening contractions in human elbow flexors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to characterize the neuromuscular control during shortening (SHO) and lengthening (LEN) contractions by investigating the input-output (I\\/O) property in the corticospinal tract. To this end, the relation between various stimulus intensities applied via transcranial magnetic stimulation and the size of motor evoked potentials was investigated in six healthy subjects during elbow flexion and extension.

Hirofumi Sekiguchi; Toshitaka Kimura; Kentaro Yamanaka; Kimitaka Nakazawa

2001-01-01

297

Effect of crown lengthening and ferrule placement on static load failure of cemented cast post-cores and crowns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of Problem: Restoration of mandibular second premolars with completely missing clinical crowns in the Kennedy Class I and II arches is costly and the risk of failure is high. Should the dentist choose crown-lengthening to allow the addition of a ferrule, despite incurring the disadvantage of an increased crown\\/root ratio? Purpose: This in vitro study determined the combined effect

Anthony G. Gegauff

2000-01-01

298

Facial pigmentation associated with amiodarone.  

PubMed

Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used drugs for treatment of cardiac arrhythmia. Several undesirable effects are associated with its long-term use. This report describes the case of a 71-year-old female patient, with a diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia, who presented with a stigmatizing blue-gray facial pigmentation and altered serum values of thyroid hormones associated with the intake of amiodarone. The patient was referred to her cardiologist. The aim of this report is to increase clinicians' awareness about the potential adverse effects of this drug. PMID:23823354

Gonzalez-Arriagada, Wilfredo Alejandro; Silva, Alan Roger Santos; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

2013-07-01

299

Shift of activity from slow to fast muscle during voluntary lengthening contractions of the triceps surae muscles in humans.  

PubMed Central

1. Raw or rectified and integrated electromyograms (integrated EMGs) of the leg muscles were recorded during (a) isotonic ramp shortening or lengthening contractions consisting of foot plantar flexions against a constant load, or dorsal flexions accomplished by braking the load and yielding to it, respectively, and (b) isometric increasing or decreasing plantar torques accomplished by graded contractions or relaxations of the triceps muscles. 2. During plantar flexions or increasing torques, the EMG of soleus, gastrocnemius lateralis, medialis, and peroneus increased in parallel. During decreasing torques, motor unit derecruitment took place gradually and simultaneously. The tibialis anterior was silent. During dorsal flexions, one of two characteristic patterns was observed in different subjects: (a) soleus was abruptly derecruited at the beginning of the task, while gastrocnemius lateralis (or medialis) exhibited a large recruitment lasting throughout the lengthening contraction; (b) soleus remained active during the task, showing large motor unit potentials, while the gastrocnemius lateralis recruitment was of a lesser extent than in (a). Peroneus derecruitment was gradual and tibialis anterior activity was absent in both cases. 3. The EMG patterns observed during plantar flexions or in increasing and decreasing torques, and the two patterns observed during shortening or lengthening contractions, were closely reproduced during sinusoidal oscillations of the foot or in isometric contractions and relaxations. 4. When recruitment of the gastrocnemius lateralis was present during dorsal flexion, the slope of its integrated EMG envelope was steeper, the higher the velocity of lengthening contraction. The most rapid and the slowest tasks, however, did not require its activation. Gastrocnemius lateralis integrated EMGs of an amplitude similar to those occurring during lengthening contractions were observed only during ballistic plantar flexions. 5. The two patterns of triceps activation occurring during lengthening contraction could be traced to different mechanical characteristics of the soleus muscles, the gastrocnemius lateralis being activated preferentially in subjects with long soleus half-relaxation times, and the soleus in subjects with short soleus half-relaxation times. 6. The soleus and gastrocnemius lateralis H reflexes were tested during shortening and lengthening contractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Nardone, A; Schieppati, M

1988-01-01

300

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed.

SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

2007-01-01

301

Facial feedback hypotheses: Evidence, implications, and directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review evaluates four facial feedback hypotheses, each proposing a certain relation between the face and emotions. It addresses criticisms of the data, considers implications for emotional and social processes, and advises directions for future research. The current data support the following: Facial actions are sensitive to social context, yet correspond to the affective dimension of emotions; matches with specific

Daniel N. McIntosh

1996-01-01

302

Unspoken Vowel Recognition Using Facial Electromyogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to identify speech using the facial muscle activity without the audio signals. The paper presents an effective technique that measures the relative muscle activity of the articulatory muscles. Five English vowels were used as recognition variables. This paper reports using moving root mean square (RMS) of surface electromyogram (SEMG) of four facial muscles to segment the signal

Sridhar P Arjunan; Dinesh K Kumar; Wai C Yau; Hans Weghorn

2006-01-01

303

Facial feature extraction and pose determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined approach for facial feature extraction and determination of gaze direction isproposed that employs some improved variations of the adaptive Hough transform for curvedetection, minima analysis of feature candidates, template matching for inner facial featurelocalization, active contour models for inner face contour detection and projective geometryproperties for accurate pose determination. The aim is to provide a sufficient set of

Athanasios Nikolaidis; Ioannis Pitas

2000-01-01

304

Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

2007-01-01

305

Restorative Interventions for HIV Facial Lipoatrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial lipoatrophy is a common and distressing manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy. The changes in facial appearance can reduce quality of life, self esteem and antiretroviral adherence. Apart from the modest benefits of thymidine-based nucleoside analog cessation, there are no proven therapies for lipoatrophy. Management of established fat loss can be challenging as restoration of lost fat mass is extremely gradual.

Dianne Care; Steven Liew; Sean Emery

306

Facial action unit recognition with sparse representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel framework for recognition of facial action unit (AU) combinations by viewing the classification as a sparse representation problem. Based on this framework, we represent a facial image exhibiting the combination of AUs as a sparse linear combination of basis constituting an overcomplete dictionary. We build an overcomplete dictionary whose main elements are mean Gabor features

Mohammad H. Mahoor; Mu Zhou; Kevin L. Veon; Seyed Mohammad Mavadati; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2011-01-01

307

Direct needle fixation in endoscopic facial rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several authors have described the application of video endoscopy to facial rejuvenation to minimize incisions. Methods of fixation used in this technique include miniplates, tunnels in the outer tissues, and tissue glues. Objective: In this study, we examined the efficacy of endoscopic facial rejuvenation with direct transcutaneous needle fixation. Methods: Detailed preoperative markings were placed to outline important anatomical

Carlos Casagrande; Renato Saltz; Roberto Chem; Rinaldo Pinto; Marcus Collares

2000-01-01

308

Facial feature detection using distance vector fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for eye and mouth detection and eye center and mouth corner localization, based on geometrical information is presented in this paper. First, a face detector is applied to detect the facial region, and the edge map of this region is calculated. The distance vector field of the face is extracted by assigning to every facial image pixel

Stylianos Asteriadis; Nikos Nikolaidis; Ioannis Pitas

2009-01-01

309

The Ideal of Facial Beauty: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review article we examine the question as to which parameters of facial attraction are amenable to measurement and which tools are available to perform these measurements. The evaluation of facial images, artistic standards, cephalometry, and anthropometry are discussed. Furthermore, we consider how the attractiveness of a face is influenced by symmetry, averageness and distinguishing features such as dental

Mirjam Hönn; Gernot Göz

2007-01-01

310

Effects of Facial Hair in Oxygen Masks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to determine whether or not hazards are associated with facial hair on Naval aircrewmen using oxygen breathing equipment. The study showed that undesirable conditions do exist because of facial hair, but there is no evidence...

D. G. Naber

1972-01-01

311

Young children's stereotyping of facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Showed 65 preschoolers (3-61\\/2 yrs old) facial photographs of peers who by adult standards would be considered attractive or unattractive. It was found that Ss reliably discriminated differences in facial attractiveness; furthermore, their judgments were in the same direction as adults' judgments. Also, Ss showed a significant preference for attractive children as potential friends and corresponding dislike of unattractive children.

Karen K. Dion

1973-01-01

312

Brain systems for assessing facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The aim of the present investigation is to address whether the

Joel S. Winston; John O’Doherty; James M. Kilner; David I. Perrett; Raymond J. Dolan

2007-01-01

313

Shape analysis of female facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that female facial attractiveness is associated with exaggerated sex-specific facial traits and averageness. Here we applied geometric morphometrics, a method for multivariate statistical analysis of shape, to measure geometric averageness and geometric sexual dimorphism of natural female face profiles. Geometric averageness and geometric sexual dimorphism correlate with attractiveness ratings. However, principal component analysis extracted a shape

Dario Riccardo Valenzano; Andrea Mennucci; Giandonato Tartarelli; Alessandro Cellerino

2006-01-01

314

Difficulties in differentiation of Parry–Romberg syndrome, unilateral facial sclerodermia, and Rasmussen syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Parry–Romberg syndrome (progressive facial hemiatrophy) is a unilateral, slowly progressive atrophy affecting the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, and bones. The relationship between Parry–Romberg syndrome and connective tissue disorders, especially scleroderma en coup de sabre, is still unclear. The neurological symptoms, including epilepsy, migraine, and brain lesion, on neuroimaging may be similar. Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is connected with chronic inflammation and

Justyna Paprocka; Ewa Jamroz; Dariusz Adamek; Elzbieta Marszal; Marek Mandera

2006-01-01

315

How Does Facial Feedback Modulate Emotional Experience?  

PubMed Central

Contracting muscles involved in facial expressions (e.g. smiling or frowning) can make emotions more intense, even when unaware one is modifying expression (e.g. Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988). However, it is unresolved whether and how inhibiting facial expressions might weaken emotional experience. In the present study, 142 participants watched positive and negative video clips while either inhibiting their facial expressions or not. When hypothesis awareness and effects of distraction were experimentally controlled, inhibiting facial expressions weakened some emotional experiences. These findings provide new insight into ways that inhibition of facial expression can affect emotional experience: the link is not dependent on experimental demand, lay theories about connections between expression and experience, or the distraction involved in inhibiting one’s expressions.

Davis, Joshua Ian; Senghas, Ann; Ochsner, Kevin N.

2009-01-01

316

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM), facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD), genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

2010-01-01

317

Averaging facial expression over time  

PubMed Central

The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time.

Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David

2010-01-01

318

A rare cause of facial nerve palsy in children: hyperostosis corticalis generalisata (Van Buchem disease). Three new pediatric cases and a literature review.  

PubMed

Differential diagnosis of facial nerve palsy in children is extensive. We report on three pediatric cases presenting with facial nerve palsy caused by hyperostosis corticalis generalisata (Van Buchem disease). This autosomal recessive disease is characterized by progressive bone overgrowth, with narrowing of the neuroforamina in the skull causing cranial neuropathies. These three new cases of Van Buchem disease are of interest because of exceptionally early presentation of symptoms. Furthermore, this is the first report describing bilateral papilledema in a child with Van Buchem disease. Head computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed thickened calvarium, skull base and mandible in all three children, with narrowed facial nerve canals. Bone mineral density (BMD) was markedly increased at all measured points and biochemical markers of bone formation were significantly elevated. Diagnosis of Van Buchem disease was genetically confirmed. The cases are unique in that these are the first well-documented pediatric cases of Van Buchem disease. PMID:22445802

van Egmond, M E; Dikkers, F G; Boot, A M; van Lierop, A H J M; Papapoulos, S E; Brouwer, O F

2012-03-22

319

Comparison of planar images and SPECT with bayesean preprocessing for the demonstration of facial anatomy and craniomandibular disorders  

SciTech Connect

Craniomandiublar disorders involving the facial anatomy may be difficult to demonstrate in planar images. Although bone scanning is generally more sensitive than radiography, facial bone anatomy is complex and focal areas of increased or decreased radiotracer may become obscured by overlapping structures in planar images. Thus SPECT appears ideally suited to examination of the facial skeleton. A series of patients with craniomandibular disorders of unknown origin were imaged using 20 mCi Tc-99m MDP. Planar and SPECT (Siemens 7500 ZLC Orbiter) images were obtained four hours after injection. The SPECT images were reconstructed with a filtered back-projection algorithm. In order to improve image contrast and resolution in SPECT images, the rotation views were pre-processed with a Bayesean deblurring algorithm which has previously been show to offer improved contrast and resolution in planar images. SPECT images using the pre-processed rotation views were obtained and compared to the SPECT images without pre-processing and the planar images. TMJ arthropathy involving either the glenoid fossa or the mandibular condyle, orthopedic changes involving the mandible or maxilla, localized dental pathosis, as well as changes in structures peripheral to the facial skeleton were identified. Bayesean pre-processed SPECT depicted the facial skeleton more clearly as well as providing a more obvious demonstration of the bony changes associated with craniomandibular disorders than either planar images or SPECT without pre-processing.

Kircos, L.T.; Ortendahl, D.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Faulkner, D.; Taylor, R.L.

1984-01-01

320

Automated Facial Action Coding System for Dynamic Analysis of Facial Expressions in Neuropsychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen’s Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, which can facilitate statistical study of large populations in disorders affecting facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity.

Hamm, Jihun; Kohler, Christian G.; Gur, Ruben C.; Verma, Ragini

2011-01-01

321

Puckering and Blowing Facial Expressions in People With Facial Movement Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: People with facial movement disorders are instructed to perform various facial movements as part of their physical therapy rehabilitation. A difference in the movement of the orbicularis oris muscle has been demonstrated among people without facial nerve impairments when instructed to “pucker your lips” and to “blow, as if blowing out a candle.” The objective of this study was to determine whether the within-subject difference between “pucker your lips” and “blow, as if blowing out a candle” found in people without facial nerve impairments is present in people with facial movement disorders. Subjects and Methods: People (N=68) with unilateral facial movement disorders were observed as they produced puckering and blowing movements. Automated facial image analysis of both puckering and blowing was used to determine the difference between facial actions for the following movement variables: maximum speed, amplitude, duration, and corresponding asymmetry. Results: There was a difference between the amplitudes of movement for puckering and blowing. “Blow, as if blowing out a candle” produced a larger amplitude of movement. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that puckering and blowing movements in people with facial movement disorders differ in a manner that is consistent with differences found in people who are healthy. This information may be useful in the assessment of and intervention for facial movement disorders affecting the lower face.

