Sample records for facial bone lengthening

  1. Bone expansion in facial rejuvenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rómulo Guerrero Vicuña; Adriana Salazar Giottonini

    1994-01-01

    Soft tissues and bone structures of the face are both affected by aging, but the bone is the more important element in the three-dimensional contour and suspension of the soft tissue. Bone expansion augments bone volume in the midface. A lamellar split osteotomy of the midface is used for bone expansion, and cranial bone grafts fill spaces created by the

  2. Leg lengthening.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, S A; Bennet, G C; Evans, G A; Stirling, J

    1993-04-01

    The combined experience of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow and the Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry in lengthening 52 lower limb segments with the Orthofix device is reviewed. Forty-eight segments were lengthened by callotasis, 24 in patients with achondroplasia. Attempted lengthening with chondrodiatasis was performed in 4 patients with leg length discrepancy. With callotasis, planned lengthening was achieved in 43/48 (90%) of segments. There was a small number of significant complications. Angulation or buckling of the new bone was the commonest major complication, and was seen in 10% of segments. Pin tract infection was the predominant minor complication. Premature union was noted commonly in the femurs of achondroplastics, but could usually be overcome with manipulation under anaesthesia. We confirm that callotasis achieves its objectives with fewer complications and operations than the commonly used Wagner method which it should supersede. By contrast, we had major complications in all cases with chondrodiatasis and have abandoned this method. PMID:8478826

  3. Brachymetatarsia of the Fourth Metatarsal, Lengthening Scarf Osteotomy with Bone Graft

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankit; Lidder, Surjit; R. Armitage, Andrew; S. Rajaratnam, Samuel; D. Skyrme, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with left fourth metatarsal shortening causing significant psychological distress. She underwent lengthening scarf osteotomy held with an Omnitech® screw (Biotech International, France) with the addition of two 1 cm cancellous cubes (RTI Biologics, United States). A lengthening zplasty of the extensor tendons and skin were also performed. At 6 weeks the patient was fully weight bearing and at one-year follow up, the patient was satisfied and discharged. A modified technique of lengthening scarf osteotomy is described for congenital brachymatatarsia. This technique allows one stage lengthening through a single incision with graft incorporation by 6 weeks. PMID:24191181

  4. Leg lengthening and shortening

    MedlinePLUS

    BONE LENGTHENING This series of treatments involves several surgeries, a long recovery period, and a number of risks. However, it can add up to 6 inches of length to a leg. The child will be under general anesthesia. This means the child is asleep ...

  5. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Eliçora, Sultan ?evik; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Bi?kin, Sultan; Damar, Murat; Bilgin, Ergin

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis caused by bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, with seven cases reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 40-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis and hearing loss that developed after an occupational accident. On physical examination, House-Brackmann (HB) facial paralysis of grade 6 was observed on the right side and HB grade 5 paralysis on the left. Upon temporal bone computed tomography (CT) examination, a fracture line exhibiting transverse progression was observed in both petrous temporal bones. Our patient underwent transmastoid facial decompression surgery of the right ear. The patient refused a left-side operation. Such patients require extensive monitoring in intensive care units because the presence of multiple injuries means that facial functions are often very difficult to evaluate. Therefore, delays may ensue in both diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial paralysis. PMID:26175920

  6. Tendon lengthening and transfer.

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, F; Bachy, M

    2015-02-01

    Tendon lengthening and transfer are usually indicated for certain neuromuscular disorders, peripheral or central nerve injury, congenital disorder or direct traumatic or degenerative musculotendinous lesion. In musculotendinous lengthening, technique depends on muscle anatomy, degree of correction required, and the need to avoid excessive loss of force. Lengthening within the muscle or aponeurosis is stable. In the tendon, however, it may provide greater gain but is not stable and requires postoperative immobilization to avoid excessive lengthening. Tendon transfer consists in displacing a muscle's tendon insertion in order to restore function. The muscle to be transferred is chosen according to strength, architecture and course, contraction timing, intended direction, synergy and the joint moment arm to be restored. Functions to be restored have to be prioritized, and alternatives to transfer should be identified. The principles of tendon transfer require preoperative assessment of the quality of the tissue through which the transfer is to pass and of the suppleness of the joints concerned. During the procedure, transfer tension should be optimized and the neurovascular bundle should be protected. The method of fixation, whether tendon-to-bone or tendon-to-tendon suture, should be planned according to local conditions and the surgeon's experience. PMID:25572471

  7. Study of intratemporal course of facial nerve and its variations — 25 temporal bones dissection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashmi D. Kharat; Sanjiv V. Golhar; Chandrakant Y. Patil

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  Facial nerve is the longest nerve in a bony canal. Three dimensional anatomical knowledge provides the foundation for safe\\u000a and skillful dissection of the very complex temporal bone and tortuous facial nerve.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  A small surgical area and a fair incidence of anatomical variations makes the facial nerve prone to injury. Inspite of the\\u000a problems presented, the nerve serves as an

  8. Experimental model for bone regeneration in oral and cranio-maxillo-facial surgery.

    PubMed

    Mardas, Nikos; Dereka, Xanthippi; Donos, Nikolaos; Dard, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Bone and tooth loss, as a result of trauma, anatomical or congenital reasons, cancer, and periodontal disease, is a common therapeutic problem in the fields of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery and periodontics. The proposed techniques for the treatment of various bone defects encountered include bone grafts, bone substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, and distraction osteogenesis as well as their combinations. In addition, dental implants have been successfully utilized for the restoration of full or partial edentulism. The introduction and development of new therapeutic approaches and devices demand the use of appropriate animal models that present bone anatomy and healing comparable to human. Among other animal models, the pig is extensively documented in several biomedical areas and has been largely used in maxillo-facial surgery and implants dentistry-related research. Anatomical and physiological similarities with human in size, physiology, and bone biology contribute to a successful involvement of this animal to understand and treat various osseous lesions. However, improvements and standardization are requested with respect to consistency and discrimination abilities. The aim of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature related to swine models for the evaluation of cranio-maxillo-facial osseous defect healing, regeneration, and bone-implant interface. This review should assist researchers in the field to select the most appropriate model for each dedicated purpose and also contribute to stimulate an innovative thinking on the use of porcine models. PMID:23957784

  9. Unusual Presentation of a Metastatic Tumor to the Temporal Bone: Severe Otalgia and Facial Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Ho; Park, Il-Seok; Kim, Young Bok

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic temporal bone tumors are rare diseases and they are usually clinically asymptomatic, so it is difficult to diagnose them. Breasts are the most common sites of temporal bone metastasis. Tumors of lung, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, prostate gland, larynx and thyroid gland are the other sites. The pathogenesis of the temporal bone is most commonly related to the hematogenous route. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with facial paralysis combined with severe otalgia. This patient was initially diagnosed with Bell's palsy. However, based on the radiologic findings, the patient was diagnosed with lung cancer with temporal bone metastasis. PMID:24782949

  10. Concomitant abducens and facial nerve palsies following blunt head trauma associated with bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Jeong; Han, Sang-Beom; Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old man was referred for horizontal diplopia that worsened on left gaze. He had been admitted for a head trauma caused by a traffic accident. Brain CT scan showed a longitudinal fracture of the left temporal bone with extension to the left carotid canal and central skull base, including sphenoid lateral wall and roof, and left orbit medial wall non-displaced fracture. Prism cover test revealed 20 prism diopters of esotropia and abduction limitation in the left eye. Hess screening test results were compatible with left abducens nerve paralysis. Symptoms suggesting complete lower motor neuron palsy of the left facial nerve, such as unilateral facial drooping, inability to raise the eyebrow and difficulty closing the eye, were present. As there was no improvement in facial paralysis, the patient received surgical intervention using a transmastoidal approach. Three months postoperatively, prism cover test showed orthotropia, however, the facial nerve palsy persisted. PMID:26178005

  11. Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

  12. Bad to the bone: facial structure predicts unethical behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Haselhuhn, Michael P.; Wong, Elaine M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers spanning many scientific domains, including primatology, evolutionary biology and psychology, have sought to establish an evolutionary basis for morality. While researchers have identified social and cognitive adaptations that support ethical behaviour, a consensus has emerged that genetically determined physical traits are not reliable signals of unethical intentions or actions. Challenging this view, we show that genetically determined physical traits can serve as reliable predictors of unethical behaviour if they are also associated with positive signals in intersex and intrasex selection. Specifically, we identify a key physical attribute, the facial width-to-height ratio, which predicts unethical behaviour in men. Across two studies, we demonstrate that men with wider faces (relative to facial height) are more likely to explicitly deceive their counterparts in a negotiation, and are more willing to cheat in order to increase their financial gain. Importantly, we provide evidence that the link between facial metrics and unethical behaviour is mediated by a psychological sense of power. Our results demonstrate that static physical attributes can indeed serve as reliable cues of immoral action, and provide additional support for the view that evolutionary forces shape ethical judgement and behaviour. PMID:21733897

  13. The effect of bone displacement operations on facial soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Habib, Ali; Hisham, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    A novel biomechanical model for face soft tissue (skin, mucosa, and muscles) is introduced to investigate the effect of mandible and chin bone displacement on the overall appearance of the patient's face. Nonlinear FE analysis is applied to the model and the results obtained are used to help surgeons to decide the amount of displacement required. PMID:24110836

  14. Pattern Alteration: Lengthening & Shortening 

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    , long sleeves can be lengthened above the elbow dart(s) so that the dart(s) will point toward the elbow, but they might not need lengthening or shortening below the dart to adjust sleeve length. 2... ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Fitted sleeve darts Sleeve darts should point toward the elbow when the arm is bent. Incorrect dart placement will create extra fullness above or below the elbow and will be uncomfortable. You can adjust the dart location while keeping...

  15. [Bone substitute with growth factor. Preliminary clinical cases for cranio- and maxillo-facial indications].

    PubMed

    Arnaud, E; Molina, F; Mendoza, M; Fuente del Campo, A; Ortiz-Monasterio, F

    1998-02-01

    Several biological materials have been analyzed in combination with osteo-inductive growths factors to determine whether such a system can replace bone grafting in surgical practice. Efforts have been aimed at the discovery of the best carriers and delivery systems. We present the results of the surgical treatment of 11 cranio-maxillo-facial defects in 9 patients using a combination of natural coral skeleton (NCS in blocks or granules), human fibrin glue and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1) as a composite bone substitute. Three patients were initially excluded because of early extrusion of the materials due to a technical error. Clinical and radiological evaluation was performed in all cases, with the patient acting as his own control. Clinical firmness and radiological mineralization occurred in three quarters of cases. New bone formation was confirmed histologically in two of these patients. Clinically the initial results remained stable over a three years follow-up with staged surgical procedures performed on a number of patients. None of the patients suffered any detrimental effect from implantation of the bone substitute. Although the numbers in these series are limited, the association of TGF-beta 1, human fibrin glue and NCS represented an interesting step, although the clinical results could be improved. Important factors in the success of this technique appeared to be stabilisation of the biological materials, quality and asepsis of the surrounding tissue and the dose of growth factor. PMID:9768091

  16. Pattern Alteration: Lengthening & Shortening

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    , and E-373, Personal Measurement Chart, for basic alteration instructions. A garment needs lengthening if major fi tting points, such as the waist or hem line ride up evenly around the body or fall too short for comfort. You might also want... ................................................................................................................................................................................. Basic lengthening and shortening On the Personal Measurement Chart, determine the amount of alteration you need from line 7, shoulder to waist; line 13, skirt length; line 17, side length; and/or line 11-b, sleeve length. Do this alteration on front...

  17. [Results and special aspects of secondary microsurgical bone transfer in the area of the facial skull].

    PubMed

    Reinert, S; Lentrodt, J

    1994-01-01

    Results and significance of secondary reconstruction of mandibular and maxillary defects. The results of 14 patients with 12 mandibular and 2 maxillary defects following tumour surgery with irradiation and/or chemotherapy, osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis or trauma, which were reconstructed secondarily, are presented. 12 flaps survived, 1 flap showed a partial and 1 flap a complete necrosis due to venous thrombosis. The major differences of secondary reconstruction of bone defects in the facial skeleton in comparison to primary reconstruction are the scar formation in the defect region and above all the reduced number and quality of recipient vessels in the neck area. The design of the flap should be exactly determined preoperatively. Of great importance is the examination of the recipient vessels in the neck area. Non-invasive methods are preferred. PMID:8088638

  18. Planar Bones for MPEG-4 Facial Animation Manuel A. Sanchez Lorenzo

    E-print Network

    Maddock, Steve

    Picture Experts Group (MPEG) has de- vised a paradigm of Facial Animation (FA) encoding and compression definition of a facial configuration, accord- ing to the standard. Therefore any animation system based. The following subsection introduces the solutions given in the present literature. 1.1 Facial Animation systems

  19. Use of bone wax as a template for intraoperative evaluation of facial defects and shaping of polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Mavili, E; Akyürek, M

    1997-10-01

    With the advent of polymer chemistry, an increasing number of alloplastic materials are now available for use as onlay implants for reconstruction of facial bony and soft-tissue deformities. An optimal clinical result of a facial contour deformity surgery will depend not only on the choice of implant, but also on the method of giving exact shape to the implant to be used. The latter is particularly important to fit the implant into the complex configuration of a specific defect of bone and soft tissue. A template greatly enhances the accuracy of implant design. In this paper we describe a new method of fabricating polyethylene implants by using bone wax as an intraoperative template. We used this technique in four patients aged 8 to 35 years (average, 18 years) with posttraumatic and congenital facial defects without any complications. We present this method as a simple, inexpensive, and accurate alternative to the more sophisticated, but expensive and time-consuming, computer-assisted implant generation. PMID:9326788

  20. Comparison of molar intrusion efficiency and bone density by CT in patients with different vertical facial morphology.

    PubMed

    Ding, W H; Li, W; Chen, F; Zhang, J F; Lv, Y; Chen, X Y; Lin, W W; Fu, Z; Shi, J J

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between molar intrusion efficiency and bone density in patients with different vertical facial morphology. Thirty-six female patients, with overerupted upper first molars, were divided into two groups according to mandiblular plane angle (FH-MP): hyperdivergent, FH-MP>30° (G1), hypodivergent, FH-MP<22° (G2). Mini-screw implants with elastic chains were used to intrude upper first molars. Spiral CT was used to measure the intrusion degree of upper first molar and bone density, and molar intrusion efficiency was calculated as amount/duration (mm month(-1) ). In addition, each tooth was divided into three portions (cervical, furcation and apical) to measure the bone density. It was found in this study that treatment duration was 3·13 and 4·71 months in G1 and G2 and that the intrusion efficiency was 1·57 and 0·81 in G1 and G2 with significant difference (P < 0·05). There were significant differences in cervical, furcation and apical bone density between two groups (P < 0·05). The bone density was significantly reduced after molar intrusion. In addition, the bone density change was greater in G1 than in G2 (P < 0·05). It was concluded that molars were more easily to be intruded in hyperdivergent than in hypodivergent patients. The difference of bone density and bone density changes during intrusion may account for the variation of molar intrusion efficiency. PMID:25515652

  1. Leg Lengthening With a Motorized Nail in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Speth, Bernhard M.; Foster, Bruce K.

    2008-01-01

    Leg lengthening by external fixation is associated with various difficulties. We evaluated eight adolescent patients who underwent leg lengthening with a motorized intramedullary lengthening device. We asked whether this method could reduce the time of hospitalization and rehabilitation and whether the incidence of complications commonly associated with external fixators could be reduced. We compared our preliminary results with those from other reports, with a focus on leg length achieved, time of rehabilitation, and rate of complications. The average leg-length discrepancy was 3.8 cm (range, 3–5 cm). The average lengthening distance was 3.8 cm (range, 2.9–4.7 cm). In six patients, leg lengthening was combined with successful correction of the mechanical axis alignment. The consolidation index averaged 26 days/cm (range, 19–41 days/cm). The average hospital stay was 9.6 days. No bone or soft tissue infections were observed. In comparison to other studies (1.0–2.8 complications/patient), our results suggest that the difficulties commonly associated with external fixators can be reduced with this method. It also allows good angular correction in patients with mechanical axis deviation. These features combined with a short time of hospitalization and rehabilitation make it a promising procedure for limb lengthening. Level of Evidence: Level IV Therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196392

  2. Translational Research: Palatal-derived Ecto-mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Palate: A New Hope for Alveolar Bone and Cranio-Facial Bone Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Wolf Dieter; Dannan, Aous; Giesenhagen, Bernd; Schau, Ingmar; Varga, Gabor; Vukovic, Mark Alexander; Sirak, Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    The management of facial defects has rapidly changed in the last decade. Functional and esthetic requirements have steadily increased along with the refinements of surgery. In the case of advanced atrophy or jaw defects, extensive horizontal and vertical bone augmentation is often unavoidable to enable patients to be fitted with implants. Loss of vertical alveolar bone height is the most common cause for a non primary stability of dental implants in adults. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure loss of vertical alveolar bone height and achieve optimal pre-implantological bone regeneration before dental implant placement. Recently, it has been found that specific populations of stem cells and/or progenitor cells could be isolated from different dental resources, namely the dental follicle, the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament. Our research group has cultured palatal-derived stem cells (paldSCs) as dentospheres and further differentiated into various cells of the neuronal and osteogenic lineage, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. In this publication will be shown whether paldSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate alveolar bone tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Furthermore, using these data we have started a proof of principle clinical- and histological controlled study using stem cell-rich palatal tissues for improving the vertical alveolar bone augmentation in critical size defects. The initial results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat alveolar bone defects in humans. PMID:24921024

  3. Translational Research: Palatal-derived Ecto-mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Palate: A New Hope for Alveolar Bone and Cranio-Facial Bone Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Wolf Dieter; Dannan, Aous; Giesenhagen, Bernd; Schau, Ingmar; Varga, Gabor; Vukovic, Mark Alexander; Sirak, Sergey Vladimirovich

    2014-05-01

    The management of facial defects has rapidly changed in the last decade. Functional and esthetic requirements have steadily increased along with the refinements of surgery. In the case of advanced atrophy or jaw defects, extensive horizontal and vertical bone augmentation is often unavoidable to enable patients to be fitted with implants. Loss of vertical alveolar bone height is the most common cause for a non primary stability of dental implants in adults. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure loss of vertical alveolar bone height and achieve optimal pre-implantological bone regeneration before dental implant placement. Recently, it has been found that specific populations of stem cells and/or progenitor cells could be isolated from different dental resources, namely the dental follicle, the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament. Our research group has cultured palatal-derived stem cells (paldSCs) as dentospheres and further differentiated into various cells of the neuronal and osteogenic lineage, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. In this publication will be shown whether paldSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate alveolar bone tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Furthermore, using these data we have started a proof of principle clinical- and histological controlled study using stem cell-rich palatal tissues for improving the vertical alveolar bone augmentation in critical size defects. The initial results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat alveolar bone defects in humans. PMID:24921024

  4. [Consequences of progressive lengthenings on rabbits. Experimental study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pouliquen, J C; Chaboche, P; Pennecot, G F; Bergue, A

    1980-01-01

    The authors performed 12 femur progressive lengthenings on rabbits during growth period. The lengthening was effected with a small distractor after a transversal bone section. The lengthening was 7,5 mm on 4 rabbits in 5 days (group 1) 10,5 mm on 4 rabbits in 7 days (groups 2), 15 mm on 4 rabbits in 10 days (group 3. At the end of the lengthening, the authors compared the non operated limb with arteris, veins, nerves, muscles and growth cartilage of the operated side. They found no modification of the muscular structure in the 3 groups. They substantieted few arterial and veinous modifications in group 1 and 2 the arteriel modifications were minimal but veinous modifications were important in group 3. The nervous anomalies wer evident in the 3 groups; the more important the lengthening, the more severe the anomalies; ranging from nerve ondulations in group 1, to vacuolar degenerscence and fibres ruptur in group 3. The authors studied the growth cartilage modificate at the furthest extremity from the femur by counting the cells in the various layers of the cartilage. They noted a significant descrease of the cell in the proliferative zone. This descrease might be due to a cartilage suffering. The modifications in the hypertrophic zone are less important, inconstant and result in a increase of the number of the cells. The authors think that the consequences of those important modifications on the nerve and on the growth cartilage are constant enough to complete this study by other lengthenings. This study coroborates their theory that all the consequences of a lengthening performed in a child are far from being perfectly known. PMID:7460118

  5. Femoral lengthening with a motorized intramedullary nail

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Joachim; Grimsrud, Øyvind; Dagsgard, Anita Hoddevik; Huhnstock, Stefan; Steen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We assessed whether an intramedullary lengthening device would reduce the problems normally associated with the external fixation technique. We also wanted to determine whether it is a reliable construct for limb lengthening and deformity correction in the femur. Patients and methods We conducted a matched-pair comparison of 30 femoral lengthenings, 15 with a motorized intramedullary nail (the nail group) and 15 lengthenings with an external ring fixator (the fixator group). The patients were matched based on age, sex, amount of lengthening, and the etiology of leg length discrepancy. Mean lengthening was 35 (25–55) mm in the nail group and 38 (15–75) mm in the fixator group. Outcome measures were: lengthening and alignment achieved, consolidation index, knee range of motion (ROM), and complications. Results The pairs in this matched-pair study were similar in terms of age, sex, diagnosis, and amount of lengthening. The planned amount of lengthening was achieved in all patients in both groups and axis correction was considered sufficient. The mean radiographic consolidation index in the nail group, at 1.5 (0.9–3.0) months/cm, was better than the mean value for the fixator group (1.9 (0.9–3.4) months/cm) (p = 0.01). Knee ROM was better in the nail group during the lengthening, 6 weeks after lengthening was completed, and 6 months after lengthening was completed (p < 0.001). A larger number of complications were observed in the fixator group than in the nail group. Interpretation A lengthening nail may be superior to external fixation in femoral lengthening, when the anatomical conditions and the complexity of the deformity allow the use of an intramedullary nail. PMID:25191936

  6. Occlusal load distribution through the cortical and trabecular bone of the human mid-facial skeleton in natural dentition: a three-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Janovic, Aleksa; Saveljic, Igor; Vukicevic, Arso; Nikolic, Dalibor; Rakocevic, Zoran; Jovicic, Gordana; Filipovic, Nenad; Djuric, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the occlusal load distribution through the mid-facial skeleton in natural dentition is essential because alterations in magnitude and/or direction of occlusal forces may cause remarkable changes in cortical and trabecular bone structure. Previous analyses by strain gauge technique, photoelastic and, more recently, finite element (FE) methods provided no direct evidence for occlusal load distribution through the cortical and trabecular bone compartments individually. Therefore, we developed an improved three-dimensional FE model of the human skull in order to clarify the distribution of occlusal forces through the cortical and trabecular bone during habitual masticatory activities. Particular focus was placed on the load transfer through the anterior and posterior maxilla. The results were presented in von Mises stress (VMS) and the maximum principal stress, and compared to the reported FE and strain gauge data. Our qualitative stress analysis indicates that occlusal forces distribute through the mid-facial skeleton along five vertical and two horizontal buttresses. We demonstrated that cortical bone has a priority in the transfer of occlusal load in the anterior maxilla, whereas both cortical and trabecular bone in the posterior maxilla are equally involved in performing this task. Observed site dependence of the occlusal load distribution may help clinicians in creating strategies for implantology and orthodontic treatments. Additionally, the magnitude of VMS in our model was significantly lower in comparison to previous FE models composed only of cortical bone. This finding suggests that both cortical and trabecular bone should be modeled whenever stress will be quantitatively analyzed. PMID:25458179

  7. Marfanoid habitus, inguinal hernia, advanced bone age, and distinctive facial features: a new collagenopathy?

    PubMed

    Mégarbané, André; Hanna, Nadine; Chouery, Eliane; Jalkh, Nadine; Mehawej, Cybel; Boileau, Catherine

    2012-05-01

    We report on two sibs, a girl, and a boy, with tall stature, long, and triangular faces, prominent foreheads with high frontal hairlines, telecanthus, downward slanting of the palpebral fissures, ptosis of the eyelids, everted lower eyelids, large ears, long noses, full, and everted vermilions, highly arched and narrow palates, tooth crowding, thin and long uvulae, coloboma of the alae, hyperextensible joints, long digits, positive thumb signs, flat feet, slightly diminished muscle strength, myopia, astigmatia, inguinal hernia, and vesical diverticula. Total body X-rays showed the presence of advanced bone age in both sibs and bilateral hallux valgus in the girl. Array-CGH did not reveal any pathological CNV. Molecular analysis of FBN1, FBN2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and CHST14 gene was normal, and SNP linkage analysis excluded more candidate genes. Differential diagnoses and the possibility that we might be reporting on a hitherto unreported syndrome are discussed. PMID:22489068

  8. Regular, Vigorous Exercise May Lengthen Your Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151865.html Regular, Vigorous Exercise May Lengthen Your Life: Study Intense workouts seem ... 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Although any amount of exercise offers health benefits, a new study suggests that ...

  9. Effect of Limb Lengthening on Internodal Length and Conduction Velocity of Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Gillingwater, Thomas H.; Anderson, Heather; Cottrell, David; Sherman, Diane L.; Ribchester, Richard R.; Brophy, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of axon diameter, myelin thickness, and internodal length on the velocity of conduction of peripheral nerve action potentials are unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong dependence of conduction velocity on internodal length. However, a theoretical analysis has suggested that this relationship may be lost above a nodal separation of ?0.6 mm. Here we measured nerve conduction velocities in a rabbit model of limb lengthening that produced compensatory increases in peripheral nerve growth. Divided tibial bones in one hindlimb were gradually lengthened at 0.7 mm per day using an external frame attached to the bone. This was associated with a significant increase (33%) of internodal length (0.95–1.3 mm) in axons of the tibial nerve that varied in proportion to the mechanical strain in the nerve of the lengthened limb. Axonal diameter, myelin thickness, and g-ratios were not significantly altered by limb lengthening. Despite the substantial increase in internodal length, no significant change was detected in conduction velocity (?43 m/s) measured either in vivo or in isolated tibial nerves. The results demonstrate that the internode remains plastic in the adult but that increases in internodal length of myelinated adult nerve axons do not result in either deficiency or proportionate increases in their conduction velocity and support the view that the internodal lengths of nerves reach a plateau beyond which their conduction velocities are no longer sensitive to increases in internodal length. PMID:23467369

  10. Utterance final lengthening and focus induced lengthening in standard Chinese bi-syllabic words 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hongjuan

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the patterns of durational adjustment of bi-syllabic words in Standard Chinese when different constituents of the word are focused for correction. Results show that both focus-induced lengthening and ...

  11. Facial bradykinesia.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Matteo; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Marsili, Luca; Defazio, Giovanni; Thompson, Philip D; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the main clinical and pathophysiological features of facial bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in atypical parkinsonism. Clinical observation suggests that reduced spontaneous and emotional facial expressions are features of facial bradykinesia in PD and atypical parkinsonism. In atypical parkinsonism, facial bradykinesia is complicated by additional dystonic features. Experimental studies evaluating spontaneous and emotional facial movements demonstrate that PD is characterised by a reduction in spontaneous blinking and emotional facial expression. In PD, neurophysiological studies show that voluntary orofacial movements are smaller in amplitude and slower in velocity. In contrast, movements of the upper face (eg, voluntary blinking) are normal in terms of velocity and amplitude but impaired in terms of switching between the closing and opening phases. In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), voluntary blinking is not only characterised by a severely impaired switching between the closing and opening phases of voluntary blinking, but is also slow in comparison with PD. In conclusion, in PD, facial bradykinesia reflects abnormalities of spontaneous, emotional and voluntary facial movements. In PSP, spontaneous and voluntary facial movements are abnormal but experimental studies on emotional facial movements are lacking. Data on facial bradykinesia in other atypical parkinsonism diseases, including multiple system atrophy and corticobasal degeneration, are limited. In PD, facial bradykinesia is primarily mediated by basal ganglia dysfunction whereas in PSP, facial bradykinesia is a consequence of a widespread degeneration involving the basal ganglia, cortical and brainstem structures. PMID:23236012

  12. Precise and feasible measurements of lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies by radiostereometric analysis in cadaver feet

    PubMed Central

    Martinkevich, P.; Rahbek, O.; Møller-Madsen, B.; Søballe, K.; Stilling, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lengthening osteotomies of the calcaneus in children are in general grafted with bone from the iliac crest. Artificial bone grafts have been introduced, however, their structural and clinical durability has not been documented. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a very accurate and precise method for measurements of rigid body movements including the evaluation of joint implant and fracture stability, however, RSA has not previously been used in clinical studies of calcaneal osteotomies. We assessed the precision of RSA as a measurement tool in a lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomy (LCLO). Methods LCLO was performed in six fixed adult cadaver feet. Tantalum markers were inserted on each side of the osteotomy and in the cuboideum. Lengthening was done with a plexiglas wedge. A total of 24 radiological double examinations were obtained. Two feet were excluded due to loose and poorly dispersed markers. Precision was assessed as systematic bias and 95% repeatability limits. Results Systematic bias was generally below 0.10 mm for translations. Precision of migration measurements was below 0.2 mm for translations in the osteotomy. Conclusion RSA is a precise tool for the evaluation of stability in LCLO. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:78–83. PMID:25957380

  13. Anthropological study for the determination of the Europid and Negroid characteristics on facial bones of human fetuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferenc Kósa

    During my 3-month long scholarship in the Smithsonian Institute in 1991, I carried out metric and comparative anatomical (anthropological) examinations on the collection of fetal\\/newborn skeletons of the Anthropological Institute of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. I determined 85 sizes of 50 characteristic bones of about 350 complete fetal\\/new-born skeletons in standardized conditions. In the study of

  14. Les procédés chirurgicaux de réanimation labiale dans la paralysie faciale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Labbé; H Bénateau; J Bardot

    2002-01-01

    With an extensive review of the literature, the authors described the surgical approach of the labial reanimation in facial palsy. First they remind some important points about neural suture, with or without graft. After, the paliatives procedures are detailed (upper and lower lip, unilateral or bilateral). The main surgical treatments are exposed in technical notes, particularly lengthening temporalis myoplasty and

  15. Facial nerve neuromas: radiologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Latack, J T; Gabrielsen, T O; Knake, J E; Kemink, J L; Graham, M D; Gebarski, S S; Yang, P J

    1983-12-01

    Eight patients who had facial nerve neuromas were examined, and the radiographic findings are reported. Thin section tomography, high resolution computed tomography, posterior fossa computed tomography, and cerebellopontine angle cisternography using Pantopaque (iophendylate) demonstrated bone erosions and soft tissue masses conforming to the course of the facial nerve. The lesions generally exhibited either a proximal or a distal pattern of nerve involvement. Radiologic imaging frequently permits a correct preoperative diagnosis and accurate definition of the extent of facial nerve neuromas, assessments that are important for proper patient management. PMID:6606188

  16. A bioactive "self-fitting" shape memory polymer scaffold with potential to treat cranio-maxillo facial bone defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; George, Olivia J; Petersen, Keri M; Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea C; Hahn, Mariah S; Grunlan, Melissa A

    2014-11-01

    While tissue engineering is a promising alternative for treating critical-sized cranio-maxillofacial bone defects, improvements in scaffold design are needed. In particular, scaffolds that can precisely match the irregular boundaries of bone defects as well as exhibit an interconnected pore morphology and bioactivity would enhance tissue regeneration. In this study, a shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffold was developed exhibiting an open porous structure and the capacity to conformally "self-fit" into irregular defects. The SMP scaffold was prepared via photocrosslinking of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diacrylate using a SCPL method, which included a fused salt template. A bioactive polydopamine coating was applied to coat the pore walls. Following exposure to warm saline at T>T(trans) (T(trans)=T(m) of PCL), the scaffold became malleable and could be pressed into an irregular model defect. Cooling caused the scaffold to lock in its temporary shape within the defect. The polydopamine coating did not alter the physical properties of the scaffold. However, polydopamine-coated scaffolds exhibited superior bioactivity (i.e. formation of hydroxyapatite in vitro), osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic gene expression and extracellular matrix deposition. PMID:25063999

  17. Znf385C mediates a novel p53-dependent transcriptional switch to control timing of facial bone formation.

    PubMed

    Hochgreb-Hägele, Tatiana; Koo, Daniel E S; Bronner, Marianne E

    2015-04-01

    Jaw formation involves an intricate series of molecular events, whereby a chondrogenic scaffold precedes osteogenesis. The mechanisms coupling timing of cartilage maturation to onset of bone differentiation are poorly understood, particularly for neural crest-derived bones of the head. Here we present a novel zebrafish gene/protein-trap Citrine-fusion line that reveals transient expression of the zinc-finger protein Znf385C in maturing chondrocytes of the jaw. Functional analysis shows that loss of Znf385C disrupts a distinct peak of p21(cip1/waf1) expression in the chondrocytes, as well as causes premature ossification of the zebrafish jaw. We find that Znf385C is expressed as two splice variants which act differentially to activate p21(cip1/waf1) and/or interact with p53 in subcellular compartments. Taken together, the results suggest that Znf385C acts as a developmental switch for p53 function that modulates cell cycle arrest of chondrocytes and regulates timing of jaw cartilage maturation and ossification. PMID:25636963

  18. Peripheral nerve lengthening as a regenerative strategy

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Kenneth M.; Brown, Justin M.; Shah, Sameer B.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic function, incurring substantial financial costs and diminished quality of life. For large nerve gaps, proximal lesions, or chronic nerve injury, the prognosis for recovery is particularly poor, even with autografts, the current gold standard for treating small to moderate nerve gaps. In vivo elongation of intact proximal stumps towards the injured distal stumps of severed peripheral nerves may offer a promising new strategy to treat nerve injury. This review describes several nerve lengthening strategies, including a novel internal fixator device that enables rapid and distal reconnection of proximal and distal nerve stumps. PMID:25317163

  19. The Science and Theory behind Facial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pessa, Joel E.; Hubbard, Bradley; Rohrich, Rod J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The etiology of age-related facial changes has many layers. Multiple theories have been presented over the past 50–100 years with an evolution of understanding regarding facial changes related to skin, soft tissue, muscle, and bone. This special topic will provide an overview of the current literature and evidence and theories of facial changes of the skeleton, soft tissues, and skin over time. PMID:25289202

  20. The influence of muscular lengthening on cramps.

    PubMed

    Bertolasi, L; De Grandis, D; Bongiovanni, L G; Zanette, G P; Gasperini, M

    1993-02-01

    Muscle cramps induced by voluntary contraction and by electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve were studied electrophysiologically in 10 healthy subjects. The aim was to verify that cramps can be evoked by electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve and to clarify the physiological mechanism responsible by analyzing the effect of muscular stretching on cramps. Our results showed: (1) Cramps can be induced even after peripheral nerve block by electrical stimulation distal to the block. (2) No cramps were recorded during or following maximal voluntary contraction without muscular shortening, while 7 of 10 subjects showed a true cramp following maximal effort with shortening of the muscle. (3) Muscle stretching caused a sudden interruption of cramps induced by either voluntary contraction or electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerve, even after the induction of nerve block. (4) The lengthening state of the muscle can strongly influence the possibility of evoking cramps by electrical stimulation of nerve. Our study verifies the experimental model proposed by Lambert in 1969, emphasizing the relevance of frequency of stimulation and confirming the hypothesis that cramps are of peripheral origin. The effects of muscle stretch and lengthening on cramp interruption and development also have a peripheral mechanism. PMID:8434879

  1. Silent intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma associated with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media: A rare presentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Phaniendra; Santosh K. Pratinidhi; I. V. Renuka

    2007-01-01

    Facial palsy is a common manifestation of intratemporal facial nerve schwannoma. Review of English literature describes intratemporal\\u000a facial nerve schwannoma presenting as vertigo, tinnitus (without facial palsy) which were diagnosed on CT scan or MRI of temporal\\u000a bone. We are presenting two cases of asymptomatic facial nerve schwannoma without facial palsy presenting only as Chronic\\u000a Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM), which

  2. Prevalence of dental trauma in 6000 patients with facial injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Gassner; Renato Bösch; Tarkan Tuli; Rüdiger Emshoff

    1999-01-01

    Objective. In contrast to epidemiologic studies on facial injuries reporting on dental trauma, facial bone fractures with dentoalveolar injuries, or soft tissue injuries individually, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall place of dental trauma in facial injuries. This was a retrospective investigation of the impact of sport, work, violence, traffic, household, and play accidents in the

  3. Facial tics

    MedlinePLUS

    Tic - facial; Mimic spasm ... Tics may involve repeated, uncontrolled spasm-like muscle movements, such as: Eye blinking Grimacing Mouth twitching Nose wrinkling Squinting Repeated throat clearing or grunting may also be ...

