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1

Index finger lengthening by gradual distraction and bone grafting.  

PubMed

We present the case of an 18-year-old woman with a shortened right index finger. The digit was stabilized and lengthened a total of 18 mm by external fixation and iliac bone grafting. A distal interphalangeal fixed flexion deformity of 60 degrees was corrected with external fixation and intermedullary wiring. PMID:9888682

Gordon, A; Page, R; Saleh, M

1998-12-01

2

Experience and anatomical study of modified lengthening temporalis myoplasty for established facial paralysis.  

PubMed

Lengthening temporalis myoplasty, reported by Daniel Labbé in 1997, is a unique and definite facial reanimation procedure that involves moving the whole temporal muscle anteroinferiorly and inserting its tendon directly into the nasolabial fold. In the present article, we report our experience in the use of his modified method of the procedure, which preserves the zygomatic arch by transecting the coronoid process through the nasolabial fold incision. We also describe our cadaveric study that aimed to elucidate a secure approach for coronoid process transection. We performed this procedure in five patients with permanent facial paralysis. To improve facial symmetry, we also performed several additional static reconstructions such as T-shaped double-sleeve fascia grafts for lower lip deformities. We were successful in achieving considerable static improvement at rest, immediately after the surgery, and the recovery of facial movement was apparent approximately 3 months after the surgery. With regard to the cadaveric study, we noted that the entry to the buccal fat region, which is also the pathway of the temporal fascia, was a narrow space, and a short transection of the medial upper edge of the masseter fascia would make it easy to locate the coronoid process. Therefore, for a safe and secure access to the coronoid process from the nasolabial fold, we believe that we should first expose the cranial side and continue to dissect along the side and lower edge of the maxilla to locate the medial upper edge of the masseter fascia. By transecting along its edge, we could easily access the coronoid process, located immediately behind it, and widen the pathway of the temporal fascia. This modified method is less invasive and simpler compared to the original procedure, and understanding the detailed anatomy for dissection would help surgeons perform this procedure more confidently. PMID:25448366

Hayashi, Ayato; Labbé, Daniel; Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Tatsuo; Mizuno, Hiroshi

2015-01-01

3

Effect of distraction frequency on bone formation during bone lengthening: a study in chickens.  

PubMed

We compared the effects of two distraction frequencies on bone formation during tibial lengthening by evaluating radiographs, bone mineral density, and histological findings. In 15 mature White Leghorn chickens, both tibiae were distracted at a rate of 0.75 mm/day for 10 days. The distraction frequency was 2 steps (0.375 mm/12 hour) by hand on the right side and 120 steps (0.00625 mm/12 min) by autodistractor on the left. Serial radiographs showed faster bone formation on the 120-step side than on the 2-step side. Bone mineral density on the 120-step side was also higher than that on the 2-step side at all times. On the 2-step side, endochondral ossification was marked in the early stage of distraction; then intramembranous ossification became the main mechanism of bone formation. On the 120-step side, however, intramembranous bone formation predominated throughout the study. Our findings support the contention that, at least in skeletally mature chickens, an increase in the distraction frequency improves osteogenesis during bone lengthening. PMID:14763703

Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Eiichi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Kudo, Satoshi; Takagi, Katsumasa

2003-12-01

4

Denervation impairs bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis in rabbit tibia lengthening  

PubMed Central

Background and purposes The nervous system plays an important role in bone metabolism. However, the effect of denervation on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO) remains unclear. We studied neural influence on bone regeneration during DO in a rabbit model. Methods 24 New Zealand male white rabbits underwent left tibial osteodistraction. Before distraction, the animals were randomly divided into group R (resected left sciatic nerve) and group I (intact left sciatic nerve). 8 weeks after completion of distraction, the animals were killed and the lengthened tibias were harvested for radiography, micro-CT, histological evaluation, and mechanical testing. Results New regenerated bone was present in the distraction gaps of all animals at the end of the study, as revealed by radiography, micro-CT, and histology. However, less new bone formation and a lower degree of mineralization were observed in group R. The mechanical strength of the distraction gap in group I was 1.3-fold greater than that in group R when measured using the 3-point bending test. Interpretation The results suggest that the nervous system plays an essential role during DO: the denervation appears to have an inhibitory effect on bone formation. PMID:22880710

2012-01-01

5

Endoscopic application in aesthetic and reconstructive facial bone surgery.  

PubMed

Twenty-three cases of endoscopically assisted facial bone surgery were performed over the past 3 years. Our series is consistent with 16 cases of aesthetic contouring surgery and 12 treatments of facial bone fracture, including three cases for recontouring of frontal bone, three cases for recontouring of zygoma, endoscopically assisted correction of three zygomatic and blowout fractures, four cases for rhinoplasty and septoplasty for deviated nose, and three cases for mandible contouring surgery. To accomplish this technique, a rigid 4-mm, 30-degree down-angled endoscope was used. The frontal bone or zygomatic arch was approached endoscopically through two or three small incisions on the frontal or temporoparietal scalp. All endoscopic instruments were then manipulated through these incisions. The approach for endoscopically assisted rhinoplasty is the same as with standard rhinoplasty procedures. The approach for zygoma complex and maxillary sinus needs an intraoral incision. Recontouring of zygoma, mandible, and nasal dorsum by an air-driven burr and rasp was performed with endoscopic visual assistance. A plate and screw fixation for zygomatic arch fracture requires an additional small skin incision over the plate for the trocar method. The duration of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 30 months. The postoperative course was satisfactory with a few complications. The extra time needed for the endoscopic procedures was less than 1 hour. Endoscopically assisted facial bone surgery can be performed with adequate visualization and direct manipulation of all facial bones. Complications usually associated with extensive incisions in the bicoronal approach may be avoided. Poor visualization in the conventional approach for operation of orbit, nose, maxillae, and mandible may be avoided by use of the endoscope. This technique may prove to be ideal for aesthetic surgery for facial skeleton with smaller scar and less morbidity. PMID:9734446