Denlinger, Rachel L; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Schmidt, Karen L

2008-01-01

322

Automated Facial Action Coding System for dynamic analysis of facial expressions in neuropsychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen's Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, and they can facilitate a statistical study of large populations in disorders known to impact facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity. PMID:21741407

Hamm, Jihun; Kohler, Christian G; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

2011-06-29

323

Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.  

PubMed

The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane

2013-02-18

324

Acrylic splints for dental alignment in complex facial injuries.  

PubMed

Twenty-four patients with complex facial injuries were managed by wide subperiosteal exposure, precise anatomical reduction, rigid internal fixation, and immediate bone grafting when indicated, in conjunction with dental impressions, model surgery, and fabrication of dental splints to establish proper preinjury occlusion. The study population consisted of 18 men and 6 women, whose ages ranged from 18 to 49 years (mean, 30.7 yr) at the time of injury. High velocity motor vehicle accidents were responsible for facial injuries in 18 patients, gunshot wounds in 2, low velocity blunt trauma in 3, and falls in 1. All facial fractures involved the occlusion, and unstable and/or comminuted palatal/maxillary and mandibular fractures, often with edentulous segments, were the major indications for fabrication of acrylic splints. Depending on the nature of the fracture pattern, model surgery was performed on the maxillary and/or mandibular models and segmented along fracture lines. These fragments were then repositioned according to dental wear facets and preinjury occlusion. When possible, preinjury occlusal records were obtained before splint fabrication. Models were mounted on a Galetti articulator and palatal, lingual, and/or occlusal splints were fabricated. Edentulous segments were compensated for by local buildup of the splints to produce an occlusal stop. Arch bars were fixed directly to the splint with acrylic. Twenty-six splints were used in the 24 patients to establish proper occlusal relationships before internal fixation of fractures. The types of splints were palatal (n = 8), palatal-occlusal (n = 6), lingual (n = 8), lingual-occlusal (n = 1), and occlusal (n = 3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8285525

Cohen, S R; Leonard, D K; Markowitz, B L; Manson, P N

1993-11-01

325

Spectrum of critical imaging findings in complex facial skeletal trauma.  

PubMed

Multidetector computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice for the evaluation of facial trauma because it helps accurately identify and characterize fractures and associated complications, thereby aiding timely clinical management and surgical planning. In particular, CT clearly depicts clinically relevant fractures in the eight osseous struts or buttresses that function as an underlying scaffold for facial structures. Information about the involvement of specific facial buttresses in a complex fracture is helpful for determining the type of fracture present and for identifying associated soft-tissue injuries that may require urgent care or surgery. Various kinds of complications can be expected to occur in Le Fort fractures, which affect the full thickness of the pterygoid plates, with resultant dissociation of part or all of the maxilla from the skull base; naso-orbitoethmoid complex fractures, which involve the medial orbital wall, nasal bone, ethmoid sinuses, and, often, the attachment site of the medial canthal tendon; zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures, which disrupt all four zygomatic sutures and may lead to enophthalmos due to increased orbital volume because of angulation of the lateral orbital wall; orbital "blowout" fractures, which may result in extraocular muscle herniation or entrapment and injuries to the globe or the infraorbital nerve; and fractures of the alveolar process, which are treated as open fractures because of their extension through the gingiva to the oral cavity and their resultant vulnerability to infection. Similarly, extension of a frontal sinus fracture through the posterior sinus wall creates a portal to the anterior cranial fossa and may lead to cerebrospinal fluid leakage, intracranial hemorrhage, or intracranial infection. PMID:23322824

Winegar, Blair A; Murillo, Horacio; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

326

Facial symmetry is positively associated with self-reported extraversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fink et al. (2005) reported significant associations between facial symmetry and scores on some of the “big five” personality dimensions derived from self-report data. In particular, they identified a positive association between facial symmetry and extraversion, but negative associations between facial symmetry and both agreeableness and openness. Fink et al. (2005) used a measure of facial symmetry based on analysis

Nicholas Pound; Ian S. Penton-Voak; William M. Brown

2007-01-01

327

Respirator Fit and Facial Dimensions of Two Minority Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seal of a respirator to a worker's face can be influenced by the worker's facial dimensions. Males and females of the same and different racial\\/ethnic backgrounds exhibit different facial dimension measurements. This research was conducted to ascertain the relationship between facial dimensions influenced by race\\/ethnicity and gender to respirator fit. Facial dimensions and respirator fit were measured on 186

William J. Brazile; Roy M. Buchan; Del R. Sandfort; Walter Melvin; Janet A. Johnson; Michael Charney

1998-01-01

328

Image Warping by Radial Basis Functions: Application to Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human face is an elastic object. A natural paradigm for representing facial expressions is to form a complete 3D model of facial muscles and tissues. However, determining the actual parameter values for synthesizing and animating facial expressions is tedious; evaluating these parameters for facial expression analysis out of grey-level images is ahead of the state of the art in

Nur Arad; Nira Dyn; Daniel Reisfeld; Yehezkel Yeshurun

1994-01-01

329

Automatic Recognition of Facial Actions in Spontaneous Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous facial expressions differ from posed expressions in both which muscles are moved, and in the dy- namics of the movement. Advances in the field of automatic facial expression measurement will require development and assessment on spontaneous behavior. Here we present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous facial expressions. We employ a user indepen- dent

Marian Stewart Bartlett; Gwen C. Littlewort; Mark G. Frank; Claudia Lainscsek; Ian R. Fasel; Javier R. Movellan

2006-01-01

330

Categorical perception of affective and linguistic facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX discrimination and identification tasks on morphed affective and linguistic facial expression continua. The continua

Stephen McCullough; Karen Emmorey

2009-01-01

331

Facial soft tissue thickness in Japanese female children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on soft tissue thickness measurements. Many studies of facial tissue thickness in adults have been published that take racial background into account. However, the only data on facial thickness in children are derived from studies of American, British, and Hispanic children. The authors therefore measured facial tissue thickness in Japanese children,

Hajime Utsuno; Tooru Kageyama; Toshio Deguchi; Mineo Yoshino; Hiroo Miyazawa; Katsuhiro Inoue

2005-01-01

332

Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Mrs PS, 78 years of age, presented with acute left-sided otalgia, ear swelling and subsequent unilateral facial paralysis (Figure 1). She denied any otorrhoea or hearing loss. Past medical history relevant to the presenting complaint included: * Bell palsy diagnosed 20 years ago with no residual effect * biopsy confirmed benign parotid lump (diagnosed 3 years previously). Histopathology revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. Mrs PS declined surgical intervention at the time * chicken pox as a child * normal fasting blood glucose 1 month previously and no known immune compromise. Examination revealed yellow crusts and small vesicles on the external acoustic meatus (Figure 2). A 10 mm well defined firm and nontender nodule was palpable at the ramus of the mandible. PMID:21597548

Yeong, Siew Swan; Tassone, Peter

2011-05-01

333

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

PubMed Central

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges.

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

334

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.  

PubMed

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

2011-06-12

335

Facial hyperpigmentation: causes and treatment.  

PubMed

By midcentury, the U.S.A. will be more ethnically and racially diverse. Skin of colour will soon constitute nearly one-half of the U.S. population, and a full understanding of skin conditions that affect this group is of great importance. Structural and functional differences in the skin, as well as the influence of cultural practices, produce variances in skin disease and presentation based on skin type. In the skin of colour population, dyschromia is a growing concern, and a top chief complaint when patients present to the physician. A thorough understanding of the aetiology and management strategies of facial hyperpigmentation is of importance in caring for those afflicted and also in the development of new therapies. PMID:24098900

Vashi, N A; Kundu, R V

2013-10-01

336

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

PubMed Central

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners.

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

337

Facial recognition at the CIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an 'electronic mug book.' Using some simple collateral information about a suspect (height, age and sex) and a photograph, the system gives users the ability to identify an unknown person with a reasonable probability. The system matches information extracted from the photographs with similar information extracted from a database of photographs of existing suspects. The technology was subsequently transferred to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for use by the Border Patrol.

Gragg, Susan

1997-01-01

338

Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed.

Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

339

The Combined Use of rhBMP-2/ACS, Autogenous Bone Graft, a Bovine Bone Mineral Biomaterial, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Guided Bone Regeneration at Nonsubmerged Implant Placement for Supracrestal Bone Augmentation. A Case Report.  

PubMed

This case report presents the clinical application and outcomes of the use of a combined approach to treat a patient with a severe alveolar defect. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge carrier, along with autogenous bone graft, bovine bone mineral, platelet-rich plasma, and guided bone regeneration, were used simultaneous with nonsubmerged implant placement. At 1 year postsurgery, healthy peri-implant soft tissues and radiographically stable peri-implant crestal bone levels were observed along with locally increased radiographic bone density. In addition, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan demonstrated apparent supracrestal peri-implant bone augmentation with the appearance of normal alveolar ridge contours, including the facial bone wall. PMID:24066344

Sclar, Anthony G; Best, Steven P

340

New "Golden" Ratios for Facial Beauty  

PubMed Central

In four experiments, we tested the existence of an ideal facial feature arrangement that could optimize the attractiveness of any face given its facial features. Participants made paired comparisons of attractiveness between faces with identical facial features but different eye-mouth distances and different interocular distances. We found that although different faces have varying attractiveness, individual attractiveness is optimized when the face’s vertical distance between the eyes and the mouth is approximately 36% of its length, and the horizontal distance between the eyes is approximately 46% of the face’s width. These “new” golden ratios match those of an average face.

Pallett, Pamela M.; Link, Stephen; Lee, Kang

2009-01-01

341

Symptomatic varix of the facial vein.  

PubMed

Varices of the facial and neck region are extremely rare, and the most prevalent varices in this region affect the orbital vein. To date, no report on a patent and symptomatic varix of the facial vein has been published, because these varices are particularly rare and most often thrombosed at the time of diagnosis. We present a patient with a prominent patent varix of the right facial vein. After a magnetic resonance imaging scan and duplex ultrasonography, the lesion was treated via surgical exploration, ligation, and complete excision. At 6 months of follow-up, no signs of recurrence were noted. PMID:23988543

Teraa, Martin; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Moll, Frans L; de Borst, Gert Jan

2013-08-26

342

Congenital Horner's syndrome with unilateral facial flushing.  

PubMed Central

Two patients with congenital Horner's syndrome had unilateral facial flushing. Both showed pupillary supersensitivity to epinephrine as well as anhidrosis on the affected side of the face and neck. Facial skin temperature after exercise increased on the intact side, but decreased on the affected side. Thermal vasodilation in the major portions of the face is regulated by sympathetic vasodilator fibres, and less predominantly by adrenergic vasoconstrictor fibres. The asymmetry of facial flushing may have been caused by impaired sympathetic vasodilation and further intensified by active vasoconstriction due to supersensitivity to circulating catecholamine on the affected side.

Saito, H

1990-01-01

343

The history of facial palsy and spasm  

PubMed Central

Although Sir Charles Bell was the first to provide the anatomic basis for the condition that bears his name, in recent years researchers have shown that other European physicians provided earlier clinical descriptions of peripheral cranial nerve 7 palsy. In this article, we describe the history of facial distortion by Greek, Roman, and Persian physicians, culminating in Razi's detailed description in al-Hawi. Razi distinguished facial muscle spasm from paralysis, distinguished central from peripheral lesions, gave the earliest description of loss of forehead wrinkling, and gave the earliest known description of bilateral facial palsy. In doing so, he accurately described the clinical hallmarks of a condition that we recognize as Bell palsy.

Sajadi, Mohamad-Reza M.; Tabatabaie, Seyed Mahmoud

2011-01-01

344

Eye movement during facial affect recognition by patients with schizophrenia, using Japanese pictures of facial affect.  

PubMed

A possible relationship between recognition of facial affect and aberrant eye movement was examined in patients with schizophrenia. A Japanese version of standard pictures of facial affect was prepared. These pictures of basic emotions (surprise, anger, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness) were shown to 19 schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy controls who identified emotions while their eye movements were measured. The proportion of correct identifications of 'disgust' was significantly lower for schizophrenic patients, their eye fixation time was significantly longer for all pictures of facial affect, and their eye movement speed was slower for some facial affects (surprise, fear, and sadness). One index, eye fixation time for "happiness," showed a significant difference between the high- and low-dosage antipsychotic drug groups. Some expected facial affect recognition disorder was seen in schizophrenic patients responding to the Japanese version of affect pictures, but there was no correlation between facial affect recognition disorder and aberrant eye movement. PMID:22185055

Shiraishi, Yuko; Ando, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Sayaka; Norikane, Kazuya; Kurayama, Shigeki; Abe, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yasushi

2011-10-01

345

The roles of WRN and BLM RecQ helicases in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.  

PubMed

Approximately 10% of all cancers, but a higher proportion of sarcomas, use the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. Two RecQ helicase genes, BLM and WRN, play important roles in homologous recombination repair and they have been implicated in telomeric recombination activity, but their precise roles in ALT are unclear. Using analysis of sequence variation present in human telomeres, we found that a WRN- ALT+ cell line lacks the class of complex telomere mutations attributed to inter-telomeric recombination in other ALT+ cell lines. This suggests that WRN facilitates inter-telomeric recombination when there are sequence differences between the donor and recipient molecules or that sister-telomere interactions are suppressed in the presence of WRN and this promotes inter-telomeric recombination. Depleting BLM in the WRN- ALT+ cell line increased the mutation frequency at telomeres and at the MS32 minisatellite, which is a marker of ALT. The absence of complex telomere mutations persisted in BLM-depleted clones, and there was a clear increase in sequence homogenization across the telomere and MS32 repeat arrays. These data indicate that BLM suppresses unequal sister chromatid interactions that result in excessive homogenization at MS32 and at telomeres in ALT+ cells. PMID:22989712

Mendez-Bermudez, Aaron; Hidalgo-Bravo, Alberto; Cotton, Victoria E; Gravani, Athanasia; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Royle, Nicola J

2012-09-18

346

Oxycodone lengthens reproductions of suprasecond time intervals in human research volunteers  

PubMed Central

Oxycodone, a popularly used opioid for treating pain, is widely abused. Other drugs of abuse have been shown to affect time perception, which in turn may affect sensitivity to future consequences. This may contribute to continued use. The current study evaluated the effect of oxycodone on time perception in normal healthy volunteers. For this within-subject, double-blind design study, participants performed a temporal reproduction task before and after receiving placebo or oxycodone (15 mg, po) over 6 outpatient sessions. Participants were first trained with feedback to reproduce three standard intervals (1.1, 2.2, and 3.3 s) in separate blocks by matching response latency from a start signal to the duration of that block’s standard interval. During testing participants were instructed to reproduce the three intervals from memory without feedback before and after drug administration . Oxycodone significantly lengthened time estimations for the two longer intervals relative to placebo. These results suggest that opioids alter temporal processing for intervals greater than one second, raising questions about the effect of these drugs on valuation of future consequences.