  4. Facial paralysis

    MedlinePLUS

    Paralysis of the face. ... from the brain to the muscles of the face Damage to the area of the brain that sends signals to the muscles of the face In people who are otherwise healthy, facial paralysis ...

  5. Transient bunch lengthening by a betatron motion along bending sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Yoshihiko

    2011-05-01

    Simple analytical formulas can calculate transient bunch lengthening by betatron motion along bending sections. The formulas for storage rings are valid for any single-pass line. Lengthening is expressed by the product of three factors: the square root of horizontal betatron emittance, a betatron phase factor, and the square root of the H-function, in other words, dispersion action. The effect of lengthening should be considered when a short electron bunch passes through quasi-isochronous bending sections when short-pulsed radiation is used.

  6. Facial morphogenesis of the earliest europeans.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Martinón-Torres, María; O'Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G

    2013-01-01

    The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900-800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor. PMID:23762314

  7. Diverse muscle architecture adaptations in a rabbit tibial lengthening model

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yasui, Natsuo; Enishi, Tetsuya; Sato, Nori; Mizobuchi, Takatoshi; Homma, Yukako; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: during limb lengthening, muscles are thought to increase the number of sarcomeres. However, this adaptation may differ among muscles with diverse architecture. Purpose: this study wish to clarify the differences in muscle adaptation in a rabbit model of tibial lengthening. Methods: twelve rabbits underwent tibial lengthening (0.7 mm/day for 4 weeks), with the contralateral limb serving as a control, and were euthanized after either the lengthening or the consolidation period. Six muscles around the tibia were investigated in terms of muscle belly length, muscle weight, sarcomere length and serial sarcomere number. Results: muscle belly length increased in all the lengthened muscles. No increases in muscle mass were noted. Sarcomere length increased in the ankle plantar-flexors and was kept longer than the optimal sarcomere length after the consolidation period. Nevertheless, significant increases in sarcomere number were observed in two ankle plantar-flexors. Conclusion: this study demonstrated that muscle belly length largely adapted to the lengthening. The increase in sarcomere number did not match the increase in muscle belly length. We estimated that elongation of the intramuscular aponeuroses is another mechanism of the adaptation in addition to the increase in sarcomere number. PMID:25767780

  8. Risk factors associated with facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Batista, Anne Margareth; Ferreira, Fernanda de Oliveira; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ferreira, Meire Coelho

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of residence (urban or rural area) and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a < 0.05), univariate and multivariate Poisson distributions and the logistic regression analysis (p < 0.20). Maxillofacial trauma was recorded in 790 charts (70.5%), with 393 (35.1%) charts reporting facial fractures. Motorcycle accidents were found to be the main risk factor for mandibular fractures (PR = 1.576, CI = 1.402-1.772) and simultaneous fractures of more than one facial bone (OR = 4.625, CI = 1.888-11.329) as well as the only risk factor for maxillary bone fractures (OR = 11.032, CI = 5.294-22.989). Fractures of the zygomatic and nasal bones were mainly associated with accidents involving animals (PR = 1.206, CI = 1.104-1.317) and sports (OR = 8.710, CI = 4.006-18.936), respectively. The determinant for the majority of facial fractures was motorcycle accidents, followed by accidents involving animals and sports. PMID:22473346

  9. Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchovi?ová, So?a; Zahradníková, Barbora; Schreiber, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

  10. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  11. Impact of leg lengthening on viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai-Qiang Wang; Yi-Yong Wei; Zi-Xiang Wu; Zhuo-Jing Luo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the morphological alterations of the deep fascia subjected to leg lengthening have been investigated in cellular and extracellular aspects, the impact of leg lengthening on viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia remains largely unknown. This study aimed to address the changes of viscoelastic properties of the deep fascia during leg lengthening using uniaxial tensile test. METHODS: Animal model

  12. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the upper and lower jaws and the orbits surrounding the eyes, and facial lacerations. Click here to find out ... of the upper and lower jaws and the orbits surrounding the eyes, and facial lacerations. Click here to find out ...

  13. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, speech, breathing and your ... facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For example, nerve diseases like trigeminal neuralgia or ...

  14. Classifying Facial Actions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianluca Donato; Marian Stewart Bartlett; Joseph C. Hager; Paul Ekman; Terrence J. Sejnowski

    1999-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) (23) is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images.

  15. Facial Expression Decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongcheng Wang; Narendra Ahuja

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for facial expression decomposition - Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition (HOSVD), a natural generalization of matrix SVD. We learn the expression subspace and person subspace from a corpus of images showing seven basic facial expressions, rather than resort to expert-coded facial expression parameters as in (3). We propose a simulta- neous face and

  16. Surgical-Allogeneic Facial Reconstruction: Facial Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Bannwart, Lisiane Cristina; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Pereira, Leonardo Viana; Filho, Aljomar José Vechiato

    2014-01-01

    Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA), which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mutilated patients, resulted in greater clinical results. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a literature review on the relevance and effectiveness of facial transplants in mutilated subjects. It was observed that the facial transplants recovered both the aesthetics and function of these patients and consequently improved their quality of life. PMID:25628706

  17. Unpacking a time interval lengthens its perceived temporal distance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Li, Shu; Sun, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In quantity estimation, people often perceive that the whole is less than the sum of its parts. The current study investigated such an unpacking effect in temporal distance judgment. Our results showed that participants in the unpacked condition judged a given time interval longer than those in the packed condition, even the time interval was kept constant between the two conditions. Furthermore, this unpacking effect persists regardless of the unpacking ways we employed. Results suggest that unpacking a time interval may be a good strategy for lengthening its perceived temporal distance. PMID:25477854

  18. Histopathological incidence of facial canal dehiscence in otosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigenobu Nomiya; Sebahattin Cureoglu; Shin Kariya; Norimasa Morita; Rie Nomiya; Kazunori Nishizaki; Michael M. Paparella

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histopathological incidence of facial canal dehiscence in otosclerosis cases\\u000a compared with non-otosclerotic controls. 133 temporal bones from 84 otosclerosis (35 unilateral otosclerosis, 49 bilateral\\u000a otosclerosis) cases were compared to 102 age-matched normal temporal bones from 70 subjects (38 unilateral normal cases, 32\\u000a bilateral normal cases). Temporal bones were serially sectioned in

  19. Facial recognition system using efficient methods for facial scale variations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takatsugu HIRAYAMA; Yoshio IWAI; Masahiko YACHIDA

    2003-01-01

    Facial recognition technology is effective in human computer communication. Robustness for facial recognition is necessary because face views change in many ways due to position, expression, and light. We propose a facial recognition system robust for facial scale variations, which is mainly composed of our flexible feature matching and rapid parallel estimation of facial position and scale.

  20. Effect of bilateral superior oblique split lengthening on torsion

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, Jitendra; Shah, Kuntal; Amin, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Superior oblique split lengthening (SOSL) is done for weakening of superior oblique. It corrects the superior oblique overaction (SOOA) and A pattern. Its effect on the torsion of the eye is not known. We present our data on the effect of this particular procedure on torsion. Materials and Methods: We did a study of 16 patients (32 eyes) who underwent bilateral SOSL and compared the disc foveal angle (DFA) preoperatively and postoperatively. The split lengthening was done from 4 mm to 7 mm depending upon the overaction of superior oblique. Results: The mean age was 15.3 ± 8.4 years. Mean preoperative DFA in the right eye (RE) was ?3.9° and in the left eye (LE) was ?2.9°. Mean postoperative DFA in RE was 0.2° and in LE was 0.9°. The mean change in the DFA for RE was 4.1° ± 1.3° and for LE was 3.8° ± 1.2°. All the patients were aligned horizontally within 6 prism diopter and no pattern and no diplopia postoperatively. The A pattern was corrected in all the patient postsurgery. For each mm of surgery, an improvement of 0.8° was seen in the DFA. Conclusion: We report the effect of SOSL on torsion. The SOSL reduces intorsion postsurgery and is, therefore, a valuable procedure in SOOA where both pattern and in torsion needs to be corrected. PMID:25971171

  1. The Epidemiology of Facial Fractures in Automotive Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Joseph; Duma, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the pattern of facial fractures in automotive collisions using the National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System. The database was examined for trends within collision and occupant descriptors among occupants sustaining facial fractures. Drivers and right front passengers were included in an analysis of frontal collisions. Side impacts were assessed separately by identifying occupants exposed to near and far side collisions. The distribution of facial bone fractures and injury sources were demonstrated for each impact configuration. Risk ratios were used to demonstrate the effects of restraint use and airbag deployment. Seatbelts were found to reduce the risk of sustaining a facial fracture by 74% in frontal impacts. Facial fractures are associated with severe impacts with a risk of 5% at a Delta-V of 40 km/h and 65 km/h for unbelted and belted occupants respectively. PMID:20184842

  2. Facial Expression Recognition Using 3D Facial Feature Distances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamit Soyel; Hasan Demirel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for facial expression analysis and recognition. The proposed approach relies on\\u000a the distance vectors retrieved from 3D distribution of facial feature points to classify universal facial expressions. Neural\\u000a network architecture is employed as a classifier to recognize the facial expressions from a distance vector obtained from\\u000a 3D facial feature locations. Facial expressions

  3. Facial burns - our experience.

    PubMed

    Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh; Martinaj, M

    2013-01-01

    Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems - resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

  4. Intracranial facial nerve reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yammine, F G; Dufour, J J; Mohr, G

    1999-06-01

    Surgery for tumours of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) or the internal auditory canal (IAC) is sometimes complicated by the severing of the seventh nerve. Many procedures are available for facial reanimation. Among these, primary intracranial VII-VII reanastomosis is considered as the method of choice. This series reviews all the cases of primary intracranial facial nerve reconstruction that we have performed either directly or with the use of a nerve graft interposition. Functional results are analyzed according to the House-Brackmann grading scale. The advantages and benefits of this technique are discussed as compared with other methods of facial reanimation, namely, the hypoglossal-facial anastomosis. PMID:10410348

  5. Physiological role of stalk lengthening in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eric A; Schlimpert, Susan; Hughes, Velocity; Brun, Yves V; Thanbichler, Martin; Gitai, Zemer

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus forms a thin polar stalk, which mediates its attachment to solid surfaces. Whereas stalks remain short (1 µm) in nutrient-rich conditions, they lengthen dramatically (up to 30 µm) upon phosphate starvation. A long-standing hypothesis is that the Caulobacter stalk functions as a nutrient scavenging “antenna” that facilitates phosphate uptake and transport to the cell body. The mechanistic details of this model must be revisited, given our recent identification of a protein-mediated diffusion barrier, which prevents the exchange of both membrane and soluble proteins between the stalk extension and the cell body. In this report, we discuss the potential of stalks to facilitate nutrient uptake and propose additional physiological roles for stalk elongation in Caulobacter cells. PMID:23986806

  6. Radial Forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's Lengthening Pendulum

    E-print Network

    McMillan, Matthew; Whitney, Heather M

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner radial driving may easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum, and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergra...

  7. [Combined crown lengthening surgery with restorative therapy for inducing papilla growth: a case report].

    PubMed

    Le, Di; Hu, Wen-jie; Zhang, Hao

    2013-04-18

    A young lady with unsatisfied restorations of upper anterior teeth and swollen gum wanted to improve aesthetics. Oral examination showed that 12-22 were provisional crowns with normal occlusion, poorly gingival contour and gummy smile. The gingiva was red, light swollen and bleeding on probing. X-ray showed the roots of 11, 21 were short and the alveolar bone absorbed. After the periodontal initial treatment, an ideal location of gingival margin was determined. Then, an esthetic periodontal surgery was performed to recover the biology width and the gingival margin was fitted with the anterior teeth. The temporary restorations were made twice to guide the gingiva growth by changing the shape of the restorations and moving up the contact points of the restorations. The ceramic crowns were completed 3 months after the operation. The gummy smile disappeared and the gingival margin was filled well with the upper anterior ceramic crowns. The 14-month follow-up presented a satisfied effect. Crown lengthening surgery combined restorative therapy could lead papilla to grow well. This process is beneficial for the future treatment plan and clinical esthetic evaluation. PMID:23591358

  8. Nerve conduction and microanatomy in the rabbit sciatic nerve after gradual limb lengthening–distraction neurogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Yokota; Munekazu Doi; Hisashi Ohtsuka; Muneaki Abe

    2003-01-01

    To clarify how the peripheral nerve adapts to elongation during gradual limb lengthening, electrophysiological and histomorphometric examinations were performed on the sciatic nerves in 18 rabbits. External fixators were used to lengthen the right femora by 30 mm (30%), at a daily rate of 0.5 mm (Group 1) or 2.0 mm (Group 2). Examinations were performed immediately after the limb

  9. Columella lengthening using a cartilage graft in the bilateral cleft lip-associated nose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuyoshi Takato; Yoshiyuki Yonehara; Takahumi Susami

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the technique of columellar lengthening using a cartilaginous strut in patients with a severely deformed bilateral cleftlip-associated nose.Materials and Methods: When the upper lip is not deficient, and especially when resection of lip scar tissue is indicated, the Millard forked flap technique is recommended. Advancement of the prolabium into the columella for lengthening, combined with an

  10. Z-lengthening of the Achilles Tendon with Transverse Skin Incision

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jong Seok; Lee, Jong Seo; Lee, Tae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of various complications after Achilles tendon lengthening is mainly related to the length of surgical exposure and the lengthening method. A comprehensive technique to minimize the complications is required. Methods The treatment of Achilles tendon tightness in 57 patients (95 ankles) were performed by using a short transverse incision on a skin crease of the heel and by Z-lengthening of the tendon. In the severe cases, two or three transverse incisions were required for greater lengthening of the tendon, and a serial cast or Ilizarov apparatus was applied for the gradual correction. The results of these 95 ankles were compared to those of 18 ankles, which underwent percutaneous sliding lengthening, and to the 19 ankles, which received Z-lengthening with a medial longitudinal incision. Results The functional and cosmetic satisfaction was achieved among those who underwent the tendon lengthening with the new technique. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score improved from 56.1 to 81.8. The second operations to correct recurrence were performed in the two cerebral palsy patients. Conclusions The new technique has a low rate of complications such as scarring, adhesion, total transection, excessive lengthening, and recurrence of shortening. The excellent cosmesis and the short operation time are the additional advantages. PMID:24900904

  11. Carpal Tunnel Decompression. Is Lengthening of the Flexor Retinaculum Better than Simple Division?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. DIAS; B. BHOWAL; C. J. WILDIN; J. R. THOMPSON

    2004-01-01

    This prospective randomized double-blind control trial compared lengthening and simple division of the flexor retinaculum in carpal tunnel decompression. Twenty-six patients with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome were randomly allocated to have the flexor retinaculum divided on one side and lengthened on the other. All 52 hands were reviewed at regular intervals up to 25 weeks. The patients, therapists and the

  12. Carpal tunnel decompression. is lengthening of the flexor retinaculum better than simple division?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J Dias; B Bhowal; C. J Wildin; J. R Thompson

    2004-01-01

    This prospective randomized double-blind control trial compared lengthening and simple division of the flexor retinaculum in carpal tunnel decompression. Twenty-six patients with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome were randomly allocated to have the flexor retinaculum divided on one side and lengthened on the other. All 52 hands were reviewed at regular intervals up to 25 weeks. The patients, therapists and the

  13. Functional outcome after lengthening with and without deformity correction in polio patients

    PubMed Central

    Khames, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is one of the causes of limb length discrepancy. The aim of lengthening and deformity correction in such patients is to improve the functional mobility of the patient. This study aims to find out whether or not improvement of limb length inequality with or without deformity correction affects or improves ambulation. This prospective study included 32 skeletally mature patients managed using the Ilizarov technique and external fixation for limb lengthening with or without deformity correction. Functional Mobility Scale scoring was used for assessment of ambulation before lengthening and at the final follow-up. The average duration of follow-up was 2 years and 9 months. Lengthening alone did not change the Functional Mobility Scale score. While lengthening associated with deformity correction improved the mobility scale at 5 m only (in the house), it had no effect on the 50 and 500 m score. PMID:17333186

  14. Facial Expression Space Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika S. Chuang; Hrishikesh Deshpande; Christoph Bregler

    2002-01-01

    Animation of facial speech and expressions has experienced increased attention recently. Most current research focuses on techniques for capturing, synthesizing, and retargeting facial expressions. Little attention has been paid to the problem of controlling and modifying the expression itself. We present techniques that separate video data into expressive features and underlying content. This allows, for example, a sequence originally recorded

  15. Gesture Driven Facial Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junyong Noh; Douglas Fidaleo; Ulrich Neumann

    2002-01-01

    Gesture driven facial animation (GDFA) overcomes limitations in conventional performance driven facial animation (PDFA) by providing a high level gesture layer as an interface between the sensing and animation mechanisms. GDFA maintains the same spirit of PDFA in that sensing and analysis provide automatic animation control. A distinguishing factor, however, is the high level abstraction of the information flow between

  16. Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness I. S. Penton, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9JU, UK Facial symmetry has been proposed as a marker relationships between facial symmetry and attractiveness. It was recently proposed that symmetry

  17. Joint laxity, vitreoretinal degeneration, facial abnormalities, and generalized skeletal alterations: A new syndrome?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gen Nishimura; Tomonobu Hasegawa; Kyoko Sugii; Kaiichiro Tsuyama; Nobutake Matsuo

    1998-01-01

    A Japanese girl with a hitherto unknown combination of malformations is reported. The cardinal features included hyperextensibility\\u000a of the joints, vitreoretinal degeneration with cataracts, and facial abnormalities, comprising hypertelorism, prominent eyes,\\u000a downslanting of the palpebral fissures, mid-face recession with a short nose, deformed auricles, and microretrognathia with\\u000a a high arched palate. Skeletal survey revealed multiple wormian bones, hypoplastic facial bones

  18. Ipsilateral motor cortical responses to TMS during lengthening and shortening of the contralateral wrist flexors

    PubMed Central

    Howatson, Glyn; Taylor, Mathew B.; Rider, Patrick; Motawar, Binal R.; McNally, Michael P.; Solnik, Stanislaw; DeVita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral lengthening contractions provide a greater stimulus for neuromuscular adaptation than shortening contractions in the active and non-active contralateral homologous muscle, although little is known of the potential mechanism. Here we examined the possibility that corticospinal and spinal excitability vary in a contraction-specific manner in the relaxed right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) when humans perform unilateral lengthening and shortening contractions of the left wrist flexors at the same absolute force. Corticospinal excitability in the relaxed right FCR increased more during lengthening than shortening at 80 and 100% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) diminished during shortening contractions and it became nearly abolished during lengthening. Intracortical facilitation (ICF) lessened during shortening but increased during lengthening. Interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) to the “non-active” motor cortex diminished during shortening and became nearly abolished during lengthening at 90% MVC. The amplitude of the H-reflex in the relaxed right FCR decreased during and remained depressed for 20 s after lengthening and shortening of the left wrist flexors. We discuss the possibility that instead of the increased afferent input, differences in the descending motor command and activation of brain areas that link function of the motor cortices during muscle lengthening vs. shortening may cause the contraction-specific modulation of ipsilateral motor cortical output. In conclusion, ipsilateral M1 responses to TMS are contraction-specific; unilateral lengthening and shortening contractions reduced contralateral spinal excitability but uniquely modulated ipsilateral corticospinal excitability and the networks involved in intracortical and interhemispheric connections, which may have clinical implications. PMID:21219480

  19. Glomus jugulare presenting with isolated facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Angelica A; Ramos-Duran, Luis R; Cuetter, Albert C

    2014-01-01

    Glomus jugulare is a rare slow growing tumor occurring within the jugular foramen that rarely presents with isolated symptoms. Although histologically benign, these tumors are locally destructive because of their proximity to the petrous bone, the lower cranial nerves, and the major vascular structures (Miller et al. (2009) and Silverstone (1973)). We wish to report a glomus jugulare tumor eroding the petrous bone and producing an ipsilateral peripheral facial weakness. The mechanism of this erosion is discussed. PMID:25374954

  20. Glomus Jugulare Presenting with Isolated Facial Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Angelica A.; Ramos-Duran, Luis R.; Cuetter, Albert C.

    2014-01-01

    Glomus jugulare is a rare slow growing tumor occurring within the jugular foramen that rarely presents with isolated symptoms. Although histologically benign, these tumors are locally destructive because of their proximity to the petrous bone, the lower cranial nerves, and the major vascular structures (Miller et al. (2009) and Silverstone (1973)). We wish to report a glomus jugulare tumor eroding the petrous bone and producing an ipsilateral peripheral facial weakness. The mechanism of this erosion is discussed. PMID:25374954

  1. Studies of RF Noise Induced Bunch Lengthening at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; Fox, J.D.; Baudrenghien, P.; Butterworth, A.; Molendijk, J.; /SLAC /CERN

    2011-08-17

    Radio Frequency (RF) noise induced bunch lengthening can strongly affect the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) performance through luminosity reduction, particle loss, and other effects. This work presents measurements from the LHC that better quantify the relationship between the RF noise and longitudinal emittance blowup and identify the performance limiting RF components. The experiments presented in this paper confirmed the predicted effects on the LHC bunch length growth. Dedicated measurements were conducted in the LHC to gain insight in the effect of RF noise to the longitudinal beam diffusion. It was evident that the growth rate of the bunch length is strongly related to the accelerating voltage phase noise power spectral density around f{sub s} + kf{sub rev}, as predicted in [4]. The noise threshold for 2.5 ps/hr growth was estimated to -101 dBc/Hz (SSB flat noise spectral density from f{sub s} to the edge of the closed loop bandwidth). A 9 dB margin is achieved with the current RF configuration and the BPL on. With this formalism it is now possible to estimate the effect of different operational and technical RF configurations on the LHC beam diffusion. This formalism could also be useful for the design of future RF systems and the budgeting of the allowed noise.

  2. Radial forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's lengthening pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Blasing, David; Whitney, Heather M.

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner, radial driving can easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergraduate physics classroom, where investigations into pendulums and oscillations are commonplace.

  3. Tibialis Anterior Tendon Lengthening: Adjunctive Treatment of Plantar Lateral Column Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul J; Steinberg, John S; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Attinger, Christopher E

    2015-01-01

    Tendon lengthening and rebalancing are adjunctive procedures for the treatment of chronic ulcerations in the diabetic foot. For example, the equinus deformity has been implicated as a major deforming force and is surgically treated by lengthening the Achilles tendon. A contracted tibialis anterior tendon can also play a role by potentiating a varus rotational force, increasing the pressures along the lateral column of the forefoot, and resulting in the development or chronicity of an ulceration. We present a novel application of tibialis anterior tendon lengthening for the adjunctive treatment of chronic ulcerations in the diabetic foot. PMID:25977151

  4. PCA facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  5. Complex reconstruction of facial deformity and function after severe gunshot injury: one case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijian; Duan, Jianmin; Wang, Qiao; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we described clinical outcomes of a multi-stage surgery integrating multiple techniques in restoration of facial morphology and function of a 17-year-old boy with severe gunshot injuries. This multi-stage surgery was applied in treatment of one rare case of gunshot-caused complicated facial deformities involving most parts of the face (labrum, left nose wing, nasal columella, nasal septum, maxillary alveolar process, hard palate, soft palate, bilateral maxillary bones, left zygoma, suborbital bone defects) and clinical efficacy upon restoring facial form and function were retrospectively evaluated. The patient was diagnosed with massive facial defects and deformities caused by gunshot, which led to feeding difficulty, severe articulation disorders and serious facial disfigurement. To reconstruct facial form and restore functions of mastication and articulation, multiple examinations and surgical procedures including mirror imaging, rapid prototyping technique, porous titanium implants, microscopic surgical technique, dental implants, osteomyocutaneous flap, muscular flap, shifting and repairing of adjacent tissue flaps and free bone graft reconstruction were undertaken. Postoperatively, reconstruction of severe facial disfigurement and restoring basic functions including articulation and feeding for the first time and relatively sound clinical outcomes have been obtained, which may add clinical evidence to the treatment of similar cases of severe facial deformities. PMID:25785151

  6. Complex reconstruction of facial deformity and function after severe gunshot injury: one case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijian; Duan, Jianmin; Wang, Qiao; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we described clinical outcomes of a multi-stage surgery integrating multiple techniques in restoration of facial morphology and function of a 17-year-old boy with severe gunshot injuries. This multi-stage surgery was applied in treatment of one rare case of gunshot-caused complicated facial deformities involving most parts of the face (labrum, left nose wing, nasal columella, nasal septum, maxillary alveolar process, hard palate, soft palate, bilateral maxillary bones, left zygoma, suborbital bone defects) and clinical efficacy upon restoring facial form and function were retrospectively evaluated. The patient was diagnosed with massive facial defects and deformities caused by gunshot, which led to feeding difficulty, severe articulation disorders and serious facial disfigurement. To reconstruct facial form and restore functions of mastication and articulation, multiple examinations and surgical procedures including mirror imaging, rapid prototyping technique, porous titanium implants, microscopic surgical technique, dental implants, osteomyocutaneous flap, muscular flap, shifting and repairing of adjacent tissue flaps and free bone graft reconstruction were undertaken. Postoperatively, reconstruction of severe facial disfigurement and restoring basic functions including articulation and feeding for the first time and relatively sound clinical outcomes have been obtained, which may add clinical evidence to the treatment of similar cases of severe facial deformities. PMID:25785151

  7. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  8. Facial Plastic Surgery Today

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History Meet the President Leadership Committees Code of Ethics Position Statements Unique AAFPRS Training Past Presidents 50th ... plastic surgeons heed the call, Faces of Honor COPYRIGHT 2015 | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FACIAL PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE ...

  9. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  10. [Telomere lengthening by trichostatin A treatment in cloned pigs].

    PubMed

    Xie, Bing-Teng; Ji, Guang-Zhen; Kong, Qing-Ran; Mao, Jian; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Shi-Chao; Wu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Juan; Liu, Lin; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2012-12-01

    Telomeres are repeated GC rich sequences at the end of chromosomes, and shorten with each cell division due to DNA end replication problem. Previously, reprogrammed somatic cells of cloned animals display variable telomere elongation. However, it was reported that the cloned animals including Dolly do not reset telomeres and show premature aging. In this study, we investigated telomere function in cloned or transgenic cloned pigs, including the cloned Northeast Min pigs, eGFP, Mx, and PGC1? transgenic cloned pigs, and found that the telomere lengths of cloned pigs were significantly shorter than the nuclear donor adult fibroblasts and age-matched noncloned pigs (P<0.05), indicating that nuclear reprogramming did not restore cellular age of donor cells after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has proven to enhance the efficiency of nuclear reprogramming in several species. In order to test whether TSA also can effectively enhance reprogramming of telomeres, TSA (40 nmol/L) was used to treat porcine cloned embryos at 1-cell stage for 24 h. Consistent with previous reports, the developmental rate of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage was significantly increased compared with those of the control group (16.35% vs. 27.09%, 21.60% vs. 34.90%, P<0.05). Notably, the telomere length of cloned porcine blastocysts was also significantly elongated (P<0.05). Although TSA did not improve the cloning efficiency (1.3% vs. 1.7%, TSA vs. control), the telomere lengths of cloned pig-lets were significantly longer compared with those of the control group and the donor fibroblasts (P<0.05). In conclusion, telomeres have not been effectively restored by SCNT in pigs but TSA can effectively lengthen the telomere lengths of cloned pigs. PMID:23262106

  11. Lid lengthening by sclera interposition for eyelid retraction in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M P Mourits; L Koornneef

    1991-01-01

    The efficacy of scleral grafts for eyelid lengthening in patients with thyroid related upper and\\/or lower lid retraction was evaluated in 62 consecutive patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy who underwent lid surgery in the last 3.5 years. Seventy-eight upper and 30 lower lids were lengthened by scleral interposition. A good or acceptable result was achieved in 50% of all operated upper

  12. Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Boosted Discriminatory

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Boosted Discriminatory Classifiers Stephen Moore approach to facial expression recognition in video sequences. Low cost contour features are introduced information to build boosted classifiers for frontal facial expression recognition in video sequences. Facial

  13. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2009-08-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:18539550

  14. Facial dynamics and emotional expressions in facial aging treatments.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar

    2015-03-01

    Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed. PMID:25620090

  15. Treatment of non-unions with bone defects: which option and why?

    PubMed

    Ashman, O; Phillips, A M

    2013-01-01

    Bone defects associated with non-unions occur as a result of the initial insult or as a consequence of bone excision following non-union development. Historically management of this clinical scenario consisted mainly of amputation, which provided a short recovery period but a significant loss of limb function. Today treatment has evolved and multiple options are available for reconstruction of the bone defect. Broadly these are: bone shortening with lengthening later or bone transport and 'docking' (distraction osteogenesis based techniques); the use of vascularised and non-vascularised bone grafts; bone substitutes; stem cells; growth factors; scaffolds and gene therapy. PMID:23351870

  16. Modeling facial expression space for recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuwen Wu; Hong Liu; Hongbin Zha

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of modeling facial expression space for facial expression recognition by fuzzy integral. In traditional expression recognition methods using shape features, there are problems in describing both the uncertainty in facial expression classification and the relationship between facial features and facial expressions. Using facial expression space model, those problems can be solved easily. Firstly,

  17. Facial Transplantation Surgery Introduction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea.

  18. Facial clefts and facial dysplasia: revisiting the classification.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2014-01-01

    Most craniofacial malformations are identified by their appearance. The majority of the classification systems are mainly clinical or anatomical, not related to the different levels of development of the malformation, and underlying pathology is usually not taken into consideration. In 1976, Tessier first emphasized the relationship between soft tissues and the underlying bone stating that "a fissure of the soft tissue corresponds, as a general rule, with a cleft of the bony structure". He introduced a cleft numbering system around the orbit from 0 to 14 depending on its relationship to the zero line (ie, the vertical midline cleft of the face). The classification, easy to understand, became widely accepted because the recording of the malformations was simple and communication between observers facilitated. It represented a great breakthrough in identifying craniofacial malformations, named clefts by him. In the present paper, the embryological-based classification of craniofacial malformations, proposed in 1983 and in 1990 by us, has been revisited. Its aim was to clarify some unanswered questions regarding apparently atypical or bizarre anomalies and to establish as much as possible the moment when this event occurred. In our opinion, this classification system may well integrate the one proposed by Tessier and tries at the same time to find a correlation between clinical observation and morphogenesis.Terminology is important. The overused term cleft should be reserved to true clefts only, developed from disturbances in the union of the embryonic facial processes, between the lateronasal and maxillary process (or oro-naso-ocular cleft); between the medionasal and maxillary process (or cleft of the lip); between the maxillary processes (or cleft of the palate); and between the maxillary and mandibular process (or macrostomia).For the other types of defects, derived from alteration of bone production centers, the word dysplasia should be used instead. Facial dysplasias have been ranged in a helix form and named after the site of the developmental arrest. Thus, an internasal, nasal, nasomaxillary, maxillary and malar dysplasia, depending on the involved area, have been identified.The classification may provide a useful guide in better understanding the morphogenesis of rare craniofacial malformations. PMID:24406554

  19. Expression-invariant Facial Identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pohsiang Tsai; Tich Phuoc Tran; Longbing Cao

    2009-01-01

    Facial identification has been recognized as most simple and non-intrusive technology that can be applied in many places. However, there are still many unsolved facial identification problems due to different intra-personal variations. In particular, when images of the databases appear at different facial expressions, most currently available facial recognition approaches encounter the expression-invariant problem in which neutral faces are difficult

  20. A Facial Repertoire for Avatars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsófia Ruttkay; Jeroen Hendrix; Alban Lelièvre; Han Noot

    Facial expressions are becoming more and more important in today's computer systems with humanoid user interfaces. Avatars have become popular, however their facial communication is usually limited. This is partly due to the fact that many questions, especially on the dynamics of expressions, are still open. Moreover, the few commercial facial animation tools have limited facilities, and are not aimed

  1. Perceptually guided expressive facial animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Deng; Xiaohan Ma

    2008-01-01

    Most of current facial animation approaches largely focus on the accuracy or efficiency of their algorithms, or how to optimally utilize pre-collected facial motion data. However, human perception, the ultimate measuring stick of the visual fidelity of synthetic facial animations, was not effectively exploited in these approaches. In this paper, we present a novel perceptually guided computational framework for expressive

  2. Facial features in perceived intensity of schematic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hisa; Unuma, Hideyuki

    2010-02-01

    Facial expressions may be perceived continuously or categorically, i.e., perception of facial expressions may be explained by feature-based models or holistic models. A linear additive model is proposed, with weightings for facial features to reflect configural spatial relationships or distances of features from each other. Predictions from the model regarding the perception of affect intensities (e.g., of anger and sadness) were tested using schematic faces, with three facial features, eyebrows, eyes, and mouth as predictors. Model predictions, based on multiple regression analyses, corresponded well with rating judgments of anger and sadness in three experiments. The results suggest not only the limit of feature-configural models of facial expression perception but the feature-selective configuration of facial features and continuous perception of facial expressions. Findings also indicate that the salience or weight of each feature varies with the emotion perceived by observers. PMID:20391879

  3. Video-assisted gastrocnemius-soleus and hamstring lengthening in cerebral palsy patients.

    PubMed

    Poul, Jan; T?ma, Jirí; Bajerová, Jaroslava

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to present the results of video-assisted fractional lengthening of the triceps surae muscle and the hamstrings in children with spastic cerebral palsy. In the period from September 2003 to December 2004, triceps surae muscle contractures were treated in 35 lower extremities (22 patients) and hamstring lengthening was performed in 12 knees (eight patients). The patients were between 4 and 10 years of age. Lengthening of the gastrocnemius-soleus was sufficient for achieving 10 degrees dorsiflexion of the foot in 31 of the 35 extremities. The short-term follow-up, at least 1 year after operation, did not reveal any complications. The hamstring lengthening resulted in full correction in nine knees; one endoscopic procedure required conversion to open surgery owing to bleeding. In one case, incomplete sciatic nerve palsy developed. Video-assisted gastrocnemius-soleus recession as well as video-assisted lengthening of the hamstrings proved to be fully efficient in the group reported here. PMID:18510164

  4. Infant-directed speech: Final syllable lengthening and rate of speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Robyn; Bernhardt, Barbara; Shi, Rushen; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    Speech rate has been reported to be slower in infant-directed speech (IDS) than in adult-directed speech (ADS). Studies have also found phrase-final lengthening to be more exaggerated in IDS compared with ADS. In our study we asked whether the observed overall slower rate of IDS is due to exaggerated utterance-final syllable lengthening. Two mothers of preverbal English-learning infants each participated in two recording sessions, one with her child, and another with an adult friend. The results showed an overall slower rate in IDS compared to ADS. However, when utterance-final syllables were excluded from the calculation, the speech rate in IDS and ADS did not differ significantly. The duration of utterance-final syllables differed significantly for IDS versus ADS. Thus, the overall slower rate of IDS was due to the extra-long final syllable occurring in relatively short utterances. The comparable pre-final speech rate for IDS and ADS further accentuates the final syllable lengthening in IDS. As utterances in IDS are typically phrases or clauses, the particularly strong final-lengthening cue could potentially facilitate infants' segmentation of these syntactic units. These findings are consistent with the existing evidence that pre-boundary lengthening is important in the processing of major syntactic units in English-learning infants.

  5. The contribution of contractile pre-activation to loss of function after a single lengthening contraction

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, Richard M.; Hakim, Marc; Moorman, Claude T.; De Deyne, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Some muscle injuries are the result of a single lengthening contraction. Our goal was to evaluate the contributions of angular velocity, arc of motion, and timing of contractile activation relative to the onset of joint motion in an animal model of muscle injury using a single lengthening contraction. Methods The intact tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats was activated while lengthened, preceded by a maximal isometric contraction of 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 ms. The lengthening contraction was performed at two different angular velocities (300 or 900°/s) and through two different arcs of motion (90° or 45°). Results Muscle contractile function, as measured by maximal isometric tetanic tension, was significantly decreased only when the TA was activated at least 50 ms prior to the motion, regardless of angular velocity or arc of motion. Conclusion The data indicated that the duration of an isometric contraction prior to a single lengthening contraction determined the extent of muscle injury irrespective of two different angular velocities. PMID:15922761

  6. Facial recognition — An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Pampus; Frank Weber

    1998-01-01

    Research on automatic facial recognition has been ongoing for more than 20 years, and there is a large variety of solutions being proposed. The big advantage is the user-friendly way of identification by a video camera. Recently, some of the projects have resulted in commercially available products which are in use in banking and high-security applications.