Gooch, Cynthia M.; Rakitin, Brian C.; Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D.; Balsam, Peter D

2011-01-01

347

The roles of WRN and BLM RecQ helicases in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres  

PubMed Central

Approximately 10% of all cancers, but a higher proportion of sarcomas, use the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomeres. Two RecQ helicase genes, BLM and WRN, play important roles in homologous recombination repair and they have been implicated in telomeric recombination activity, but their precise roles in ALT are unclear. Using analysis of sequence variation present in human telomeres, we found that a WRN– ALT+ cell line lacks the class of complex telomere mutations attributed to inter-telomeric recombination in other ALT+ cell lines. This suggests that WRN facilitates inter-telomeric recombination when there are sequence differences between the donor and recipient molecules or that sister-telomere interactions are suppressed in the presence of WRN and this promotes inter-telomeric recombination. Depleting BLM in the WRN– ALT+ cell line increased the mutation frequency at telomeres and at the MS32 minisatellite, which is a marker of ALT. The absence of complex telomere mutations persisted in BLM-depleted clones, and there was a clear increase in sequence homogenization across the telomere and MS32 repeat arrays. These data indicate that BLM suppresses unequal sister chromatid interactions that result in excessive homogenization at MS32 and at telomeres in ALT+ cells.

Mendez-Bermudez, Aaron; Hidalgo-Bravo, Alberto; Cotton, Victoria E.; Gravani, Athanasia; Jeyapalan, Jennie N.; Royle, Nicola J.

2012-01-01

348

Molecular and morphologic correlates of the alternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype in high-grade astrocytomas.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that the telomere maintenance mechanism known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is relatively more common in specific glioma subsets and strongly associated with ATRX mutations. We retrospectively examined 116 high-grade astrocytomas (32 pediatric glioblastomas, 65 adult glioblastomas, 19 anaplastic astrocytomas) with known ALT status using tissue microarrays to identify associations with molecular and phenotypic features. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against ATRX, DAXX, p53 and IDH1(R132H) mutant protein. EGFR amplification was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Almost half of fibrillary and gemistocytic astrocytomas (44%) demonstrated ALT. Conversely all gliosarcomas (n?=?4), epithelioid (n?=?2), giant cell (n?=?2) and adult small cell astrocytomas (n?=?7) were ALT negative. The ALT phenotype was positively correlated with the presence of round cells (P?=?0.002), microcysts (P?

Nguyen, Doreen N; Heaphy, Christopher M; de Wilde, Roeland F; Orr, Brent A; Odia, Yazmin; Eberhart, Charles G; Meeker, Alan K; Rodriguez, Fausto J

2012-09-24

349

1500 MHZ Passive SRF Cavity for Bunch Lengthening in the NSLS-II Storage Ring  

SciTech Connect

NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3 GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. Ion clearing gaps are required to suppress ion effects on the beam. The natural bunch length of 3mm is planned to be lengthened by means of a third harmonic cavity in order to increase the Touschek limited lifetime. After an extensive investigation of different cavity geometries, a passive, superconducting two-cell cavity has been selected for prototyping. The cavity is HOM damped with ferrite absorbers on the beam pipes. The two-cell cavity simplifies the tuner design, compared to having two independent cells. Tradeoffs between the damping of the higher order modes, thermal isolation associated with the large beam tubes, and overall cavity length are described. A copper prototype has been constructed, and measurements of fundamental and higher order modes will be compared to calculated values.

Yanagisawa,T.; Rose, J.; Grimm, T.; Bogle, A.

2009-05-04

350

Novel approaches in 3-dimensional facial profiling to establish facial aesthetic objectives in the treatment of facial dysmorphologies.  

PubMed

When confronted with facial dysmorphologies, three-dimensional (3D) facial harmony is preferably assessed with regard to normality. This, however, presents two major challenges. The first challenge is to define normality. What makes non-dysmorphic faces appear normal? The second challenge is to situate the craniofacial dysmorphology with respect to normality. What makes the dysmorphic face not appear to be normal? To tackle these challenges, a novel approach based on a Face Space is proposed. In essence, faces are represented as points in a High-dimensional space, the dimensions of which capture important sources of allowed facial variation within a normal population. To establish an aesthetic objective of a given dysmorphic face, the novel concept of the "normal equivalent" of that face via robust projection into the Face Space is proposed. This technique is demonstrated on an artificial example in which smiling whilst showing teeth is considered a surrogate for facial dysmorphology. PMID:22046737

Claes, Peter; Walters, Mark; Clement, John

2010-03-01

351

Correction of large facial encephalocele with bilateral rare craniofacial clefts.  

PubMed

Treatment of Tessier number 3, 11 craniofacial clefts represent a surgical challenge with complex bone and soft tissue deficits of the lip, cheek, medial orbit, and forehead. The severity of the presenting defect will ultimately determine the number of reconstructive stages required as well as the timing of each stage. Initial surgery in infancy is aimed at functional correction. We present the case of a patient with an expanding fronto-orbital encephalocele, a right number 3, 11 cleft and a left number 3, 10 cleft. The initial procedure repaired the encephalocele and reconstructed the supraorbital and forehead regions. Subsequent surgeries corrected the bilateral facial clefts with cleft lip repair, rotation of the forehead and nasal unit, cheek advancement, and a lower eyelid transposition flap. PMID:21239931

Wan, Derrick C; Lazareff, Jorge A; Jarrahy, Reza; Bradley, James P

2011-01-01

352

Non-photorealistic 3-D Facial Animation on the PDA Based on Facial Expression Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a facial expression recognition-synthesis system. In the front, it detects a facial area within the given image and then classifies its facial expression into 7 emotional weightings. Such weighting information, transmitted to the PDA via a mobile network, is used for non-photorealistic fa- cial expression animation. The cartoon-like shading method, adopted as a non- photorealistic 3-D technique,

Soo-mi Choi; Yong-guk Kim; Don-soo Lee; Sung-oh Lee; Gwi-tae Park

2004-01-01

353

Facial identity and facial speech processing: Familiar faces and voices in the McGurk effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to investigate the claims made by Bruce and Young (1986) for the independence of facial identity\\u000a and facial speech processing. A well-reported phenomenon in audiovisual speech perception—theMcGurk effect (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976), in which synchronous but conflicting auditory and visual phonetic information is presented to\\u000a subjects—was utilized as a dynamic facial speech processing task. An element

Stephanie Walker; Vicki Bruce; Claire O’Malley

1995-01-01

354

Rubber Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

Houston, Children'S M.

2011-01-01

355

Periprosthetic Femoral Fracture After a Well-Fixed Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty Treated With In Situ Effective Lengthening of Prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of total knee arthroplasties implies a greater likelihood of periprosthetic fractures and need for successful treatment options. We report a case where in situ effective lengthening of the stem of a well-fixed indwelling prosthesis by a custom-made intramedullary nail with taper-lock coupling provided a successful alternative to the established internal fixation techniques involving prosthesis exchange. We believe

Bharat S. Mody; Anoop O. Khandelwal; Ajay C. Wala

2010-01-01

356

Effects of intramuscular psoas lengthening on pelvic and hip motion in patients with spastic diparetic cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The effects of intramuscular psoas lengthening on gait in cerebral palsy patients have been the subject of debates, and the indications for such procedure are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of intramuscular psoas lengthening on sagittal plane pelvic and hip motion in patients with spastic diparetic cerebral palsy and identify the factors linked to the best possible outcome. A retrospective study was performed in 26 independent ambulatory patients. All of them had undergone an intramuscular psoas lengthening over the pelvic brim. The mean age at the time of surgery was 11.10 years, and most cases went through additional simultaneous procedures. A complete gait analysis was performed before and, on average, at 17.69 months (range, 6-39 months) after surgery. The Thomas test values, maximum hip extension in stance, and pelvic tilt were analyzed before and after surgical intervention, and the results were statistically compared. The most significant postoperative effect was the reduction of pelvic range of motion (P < 0.01). Reduction of anterior pelvic tilt was observed only in those patients with no previous need of an external aid (P < 0.01), and the studied group did not show a significant improvement of hip extension at terminal stance. According to the results, intramuscular psoas lengthening was useful in reducing pelvic range of motion at the sagittal plane, but this study also suggests that pelvic and hip disruptions of the same plane (sagittal) seem to have a multifactorial etiology. The use of external assistive devices in patients with balance problems may lead to increased anterior pelvic tilt as well as reduction of hip extension at terminal stance. PMID:16557146

Morais Filho, Mauro C; de Godoy, Wagner; Santos, Carlos A

357

Lengthening contractions differentially affect p70 s6k phosphorylation compared to isometric contractions in rat skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if p70s6k phosphorylation is dependent on the mode of resistance exercise (e.g. isometric vs. lengthening). Two groups (n = 5 each) of Female Sprague Dawley rats, ?12 weeks old, were tested. Rats were anesthetized and indwelling electrodes used\\u000a to stimulate the right hind limb muscles via the sciatic nerve. The tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of

Martin Burry; David Hawkins; Espen E. Spangenburg

2007-01-01

358

Innovations in minimally invasive facial treatments.  

PubMed

Patients are seeking healthier lives, and at the same time their concern about having a beautiful face and maintaining a youthful appearance over time has increased. Traditionally, surgeries based on tissue resection and resurfacing were the focus in facial rejuvenation. Over the last decade, minimally invasive procedures have expanded exponentially because of the variety of cosmetic products available on the market and because patients are looking for a better appearance with nonincision methods. The understanding of the aging process, facial anatomy, and ideal proportions is extremely important for successful rejuvenation procedures. Also, neuromodulators, chemical peels, filler properties, correct indications, and effectiveness must be well known by the injector for favorable results. Therefore, knowledge of all facial cosmetic options and an adequate facial analysis are essential for a better performance. In this article, the authors review some different product options and show cases of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures for the face currently used. PMID:23761118

Jurado, José Roberto Parisi; Lima, Leila Freire Rego; Olivetti, Isabela Peixoto; Arroyo, Helena Hotz; de Oliveira, Ingrid Helena Lopes

2013-06-12

359

Facial nerve neuritis secondary to ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

We describe a patient who developed facial nerve injury following significant exposure to UV radiation. A 49-y-old construction worker developed erythema and edema on the left side of his face (exposed side) 12 h after working within 18 in of a compromised metal halide incandescent light bulb for a total of 2 h. One month later, the patient noted a painful burning sensation over the left side of his face associated with marked left facial weakness and inability to close his eye (peripheral VIIth nerve palsy). Two months later, synkinetic left facial movements were consistent with aberrant regeneration. Over the next several months, forceful episodic spasmodic activity developed in the muscles of facial expression on the left, identical to that seen in hemifacial spasm. Rarely has UV radiation been implicated in damage to subcutaneous nerves. This case demonstrates that significant neurologic morbidity may follow high exposure to UV radiation. PMID:12882496

Bryant, Sean M; Cumpston, Kirk L; Leikin, Jerrold B; Mycyk, Mark B; Pallasch, Erin; Rezak, Michael

2003-08-01

360

Facial feature extraction from color images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust facial feature extraction algorithm is required for many applications. The method proposed in this paper utilizes techniques of color segmentation and color thresholding to isolate and pinpoint the eyes, nostrils, and mouth on a color image

Thomas C. Chang; T. S. Huang; Carol Novak

1994-01-01

361

Laptop Computer: Based Facial Recognition System Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrollin...

R. A. Cain G. B. Singleton

2001-01-01

362

In vivo comparison of biomechanical, histological, and radiological properties of three techniques for tendon lengthening: an experimental study in rabbits.  

PubMed

Biomechanical, histological, and radiological properties of three different techniques of tendon lengthening - Z-plasty, modified Vulpius, and modified Baker - were investigated and compared. Sixty white female Angora rabbits (mean weight 4.1 kg, range 3.9 kg- 4.2 kg) were randomly divided into three groups: Z-plasty, V-Y plasty (modified Vulpius technique), and U-T plasty (modified Baker technique). Histopathological, radiological, and biomechanical properties were evaluated at the third and sixth postoperative week. Qualitative analysis of ultrasound examination showed that Z-plasty had the most irregular echo pattern at the third postoperative week, and had less echogenic areas at the sixth postoperative week. Histological evaluation showed that Z-plasty had significantly more formation of fibrosis and adhesion and less parallel homogeneous collagen fibres at the sixth postoperative week (p<0.05). U-T plasty had a significantly higher mean (SD) failure load (15.35 (1.89) N) than the other two methods during the third postoperative week (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in failure load between the groups at the sixth postoperative week. U-T plasty is a good alternative to Z-plasty technique for lengthening tendons, and it may be the first choice in those who need moderate lengthening of tendons and early rehabilitation because it is easy to do, heals better, and has good biomechanical properties. PMID:19153875

Gideroglu, Kaan; Akan, Mithat; Orhun, Haldun; Bozdag, Ergun; Gül, Aylin Ege; Akgun, Erdal; Akoz, Tayfun

2009-01-01

363

Loss of wild-type ATRX expression in somatic cell hybrids segregates with activation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.  

PubMed

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is a non-telomerase mechanism of telomere lengthening that occurs in about 10% of cancers overall and is particularly common in astrocytic brain tumors and specific types of sarcomas. Somatic cell hybridization analyses have previously shown that normal telomerase-negative fibroblasts and telomerase-positive immortalized cell lines contain repressors of ALT activity, indicating that activation of ALT results from loss of one or more unidentified repressors. More recently, ATRX or DAXX was shown to be mutated both in tumors with telomere lengths suggestive of ALT activity and in ALT cell lines. Here, an ALT cell line was separately fused to each of four telomerase-positive cell lines, and four or five independent hybrid lines from each fusion were examined for expression of ATRX and DAXX and for telomere lengthening mechanism. The hybrid lines expressed either telomerase or ALT, with the other mechanism being repressed. DAXX was expressed normally in all parental cell lines and in all of the hybrids. ATRX was expressed normally in each of the four telomerase-positive parental cell lines and in every telomerase-positive hybrid line, and was abnormal in the ALT parental cells and in all but one of the ALT hybrids. This correlation between ALT activity and loss of ATRX expression is consistent with ATRX being a repressor of ALT. PMID:23185534

Bower, Kylie; Napier, Christine E; Cole, Sara L; Dagg, Rebecca A; Lau, Loretta M S; Duncan, Emma L; Moy, Elsa L; Reddel, Roger R

2012-11-20

364

Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa\\u000a in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified\\u000a faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity disregarding emotional expression.\\u000a Typically developing children processed facial identity independently from facial

Julia F. Krebs; Ajanta Biswas; Olivier Pascalis; Inge Kamp-Becker; Helmuth Remschmidt; Gudrun Schwarzer

2011-01-01

365

Functional reconstruction after facial paralysis: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attempt to achieve symmetrical harmonious facial expression represents a complex surgical challenge, necessitating an individualized approach. Clinical investigations and laboratory experiments have demonstrated how to better reconstruct a “smile.” In long-standing deformities, ipsilateral or crossfacial nerve grafting followed by functional muscle transfer in a 2-stage procedure seems to give the most acceptable results; however, hypoglossal-facial anastomosis and dynamic muscle

Alfred Berger; Hans J. G. Bargmann

1990-01-01

366

Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a

R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

2001-01-01

367

Neural Network Cascade for Facial Feature Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present here a complete system for the localization of facial features in frontal face images. In the first step, face\\u000a detection is performed using Viola & Jones state of art algorithm. Then, a cascade of neural networks localizes precisely\\u000a 28 facial features. The first network performs a coarse detection of three areas in the image corresponding roughly to left

Thibaud Senechal; Lionel Prevost; Shehzad Muhammad Hanif

2010-01-01

368

Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II.  

PubMed

Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (OFD-II) is characterized by frenulated tongue, midline cleft lip, high arched or cleft palate, micrognathia, syndactyly and polydactyly, bilateral reduplicated hallux, conductive hearing loss, choroidal coloboma and normal intelligence. There are nine forms of oro-facial-digital syndromes with different modes of inheritance. A young female with features of oro-facio-digital syndrome type-II is being reported. PMID:23777026

Kalyan, Meenakshi; Kanitkar, S; John, Robby; Gireesh, G; Bhate, Amit; Mithun, M

2012-10-01

369

Oral-facial digital syndrome type 1.  

PubMed

The oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 is characterized by following abnormalities: pseudocleft of the upper lip, tongue lobulation, hamartomata on the tongue, alveolar frenulae, and clefting of the soft palate. We report a 9-month-old girl who was referred to our clinic due to facial dysmorphology in addition to cleft palate and multiple masses on the tongue which resulted in feeding problems. Surgical intervention was done. Molecular analysis revealed absence of OFD gene. PMID:18057484

Mihci, Ercan; Tacoy, Sukran; Ozbilim, Gulay; Franco, Brunella

2007-11-01

370

Classifying Chimpanzee Facial Expressions Using Muscle Action  

PubMed Central

The Chimpanzee Facial Action Coding System (ChimpFACS) is an objective, standardized observational tool for measuring facial movement in chimpanzees based on the well-known human Facial Action Coding System (FACS; P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978). This tool enables direct structural comparisons of facial expressions between humans and chimpanzees in terms of their common underlying musculature. Here the authors provide data on the first application of the ChimpFACS to validate existing categories of chimpanzee facial expressions using discriminant functions analyses. The ChimpFACS validated most existing expression categories (6 of 9) and, where the predicted group memberships were poor, the authors discuss potential problems with ChimpFACS and/or existing categorizations. The authors also report the prototypical movement configurations associated with these 6 expression categories. For all expressions, unique combinations of muscle movements were identified, and these are illustrated as peak intensity prototypical expression configurations. Finally, the authors suggest a potential homology between these prototypical chimpanzee expressions and human expressions based on structural similarities. These results contribute to our understanding of the evolution of emotional communication by suggesting several structural homologies between the facial expressions of chimpanzees and humans and facilitating future research.

Parr, Lisa A.; Waller, Bridget M.; Vick, Sarah J.; Bard, Kim A.

2010-01-01

371

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

PubMed

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2013-03-15

372

Increased bone density in sclerosteosis is due to the deficiency of a novel secreted protein (SOST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sclerosteosis is a progressive sclerosing bone dysplasia with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Radiologically, it is characterized by a generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis leading to a markedly thickened and sclerotic skull, with mandible, ribs, clavicles and all long bones also being affected. Due to narrowing of the foramina of the cranial nerves, facial nerve palsy, hearing loss and atrophy

Wendy Balemans; Martin Ebeling; E ls Van Hul; Pam Olson; Marianna Dioszegi; Charlemagne Lacza; Jenneke Van Den Ende; Patrick Willems; Auristela F. Paes-Alves; Manuel Bueno; J. Ramos; Paolo Tacconi; G. Dikkers; Klaus Lindpaintner; Brian Vickery; Dorothee Foernzler; Wim Van Hul

2001-01-01

373

Effect of pulsed magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve on cerebral blood flow.  

PubMed

In these experiments we define an effective means of pulsed magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve for the purpose of increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF). In normal anesthetized dog and sheep, a focal magnetic field was directed toward the facial nerve within the temporal bone by placing a 6.5cm figure-8 stimulation coil over the ear. In an initial set of experiments, CBF was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the cerebral vasculature was visualized by angiography. The effect of facial nerve stimulation was found to be dependent on stimulation power, frequency, and the precise positioning of the stimulation coil. Furthermore, an increase in CBF was not observed after direct electrical stimulation in the middle ear space, indicating that non-specific stimulation of the tympanic plexus, an intervening neural structure with vasoactive effects, was not responsible for the increase in CBF after pulsed magnetic stimulation. Subsequent experiments using perfusion MRI demonstrated reproducible increases in CBF throughout the forebrain that manifested bilaterally, albeit with an ipsilateral predominance. These experiments support the development of a non-invasive pulsed magnetic facial nerve stimulator that will increase CBF as a treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:23850647

Borsody, Mark K; Yamada, Chisa; Bielawski, Dawn; Heaton, Tamara; Lyeth, Bruce; Garcia, Andrea; Castro Prado, Fernando; Azpiroz, Joaquín; Sacristan, Emilio

2013-07-11

374

Trans-mastoid facial nerve localisation for malignant neoplasms confined to the parotid gland.  

PubMed

Up to 32% of parotid neoplasms are malignant, and treatment for resectable parotid carcinomas remains primarily surgical. Resection is centred round the identification and preservation (where possible) of the main trunk of the facial nerve. Limited dissection of the temporal bone and identification of the facial nerve proximally in the mastoid portion can facilitate resection for all parotid carcinomas that occur in the preauricular portion of the gland. Dissection in the narrow space between the ear or base of the skull and the tumour reduces the risk of tumour spillage, and the margin for resection is optimised. Intramastoid localisation of the facial nerve allows a posterior approach, and access to the dissection plane lies medial to the nerve. We describe the technique in a series of eight patients undergoing resection for parotid malignancies. In our experience the technique promotes adequate resection margins, reduces the risk of tumour spillage, and allows better access for nerve grafting if the facial nerve has to be sacrificed. PMID:22218217

Munir, Nazia; Tandon, Sankalap; Brown, James S; Lesser, Tristram H J

2012-01-02

375

Systemic zoledronate treatment both prevents resorption of allograft bone and increases the retention of new formed bone during revascularization and remodelling. A bone chamber study in rats  

PubMed Central

Background In osteonecrosis the vascular supply of the bone is interrupted and the living cells die. The inorganic mineral network remains intact until ingrowing blood vessels invade the graft. Accompanying osteoclasts start to resorb the bone trabeculae and gradually replace the bone. If the osteonecrosis occurs in mechanically loaded parts, like in the subchondral bone of a loaded joint, the remodelling might lead to a weakening of the bone and, in consequence to a joint collapse. Systemic bisphosphonate treatment can reduce the resorption of necrotic bone. In the present study we investigate if zoledronate, the most potent of the commercially available bisphosphonates, can be used to reduce the amount or speed of bone graft remodeling. Methods Bone grafts were harvested and placed in a bone chamber inserted into the tibia of a rat. Host tissue could grow into the graft through openings in the chamber. Weekly injections with 1.05 ?g zoledronate or saline were given subcutaneously until the rats were harvested after 6 weeks. The specimens were fixed, cut and stained with haematoxylin/eosin and used for histologic and histomorphometric analyses. Results By histology, the control specimens were almost totally resorbed in the remodeled area and the graft replaced by bone marrow. In the zoledronate treated specimens, both the old graft and new-formed bone remained and the graft trabeculas were lined with new bone. By histomorphometry, the total amount of bone (graft+ new bone) within the remodelled area was 35 % (SD 13) in the zoledronate treated grafts and 19 % (SD 12) in the controls (p = 0.001). Also the amount of new bone was increased in the treated specimens (22 %, SD 7) compared to the controls (14 %, SD 9, p = 0.032). Conclusion We show that zoledronate can be used to decrease the resorption of both old graft and new-formed bone during bone graft remodelling. This might be useful in bone grafting procedure but also in other orthopedic conditions, both where necrotic bone has to be remodelled i.e. after osteonecrosis of the knee and hip and in Perthes disease, or in high load, high turnover conditions like delayed union, periprosthetic osteolysis or bone lengthening operations. In our model an increased net formation of new bone was found which probably reflects that new bone formed was retained by the action of the bisphosphonates rather than a true anabolic effect.

Astrand, Jorgen; Harding, Anna Kajsa; Aspenberg, Per; Tagil, Magnus

2006-01-01

376

Arc/Forearc Lengthening at Plate Triple Junctions and the Formation of Ophiolitic Soles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal enigma of large obducted ophiolite slabs is that they clearly must have been generated by some form of organized sea-floor spreading/plate-accretion, such as may be envisioned for the oceanic ridges, yet the volcanics commonly have arc affinity (Miyashiro) with boninites (high-temperature/low-pressure, high Mg and Si andesites), which are suggestive of a forearc origin. PT conditions under which boninites and metamorphic soles form and observations of modern forearc systems lead us to the conclusion that ophiolite formation is associated with overidding plate spreading centers that intersect the trench to form ridge-trench-trench of ridge-trench-tranform triple junctions. The spreading centers extend and lengthen the forearc parallel to the trench and by definition are in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) settings. Many ophiolites likewise have complexly-deformed associated mafic-ultramafic assemblages that suggest fracture zone/transform t along their frontal edges, which in turn has led to models involving the nucleation of subduction zones on fracture zones or transpressional transforms. Hitherto, arc-related sea-floor-spreading has been considered to be either pre-arc (fore-arc boninites) or post-arc (classic Karig-style back arc basins that trench-parallell split arcs). Syn-arc boninites and forearc oceanic spreading centers that involve a stable ridge/trench/trench triple or a ridge-trench-transform triple junction, the ridge being between the two upper plates, are consistent with large slab ophiolite formation in a readied obduction settting. The direction of subduction must be oblique with a different sense in the two subduction zones and the oblique subduction cannot be partitioned into trench orthogonal and parallel strike-slip components. As the ridge spreads, new oceanic lithosphere is created within the forearc, the arc and fore-arc lengthen significantly, and a syn-arc ophiolite forearc complex is generated by this mechanism. The ophiolite ages along arc-strike; a distinctive diachronous MORB-like to boninitic to arc volcanic stratigraphy develops vertically in the forearc and eruption centers progressively migrate from the forearc back to the main arc massif with time. Dikes in the ophiolite are highly oblique to the trench (as are back-arc magnetic anomalies. Boninites and high-mg andesites are generated in the fore-arc under the aqueous, low pressure/high temperature, regime at the ridge above the instantaneously developed subducting and dehydrating slab. Subducted slab refrigeration of the hanging wall ensues and accretion of MORB metabasites to the hanging wall of the subduction channel initiates. Mafic protolith garnet/two pyroxene granulites to greenschists accrete and form the inverted P and T metamorphic sole prior to obduction. Sole accretion of lithosphere begins at about 1000°C and the full retrogressive sole may be fully formed within ten to fifteen million years of accretion, at which time low grade subduction melanges accrete. Obduction of the SSZ forearc ophiolite with its subjacent metamorphic sole occurs whenever the oceanic arc attempts subduction of a stable buoyant continental or back arc margin.