  7. Digital facial engraving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Ostromoukhov

    1999-01-01

    This contribution introduces the basic techniques for digital facial engraving, which imitates traditional copperplate engraving. Inspired by traditional techniques, we first establish a set of basic rules thanks to which separate engraving layers are built on the top of the original photo. Separate layers are merged according to sim- ple merging rules and according to range shift\\/scale masks spe- cially

  8. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. (Univ. of Toronto School of Medicine, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

  9. Fully Automatic Upper Facial Action Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashish Kapoor; Rosalind W. Picard

    2003-01-01

    Abstract This paper provides a new fully automatic framework to analyze facial action units, the fundamental building blocks of facial expression enumerated in Paul Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System (FACS). The action units examined in this paper include upper facial muscle movements such as inner eyebrow raise, eye widening, and so forth, which combine to form facial expressions. Although prior

  10. Cross-facial nerve grafting for facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Grace Lee; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic facial reanimation is the gold standard treatment for a paralyzed face. Over the last century, multiple nerves have been utilized for grafting to the facial nerve in an attempt to produce improved movement. However, in recent years, the use of cross facial nerve grafting with a second stage gracilis free flap has gained popularity due to the ability to generate a spontaneous smile and facial movement. Preoperative history taking and careful examination, as well as pre-surgical planning, are imperative to whether cross facial nerve grafting with a second stage gracilis free flap is appropriate for the patient. A sural nerve graft is ideal given the accessibility of the nerve, the length, as well as the reliability and ease of the nerve harvest. The nerve can be harvested using a small incision, which leaves the patient with minimal post operative morbidity. In this chapter, we highlight the pearls and pitfalls of cross facial nerve grafting. PMID:25958898

  11. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  12. Automatic Facial Feature Extraction and Facial Expression Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Séverine Dubuisson; Franck Davoine; Jean-Pierre Cocquerez

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic algorithm for facial expression recognition. We first propose a method for automatic\\u000a facial feature extraction, based on the analysis of outputs of local Gabor filters. Such analysis is done using a spatial\\u000a adaptive triangulation of the magnitude of the filtered images. Then, we propose a classification procedure for facial expression\\u000a recognition, considering the

  13. Management of facial hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bernal, A; Muñoz-Pérez, M A; Camacho, F

    2000-01-01

    Facial and neck pigmentations are the most cosmetically important. They are common in middle-aged women, and are related to endogenous (hormones) and exogenous factors (such as use of cosmetics and perfumes, and exposure to sun radiation). Melasma (chloasma) is the most common cause of facial pigmentation, but there are many other forms such as Riehl's melanosis, poikiloderma of Civatte, erythrose peribuccale pigmentaire of Brocq, erythromelanosis follicularis of the face and neck, linea fusca, and cosmetic hyperpigmentations. Treatment of melasma and other facial pigmentations has always been challenging and discouraging. It is important to avoid exposure to the sun or to ultraviolet lamps, and to use broad-spectrum sunscreens. Several hypopigmenting agents have been used with differing results. Topical hydroquinone 2 to 4% alone or in combination with tretinoin 0.05 to 0.1% is an established treatment. Topical azelaic acid 15 to 20% can be as efficacious as hydroquinone, but is less of an irritant. Tretinoin is especially useful in treating hyperpigmentation of photoaged skin. Kojic acid, alone or in combination with glycolic acid or hydroquinone, has shown good results, due to its inhibitory action on tyrosinase. Chemical peels are useful to treat melasma: trichloroacetic acid, Jessner's solution, Unna's paste, alpha-hydroxy acid preparations, kojic acid, and salicyclic acid, alone or in various combinations have shown good results. In contrast, laser therapies have not produced completely satisfactory results, because they can induce hyperpigmentation and recurrences can occur. New laser approaches could be successful at clearing facial hyperpigmentation in the future. PMID:11702317

  14. Domain-final lengthening and foot-level shortening in spoken English.

    PubMed

    Rakerd, B; Sennett, W; Fowler, C A

    1987-01-01

    The literature describes two kinds of durational influence on the syllables of an utterance. They are a lengthening of syllables before many syntactic boundaries ('domain-final lengthening') and a shortening of stressed syllables followed by unstressed syllables ('foot-level shortening'). In the present study we examined the relationship between these two timing phenomena. In particular, we examined the possibility that syntactic boundaries at which lengthening occurs delimit the domains over which foot-level shortening is realized. To test this hypothesis, we varied the syllabic structure of metrical feet spanning word boundaries that either coincided with a noun-phrase (NP)/verb-phrase (VP) boundary or did not. Comparison of stressed syllable durations in these conditions failed to confirm the hypothesis. Instead, unstressed syllables shortened stressed syllables by the same duration across an NP/VP boundary as within a phrase. Our findings suggest that the two effects are independent. The finding that foot-level shortening spans finally-lengthened syntactic boundaries is discussed in relation to theories of the shortening effect. PMID:3452834

  15. Compensatory Lengthening and Cluster Reduction in First Language Acquisition: A Comparison of Different Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Gilbers; D. B. Den Ouden

    In this paper we will discuss phonological structure in the light of first language acquisition data obtained in a case study. These data exhibit cluster reduction (henceforth: CR) and compensatory lengthening (henceforth: CL). The main problem here is that for the description and explanation of these different phonological processes, different models seem to be more adequate than others. Working within

  16. Lengthening osteotomy of the fibula to correct a widened mortice of the ankle after fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Weber

    1981-01-01

    The subtle diagnosis of widening of the mortice requires special radiographs which also make possible the recognition and extent of shortening of the fibula. With the help of a special compression\\/distraction device, a lengthening osteotomy can be carried out more easily than by conventional means.

  17. Decoding Emotions from Facial Animations Shazia Afzal

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Peter

    Decoding Emotions from Facial Animations Shazia Afzal Computer Laboratory University of Cambridge of Cambridge Keywords: Facial expression analysis, animation 1 Introduction Facial feature point tracking conducted an experiment that compared human raters judgements of emotional expressions between actual video

  18. Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

  19. Fat grafting in facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Marten, Timothy J; Elyassnia, Dino

    2015-04-01

    Patients with significant facial atrophy and age-related loss of facial fat generally achieve suboptimal improvement from both surface treatments of facial skin and surgical lifts. Restoring lost facial volume by fat grafting is a powerful technique that is now acknowledged by most plastic surgeons and other physicians engaged in treating the aging face as one of the most important advances in aesthetic surgery. Properly performed, the addition of fat to areas of the face that have atrophied because of age or disease can produce a significant and sustained improvement in appearance that is unobtainable by other means. PMID:25827566

  20. Oral Crest Lengthening for Increasing Removable Denture Retention by Means of CO2 Laser

    PubMed Central

    Nammour, Samir; Gerges, Elie; Bou Tayeh, Rima; Zeinoun, Toni

    2014-01-01

    The loss of teeth and their replacement by artificial denture is associated with many problems. The denture needs a certain amount of ridge height to give it retention and a long-term function. Crest lengthening procedures are performed to provide a better anatomic environment and to create proper supporting structures for more stability and retention of the denture. The purpose of our study is to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 laser-assisted surgery in patients treated for crest lengthening (vestibular deepening). There have been various surgical techniques described in order to restore alveolar ridge height by pushing muscles attaching of the jaws. Most of these techniques cause postoperative complications such as edemas, hemorrhage, pain, infection, slow healing, and rebound to initial position. Our clinical study describes the treatment planning and clinical steps for the crest lengthening with the use of CO2 laser beam (6–15 Watts in noncontact, energy density range: 84.92–212.31?J/cm2, focus, and continuous mode with a focal point diameter of 0.3?mm). At the end of each surgery, dentures were temporarily relined with a soft material. Patients were asked to mandatorily wear their relined denture for a minimum of 4–6 weeks and to remove it for hygienic purposes. At the end of each surgery, the deepest length of the vestibule was measured by the operator. No sutures were made and bloodless wounds healed in second intention without grafts. Results pointed out the efficiency of the procedure using CO2 laser. At 8 weeks of post-op, the mean of crest lengthening was stable without rebound. Only a loss of 15% was noticed. To conclude, the use of CO2 laser is an effective option for crest lengthening. PMID:25383385

  1. Facial Expression Recognition and Intensity EstimationFacial Expression Recognition and Intensity Estimation Peng Yang Qingshan Liu Dimitris Metaxas

    E-print Network

    Facial Expression Recognition and Intensity EstimationFacial Expression Recognition and IntensityComputer Science Department, Rutgers University Facial Expression RecognitionFacial Expression Recognition RecognitionFacial Expression Recognition Expression Intensity EstimationExpression Intensity Estimation

  2. Sketching Facial Expressions Gabriele Nataneli

    E-print Network

    Faloutsos, Petros

    expressions can be created more expeditely. Moreover, technologies that rely on recognition are generallySketching Facial Expressions Gabriele Nataneli University of California Los Angeles Petros Faloutsos University of California Los Angeles Figure 1: Sketches and the corresponding 2D and 3D facial

  3. Facial affect perception in alcoholics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa Frigerio; D. Michael Burt; Barbara Montagne; Lindsey K Murray; David I Perrett

    2002-01-01

    Satisfactory interpersonal interaction involves understanding others’ facial expressions. Alcoholic individuals often have severe interpersonal difficulties that may relate to poor and distorted perception of facial expressions. The importance of attention direction has been highlighted by the finding, in recent primate studies, of neurons responsible for the detection of attention direction. Studies on humans suggest that expression perception is modulated by

  4. Categorizing identity from facial motion.

    PubMed

    Girges, Christine; Spencer, Janine; O'Brien, Justin

    2015-09-01

    Advances in marker-less motion capture technology now allow the accurate replication of facial motion and deformation in computer-generated imagery (CGI). A forced-choice discrimination paradigm using such CGI facial animations showed that human observers can categorize identity solely from facial motion cues. Animations were generated from motion captures acquired during natural speech, thus eliciting both rigid (head rotations and translations) and nonrigid (expressional changes) motion. To limit interferences from individual differences in facial form, all animations shared the same appearance. Observers were required to discriminate between different videos of facial motion and between the facial motions of different people. Performance was compared to the control condition of orientation-inverted facial motion. The results show that observers are able to make accurate discriminations of identity in the absence of all cues except facial motion. A clear inversion effect in both tasks provided consistency with previous studies, supporting the configural view of human face perception. The accuracy of this motion capture technology thus allowed stimuli to be generated that closely resembled real moving faces. Future studies may wish to implement such methodology when studying human face perception. PMID:25687732

  5. Methylmethacrylate Casting Model of Temporal Bone

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Shigeki; Fukushima, Takanori; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Miki, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Toru

    1998-01-01

    Methylmethacrylate casting model of the temporal bone simulating the translabyrinthine approach from the bone surface down to the internal auditory canal was developed in order to help to understand the complex anatomy that is often encountered during skull base surgery. Using a cadaver temporal bone and applying dental impression technique, fine structures, such as semicircular canals and facial nerve, were precisely reproduced in a life-size resin casting model. This simple cost-effective modeling method would facilitate both anatomical research and medical education by improving our understanding of the complex anatomy of the temporal bone. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4p21-b PMID:17171038

  6. Facial dysmorphology, roentgenographic measurements, and clinical genetics.

    PubMed

    Saksena, S S; Bader, P; Bixler, D

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic measurements are used in the facial diagnosis of a male patient (proband) and his mother with unusual craniofacies. Twenty-four measurements (from both the PA and LA x-ray headplates) defining the major anatomic areas of the head and face were chosen as the overall descriptors for the characterization and recognition of craniofacial pattern profile (CFPP). The measurements were transformed into Z-scores. By using the sigma z (i.e., standard deviation of the z-scores) value, the CFPP deviations were estimated. The proband and mother have aberrant, i.e., dysmorphic, craniofacial pattern profiles. The proband's CFPP is highly stable at two successive ages (6 and 13 years, respectively); only the cranial base and palatal dimensions are becoming increasingly abnormal and asymmetric. Familial as well as syndromic CFPP similarities were assessed. Results of correlation coefficients rz demonstrate a significantly high level of CFPP similarity between the proband and mother. This strongly suggests that the two are the carriers of the same genetic syndrome. Unusual syndrome-specific facial features shared by the two include abnormally large midface, very high-set and widely placed eyes, retrusive and asymmetric upper alveolar region, very small malar bones, and long mastoid processes. PMID:2794000

  7. Prospective comparison of subtalar arthroereisis with lateral column lengthening for painful flatfeet.

    PubMed

    Chong, David Y; Macwilliams, Bruce A; Hennessey, Theresa A; Teske, Noelle; Stevens, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    We prospectively compared subtalar arthroereisis with lateral column calcaneal lengthening for the treatment of painful flatfeet. Twenty-four feet (mean age of patients 12.8 years) were treated. Kinematic motion analysis, pedobarometry, and radiography were performed, and the Oxford Ankle-Foot Questionnaire for Children was administered for each patient before surgery and at the 1-year follow-up. We found statistically significant improvements in both groups, with no difference in their outcomes. Both groups showed significantly improved hindfoot and midfoot motion and positioning. Hindfoot range of motion was preserved. Radiography and pedobarometry also revealed significant improvements. Subtalar arthroereisis is a valid and potentially less-invasive alternative to lateral column lengthening that merits further investigation. PMID:25856275

  8. Non-Rigid Image Registration using Bone Growth Model

    E-print Network

    is based on the currently available medical theories and knowledge. This paper studies the process of bone a unique data set containing three voxel images of the mandible of a child, taken at dierent times. Being able to model the growth of the facial bones is both interesting for un- derstanding the development

  9. Real Time Facial Expression Recognition with Adaboost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yubo Wang; Haizhou Ai; Bo Wu; Chang Huang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for facial expression recognition. The facial expression is extracted from human faces by an expression classifier that is learned from boosting Haar feature based Look-Up- Table type weak classifiers. The expression recognition system consists of three modules, face detection, facial feature landmark extraction and facial expression recognition. The implemented system can automatically

  10. Facial Attractiveness: Beauty and the Machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yael Eisenthal; Gideon Dror; Eytan Ruppin

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we explore the notion of facial attractiveness through the appli- cation of machine learning techniques. We construct a machine that learns from facial images and their respective attractiveness ratings to produce human-like evaluation of facial attractiveness. Our work is based on the un- derlying theory that there are objective regularities in facial attractiveness to be analyzed and

  11. Functional outcome after lengthening with and without deformity correction in polio patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled M. Emara; Ahmed Khames

    2008-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is one of the causes of limb length discrepancy. The aim of lengthening and deformity correction in such patients\\u000a is to improve the functional mobility of the patient. This study aims to find out whether or not improvement of limb length\\u000a inequality with or without deformity correction affects or improves ambulation. This prospective study included 32 skeletally\\u000a mature patients

  12. Mathematical basis of idea that harmonious marriage can lengthen life-span

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-qiang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    It is a very important issue for us to explore the effects of the marriage to life. In recent years, many scholars have proved\\u000a that the marriage can lengthen life-span from different angles. With the development of theory of dependence random variables,\\u000a we discuss the effects of the marriage to life and provide a mathematical basis of the idea that

  13. Study of human muscle contraction using electrically evoked twitch responses during passive shortening and lengthening movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Gravel; Alain Y. Bélanger; Carol L. Richards

    1987-01-01

    Summary  Electrically evoked twitch properties of the human plantarflexor muscles were measured with the muscles at a constant length\\u000a (static) and during passive shortening and lengthening. A Kin-Com dynamometer system was used to passively move the ankle\\u000a joint at 0.52 rad s?1 (30‡ s?1), as well as to record the twitch responses which were elicited by supramaximal electric shocks applied over

  14. Bone Density

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bones Your response to osteoporosis treatment Low bone mass that is not low enough to be osteoporosis is sometimes called osteopenia. Causes of low bone mass include family history, not developing good bone mass ...

  15. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    PubMed

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  16. Material properties of mandibular cortical bone in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    E-print Network

    Material properties of mandibular cortical bone in the American alligator, Alligator of cortical bone in the mandible of juvenile Alligator mississippiensis obtained by using an ultrasonic wave Alligator bone specimens obtained from the lingual and facial surfaces of 4 fresh Alligator mandibles

  17. Stapes fixation accompanied with abnormal facial nerve pathway.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Taro; Kawano, Atsushi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Shimizu, Masaaki; Negishi, Miho; Kawada, Yuri; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2014-06-01

    The patient was a 52-year-old woman. She had been aware of her bilateral hearing loss since she was 20 years old. The hearing in her left ear started to deteriorate at the age of 49. Pure-tone audiometry showed a bilateral mixed hearing loss. The hearing levels for the right ear and the left ear were 52 dB and 68 dB, respectively. There were no remarkable findings in a computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bone. We suspected that she had otosclerosis, and an operation was performed on her left ear. When the incudostapedial joint (I-S joint) was exposed to investigate the movement of the stapes, a soft white band that ran under the superstructure of the stapes was noted. By using a nerve monitoring system, we confirmed that the white band was the bare facial nerve. The ossicular chain was normal, except for a malformed stape due to the facial nerve, and the footplate of the stapes was fixed. Therefore, she was diagnosed as having otosclerosis with an abnormal facial nerve pathway. The malformed superstructure of the stapes was removed carefully. When the ectopic facial nerve was shifted to anteroinferior side, the oval window could be seen. Stapedotomy using a Teflon piston prosthesis was performed with no complications. PMID:24581447

  18. Management of Late Post-traumatic Facial Artery Pseudoaneurysmal Cyst: Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Nisha K; Shandilya, Ramanojam; Pawar, Sudhir; Gadre, Pushkar K; Gadre, Kiran; Singh, Divya

    2015-06-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the branches of the external carotid artery as a result of trauma are rare in oral and maxillofacial surgery practice. The most affected branches are the superficial temporal artery, internal maxillary artery and distal part of facial artery, usually where they pass over the bone. Very few cases of facial artery pseudoaneurysms of proximal parts (from external carotid artery up to the lower border of the mandible) are reported in the literature. We present a review of literature for management of late post-traumatic pseudoaneurysmal cyst and a case report involving proximal part of facial artery in the submandibular region following open reduction and rigid fixation of the condylar fracture in a 25-year-old male. To our knowledge this is the fourth reported case of proximal facial artery pseudoaneurysm. PMID:26028835

  19. Static and Dynamic Facial Cues Differentially Affect the Consistency of Social Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Hehman, Eric; Flake, Jessica K; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2015-08-01

    Individuals are quite sensitive to others' appearance cues when forming social evaluations. Cues such as facial emotional resemblance are based on facial musculature and thus dynamic. Cues such as a face's structure are based on the underlying bone and are thus relatively static. The current research examines the distinction between these types of facial cues by investigating the consistency in social evaluations arising from dynamic versus static cues. Specifically, across four studies using real faces, digitally generated faces, and downstream behavioral decisions, we demonstrate that social evaluations based on dynamic cues, such as intentions, have greater variability across multiple presentations of the same identity than do social evaluations based on static cues, such as ability. Thus, although evaluations of intentions vary considerably across different instances of a target's face, evaluations of ability are relatively fixed. The findings highlight the role of facial cues' consistency in the stability of social evaluations. PMID:26089347

  20. Simple Technique for Facial Dimple

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subjects seeking aesthetic surgery for facial dimples are increasing in number. Literature on dimple creation surgery are sparse. Various techniques have been used with their own merits and disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Facial dimples were created in 23 cases. All the subjects were females. Five cases were bilateral and the rest were unilateral. Results: Minor complications such as swelling and hematoma were observed in four cases. Infection occurred in two cases. Most of the subjects were satisfied with the results. Conclusions: Suturing technique is safe, reliable and an easily reproducible way to create facial dimple. Level of Evidence: IV: Case series.

  1. Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

    2011-01-01

    Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

  2. Dynamic Model of Facial Cooling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikuisis, Peter; Osczevski, Randall J.

    2002-12-01

    Recent modifications to windchill forecasting have motivated the development of a rate-of-tissue-cooling model for the purpose of predicting facial cooling times. The model assumes a hollow cylindrical geometry with a fixed internal boundary temperature and adherence to the dimensions and tissue thermal properties of the cheek. Convective and radiative heat exchanges at the skin surface are also taken into account. The explicit finite-difference solution of the thermal conduction problem was applied to predict the transient temperature profile in the cheek model, composed of 25 concentric annular compartments with equally spaced nodes. Model predictions compare favorably to reported incidents of facial frostbite and to several laboratory studies on facial cooling. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the effect of varying the values of tissue thermal resistance and cheek dimensions on the predicted facial cooling rate.

  3. Automated interactive facial caricature generation

    E-print Network

    Logan, Ryan C

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop a concept to automatically generate facial caricatures based on anthropometric measurements. Based on this concept, a system was created to automate caricature generation with minimal user input...

  4. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  5. Facial Analysis and Synthesis Scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilse Ravyse; Hichem Sahli

    2006-01-01

    We developed an algorithmic scheme to extract the semantical description of the face and the face motion from an image sequence,\\u000a and to re-play this action in a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual world. The presented Facial Analysis and Synthesis Scheme combines new methods for detection and tracking of the face and facial features, for estimating the 3D face movements and\\u000a the

  6. Replantation of a crush amputation of distal tibia followed by lengthening with Ilizarov circular external fixator: two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ni?anci, Mustafa; Er, Ergin; Yildiz, Cemil; Türegün, Murat; Atealp, Sabri; Sengezer, Mustafa

    2002-01-01

    A 20-year-old male sustained a severe crush injury to his left leg, resulting in amputation of the foot at the level of the distal tibia. Despite 12-h warm ischemia, replantation was attempted after radical debridement, bone shortening, and proximal fasciotomies. The replanted part survived totally. Four months later, a 13-cm shortness of the extremity was managed by 10-cm lengthening with distraction osteogenesis, using Ilizarov's circular external fixator and by means of a special shoe. Two-year follow-up of the patient revealed acceptable functional and sensorial recovery. Success of replantation despite the excessive warm-ischemia time was attributed to the sparse muscle content of the distal tibia and foot. Fasciotomies performed on the proximal segment of the leg ensured the patency of anastomoses by maintaining adequate blood flow distally despite increasing edema after the crush injury. Debridement and bone shortening at the proximal stump eliminated the vein and nerve grafts to bridge the gap. In conclusion, considering the functional outcome of our case, replantation of distal parts of a lower extremity should be attempted first, even if the nature of the injury is unfavorable and the ischemia time is longer than the documented ischemia-tolerance. PMID:12404347

  7. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

  8. Mechanical Characteristics of a Polymer Spring Device used to Lengthen Small Intestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, Douglas J.

    Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) is a condition that occurs due to an insufficient amount of small intestine needed for nutrient absorption and water regulation of the body. A compression spring device is being developed in order to provide a mechanical stimulus to the tissue, as this type of force has been shown to promote lengthening of the tissue. The research completed in this thesis investigated the mechanical characteristics of the spring device and attempted to relate it to the functionality in rat and porcine intestinal tissue. Results from the evaluation of the springs show that Poly(epsilon-caprolactone), or PCL, is a sufficient polymer to use for creating a biodegradable device as the spring dimensions can be adjusted through variations in the diameter, thickness, and band size in order to provide an adequate spring constant for multiple animal types. Design of the springs, however, need to take into account the size of the gelatin capsule used, the amount of plastic deformation and creep behavior of the spring under compression for an extended time period, and the variation in the mechanical properties of the animal soft tissue that requires lengthening. Integration of the spring in-continuity requires a feature that will provide a mechanical resistance to force that is greater than the force of the spring in the compressed state. The spring still requires further development and any design should also take into account the possibility of intestinal perforations or obstructions. The polymer spring device provides a good means towards developing a treatment option for SBS, and other potential soft tissue lengthening needs of the body.

  9. A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Spontaneous Facial Action Modeling

    E-print Network

    recognition is limited to posed expressions and often in frontal view. A spontaneous facial expression knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, facial action recognition is accomplished facial expressions. Index Terms--Facial action unit recognition, face pose estimation, facial action

  10. Bone scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is done to see if you have a bone infection, images may be taken shortly after the radioactive ... feet or legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone ...

  11. Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Beat. Copyright 2004 ACM 1-58113-940-3/04/0010 ...$5.00. 1. INTRODUCTION Automatic facial expression recognition, Switzerland gatica@idiap.ch ABSTRACT For supervised training of automatic facial expression recog- nition

  12. Shape Analysis of Local Facial Patches for 3D Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Shape Analysis of Local Facial Patches for 3D Facial Expression Recognition Ahmed Maaleja. Abstract In this paper we address the problem of 3D facial expression recognition. We propose a local identity-independent12 facial expression recognition based on a local shape analysis. Unlike the13 identity

  13. Automatic facial expression recognition using facial animation parameters and multistream HMMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petar S. Aleksic; Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

    2006-01-01

    The performance of an automatic facial expression recognition system can be significantly improved by modeling the reliability of different streams of facial expression information uti- lizing multistream hidden Markov models (HMMs). In this paper, we present an automatic multistream HMM facial expression recognition system and analyze its performance. The proposed system utilizes facial animation parameters (FAPs), supported by the MPEG-4

  14. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  15. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  16. Facial coloration tracks changes in women's estradiol.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benedict C; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Wincenciak, Joanna; Kandrik, Michal; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Red facial coloration is an important social cue in many primate species, including humans. In such species, the vasodilatory effects of estradiol may cause red facial coloration to change systematically during females' ovarian cycle. Although increased red facial coloration during estrus has been observed in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), evidence linking primate facial color changes directly to changes in measured estradiol is lacking. Addressing this issue, we used a longitudinal design to demonstrate that red facial coloration tracks within-subject changes in women's estradiol, but not within-subject changes in women's progesterone or estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. Moreover, the relationship between estradiol and facial redness was observed in two independent samples of women (N=50 and N=65). Our results suggest that changes in facial coloration may provide cues of women's fertility and present the first evidence for a direct link between estradiol and female facial redness in a primate species. PMID:25796069

  17. Neurologic Aspects of Chronic Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Maciewicz, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Chronic facial pain can result from neuropathic changes associated with deafferentation. The pattern of deep afferent convergence on trigeminal cells may also relate to the pathophysiology of chronic facial pain disorders. PMID:2085191

  18. Three-dimensional study of the facial canal using microcomputed tomography for improved anatomical comprehension.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Gil, Young-Chun; Lee, Ju-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Song, Wu-Chul; Koh, Ki-Seok

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the various dimensions of the normal facial canal and to identify the spatial relationships between the facial canal and its adjacent structures using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The petrous parts of 54 temporal bones were scanned using micro-CT with a slice thickness of 35 ?m. The serial micro-CT images were used to reconstruct 3D volumes of the facial canal and the bony labyrinth with the aid of computer software. These volumes were used to measure 31 dimensions of the facial canal and its spatial relationships with adjacent structures. The length of the meatal segment, the tympanic segment, and the mastoid segment were significantly larger in males than in females (p?facial canal were immediately lateral to the meatal foramen in the labyrinthine segment and the midpoint of the tympanic segment. The distance between the origin of the canal for the chorda tympani nerve and midpoint of the stylomastoid foramen was 35.3% of the length of the mastoid segment, and the angle between the tympanic segment and the lateral semicircular canal was 16.3°. The angle between the mastoid segment and the canal for the chorda tympani nerve could be classified into two groups: <180° and >180°. These findings represent supplemental data for improving the detailed understanding of the facial canal anatomy. PMID:24990524

  19. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caifeng Shan; Ralph Braspenning

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person’s internal\\u000a emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial\\u000a expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in\\u000a animals and humans, who argued that

  20. The truth is in the water: metastatic prostate cancer presenting as an intermittent facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Wooles, N; Gupta, S; Wilkin-Crowe, H; Juratli, A

    2015-01-01

    An elderly man presented to the acute ear, nose and throat (ENT) services with a history of intermittent, self-limiting facial nerve palsy. Full ENT examination was normal, with all cranial nerves and peripheral neurology intact. Multiple imaging modalities suggested an aggressive bony lesion, secondary to locally advanced prostate malignancy with extensive metastatic infiltration. Prostate cancer is known to preferentially metastasise to bone and has been known to cause multiple cranial nerve palsies and ophthalmoplegia. This is the first case described in the literature of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with intermittent facial nerve palsy. PMID:25911361

  1. Dimensionality reduction for computer facial animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flora S. Tsai

    This paper describes the usage of dimensionality reduction techniques for computer facial animation. Techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Expectation–Maximization (EM) algorithm for PCA, Multidimensional Scaling (MDS), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) are compared for the purpose of facial animation of different emotions. The experimental results on our facial animation data demonstrate the usefulness of dimensionality reduction techniques for

  2. Expression-invariant Facial Identification Pohsiang Tsai

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    @it.uts.edu.au Abstract--Facial identification has been recognized as most simple and non-intrusive technology that can expressions, most currently available facial recognition approaches encounter the expression-invariant problem Facial recognition has received substantial attention in the biometrics. Although a great deal of effort

  3. Facial Gesture Interfaces for Expression and Communication*

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Michael J.

    systems which allow expression from those which aim at recognition. Most of the work in facial action expression and assistive technology for motor impaired users. Keywords: facial expression; human-interaction. While there is a considerable body of prior research on automatic facial expression recognition and lip

  4. Automated Facial Expression Recognition System Andrew Ryan

    E-print Network

    Automated Facial Expression Recognition System Andrew Ryan Naval Criminal Investigative Services behaviors. The Automated Facial Expression Recognition System (AFERS) automates the manual practice of FACS, leveraging the research and technology behind the CMU/PITT Automated Facial Image Analysis System (AFA

  5. Multilinear Image Analysis for Facial Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Alex O. Vasilescu; Demetri Terzopoulos

    2002-01-01

    Natural images are the composite consequence of multiple factors related to scene structure, illumination, and imag- ing. For facial images, the factors include different facial geometries, expressions, head poses, and lighting condi- tions. We apply multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher- order tensors, to obtain a parsimonious representation of facial image ensembles which separates these factors. Our representation, called TensorFaces,

  6. Learning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Learning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition Daniel Gill1,2 and Yaniv Ninio2 1 kernel SVMs. We demonstrate the merits of this approach on multi-class facial expres- sions recognition will help to prevent many accidents from happening. Facial expression recognition systems, among others, may

  7. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND THEIR COUNSELLING IMPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oyelayo Oyebode

    This paper examines the various ways in which the face can be used in expressing the mood of a person at any particular time. It draws examples of facial expressions, especially the use of the eye, from the Yoruba culture. Counselling implications of facial expressions are examined more so as facial expressions are a means of non- verbal communication.

  8. Facial Action Transfer with Personalized Bilinear Regression

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Abhinav

    facial model, that can produce photo-realistic person-specific facial actions (e.g., synthesize wrinkles of FAT to face de-identification. Key words: Facial action transfer, Bilinear regression 1 Introduction of subjects in video (i.e., face de- identification) [1, 2], online image and video collections [3

  9. Anatomy of Sodium Hypochlorite Accidents Involving Facial Ecchymosis – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wan-chun; Gyamfi, Jacqueline; Niu, Li-na; Schoeffel, G. John; Liu, Si-ying; Santarcangelo, Filippo; Khan, Sara; Tay, Kelvin C-Y.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Root canal treatment forms an essential part of general dental practice. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used irrigant in endodontics due to its ability to dissolve organic soft tissues in the root canal system and its action as a potent antimicrobial agent. Although NaOCl accidents created by extrusion of the irrigant through root apices are relatively rare and are seldom life-threatening, they do create substantial morbidity when they occur. Methods To date, NaOCl accidents have only been published as isolated case reports. Although previous studies have attempted to summarise the symptoms involved in these case reports, there was no endeavor to analyse the distribution of soft tissue distribution in those reports. In this review, the anatomy of a classical NaOCl accident that involves facial swelling and ecchymosis is discussed. Results By summarising the facial manifestations presented in previous case reports, a novel hypothesis that involves intravenous infusion of extruded NaOCl into the facial vein via non-collapsible venous sinusoids within the cancellous bone is presented. Conclusions Understanding the mechanism involved in precipitating a classic NaOCl accident will enable the profession to make the best decision regarding the choice of irrigant delivery techniques in root canal débridement, and for manufacturers to design and improve their irrigation systems to achieve maximum safety and efficient cleanliness of the root canal system. PMID:23994710

  10. Rubber Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-09

    Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

  11. Bilateral cleft lip and palate: A morphometric analysis of facial skeletal form using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, John M; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) is caused by a lack of merging of maxillary and nasal facial prominences during development and morphogenesis. BCLP is associated with congenital defects of the oronasal facial region that can impair ingestion, mastication, speech, and dentofacial development. Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, 7- to 18-year old individuals born with BCLP (n?=?15) and age- and sex-matched controls (n?=?15) were retrospectively assessed. Coordinate values of three-dimensional facial skeletal anatomical landmarks (n?=?32) were measured from each CBCT image. Data were evaluated using principal coordinates analysis (PCOORD) and Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA). PCOORD axes 1-3 explain approximately 45% of the morphological variation between samples, and specific patterns of morphological differences were associated with each axis. Approximately, 30% of facial skeletal measures significantly differ by confidence interval testing (??=?0.10) between samples. While significant form differences occur across the facial skeleton, strong patterns of differences are localized to the lateral and superioinferior aspects of the nasal aperture. In conclusion, the BCLP deformity significantly alters facial skeletal morphology of the midface and oronasal regions of the face, but morphological differences were also found in the upper facial skeleton and to a lesser extent, the lower facial skeleton. This pattern of strong differences in the oronasal region of the facial skeleton combined with differences across the rest of the facial complex underscores the idea that bones of the craniofacial skeleton are integrated. Clin. Anat. 28:584-592, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25752824

  12. Affect bursts: dynamic patterns of facial expression.

    PubMed

    Krumhuber, Eva G; Scherer, Klaus R

    2011-08-01

    Affect bursts consist of spontaneous and short emotional expressions in which facial, vocal, and gestural components are highly synchronized. Although the vocal characteristics have been examined in several recent studies, the facial modality remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the facial correlates of affect bursts that expressed five different emotions: anger, fear, sadness, joy, and relief. Detailed analysis of 59 facial actions with the Facial Action Coding System revealed a reasonable degree of emotion differentiation for individual action units (AUs). However, less convergence was shown for specific AU combinations for a limited number of prototypes. Moreover, expression of facial actions peaked in a cumulative-sequential fashion with significant differences in their sequential appearance between emotions. When testing for the classification of facial expressions within a dimensional approach, facial actions differed significantly as a function of the valence and arousal level of the five emotions, thereby allowing further distinction between joy and relief. The findings cast doubt on the existence of fixed patterns of facial responses for each emotion, resulting in unique facial prototypes. Rather, the results suggest that each emotion can be portrayed by several different expressions that share multiple facial actions. PMID:21707163

  13. Facial paralysis for the plastic surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Kosins, Aaron M; Hurvitz, Keith A; Evans, Gregory RD; Wirth, Garrett A

    2007-01-01

    Facial paralysis presents a significant and challenging reconstructive problem for plastic surgeons. An aesthetically pleasing and acceptable outcome requires not only good surgical skills and techniques, but also knowledge of facial nerve anatomy and an understanding of the causes of facial paralysis. The loss of the ability to move the face has both social and functional consequences for the patient. At the Facial Palsy Clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, 22,954 patients were surveyed, and over 50% were found to have a considerable degree of psychological distress and social withdrawal as a consequence of their facial paralysis. Functionally, patients present with unilateral or bilateral loss of voluntary and nonvoluntary facial muscle movements. Signs and symptoms can include an asymmetric smile, synkinesis, epiphora or dry eye, abnormal blink, problems with speech articulation, drooling, hyperacusis, change in taste and facial pain. With respect to facial paralysis, surgeons tend to focus on the surgical, or ‘hands-on’, aspect. However, it is believed that an understanding of the disease process is equally (if not more) important to a successful surgical outcome. The purpose of the present review is to describe the anatomy and diagnostic patterns of the facial nerve, and the epidemiology and common causes of facial paralysis, including clinical features and diagnosis. Treatment options for paralysis are vast, and may include nerve decompression, facial reanimation surgery and botulinum toxin injection, but these are beyond the scope of the present paper. PMID:19554190

  14. Facial paralysis for the plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Kosins, Aaron M; Hurvitz, Keith A; Evans, Gregory Rd; Wirth, Garrett A

    2007-01-01

    Facial paralysis presents a significant and challenging reconstructive problem for plastic surgeons. An aesthetically pleasing and acceptable outcome requires not only good surgical skills and techniques, but also knowledge of facial nerve anatomy and an understanding of the causes of facial paralysis.The loss of the ability to move the face has both social and functional consequences for the patient. At the Facial Palsy Clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, 22,954 patients were surveyed, and over 50% were found to have a considerable degree of psychological distress and social withdrawal as a consequence of their facial paralysis. Functionally, patients present with unilateral or bilateral loss of voluntary and nonvoluntary facial muscle movements. Signs and symptoms can include an asymmetric smile, synkinesis, epiphora or dry eye, abnormal blink, problems with speech articulation, drooling, hyperacusis, change in taste and facial pain.With respect to facial paralysis, surgeons tend to focus on the surgical, or 'hands-on', aspect. However, it is believed that an understanding of the disease process is equally (if not more) important to a successful surgical outcome. The purpose of the present review is to describe the anatomy and diagnostic patterns of the facial nerve, and the epidemiology and common causes of facial paralysis, including clinical features and diagnosis. Treatment options for paralysis are vast, and may include nerve decompression, facial reanimation surgery and botulinum toxin injection, but these are beyond the scope of the present paper. PMID:19554190

  15. facial reduction and extended duals

    E-print Network

    2013-02-13

    we state a simple facial reduction algorithm and prove its correctness; and ... where A : X ? Y is a linear map between finite dimensional Euclidean spaces X ..... Proof of (1) This statement is straightforward from the form of x and the expression.