Casey, John; Dewey, John

2013-04-01

377

Association of Interleukin-6 Signalling with the Muscle Stem Cell Response Following Muscle-Lengthening Contractions in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background The regulation of muscle stem cells in humans in response to muscle injury remains largely undefined. Recently, interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in muscle stem cell (satellite cell)-mediated muscle hypertrophy in animals; however, the role of IL-6 in the satellite cell (SC) response following muscle-lengthening contractions in humans has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight subjects (age 22±1 y; 79±8 kg) performed 300 maximal unilateral lengthening contractions (3.14 rad.s?1) of the knee extensors. Blood and muscle samples were collected before and at 4, 24, 72, and 120 hours post intervention. IL-6, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R?), cyclin D1, suppressor of cytokine signling-3 (SOCS3) mRNA were measured using quantitative RT-PCR and serum IL-6 protein was measured using an ELISA kit. JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylated and total protein was measured using western blotting techniques. Immunohistochemical analysis of muscle cross-sections was performed for the quantification of SCs (Pax7+ cells) as well as the expression of phosphorylated STAT3, IL-6, IL-6R?, and PCNA across all time-points. The SC response, as defined by an amplification of Pax7+ cells, was rapid, increasing by 24 h and peaking 72 h following the intervention. Muscle IL-6 mRNA increased following the intervention, which correlated strongly (R2?=?0.89, p<0.002) with an increase in serum IL-6 concentration. SC IL-6R? protein was expressed on the fiber, but was also localized to the SC, and IL-6+ SC increased rapidly following muscle-lengthening contractions and returned to basal levels by 72 h post-intervention, demonstrating an acute temporal expression of IL-6 with SC. Phosphorylated STAT3 was evident in SCs 4 h after lengthening contraction, and the downstream genes, cyclin D1 and SOCS3 were significantly elevated 24 hours after the intervention. Conclusions/Significance The increased expression of STAT3 responsive genes and expression of IL-6 within SCs demonstrate that IL-6/STAT3 signaling occurred in SCs, correlating with an increase in SC proliferation, evidenced by increased Pax7+/PCNA+ cell number in the early stages of the time-course. Collectively, these data illustrate that IL-6 is an important signaling molecule associated with the SC response to acute muscle-lengthening contractions in humans.

McKay, Bryon R.; De Lisio, Michael; Johnston, Adam P. W.; O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Parise, Gianni

2009-01-01

378

In Vivo Open-Bore MRI Reveals Region- and Sub-Arc-Specific Lengthening of the Unloaded Human Posterior Cruciate Ligament  

PubMed Central

Open-bore MRI scanners allow joint soft tissue to be imaged over a large, uninterrupted range of flexion. Using an open-bore scanner, 3D para-sagittal images of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were collected from seven healthy subjects in unloaded, recumbent knee extension and flexion. PCL length was measured from one 2D MRI slice partition per flexion angle, per subject. The anterior surface of the PCL lengthened significantly between extension and flexion (p<0.001). Conversely, the posterior surface did not. Changes were not due to the PCL moving relative to the 2D slice partition; measurements made from 3D reconstructions, which compensated for PCL movement, did not differ significantly from measurements made from 2D slice partitions. In a second experiment, videos of knee flexion were made by imaging two subjects at several flexion angles. Videos allowed soft tissue tracking; examples are included. In a third experiment, unloaded knees of seven healthy, recumbent subjects were imaged at extension and at 40°, 70°, 90°, 100°, 110° and 120° flexion. The distance between PCL attachments increased between extension and 100°, and then decreased (p<0.001). The anterior surface of the PCL lengthened over the flexion angles measured (p<0.01). The posterior surface of the PCL lengthened between extension and 40° and then shortened (p<0.001). Both attachment separation and anterior surface length increased dramatically between extension and 40°, but varied less afterwards. Results indicate that PCL dynamics differ between terminal extension and active function sub-arcs. Also, attachment separation cannot predict the lengthening of all parts of the PCL, nor can lengthening of one part of the PCL predict the lengthening of another part. A potential connection between lengthening and loading is discussed. We conclude that low-field MRI can assess ligament lengthening during flexion, and that the dynamics of the PCL for any given region and sub-arc should be measured directly.

King, Alison J.; Deng, Qunli; Tyson, Randy; Sharp, Jonathan C.; Matwiy, Jarod; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Dunn, Jeff F.

2012-01-01

379

A feedback pulse-lengthener circuit for the peak voltage measurement of a single shot pulse as narrow as 2.5 nsec  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circuit capable of measuring the peak voltage of a single shot pulse as narrow as 2.5 nsec is described. The circuit uses a pulse-lengthener circuit that has an amplifier in its negative feedback path. The amplifier reduces the charging time constant of the pulse-lengthener circuit to improve its speed capability. The measurable peak voltage of a single shot pulse

Masami Uno; Ryuichi Koike

1974-01-01

380

The intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor (ISKD): first clinical results of a new intramedullary nail for lengthening of the femur and tibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, a programme was initiated by the senior author to develop a reliable, mechanically activated, intramedullary lengthening device with a non-invasive means of measuring the progress of lengthening without X-ray. We report results of design, biomechanical testing, in vivo animal testing and clinical implantation of the first 20 intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractors (ISKDs) in adult patients with limb-length discrepancies.Twenty

J. Dean Cole; Daniel Justin; Tagus Kasparis; Derk DeVlught; Carl Knobloch

2001-01-01

381

Similar increases in muscle size and strength in young men after training with maximal shortening or lengthening contractions when matched for total work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training exclusively with eccentric (lengthening) contractions can result in greater muscular adaptations than training with\\u000a concentric (shortening) contractions. We aimed to determine whether training-induced increases in muscle size and strength\\u000a differed between muscles performing maximal lengthening (LC) or maximal shortening (SC) contractions when total external work\\u000a is equivalent. Nine healthy young males completed a 9-week isokinetic (0.79 rad\\/s) resistance training program

Daniel R. Moore; Mark Young; Stuart M. Phillips

382

Slowing Down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial–Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on\\u000a facial expression recognition and facial and\\/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four\\u000a normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent\\u000a conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very

Carole Tardif; Mélissa Rodriguez; Bruno Gepner

2007-01-01

383

Fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bone: reversal of sensorineural hearing loss after decompression of the internal auditory canal.  

PubMed

When fibrous dysplasia affects the temporal bone, it most often presents with conductive hearing loss attributable to stenosis of the external auditory canal. Sensorineural hearing loss has usually been attributed to involvement of the otic capsule. We present a patient with bilateral fibrous dysplasia of the temporal bones who complained of unilateral hearing loss, facial tingling, and facial twitching. The audiogram showed severe sensorineural hearing loss. The hearing markedly improved and facial twitching and tingling ceased after decompression of the internal auditory canal via a middle fossa approach. This is the only case of which we are aware showing reversal of sensorineural hearing loss caused by fibrous dysplasia. PMID:9331309

Morrissey, D D; Talbot, J M; Schleuning, A J

1997-10-01

384

Context Modulation of Facial Emotion Perception Differed by Individual Difference  

PubMed Central

Background Certain facial configurations are believed to be associated with distinct affective meanings (i.e. basic facial expressions), and such associations are common across cultures (i.e. universality of facial expressions). However, recently, many studies suggest that various types of contextual information, rather than facial configuration itself, are important factor for facial emotion perception. Methodology/Principal Findings To examine systematically how contextual information influences individuals’ facial emotion perception, the present study estimated direct observers’ perceptual thresholds for detecting negative facial expressions via a forced-choice psychophysical procedure using faces embedded in various emotional contexts. We additionally measured the individual differences in affective information-processing tendency (BIS/BAS) as a possible factor that may determine the extent to which contextual information on facial emotion perception is used. It was found that contextual information influenced observers' perceptual thresholds for facial emotion. Importantly, individuals’ affective-information tendencies modulated the extent to which they incorporated context information into their facial emotion perceptions. Conclusions/Significance The findings of this study suggest that facial emotion perception not only depends on facial configuration, but the context in which the face appears as well. This contextual influence appeared differently with individual’s characteristics of information processing. In summary, we conclude that individual character traits, as well as facial configuration and the context in which a face appears, need to be taken into consideration regarding facial emotional perception.

Lee, Tae-Ho; Choi, June-Seek; Cho, Yang Seok

2012-01-01

385

Moving to continuous facial expression space using the MPEG4 facial definition parameter (FDP) set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in facial expression has concluded that at least six emotions, conveyed by human faces, are universally associated with distinct expressions. Sadness, anger, joy, fear, disgust and surprise are categories of expressions that are recognizable across cultures. In this work we form a relation between the description of the universal expressions and the MPEG-4 Facial Definition Parameter Set (FDP). We

Kostas Karpouzis; Nicolas Tsapatsoulis; Stefanos D. Kollias

2000-01-01

386

Emotion regulates attention: The relation between facial configurations, facial emotion, and visual attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used threatening, friendly, and neutral schematic facial stimuli, in which three, two, or one feature(s) conveyed emotion, to test the hypothesis that humans preferentially orient attention towards threat, and to examine the relation between facial features, emotional impression, and visual attention. Using a visual search paradigm, participants searched for discrepant faces in arrays of otherwise identical faces. Subsequently they

Daniel Lundqvist; Arne Ohman

2005-01-01

387

Soccer-related facial fractures: postoperative management with facial protective shields.  

PubMed

Facial fractures are one of the most common orofacial injury sustained during participation in sporting events.The frequency of maxillofacial lesions varies according to the popularity that each sport has in a particular country. Soccer is the most popular sport in Italy, and it is responsible for a large number of facial traumas.Traumas and fractures in soccer mainly involve the zygomatic and nasal regions and are especially caused by direct contact that takes place mainly when the ball is played with the forehead. In particular, elbow-head and head-head impacts are the most frequent dangerous contacts.Soccer is not a violent sport, and the use of protective helmets is not allowed because it could be dangerous especially when players play the ball with the head. The use of protective facial shields are exclusively permitted to preserve players who underwent surgery for facial fractures.The use of a facial protection mask after a facial fracture treatment has already been reported. This article describes a clinical experience of management of 4 soccer-related facial fractures by means of fabrication of individual facial protective shields. PMID:19164981

Procacci, Pasquale; Ferrari, Francesca; Bettini, Giordana; Bissolotti, Guido; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Nocini, Pier Francesco

2009-01-01

388

Interactions between facial form and facial motion during the processing of identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Previous research has shown that facial motion can carry information about age, gender, emotion and, at least to some extent, identity. With respect to identity, two important issues remain unresolved: first it is unclear to what extent purely non-rigid facial motion contributes to the processing of identity. Secondly, as most previous studies have involved techniques that severely reduced available

Max Planck; Barbara Knappmeyer; Ian M. Thornton

389

Facial reconstruction: utilization of computerized tomography to measure facial tissue thickness in a mixed racial population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of human faces on skeletal remains is dependant on the facial tissue thickness measurements most of which have been derived from cadaver material using the needle probe technique. Dehydration of soft tissue after death casts doubt on the efficacy of these measurements. No study exists in which the facial tissues of a mixed population group in South Africa have

V. M. Phillips; N. A. Smuts

1996-01-01

390

Engineering of a functional bone organ through endochondral ossification.  

PubMed

Embryonic development, lengthening, and repair of most bones proceed by endochondral ossification, namely through formation of a cartilage intermediate. It was previously demonstrated that adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) can execute an endochondral program and ectopically generate mature bone. Here we hypothesized that hMSCs pushed through endochondral ossification can engineer a scaled-up ossicle with features of a "bone organ," including physiologically remodeled bone, mature vasculature, and a fully functional hematopoietic compartment. Engineered hypertrophic cartilage required IL-1? to be efficiently remodeled into bone and bone marrow upon subcutaneous implantation. This model allowed distinguishing, by analogy with bone development and repair, an outer, cortical-like perichondral bone, generated mainly by host cells and laid over a premineralized area, and an inner, trabecular-like, endochondral bone, generated mainly by the human cells and formed over the cartilaginous template. Hypertrophic cartilage remodeling was paralleled by ingrowth of blood vessels, displaying sinusoid-like structures and stabilized by pericytic cells. Marrow cavities of the ossicles contained phenotypically defined hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells at similar frequencies as native bones, and marrow from ossicles reconstituted multilineage long-term hematopoiesis in lethally irradiated mice. This study, by invoking a "developmental engineering" paradigm, reports the generation by appropriately instructed hMSC of an ectopic "bone organ" with a size, structure, and functionality comparable to native bones. The work thus provides a model useful for fundamental and translational studies of bone morphogenesis and regeneration, as well as for the controlled manipulation of hematopoietic stem cell niches in physiology and pathology. PMID:23401508

Scotti, Celeste; Piccinini, Elia; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Todorov, Atanas; Bourgine, Paul; Papadimitropoulos, Adam; Barbero, Andrea; Manz, Markus G; Martin, Ivan

2013-02-11

391

Engineering of a functional bone organ through endochondral ossification  

PubMed Central

Embryonic development, lengthening, and repair of most bones proceed by endochondral ossification, namely through formation of a cartilage intermediate. It was previously demonstrated that adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) can execute an endochondral program and ectopically generate mature bone. Here we hypothesized that hMSCs pushed through endochondral ossification can engineer a scaled-up ossicle with features of a “bone organ,” including physiologically remodeled bone, mature vasculature, and a fully functional hematopoietic compartment. Engineered hypertrophic cartilage required IL-1? to be efficiently remodeled into bone and bone marrow upon subcutaneous implantation. This model allowed distinguishing, by analogy with bone development and repair, an outer, cortical-like perichondral bone, generated mainly by host cells and laid over a premineralized area, and an inner, trabecular-like, endochondral bone, generated mainly by the human cells and formed over the cartilaginous template. Hypertrophic cartilage remodeling was paralleled by ingrowth of blood vessels, displaying sinusoid-like structures and stabilized by pericytic cells. Marrow cavities of the ossicles contained phenotypically defined hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells at similar frequencies as native bones, and marrow from ossicles reconstituted multilineage long-term hematopoiesis in lethally irradiated mice. This study, by invoking a “developmental engineering” paradigm, reports the generation by appropriately instructed hMSC of an ectopic “bone organ” with a size, structure, and functionality comparable to native bones. The work thus provides a model useful for fundamental and translational studies of bone morphogenesis and regeneration, as well as for the controlled manipulation of hematopoietic stem cell niches in physiology and pathology.

Scotti, Celeste; Piccinini, Elia; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Todorov, Atanas; Bourgine, Paul; Papadimitropoulos, Adam; Barbero, Andrea; Manz, Markus G.; Martin, Ivan

2013-01-01

392

Restorative interventions for HIV facial lipoatrophy.  