  16. Facial recognition at the CIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Gragg

    1997-01-01

    Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an

  17. Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences University. The procedure is done under anesthesia administered by an anesthesiologist. After surgery, you

  18. Dynamic Model of Facial Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Tikuisis; Randall J. Osczevski

    2002-01-01

    Recent modifications to windchill forecasting have motivated the development of a rate-of-tissue-cooling model for the purpose of predicting facial cooling times. The model assumes a hollow cylindrical geometry with a fixed internal boundary temperature and adherence to the dimensions and tissue thermal properties of the cheek. Convective and radiative heat exchanges at the skin surface are also taken into account.

  19. Cosmetic Eyelid and Facial Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy J. Ben Simon; John D. McCann

    2008-01-01

    The goal of cosmetic surgery is to reverse anatomical changes that occur in the face with aging. It is a rapidly growing subdiscipline of ophthalmic plastic surgery and includes forehead, eyelid, mid-face, lower face, and neck surgery, most performed by ophthalmic plastic surgeons. The current article reviews updates in cosmetic eyelid and facial surgery, including minimally invasive techniques such as

  20. Eyelid surgery in facial palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Leatherbarrow; J R O Collin

    1991-01-01

    Paralysis of the orbicularis oculi muscle is by far the most serious consequence of loss of function of the facial nerve. The severity of the resultant ocular problems is related to the degree and duration of this paralysis. The primary goal of the ophthalmologist in managing the patient with orbicularis oculi paralysis is to protect the cornea. The alleviation of

  1. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  2. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Mends, Francine; Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish; Roehm, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers. PMID:23766904

  3. Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2014-02-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

  4. Genetic Factors That Increase Male Facial Masculinity Decrease Facial Attractiveness of Female Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

  5. Polyunsaturated lipid diet lengthens torpor and reduces body temperature in a hibernator.

    PubMed

    Geiser, F; Kenagy, G J

    1987-05-01

    Membrane lipids of vertebrate animals that tolerate cold are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Because the lipid composition of cellular membranes in mammals can be experimentally altered by diet, we investigated whether a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids would lengthen bouts of torpor and reduce the minimum body temperature in hibernating chipmunks (Eutamias amoenus) compared with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids. Animals on the highly unsaturated diet showed significantly longer bouts of torpor, lower minimum body temperatures, and lower metabolic rates than those on a saturated diet. Animals on a control diet were intermediate. These dietary adjustments apparently influence the control of body temperature by the central nervous system, which results in a modification of the pattern of torpor. The observations also suggest a role of nutritional ecology in hibernation. PMID:3578556

  6. Alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway: recombination-mediated telomere maintenance mechanism in human cells.

    PubMed

    Nabetani, Akira; Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Unlimitedly proliferating cells need to acquire the telomere DNA maintenance mechanism, to counteract possible shortening through multiple rounds of replication and segregation of linear chromosomes. Most human cancer cells express telomerase whereas the other cells utilize the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate telomere DNA. It is suggested that ALT depends on the recombination between telomere repetitive DNAs. However, the molecular details remain unknown. Recent studies have provided evidence of special structures of telomere DNA and genes essential for the phenotypes of ALT cells. The molecular models of the ALT pathway should be validated to elucidate recombination-mediated telomere maintenance and promote the applications to anti-cancer therapy. PMID:20937668

  7. Group velocity and pulse lengthening of mismatched laser pulses in plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Tilborg, J. van; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Analytic solutions are presented to the non-paraxial wave equation describing an ultra-short, low-power, laser pulse propagating in a plasma channel. Expressions for the laser pulse centroid motion and laser group velocity are derived, valid for matched and mismatched propagation in a parabolic plasma channel, as well as in vacuum, for an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. The group velocity of a mismatched laser pulse, for which the laser spot size is strongly oscillating, is found to be independent of propagation distance and significantly less than that of a matched pulse. Laser pulse lengthening of a mismatched pulse owing to laser mode slippage is examined and found to dominate over that due to dispersive pulse spreading for sufficiently long pulses. Analytic results are shown to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions of the full Maxwell equations coupled to the plasma response. Implications for plasma channel diagnostics are discussed.

  8. Rapid induction of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres by depletion of the histone chaperone ASF1

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Arnoult, Nausica; Lackner, Daniel H.; Oganesian, Liana; Haggblom, Candy; Corpet, Armelle; Almouzni, Genevieve; Karlseder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of activation of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway of mammalian chromosome end maintenance has remained an unresolved issue. We have discovered that co-depletion of the histone chaperones ASF1a and ASF1b in human cells induced all hallmarks of ALT in both primary and cancer cells. These included the formation of ALT associated PML bodies (APBs), extra-chromosomal telomeric DNA species an elevated frequency of telomeric sister chromatid exchanges (t-SCE) events and inter-telomeric exchange of an integrated tag. The induction of ALT characteristics in this setting led to the simultaneous suppression of telomerase. We identified that ALT induction is positively regulated by RAD17 and BLM, while negatively regulated by EXO1 and DNA2. The induction of ALT phenotypes as a consequence of ASF1 depletion strongly support the hypothesis that ALT is a consequence of a histone management dysfunction. PMID:24413054

  9. Suppression of the alternative lengthening of telomere pathway by the chromatin remodelling factor ATRX

    PubMed Central

    Clynes, David; Jelinska, Clare; Xella, Barbara; Ayyub, Helena; Scott, Caroline; Mitson, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Higgs, Douglas R.; Gibbons, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen per cent of cancers maintain telomere length independently of telomerase by the homologous recombination (HR)-associated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. A unifying feature of these tumours are mutations in ATRX. Here we show that expression of ectopic ATRX triggers a suppression of the pathway and telomere shortening. Importantly ATRX-mediated ALT suppression is dependent on the histone chaperone DAXX. Re-expression of ATRX is associated with a reduction in replication fork stalling, a known trigger for HR and loss of MRN from telomeres. A G-quadruplex stabilizer partially reverses the effect of ATRX, inferring ATRX may normally facilitate replication through these sequences that, if they persist, promote ALT. We propose that defective telomere chromatinization through loss of ATRX promotes the persistence of aberrant DNA secondary structures, which in turn present a barrier to DNA replication, leading to replication fork stalling, collapse, HR and subsequent recombination-mediated telomere synthesis in ALT cancers. PMID:26143912

  10. Childhood Facial Osteo Sarcoma: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Farhangi, Hamid; Farzadnia, Mahdi; Alamdaran, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the eighth common cancer of childhood and its incidence is 4 cases in one million in children younger than 14. Facial OS incidence is estimated between 8 and 10% of OS cases. The main etiology of OS is unknown, but various predisposing factors are proposed such as radiation, radiotherapy, some benign bone diseases like Paget’s disease or fibrous dysplasia. There is a 5-year survival rate of 68% and it decreases with the increase of age. Positive history of radiotherapy is the main predisposing factor for childhood OS. There is some evidence about the X-ray induced mutation in genomic DNA that leads to osteosarcoma. In the present paper we present a 19-month old girl with a mass located in the inferior margin of the left cheek and orbit. Our case is unique with regard to her young age and sex. Moreover, the tumor was located in an uncommon site and her disease was progressive and resistant.

  11. The Wrinkle Generation Method for Facial Reconstruction Based on Extraction of Partition Wrinkle Line Features and Fractal Interpolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Yi-bo; Xiao Hong; Zhang Sen-yue

    2007-01-01

    Because of the high putrescibility of the body, in general condition, only part or fragmentary bones can be found when the victim body was discovered. Therefore, the first step of criminal investigation is to reconstruct the facial features in order to find the victim. Because wrinkle is the most remarkable and intuitionistic feature in the human skin, the wrinkle generation

  12. Single injections of triazolam, a short-acting benzodiazepine, lengthen the period of the circadian activity rhythm in golden hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Joy; S. Losee-Olson; F. W. Turek

    1989-01-01

    Summary Single injections of the benzodiazepine, triazolam, induce phase shifts and cause a lengthening of the circadian activity rhythm in the golden hamster. The effect of triazolam on period depends on the phase of injection, but is not dependent on the direction of the phase shifts. Triazolam injections caused increases in period that were associated with phase advances as well

  13. Repair of bilateral clefts of lip, alveolus and palate Part 2: Concomitant lip closure and columella lengthening after lip adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Bitter

    2001-01-01

    Lip repair and synchronous columella lengthening in bilateral clefts of the lip, alveolus and palate following lip adhesion according to the method outlined in Part 1 is described in this part of the paper. Together with lip and nose repair the gingivo-periosteoplasty can also be performed when the alveolar process is perfectly aligned and the greater and lesser segments abutt

  14. Bone Crusher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students use a tension-compression machine (or an alternative bone-breaking setup) to see how different bones fracture differently and with different amounts of force, depending on their body locations. Teams determine bone mass and volume, calculate bone density, and predict fracture force. Then they each test a small animal bone (chicken, turkey, cat) to failure, examining the break to analyze the fracture type. Groups conduct research about biomedical challenges, materials and repair methods, and design repair treatment plans specific to their bones and fracture types, presenting their design recommendations to the class.

  15. Facial asymmetry: etiology, evaluation, and management.

    PubMed

    Cheong, You-Wei; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2011-01-01

    Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significant facial asymmetry causes both functional as well as esthetic problems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, the underlying cause should be investigated. The etiology includes congenital disorders, acquired diseases, and traumatic and developmental deformities. The causes of many cases of developmental facial asymmetry are indistinct. Assessment of facial asymmetry consists of a patient history, physical examination, and medical imaging. Medical imaging is helpful for objective diagnosis and measurement of the asymmetry, as well as for treatment planning. Components of soft tissue, dental and skeletal differences contributing to facial asymmetry are evaluated. Frequently dental malocclusion, canting of the occlusal level and midline shift are found. Management of facial asymmetry first aims at correcting the underlying disorder. Orthognathic surgery is performed for the treatment of facial asymmetry combined with dental occlusal problems. A symmetrical facial midline, harmonious facial profile and dental occlusion are obtained from treatment. Additional surgical procedures may be required to increase or reduce the volume of skeletal and soft tissue components on both sides to achieve better symmetry. PMID:21880188

  16. Facial model estimation from stereo\\/mono image sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung J. Kuo; Tsang-gang Lin; Ruey-song Huang; Souheil F. Odeh

    2003-01-01

    Facial model coding is an integral part in MPEG-4 related applications. The generation of the facial model usually requires stereoscopic view of the face in the pre-processing stage. Although facial model can be successfully estimated from two stereo facial images, the occlusion effect and imprecise location of the feature point prohibit obtaining an accurate facial model. In this paper, several

  17. Facial Asymmetry Quantification for Expression Invariant Human Identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanxi Liu; R. L. Weaver; Karen L. Schmidt; Jeffrey F. Cohn

    2002-01-01

    We investigate facial asymmetry as a biometric under expression variation. For the first time, we have defined two types of quantified facial asymmetry measures that are easily com- putable from facial images and videos. Our findings show that the asymmetry measures of au- tomatically selected facial regions capture individual differences that are relatively stable to facial expression variations. More importantly,

  18. Realistic 3D facial animation in virtual space teleconferencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lhassan MOUBARAKI; Jun OHYA; Fumio KISHINO

    1995-01-01

    Our work on color texture synthesis, real-time animation of facial wrinkles and 3D shape deformation enhances realism with minimal computational expense and gives a total control of the wrinkling process during facial expressions within the virtual space teleconferencing system. Facial wrinkles are synthesized on a scanned facial texture using the bump mapping technique by detecting wrinkles in a real facial

  19. Increased bone density in sclerosteosis is due to the deficiency of a novel secreted protein (SOST)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Balemans; Martin Ebeling; E ls Van Hul; Pam Olson; Marianna Dioszegi; Charlemagne Lacza; Jenneke Van Den Ende; Patrick Willems; Auristela F. Paes-Alves; Manuel Bueno; J. Ramos; Paolo Tacconi; G. Dikkers; Klaus Lindpaintner; Brian Vickery; Dorothee Foernzler; Wim Van Hul

    2001-01-01

    Sclerosteosis is a progressive sclerosing bone dysplasia with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Radiologically, it is characterized by a generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis leading to a markedly thickened and sclerotic skull, with mandible, ribs, clavicles and all long bones also being affected. Due to narrowing of the foramina of the cranial nerves, facial nerve palsy, hearing loss and atrophy

  20. Facial expression at retrieval affects recognition of facial identity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenfeng; Liu, Chang Hong; Li, Huiyun; Tong, Ke; Ren, Naixin; Fu, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the time of memory retrieval in a standard old/new recognition task. The results showed a clear effect of facial expression, where happy test faces were identified more successfully than angry test faces. This effect is unlikely due to greater image similarity between the neural training face and the happy test face, because image analysis showed that the happy test faces are in fact less similar to the neutral training faces relative to the angry test faces. In the second experiment, we investigated whether this emotional effect is affected by the expression at the time of learning. We employed angry or happy faces as learning stimuli, and angry, happy, and neutral faces as test stimuli. The results showed that the emotional effect at retrieval is robust across different encoding conditions with happy or angry expressions. These findings indicate that emotional expressions do not only affect the stages of encoding and consolidation, but also the retrieval process in identity recognition.

  1. Wire internal fixation: an obsolete, yet valuable method for surgical management of facial fractures

    PubMed Central

    Bouletreau, Pierre; Konsem, Tarcissus; Traoré, Ibraïma; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouédraogo, Dieudonné

    2014-01-01

    In some developing countries wire is still widely used in facial fractures internal fixation. This study presents the effectiveness and complications of wire osteosynthesis in a university teaching hospital in Burkina Faso and discusses some of its other benefits and disadvantages. Notes of 227 patients with facial fractures treated by wire internal fixation at department of stomatology and maxillofacial surgery of CHU Souro Sanou, Burkina Faso between 2006 and 2010 are reviewed retrospectively. A satisfactory treatment outcome was recorded in 91.2% of the 227 patients. Complications occurred in 8.8% of the patients who had operative site infection (3.1%), malocclusion (1.8%), sensory disturbance (1.8), facial asymmetry (1.3%), delayed bone union (0.9%) or enophtalmos (0.4%). The overall complications rate was 7.4% after mandibular osteosynthesis, 6.9% after Le Fort osteosynthesis and 6.5% after zygoma osteosynthesis. Post operative infections occurred irrespective to the surgical site. The other complications were more specific to the surgical site. Wire internal fixation may be a reasonable alternative for the surgical treatment of non-comminuted facial fractures and those without bone substance loss, in the setting of limited resources. PMID:25237416

  2. Wire internal fixation: an obsolete, yet valuable method for surgical management of facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Béogo, Rasmané; Bouletreau, Pierre; Konsem, Tarcissus; Traoré, Ibraïma; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouédraogo, Dieudonné

    2014-01-01

    In some developing countries wire is still widely used in facial fractures internal fixation. This study presents the effectiveness and complications of wire osteosynthesis in a university teaching hospital in Burkina Faso and discusses some of its other benefits and disadvantages. Notes of 227 patients with facial fractures treated by wire internal fixation at department of stomatology and maxillofacial surgery of CHU Souro Sanou, Burkina Faso between 2006 and 2010 are reviewed retrospectively. A satisfactory treatment outcome was recorded in 91.2% of the 227 patients. Complications occurred in 8.8% of the patients who had operative site infection (3.1%), malocclusion (1.8%), sensory disturbance (1.8), facial asymmetry (1.3%), delayed bone union (0.9%) or enophtalmos (0.4%). The overall complications rate was 7.4% after mandibular osteosynthesis, 6.9% after Le Fort osteosynthesis and 6.5% after zygoma osteosynthesis. Post operative infections occurred irrespective to the surgical site. The other complications were more specific to the surgical site. Wire internal fixation may be a reasonable alternative for the surgical treatment of non-comminuted facial fractures and those without bone substance loss, in the setting of limited resources. PMID:25237416

  3. Engineering of a functional bone organ through endochondral ossification.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Celeste; Piccinini, Elia; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Todorov, Atanas; Bourgine, Paul; Papadimitropoulos, Adam; Barbero, Andrea; Manz, Markus G; Martin, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Embryonic development, lengthening, and repair of most bones proceed by endochondral ossification, namely through formation of a cartilage intermediate. It was previously demonstrated that adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) can execute an endochondral program and ectopically generate mature bone. Here we hypothesized that hMSCs pushed through endochondral ossification can engineer a scaled-up ossicle with features of a "bone organ," including physiologically remodeled bone, mature vasculature, and a fully functional hematopoietic compartment. Engineered hypertrophic cartilage required IL-1? to be efficiently remodeled into bone and bone marrow upon subcutaneous implantation. This model allowed distinguishing, by analogy with bone development and repair, an outer, cortical-like perichondral bone, generated mainly by host cells and laid over a premineralized area, and an inner, trabecular-like, endochondral bone, generated mainly by the human cells and formed over the cartilaginous template. Hypertrophic cartilage remodeling was paralleled by ingrowth of blood vessels, displaying sinusoid-like structures and stabilized by pericytic cells. Marrow cavities of the ossicles contained phenotypically defined hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells at similar frequencies as native bones, and marrow from ossicles reconstituted multilineage long-term hematopoiesis in lethally irradiated mice. This study, by invoking a "developmental engineering" paradigm, reports the generation by appropriately instructed hMSC of an ectopic "bone organ" with a size, structure, and functionality comparable to native bones. The work thus provides a model useful for fundamental and translational studies of bone morphogenesis and regeneration, as well as for the controlled manipulation of hematopoietic stem cell niches in physiology and pathology. PMID:23401508

  4. Early development of the neural plate, neural crest and facial region of marsupials

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, KATHLEEN K.

    2001-01-01

    Marsupial mammals have a distinctive reproductive strategy. The young are born after an exceptionally short period of organogenesis and are consequently extremely altricial. Yet because they must be functionally independent in an essentially embryonic condition, the marsupial neonate exhibits a unique suite of adaptations. In particular, certain bones of the facial region, most cranial musculature and a few additional structures are accelerated in their development. In contrast, central nervous system structures, especially the forebrain, are markedly premature at birth, resembling an embryonic d 11 or 12 mouse. This review examines the developmental processes that are modified to produce these evolutionary changes. The focus is on the early development of the neural plate, neural crest and facial region in the marsupial, Monodelphis domestica, compared with patterns reported for rodents. Neural crest begins differentiation and migration at the neural plate stage, which results in large accumulations of neural crest in the facial region at an early stage of development. The early accumulation of neural crest provides the material for the accelerated development of oral and facial structures. The first arch region is massive in the early embryo, and the development of the olfactory placode and frontonasal region is advanced relative to the forebrain region. The development of the forebrain is delayed in marsupials relative to the hindbrain or facial region. These observations illustrate how development may be modified to produce evolutionary changes that distinguish taxa. Further, they suggest that development is not necessarily highly conserved, but instead may be quite plastic. PMID:11523813

  5. A facial reconstruction and identification technique for seriously devastating head wounds.

    PubMed

    Joukal, Marek; Frišhons, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Many authors have focused on facial identification techniques, and facial reconstructions for cases when skulls have been found are especially well known. However, a standardized facial identification technique for an unknown body with seriously devastating head injuries has not yet been developed. A reconstruction and identification technique was used in 7 cases of accidents involving trains striking pedestrians. This identification technique is based on the removal of skull bone fragments, subsequent fixation of soft tissue onto a universal commercial polystyrene head model, precise suture of dermatomuscular flaps, and definitive adjustment using cosmetic treatments. After reconstruction, identifying marks such as scars, eyebrows, facial lines, facial hair and partly hairstyle become evident. It is then possible to present a modified picture of the reconstructed face to relatives. After comparing the results with photos of the person before death, this technique has proven to be very useful for identifying unknown bodies when other identification techniques are not available. This technique is useful for its being rather quick and especially for its results. PMID:25965304

  6. Bone Markers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alkaline Phosphatase; Osteocalcin; P1NP; Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide Formal name: Biochemical Markers of Bone Remodeling ... tests for evaluating bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker ...

  7. Bone Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ... risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and ...

  8. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

  9. Amniotic membrane covering for facial nerve repair?

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Murat; Tuncel, Arzu; Sheidaei, Shahrouz; ?enol, Mehmet Güney; Karabulut, Murat Hakan; Deveci, Ildem; Karaman, Nihan

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic membranes have been widely used in ophthalmology and skin injury repair because of their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured therapeutic efficacy and determined if amniotic membranes could be used for facial nerve repair. The facial nerves of eight rats were dissected and end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Amniotic membranes were covered on the anastomosis sites in four rats. Electromyography results showed that, at the end of the 3rd and 8th weeks after amniotic membrane covering, the latency values of the facial nerves covered by amniotic membranes were significantly shortened and the amplitude values were significantly increased. Compared with simple facial nerve anastomosis, after histopathological examination, facial nerve anastomosed with amniotic membrane showed better continuity, milder inflammatory reactions, and more satisfactory nerve conduction. These findings suggest that amniotic membrane covering has great potential in facial nerve repair. PMID:25206390

  10. Cancer and Referred Facial Pain.

    PubMed

    Romero-Reyes, Marcela; Teruel, Antonia; Ye, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Orofacial pain may be a symptom of diverse types of cancers as a result of local or distant tumor effects. The pain can be presented with the same characteristics as any other orofacial pain disorder, and this should be recognized by the clinician. Orofacial pain also can arise as a consequence of cancer therapy. In the present article, we review the mechanisms of cancer-associated facial pain, its clinical presentation, and cancer therapy associated with orofacial pain. PMID:26088459

  11. Facial Composite Production Using EFITV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka M. Lech; Robert A. Johnston

    2010-01-01

    EFIT-V is a relatively new facial composite system, which has recently been introduced into a large number of UK police forces. The police procedure of working with EFIT-V directly claims that a witness should not be left alone and that he\\/she should work with a help of a police officer. However, some individuals may benefit from having a person to

  12. Bone Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    This is an activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about the two main components of bone - collagen and minerals (like calcium) - and how they each contribute to its flexibility and strength. Learners will submerge 3 chicken bones in water, bleach, and vinegar, wait 24 hours, then observe and test each bone. This resource includes information about how nanoscientists are trying to produce artificial analogs to these components and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Bone Regrowth.

  13. Facial action recognition for facial expression analysis from static face images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Pantic; Léon J. M. Rothkrantz

    2004-01-01

    Automatic recognition of facial gestures (i.e., facial muscle activity) is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in the research field of machine vision. In this paper, we present an automated system that we developed to recognize facial gestures in static, frontal- and\\/or profile-view color face images. A multide- tector approach to facial feature localization is utilized to spatially sample

  14. Machine learning methods for fully automatic recognition of facial expressions and facial actions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Stewart Bartlett; Gwen Littlewort; Claudia Lainscsek; Ian R. Fasel; Javier R. Movellan

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic comparison of machine learning methods applied to the problem of fully automatic recog- nition of facial expressions. We explored recognition of facial ac- tions from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), as well as recognition of full facial expressions. Each video-frame is first scanned in real-time to detect approximately upright-frontal faces. The faces found are scaled

  15. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition using Facial Animation Parameters and MultiStream HMMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petar S. Aleksic; Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

    The performance of an automatic facial expression recognition system can be significantly improved by modeling the reliability of different streams of facial expression information utilizing multi-stream hidden Markov models (HMMs). In this paper, we present an automatic multi-stream HMM facial expression recognition system and analyze its performance. The proposed system utilizes facial animation parameters (FAPs), supported by the MPEG-4 standard,

  16. How is facial expression coded?

    PubMed

    Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Facial expression is theorized to be visually represented in a multidimensional expression space, relative to a norm. This norm-based coding is typically argued to be implemented by a two-pool opponent coding system. However, the evidence supporting the opponent coding of expression cannot rule out the presence of a third channel tuned to the center of each coded dimension. Here we used a paradigm not previously applied to facial expression to determine whether a central-channel model is necessary to explain expression coding. Participants identified expressions taken from a fear/antifear trajectory, first at baseline and then in two adaptation conditions. In one condition, participants adapted to the expression at the center of the trajectory. In the other condition, participants adapted to alternating images from the two ends of the trajectory. The range of expressions that participants perceived as lying at the center of the trajectory narrowed in both conditions, a pattern that is not predicted by the central-channel model but can be explained by the opponent-coding model. Adaptation to the center of the trajectory also increased identification of both fear and antifear, which may indicate a functional benefit for adaptive coding of facial expression. PMID:25556250

  17. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options. PMID:12469966

  18. Cultural perspectives in facial allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Pearlie W W; Patel, Ashish S; Taub, Peter J; Lampert, Joshua A; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

    2012-01-01

    Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

  19. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION FROM VIDEO SEQUENCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira Cohen; Nicu Sebe; Ashutosh Garg; Michael S. Lew; Thomas S. Huang

    2003-01-01

    Recognizing human facial expression and emotion by computer is an interesting and challenging problem. In this paper we propose a method for recognizing emotions through facial expressions dis- played in video sequences. We introduce a Tree-Augmented-Naive Bayes (TAN) classifier that learns the dependencies between the facial features and we provide an algorithm for finding the best TAN structure. Our person-dependent

  20. 3D Facial Performance Capture From A Single RGBD Camera 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yen-Lin

    2013-05-28

    Realistic facial animation remains one of the most challenging problems in computer graphics, where facial performance capture of real people has been a key component. The current state-of-the-art technologies used to capture facial performances...

  1. Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Gong, Shaogang

    Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition Caifeng Shan for facial expression recognition by boosting Local Binary Patterns (LBP) based classifiers. Low-cost LBP a classifier of improved classification per- formance. 1 Introduction Automatic facial expression recognition

  2. Brief Communications Superior Facial Expression, But Not Identity Recognition, in

    E-print Network

    Duchaine, Bradley C.

    Brief Communications Superior Facial Expression, But Not Identity Recognition, in Mirror expressionontothesamesensorimotorrepresentationsthatareactiveduringtheexperienceoftheperceivedemotion.Toinvestigatethis view, the present study examines facial expression and identity recognition-touch synesthetes outperformed nonsynesthetic partic- ipants on measures of facial expression recognition

  3. Facial Expression Recognition Using a Dynamic Model and Motion Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irfan A. Essa; Alex Pentland

    1995-01-01

    Previous efforts at facial expression recognition have been based on the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), a representation developed in order to allow human psychol- ogists to code expression from static facial \\

  4. Recognition of Facial Attributes using Adaptive Sparse Representations

    E-print Network

    Bowyer, Kevin W.

    Recognition of Facial Attributes using Adaptive Sparse Representations of Random Patches Domingo recognition of facial attributes by proposing a new general approach called Adap- tive Sparse Representation representation, soft biometrics, gender recognition, race recognition, facial expression recognition. 1

  5. Gunshot injuries to the temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Moore, P L; Selby, G; Irving, R M

    2003-01-01

    The current incidence of missile injury to the temporal bone (MITB) is very low in the United Kingdom. However, the increasing frequency of firearm violence in Britain suggests a greater risk of occurrence. This, along with the devastating potential sequelae of MITB (facial palsy, dead ear, intracranial damage, major vascular injury and cosmetic disfigurement), requires otolaryngologists to be conversant with all aspects of their management. The risk of major complications is much higher with MITB than with temporal bone injury following blunt trauma, and surgical management is, therefore, much more common. We present one such case, and review the literature outlining the pathogenesis, clinical features, and recommended management. PMID:12590862

  6. Movement Differences in Facial Expression 1 Running Head: MOVEMENT DIFFERENCES IN FACIAL EXPRESSION

    E-print Network

    Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    for understanding the biological basis underlying facial communication. Spontaneous smiles of enjoyment have been to differences in the typical context and purpose of the facial signal. Key words: emotion expression, nonverbal communication, voluntary movement. #12;Movement Differences in Facial Expression 3 Movement differences between

  7. The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathrin Kaulard; Douglas W. Cunningham; Heinrich H. Bülthoff; Christian Wallraven

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused

  8. The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

  9. Stereophotogrammetry-based Facial Depth Measurements: A Novel Method for Quantifying Facial Projection

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas S.N.; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Orthognathic surgery leads to alteration of the spatial relationship of the mandible and maxilla resulting changes in the degree of facial projection. Traditional 2-D cephalometry and photographic techniques do not provide data on facial depth. Though stereophotogrammetry can be used as a non-invasive method for evaluating facial depth, the unavailability of ethnicity-specific norms hinder its routine use in clinical practice. The objectives of this study were to 1. Generate an analytic scheme suitable for evaluating facial depth using stereophotogrammetry, and 2. Create normative data for the facial depth measurements for young Hong Kong Chinese adults. Methods Stereophotographic images from 41 male and 45 female ethnic Chinese young adults without facial deformities were analyzed. Facial depth measurements were performed based on standard anthropometric landmarks, with the aid of 3dMDVultus software. Results All facial depth measurements were found in absolute terms to be significantly higher in males. In contrast, the upper face, maxillary and sublabial depth indices were significantly higher in females, whereas no significant gender differences emerged for lower facial and maxillomandibular indices. Conclusions A novel method of using stereophotographic images for quantifying facial depth was evaluated. Normative facial depth measurements for young Hong Kong Chinese adults were established. This gender-specific database can be used as a reference in the diagnosis, treatment planning, or evaluation of outcomes after surgical correction of facial deformities. PMID:23423724

  10. Facial Nerve Monitoring under Neuromuscular Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Hester, T. Oma; Hasan, Akbar; McDonnell, Francis; Valentino, Joseph; Jones, Raleigh

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of facial nerve electromyography at various levels of neuromuscular blockade are unclear. Partial blockade is well known to facilitate anesthetic safety and management. However, the use of neuromuscular blockage in many skull base procedures is avoided to allow intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. We studied the influence of various levels of neuromuscular blockade on facial nerve stimulation in the New Zealand white rabbit. The facial nerve was exposed in the middle ear of six rabbits. Using electromyographic-type facial nerve monitor, we recorded the facial electromyography signals in these rabbits at increasing levels of vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. All animals demonstrated reliable facial electromyography response at all levels of partial neuromuscular blockade (P < .02). Five of the six animals could be monitored throughout complete blockade. These results clearly demonstrate that rabbit facial electromyography monitoring is possible under neuromuscular blockade. The effect of neuromuscular blockers on facial electromyography monitoring deserves further study, as partial blockade would greatly facilitate the management of anesthesia in otologic, neurotologic, and skull base surgery. PMID:17171179

  11. A metastatic glomus jugulare tumor. A temporal bone report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. El Fiky; M. M. Paparella

    1984-01-01

    The clinicopathologic findings in the temporal bone of a patient with a highly malignant metastasizing glomus jugulare tumor are reported. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of primary malignant tumors of the ear, including facial paralysis, otorrhea, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo. He was treated with cobalt irradiation followed by radium implant in the ear canal for a

  12. Massage Therapy for Patients Undergoing Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim A. Ahles; Denise M. Tope; Briane Pinkson; Susan Walch; Danette Hann; Marie Whedon; Bradley Dain; Julia E. Weiss; Letha Mills; Peter M. Silberfarb

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of massage therapy on psychological, physical, and psychophysiological measures in patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Patients scheduled to undergo BMT were randomly assigned to receive either (a) massage therapy, consisting of 20-minute sessions of shoulder, neck, head, and facial massage, or (b) standard treatment. Overall effects of

  13. Topological optimization for designing patient-specific large craniofacial segmental bone replacements.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, Alok; Paulino, Glaucio H; Miller, Michael J; Nguyen, Tam H

    2010-07-27

    Restoring normal function and appearance after massive facial injuries with bone loss is an important unsolved problem in surgery. An important limitation of the current methods is heuristic ad hoc design of bone replacements by the operating surgeon at the time of surgery. This problem might be addressed by incorporating a computational method known as topological optimization into routine surgical planning. We tested the feasibility of using a multiresolution three-dimensional topological optimization to design replacements for massive midface injuries with bone loss. The final solution to meet functional requirements may be shaped differently than the natural human bone but be optimized for functional needs sufficient to support full restoration using a combination of soft tissue repair and synthetic prosthetics. Topological optimization for designing facial bone tissue replacements might improve current clinical methods and provide essential enabling technology to translate generic bone tissue engineering methods into specific solutions for individual patients. PMID:20628014

  14. Facial Action Unit Recognition by Exploiting Their Dynamic and Semantic Relationships

    E-print Network

    Facial Action Unit Recognition by Exploiting Their Dynamic and Semantic Relationships Yan Tong measurements yields significant improvement of AU recognition, especially for spontaneous facial expressions. Index Terms--Facial action unit recognition, facial expression analysis, Facial Action Coding System

  15. Sphenoid Sinus and Sphenoid Bone Fractures in Patients with Craniomaxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cantini Ardila, Jorge Ernesto; Mendoza, Miguel Ángel Rivera; Ortega, Viviana Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sphenoid bone fractures and sphenoid sinus fractures have a high morbidity due to its association with high-energy trauma. The purpose of this study is to describe individuals with traumatic injuries from different mechanisms and attempt to determine if there is any relationship between various isolated or combined fractures of facial skeleton and sphenoid bone and sphenoid sinus fractures. Methods We retrospectively studied hospital charts of all patients who reported to the trauma center at Hospital de San José with facial fractures from December 2009 to August 2011. All patients were evaluated by computed tomography scan and classified into low-, medium-, and high-energy trauma fractures, according to the classification described by Manson. Design This is a retrospective descriptive study. Results The study data were collected as part of retrospective analysis. A total of 250 patients reported to the trauma center of the study hospital with facial trauma. Thirty-eight patients were excluded. A total of 212 patients had facial fractures; 33 had a combination of sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures, and facial fractures were identified within this group (15.5%). Gender predilection was seen to favor males (77.3%) more than females (22.7%). The mean age of the patients was 37 years. Orbital fractures (78.8%) and maxillary fractures (57.5%) were found more commonly associated with sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. Conclusions High-energy trauma is more frequently associated with sphenoid fractures when compared with medium- and low-energy trauma. There is a correlation between facial fractures and sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. A more exhaustive multicentric case-control study with a larger sample and additional parameters will be essential to reach definite conclusions regarding the spectrum of fractures of the sphenoid bone associated with facial fractures. PMID:24436756

  16. Glycogen synthase kinase-3? haploinsufficiency lengthens the circadian locomotor activity period in mice.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Joëlle; Hébert, Marc; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2013-09-15

    The mood stabiliser drug lithium has been reported to impact circadian rhythms in vertebrates. Among several putative therapeutic molecular targets, direct inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3?) by lithium has been proposed to underlie its effects on circadian physiology. Here we study the effect of GSK3? haploinsufficiency on the circadian locomotor activity in mice during a free-running period in comparison to wildtype littermates (WT). Mice were housed individually to record their circadian wheel running activity and were entrained to a 12h light/12h dark cycle for 14 days and then placed under constant darkness for 14 days to allow free-running. During the free-running phase, the circadian locomotor activity period of GSK3?(+/-) was significantly lengthened (23.83±0.05h) when compared to the WT mice (23.54±0.10h; p=0.0374). No significant difference in locomotor activity was observed. Knowing that GSK3? interacts with most of the core clock components, these data suggest that GSK3? acts as a critical intrinsic regulator of the circadian clock and plays an important role in regulating its period in response to lithium treatment. PMID:23919927

  17. TGF? lengthens the G1 phase of stem cells in aged mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Daynac, Mathieu; Pineda, Jose R; Chicheportiche, Alexandra; Gauthier, Laurent R; Morizur, Lise; Boussin, François D; Mouthon, Marc-André

    2014-12-01

    Neurogenesis decreases during aging causing a progressive cognitive decline but it is still controversial whether proliferation defects in neurogenic niches result from a loss of neural stem cells or from an impairment of their progression through the cell cycle. Using an accurate fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique, we show that the pool of neural stem cells is maintained in the subventricular zone of middle-aged mice while they have a reduced proliferative potential eventually leading to the subsequent decrease of their progeny. In addition, we demonstrate that the G1 phase is lengthened during aging specifically in activated stem cells, but not in transit-amplifying cells, and directly impacts on neurogenesis. Finally, we report that inhibition of TGF? signaling restores cell cycle progression defects in stem cells. Our data highlight the significance of cell cycle dysregulation in stem cells in the aged brain and provide an attractive foundation for the development of anti-TGF? regenerative therapies based on stimulating endogenous neural stem cells. PMID:25098224

  18. Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

  19. Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research

    PubMed Central

    SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989

  20. Response of arm flexor muscles to magnetic and electrical brain stimulation during shortening and lengthening tasks in man.

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, G; Morena, M; Spadavecchia, L; Schieppati, M

    1994-01-01

    1. The responses of the brachioradialis and biceps brachii muscles to non-invasive magnetic and electrical stimulation of the human motor cortex have been investigated during performance of different tasks. 2. Both muscles were simultaneously active during elbow flexor isometric torque, or forearm flexion lifting a weight (shortening contraction), or extension breaking the fall of the weight (lengthening contraction). The forearm extensor triceps brachii muscle was not engaged in any task. By using different weights, comparable levels of EMG activity were obtained in the same muscle across tasks. 3. Both magnetic (7 subjects) and electrical (3 subjects) brain stimulation (at about 1.5 times the motor threshold) produced larger responses during shortening, and smaller responses during lengthening, in the brachioradialis muscle with respect to isometric contractions, in spite of equal background EMG levels. Responses evoked in the biceps brachii by either stimulation mode were smaller during lengthening but not significantly enhanced during shortening. No consistent differences in the task-related modulation of the responses were present between electrical or magnetic stimulations. No significant changes in the evoked responses occurred during passive elbow flexion or extension. 4. In three subjects, the H reflex was evoked in the brachioradialis by stimulation of the radial nerve during performance of the same tasks. The pattern of task-related modulation of the reflex amplitude paralleled that obtained for brain stimulation. 5. The opposite modulation induced by the shortening and lengthening tasks both in magnetically and electrically evoked motor responses, and in the H reflex, suggests that task-related changes in excitability of the cortical neurones play a minor role.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7738841

  1. Multilevel Performance-driven Stylised Facial Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabian Di Fiore; Frank Van Reeth

    In this paper, our objective is to assist a graphical artist throughout the creation of stylised facial animations that exhibit characters with a hand- drawn look and resemble real life without mim- icking it. To this end, we present a hybrid ap- proach combining benefits from performance- driven facial animation and user-controlled 2D modelling and animation techniques. Once we capture

  2. Subtle facial expression recognition using motion magnification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungsoo Park; Daijin Kim

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for subtle facial expression recognition that uses motion magnifica- tion to transform subtle expressions into corresponding exaggerated ones. Motion magnification consists of four steps: First, active appearance model (AAM) fitting extracts 70 facial feature points in the face image sequence. Second, the face image sequence is aligned using the three feature points (two eyes

  3. Infrared facial recognition using modified blood perfusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiqian Wu; Zhenghui Gu; Kia Ai Chia; Sim Heng Ong

    2007-01-01

    An infrared (IR) facial image represents a measurement of thermal distribution of a face which is independent of illumination. However, it has been found that facial thermograms vary with ambient temperature, physiological as well as psychological conditions, which result in severe decline in recognition rate. In this paper, we present a modified blood perfusion model which is much simpler than

  4. Say cheese! Privacy and facial recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Buckley; Matt Hunter

    The popular social networking site, Facebook, recently launched a facial recognition tool to help users tag photographs they uploaded to Facebook. This generated significant controversy, arising as much as anything, from the company’s failure to adequately inform users of this new service and to explain how the technology works.The incident illustrates the sensitivity of facial recognition technology and the potential

  5. Facial Expression Recognition Using a Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L. Lisetti; David E. Rumelhart

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the development of a neural network for fa- cial expression recognition. It aims at recognizing and interpreting facial expressions in terms of signaled emo- tions and level of expressiveness. We use the backprop- agation algorithm to train the system to differentiate between facial expressions. We show how the network generalizes to new faces and we analyze the results.

  6. Facial Recognition Using Simulated Prosthetic Pixelized Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Thompson; G. David Barnett; Mark S. Humayun

    2003-01-01

    RESULTS. Discrimination speed and performance were influ- enced by all stimulus parameters. The subjects achieved highly significant facial recognition accuracy for all high-contrast tests except for grids with 70% random dot dropout and two gray levels. In low-contrast tests, significant facial recognition accu- racy was achieved for all but the most adverse grid parameters: total grid area less than 17%

  7. Facial expression recognition and its degree estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi KIMURA; Masahiko YACHIDA

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is not only to recognize a facial expression which is associated with human emotion but also to estimate its degree. Our method is based on the idea that facial expression recognition can be achieved by extracting a variation from an expressionless face considering the face area as a whole pattern. For the purpose of extracting

  8. A Web Survey for Facial Expressions Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Sorci; Gianluca Antonini; Jean-Philippe Thiran; Michel Bierlaire

    In the recent years, researchers have investigated several methods of facial ex- pression analysis. Their interest has been to apply their algorithms to sets o f images labelled by a restrained number of experts. In order to deal with the generaliz- ability of the proposed methods, databases of numerous facial expressions images have been collected. Less attention has been given

  9. Ophthalmic involvement in cranio-facial trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shantha Amrith; Seang Mei Saw; Thiam Chye Lim; Timothy Kam Yiu Lee

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: This is a retrospective descriptive case study which will look into the spectrum of ophthalmic involvement in cases with orbital and eye injuries after cranio-facial trauma and to analyse the visual and motility outcome. Material: One hundred and four cases with ophthalmic involvement after cranio-facial trauma that were referred to and seen in the eye department of a tertiary

  10. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wataru Sato; Shota Uono; Naomi Matsuura; Motomi Toichi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. METHODS: We tested 24 male adolescent\\/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control

  11. Individuals with Autism can Categorize Facial Expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Homer; M. D. Rutherford

    2008-01-01

    The ability of high-functioning individuals with autism to perceive facial expressions categorically was studied using eight facial expression continua created via morphing software. Participants completed a delayed matching task and an identification task. Like undergraduate male participants (N = 12), performance on the identification task for participants with autism (N = 15) was predicted by performance on the delayed matching

  12. Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

  13. Transferring Facial Expressions to Different Face Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Costa Teixeira Orvalho; Ernesto Zacur; Antonio Susin

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a facial deformation system that helps the character setup process and gives artists the possibility to manipulate models as if they were using a puppet. The method uses a set of labels that define specific facial features and deforms the rig anthropometrically. We find the correspondence of the main attributes of a generic rig, transfer them to different

  14. Performance Driven Facial Animation using Blendshape Interpolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Chuang; Chris Bregler

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method of creating facial animation using a combination of motion capture data and blendshape interpolation. An animator can design a character as usual, but use motion capture data to drive facial animation, rather than animate by hand. The method is effective even when the motion capture actor and the target model have quite different shapes. The

  15. Image Analysis Of Facial Skin Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartstein, Vladimir; Shaya, Steven A.

    1986-06-01

    Image processing algorithms and photographic techniques have been developed to allow objective, reproducible quantification of facial skin wrinkles, age spots, pores, and other visible skin features. The methods have been used to determine the effects of environmen-tal solar exposure on facial skin aging.

  16. The spectrum of facial fractures in motor vehicle accidents: an MDCT study of 374 patients.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Elina M; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major health problem worldwide resulting frequently in maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and spectrum of facial fractures in patients involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Using picture archiving and communication system, all requests for suspected facial trauma were retrieved during a 62-month period; 374 met the inclusion criteria. Two researchers interpreted the multidetector computed tomography images by consensus. The motor vehicles involved were divided into two groups: those involving a passenger car or a larger vehicle and those involving a motorized two-wheeler. Furthermore, the motor vehicle accidents were divided into collisions and run-off-road accidents. Of the 374 patients (aged 15-80, mean 34), 271 (72 %) were male and 103 (28 %) female. Of all patients, 262 (70 %) had a facial or skull base fracture; of these, multiple separate fractures were present in 56 %. Nasal fractures were the most common fractures followed by orbital, skull base, and maxillary fractures. Frontal bone, LeFort, and zygomatic arch fractures were always accompanied by other fractures. Fractures were more frequent in the group of collisions compared with run-off-road accidents. In the two-wheeled group, only 15 % did not have facial or skull base fractures. Fractures often occur in multitudes as 39 % of all patients have multiple facial or skull bone fractures, and thus, emergency radiologists should be familiar with the complexity of the injuries. Negative clear sinus sign and low-energy sentinel injuries should be trusted as indications of undetected injuries in MVA victims. PMID:24221020

  17. A model of a patient-derived IDH1 mutant anaplastic astrocytoma with alternative lengthening of telomeres.

    PubMed

    Borodovsky, Alexandra; Meeker, Alan K; Kirkness, Ewen F; Zhao, Qi; Eberhart, Charles G; Gallia, Gary L; Riggins, Gregory J

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) have been found in the vast majority of low grade and progressive infiltrating gliomas and are characterized by the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate from ?-ketoglutarate. Recent investigations of malignant gliomas have identified additional genetic and chromosomal abnormalities which cluster with IDH1 mutations into two distinct subgroups. The astrocytic subgroup was found to have frequent mutations in ATRX, TP53 and displays alternative lengthening of telomeres. The second subgroup with oligodendrocytic morphology has frequent mutations in CIC or FUBP1, and is linked to co-deletion of the 1p/19q arms. These mutations reflect the development of two distinct molecular pathways representing the majority of IDH1 mutant gliomas. Unfortunately, due to the scarcity of endogenously derived IDH1 mutant models, there is a lack of accurate models to study mechanism and develop new therapy. Here we report the generation of an endogenous IDH1 anaplastic astrocytoma in vivo model with concurrent mutations in TP53, CDKN2A and ATRX. The model has a similar phenotype and histopathology as the original patient tumor, expresses the IDH1 (R132H) mutant protein and exhibits an alternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype. The JHH-273 model is characteristic of anaplastic astrocytoma and represents a valuable tool for investigating the pathogenesis of this distinct molecular subset of gliomas and for preclinical testing of compounds targeting IDH1 mutations or alternative lengthening of telomeres. PMID:25471051

  18. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  19. Localization of facial region in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

    2011-06-01

    We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

  20. [Treatment by fat tissue transfer for radiation injury in childhood facial cancer].

    PubMed

    Faghahati, S; Delaporte, T; Toussoun, G; Gleizal, A; Morel, F; Delay, E

    2010-06-01

    The radiation treatment of malignant facial tumors in children may induce major functional and cosmetic sequelae, mainly due to uneven growth of the bones and soft tissues, resulting in facial asymmetry and hemihypotrophy at adult age. Although fat transfer has proven effective for facial cosmetic treatment, few studies have demonstrated the benefit of the technique in heavily irradiated tissues. The techniques generally used for the treatment of facial asymmetry or hypotrophy are ill-adapted to irradiated patients. Indeed, procedures such as skin detachment, osteotomy and vascular suture are risky because of radiation-induced damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential benefits of fat transfer for the correction of sequelae of facial irradiation. Four patients (two males and two females) aged 27, 25, 16 and 13 years underwent fat grafting for the correction of facial asymmetry or hypotrophy induced by cancer radiation treatment during childhood (radiation dose of more than 50Gy). One to three grafting sessions were required, depending on the cases. After a median follow-up of 3.9 years, cosmetic results were considered satisfactory by both the patient and the surgeon in all four cases. Fat transfer remarkably improved the cosmetic appearance of the patients, without deleterious consequences for the vitality of tissues. In addition, a restoration of skin trophicity was observed, thus confirming the benefit of grafting adipocytes into the irradiated integument. In conclusion, fat grafting appears to be a simple and easily reusable technique which makes it possible to obtain the best morphological and cosmetic results in irradiated patients, whereas avoiding complex and potentially hazardous procedures. PMID:19679386

  1. Averaging facial expression over time

    PubMed Central

    Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time. PMID:20053064

  2. Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2006-01-01

    Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facial dysmorphism and hypogonadism. Para-infectious rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication reported in an increasing number of patients. During general anaesthesia, patients with CCFDN require careful monitoring as they have an elevated risk of complications. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. Diagnosis is clinical and is supported by electrophysiological and brain imaging studies. The major differential diagnosis is Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. The definitive diagnosis is molecular, based on homozygosity for the CTDP1 mutation. CTDP1 maps to 18qter and encodes a protein phosphatase whose only known substrate is the phosphorylated serine residues of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, indicating that CCFDN affects basic cellular processes of gene expression and developmental regulation. Families benefit from genetic counselling and predictive testing. Management includes surgical treatment of the cataracts, and rehabilitation and corrective orthopaedic surgery for the peripheral neuropathy. Thus, the most disabling manifestations, though not curable, are manageable, and allow an acceptable quality of life and everyday living. Current data indicate that patients survive well into adulthood. PMID:16939648

  3. Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.

    PubMed

    Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

  4. Facial Orientation and Facial Shape in Extant Great Apes: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Covariation

    PubMed Central

    Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

  5. Change in facial nerve innervation following hypoglossal-facial anastomosis. An animal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y S; Yanagihara, N; Murakami, S

    1994-11-01

    Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis was carried out in 20 adult guinea pigs. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was applied to the buccal branch of the facial nerve at intervals of 2, 4 and 6 months after the anastomosis operation. HRP labeled neurons and the number of regenerated axons in the buccal branch were counted to determine postoperative nerve regeneration. The number of surviving neurons in the facial and hypoglossal nuclei was also counted to determine postoperative change of these nuclei. Following anastomosis, 97% of the hypoglossal neurons remained surviving, while the facial neurons underwent pronounced degeneration of 65% survival ratio at 2 months and 37% at 6 months after the anastomosis operation. In 80% of the animals, a new nerve bundle regenerated from the proximal stump of the facial nerve to the anastomotic trunk. A linear increase of HRP-labeled neurons in the facial and hypoglossal nuclei paralleled the increase of the axons in the buccal branch. The HRP-labeled neurons in the facial nucleus were demonstrated to have direct connection with the newly formed bundle and the facial mimetic muscles were dually innervated by both the hypoglossal and facial nerves. Although the present study design might not fully represent the clinical situation, possible advantages of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis are discussed from the view of nerve regeneration. PMID:7879622

  6. Facial Expression Recognition Based on Fusion of Multiple Gabor Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weifeng Liu; Zengfu Wang

    2006-01-01

    In order to accomplish subject-independent facial expression recognition task, a multiple Gabor features based facial expression recognition method is presented in this paper. Different channels of Gabor filters have different contributions on the facial expression recognition and reasonable combination of these features can improve the performance of a facial expression recognition system. NN based data fusion method is designed for

  7. Data-Free Prior Model for Facial Action Unit Recognition

    E-print Network

    Data-Free Prior Model for Facial Action Unit Recognition Yongqiang Li, Jixu Chen, Yongping Zhao, and Qiang Ji Abstract--Facial action recognition is concerned with recognizing the local facial motions from units recognition, Bayesian networks, knowledge-driven model Ç 1 INTRODUCTION FACIAL behavior analysis

  8. Facial Expression Recognition in Dynamic Sequences: an Integrated Approach

    E-print Network

    Rosin, Paul

    Facial Expression Recognition in Dynamic Sequences: an Integrated Approach Hui Fang, Neil Mac for the task of expression recognition. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed for automatic facial, Oxford University Abstract Automatic facial expression analysis aims to analyse human facial expressions

  9. Subtly Different Facial Expression Recognition and Expression Intensity Estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Jenn-jier Lien; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn; Ching-chung Li

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a computer vision system, including both facial feature extraction and recognition, that automatically discriminates among subtly different facial expressions. Expression classification is based on Facial Action Coding System (FACS) action units (AUs), and discrimination is performed using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Three methods are developed to extract facial expression information for automatic recognition. The first method is

  10. A specific neural substrate for perceiving facial expressions of disgust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Phillips; A. W. Young; C. Senior; M. Brammer; C. Andrew; A. J. Calder; E. T. Bullmore; D. I. Perrett; D. Rowland; S. C. R. Williams; J. A. Gray; A. S. David

    1997-01-01

    Recognition of facial expressions is critical to our appreciation of the social and physical environment, with separate emotions having distinct facial expressions. Perception of fearful facial expressions has been extensively studied, appearing to depend upon the amygdala. Disgust - literally `bad taste' - is another important emotion, with a distinct evolutionary history, and is conveyed by a characteristic facial expression.

  11. Prevalence of cervical spine injuries in patients with facial trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Hackl; Karin Hausberger; Romed Sailer; Hanno Ulmer; Robert Gassner

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Injuries to the spine may accompany facial trauma. By using a large computerized database the goal of this case control study was to assess the association between facial and cervical spine injuries among patients sustaining facial trauma. Study Design: During a period of 4 years (1995 to 1998) 3083 patients, 10 years or older, with facial injuries were admitted

  12. Automatic recognition of facial expressions in image sequences: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Patil; Vineet Sahula; A. S. Mandal

    2010-01-01

    For human beings, facial expression is one of the most powerful and natural way to communicate their emotions and intensions. A human being can detect facial expressions without effort, but for a machine it is very difficult. Automatic facial expression recognition is an interesting and challenging problem. Automatic facial expression recognition systems can be mainly used for human computer interaction

  13. Automatic Recognition of Facial Actions in Spontaneous Expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Stewart Bartlett; Gwen C. Littlewort; Mark G. Frank; Claudia Lainscsek; Ian R. Fasel; Javier R. Movellan

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous facial expressions differ from posed expressions in both which muscles are moved, and in the dy- namics of the movement. Advances in the field of automatic facial expression measurement will require development and assessment on spontaneous behavior. Here we present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous facial expressions. We employ a user indepen- dent

  14. The Voluntary Control of Facial Action Units in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Gosselin; Mélanie Perron; Martin Beaupré

    2010-01-01

    We investigated adults’ voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young

  15. Evaluation of facial beauty using anthropometric proportions.

    PubMed

    Milutinovic, Jovana; Zelic, Ksenija; Nedeljkovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

  16. Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions

    PubMed Central

    Milutinovic, Jovana

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

  17. The identification of unfolding facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration. PMID:23025158

  18. Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

  19. Bear Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-03-08

    An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.

  20. Talking Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  1. Extratemporal facial nerve grafting and radiotherapy. [Effects of parotid gland radiotherapy on success of subsequent facial nerve grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pillsbury

    1979-01-01

    Nineteen patients with extratemporal facial nerve grafting procedures and 13 patients with facial hypoglossal anastomosis were followed up with serial photographs for at least one year. The photographic analysis of the results demonstrates that radiotherapy had a detrimental influence on the return of facial movements after extratemporal facial nerve grafting.

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 22, NO. 7, JULY 2013 2559 Simultaneous Facial Feature Tracking and Facial

    E-print Network

    Tracking and Facial Expression Recognition Yongqiang Li, Shangfei Wang, Member, IEEE, Yongping Zhao, and Qiang Ji, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images--Bayesian network, expression recognition, facial action unit recognition, facial feature tracking, simultaneous

  3. Impaired Overt Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in…

  4. A simulator for maxillo-facial surgery integrating cephalometry and orthodontia

    E-print Network

    Bettega, G; Mollard, B; Boyer, A; Raphael, B; Lavallee, S

    2000-01-01

    Objectives : This paper presents a new simulator for maxillo-facial surgery, that gathers the dental and the maxillo-facial analyses together into a single computer-assisted procedure. The idea is first to propose a repositioning of the maxilla, via the introduction of a 3D cephalometry, applied to a 3D virtual model of the patient's skull. Then, orthodontic data are integrated into this model, thanks to optical measurements of teeth plaster casts. Materials and Methods : The feasibility of the maxillo-facial demonstrator was first evaluated on a dry skull. To simulate malformations (and thus to simulate a "real" patient), the skull was modified and manually cut by the surgeon, in order to generate a given maxillo-facial malformation (with asymmetries in the sagittal, frontal and axial planes). Results : The validation of our simulator consisted in evaluating its ability to propose a bone repositioning diagnosis that will put the skull as it was in its original configuration. A first qualitative validation is...

  5. Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae utilizing tissue expanders with embodiment injection site: case report.

    PubMed

    Foustanos, A; Zavrides, H

    2006-01-01

    Although highly specialized burn centers have significantly reduced mortality rates following extensive total body surface area burns, survivors are often left with grotesque facial disfigurement. Hypertrophic scars and tissue defects are the most common cause of functional and aesthetic problems in the head and neck region. Plastic surgeons use full-thickness or split-thickness skin grafts, pedicled flaps, free flaps, transplantation of bone or cartilage and tissue expansion. The authors present a case of a patient who suffered from third-degree flame burns to the face. Prior skin grafting procedures left him with severe scar deformity of the face. The patient was treated utilizing multiple tissue expansion. Facial animation has retained and facial integrity has been aesthetically restored and, with the use of make-up, it is near normal in social settings at conversational distances. The tissue expansion technique is advantageous in facial reconstruction because it makes it possible to resurface even wider defects with neighboring skin, similar in colour and texture, and superior to skin obtained elsewhere. PMID:17165599

  6. Extensive visual loss with topical facial steroids.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, R K; Potamitis, T; Chong, N H; Guarro, M; Shah, P; Kheterpal, S

    1993-01-01

    Steroid creams applied topically to the skin are routinely used in the treatment of many dermatoses. Their use on the face in severe atopic eczema is relatively common. We report a series of three patients who whilst using topical facial steroids developed advanced glaucoma. A further two cases of ocular hypertension secondary to topical facial steroids are also described. This is the first series of cases to be reported demonstrating the potentially blinding complications of topical facial steroids. Recommendations are made with regard to screening such patients for glaucoma. PMID:8287990

  7. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The face is a vital component of one’s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families. PMID:21217982

  8. Embryonic Craniofacial Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in Fgfr2+/P253R and Nonmutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Christopher J.; Huang, Yuan; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Li, Runze; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying multiple phenotypic aspects of individual craniofacial bones across early osteogenesis illustrates differences in typical bone growth and maturation and provides a basis for understanding the localized and overall influence of mutations associated with disease. We quantify the typical pattern of bone growth and maturation during early craniofacial osteogenesis and determine how this pattern is modified in Fgfr2+/P253R Apert syndrome mice. Results Early differences in typical relative bone density increase are noted between intramembranous and endochondral bones, with endochondral bones normally maturing more quickly during the prenatal period. Several craniofacial bones, including the facial bones of Fgfr2+/P253R mice, display lower volumes during the earliest days of osteogenesis and lower relative densities until the perinatal period relative to unaffected littermates. Conclusions Estimates of bone volume and linear measures describing morphology do not necessarily covary, highlighting the value of quantifying multiple facets of gross osteological phenotypes when exploring the influence of a disease causing mutation. Differences in mechanisms of osteogenesis likely underlie differences in intramembranous and endochondral relative density increase. The influence of the FGFR2 P253R mutation on bone volume changes across the prenatal period and again after birth, while its influence on relative bone density is more stable. PMID:24504751

  9. Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

  10. Facial recognition at the CIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gragg, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an 'electronic mug book.' Using some simple collateral information about a suspect (height, age and sex) and a photograph, the system gives users the ability to identify an unknown person with a reasonable probability. The system matches information extracted from the photographs with similar information extracted from a database of photographs of existing suspects. The technology was subsequently transferred to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for use by the Border Patrol.

  11. [Blepharoplasty in aesthetic facial surgery].

    PubMed

    Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Schouten, H J; Vissink, A

    2014-01-01

    Blepharoplasty is the most commonly performed procedure in aesthetic facial surgery. The upper eyelid is part of the same aesthetic subunit as the eyebrow and the lower eyelid is part of the same aesthetic subunit as the cheek. In upper eyelid blepharoplasty the excess skin and possibly also a portion of the sphincter is removed. A low-hanging eyebrow is preferably corrected by lifting the brow instead of over excising the redundant eyelid skin. Blepharoplasty of the lower eyelid is generally carried out by a very limited excision of the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle in order to prevent lower lid retraction (ectropion). Rejuvenation in the lower lid region is also achieved by fat resection or redistribution, by means of which the double convex contour deformity is reduced. Blepharoplasty is generally performed under local anaesthesia and complications are rare. Patient satisfaction is generally high. PMID:25174189

  12. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  13. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  14. Facial Disfigurement and Sex-Role Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieka, Frank L.

    1974-01-01

    Facially disfigured persons were compared to nondisfigured persons in regard to self-perceived sex-role esteem. Results indicated disfigured persons felt less positive about their functioning in marital interaction than nondisfigured persons. (Author/EK)

  15. Drowsy Driver Detection Through Facial Movement Analysis

    E-print Network

    Çetin, Müjdat

    -assumptions about the relevant behavior, focusing on blink rate, eye closure, and yawning. Here we employ machine database of spontaneous expressions. These facial actions include blinking and yawn motions, as well

  16. Find a Facial Plastic & Reconstructive Surgeon

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is a Facial Plastic Surgeon Facelift Surgery Wrinkle Treatment Nose Surgery Eyelid Surgery Hair Replacement Skin Resurfacing Laser Surgery Scar Revisions Forehead Lift Chin Surgery Reconstructive and Face Transplants Ear Surgery Informative Videos Chat Room On- ...

  17. Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in remote locations. Remote users could perform real-time searches where network connectivity is not available. As images are enrolled at the remote locations, periodic database synchronization is necessary.

  18. 3D facial recognition: a quantitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trina Denise Russ; Mark William Koch; Charles Quentin Little

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional facial recognition has, traditionally, been an attractive biometric, however, the accuracy of 2D facial recognition (FR) is performance limited and insufficient when confronted with extensive numbers of people to screen and identify, and the numerous appearances that a 2D face can exhibit. In efforts to overcome many of the issues limiting 2D FR technology, researchers are beginning to focus

  19. Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a

  20. Cochlear implant and delayed facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shawn Thadathil; Vishwakarma, Rajesh; Ramani, Mukesh Kumar; Aurora, Rupa

    2009-12-01

    Delayed facial nerve palsy following cochlear implant surgery is less documented though it poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Apart from the functional, aesthetic and emotional concerns, it can raise important medico legal issues. The objectives of this study were: to report a case of delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery in a patient who had positive viral antibody markers pre operatively; and to review the literature on delayed onset facial paralysis following viral reactivation and its relation to cochlear implant surgery. An extensive literature review was done using internet and medical search engines and library facilities. Important articles on the topic were identified and summarised. Data on delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery were collected, constructed in a coherent way and details discussed. Postulated mechanisms of delayed facial palsy include neural oedema, vasospasm and viral reactivation. Of these, reactivation of previous herpes simplex virus infection has special significance, as many of these patients are positive for viral antibody markers. Manipulation of sensory branches of the facial nerve and chorda tympani can be a mechanism in such cases. Correlation of clinical presentation and pre operative positive viral antibody markers with positive polymerase chain reaction can be strongly suggestive of viral reactivation. It is concluded that patients with positive viral antibody markers are more susceptible to facial palsy from viral reactivation. Corticosteroids, antiviral agents and physiotherapy can be useful in producing a quicker and complete recovery. An experienced cochlear implant surgery team and pre operative radiological evaluations are mandatory to decrease the chances of direct facial nerve trauma. Proper irrigation lowers the risk of neural oedema. PMID:19194876

  1. Face\\/Off: live facial puppetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thibaut Weise; Hao Li; Luc J. Van Gool; Mark Pauly

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete integrated system for live facial puppetry that enables high-resolution real-time facial expression tracking with transfer to another person's face. The system utilizes a real-time structured light scanner that provides dense 3D data and texture. A generic template mesh, fitted to a rigid reconstruction of the actor's face, is tracked offline in a training stage through a

  2. Arguing the ethics of facial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Ashlin J; Alam, Daniel S; Gullane, Patrick J; Lengelé, Benoît G; Adamson, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    While 7 face transplants have been performed around the world, to date, there remains debate regarding the validity of this procedure. We submit that performing a facial transplant-in the appropriately selected patient-is technically defensible and ethically sound. By outlining the technical and ethical boundaries of the debate, responding to the key arguments against the procedure, and describing its motivations and potential benefits, we state our justification of facial transplantation. PMID:20083744

  3. Effects of diazepam on facial emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, Nick J.; Singh, Anita J.; Sustrik, Ryan A.; Ting, Patricia; Blair, R. James

    2003-01-01

    Objective There have been few studies of the pharmacologic modulation of facial emotion recognition. The present study aimed to replicate and extend the finding that recognition of facial anger was selectively impaired by diazepam. The hypothesis was that, in comparison with placebo, diazepam would impair the recognition of facial anger in healthy volunteers, but not the recognition of 5 other basic emotions: happiness, surprise, fear, sadness and disgust. Design A randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects comparison of diazepam with placebo. Setting A university psychopharmacology research unit. Participants Healthy male (n = 6) and female (n = 22) volunteers, aged 18–45 years. Procedures Subjects were tested on 2 tasks following the administration of diazepam, 15 mg, and placebo on separate occasions. In the first “multimorph” task, images of facial expressions were morphed to produce continua between the neutral and full expressions of 6 basic emotions. Accuracy and identification thresholds were assessed for stimuli in which the intensity of expression gradually increased. In the second “emotional hexagon” task, facial expressions were morphed between pairs of emotions. Single images were presented, and accuracy and speed of response were assessed. Results Diazepam produced broad impairments in response accuracy, recognition thresholds and response speed on the facial emotion tasks that were not limited to angry expressions. Conclusions The present study found that diazepam, 15 mg, impaired facial emotion recognition, but not selectively. In the emotional hexagon task, a reaction-time analysis suggested that the identification of facial anger might be differentially sensitive to variations in stimulus duration, complicating the interpretation of this paradigm. PMID:14631456

  4. Locating facial features for age classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young Ho; da Vitoria Lobo, Niels

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we outline computations for visual age classification from facial images. For now, input images can only be classified into one of three age-groups: babies, adults, and senior adults. The computations are based on cranio-facial development theory, and wrinkle analysis. In the implementation, first primary features of the face are found, followed by secondary feature analyses. Preliminary results with real data are presented.

  5. Photodamage: treatments and topicals for facial skin.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Pan, Brian S; Kitzmiller, W John

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of current therapies for photodamaged facial skin and their efficacy, with particular focus on studies that use the objective, quantitative evaluation methods discussed in the previous article. The role of topically applied agents including prescription drugs and cosmetics is discussed. From this information, a schema for the relative effectiveness of therapeutic modalities in reducing perceived age is presented. This information assists the facial plastic surgeon in evaluating patient expectations and selecting the most effective program. PMID:23369590

  6. Continuous Retrograde Monitoring of the Facial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Colletti, Vittorio; Fiorino, Francesco G.

    1996-01-01

    Continuous electromyographical (EMG) monitoring of the facial nerve is widely used during acoustic tumor surgery. Mechanical stimulation of the facial nerve is capable of eliciting synchronous and asynchronous EMG responses alerting the surgeon to damaging maneuvers performed on the nerve. Mechanical stimulation, however, elicits EMG responses only when the nerve has been injured by the underlying pathology or previous surgical maneuvers, and the technique is sensitive to administration of muscular blockers. In addition, EMG is unable to furnish quantitative information about the damage. The present paper illustrates an alternative technique for intraoperative facial nerve monitoring, that is, the recording of facial nerve antidromic potentials (FNAPs). Eleven subjects operated on by acoustic neuroma surgery via a retrosigmoid approach (tumor sizes ranging from 12 to 28 mm) participated in the investigation. Bipolar electrical stimulation of the marginalis mandibulae was performed to elicit FNAPs. Stimulus intensity ranged from 2 to 6 mA with a delivery rate of 7/second. A silver-wire electrode positioned on the proximal portion of the acoustic-facial bundle was used to record action potentials. Changes in latency and amplitude of FNAPs were analyzed as a function of the main surgical steps. FNAP monitoring provided quantitative real-time information about damaging maneuvers performed on the nerve and allowed prediction of postoperative facial function. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:17170981

  7. Pediatric facial fractures: evolving patterns of treatment.

    PubMed

    Posnick, J C; Wells, M; Pron, G E

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the treatment of facial trauma between October 1986 and December 1990 at a major pediatric referral center. The mechanism of injury, location and pattern of facial fractures, pattern of facial injury, soft tissue injuries, and any associated injuries to other organ systems were recorded, and fracture management and perioperative complications reviewed. The study population consisted of 137 patients who sustained 318 facial fractures. Eighty-one patients (171 fractures) were seen in the acute stage, and 56 patients (147 fractures) were seen for reconstruction of a secondary deformity. Injuries in boys were more prevalent than in girls (63% versus 37%), and the 6- to 12-year cohort made up the largest group (42%). Most fractures resulted from traffic-related accidents (50%), falls (23%), or sports-related injuries (15%). Mandibular (34%) and orbital fractures (23%) predominated; fewer midfacial fractures (7%) were sustained than would be expected in a similar adult population. Three quarters of the patients with acute fractures required operative intervention. Closed reduction techniques with maxillomandibular fixation were frequently chosen for mandibular condyle fractures and open reduction techniques (35%) for other regions of the facial skeleton. When open reduction was indicated, plate-and-screw fixation was the preferred method of stabilization (65%). The long-term effects of the injuries and the treatment given on facial growth remain undetermined. Perioperative complication rates directly related to the surgery were low. PMID:8336220

  8. Classifying Chimpanzee Facial Expressions Using Muscle Action

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Lisa A.; Waller, Bridget M.; Vick, Sarah J.; Bard, Kim A.

    2010-01-01

    The Chimpanzee Facial Action Coding System (ChimpFACS) is an objective, standardized observational tool for measuring facial movement in chimpanzees based on the well-known human Facial Action Coding System (FACS; P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978). This tool enables direct structural comparisons of facial expressions between humans and chimpanzees in terms of their common underlying musculature. Here the authors provide data on the first application of the ChimpFACS to validate existing categories of chimpanzee facial expressions using discriminant functions analyses. The ChimpFACS validated most existing expression categories (6 of 9) and, where the predicted group memberships were poor, the authors discuss potential problems with ChimpFACS and/or existing categorizations. The authors also report the prototypical movement configurations associated with these 6 expression categories. For all expressions, unique combinations of muscle movements were identified, and these are illustrated as peak intensity prototypical expression configurations. Finally, the authors suggest a potential homology between these prototypical chimpanzee expressions and human expressions based on structural similarities. These results contribute to our understanding of the evolution of emotional communication by suggesting several structural homologies between the facial expressions of chimpanzees and humans and facilitating future research. PMID:17352572

  9. Nutrition and bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Goldberg

    2004-01-01

    Throughout life the skeleton is continually renewed. Old, worn out bone is broken down and new bone tissue is formed. During infancy, childhood and adolescence, bone formation is higher than breakdown. At about 30–35 years old adults achieve their peak bone mass. The rate of bone breakdown is equal to the rate of bone formation and bone mass is maintained.