PubMed

Facial lipoatrophy is a common and distressing manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy. The changes in facial appearance can reduce quality of life, self esteem and antiretroviral adherence. Apart from the modest benefits of thymidine-based nucleoside analog cessation, there are no proven therapies for lipoatrophy. Management of established fat loss can be challenging as restoration of lost fat mass is extremely gradual. Plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures can restore lost facial volume. Both biodegradable and permanent filling agents have been investigated for HIV facial lipoatrophy. Biodegradable products offer a good safety profile, but maintenance of aesthetic benefits necessitates reinjection over time. Although permanent products offer longevity and lower treatment costs, adverse events should they occur can be serious and of long duration. Despite the substantial increase in options for soft-tissue augmentation in recent years, well-performed clinical studies in HIV-infected adults with facial lipoatrophy are scarce, and long-term clinical safety data are lacking. This review will summarize available efficacy and safety data of the biodegradable and permanent agents utilized for soft-tissue augmentation in this population. Difficulties associated with comparing treatment efficacy data, assessment of facial lipoatrophy presence and severity, and measurement of facial fat will be discussed. Available data indicate that in HIV-infected adults, most filling agents have short-term clinically safety, and can provide aesthetic improvement and improve well-being, social functioning and quality of life. However, well-designed studies with objectively assessed endpoints are needed to elucidate optimal treatments for this distressing condition. PMID:18615122

Carey, Dianne; Liew, Steven; Emery, Sean

393

Morphometric analysis of anatomical relationships of the facial nerve for mastoid surgery.  

PubMed

Surgical anatomical relationships of the facial nerve (FN) with several landmarks used in mastoid surgery were studied in temporal bone axial high resolution CT scans of 90 patients (180 ears). The shortest distances between the FN and external auditory canal (EAC), sigmoid sinus (SS), posterior fossa dural plate (PFD), and joint of the bony EAC with the lateral surface of the mastoid (M) were measured. These measurements were also analysed in respect of pneumatization and side differences. On average, it was found that FN-EAC was 2.9 mm, FN-SS was 10.5 mm, FN-PFD was 7.3 mm and FN-M was 15.3 mm. FN-EAC was found to be longer in poorly pneumatized bones whereas other distances were longer in pneumatized bones. FN-M was found to be longer on the right side. PMID:11429065

Aslan, A; Goktan, C; Okumus, M; Tarhan, S; Unlu, H

2001-06-01

394

Bone Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... Sign up Definition A bone scan is a nuclear imaging test that helps diagnose and track several ... you can expect A bone scan is a nuclear imaging procedure. In nuclear imaging, tiny amounts of ...

395

Bone Metastasis  

MedlinePLUS

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Bone metastasis By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bone-metastasis/DS01206 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Preparing for ...

396

Bone Markers  

MedlinePLUS

... Foundation (IOF) and the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommend two blood tests for evaluating bone ... Foundation (IOF) and the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommend two blood tests for evaluating bone ...

397

Bone Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...

398

Bone Markers  

MedlinePLUS

... Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide Formal name: Biochemical Markers of Bone Remodeling Related tests: Calcium , Phosphorus , ... 2013. Singer, F. and Eyre, D. (2008). Using biochemical markers of bone turnover in clinical practice. [On- ...

399

Bone Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... include: Non-ossifying fibromaunicameral (simple) bone cyst Osteochondroma Giant cell tumor Enchondroma Fibrous dysplasia Top of page ... http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00083) Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Giant Cell Tumor of ...

400

Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee  

PubMed Central

Background: Segmental resection of bone in Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) around the knee, in indicated cases, leaves a gap which requires a complex reconstructive procedure. The present study analyzes various reconstructive procedures in terms of morbidity and various complications encountered. Materials and Methods: Thirteen cases (M-six and F-seven; lower end femur-six and upper end tibia -seven) of GCT around the knee, radiologically either Campanacci Grade II, Grade II with pathological fracture or Grade III were included. Mean age was 25.6 years (range 19-30 years). Resection arthrodesis with telescoping (shortening) over intramedullary nail (n=5), resection arthrodesis with an intercalary allograft threaded over a long intramedullary nail (n=3) and resection arthrodesis with intercalary fibular autograft and simultaneous limb lengthening (n=5) were the procedure performed. Results: Shortening was the major problem following resection arthrodesis with telescoping (shortening) over intramedullary nail. Only two patients agreed for subsequent limb lengthening. The rest continued to walk with shortening. Infection was the major problem in all cases of resection arthrodesis with an intercalary allograft threaded over a long intramedullary nail and required multiple drainage procedures. Fusion was achieved after two years in two patients. In the third patient the allograft sequestrated. The patient underwent sequestrectomy, telescoping of fragments and ilizarov fixator application with subsequent limb lengthening. The patient was finally given an ischial weight relieving orthosis, 54 months after the index procedure. After resection arthrodesis with intercalary autograft and simultaneous lengthening the resultant gap (?15cm) was partially bridged by intercalary nonvascularized dual fibular strut graft (6-7cm) and additional corticocancellous bone graft from ipsilateral patella. Simultaneous limb lengthening with a distal tibial corticotomy was performed on an ilizarov fixator. The complications were superficial infection (n=5), stress fracture of fibula (n=2). The stress fracture fibula required DCP fixation and bone grafting. The usual time taken for union and limb length equalization was approximately one year. Conclusion: Resection arthrodesis with intercalary dual fibular autograft and cortico-cancellous bone grafting with simultaneous limb lengthening achieved limb length equalization with relatively short morbidity.

Aggarwal, Aditya N; Jain, Anil K; Kumar, Sudhir; Dhammi, Ish K; Prashad, Bhagwat

2007-01-01

401

Should Physicians Have Facial Piercings?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians. DESIGN Survey. SETTING Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians. INTERVENTIONS First, patrons were shown photographs of models with a nontraditional piercing and asked about the appropriateness for a physician or medical student. In the second phase, patrons blinded to the purpose of the study were shown identical photographs of physician models with or without piercings and asked about competency and trustworthiness. The third phase was an assessment of attitudes of faculty regarding piercings. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Nose and lip piercings were felt to be appropriate for a physician by 24% and 22% of patrons, respectively. Perceived competency and trustworthiness of models with these types of piercings were also negatively affected. An earring in a male was felt to be appropriate by 35% of patrons, but an earring on male models did not negatively affect perceived competency or trustworthiness. Nose and eyebrow piercings were felt to be appropriate by only 7% and 5% of faculty physicians and working with a physician or student with a nose or eyebrow piercing would bother 58% and 59% of faculty, respectively. An ear piercing in a male was felt to be appropriate by 20% of faculty, and 25% stated it would bother them to work with a male physician or student with an ear piercing. CONCLUSIONS Many patrons and physicians feel that some types of nontraditional piercings are inappropriate attire for physicians, and some piercings negatively affect perceived competency and trustworthiness. Health care providers should understand that attire may affect a patient's opinion about their abilities and possibly erode confidence in them as a clinician.

Newman, Alison W; Wright, Seth W; Wrenn, Keith D; Bernard, Aline

2005-01-01

402

Facial Feature Extraction Based on Wavelet Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial feature extraction is one of the most important processes in face recognition, expression recognition and face detection. The aims of facial feature extraction are eye location, shape of eyes, eye brow, mouth, head boundary, face boundary, chin and so on. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic facial feature extraction system, which is able to identify the eye location, the detailed shape of eyes and mouth, chin and inner boundary from facial images. This system not only extracts the location information of the eyes, but also estimates four important points in each eye, which helps us to rebuild the eye shape. To model mouth shape, mouth extraction gives us both mouth location and two corners of mouth, top and bottom lips. From inner boundary we obtain and chin, we have face boundary. Based on wavelet features, we can reduce the noise from the input image and detect edge information. In order to extract eyes, mouth, inner boundary, we combine wavelet features and facial character to design these algorithms for finding midpoint, eye's coordinates, four important eye's points, mouth's coordinates, four important mouth's points, chin coordinate and then inner boundary. The developed system is tested on Yale Faces and Pedagogy student's faces.

Hung, Nguyen Viet

403

Higher-level mechanisms detect facial symmetry  

PubMed Central

The role of symmetry detection in early visual processing and the sensitivity of biological visual systems to symmetry across a wide range of organisms suggest that symmetry can be detected by low-level visual mechanisms. However, computational and functional considerations suggest that higher-level mechanisms may also play a role in facial symmetry detection. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether symmetry detection is better for faces than comparable patterns, which share low-level properties with faces. Symmetry detection was better for upright faces than for inverted faces (experiment 1) and contrast-reversed faces (experiment 2), implicating high-level mechanisms in facial symmetry detection. In addition, facial symmetry detection was sensitive to spatial scale, unlike low-level symmetry detection mechanisms (experiment 3), and showed greater sensitivity to a 45° deviation from vertical than is found for other aspects of face perception (experiment 4). These results implicate specialized, higher-level mechanisms in the detection of facial symmetry. This specialization may reflect perceptual learning resulting from extensive experience detecting symmetry in faces or evolutionary selection pressures associated with the important role of facial symmetry in mate choice and ‘mind-reading’ or both.

Rhodes, Gillian; Peters, Marianne; Lee, Kieran; Morrone, M. Concetta; Burr, David

2005-01-01

404

Bone Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about the two main components of bone - collagen and minerals (like calcium) - and how they each contribute to its flexibility and strength. Learners will submerge 3 chicken bones in water, bleach, and vinegar, wait 24 hours, then observe and test each bone. This resource includes information about how nanoscientists are trying to produce artificial analogs to these components and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Bone Regrowth.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

405

The role of multislice spiral computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of acute facial trauma in patients with multiple injuries.  

PubMed

Using of mutislice spiral CT as first line examination for the diagnosis of Acute Facial trauma in the setting of Polytrauma reduces both: valuable time and cost of patient treatment. After a brief clinical examination, MDCT was performed depending on the area of injury, using a slice thickness of 0.65 mm. The obtained data were analyzed using 3D, MIP and Standard axial with Bone reconstruction protocols. 64 polytrauma patients were evaluated with both Anterior and Lateral craniography (plain skull X ray: AP and Lateral) and Multi Slice CT. Craniography detected only 18 cases of traumatic injuries of facial bones, but exact range of dislocation and accurate management plan could not be established. In the same 64 cases, Multislice CT revealed localization of all existed fractures, range of fragment dislocation, soft tissue damage and status of Paranasal sinus in 62 cases (96.8%). In two cases MS CT missed the facial fracture, in one case the examination was complicated because of bone thinness and numerous fracture fragments, in another multiple foreign body artifacts complicated the investigation. The study results show that, CT investigation based on our MDCT polytrauma protocol, detects all more or less serious facial bone injuries. PMID:22201078

Nemsadze, G; Urushadze, O

2011-11-01

406

The facial pattern of disgust, appetence, excited joy and relaxed joy: an improved facial EMG study.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to investigate the facial muscle pattern of disgust in comparison to appetence and joy, using an improved facial EMG method. We analyzed the activity of nine facial muscles in forty healthy subjects. The subject group was randomly divided into two groups (oversaturated vs. hungry) of ten women and ten men each. Four different emotions (disgust, appetence, excited-joy and relaxed-joy) were induced by showing pictures from the IAPS. Pre-visible facial muscle activity was measured with a new facial EMG. A Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was established. Disgust is represented by a specific facial muscle pattern involving M.corrugator and M.orbicularis oculi, clearly distinguishing it from the facial patterns of appetence and joy. The intensity of disgust is stronger in a state of hunger than under oversaturation and is altogether stronger in females than in males. Our findings indicate the possibility to explore the entire emotion system successfully through a state-of-the-art psychophysiological method like our EMG device. PMID:16179022

Wolf, Karsten; Mass, Reinhard; Ingenbleek, Thomas; Kiefer, Falk; Naber, Dieter; Wiedemann, Klaus

2005-10-01

407

Effects of distal hamstring lengthening on sagittal motion in patients with diplegia: hamstring length and its clinical use.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine the effect of distal hamstring lengthening (DHL) on hip and knee sagittal kinematics, and to investigate the validity of modeled hamstring length for clinical use. Patient group consisted of 28 patients (56 limbs, mean age 7.4 years) with spastic diplegia who underwent bilateral DHL and tendo-Achilles lengthening with/without rectus femoris transfer (RFT) (DHL+RFT subgroup, 40 limbs; DHL subgroup, 16 limbs). Kinematic data was obtained by gait analysis, and hamstring lengths were obtained using a musculoskeletal modeling technique. Postoperatively, knee extension improved (p<0.001) without aggravating anterior pelvic tilt (p=0.565). However, DHL aggravated anterior pelvic tilt in the DHL subgroup (2.2 degrees, p=0.011). In terms of concurrent validity, hamstring length was found to be correlated with mean pelvic tilt (r=0.798, p<0.001) and popliteal angle (r=-0.425, p=0.001), but the correlation between hamstring length and knee flexion at initial contact was minimal (r=0.068, p=0.753). In terms of construct validity, DHL did not lengthen mean hamstring length (p=0.918). In conclusion, DHL appeared to significantly improve knee motion in patients with spastic diplegia. Furthermore, DHL did not increase pelvic tilt, when performed with RFT. Modeled hamstring length is believed to have limited validity in patients with cerebral palsy, because it does not reflect knee kinematics or postoperative change when DHL was combined with multilevel surgery. PMID:19665381

Park, Moon Seok; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Sang Hyeong; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, B S Myoung Yl; Lee, Kyoung Min

2009-08-07

408

PT-ACRAMTU, A Platinum-Acridine Anticancer Agent, Lengthens and Aggregates, but does not Stiffen or Soften DNA.  