  10. Building a virtual reality temporal bone dissection simulator.

    PubMed

    Kuppersmith, R B; Johnston, R; Moreau, D; Loftin, R B; Jenkins, H

    1997-01-01

    The temporal bone is one of seven bones that comprise the human skull, and has an intimate relationship with many vital structures. Anatomically, its three-dimensional relationships make it one of the most challenging areas for surgeons to understand and master. In addition, the temporal bone contains minute structures that are among the most sophisticated and delicate in the human body. These structures include the cochlea and vestibular organs, which are responsible for hearing and balance; the middle ear, including the ossicles, which conduct acoustic energy to the cochlea; and the facial nerve, which is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression, and contributes to the sensation of taste. Additionally, the temporal bone forms a major portion of the skull base, and has intimate relationships to vital structures including the carotid artery, jugular vein, cerebral cortex, brainstem, and cranial nerves. Surgical procedures performed on the temporal bone include: procedures to eradicate chronic and acute infections; procedures to remove malignant and benign tumors within the temporal bone, from the skull base, or from the posterior cranial fossa; procedures to restore the hearing mechanism; procedures to eliminate balance disorders; and procedures to correct congenital anomalies. For surgeons-in-training, and even surgeons-in-practice, mastery of the anatomy of the temporal bone and the many complex approaches necessary to treat patients takes years of focused endeavor. This is typically accomplished through the dissection of human cadaver temporal bones, which are scarce, and require a dedicated laboratory facility. Efforts are currently underway to develop a realistic simulator for temporal bone procedures. Users immersed in the simulator will interact with a three-dimensional temporal bone, derived from patient-specific data, using a haptic interface to simulate traditional surgical procedures. Feedback from experts in otologic surgery will be built into the system for additional instruction. This presentation will include an overview of the application being developed, a report of its current state of development, and plans for the future. PMID:10168915

  11. Soccer-related facial fractures: postoperative management with facial protective shields.

    PubMed

    Procacci, Pasquale; Ferrari, Francesca; Bettini, Giordana; Bissolotti, Guido; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Nocini, Pier Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Facial fractures are one of the most common orofacial injury sustained during participation in sporting events.The frequency of maxillofacial lesions varies according to the popularity that each sport has in a particular country. Soccer is the most popular sport in Italy, and it is responsible for a large number of facial traumas.Traumas and fractures in soccer mainly involve the zygomatic and nasal regions and are especially caused by direct contact that takes place mainly when the ball is played with the forehead. In particular, elbow-head and head-head impacts are the most frequent dangerous contacts.Soccer is not a violent sport, and the use of protective helmets is not allowed because it could be dangerous especially when players play the ball with the head. The use of protective facial shields are exclusively permitted to preserve players who underwent surgery for facial fractures.The use of a facial protection mask after a facial fracture treatment has already been reported. This article describes a clinical experience of management of 4 soccer-related facial fractures by means of fabrication of individual facial protective shields. PMID:19164981

  12. Robust Facial Expression Recognition Using a State-Based Model of Spatially-Localised Facial Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Bourel; Claude C. Chibelushi; Adrian A. Low

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes a new approach for the robust recognition of facial expressions from video sequences. The goal of the work presented, is to develop robust recognition techniques that will overcome some limitations of current techniques, such as their sensitivity to partial occlusion of the face, and noisy data. The paper investigates a representation of facial expressions which is based

  13. [Temporal bone pathology in neonates with severe visceral anomalies].

    PubMed

    Koyama, S; Iino, Y; Ohkura, S; Kaga, K; Ohhira, Y; Ogawa, Y

    1996-08-01

    It is well known that hearing loss is often associated with anomalads, syndromes involving multiple anomalies. The incidence is especially high in severe cases of facial and visceral malformations. However, otologic features remain unclear in patients with a sequence of various anomalies which can not be classified into any known syndrome. We examined 11 temporal bones from 6 patients with severe visceral anomalies, which could not be classified into any known systemic bone diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, or congenital metabolic disorders. Temporal bone pathology was compared with external and visceral anomalies in each case. The temporal bones had been removed at autopsy, fixed in 10% formaldehyde, decalcified and embedded in celloidin. Serial horizontal sections were made at 20 microns and every tenth section was stained with hematoxylin eosin. Most abnormalities in the middle and inner ear were found to have an ectodermal or mesodermal origin. Inner ear abnormalities were noted in 6 temporal bones from 3 patients; the predominant feature was hypoplasia of the semicircular canals. Middle ear abnormalities excluding residual mesenchymal tissue were noted in 5 temporal bones from 4 patients; the predominant feature was an abnormal course of the facial nerve. It was also suspected that auricular and maxillomandibular abnormalities, which are often associated with severe visceral anomalies, indicate a high incidence of disorders affecting the auditory and vestibular systems. PMID:8831230

  14. Exploring the Facial Expression Perception-Production Link Using Real-time

    E-print Network

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart

    ]. Recent advances in automated facial expression recognition technology open new possibilities for clinical on facial expres- sion production by leveraging automatic facial expression recognition technology from automated facial expression recognition. We hypothesized that produc- tion training using

  15. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  16. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    E-print Network

    Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  17. Combining appearance and geometric features for facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Honghai

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a method for facial expression recognition combining appearance and geometric facial features. The proposed framework consistently combines multiple facial representations at both global and local levels. First, covariance descriptors are computed to represent regional features combining various feature information with a low dimensionality. Then geometric features are detected to provide a general facial movement description of the facial expression. These appearance and geometric features are combined to form a vector representation of the facial expression. The proposed method is tested on the CK+ database and shows encouraging performance.

  18. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... coccidiomycosis, histoplasmosis , and mycobacteria infection Osteitis fibrosa Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Rickets ... Bone fracture Bone infection (osteomyelitis) Damage to surrounding ... Infection near the biopsy area Some people with bone disorders ...

  19. Aetiology and incidence of facial fractures sustained during sports: a prospective study of 140 patients.

    PubMed

    Maladière, E; Bado, F; Meningaud, J P; Guilbert, F; Bertrand, J C

    2001-08-01

    A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with facial fractures sustained during sports. One hundred and forty patients were admitted to the Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital of Paris between March 1998 and March 2000, accounting for 13.3% of all patients with facial bone fractures. The ratio of males to females was 7.2:1 and the mean age was 28.5 years. The majority of accidents occurred during soccer (25.0%), followed by rugby (15.0%), and as a consequence of collisions between players (50.7%). The majority of the injuries involved the mandible (34.4%), the zygomatic bone (23.4%) and the nasal bone (15.6%). The sporting activities were classified as either contact or non-contact sports. Frontal sinus, central midface and LeFort fractures were seen more often in vehicular sports such as mountainbiking and skiing. The authors stress the importance of preventive measures, including the use of protective equipment, periodic sports medical check-ups and personal discipline. PMID:11518350

  20. Break-Induced Replication Requires DNA Damage-Induced Phosphorylation of Pif1 and Leads to Telomere Lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Vasianovich, Yulia; Harrington, Lea A.; Makovets, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Broken replication forks result in DNA breaks that are normally repaired via homologous recombination or break induced replication (BIR). Mild insufficiency in the replicative ligase Cdc9 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in a population of cells with persistent DNA damage, most likely due to broken replication forks, constitutive activation of the DNA damage checkpoint and longer telomeres. This telomere lengthening required functional telomerase, the core DNA damage signaling cascade Mec1-Rad9-Rad53, and the components of the BIR repair pathway – Rad51, Rad52, Pol32, and Pif1. The Mec1-Rad53 induced phosphorylation of Pif1, previously found necessary for inhibition of telomerase at double strand breaks, was also important for the role of Pif1 in BIR and telomere elongation in cdc9-1 cells. Two other mutants with impaired DNA replication, cdc44-5 and rrm3?, were similar to cdc9-1: their long telomere phenotype was dependent on the Pif1 phosphorylation locus. We propose a model whereby the passage of BIR forks through telomeres promotes telomerase activity and leads to telomere lengthening. PMID:25329304

  1. The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Wallraven, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions. PMID:22438875

  2. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale.

    PubMed

    Kleiss, Ingrid J; Beurskens, Carien H G; Stalmeier, Peep F M; Ingels, Koen J A O; Marres, Henri A M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward-backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for facial palsy. Analyses for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness were performed. Ninety-three patients completed the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale, the Dutch Facial Disability Index, and the Dutch Short Form (36) Health Survey. Cronbach's ?, representing internal consistency, was 0.800. Test-retest reliability was shown by an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.737. Correlations with the House-Brackmann score, Sunnybrook score, Facial Disability Index physical function, and social/well-being function were -0.292, 0.570, 0.713, and 0.575, respectively. The SF-36 domains correlate best with the FaCE social function domain, with the strongest correlation between the both social function domains (r = 0.576). The FaCE score did statistically significantly increase in 35 patients receiving botulinum toxin type A (P = 0.042, Student t test). The domains 'facial comfort' and 'social function' improved statistically significantly as well (P = 0.022 and P = 0.046, respectively, Student t-test). The Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale shows good psychometric values and can be implemented in the management of Dutch-speaking patients with facial palsy in the Netherlands. Translation of the instrument into other languages may lead to widespread use, making evaluation and comparison possible among different providers. PMID:25628237

  3. The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions. PMID:22438875

  4. Slowing down presentation of facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and induces facial-vocal imitation in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a static control. Overall, children with autism showed lower performance in expression recognition and more induced facial-vocal imitation than controls. In the autistic group, facial expression recognition and induced facial-vocal imitation were significantly enhanced in slow conditions. Findings may give new perspectives for understanding and intervention for verbal and emotional perceptive and communicative impairments in autistic populations. PMID:17029018

  5. [Peculiar features of mastoiditis in a brest-fed infant with the "exposed" facial nerve].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, I G

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the clinical case of mastoiditis in a 5-month old child in whom an unusual localization of the totally "naked" facial nerve outside of the bone canal in the mastoid part was discovered intraoperatively. This finding was quite unexpected because nerves are not visible on CT scanograms. The author emphasizes that the clinical course of otitis media in the breast- fed infants and young children is characterized by a number of peculiarities due to specific anatomical, physiological, and immunological features of the child's organism. She also notes that the number of antromastoidotomies for the treatment of mastoiditis has increased in Tatarstan during the recent years. PMID:24300769

  6. Dehiscence of the infraorbital canal with the maxillary antral empyema: a new cause of facial pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ki; Yang, Seong Kyeong; Shin, Dan Bi; Nam, Jung Gwon

    2015-05-01

    The infraorbital nerve is the largest cutaneous branch of the maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve. It may produce a bony ridge on the antral roof but usually goes through within the maxillary bone as a discrete canal. Rarely, it could be partially or completely dehiscent, lying submucosally on the antral roof as in this case.We describe a case of longstanding facial pain because of dehiscence of the infraorbital canal associated with the maxillary antral empyema. Endoscopic sinus surgery was successful in relieving the symptom. PMID:25974820

  7. Facilitating facial retinization through barrier improvement.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith D; Berge, Cynthia A

    2006-10-01

    The utility of topical tretinoin as a treatment for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin is limited by irritation that occurs during the early phases of facial retinization. The observed side effects are consistent with stratum corneum barrier compromise. This paired double-blinded study was conducted to determine if preconditioning the skin with a barrier-enhancing cosmetic facial moisturizer before beginning tretinoin therapy and continuing moisturizer application during therapy would mitigate these side effects. Women with facial photodamage were recruited and randomly assigned to apply one cosmetic moisturizer to one side of the face and the other cosmetic moisturizer to the other side of the face twice daily for 10 weeks. One moisturizer contained a mixture of vitamins (niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate) to enhance stratum corneum barrier function, and the other moisturizer contained similar moisturizing ingredients but no vitamins. Daily full-face treatment with tretinoin cream 0.025% commenced 2 weeks into the study. Subjects' facial skin condition was monitored via investigator assessments, instrumental measurements, and subject self-assessments. The results show that improving stratum corneum barrier function before beginning topical tretinoin therapy and continuing use of a barrier-enhancing cosmetic moisturizer during therapy facilitates the early phase of facial retinization and augments the treatment response. PMID:17121065

  8. Facial coding is disrupted at equiluminance.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Samuel L; Arnold, Derek H

    2013-01-01

    Human face recognition is disrupted by the reversal of luminance contrast polarity (ie photo negatives--see Galper 1970 Psychonomic Science 19 207-208; Johnston et al 1992 Perception 21 365-375), while recognition of other objects is less impacted (Nederhouser et al 2007 Vision Research 47 2134-2142; Subramaniam and Biederman 1997 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 38 998). This suggests that correct patterns of luminance contrast are important for facial coding. Here we investigate this further by minimising luminance contrast. We contrast peoples' ability to categorise cars and faces when images vary in luminance and when images are altered to predominantly contain differences in colour (equiluminance). Eliminating luminance contrast had a greater adverse impact on facial classifications relative to car categorisations. This was true even though precautions were taken to equate visibility, and despite equal levels of performance when images contained luminance contrast. These results were not due to images containing markedly different spectra, as the effect persisted for facial images altered to match car images in this regard, and performance in both tasks dropped off proportionally with increasing levels of image blur. Finally, consistent with previous observations, we show that facial coding is not only adversely impacted at equiluminance but becomes even worse when the polarity of luminance contrast is reversed. Our data show that the correct pattern of luminance contrast is very important for facial coding. We suggest that this is related to the role of luminance contrast in signalling 3-D shape from shading. PMID:24303748

  9. Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fatouros-Bergman, H.; Spang, J.; Merten, J.; Preisler, G.; Werbart, A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature. PMID:22966449

  10. [Reconstruction of upper and lower jaw defects by microsurgical bone grafting].

    PubMed

    Kärcher, H; Eskici, A

    1989-11-01

    Indications for microvascular bone grafts in maxillo-facial surgery are defined. Surgical procedures at the main donor sites for upper and lower jaw reconstructions, vascularized iliac bone grafts and scapular flaps, are described. Applications are demonstrated in various cases. Vascularized growth-plate transplantation for reconstructing hemifacial microsomia introduces new possibilities. Microsurgery is a safe method with a high success-rate (94%) and a low morbidity at the donor site. PMID:2638090

  11. Bone Stress

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-12-07

    In this optics activity, learners examine how polarized light can reveal stress patterns in clear plastic. Learners place a fork between two pieces of polarizing material and induce stress by squeezing the tines together. Learners will observe the colored stress pattern in the image of the plastic that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector. Learners rotate one of the polarizing filters to explore which orientations give the most dramatic color effects. This activity can be related to bones, as bones develop stress patterns from the loads imposed upon them every day.

  12. The face is not an empty canvas: how facial expressions interact with facial appearance

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Ursula; Adams, Reginald B.; Kleck, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Faces are not simply blank canvases upon which facial expressions write their emotional messages. In fact, facial appearance and facial movement are both important social signalling systems in their own right. We here provide multiple lines of evidence for the notion that the social signals derived from facial appearance on the one hand and facial movement on the other interact in a complex manner, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes contradicting one another. Faces provide information on who a person is. Sex, age, ethnicity, personality and other characteristics that can define a person and the social group the person belongs to can all be derived from the face alone. The present article argues that faces interact with the perception of emotion expressions because this information informs a decoder's expectations regarding an expresser's probable emotional reactions. Facial appearance also interacts more directly with the interpretation of facial movement because some of the features that are used to derive personality or sex information are also features that closely resemble certain emotional expressions, thereby enhancing or diluting the perceived strength of particular expressions. PMID:19884144

  13. A muscle model for animation three-dimensional facial expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Waters

    1987-01-01

    The development of a parameterized facial muscle process, that incorporates the use of a model to create realistic facial animation is described.Existing methods of facial parameterization have the inherent problem of hard-wiring performable actions. The development of a muscle process that is controllable by a limited number of parameters and is non-specific to facial topology allows a richer vocabulary and

  14. A 'Personalized' Facial Expression Recognition System using Case Based Reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zubair Shafiq; Assia Khanam

    2006-01-01

    Facial expression recognition has increasing importance in assisting human-computer interaction issues so that the system can customize to user needs and requirements. In this paper we present a `personalized' system for facial expression recognition from facial features. Personalization refers to custom-tailoring of the system for a specific user. The facial expression recognition module uses a case-based reasoning system for personalized

  15. Facial action recognition in face profile image sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Pantic; Ioannik Patras; L. Rothkruntz

    2002-01-01

    A robust way to discern facial gestures in images of faces, insensitive to scale, pose, and occlusion, is still the key research challenge in the automatic facial-expression analysis domain. A practical method recognized as the most promising one for addressing this problem is through a facial-gesture analysis of multiple views of the face. Yet, current systems for automatic facial-gesture analysis

  16. Machine analysis of facial behaviour: naturalistic and dynamic behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in these specific subproblem areas in particular, are discussed and recommendations for accomplishing a better facial expression measurement technology are outlined. PMID:19884145

  17. Building highly realistic facial modeling and animation: a survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos Ersotelos; Feng Dong

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive survey on the techniques for human facial modeling and animation. The survey is carried\\u000a out from two different perspectives: facial modeling, which concerns how to produce 3D face models, and facial animation,\\u000a which regards how to synthesize dynamic facial expressions. To generate an individual face model, we can either perform individualization\\u000a of a generic model

  18. A metastatic glomus jugulare tumor. A temporal bone report

    SciTech Connect

    El Fiky, F.M.; Paparella, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The clinicopathologic findings in the temporal bone of a patient with a highly malignant metastasizing glomus jugulare tumor are reported. The patient exhibited all the symptoms of primary malignant tumors of the ear, including facial paralysis, otorrhea, pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and vertigo. He was treated with cobalt irradiation followed by radium implant in the ear canal for a residual tumor; then a left-sided radical mastoidectomy was performed.

  19. Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

  20. Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Gidley, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Background?Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods?We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results?The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions?This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy. PMID:25083397

  1. Histological rearrangement in the facial nerve and central nuclei following immediate and delayed hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y S; Hsu, C J; Liu, T C; Yanagihara, N; Murakami, S

    2000-06-01

    The timing of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis is controversial. The present study was performed to clarify the influence of the timing of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis on histological changes in the facial nerve and central nuclei using guinea pigs. The facial nerve was transected first at the labyrinthine portion, and then transected again at the stylomastoid foramen. Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis was carried out immediately or 3 months later. Nerve regeneration and survival of the neurons in the facial and hypoglossal nuclei were evaluated by toluidine blue staining and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Immediate anastomosis resulted in better nerve regeneration of the facial nerve, but the numbers of surviving neurons in the facial and hypoglossal nuclei were almost the same in both the immediate and delayed anastomosis groups. PMID:10958411

  2. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  3. Expert system for automatic analysis of facial expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Pantic; Léon J. M. Rothkrantz

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses our expert system called Integrated System for Facial Expression Recognition (ISFER), which performs recognition and emotional classification of human facial expression from a still full-face image. The system consists of two major parts. The first one is the ISFER Workbench, which forms a framework for hybrid facial feature detection. Multiple feature detection techniques are applied in parallel.

  4. Type A Behavior Pattern: Facial Behavior and Speech Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGARET A. CHESNEY; PAUL EKMAN; WALLACE V. FRIESEN; GEORGE W. BLACK; MICHAEL H. L. HECKER

    Early descriptions of the Type A coronary-prone pattern include both nonverbal and motoric signs. Facial behaviors during the Type A Structured Interview of 24 Type A and 24 Type B men were examined using the Facial Action Coding System. In addition, speech components and heart rate reactivity during the Structured Interviews were examined. Among the facial behaviors assessed, two significantly

  5. On Constructing Facial Similarity Maps California Institute of Technology

    E-print Network

    Perona, Pietro

    On Constructing Facial Similarity Maps Alex Holub California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA to facial recognition, judging similarity is a more subtle and difficult topic. Our challenges include: (A holub@caltech.edu Yun-hsueh Liu Pietro Perona Abstract Automatically determining facial similarity

  6. Active and Dynamic Information Fusion for Facial Expression Understanding

    E-print Network

    motion. Our approach to facial expression recognition lies in the proposed dynamic and probabilistic a number of technical challenges in developing facial expression recognition systems. Numerous techniques have been proposed for facial expression recognition within the past several years. However, much

  7. Automatic Analysis of Spontaneous Facial Behavior: A Final Project Report

    E-print Network

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart

    to the warped images, is a viable and promising technology for automatic facial action recognition. One exciting University, were challenged to develop prototype systems for automatic recognition of spontaneous facialAutomatic Analysis of Spontaneous Facial Behavior: A Final Project Report (UCSD MPLab TR 2001

  8. Facial Expression Recognition and Synthesis on Affective Emotions Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Chao; Feng Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    Facial expressions recognition and synthesis are important research fields to study how human beings reflect to environments in affective computing. With the rapid development of mathematical theory on multivariate statistics and multi-media technology especially image processing, facial expressions recognition researchers have achieved many useful results. Recently studies show that approaches to facial modeling and expressions recognition and synthesis analysis could

  9. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Thorat; S. K. Nayak; Jyoti P Dandale

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other

  10. 3D Face Analysis for Facial Expression Recognition Ahmed Maalej

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    3D Face Analysis for Facial Expression Recognition Ahmed Maalej LIFL, Universit´e de Lille 1, Italy. Abstract In this paper, we investigate the person-independent 3D facial expression recognition advances Facial expression analysis and recognition is an ac- tive and challenging research topic

  11. Task oriented facial behavior recognition with selective sensing

    E-print Network

    Task oriented facial behavior recognition with selective sensing Haisong Gu a , Yongmian Zhang, gaze, and furrow happenings. An automated system for facial behavior recognition is always desirable presents an efficient approach to real-world facial behavior recognition. With dynamic Bayesian network

  12. Learning Discriminative LBP-Histogram Bins for Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Kim, Tae-Kyun

    Learning Discriminative LBP-Histogram Bins for Facial Expression Recognition Caifeng Shan) bins for the task of facial expression recognition. Our experiments illustrate that the selected LBPH recognition performance of 93.1% on the Cohn-Kanade database. 1 Introduction Machine analysis of facial

  13. VISUAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING COMPACT FACIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND VISEME INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    VISUAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING COMPACT FACIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND VISEME INFORMATION Angeliki and recognition. We use facial information obtained from multiple markers across the face. This information information is conveyed through the human face. In this study, we analyze detailed motion-captured facial

  14. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION WITH LOCAL BINARY PATTERNS AND LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyi Feng; Abdenour Hadid

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel approach to recognize facial expressions from static images. First, the Local Binary Patterns (LBP) are used to efficiently represent the facial images and then the Linear Programming (LP) technique is adopted to classify the seven facial expressions? anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise and neutral. Experimental results demonstrate an average recognition accuracy of

  15. Facial Expression Recognition as A Creative Interface Roberto Valenti1

    E-print Network

    Sebe, Nicu

    1 Facial Expression Recognition as A Creative Interface Roberto Valenti1 , Alejandro Jaimes2 , Nicu time, producing sounds in combination with images. The facial expression recognition component detects of outputs by combining expression classification with the motion unit values. FACIAL EXPRESION RECOGNITION

  16. Facial emotion recognition using multi-modal information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liyanage C. DE SILVA; T. Miyasato; Ryohei NAKATSU

    1997-01-01

    Facial emotion recognition will become vitally important in future multi-cultural visual communication systems, for emotion translation between cultures, which may be considered analogous to speech translation. However so far the recognition of facial emotions is mainly addressed by computer vision researchers, based on facial display. Also detection of vocal expressions of emotions can be found in research work done by

  17. Fully Automatic Facial Action Recognition in Spontaneous Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Stewart Bartlett; Gwen Littlewort; Mark Frank; Claudia Lainscsek; Ian R. Fasel; Javier R. Movellan

    2006-01-01

    We present results on a user independent fully automatic system for real time recognition of facial actions from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). The system automat- ically detects frontal faces in the video stream and codes each frame with respect to 20 Action units. We present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous expressions during

  18. 4D Facial Expression Recognition by Learning Geometric Deformations

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 4D Facial Expression Recognition by Learning Geometric Deformations Boulbaba Ben Amor?, Member, Senior, IEEE Abstract--In this paper, we present an automatic approach for facial expression recognition on the scalar fields showed comparable results and outperformed earlier studies on facial expression recognition

  19. Virtual Planning of Facial Reconstructions , C. Lamberti1

    E-print Network

    Frey, Pascal

    Virtual Planning of Facial Reconstructions A. Sarti1 , C. Lamberti1 , R. Gori2 , G. Erbacci2 , L: Virtual surgery, facial reconstruction, maxillo-facial surgery, computer simulation, CT, MRI. Summary planning system integrating anatomy-based 3D finite element tissue model to methods for computation of soft

  20. Facial performance synthesis using deformation-driven polynomial displacement maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-chun Ma; Andrew Jones; Jen-yuan Chiang; Tim Hawkins; Sune Frederiksen; Pieter Peers; Marko Vukovic; Ming Ouhyoung; Paul E. Debevec

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel method for acquisition, modeling, compression, and synthesis of realistic facial deformations using polynomial displacement maps. Our method consists of an analysis phase where the relationship between motion capture markers and detailed facial geometry is inferred, and a synthesis phase where novel detailed animated facial geometry is driven solely by a sparse set of motion capture markers.

  1. Discrimination of facial identity and of emotions in Alzheimer's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Roudier; P Marcie; A.-S Grancher; C Tzortzis; S Starkstein; F Boller

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate processing of human faces identity and of emotional expressions in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Background: Mechanisms responsible for discriminating facial identity may be dissociated from those involved in discriminating facial expressions. Patients with prosopagnosia often have preserved capacities for processing emotional facial expressions and occasionally, patients with focal lesions may recognize human faces without being able

  2. Visual emotion recognition using compact facial representations and viseme information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angeliki Metallinou; Carlos Busso; Sungbok Lee; Shrikanth Narayanan

    2010-01-01

    Emotion expression is an essential part of human interaction. Rich emotional information is conveyed through the human face. In this study, we analyze detailed motion-captured facial information of ten speakers of both genders during emotional speech. We derive compact facial representations using methods motivated by Principal Component Analysis and speaker face normalization. Moreover, we model emotional facial movements by conditioning

  3. Facing prejudice: implicit prejudice and the perception of facial threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Hugenberg; Galen V. Bodenhausen

    2003-01-01

    We propose that social attitudes, and in particular implicit prejudice, bias people's perceptions of the facial emotion displayed by others. To test this hypothesis, we employed a facial emotion change- detection task in which European American participants detected the offset (Study 1) or onset (Study 2) of facial anger in both Black and White targets. Higher implicit (but not explicit)

  4. Manifold based analysis of facial expression Ya Chang a,

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    applications in areas such as human­computer interaction and data-driven animation. Facial expressions can expressions such as emotional labels (e.g. `happy'), or facial actions such as the action units defined recognized facial expressions: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise [2]. Existing

  5. Pleasure-arousal-dominance driven facial expression simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hana Boukricha; Ipke Wachsmuth; A. Hofstatter; Karl Grammer

    2009-01-01

    Expressing and recognizing affective states with respect to facial expressions is an important aspect in perceiving virtual humans as more natural and believable. Based on the results of an empirical study a system for simulating emotional facial expressions for a virtual human has been evolved. This system consists of two parts: (1) a control architecture for simulating emotional facial expressions

  6. A Novel Visualization System for Expressive Facial Motion Data Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanasai Sucontphunt; Xiaoru Yuan; Qing Li; Zhigang Deng

    2008-01-01

    Facial emotions and expressive facial motions have become an in- trinsic part of many graphics systems and human computer inter- action applications. The dynamics and high dimensionality of fa- cial motion data make its exploration and processing challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel visualization system for expres- sive facial motion data exploration. Based on Principal Compo- nent Analysis

  7. A review of facial injuries due to dog bites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Abuabara

    Bite injuries to the head and neck region can result in facial disfigurement with distressing physical and psychological consequences. This article reviewed the causes and management of facial bite wounds due to dog bites. A PUBMED search of the National Library of Medicine from 1995 to December 2005 was conducted. Keywords used in the search were 'facial wound', 'bite wound',

  8. Communicative facial displays as a new conversational modality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akikazu Takeuchi; Katashi Nagao

    1993-01-01

    The human face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals encoded as facial displays. Facial displays can be viewed as communicative signals that help coordinate conversation. We are attempting to introduce facial displays into computer-human interaction as a new modality. This will make the interaction tighter and more efficient while lessening the cognitive load. As the

  9. Histologic Comparison of Regenerate Bone Produced from Dentate Versus Edentulous Transport Discs in Bone Transport Distraction Osteogenesis

    E-print Network

    Sevilla Gaitan, Carlos

    2013-12-10

    include congenital, pathologic or iatrogenic conditions such as orofacial clefts, tumor excision and post radiation necrosis(Kalantar-Hormozi and Khorvash 2006; Rashid, Zia-ul-Islam et al. 2006). Maxillofacial defects including bone loss can also... of congenital facial abnormalities such as hemifacial microsomia, treatment for cleft patients, repair of continuity defects of the mandible, alveolar crest augmentation, and mandible reconstruction after tumor resection (Bell and Epker 1976; Bell, Harper et...

  10. Dem Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alease Bruce

    2001-09-01

    In this case, students enter the world of a forensic anthropologist who must determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Students, in turn, simulate some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, exa

  11. Orthognathic correction of dento-facial discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, S J; Johal, A

    2015-02-16

    Orthognathic treatment is a process which involves orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery and is used to treat those dento-facial discrepancies which are outside the scope of conventional orthodontic treatment, for example severe Class II or Class III problems, anterior open bites and facial asymmetries. Patients who present with these severe problems may encounter a wide range of different problems ranging from functional problems (for example, difficulties biting and chewing) to self-consciousness in a wide range of work and social situations. This paper discusses the possible indications for orthognathic treatment and looks at the risks and benefits of treatment. The treatment pathway is also described. PMID:25686434

  12. Profile analysis in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, W F; Maupin, G; Sutton, D

    1985-10-01

    We devised a simple and reliable method of profile analysis for facial plastic surgery. Profile photographs are taken with the natural head position technique. Key cephalometric landmarks are then identified and digitalized from either photographs or slides, using a digitalizer with a resolution of 0.001 in. The digitalizing pad is connected to a microcomputer. The menu-driven software allows selection of multiple functions from different cephalometric systems. Data can be stored on disk for future analysis. The method is useful in preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation of facial plastic surgery procedures. PMID:4038141

  13. Considerations in non-Caucasian facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M; Nolen, David

    2014-08-01

    Aging of the face is inevitable and undeniable. This process includes a loss of skeletal support, soft tissue volume depletion, and a decrease in skin elasticity. The contribution of these 3 factors varies between individuals with noticeable hereditary influence. Characteristic ethnic features have been described in the literature, but as societies have changed, many of these ethnic variations have blended together. Facial cosmetic procedures must to be tailored to address these variations in anatomy, and consideration must be given to enhancing the facial skeleton, adequately lifting the soft tissues, and planning careful incisions to be closed under no tension. PMID:25049130

  14. Penetrating facial injury by a wooden log.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sadanandan; Varghese, George; Kumar, Sanjay; Subramanian, Dinesh Pambungal

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating facial injuries are potentially dangerous and require emergency management because of the presence of vital structures in the face and it may be life threatening especially when the injury involves airway, major blood vessels, spinal cord and cervical spines. Penetrating injuries of facial region can occur due to missile injuries, blast injuries, accidental fall on sharp objects such as sticks or glass and motor vehicle accidents etc., Indications for immediate surgical management of penetrating neck injuries include airway management and hemodynamic instability according to advanced trauma life support protocol. PMID:25937743

  15. Dynamics of Facial Expression: Recognition of Facial Actions and Their Temporal Segments From Face Profile Image Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Pantic; Ioannis Patras

    2006-01-01

    Automatic analysis of human facial expression is a challenging problem with many applications. Most of the existing automated systems for facial expression analysis attempt to recognize a few prototypic emotional expressions, such as anger and happiness. Instead of representing another approach to machine analysis of prototypic facial expressions of emotion, the method presented in this paper attempts to handle a

  16. Investigation of facial recognition memory and happy and sad facial expression perception: an fMRI study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary L. Phillips; Edward T. Bullmore; Robert Howard; Peter W. R. Woodruff; Ian C. Wright; Steven C. R. Williams; Andrew Simmons; Christopher Andrew; Michael Brammer; Anthony S. David

    1998-01-01

    We investigated facial recognition memory (for previously unfamiliar faces) and facial expression perception with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eight healthy, right-handed volunteers participated. For the facial recognition task, subjects made a decision as to the familiarity of each of 50 faces (25 previously viewed; 25 novel). We detected signal increase in the right middle temporal gyrus and left prefrontal

  17. Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

    2008-01-01

    Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

  18. Enhanced sensitivity to drug-induced QT interval lengthening in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tisdale, James E; Overholser, Brian R; Wroblewski, Heather A; Sowinski, Kevin M; Amankwa, Kwadwo; Borzak, Steven; Kingery, Joanna R; Coram, Rita; Zipes, Douglas P; Flockhart, David A; Kovacs, Richard J

    2012-09-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) are at increased risk for drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) due to unknown mechanisms. Our objective was to determine if sensitivity to drug-induced QT interval lengthening is enhanced in patients with HF. In this multicenter, prospective study, 15 patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter requiring conversion to sinus rhythm were enrolled: 6 patients with New York Heart Association class II to III HF (mean ejection fraction [EF], 30% ± 9%), and 9 controls (mean EF, 53% ± 6%). Patients received ibutilide 1 mg intravenously. Blood samples and 12-lead electrocardiograms were obtained prior to and during 48 hours postinfusion. Serum ibutilide concentrations at 50% maximum effect on Fridericia-corrected QT (QT(F)) intervals (EC(50)) were determined, and areas under the effect (QT(F) interval vs time) curves (AUECs) were calculated. Ibutilide concentration-QT(F) relationships were best described by a sigmoidal E(max) model with a hypothetical effect compartment. Median [interquartile range] AUEC from 0 to 4 hours was larger in the HF group than in controls (1.86 [1.86-1.93] vs 1.82 [1.81-1.84] s·h; P = .04). Median EC(50) was lower in the HF group (0.48 [0.46-0.49] vs 1.85 [1.10-3.23] ?g/L; P = .008). Sensitivity to drug-induced QT interval lengthening is enhanced in patients with systolic HF, which may contribute to the increased risk of drug-induced TdP. PMID:22045830

  19. A historical, clinical, and ethical overview of the emerging science of facial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Linda A

    2011-01-01

    In the past 5 years, a total of 16 facial transplantation surgeries have been performed in France, China, Spain, and the United States. Facial transplantation has become a surgical option in clinical situations in which soft tissue and bone loss is accompanied by severe cosmetic, sensory, and functional deficiencies due to disease, trauma, or congenital malformations. With the introduction of facial tissue transplantation surgery came complex clinical, technological, and ethical patient care issues. These complex issues included determining patient selection criteria, refining donor tissue procurement techniques, predicting expected functional outcomes, appreciating the limitations of obtaining a fully informed consent for an innovative procedure, and deliberating the immunological response and postoperative immunosuppressant requirements of the recipient. In addition, psychological implications for the patient, societal consequences, and ethical concerns have been discussed. The short-term results have been positive. Results to date indicate that the clinical, technical, and immunological patient care issues in this emerging science appear to mirror those of other reconstructive and organ transplantation procedures. The long-term physical, emotional, and psychological effects on the recipient patient, as well as long-term consequences to the donor's family, are yet to be validated. PMID:22157604

  20. Distraction osteogenesis: a method to improve facial balance in asymmetric patients.

    PubMed

    Robiony, Massimo

    2010-03-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a well-established surgical procedure to elongate the maxillofacial skeleton. The authors propose a new method to balance facial asymmetry by means of distraction of the inferior borders of the mandible, without change of the occlusion, using an alveolar device. Nine patients with asymmetry were treated. Records included panoramic radiographs and computed tomographic scans. Preoperatively, stereolithographic models and virtual-reality surgery were performed to have a precise surgical planning. The surgical procedure was based on segmental inferior osteotomy and simultaneous positioning of the alveolar device upside-down. Postoperative clinical evaluation demonstrated that a very impressive elongation of the inferior bony border with simultaneous expansion of the soft tissues had been achieved, resulting in a satisfying facial balance. The postdistraction radiographs showed the ossification of the gap, and the new bone formation was observed and confirmed by biopsy. Distraction osteogenesis of the inferior border of the mandible and the chin represents a new method to correct facial asymmetry and is a valid alternative to the traditional techniques. In addition, surgical virtual reality and stereolithographic models are, without a doubt, an advantage in defining the vector of distraction and in simulating the final result. PMID:20216446

  1. Regeneration of facial nerve after hypoglossal facial anastomosis: an animal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y S; Yanagihara, N; Murakami, S

    1994-12-01

    Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis was carried out in 20 adult guinea pigs. Electromyographic responses of orbicularis oculi muscle evoked by blink reflex were recorded 2, 4, and 6 months after surgery. Then the anastomotic site was reopened, and a segment of buccal branch and the anastomotic trunk were resected for detailed histologic study. Regenerated axons were counted and the cross-sectional area of axons and fasciculi was measured. Data obtained from both blink reflex measurement and histologic study demonstrate a good quality of regeneration of the facial nerve from the hypoglossal nerve completed 6 months after the operation. In addition a new nerve bundle was regenerated from the proximal stump of the facial nerve connecting to the anastomotic site in 80% of the animals. Postoperative change in innervation pattern of the facial nerve was also illustrated. PMID:7991248

  2. Lack of Telomerase Gene Expression in Alternative Lengthening of Telomere Cells Is Associated with Chromatin Remodeling of the hTR and hTERT Gene Promoters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart P. Atkinson; Stacey F. Hoare; Rosalind M. Glasspool; W. Nicol Keith

    2005-01-01

    The presence of active telomere maintenance mechanisms in immortal cells allows the bypass of senescence by maintaining telomere length. In most immortal cell lines and tumors, telomere maintenance is attributable to telomerase reactiva- tion. However, a number of immortal cell lines and tumors can achieve telomere maintenance in the absence of detect- able telomerase activity by the alternative lengthening of

  3. FACSGen: A Tool to Synthesize Emotional Facial Expressions Through Systematic Manipulation of Facial Action Units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etienne B. Roesch; Lucas Tamarit; Lionel Reveret; Didier Grandjean; David Sander; Klaus R. Scherer

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the perception of emotional facial expressions, researchers rely on shared sets of photos or videos, most often\\u000a generated by actor portrayals. The drawback of such standardized material is a lack of flexibility and controllability, as\\u000a it does not allow the systematic parametric manipulation of specific features of facial expressions on the one hand, and of\\u000a more general properties

  4. Suitable models for face geometry normalization in facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Hamid; Raie, Abolghasem A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, facial expression recognition has attracted much attention in machine vision research because of its various applications. Accordingly, many facial expression recognition systems have been proposed. However, the majority of existing systems suffer from a critical problem: geometric variability. It directly affects the performance of geometric feature-based facial expression recognition approaches. Furthermore, it is a crucial challenge in appearance feature-based techniques. This variability appears in both neutral faces and facial expressions. Appropriate face geometry normalization can improve the accuracy of each facial expression recognition system. Therefore, this paper proposes different geometric models or shapes for normalization. Face geometry normalization removes geometric variability of facial images and consequently, appearance feature extraction methods can be accurately utilized to represent facial images. Thus, some expression-based geometric models are proposed for facial image normalization. Next, local binary patterns and local phase quantization are used for appearance feature extraction. A combination of an effective geometric normalization with accurate appearance representations results in more than a 4% accuracy improvement compared to several state-of-the-arts in facial expression recognition. Moreover, utilizing the model of facial expressions which have larger mouth and eye region sizes gives higher accuracy due to the importance of these regions in facial expression.

  5. RECOGNIZING EMOTIONS IN SPONTANEOUS FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Grimm; Dhrubabrata Ghosh Dastidar; Kristian Kroschel

    In this paper we present a method for classifying emotions in spon- taneous facial expressions of both active and inactive speakers in spoken dialogues. Evaluation and classification was performed for emotion categories (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, neutral) and emotion space classes (3 classes for valence and activation, respectively). In addition, continuous values of the emotion space attributes were

  6. Spatiotemporal Features for Effective Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    -computer interfaces will be empowered with the capability to recognize and to respond to nonverbal communication clues of nonverbal information. Indeed, not only it is the source of identity information but it also provides clues to understand social feelings and can be instrumental in revealing mental states via social signals. Facial

  7. Development of Security System using Facial Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. T. Arulogun; E. O. Omidiora; O. M. Olaniyi; A. A. Ipadeola

    Security is generally a state or feeling of being saved and protected, an assurance that something of value will not be taken. This paper employs two of the emerging artificial intelligence technologies: Facial Recognition and Artificial Neural Networks for developing a secure keyless door where authentication of authorized faces are the only guarantee for entry. This mechanically built door, with

  8. Gallery image effects on facial recognition systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. McLindin; M. A. Butavicius; K. Meaney

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we quantify the effects of using different types and resolutions of gallery images on two different 2D facial recognition systems. Similar tests have been conducted in this area and adequately reported in the literature, however the galleries used for laboratory testing are usually standardised data sets, the results of which can be misleading if extrapolating into the

  9. Facial feature extraction based on GSLDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Meng; Yong Cai; Yuanxing Li; Min Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a general and efficient facial feature extraction approach, global search linear discriminant analysis (GSLDA), is presented. It is designed to solve the puzzle of standard linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for small sample size problems (SSSP). Compared with PCA-LDA, in GSLDA, raw data dimension can be greatly decreased without discarding important discriminant information. In this process, all basis

  10. Classification of facial features for recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Shackleton; W. J. Welsh

    1991-01-01

    A facial feature classification technique that independently captures both the geometric configuration and the image detail of a particular feature is described. The geometric configuration is first extracted by fitting a deformable template to the shape of the feature (for example, an eye) in the image. This information is then used to geometrically normalize the image in such a way

  11. Anthropometric definitions of dysmorphic facial signs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stengel-Rutkowski; P. Schimanek; A. Wernheimer

    1984-01-01

    A photoanthropometric method is presented, which enables an objective definition of facial structures. It may support the clinical description of patients with dysmorphic syndromes. Eighteen parameters were studied. The measuring points were elected on the base of anthropological criteria. The measurements were related to reference values in the same face. The obtained indices were compared to an age related control

  12. Postoperative Care of the Facial Laceration

    PubMed Central

    Medel, Nicholas; Panchal, Neeraj; Ellis, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine factors involved in the postoperative care of traumatic lacerations. An evidence-based comprehensive literature review was conducted. There are a limited number of scientifically proven studies that guide surgeons and emergency room physicians on postoperative care. Randomized controlled trials must be conducted to further standardize the postoperative protocol for simple facial lacerations. PMID:22132257

  13. Annotation: Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, K. C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), the most frequent known interstitial deletion identified in man, is associated with chromosomal microdeletions in the q11 band of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS are reported to have a characteristic behavioural phenotype with high rates of behavioural, psychiatric, neuropsychological and…

  14. Autologous fat grafting in facial volumetric restoration.

    PubMed

    Pasquale, Piombino; Gaetano, Marenzi; Giovanni, Dell'Aversana Orabona; Luigi, Califano; Gilberto, Sammartino

    2015-05-01

    The authors reported their surgical experience about structural fat grafting in the management of facial volumetric deficit. The purpose of this study was to assess the real indications, cosmetic results, complications, and global patient satisfaction of the Coleman technique in redefining facial contours in congenital and postoperative deformities. A retrospective analysis of 32 patients grafted according to Coleman's technique was performed, and the long-term outcomes and patient satisfaction were evaluated. The mean postoperative clinical follow-up was 14 months. The morphological changes were analyzed by comparing the photographic presurgical facial contour and the postoperative correction of soft tissue defects. All consecutive cases reported showed a progressive fat resorption for 3 months after surgery and its stable integration only after this period. Best results were performed in the treatment of genetically determined syndromes, such as the Franceschetti and Romberg syndromes. The authors suggest this surgical technique also for the treatment of unaesthetic cutaneous abscess cavity after incision and drainage. Unsatisfactory outcomes were obtained in the treatment of the posttraumatic facial scar, which needed more surgical procedures. PMID:25974786

  15. Measurement of Facial Movement With Computer Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric W. Sargent; Omar A. Fadhli; Randall S. Cohen

    1998-01-01

    Results: The movement of the oral commissure com- pared with the apparent area of movement of the face de- termined by digital subtraction had high intersubject vari- ability. In patients with facial weakness, the Nottingham score had a correlation coefficient of ?0.97 compared with the House and Brackmann grade, and the digital sub- traction score had a correlation coefficient of

  16. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

    2001-01-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such pro- totypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze

  17. Generating Facial Expressions with Deep Belief Nets

    E-print Network

    Hinton, Geoffrey E.

    , knowledge can be provided in the form of human higher-level descriptions. However, for generating facial be generated on the fly. A simple solution is to rely on a set of prototypical expressions or basis shapes). An innovative algorithm for fitting basis shapes to images was proposed by Blanz and Vetter (1999) . The main

  18. O to Z flaps in facial reconstructions*

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Sara Alcántara; Cejudo, Manuel Perea; Mendonça, Francisco Manuel Ildefonso; Martínez, Francisco M. Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Local flaps are the standard procedure to reconstruct facial defects. As it occurs in any surgical procedure, the incision should be planned so that scars are located in the minimum skin tension lines. We report two cases of O to Z flaps in the supra and infraciliary regions. One of them is a hatchet flap. PMID:25831001

  19. Neurological complications of progressive facial hemiatrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheldon Mark Wolf; M. Anthony Verity

    1974-01-01

    Progressive left facial hemiatrophy began in a boy at the age of 5 years. Over the next 20 years, he developed wasting of the left shoulder and arm muscles, ptosis of the eyelids, ophthalmoplegia, convergence nystagmus, pupillary dilatation, hemiparesis, seizures, and dysarthria. A pneumoencephalogram showed cerebellar hemiatrophy. Biopsy of the cerebellum revealed loss of and degenerative changes in Purkinje cells.

  20. Practical and Realistic Facial Wrinkles Animation

    E-print Network

    Gutierrez, Diego

    to independently blend multiple wrinkle maps across regions of a character's face. We demonstrate how combining ouri i i i i i i i Practical and Realistic Facial Wrinkles Animation Jorge Jimenez, Jose I. Echevarria or feeling. For example, a wrinkled brow can indicate sur- prise, while a furrowed brow may indicate

  1. Acquired facial lipoatrophy: pathogenesis and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska, Barbara; Lema?ska, Ma?gorzata; Purzycka-Bohdan, Dorota; Nowicki, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Facial lipoatrophy refers to the loss of subcutaneous fat tissue presenting by flattening or indentation of convex contour of the face. Facial lipoatrophy is a feature of the normal ageing process. It may be also a manifestation of chronic diseases, most frequently it affects HIV-infected individuals treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and may constitute a complication of connective tissue diseases, like lupus erythematosus profundus or morphea. Early recognition and treatment of the active stage of connective tissue diseases is of essential significance in prevention of subsequent scarring and atrophy lesions. In HIV-positive patients undergoing HAART therapy, the attempt to modify thetreatment scheme so it has a less lipemic effect seems to be justified. Esthetic correction of facial lipoatrophy in chronic diseases is a great challenge. Improvement of appearance is very important for affected individuals, because it diminishes their stigmatization and psychosocial dysfunction. Facial volumetric correction includes surgical and dermatological procedures such as adipose transfer and injectable dermal fillers. PMID:26015783

  2. Acquired facial lipoatrophy: pathogenesis and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Aneta; Olszewska, Barbara; Lema?ska, Ma?gorzata; Purzycka-Bohdan, Dorota; Nowicki, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Facial lipoatrophy refers to the loss of subcutaneous fat tissue presenting by flattening or indentation of convex contour of the face. Facial lipoatrophy is a feature of the normal ageing process. It may be also a manifestation of chronic diseases, most frequently it affects HIV-infected individuals treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and may constitute a complication of connective tissue diseases, like lupus erythematosus profundus or morphea. Early recognition and treatment of the active stage of connective tissue diseases is of essential significance in prevention of subsequent scarring and atrophy lesions. In HIV-positive patients undergoing HAART therapy, the attempt to modify thetreatment scheme so it has a less lipemic effect seems to be justified. Esthetic correction of facial lipoatrophy in chronic diseases is a great challenge. Improvement of appearance is very important for affected individuals, because it diminishes their stigmatization and psychosocial dysfunction. Facial volumetric correction includes surgical and dermatological procedures such as adipose transfer and injectable dermal fillers. PMID:26015783

  3. Unwanted Facial Hair: Affects, Effects and Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Blume-Peytavi; U. Gieler; R. Hoffmann; S. Lavery; J. Shapiro

    2007-01-01

    The following is a review of a satellite symposium held at the EHRS Meeting in June 2006. U.B.P. reminded the audience that unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important issue; over 40% of the women in the general population have some degree of UFH, and its psychological and psychosocial impact should not be underestimated. The treatment of UFH involves many

  4. An Interactive Facial Animation System Ugur Gudukbay

    E-print Network

    Güdükbay, Ugur

    animation system developed by Keith Waters, which uses a muscle-based face model. We built an interactive facial animation system on top of it to produce keyframe animations of a synthetic face model. The user to the face by moving the muscle vectors de ned on the face model. The user might also change the orientation

  5. Changes in expression of prosaposin in the rat facial nerve nucleus after facial nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Unuma, Kana; Chen, Jie; Saito, Shouichiro; Kobayashi, Naoto; Sato, Kohji; Saito, Kyoko; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Mominoki, Katsumi; Sano, Akira; Matsuda, Seiji

    2005-07-01

    Prosaposin is the precursor of saposins A, B, C and D, which are activators of sphingolipid hydrolases. In addition, unprocessed prosaposin functions as a neurotrophic factor in the central and peripheral nervous systems by acting to prevent neuronal apoptosis, to elongate neurites and to facilitate myelination. In this study, the expression pattern of prosaposin in the facial nerve nucleus after facial nerve transection was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Prosaposin immunoreactivity in the neurons on the operated side facial nerve nucleus showed a biphasic pattern: it was significantly increased on day 3 after transection, decreased dramatically on day 7, started to increase gradually on day 14 and reached another peak on day 21 after transection. Significant increases in the levels of prosaposin mRNA were identified in the neurons on the operated side, suggesting that prosaposin was synthesized vigorously by the neurons themselves in the case of facial nerve transection. The diverse changes in prosaposin immunoreactivity during the process of facial nerve regeneration may reflect the diverse neurotrophic activities of prosaposin in facial motoneurons. PMID:15927723

  6. Model-based coding of facial images based on facial muscle motion through isodensity maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Ikken; Nakamura, Osamu; Minami, Toshi

    1991-11-01

    A model-based coding system has come under serious consideration for the next generation of image coding schemes, aimed at greater efficiency in TV telephone and TV conference systems. In this model-based coding system, the sender's model image is transmitted and stored at the receiving side before the start of the conversation. During the conversation, feature points are extracted from the facial image of the sender and are transmitted to the receiver. The facial expression of the sender facial is reconstructed from the feature points received and a wireframed model constructed at the receiving side. However, the conventional methods have the following problems: (1) Extreme changes of the gray level, such as in wrinkles caused by change of expression, cannot be reconstructed at the receiving side. (2) Extraction of stable feature points from facial images with irregular features such as spectacles or facial hair is very difficult. To cope with the first problem, a new algorithm based on isodensity lines which can represent detailed changes in expression by density correction has already been proposed and good results obtained. As for the second problem, we propose in this paper a new algorithm to reconstruct facial images by transmitting other feature points extracted from isodensity maps.

  7. Perception of global facial geometry is modulated through experience.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Meike

    2015-01-01

    Identification of personally familiar faces is highly efficient across various viewing conditions. While the presence of robust facial representations stored in memory is considered to aid this process, the mechanisms underlying invariant identification remain unclear. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that facial representations stored in memory are associated with differential perceptual processing of the overall facial geometry. Subjects who were personally familiar or unfamiliar with the identities presented discriminated between stimuli whose overall facial geometry had been manipulated to maintain or alter the original facial configuration (see Barton, Zhao & Keenan, 2003). The results demonstrate that familiarity gives rise to more efficient processing of global facial geometry, and are interpreted in terms of increased holistic processing of facial information that is maintained across viewing distances. PMID:25825678

  8. Understanding chimpanzee facial expression: insights into the evolution of communication

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Bridget M.

    2006-01-01

    To understand the evolution of emotional communication, comparative research on facial expression similarities between humans and related species is essential. Chimpanzees display a complex, flexible facial expression repertoire with many physical and functional similarities to humans. This paper reviews what is known about these facial expression repertoires, discusses the importance of social organization in understanding the meaning of different expressions, and introduces a new coding system, the ChimpFACS, and describes how it can be used to determine homologies between human and chimpanzee facial expressions. Finally, it reviews previous studies on the categorization of facial expressions by chimpanzees using computerized tasks, and discusses the importance of configural processing for this skill in both humans and chimpanzees. Future directions for understanding the evolution of emotional communication will include studies on the social function of facial expressions in ongoing social interactions, the development of facial expression communication and more studies that examine the perception of these important social signals. PMID:18985109

  9. Marker optimization for facial motion acquisition and deformation.

    PubMed

    Le, Binh H; Zhu, Mingyang; Deng, Zhigang

    2013-11-01

    A long-standing problem in marker-based facial motion capture is what are the optimal facial mocap marker layouts. Despite its wide range of potential applications, this problem has not yet been systematically explored to date. This paper describes an approach to compute optimized marker layouts for facial motion acquisition as optimization of characteristic control points from a set of high-resolution, ground-truth facial mesh sequences. Specifically, the thin-shell linear deformation model is imposed onto the example pose reconstruction process via optional hard constraints such as symmetry and multiresolution constraints. Through our experiments and comparisons, we validate the effectiveness, robustness, and accuracy of our approach. Besides guiding minimal yet effective placement of facial mocap markers, we also describe and demonstrate its two selected applications: marker-based facial mesh skinning and multiresolution facial performance capture. PMID:24029906

  10. Facial height in Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Fabiano Paiva; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Janson, Guilherme; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Sathler, Renata Carvalho; Henriques, Rafael Pinelli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the standards of facial height in 30 young (14-year-old) Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion, and assess whether sexual dimorphism is evident. METHODS: The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses by Wylie-Johnson, Siriwat-Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield and Horn. RESULTS: Results showed dimorphism for total anterior facial height (TAFH), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), anterior facial height (AFH), total posterior facial height (TPFH) and upper posterior facial height (UPFH) measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The standards of facial heights in young Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion were observed. Sexual dimorphism was identified in five out of thirteen evaluated variables at this age range. PMID:25715717

  11. Bone banking and sterilization of bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisawa, I.; Itoman, M.; Maehara, H.; Kobayashi, A.; Watanabe, T.

    1995-08-01

    The use of banked bone (preserved allograft bone) is various and essential, because it has numerous advantages including the relative ease in retrieval a large amount of bone material and requisite shape and size. But bone banking and allografting must be promoted under obligation to stably supply safe and high-quality bone. To avoid transferring disease perfectly, irradiation sterilization is especially recommended at the present time.

  12. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    Virtual reality is rapidly evolving into a pragmatically usable technology for mental health (MH) applications. As the underlying enabling technologies continue to evolve and allow us to design more useful and usable structural virtual environments (VEs), the next important challenge will involve populating these environments with virtual representations of humans (avatars). This will be vital to create mental health VEs that leverage the use of avatars for applications that require human-human interaction and communication. As Alessi et al.1 pointed out at the 8th Annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference (MMVR8), virtual humans have mainly appeared in MH applications to "serve the role of props, rather than humans." More believable avatars inhabiting VEs would open up possibilities for MH applications that address social interaction, communication, instruction, assessment, and rehabilitation issues. They could also serve to enhance realism that might in turn promote the experience of presence in VR. Additionally, it will soon be possible to use computer-generated avatars that serve to provide believable dynamic facial and bodily representations of individuals communicating from a distance in real time. This could support the delivery, in shared virtual environments, of more natural human interaction styles, similar to what is used in real life between people. These techniques could enhance communication and interaction by leveraging our natural sensing and perceiving capabilities and offer the potential to model human-computer-human interaction after human-human interaction. To enhance the authenticity of virtual human representations, advances in the rendering of facial and gestural behaviors that support implicit communication will be needed. In this regard, the current paper presents data from a study that compared human raters' judgments of emotional expression between actual video clips of facial expressions and identical expressions rendered on a three-dimensional avatar using a performance-driven facial animation (PDFA) system developed at the University of Southern California Integrated Media Systems Center. PDFA offers a means for creating high-fidelity visual representations of human faces and bodies. This effort explores the feasibility of sensing and reproducing a range of facial expressions with a PDFA system. In order to test concordance of human ratings of emotional expression between video and avatar facial delivery, we first had facial model subjects observe stimuli that were designed to elicit naturalistic facial expressions. The emotional stimulus induction involved presenting text-based, still image, and video clips to subjects that were previously rated to induce facial expressions for the six universals2 of facial expression (happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise), in addition to attentiveness, puzzlement and frustration. Videotapes of these induced facial expressions that best represented prototypic examples of the above emotional states and three-dimensional avatar animations of the same facial expressions were randomly presented to 38 human raters. The raters used open-end, forced choice and seven-point Likert-type scales to rate expression in terms of identification. The forced choice and seven-point ratings provided the most usable data to determine video/animation concordance and these data are presented. To support a clear understanding of this data, a website has been set up that will allow readers to view the video and facial animation clips to illustrate the assets and limitations of these types of facial expression-rendering methods (www. USCAvatars.com/MMVR). This methodological first step in our research program has served to provide valuable human user-centered feedback to support the iterative design and development of facial avatar characteristics for expression of emotional communication. PMID:11708727

  13. Soccer-related Facial Trauma: Multicenter Experience in 2 Brazilian University Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Gal M.; Pereira, Max D.; Gurgel, Augusto; Bastos, Endrigo O.; Nagarkar, Purushottam; Gemperli, Rolf; Ferreira, Lydia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Soccer is the most popular sport in Brazil and a high incidence of related trauma is reported. Maxillofacial trauma can be quite common, sometimes requiring prolonged hospitalization and invasive procedures. To characterize soccer-related facial fractures needing surgery in 2 major Brazilian Centers. Methods: A retrospective review of trauma medical records from the Plastic Surgery Divisions at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo–Escola Paulista de Medicina and the Hospital das Clinicas–Universidade de São Paulo was carried out to identify patients who underwent invasive surgical procedures due to acute soccer-related facial fractures. Data points reviewed included gender, date of injury, type of fracture, date of surgery, and procedure performed. Results: A total of 45 patients (31 from Escola Paulista de Medicina and 14 from Universidade de São Paulo) underwent surgical procedures to address facial fractures between March 2000 and September 2013. Forty-four patients were men, and mean age was 28 years. The fracture patterns seen were nasal bones (16 patients, 35%), orbitozygomatic (16 patients, 35%), mandibular (7 patients, 16%), orbital (6 patients, 13%), frontal (1 patient, 2%), and naso-orbito-ethmoid (1 patient, 2%). Mechanisms of injury included collisions with another player (n = 39) and being struck by the ball (n = 6). Conclusions: Although it is less common than orthopedic injuries, soccer players do sustain maxillofacial trauma. Knowledge of its frequency is important to first responders, nurses, and physicians who have initial contact with patients. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems in the physiological actions of breathing, vision, and chewing. PMID:25289361

  14. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio) in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans). We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans), and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face length in carnivorans, this relationship is not conserved across mammals in general. PMID:22741925

  15. Investigation of facial recognition memory and happy and sad facial expression perception: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M L; Bullmore, E T; Howard, R; Woodruff, P W; Wright, I C; Williams, S C; Simmons, A; Andrew, C; Brammer, M; David, A S

    1998-09-28

    We investigated facial recognition memory (for previously unfamiliar faces) and facial expression perception with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eight healthy, right-handed volunteers participated. For the facial recognition task, subjects made a decision as to the familiarity of each of 50 faces (25 previously viewed; 25 novel). We detected signal increase in the right middle temporal gyrus and left prefrontal cortex during presentation of familiar faces, and in several brain regions, including bilateral posterior cingulate gyri, bilateral insulae and right middle occipital cortex during presentation of unfamiliar faces. Standard facial expressions of emotion were used as stimuli in two further tasks of facial expression perception. In the first task, subjects were presented with alternating happy and neutral faces; in the second task, subjects were presented with alternating sad and neutral faces. During presentation of happy facial expressions, we detected a signal increase predominantly in the left anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral posterior cingulate gyri, medial frontal cortex and right supramarginal gyrus, brain regions previously implicated in visuospatial and emotion processing tasks. No brain regions showed increased signal intensity during presentation of sad facial expressions. These results provide evidence for a distinction between the neural correlates of facial recognition memory and perception of facial expression but, whilst highlighting the role of limbic structures in perception of happy facial expressions, do not allow the mapping of a distinct neural substrate for perception of sad facial expressions. PMID:9849722

  16. Facial emphysema after sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants.Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  17. Facial emphysema after sinus lift

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants. Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  18. Automatic recognition of facial movement for paralyzed face.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Dong, Junyu; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Shengke

    2014-01-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a common disease due to nerve damage. Most approaches for evaluating the degree of facial paralysis rely on a set of different facial movements as commanded by doctors. Therefore, automatic recognition of the patterns of facial movement is fundamental to the evaluation of the degree of facial paralysis. In this paper, a novel method named Active Shape Models plus Local Binary Patterns (ASMLBP) is presented for recognizing facial movement patterns. Firstly, the Active Shape Models (ASMs) are used in the method to locate facial key points. According to these points, the face is divided into eight local regions. Then the descriptors of these regions are extracted by using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to recognize the patterns of facial movement. The proposed ASMLBP method is tested on both the collected facial paralysis database with 57 patients and another publicly available database named the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for both paralyzed and normal faces. PMID:25226980

  19. Imitation as a Communication Tool for Online Facial Expression Learning and Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Imitation as a Communication Tool for Online Facial Expression Learning and Recognition S. Boucenna for the recognition of the facial expression then the parents must imitate the baby facial expression to allow the on to recognize facial expressions without having a teaching signal allowing to associate a facial expression

  20. Facial Expression Recognition Using Model-Based Feature Extraction and Action Parameters Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Lin Huang; Yu-Ming Huang

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces an automatic facial expression recognition system which consists of two parts: facial feature extraction and facial expression recognition. The system applies the point distribution model and the gray-level model to find the facial features. Then the position variations of certain designated points on the facial feature are described by 10 action parameters (APs). There are two phases

  1. Lengthened superstimulatory treatment in cattle: Evidence for rescue of follicles within a wave rather than continuous recruitment of new follicles.

    PubMed

    García Guerra, A; Tribulo, A; Yapura, J; Adams, G P; Singh, J; Mapletoft, R J

    2015-08-01

    A study was designed to compare the effects of a conventional (4 days) versus a lengthened (7 days) superstimulation protocol on follicle dynamics and to test the hypothesis that superstimulatory treatment only rescues small follicles within the wave. Nonlactating beef cows received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device [PRID] and were superstimulated with 400-mg FSH on the day of follicle ablation-induced wave emergence (Day 0). The control group (n = 5) received FSH over 4 days, whereas the long group (n = 5) received FSH over 7 days. PGF was administered twice on Day 2 (control group) or 5 (long group), and PRIDs were removed 24 hours after the first PGF. Cows received 25-mg LH 24 hours after PRID removal. The cows chosen for the present study represented a subset from a larger group of 24 cows in which superovulation results were obtained and published. Cows in the present study were those with the lowest antral follicle counts at the time of wave emergence in order to facilitate tracking of individual follicles. Daily ultrasonographic examinations monitored follicle diameters and numbers. A reduction (P < 0.01) in the number of 1- to 2-mm follicles from Day 0 to the end of the superstimulatory treatment was associated with a progressive shift to the next size category in both groups. On the day of LH treatment, the number of follicles in any size category did not differ between groups. The number of follicles of diameter 5 mm or less decreased during superstimulation (i.e., no continuous recruitment of small follicles; P < 0.001), and the number of follicles of diameter 1 mm or greater at the end of superstimulation did not differ from that at the beginning of superstimulation (P = 0.739). However, the total number of follicles of diameter 3 mm or greater at the end was greater than the number of follicles of diameter 3 mm or greater at the beginning of superstimulation because of growth of the 1- to 2-mm population during treatment (P < 0.001). Follicle growth was slower in the long group than in the control group. Results support the hypothesis that both 4-day and 7-day superstimulatory protocols rescue small antral follicles present at the time of wave emergence; there was no evidence for continuous recruitment of new follicles. Results also provide rationale for the hypothesis that a lengthened treatment protocol is associated with greater follicle maturation and capacity to ovulate. PMID:25979656

  2. Food and Your Bones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here Home » Food and Your Bones Food and Your Bones The food that you eat ... taking multivitamins or supplements . Good-for-Your-Bones Foods Food Nutrient Dairy products such as low-fat ...

  3. Osteoporosis: The Bone Thief

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this makes your bones weaker. Who Has Osteoporosis? Ten million Americans have osteoporosis. They are mostly ... a bone. What Can I Do For My Osteoporosis? Treating osteoporosis means stopping the bone loss and ...

  4. Bone Densitometry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains bone densitometry and its importance in treating and preventing osteoporosis. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  5. Dinosaur Bone Experiments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2005-01-01

    This activity features two connected hands-on activities about dinosaur bones. Using chicken or turkey bones and regular household items, learners explore the scientific process of studying fossilized bones. By exposing the bones to vinegar or heat, learners begin to understand how paleontologists use chemical processes to study the bones of animals long dead and gone. Use this bone-themed activity around the Thanksgiving holiday and repurpose some leftovers.

  6. Contemporary review of injectable facial fillers.

    PubMed

    Kontis, Theda C

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps the most significant change in facial rejuvenation in the last 10 years has been the introduction of nonsurgical treatments for the relaxation of facial wrinkles and for the restoration of lost volume. Fillers such as paraffin and silicone have been used in the past for volume restoration, but only recently have new fillers been developed whose safety and efficacy have been supported by clinical research. The introduction of hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers in 2003 began the filler revolution and paved the way for development of biostimulatory and permanent materials. There is an abundance of high-level evidence-based studies comparing the HA fillers, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly(methyl methacrylate) with collagen and other HA formulations, but there is only limited high-level data evaluating poly-L-lactic acid. PMID:23183718

  7. Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

    2014-06-01

    In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

  8. Transtympanic Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Nathan; O’Donohue, Peter; French, Heath; Griffin, Aaron; Gochee, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Facial nerve paralysis because of penetrating trauma through the external auditory canal is extremely rare, with a paucity of published literature. The objective of this study is to review the literature on transtympanic facial nerve paralysis and increase physician awareness of this uncommon injury through discussion of its clinical presentation, management and prognosis. We also aim to improve patient outcomes in those that have sustained this type of injury by suggesting an optimal management plan. In this case report, we present the case of a 46-year-old white woman who sustained a unilateral facial nerve paresis because of a garfish penetrating her tympanic membrane and causing direct damage to the tympanic portion of her facial nerve. On follow-up after 12 months, her facial nerve function has largely returned to normal. Transtympanic facial nerve paralysis is a rare injury but can have a favorable prognosis if managed effectively.

  9. Facial symmetry detection ability changes across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Oinonen, Kirsten A; Mazmanian, Dwight

    2007-05-01

    The effects of menstrual cycle phase and hormones on women's visual ability to detect symmetry and visual preference for symmetry were examined. Participants completed tests of symmetry detection and preference for male facial symmetry at two of three menstrual cycle phases (menses, periovulatory, and luteal). Women were better at detecting facial symmetry during the menses than luteal phase of their cycle. A trend indicated the opposite pattern for dot symmetry detection. Similarly, change in salivary progesterone levels across the cycle was negatively related to change in facial symmetry detection scores. However, there was no clear evidence of a greater preference for facial symmetry at any cycle phase, despite an overall preference for facial symmetry across phases. These findings suggest a menses phase advantage and a low progesterone advantage in women's ability to detect facial symmetry. The results are discussed in the context of hormonal, evolutionary mate selection, and functional neurocognitive theories. PMID:17316956

  10. Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is discussed. PMID:19503770

  11. Facial recognition deficits and cognition in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Sachs; Dorothea Steger-Wuchse; Ilse Kryspin-Exner; Ruben C. Gur; Heinz Katschnig

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations have found impaired recognition of facial affect and cognition in schizophrenia. We compared patients with schizophrenia and healthy control volunteers on computerized tasks of emotion recognition, to determine whether emotion processing deficits were correlated with neurocognitive performance. A Computerized Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNP) was administered to 40 patients (25 male, 15 female, mean age±S.D. 30.4±8.1) with schizophrenia (DSM-IV,

  12. Progressive facial hemiatrophy after epileptic seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamami Yano; Yukio Sawaishi; Miyuki Toyono; Iwao Takaku; Goro Takada

    2000-01-01

    Intractable complex partial seizures developed in a 3-year-old female with normal intracranial findings on computed tomography. Frontal paramedian band-like depression of the skin gradually developed thereafter, and progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry–Romberg syndrome) was diagnosed. Computed tomography scanning at 5 years of age revealed multiple parenchymal calcifications and low-density areas in the white matter of the frontoparietal lobes. Epileptic seizures, one

  13. Granuloma faciale successfully treated with topical tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Clare; Coutts, Ian

    2009-08-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a benign chronic condition characterized by recurrent plaques and nodules most commonly found on the face. We report a man with a 6-month history of plaques on his forehead and preauricular area consistent with GF that responded to twice-daily application of topical tacrolimus ointment, and who remains in remission 1 year later. This case supports previous reports of the successful use of topical tacrolimus in treating GF. PMID:19659988

  14. Sturge-Weber syndrome without facial nevus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adem Aydin; Handan Çakmakçi; Arzu Kovanlikaya; Eray Dirik

    2000-01-01

    An 11-month-old patient with Sturge-Weber syndrome with the absence of facial angioma and normal mental development is presented. Noncontrast computed tomography revealed left parieto-occipital atrophy with heavy gyriform calcifications. Axial T2-weighed magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of low-signal areas corresponding to the gyral calcifications evident on computed tomography. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted axial and coronal images exhibited high signals in the

  15. Facial Composite System Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahradníková, Barbora; Duchovi?ová, So?a; Schreiber, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with genetic algorithms and their application in face identification. The purpose of the research is to develop a free and open-source facial composite system using evolutionary algorithms, primarily processes of selection and breeding. The initial testing proved higher quality of the final composites and massive reduction in the composites processing time. System requirements were specified and future research orientation was proposed in order to improve the results.

  16. Telomere dysfunction and activation of alternative lengthening of telomeres in B-lymphocytes infected by Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Kamranvar, S A; Chen, X; Masucci, M G

    2013-12-01

    Malignant cells achieve replicative immortality by two alternative mechanisms, a common one dependent on de novo synthesis of telomeric DNA by telomerase, and a rare one based on telomere recombination known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms human B-lymphocytes into lymphoblastoid cell lines with unlimited growth potential in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that newly EBV-infected cells exhibit multiple signs of telomere dysfunction, including the occurrence of extra-chromosomal telomeres, telomere fusion and telomere length heterogeneity, and undergo progressive increase in telomere length without a parallel increase in telomerase activity. This phenotype is accompanied by the accumulation of telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies and telomeric-sister chromatid exchange, suggesting that EBV infection promotes the activation of ALT. Newly infected cells also display a significant reduction of telomere-associated TRF2 and express low levels of TRF1, TRF2, POT1 and ATRX, pointing to telomere de-protection as an important correlate of ALT activation. Collectively, these findings highlight the involvement of recombination-dependent mechanisms for maintenance of telomere homeostasis in EBV-induced B-cell immortalization. PMID:23708666

  17. Stretch speed?dependent myofiber damage and functional deficits in rat skeletal muscle induced by lengthening contraction

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Itoh, Yuta; Miyazu?Inoue, Masumi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Taguchi, Toru; Kawakami, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Exercise involving lengthening contraction (LC) often results in delayed myofiber damage and functional deficits over the ensuing days. The present study examined whether the stretch speed of LC is a determinant of damage severity. Under isoflurane anesthesia, LC was repeatedly induced in rat ankle extensor muscles at different stretch speeds (angular velocities of 50, 100, 200, and 400 deg/sec) over a fixed stretch range of motion (90°). The number of muscle fibers labeled with Evans blue dye, a marker of muscle fiber damage associated with increased membrane permeability, increased with the angular velocity of LC (by 20% of all myofibers at 400 deg/sec). Muscle fibers with cross?sectional areas in the range of 3600–4800 ?m2, corresponding to type IIb fiber size, exhibited the most severe damage as revealed by the largest decrease in the number of fibers 3 days after LC at 200 deg/sec, suggesting that muscle damage occurred preferentially in type IIb myofibers. Isometric torque of dorsiflexion measured 2 days after LC decreased progressively with LC angular velocity (by 68% reduction at 400 deg/sec). The angular velocity of muscle stretch during LC is thus a critical determinant of the degree of damage, and LC appears to damage type IIb fibers preferentially, resulting in a disproportionate reduction in isometric torque. This LC response is an important consideration for the design of physical conditioning and rehabilitation regimens. PMID:25413330

  18. Posterior tibial tendon transfer and tendo-Achilles lengthening for equinovarus foot deformity due to severe crush injury.