PubMed

We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the dose-dependent change in conformational and mechanical properties of DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU ([PtCl(en)(ACRAMTU-S)](NO3)2, (en = ethane-1,2-diamine, ACRAMTU = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea. PT-ACRAMTU is the parent drug of a family of non-classical platinum-based agents that show potent activity in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Its acridine moiety intercalates between DNA bases, while the platinum group forms mono-adducts with DNA bases. AFM images show that PT-ACRAMTU causes some DNA looping and aggregation at drug-to-base pair ratio (r b) of 0.1 and higher. Very significant lengthening of the DNA was observed with increasing doses of PT-ACRAMTU, and reached saturation at an r b of 0.15. At r b of 0.1, lengthening was 0.6 nm per drug molecule, which is more than one fully stretched base pair stack can accommodate, indicating that ACRAMTU also disturbs the stacking of neighboring base pair stacks. Analysis of the AFM images based on the worm-like chain (WLC) model showed that PT-ACRAMTU did not change the flexibility of (non-aggregated) DNA, despite the extreme lengthening. The persistence length of untreated DNA and DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU was in the range of 49-65 nm. Potential consequences of the perturbations caused by this agent for the recognition and processing of the DNA adducts it forms are discussed. PMID:23636685

Dutta, Samrat; Snyder, Matthew J; Rosile, David; Binz, Kristen L; Roll, Eric H; Suryadi, Jimmy; Bierbach, Ulrich; Guthold, Martin

2013-05-01

409

Local and distant effects of isolated calf muscle lengthening in children with cerebral palsy and equinus gait  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose was to assess the local and distant effects of isolated calf muscle lengthening in ambulant children with cerebral palsy. Methods The study included fifteen ambulant children with cerebral palsy (nine with diplegia and six with hemiplegia), average age 8.8 years, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I and II. None of the children had previously undergone orthopaedic surgery, apart from one child who had tendo-achilles lengthening (TAL) nine years earlier. All the children underwent pre and post-operative clinical examination and three-dimensional gait analysis (gait analysis). Twenty calf muscle lengthenings were performed, ten TAL and ten gastrocnemius recessions (GR). Results Post-operative ankle kinematics showed significant improvements in all parameters. Ankle power during push-off increased, but only significantly after TAL. Only one limb (5%) was over-corrected. Four limbs (20%) were under-corrected and one of these limbs remained in mild equinus position in stance. There was one recurrent equinus (5%) during the follow-up period of three years (range: 13–55 months). Distant effects on joints and segments were more marked in diplegia than in hemiplegia. Ten of 17 kinematic parameters distant from the ankle joint improved significant post-operatively when the preoperative values were 1SD below or above the mean of the normal material. There was no significant deterioration in any of the measured parameters. Conclusion The improvement in ankle kinematics and kinetics supported the experience of other studies. The distant effects, which have previously not been evaluated in three planes, showed improvement in several kinematic parameters indicating that additional surgery in selected patients could be abandoned or delayed.

Terjesen, Terje

2008-01-01

410

Dynamic micro aspects of facial movements in elicited and posed expressions using high-speed camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented study investigated the dynamic aspects of facial movements in spontaneously elicited and posed facial expressions of emotion. We recorded participants' facial movements when they were shown a set of emotional eliciting films, and when they posed typical facial expressions. Those facial movements were recorded by a high-speed camera of 250 frames per second. We measured facial movements frame

Shigeo Morishima; T. Yotsukura; H. Yamada; H. Uchida; N. Tetsutani; S. Akamatsu

2001-01-01

411

Genetics Home Reference: Oral-facial-digital syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... cavity (the mouth and teeth), facial features, and digits (fingers and toes). Researchers have identified at least ... development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. Most forms are also associated with brain abnormalities ...

412

Dynamics Analysis of Facial Expressions for Person Identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for analyzing the dynamics of facial expressions to identify persons using Active Appearance Models and accurate facial feature point tracking. Several methods have been proposed to identify persons using facial images. In most methods, variations in facial expressions are one trouble factor. However, the dynamics of facial expressions are one measure of personal characteristics. In the proposed method, facial feature points are automatically extracted using Active Appearance Models in the first frame of each video. They are then tracked using the Lucas-Kanade based feature point tracking method. Next, a temporal interval is extracted from the beginning time to the ending time of facial expression changes. Finally, a feature vector is obtained. In the identification phase, an input feature vector is classified by calculating the distance between the input vector and the training vectors using dynamic programming matching. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method using smile videos from the MMI Facial Expression Database.

Tanaka, Hidenori; Saito, Hideo

413

System, Apparatus and Method for Forensic Facial Approximation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system, method and apparatus for performing a facial approximation is described. The system includes an acquisition subsystem and a facial approximation algorithm. The method includes the steps of acquiring models of known skulls and a model of a questi...

K. W. P. Miller M. A. Taister P. H. Tu R. E. B. Brown T. P. Kelliher W. D. Turner

2004-01-01

414

Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

2009-02-01

415

Facial attractiveness: beauty and the machine.  

PubMed

This work presents a novel study of the notion of facial attractiveness in a machine learning context. To this end, we collected human beauty ratings for data sets of facial images and used various techniques for learning the attractiveness of a face. The trained predictor achieves a significant correlation of 0.65 with the average human ratings. The results clearly show that facial beauty is a universal concept that a machine can learn. Analysis of the accuracy of the beauty prediction machine as a function of the size of the training data indicates that a machine producing human-like attractiveness rating could be obtained given a moderately larger data set. PMID:16354383

Eisenthal, Yael; Dror, Gideon; Ruppin, Eytan

2006-01-01

416

Bone and bone graft healing.  

PubMed

Bone is unique in connective tissue healing because it heals entirely by cellular regeneration and the production of a mineral matrix rather than just collagen deposition known as scar. This article discusses the cellular, tissue, and organ levels in each of the following sections--skeletal embryology, normal bone, examples of abnormal bone, and bone graft healing--as they relate to the jaws and the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:18088897

Marx, Robert E

2007-11-01

417

Blindness after reduction of facial fractures.  

PubMed

Blindness in patients suffering maxillofacial trauma is usually caused by optic nerve or optic canal injuries. It is, however, an uncommon complication of facial trauma, with a reported incidence of only 2 to 5 percent. Blindness may also follow surgical repair of facial fractures. Many mechanisms, such as intraoperative direct nerve injury, retinal arteriolar occlusion associated with orbital edema, or delayed presentation of indirect optic nerve injury sustained at the time of the initial trauma, have been implicated in causing this blindness. In this article, four cases of visual loss after surgical repair of facial trauma are reported. In a review of the University of Maryland Shock Trauma experience with facial trauma over 11 years, we discovered that 2987 of the 29,474 admitted patients (10.1 percent) sustained facial fractures, and that 1338 of these fractures (44.8 percent) involved one or both of the orbits. One thousand two hundred forty of these patients underwent operative repair of their facial fractures. Three patients experienced postoperative complications that resulted in blindness, a total incidence of only 0.242 percent. Postoperative ophthalmic complications seem to be primarily mediated by indirect injury to the optic nerve and its surrounding structures. The most frequent cause of postoperative visual loss is an increase in intraorbital pressure in the optic canal. When our data were added to the summarized cases, blindness was attributable to intraorbital hemorrhage in 13 of 27 cases (48 percent). In addition, 5 cases in our review attribute the visual loss to unspecified mechanisms of increased intraorbital pressure, bringing the total cases of visual loss caused by intraorbital pressure or hemorrhage to 18 of 27 cases, or 67 percent. Within the restricted confines of the optic canal, even small changes in pressure potentially may cause ischemic optic nerve injury. PMID:9810975

Girotto, J A; Gamble, W B; Robertson, B; Redett, R; Muehlberger, T; Mayer, M; Zinreich, J; Iliff, N; Miller, N; Manson, P N

1998-11-01

418

An Online Three-Stage Method for Facial Point Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Finding facial features respectively under expression and illumination variations is always a difficult problem. One popular\\u000a solution for improving the performance of facial point localization is to use the spatial relation between facial feature\\u000a positions. While existing algorithms mostly rely on the priori knowledge of facial structure and on a training phase, this\\u000a paper presents an online approach without requirements

Weiyuan Ni; Ngoc-Son Vu; Alice Caplier

419

Machine analysis of facial behaviour: naturalistic and dynamic behaviour  

PubMed Central

This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in these specific subproblem areas in particular, are discussed and recommendations for accomplishing a better facial expression measurement technology are outlined.

Pantic, Maja

2009-01-01

420

Quantitative parameters of facial motor evoked potential during vestibular schwannoma surgery predict postoperative facial nerve function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Facial motor evoked potential (FMEP) amplitude ratio reduction at the end of the surgery has been identified as a good predictor\\u000a for postoperative facial nerve outcome. We sought to investigate variations in FMEP amplitude and waveform morphology during\\u000a vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection and to correlate these measures with postoperative facial function immediately after\\u000a surgery and at the last follow-up.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Intraoperative

Marcus André Acioly; Alireza Gharabaghi; Marina Liebsch; Carlos Henrique Carvalho; Paulo Henrique Aguiar; Marcos Tatagiba

2011-01-01

421

Facial nerve: From anatomy to pathology.  

PubMed

The facial nerve (CN VII) emerges from the facial nerve nucleus in the pons. It is accompanied by CN VIII along its cisternal pathway, as well as at the internal auditory meatus. Its petrous pathway includes a labyrinthine segment, a horizontal tympanic segment and a vertical mastoid segment until the stylomastoid foramen. It then continues to the parotid gland. Pontine impairment is usually associated with other neurological symptoms. Lesions of the cerebellopontine angle (most often meningioma and schwannoma) initially result in impairment of CN VIII. The impairment of CN VII takes second place. Peripheral impairment (outside of a traumatic context) is most often due to Bell's palsy. PMID:23891166

Toulgoat, F; Sarrazin, J L; Benoudiba, F; Pereon, Y; Auffray-Calvier, E; Daumas-Duport, B; Lintia-Gaultier, A; Desal, H A

2013-07-25

422

Neurological complications of progressive facial hemiatrophy  

PubMed Central

Progressive left facial hemiatrophy began in a boy at the age of 5 years. Over the next 20 years, he developed wasting of the left shoulder and arm muscles, ptosis of the eyelids, ophthalmoplegia, convergence nystagmus, pupillary dilatation, hemiparesis, seizures, and dysarthria. A pneumoencephalogram showed cerebellar hemiatrophy. Biopsy of the cerebellum revealed loss of and degenerative changes in Purkinje cells. A deltoid muscle biopsy studied by histochemical and enzymatic procedures was normal. There are many neurological and ophthalmological complications of progressive facial hemiatrophy. Seizures, ophthalmoparesis, and pupillary abnormalities are the most common. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease are unknown. The possibility that this is a `slow virus' disease is suggested. Images

Wolf, Sheldon Mark; Verity, M. Anthony

1974-01-01

423

Morphometric Analysis of Facial Profile in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim:\\u000a   Are centroid size, principal component analysis (PCA) and thin-plate splines (TPS) sufficient for determining facial morphology?\\u000a Is it possible to identify relationships between cranial morphology, gender and facial profile?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and Methods:\\u000a   Profile photos of 110 adult patients were measured according to A.M. Schwarz landmarks using Onyx Ceph™. Centroid size was\\u000a calculated from x and y-coordinates. After Procrustes

Karl-Friedrich Krey; Karl-Heinz Dannhauer

2008-01-01

424

Bone Bending  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about bones, learners' jaws will drop when a bone is tied in a knot! A rib or turkey/chicken leg bone is placed in a jar of vinegar. After two weeks, the calcium in the bone dissolves in the vinegar, so the bone is able to bend, sometimes into a knot. This activity can also be done with an egg, which is described at the end of this lesson. Use this experiment to illustrate the anatomy of bones and the process of ossification. This activity is featured on pp.13-14 of the "Bones: More Than They Appear" unit of study for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade learners.

Indianapolis, The C.; Creative Street, Inc.

2012-05-10

425

Relationship between facial asymmetry and masseter reflex activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) of the masseter muscles in patients with facial asymmetry. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted with 10 volunteers without facial asymmetry and 12 orthognathic patients with facial asymmetry. Subjects were seated in a chair and held a stimulator composed of an electric motor and an acrylic bite block

Naoki Machida; Kazuhiro Yamada; Yoshiyuki Takata; Yoshiaki Yamada

2003-01-01

426

Imitating emotions: Shared and dissociable neural substrates for facial mimicry  

Microsoft Academic Search

physiological modules that interact with each other intimately. The relationship between facial muscle activity and emotional processing is reciprocal. Emotional imagery is accompanied by changes in facial EMG that reflect the valence of one's thoughts. Conversely, intentionally adopting a particular facial expression can elicit subjective feelings (and autonomic bodily state) corresponding to the expressed emotion (i.e. smiling can make one

Oliver Josephs; Raymond J Dolan; Hugo D Critchley

427

Automatic Analysis of Spontaneous Facial Behavior: A Final Project Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is the leading standard for measuring facial expressions in the behavioral sciences (Ekman & Friesen, 1978). FACS coding is presently performed manually by human experts, it is slow, and requires extensive training. Automating FACS coding could have revolutionary effects in our understanding of human facial expression and on the development of computer systems that

Marian S. Bartlett; Bjorn Braathen; Gwen Littlewort-Ford; John Hershey; Ian Fasel; Tim Marks; Evan Smith; Terrence J. Sejnowski; Javier R. Movellan

2001-01-01

428

Mere Social Categorization Modulates Identification of Facial Expressions of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the human face to communicate emotional states via facial expressions is well known, and past research has established the importance and universality of emotional facial expressions. However, recent evidence has revealed that facial expressions of emotion are most accurately recognized when the perceiver and expresser are from the same cultural ingroup. The current research builds on this

Steven G. Young; Kurt Hugenberg

2010-01-01

429

Recognition of Human Facial Expressions Without Feature Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method of recognizing facial expressions using a two dimensional physical model named Potential Net. The advantage of the method is not to need extracting facial features from an image, so that it is robust for variations of illumination and facial individualities. Potential Net is a physical model which consists of nodes connected by springs in

Katsuhiro Matsuno; Chil-woo Lee; Saburo Tsuji

1994-01-01

430

From facial mimicry to emotional empathy: A role for norepinephrine ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tendency to mimic others' emotional facial expressions predicts empathy and may represent a physiological marker of psychopathy. Anatomical connectivity between amygdala, cingulate motor cortex (M3, M4), and facial nucleus demonstrates a potential neuroanatomical substrate for mimicry, though pharmacological influences are largely unknown. Norepinephrine modulation selectively impairs negative emotion recognition, reflecting a potential role in processing empathy-eliciting facial expressions. We examined

Neil A. Harrison; Robert Morgan; Hugo D. Critchley

2010-01-01

431

Automatic facial expression recognition for intelligent tutoring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project explores the idea of facial expression for automated feedback in teaching. We show how automatic realtime facial expression recognition can be effectively used to estimate the difficulty level, as perceived by an individual student, of a delivered lecture. We also show that facial expression is predictive of an individual studentpsilas preferred rate of curriculum presentation at each moment

Jacob Whitehill; Marian Bartlett; Javier Movellan

2008-01-01

432

Expert system for automatic analysis of facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses our expert system called Integrated System for Facial Expression Recognition (ISFER), which performs recognition and emotional classification of human facial expression from a still full-face image. The system consists of two major parts. The first one is the ISFER Workbench, which forms a framework for hybrid facial feature detection. Multiple feature detection techniques are applied in parallel.