    PubMed

    Atesalp, Ali Sabri; Yildiz, Cemil; Kömürcü, Mahmut; Basbozkurt, Mustafa; Gür, Ethem

    2002-12-01

    Surgical correction was performed on nine patients who had equinovarus deformity caused by severe crush injury of the leg sustained in an earthquake. The operative procedure used involved the transfer of the posterior tibial tendon to the dorsum of the foot by passing it through the interosseous membrane using a modified procedure as published in 1978. This procedure was combined with percutaneous Achilles tendon lengthening and tenotomy of toe flexors when needed. The average follow-up time after the operation was 21 months. The treatment improved the heel-toe steppage gait in all patients and all were able to walk in standard shoes. There were no complications in the postoperative period. Recurrence of varus deformity was not seen in any of the patients. They had active dorsiflexion of the foot, with a median active dorsiflexion of 5 degrees (0 to 10 degrees) and median active plantarflexion of 16.1 degrees (10 to 25 degrees) compared to the median active dorsiflexion and plantarflexion on the uninvolved side. The total range-of-motion was 21.1 degrees (10 to 35 degrees). PMID:12503800

  19. Impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to the circadian period lengthening effects of methamphetamine in mice selected for high methamphetamine consumption.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Reid H J; Allen, Charles N; Derkach, Victor A; Phillips, Tamara J; Belknap, John K; Raber, Jacob

    2013-11-01

    Drug abuse runs in families suggesting the involvement of genetic risk factors. Differences in addiction-related neurobiological systems, including learning and memory and circadian rhythms, may exist prior to developing addiction. We characterized the cognitive phenotypes and the free-running circadian period of mouse lines selectively bred for high methamphetamine (MA) drinking (MA high drinking or MAHDR) and low MA drinking (MA low drinking or MALDR). MA-naïve MALDR mice showed spatial memory retention while MAHDR mice did not. MA-naïve MAHDR mice had elevated hippocampal levels of the AMPA receptor subunits GluA2 (old terminology: GluR2), but not GluA1 (old terminology: GluR1). There were no line differences in the free running period (?) when only water was available. During a 25 mg/L MA solution access period (vs water), there was an increase in ? in MALDR but not MAHDR mice, although MAHDR mice consumed significantly more MA. During a 50 mg/L MA solution access period (vs water), both lines showed an increased ?. There was a positive correlation between MA consumption and ? from baseline in MALDR, but not MAHDR, mice. Thus, a heritable proclivity for elevated MA self-administration may be associated with impairments in hippocampus-dependent memory and reduced sensitivity to effects of MA on lengthening of the circadian period. PMID:23954232

  20. Loss of ATRX, Genome Instability, and an Altered DNA Damage Response Are Hallmarks of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lovejoy, Courtney A.; Li, Wendi; Reisenweber, Steven; Thongthip, Supawat; Bruno, Joanne; de Lange, Titia; De, Saurav; Petrini, John H. J.; Sung, Patricia A.; Jasin, Maria; Rosenbluh, Joseph; Zwang, Yaara; Weir, Barbara A.; Hatton, Charlie; Ivanova, Elena; Macconaill, Laura; Hanna, Megan; Hahn, William C.; Lue, Neal F.; Reddel, Roger R.; Jiao, Yuchen; Kinzler, Kenneth; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Meeker, Alan K.

    2012-01-01

    The Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway is a telomerase-independent pathway for telomere maintenance that is active in a significant subset of human cancers and in vitro immortalized cell lines. ALT is thought to involve templated extension of telomeres through homologous recombination, but the genetic or epigenetic changes that unleash ALT are not known. Recently, mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex and histone H3.3 were found to correlate with features of ALT in pancreatic neuroendocrine cancers, pediatric glioblastomas, and other tumors of the central nervous system, suggesting that these mutations might contribute to the activation of the ALT pathway in these cancers. We have taken a comprehensive approach to deciphering ALT by applying genomic, molecular biological, and cell biological approaches to a panel of 22 ALT cell lines, including cell lines derived in vitro. Here we show that loss of ATRX protein and mutations in the ATRX gene are hallmarks of ALT–immortalized cell lines. In addition, ALT is associated with extensive genome rearrangements, marked micronucleation, defects in the G2/M checkpoint, and altered double-strand break (DSB) repair. These attributes will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of ALT positive human cancers. PMID:22829774

  1. Geometric Facial Gender Scoring: Objectivity of Perception

    PubMed Central

    Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

  2. Voiceless Arabic vowels recognition using facial EMG.

    PubMed

    Fraiwan, Luay; Lweesy, Khaldon; Al-Nemrawi, Ayat; Addabass, Sondos; Saifan, Rasha

    2011-07-01

    This work attempts to recognize the Arabic vowels based on facial electromyograph (EMG) signals, to be used for people with speech impairment and for human computer interface. Vowels were selected since they are the most difficult letters to recognize by people in Arabic language. Twenty subjects (7 females and 13 males) were asked to pronounce three Arabic vowels continuously in a random order. Facial EMG signals were recorded over three channels from the three main facial muscles that are responsible for speech. The EMG signals are then pre-processed to eliminate noise and interference signals. Segmentation procedure was implemented to extract the time event that corresponds to each vowel based on a moving standard deviation window. The accuracy of the segmentation procedure was found to be 94%. The recognition of the vowels was carried out by extracting features from the EMG in three domains: the temporal, the spectral, and the time frequency using the wavelet packet transform. Classification of the extracted features was then finally performed using different classification methods implemented in the WEKA software. The random forest classifier with time frequency features showed the best performance with an accuracy of 77% evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation. PMID:21409427

  3. Estimated natural head position and facial morphology.

    PubMed

    Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2002-04-01

    Estimated natural head position, or natural head orientation (NHO), has been proposed as a preferred reference position for assessing facial morphology. However, because this position is subjectively defined by the orthodontist, it could be influenced by facial form, which would be an undesirable attribute. The aim of this study was to assess whether NHO is influenced by facial morphology. Lateral photographs of 14 patients were used. Each was warped to produce 2 new images, with the chin positioned backwards or forwards relative to the original (+/-2 degrees change of the soft tissue N-Pg line). All 42 images were placed in circular frames and shown to 7 experienced orthodontists, who were asked to orient them to NHO. Image orientation between the 3 chin positions was measured and compared. The results showed that NHO depended on chin position. Images with protrusive chins were positioned with the head rotated more downwards (Frankfort plane 3.10 degrees relative to horizontal) than were images with retrusive chins (Frankfort plane 4.98 degrees ). The difference in head orientation measurements was half of the difference in chin position (1.88 degrees for a chin change of 4 degrees ). These findings call into question the validity of NHO for diagnosis because it depends on the same factor it aims to assess. Use of NHO would result in underestimating the true skeletal relationships. PMID:11997760

  4. Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reconstructive surgery of the facial nerve is not daily routine for most head and neck surgeons. The published experience on strategies to ensure optimal functional results for the patients are based on small case series with a large variety of surgical techniques. On this background it is worthwhile to develop a standardized approach for diagnosis and treatment of patients asking for facial rehabilitation. Conclusion A standardized approach is feasible: Patients with chronic facial palsy first need an exact classification of the palsy's aetiology. A step-by-step clinical examination, if necessary MRI imaging and electromyographic examination allow a classification of the palsy's aetiology as well as the determination of the severity of the palsy and the functional deficits. Considering the patient's desire, age and life expectancy, an individual surgical concept is applicable using three main approaches: a) early extratemporal reconstruction, b) early reconstruction of proximal lesions if extratemporal reconstruction is not possible, c) late reconstruction or in cases of congenital palsy. Twelve to 24 months after the last step of surgical reconstruction a standardized evaluation of the therapeutic results is recommended to evaluate the necessity for adjuvant surgical procedures or other adjuvant procedures, e.g. botulinum toxin application. Up to now controlled trials on the value of physiotherapy and other adjuvant measures are missing to give recommendation for optimal application of adjuvant therapies. PMID:21040532

  5. Color stability of polymers for facial prosthesis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Ribeiro, Paula do Prado; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Color stability of resin and silicone is an important factor for longevity of facial prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resins and silicone for facial prostheses. Three brands of acrylic resin and 1 of facial silicone were evaluated considering pigment incorporation for the colorless materials. Ten samples of each material were fabricated and submitted to measurements of chromatic alteration initially and after 252, 504, and 1008 hours of weathering through visual analysis and spectrophotometry. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey test (P < 0.05). Results showed a statistically significant difference in color alteration among materials independent of aging. According to visual analysis, the color difference between pigmented and colorless Silastic MDX4-4210 and between pigmented and colorless Classico acrylic resin was statistically significant for the 3 weathering periods. Aging for 1008 hours represented a significant influence on color alteration of all resins. All materials presented chromatic alteration after accelerated artificial aging. PMID:20061973

  6. Evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inokuchi, Ikuo; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Maeta, Manabu; Masuda, Yu

    1991-08-01

    Society of Facial Research is used frequently. It is of great value clinically, but the method has several weak points concerning objective and quantitative assessment. This study uses moire topography to solve these problems. mA moire camera, FM3013, of the lattice irradiation type was used for measurement of the face. Five moire photographs were taken: at rest, wrinkling the forehead, closing the eyes lightly, blowing out the cheeks and grinning. The degree of facial palsy was determined by the Asymmetry Index (AI) as a measure of the degree of facial deviation. Total AI was expressed as the average AI based on calculations of the measurement in 5 photos. Severe paralysis is represented by an AI of more than 20%. Partial paralysis has a range of 20-8%. Nearly normal is judged to be less than 8%. Ten normal individuals are measured as control and show an AI of 3% or less. Moire topography is useful in assessing the recovery process because it has the benefit of making the site and grade of palsy easily achieved by the AI and the deviation in its patterns. The authors propose that the moire method is better for an objective and quantitative evaluation than the society's method.

  7. Current concepts for eyelid reanimation in facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Khosla, Rohit K

    2014-02-01

    The treatment of facial palsy is a complex and challenging area of plastic surgery. Two distinct anatomical regions and functions are the focus of interest when managing facial palsy: (1) reanimation of the eyelids and (2) reconstruction of the smile. This review will focus on the treatment of ocular manifestations of facial palsy. The principles of eyelid rehabilitation will be presented along with a discussion of surgical and nonsurgical treatment options. PMID:23241787

  8. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Thorat; S. K. Nayak; Jyoti P. Dandale

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically\\u000aidentifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a\\u000avideo source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial\\u000afeatures from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security\\u000asystems and can be compared to other

  9. Heritability of Individual Differences in Cortical Processing of Facial Affect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey P. Anokhin; Simon Golosheykin; Andrew C. Heath

    2010-01-01

    Facial expression of emotion is a key mechanism of non-verbal social communication in humans. Deficits in processing of facial\\u000a emotion have been implicated in psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal social behavior, such as autism and schizophrenia.\\u000a Identification of genetically transmitted variability in the neural substrates of facial processing can elucidate the pathways\\u000a mediating genetic influences on social behavior and provide

  10. Facial Media for Non-verbal Communication in Production Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuma Funahashi; Takayuki Fujiwara; Hiroyasu Koshimizu

    2006-01-01

    We took the face, especially eye or eye gaze, into consideration for discussing the non-verbal interface media. We first proposed a passive eye-camera system based on the facial image processing such as Hough transform for iris recognition. Next we proposed a method for generating eye-contacted facial images by computer image processing for enforcing and improving the quality of facial, nonverbal

  11. Top-down guidance in visual search for facial expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sowon Hahn; Scott D. Gronlund

    2007-01-01

    Using a visual search paradigm, we investigated how a top-down goal modified attentional bias for threatening facial expressions.\\u000a In two experiments, participants searched for a facial expression either based on stimulus characteristics or a top-down goal.\\u000a In Experiment 1, participants searched for a discrepant facial expression in a homogenous crowd of faces. Consistent with\\u000a previous research, we obtained a shallower

  12. Synthesis of expressive facial animations: A multimodal caricatural mirror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Martin; Irene Kotsia; Ioannis Pitas; Arman Savran; Jordi Adell; Ana Huerta; Raphael Sebbe

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a natural and intuitive way to create expressive facial animations, using a novel approach based on the\\u000a so-called ‘multimodal caricatural mirror’ (MCM). Taking as an input an audio-visual video sequence of the user’s face, the\\u000a MCM generates a facial animation, in which the prosody and the facial expressions of emotions can either be reproduced or\\u000a amplified. The

  13. Sturge-weber syndrome involved frontoparietal region without facial nevus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cengiz Dilber; Haydar A. Tasdemir; Ayhan Dagdemir; Lutfi Incesu; Ersan Odaci

    2002-01-01

    Classic Sturge-Weber syndrome is characterized by a facial nevus and hamartomatous lesion in the brain. Hamartomatous lesions are usually located in the ipsilateral occipital region of the facial nevus. The other lobes may be involved. A few cases of Sturge-Weber syndrome without facial nevus have been reported. A 9-month-old male was admitted with the complaint of afebrile seizures two times.

  14. Pose-space animation and transfer of facial details

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Bickel; Manuel Lang; Mario Botsch; Miguel A. Otaduy; Markus H. Gross

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for real-time animation of highly-detailed facial expressions based on a multi-scale decomposition of facial geometry into large-scale motion and fine-scale details, such as expression wrinkles. Our hybrid animation is tailored to the specific characteristics of large- and fine-scale facial deformations: Large-scale deformations are computed with a fast linear shell model, which is intuitively and

  15. Morphometric analysis of facial landmark data to characterize the facial phenotype associated with fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mutsvangwa, Tinashe; Douglas, Tania S

    2007-01-01

    Procrustes analysis and principal component analysis were applied to stereo-photogrammetrically obtained landmarks to compare the facial features associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in subjects with FAS and normal controls. Two studies were performed; both compared facial landmark data of FAS and normal subjects, but they differed in the number of landmarks chosen. The first study compared landmarks representing palpebral fissure length, upper lip thinness and philtrum smoothness and revealed no significant difference in shape. The second study added to the landmarks used in the first those affected by mid-face hypoplasia, and revealed significant differences in shape between the two groups, broadly confirming the FAS gestalt reported in the literature. Some disagreement in the characteristic FAS facial shape between our results and those reported in the literature may be due to ethnic variation. PMID:17310546

  16. INVEST IN YOUR BONES Bone Basics

    E-print Network

    in your bones? Osteoporosis, a major health problem in America, affects over 10 million persons, with 34 million at a high risk of developing the disease (National Osteoporosis Foundation, 2010). Dubbed as the "silent thief", osteoporosis is a debilitating disease which causes normal bones (above bone figure

  17. Multi-output Laplacian Dynamic Ordinal Regression for Facial Expression Recognition and Intensity Estimation

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    Multi-output Laplacian Dynamic Ordinal Regression for Facial Expression Recognition and Intensity model attains simultaneous dynamic recognition and inten- sity estimation of facial expressions, and social signals interpretation [2]. Automatic facial expression recognition has therefore been an active

  18. The development of facial emotion recognition: The role of configural information

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The development of facial emotion recognition: The role of configural information Karine study was to provide new evidence on development change in recognition of facial emotions during childhood. Few studies have investigated the developmental course of facial emotion recognition, contrary

  19. Framework for reliable, real-time facial expression recognition for low resolution images

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Framework for reliable, real-time facial expression recognition for low resolution images Rizwan, UMR5516, 42000 Saint-Etienne, France Abstract Automatic recognition of facial expressions on low resolution images. Keywords: Facial expression recognition, Low Resolution Images, Local Binary

  20. Visual Emotion Recognition Using Compact Facial Representations and Viseme Information Face during Emotional Speech

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    Visual Emotion Recognition Using Compact Facial Representations and Viseme Information Face during Detailed Motion Capture (MOCAP) facial data Low dimensional facial representations Decorrelated markers, PCA, Fisher criterion Dynamically model articulation using visemes Improvement in recognition

  1. Enhancing Facial Aesthetics with Muscle Retraining Exercises-A Review

    PubMed Central

    D’souza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; D’souza, Henston; Shetty, Omkar

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. ‘Smile’ is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects. PMID:25302289

  2. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  3. Enhancing facial aesthetics with muscle retraining exercises-a review.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; D'souza, Henston; Shetty, Nitin; Shetty, Omkar

    2014-08-01

    Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. 'Smile' is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects. PMID:25302289

  4. Facial image synthesis by hierarchical wire frame model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Yasuichi; Nagashima, Yoshio; Ohya, Jun; Kishino, Fumio

    1992-11-01

    We have studied a generation of realistic computer graphics facial action synchronized with actual facial actions. This paper describes a method of extracting facial feature points and reproducing facial actions for a virtual space teleconferencing system that achieves a realistic virtual presence. First, we need the individual facial wire frame model. We use a 3D digitizer or both the front and side images of the face. Second, we trace the feature points, the points around both the eyes and the mouth. For this purpose, we watch the eye regions and mouth region. If they move, the intensity of the image changes and we are able to find the eyes and the mouth. From facial action images, we cannot extract the deformation of the facial skin. Only from the front view of the face, tracing the eye regions and mouth region, can the movement of these regions in 2D space be extracted. We are proposing a new hierarchical wire frame model that can represent facial actions including wrinkles. The lower layer of the wire frame moves according to movement of the feature points. The upper layer slides over the lower layer and is deformed based on the movement of the lower layer. By applying this method to a telecommunication system, we confirm very realistic facial action in virtual space.

  5. HPV16 E7 Reveals a Link between DNA Replication Stress, Fanconi Anemia D2 Protein, and Alternative Lengthening of Telomere-Associated Promyelocytic Leukemia Bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Spardy; Anette Duensing; Elizabeth E. Hoskins; Susanne I. Wells; Stefan Duensing

    2008-01-01

    Expression of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV-16) E7 oncoprotein extends the life span of primary human keratinocytes and partially restores telomere length in the absence of telomerase. The molecular basis of this activity is incompletely understood. Here, we show that HPV-16 E7 induces an increased formation of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT)-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies (APBs) in early passage primary

  6. Preservation of Facial Nerve Function Repaired by Using Fibrin Glue-Coated Collagen Fleece for a Totally Transected Facial Nerve during Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Min-Su; Jang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Oh-Lyong

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the increasing rates of facial nerve preservation after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery have been achieved. However, the management of a partially or completely damaged facial nerve remains an important issue. The authors report a patient who was had a good recovery after a facial nerve reconstruction using fibrin glue-coated collagen fleece for a totally transected facial nerve during VS surgery. And, we verifed the anatomical preservation and functional outcome of the facial nerve with postoperative diffusion tensor (DT) imaging facial nerve tractography, electroneurography (ENoG) and House-Brackmann (HB) grade. DT imaging tractography at the 3rd postoperative day revealed preservation of facial nerve. And facial nerve degeneration ratio was 94.1% at 7th postoperative day ENoG. At postoperative 3 months and 1 year follow-up examination with DT imaging facial nerve tractography and ENoG, good results for facial nerve function were observed. PMID:25024825

  7. Bone and thyroid hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tremollieres; J. M. Pouilles; J. P. Louvet; C. Ribot

    1989-01-01

    Bone tissue metabolism in influenced by thyroid hormones. Excess endogenous (hyperthyroidism), and exogenous (thyrotoxicosis) thyroid hormones are well known causes of bone loss (1,2), great enough to be responsible for fractures. Lately, a few studies using noninvasive methods for bone mass measurements, have reported the possibility of bone loss in subjects receiving thyroid hormone replacement therapy. These results are of

  8. Medicines and Bone Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... making your bones weak, if used for a long time. Use over a short time is usually not a problem. When you have weak bones—a condition called osteoporosis—your risk of bone fractures goes up. Broken bones can lead to pain ...

  9. Facial biometrics of peri-oral changes in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Zou, L; Adegun, O K; Willis, A; Fortune, Farida

    2014-05-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory condition which affects any part of the gastrointestinal tract. In the oro-facial region, patients can present peri-oral swellings which results in severe facial disfigurement. To date, assessing the degree of facial changes and evaluation of treatment outcomes relies on clinical observation and semi-quantitative methods. In this paper, we describe the development of a robust and reproducible measurement strategy using 3-D facial biometrics to objectively quantify the extent and progression of oro-facial Crohn's disease. Using facial laser scanning, 32 serial images from 13 Crohn's patients attending the Oral Medicine clinic were acquired during relapse, remission, and post-treatment phases. Utilising theories of coordinate metrology, the facial images were subjected to registration, regions of interest identification, and reproducible repositioning prior to obtaining volume measurements. To quantify the changes in tissue volume, scan images from consecutive appointments were compared to the baseline (first scan image). Reproducibility test was performed to ascertain the degree of uncertainty in volume measurements. 3-D facial biometric imaging is a reliable method to identify and quantify peri-oral swelling in Crohn's patients. Comparison of facial scan images at different phases of the disease revealed precisely profile and volume changes. The volume measurements were highly reproducible as adjudged from the 1% standard deviation. 3-D facial biometrics measurements in Crohn's patients with oro-facial involvement offers a quick, robust, economical and objective approach for guided therapeutic intervention and routine assessment of treatment efficacy on the clinic. PMID:23435800

  10. Basic bone radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    This clinical book surveys the skeletal system as seen through radiological imaging. It emphasizing abnormalities, disease, and trauma, and includes vital information on bones, bone growth, and the cells involved in bone pathology. It covers many bone diseases and injuries which are rarely covered in medical texts, as well as descriptions of radiologic procedures that specifically relate to the skeleton. This edition includes many illustrations, information on MR imaging and CT scanning, and discussions of osteoporosis, dysplasias, and metabolic bone disease.

  11. Leiomyosarcoma with alternative lengthening of telomeres is associated with aggressive histologic features, loss of ATRX expression, and poor clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Liau, Jau-Yu; Tsai, Jia-Huei; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Hsu, Hung-Han; Yang, Ching-Yao

    2015-02-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with poor patient survival. Recently, it was shown that 53% to 62% of leiomyosarcomas use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as their telomere maintenance mechanism. The molecular basis of this mechanism has not been elucidated. Studies of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor have suggested that the inactivation of either ?-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated (DAXX) protein is associated with the ALT phenotype. In this study, we sought to determine the clinicopathologic features of leiomyosarcoma with the ALT phenotype and the possible relationship between this phenotype and ATRX/DAXX expression. Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) promoter mutation analysis was also performed. Ninety-two leiomyosarcomas derived from the uterus, retroperitoneum/intra-abdomen, and various other sites were analyzed. Telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that 59% (51/86) of leiomyosarcomas had the ALT phenotype. Loss of ATRX expression was observed in 33% of the tumors (30/92), and all but 2 ATRX-deficient tumors were ALT positive. Both the ALT phenotype and loss of ATRX expression were associated with epithelioid/pleomorphic cell morphology, tumor necrosis, and poor differentiation. None of the 92 cases lost DAXX expression. No TERT promoter mutation was detected (n=39). For survival analysis, poor differentiation, high FNCLCC grade, tumor size, and ALT phenotype were correlated with poor overall survival in univariate analysis. Tumor size and ALT phenotype remained independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. We concluded that the ALT phenotype in the leiomyosarcoma is associated with aggressive histologic features, loss of ATRX expression, and poor clinical outcome. PMID:25229770

  12. LH peak and ovulation after two different estrus synchronization treatments in buffalo cows in the daylight-lengthening period.

    PubMed

    Barile, V L; Terzano, G M; Pacelli, C; Todini, L; Malfatti, A; Barbato, O

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the timing of ovulation in relation to the LH peak after synchronization using PRID or Ovsynch protocols, to assess the effects of the period of treatment on these parameters and to provide information concerning how to use the two main protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Forty-eight lactating Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows were used. The buffaloes were treated in various periods as follows: February to March (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), end of the breeding season, May to June (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), beginning of low-breeding season according to Italian environmental conditions. To determine the LH, blood samples were taken at 4-hour intervals, starting 24 hours from PRID removal (PRID group) or 12 hours from (PGF2?) injection (Ovsynch group) up to 108 hours. The ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to verify ovulation. The LH-ovulation interval was similar in both groups (30.10 ± 1.05 and 32.77 ± 1.15 hours, respectively, in PRID and Ovsynch group). In the PRID group, the timing of ovulation in relation to device removal was 76.83 ± 3.65 hours with a high level of variability among the animals. In the Ovsynch group, we observed a better synchronization of LH peaks and ovulations, and the timing of ovulation in relation to the last GnRH injection was 35.67 ± 1.15 hours. The percentage of animals reaching the LH peak and ovulation was lower (P ? 0.05) in May to June (respectively 75.0% and 54.1%) compared to February to March (respectively 95.8% and 83.3%), indicating a reduction of hypothalamus-pituitary responsiveness to the synchronization treatments in the daylight-lengthening period. PMID:25958084

  13. The role of structural facial asymmetry in asymmetry of peak facial expressions

    E-print Network

    individuals, N0/16 men, N0/39 women. Structural asymmetry (at neutral expression) was higher in men than women of functional brain asymmetry on facial muscles, especially during deliberate emotional expression (Sackeim to centre points, ranges from 4% to 12% average difference, depending on the landmark measured (Ferrario

  14. 3D Facial Landmark Localization3D Facial Landmark Localization using Combinatorial Search and

    E-print Network

    Whelan, Paul F.

    as an index of early brain dysmorphogenesis in neuropsychiatric disorders Down syndrome Autism Schizophrenia Bipolar disorder Fetal alcohol syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome Cornelia de Large syndrome Joubert syndrome ... Patterns tend to be subtle #12;07/10/2012 2 Facial

  15. [Experimental study of hypoglossal facial anastomosis and accessory-facial anastomosis in guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, J

    1997-03-01

    Hypoglossal facial nerve anastomosis (XII-VII anastomosis) or accessory-facial anastomosis (XI-VII anastomosis) have been chosen for facial rehabilitation when the facial nerve is widely sacrificed and end-to-end anastomosis or nerve grafting is unavailable. However, no detailed study has been conducted to determine which donor nerve is better for the anastomosis procedure in view of regeneration of the facial nerve. To compare and evaluate nerve regeneration after XII-VII anastomosis and XI-VII anastomosis, animal models of these anastomoses were made in guinea pigs by using a Y-shaped silicon tube. The proximal cut-ends of the hypoglossal nerve and accessory nerve were suspended in the paired inlet limbs of a Y-shaped silicone tube with a 9-0 nylon suture, and the distal cut-end of the facial nerve was suspended in the single outlet limb in a similar manner. After 4 and 8 weeks, histological studies were carried out. An electrophysiological study of conduction velocity and amplitude of evoked electromyography were measured at 8 weeks postoperation. The nerve fibers regenerated from the hypoglossal nerve were significantly more numerous than those from the accessory nerve at both 4 and 8 weeks after anastomosis. The amplitude of evoked electromyography elicited from the hypoglossal nerve was greater than that from the accessory nerve, even though there is no significant difference in conduction velocities between the two anastomoses. The nerve regeneration by the cross-over procedure was influenced by many factors such as the number of nerve fibers in the donor nerve and the affinity between donor and recipient nerves. The number of nerve fibers in the hypoglossal nerve was significantly greater than that in the accessory nerve. However, there was no significant difference in the ratios of regenerated nerve fibers to the preoperative nerve fibers. Accordingly, we concluded that the affinity of the hypoglossal or accessory nerve to the facial nerve is a minor factor if it exists, and the difference in the fiber count in these nerves is a major factor in the outcome of nerve regeneration. PMID:9103842

  16. Self-Esteem and Facial Attractiveness in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 55 learning-disabled children ages 8 to 13 years completed a self-esteem measure, and photographs of their faces were rated for attractiveness by adults and peers. Found relationships between children's facial attractiveness and self-esteem and between adult and peer ratings of facial attractiveness. Found no gender differences in…

  17. Perceived Attractiveness, Facial Features, and African Self-Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, John W., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between perceived attractiveness, facial features, and African self-consciousness (ASC) among 149 African American college students. As predicted, high ASC subjects used more positive adjectives in descriptions of strong African facial features than did medium or low ASC subjects. Results are discussed in the context of…

  18. Facial asymmetry quantification for expression invariant human identification

    E-print Network

    that facial asymmetry may provide complementary discriminative information to human identification methods, which has been missing in automatic human identification. Ó 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1Facial asymmetry quantification for expression invariant human identification Yanxi Liu,a,* Karen L

  19. Evaluation of a facial recognition algorithm across three illumination conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric P. Kukula; Stephen J. Elliott

    2004-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a commercially available face recognition algorithm for the verification of an individual's identity pertaining to three enrollment illumination levels. Existing facial recognition technology from still or video sources is becoming a practical tool for law enforcement, security, and counter-terrorist applications despite the limitations of the current technology. At this time, facial recognition has been

  20. Facial Recognition: A Biometric For The Fight Against Check Fraud

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Reynolds

    2006-01-01

    While facial recognition technology holds promise for solving many identification\\/authentication problems, its use has been limited to known populations where individuals are identified, enrolled, and assigned a personal identification number. Because the technology is now more robust, this study examined the feasibility of using it to mitigate over the counter check fraud. It explored the use of facial recognition technology

  1. Learning Active Facial Patches for Expression Analysis , Qingshan Liu

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    recognition and face verification tasks, are coupled to learn specific facial patches for individualLearning Active Facial Patches for Expression Analysis Lin Zhong , Qingshan Liu , Peng Yang , Bo, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China

  2. Face Recognition from Facial Surface Metric Alexander M. Bronstein1

    E-print Network

    Kimmel, Ron

    Face Recognition from Facial Surface Metric Alexander M. Bronstein1 , Michael M. Bronstein1 , Alon, head pose, and facial expressions ­ which are the major obstacles in modern face recognition systems Spira2 , and Ron Kimmel2 1 Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical

  3. Facial Recognition Technology A Survey of Policy and Implementation Issues

    E-print Network

    Nissenbaum, Helen

    Facial Recognition Technology A Survey of Policy and Implementation Issues Lucas D. Introna EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Facial recognition technology (FRT) has emerged as an attractive solution to address many recognition and related technologies. Solon Barocas and Travis Hall, who served as research assistants

  4. Baselining illumination variables for improved facial recognition system performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett A McLindin

    2003-01-01

    Lighting has been shown to be one of the largest degradation factors of facial recognition systems. Several model and algorithmic approaches have been attempted to reduce this problem with varying success. We present here results from an experimental program which quantifies lighting variables including direction, temperature and colour, intensity, diffuseness and glare, as tested on the face-it and SQIS facial

  5. busso@utdallas.edu ANALYSIS OF FACIAL FEATURES OF

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    .C. Littlewort, M.G. Frank, C. Lainscsek, I. Fasel, and J.R. Movellan,"Automatic recognition of facial actionsbusso@utdallas.edu MSP - CRSS ANALYSIS OF FACIAL FEATURES OF DRIVERS UNDER COGNITIVE AND VISUAL in potentially distracting secondary tasks about 30% of their time [Ranney, 2008] · In-vehicle technologies

  6. Ethical aspects of facial recognition systems in public places

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Brey

    2004-01-01

    This essay examines ethical aspects of the use of facial recognition technology for surveillance purposes in public and semipublic areas, focusing particularly on the balance between security and privacy and civil liberties. As a case study, the FaceIt facial recognition engine of Identix Corporation will be analyzed, as well as its use in “Smart” video surveillance (CCTV) systems in city

  7. Computerised Facial Recognition Systems: The Surrounding Legal Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Bromby

    Abstract Computerised facial recognition systems have developed to the ,extent that they can compete with and aid human ,experts with cases of disputed identity. With the advent ofCCTV, facial recognition has now become a tool for crime prevention and detection. As the use of such systems becomes more widespread, the legal system is now,having to deal ,with the contentious issues

  8. Evaluating Facial Recognition Technology for Drug Control Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Bone; James L. Wayman; Duane Blackburn

    Automated facial recognition technology has seen many genuine advances in the last few years, but separating true progress from vendor claims has been difficult in this highly competitive market place. To this end, the DoD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency recently sponsored Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT

  9. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage. PMID:22237906

  10. AAM Derived Face Representations for Robust Facial Action Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Lucey; Iain Matthews; Changbo Hu; Zara Ambadar; Fernando De La Torre; Jeffrey F. Cohn

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present results on experiments employ- ing Active Appearance Model (AAM) derived facial rep- resentations, for the task of facial action recognition. Ex- perimental results demonstrate the benefit of AAM-derived representations on a spontaneous AU database containing \\

  11. Facial expression recognition and synthesis based on an appearance model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bouchra Abboud; Franck Davoine; Mô Dang

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of expressive face modelling using an active appearance model for facial expression recognition and synthesis. We consider the six universal emotional categories namely joy, anger, fear, disgust, sadness and surprise. After a description of the active appearance model (computed with 3 or only one PCA), we address the active appearance model contribution to automatic facial

  12. Facial expression recognition from line-based caricatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongsheng Gao; Maylor K. H. Leung; Siu Cheung Hui; Mario W. Tananda

    2003-01-01

    The automatic recognition of facial expression presents a sig- nificant challenge to the pattern analysis and man-machine interaction re- search community. Recognition from a single static image is particularly a difficult task. In this paper, we present a methodology for facial expres- sion recognition from a single static image using line-based caricatures. The recognition process is completely automatic. It also

  13. Facial expression recognition from video sequences: temporal and static modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira Cohen; Nicu Sebe; Ashutosh Garg; Lawrence S. Chen; Thomas S. Huang

    2003-01-01

    The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this work we report on several advances we have made in building a system for classification of facial expressions from continuous video input. We introduce and test different Bayesian network classifiers for classifying expressions from video, focus- ing on changes in distribution assumptions and feature dependency structures. In

  14. Dynamic facial expression recognition using a be-havioural model

    E-print Network

    Bierlaire, Michel

    Dynamic facial expression recognition using a be- havioural model Thomas Robin Michel Bierlaire Javier Cruz STRC 2009 September 2009 #12;STRC 2009 Dynamic facial expression recognition using in transportation for users emotion recognition. This permits to adapt car behaviors to drivers mood for safety

  15. Automated Facial Expression Recognition Based on FACS Action Units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Jenn-jier Lien; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn; Ching-chung Li

    1998-01-01

    Automated recognition of facial expression is an important addition to computer vision research because of its relevance to the study of psychological phenomena and the development of human-computer interaction (HCI). We developed a computer vision system that automatically recognizes individual action units or action unit combinations in the upper face using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Our approach to facial expression

  16. Treatment and diagnostic subtype in facial affect recognition in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen F. Lewis; David L. Garver

    1995-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been described as having deficits in the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion. We report the results of a study on the effects of global psychopathology, positive and negative symptoms, diagnostic subtype, and antipsychotic medications, on the ability of subjects with schizophrenia to recognize facial affect. Eighteen SCID diagnosed patients with schizophrenia and ten matched

  17. Bilinear Models for 3-D Face and Facial Expression Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iordanis Mpiperis; Sotiris Malassiotis; Michael G. Strintzis

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore bilinear models for jointly addressing 3D face and facial expression recognition. An elas- tically deformable model algorithm that establishes correspon- dence among a set of faces is proposed first and then bilinear models that decouple the identity and facial expression factors are constructed. Fitting these models to unknown faces enables us to perform face recognition

  18. Automatic construction of 3D animatable facial avatars

    E-print Network

    Sezgin, Metin

    artists with knowledge of facial anatomy. In this paper, we investigate whether it is possible to produce in the early 1970s 1 , facial animation has been widely used in entertainment, virtual environment and low bandwidth teleconferen- cing. In some professional applications such as films or virtual newscasters, high

  19. Human and computer recognition of facial expressions of emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Susskind; G. Littlewort; M. S. Bartlett; J. Movellan; A. K. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence suggests that the human brain contains facial expression recognition detectors specialized for specific discrete emotions. However, some human behavioral data suggest that humans recognize expressions as similar and not discrete entities. This latter observation has been taken to indicate that internal representations of facial expressions may be best characterized as varying along continuous underlying dimensions. To

  20. Beyond Facial Expressions: Learning Human Emotion from Body Gestures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caifeng Shan; Shaogang Gong; Peter W. McOwan

    2007-01-01

    Vision-based human affect analysis is an interesting and challenging prob- lem, impacting important applications in many areas. In this paper, beyond facial expressions, we investigate affective body gesture analysis in video sequences, a relatively understudied problem. Spatial-temporal features are exploited for modeling of body gestures. Moreover, we present to fuse facial expression and body gesture at the feature level using