Maja Pantic; Léon J. M. Rothkrantz

2000-01-01

433

Holistic Gaze Strategy to Categorize Facial Expression of Varying Intensities  

PubMed Central

Using faces representing exaggerated emotional expressions, recent behaviour and eye-tracking studies have suggested a dominant role of individual facial features in transmitting diagnostic cues for decoding facial expressions. Considering that in everyday life we frequently view low-intensity expressive faces in which local facial cues are more ambiguous, we probably need to combine expressive cues from more than one facial feature to reliably decode naturalistic facial affects. In this study we applied a morphing technique to systematically vary intensities of six basic facial expressions of emotion, and employed a self-paced expression categorization task to measure participants' categorization performance and associated gaze patterns. The analysis of pooled data from all expressions showed that increasing expression intensity would improve categorization accuracy, shorten reaction time and reduce number of fixations directed at faces. The proportion of fixations and viewing time directed at internal facial features (eyes, nose and mouth region), however, was not affected by varying levels of intensity. Further comparison between individual facial expressions revealed that although proportional gaze allocation at individual facial features was quantitatively modulated by the viewed expressions, the overall gaze distribution in face viewing was qualitatively similar across different facial expressions and different intensities. It seems that we adopt a holistic viewing strategy to extract expressive cues from all internal facial features in processing of naturalistic facial expressions.

Guo, Kun

2012-01-01

434

Prototyping and Transforming Facial Textures for Perception Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial perception research has benefited from the use of computer graphic methods, such as facial image prototyping and transformation. This paper describes new methods for improved prototyping and transformation of skin textures including wrinkles and stubble. We use a biologically inspired wavelet transform to capture the textural detail in different facial regions at multiple spatial scales and orientations. This information

Bernard Tiddeman; Michael Burt; David I. Perrett

2001-01-01

435

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Results indicated that, independent of trait

Steven J. Kirsh; Jeffrey R. W. Mounts; Paul V. Olczak

2006-01-01

436

CLASSIFICATION AND VOLUME MORPHING FOR PERFORMANCE-DRIVEN FACIAL ANIMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new facial animation approach that produces a wide variety of realistic facial expressions with advantages over existing geometry deformation and morphing methods for performance-driven animation systems. These systems sense and reconstruct a real person's facial expressions from an image sequence. The novelty of our approach is to sense and animate both textures and geometry using classification, volume

Douglas Fidaleo; Jun-yong Noh; Taeyong Kim; Reyes Enciso; Ulrich Neumann

2000-01-01

437

Classification and volume morphing for performance-driven facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new facial animation approach that produces a wide variety of realistic facial expressions with advantages over existing geometry deformation and morphing methods for performance-driven animation systems. These systems sense and reconstruct a real person's facial expressions from an image sequence. The novelty of our approach is to sense and animate both textures and geometry using classification, volume

D. Fidaleo; J. Noh; T. Kim; R. Enciso; U. Neumann

1999-01-01

438

A review of facial injuries due to dog bites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bite injuries to the head and neck region can result in facial disfigurement with distressing physical and psychological consequences. This article reviewed the causes and management of facial bite wounds due to dog bites. A PUBMED search of the National Library of Medicine from 1995 to December 2005 was conducted. Keywords used in the search were 'facial wound', 'bite wound',

Allan Abuabara

439

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph.…

Kirsh, Steven J.; Mounts, Jeffrey R. W.; Olczak, Paul V.

2006-01-01

440

Facial animation on an anatomy-based hierarchical face model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a new hierarchical 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge that provides high fidelity for realistic facial expression animation. Like real human face, the facial model has a hierarchical biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. The deformable skin model has multi-layer structure to approximate different types of soft tissue. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the skin and the fact that soft tissue is almost incompressible. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force on the skin due to muscle contraction. By the presence of the skull model, our facial model takes advantage of both more accurate facial deformation and the consideration of facial anatomy during the interactive definition of facial muscles. Under the muscular force, the deformation of the facial skin is evaluated using numerical integration of the governing dynamic equations. The dynamic facial animation algorithm runs at interactive rate with flexible and realistic facial expressions to be generated.

Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C.; Sung, Eric

2003-04-01

441

A Prototype for Automatic Recognition of Spontaneous Facial Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ongoing work on a project for automatic recognition of spon- taneous facial actions. Spontaneous facial expressions differ substan- tially from posed expressions, similar to how continuous, spontaneous speech differs from isolated words produced on command. Previous methods for automatic facial expression recognition assumed images were collected in controlled environments in which the subjects delib- erately faced the camera.

Marian Stewart Bartlett; Gwen Littlewort; Bjorn Braathen; Terrence J. Sejnowski; Javier R. Movellan

2002-01-01

442

Neural repair in facial paralysis: Clinical and experimental studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute facial nerve injuries involving the total facial nerve (n = 202) and its segmental branches (n = 63) were repaired with a variety of neural (n = 225) and myofascial transfer (n = 40). A system for evaluating results based on facial symmetry and tone at rest, recovery of voluntary mimetic activity,\\u000a synkinesis, and recovery of selective function in

J. G. Spector

1997-01-01

443

Multistream gaussian mixture model based facial feature localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new facial feature localization system which estimates positions of eyes, nose and mouth corners simultaneously. In contrast to conventional systems, we use the multi-stream Gaussian mixture model (GMM) framework in order to represent structural and appearance information of facial features. We construct a GMM for the region of each facial feature, where the principal component analysis

Kenichi Kumatani; Hazim K. Ekenel; Hua Gao; Rainer Stiefelhagen; Aytul Ercil

2008-01-01

444

Machine analysis of facial behaviour: Naturalistic and dynamic behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in

Maja Pantic

2009-01-01

445

Emerging perceptions of facial plastic surgery among medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of medical students regarding facial aesthetic surgery and those specialists most likely to perform aesthetic or reconstructive facial surgery. Methods: A survey was designed based on a review of the literature to assess the desirable characteristics and the perceived role of the facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon (FPRS). The

Eben Rosenthal; J. Madison Clark; Mark K. Wax; Ted A. Cook

2001-01-01

446

Highly Realistic MPEG4 Compliant Facial Animation with Charisma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past 20 years of facial modeling and animation research have focused on improving facial animation systems' believability, realism, flexibility, and applicability. The MPEG-4 standards define a technique for 3D facial and body model animations (FAPS \\/ BAPS respectively), as seen in modern animation systems. The way this technique works is in contrast to the set of animation techniques currently

Abdennour El Rhalibi; Chris Carter; Simon Cooper; Madjid Merabti

2011-01-01

447

Facial soft tissue thickness in skeletal type I Japanese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology require knowledge of the facial soft tissue thickness of each race if facial features are to be reconstructed correctly. If this is inaccurate, so also will be the reconstructed face. Knowledge of differences by age and sex are also required. Therefore, when unknown human skeletal remains are found, the forensic anthropologist investigates for

Hajime Utsuno; Toru Kageyama; Toshio Deguchi; Yasunobu Umemura; Mineo Yoshino; Hiroshi Nakamura; Hiroo Miyazawa; Katsuhiro Inoue

2007-01-01

448

Waist to hip ratio and facial attractiveness: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of facial attractiveness and waist to hip ratio (WHR) on five judgements of attractiveness (attractiveness, sexiness, healthiness, fertility and pregnancy). It was hypothesised that facial attractiveness would be more important than WHR for all measures except for pregnancy. Four levels of WHR were matched with two levels of facial attractiveness

Adrian Furnham; Meritxell Lavancy; Alastair McClelland

2001-01-01

449

Spontaneous vs. posed facial behavior: automatic analysis of brow actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on automatic facial expression analysis has focused mostly on the recognition of prototypic expressions of discrete emotions rather than on the analysis of dynamic changes over time, although the importance of temporal dynamics of facial expressions for interpretation of the observed facial behavior has been acknowledged for over 20 years. For instance, it has been shown that the

Michel François Valstar; Maja Pantic; Zara Ambadar; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2006-01-01

450

[Lengthening of the triceps surae muscle in children with motor disorders of cerebral origin performed before the age of 6. Results at the end of growth].  

PubMed

Thirty-seven patients with cerebral palsy aged between two and six years had a lengthening of the triceps by various methods: gastrocnemius recession alone or combined with soleus lengthening (Green), lengthening of the tendon Achilles by the Green method, or by Z-lengthening. All were reviewed at the end of growth. Recurrence was more frequent, in two cases out of four, in those operated on before the age of three years. There were four recurrences out of 10 in those operated on between three and four years and four out of 23 among those between four and six years. There were three cases of talus, only one of which was severe in a child who had not yet walked. There was no other deterioration of function. In six cases operated on before they had begun to walk, two did not achieve walking because of the severity of their motor state. Recurrence was more frequent in hemiplegic than in diplegic children. Operative technique must be precise. Lengthening of the tendon Achilles is preferable to gastrocnemius recession. Plaster casts are kept on for three weeks. Whilst splintage is ultimately unnecessary, it is necessary to re-educate the triceps muscle. PMID:3381002

Taussig, G; Pilliard, D

1988-01-01

451

Investigation of unilateral facial weakness: magnetic stimulation of the proximal facial nerve and of the face-associated motor cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four patients with unilateral facial weakness of various aetiologies were investigated using a magnetic stimulator to stimulate the proximal segment of the facial nerve directly (short latency response) and also to activate the facial motoneurons bilaterally via corticonuclear pathways by placing the stimulating coil over the motor cortex (long latency responses). Electromyographic recordings were taken from both mentalis muscles using

B.-U. Meyer; T. C. Britton; R. Benecke

1989-01-01

452

Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-01-01

453

Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-01-01

454

Analysis and synthesis of facial color for the affect display of virtual facial image under fearful emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a synthetic method for the virtual face image based on the analysis of facial color in fearful emotion. First, the facial color under the emotional change in watching a horror video seized with fear is analyzed by using HSV (hue, saturation, value) color space. Secondly, we examine the relation between the change of facial color and the

T. Yamada; T. Watanabe

2005-01-01

455

Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

2008-01-01

456

Investigation of facial recognition memory and happy and sad facial expression perception: an fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated facial recognition memory (for previously unfamiliar faces) and facial expression perception with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eight healthy, right-handed volunteers participated. For the facial recognition task, subjects made a decision as to the familiarity of each of 50 faces (25 previously viewed; 25 novel). We detected signal increase in the right middle temporal gyrus and left prefrontal

Mary L. Phillips; Edward T. Bullmore; Robert Howard; Peter W. R. Woodruff; Ian C. Wright; Steven C. R. Williams; Andrew Simmons; Christopher Andrew; Michael Brammer; Anthony S. David

1998-01-01

457

Facial Muscle Coordination in Monkeys During Rhythmic Facial Expressions and Ingestive Movements  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the origins of communication signals generally, and primate orofacial communication signals in particular, suggest that these signals derive by ritualization of noncommunicative behaviors, notably including ingestive behaviors such as chewing and nursing. These theories are appealing in part because of the prominent periodicities in both types of behavior. Despite their intuitive appeal, however, there are little or no data with which to evaluate these theories because the coordination of muscles innervated by the facial nucleus has not been carefully compared between communicative and ingestive movements. Such data are especially crucial for reconciling neurophysiological assumptions regarding facial motor control in communication and ingestion. We here address this gap by contrasting the coordination of facial muscles during different types of rhythmic orofacial behavior in macaque monkeys, finding that the perioral muscles innervated by the facial nucleus are rhythmically coordinated during lipsmacks and that this coordination appears distinct from that observed during ingestion.

Shepherd, Stephen V.; Lanzilotto, Marco; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

2012-01-01

458

Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application  

PubMed Central

Background Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. Case presentation In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in the lower part of her face following a dental operation. The patient also exhibited dyskinesia of her caudal mimic musculature that was triggered by specific movements. Several attempts at therapy had been unsuccessful. We performed local injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) into the affected region of the patient's face. Pain relief was immediate following each set of botulinum toxin injections. The follow up time amounts 62 weeks. Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can be a safe and effective therapy for certain forms of facial pain syndromes.

Junghans, Katharina; Rohrbach, Saskia; Ellies, Maik; Laskawi, Rainer

2007-01-01

459

Lower eyelid lengthening surgery targeting the posterior layer of the lower eyelid retractors via a transcutaneous approach  

PubMed Central

The lower eyelid retractors consist of double layers, the posterior layer of which is the main tractional component. Therefore, shortening of the posterior layer of the lower eyelid retractors causes lower eyelid retraction or cicatricial entropion. Based on this concept, we report a modified lower eyelid lengthening surgery involving complete recession of the posterior layer of the lower eyelid retractors by way of a transcutaneous approach that leaves the palpebral conjunctiva intact and inserts ear cartilage as a rigid spacer between the lower edge of the tarsal plate and the recessed anterior layer of the lower eyelid retractors. This procedure completely extirpated the preoperative maladjusted states of lower eyelid retraction and cicatricial entropion. Ou