Park, D H; Lee, J W; Song, C H; Han, D G; Ahn, K Y

1998-09-01

6

The effect of loading in mechanical response predictions of bone lengthening.  

PubMed

Intramedullary (IM) distractor nails have become a viable alternative in bone-distraction operations. Upon stabilization of the fractured/dissected limb via the nail, the resulting construct accommodates the load bearing function of the otherwise healthy limb. In establishing design performance targets for these devices, in vitro test conditions are widely accepted leaving the in vivo conditions aside. However, in vivo device failures due to distraction forces necessitate novel modeling considerations. It is especially important to simulate the loads in limb distraction, as this brings the bone-implant construct to a totally different regime than the hip-joint contact force (Point-Force Model, PFM). In this work we used a simplified approach to incorporate ligament stretching due to limb distraction via self-equilibrating spring elements in a finite-element setting (spring-force model, SFM). We compared the effect of loading type on load transmission paths through the locking pins, for these two distinct loading modes, namely, SFM and PFM. The two modes illustrate entirely different load transfer regimes around the bone/nail interface region. In order to avoid high contact stresses between the nail and the bone segments, it is advisable to keep the osteotomy away from the mid-range between the pin connections. It was also seen for both loading modes that including an additional pin at a load transfer location does not significantly alter the load carried by a single pin (the additional pin rather acts as a geometric stabilizer). PMID:22858057

Okyar, A Fethi; Bayoglu, Riza

2012-11-01

7

Limb lengthening in achondroplasia by Ilizarov's method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In achondroplasts limb lengthening can restore the normal proportion of the body. The Ilizarov method of limb lengthening has been used in 37 patients, 23 of whom have had an adequate follow-up after operation. In this technique the cortex of the bone is partially cut, leaving the medulla intact; the two bone segments are then subjected to distraction by means

R. Cattaneo; A. Villa; M. Catagni; L. Tentori

1988-01-01

8

Microstructural properties of the mid-facial bones in relation to the distribution of occlusal loading.  

PubMed

Although the concept of the occlusal load transfer through the facial skeleton along the buttresses has been extensively studied, there has been no study to link microarchitecture of the mid-facial bones to the occlusal load distribution. The aim of this study was to analyze micro-structural properties of the mid-facial bones in relation to occlusal stress. The study was performed by combining the three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) and micro-computed tomography analysis (micro-CT). Clenching was simulated on the computer model of the adult male human skull which was also used as a source of bone specimens. After the FEA was run, stress was measured at the specific sites in cortical shell and trabecular bone of the model along and between the buttresses. From the corresponding sites on the skull, twenty-five cortical and thirteen cancellous bone specimens were harvested. The specimens were classified into high stress or low stress group based on the stress levels measured via the FEA. Micro-architecture of each specimen was assessed by micro-CT. In the high stress group, cortical bone showed a tendency toward greater thickness and density, lower porosity, and greater pore separation. Stress-related differences in microstructure between the groups were more pronounced in trabecular bone, which showed significantly greater bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in the high stress group. Our results suggest that the mid-facial bones in the adult dentate male skull exhibit regional variations in cortical and trabecular bone micro-architecture that could be a consequence of different occlusal stress. PMID:25093265

Janovic, Aleksa; Milovanovic, Petar; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Hahn, Michael; Rakocevic, Zoran; Filipovic, Nenad; Amling, Michael; Busse, Bjoern; Djuric, Marija

2014-11-01

9

Hearing and Facial Function After Surgical Removal of Cholesteatomas Involving Petrous Bone  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to inspect the clinical characteristics, surgical approaches, functional preservation, and complications of petrous bone cholesteatoma and to propose appropriate surgical approaches based on long-term follow-up cases and previous reports in the literature. Methods The medical records of 31 patients who underwent surgery for petrous bone cholesteatoma between 1990 and 2011 at two tertiary referral hospitals were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the classification, type of surgical approach, preservation of facial and auditory function, and recurrence. Results Of 31 cases, 16 were supralabyrinthine (class I), 1 was infralabyrinthine-apical (class III), 13 were massive (class IV), and 1 was apical (class V). Facial nerve palsy was found in 35.5% of the cases (11 cases). Hearing was preserved in 11 of 22 patients who had better than a 50-dB hearing level of bone conduction pure tone average preoperatively. Preoperative hearing was preserved in only four of the patients in class I (supralabyrinthine). Facial function was preserved or improved in 29 patients (93.5%). Conclusion Complete removal of cholesteatoma of petrous bone can be achieved by choosing the appropriate approach based on location and extent. Facial function was preserved postoperatively in most reviewed cases. Auditory function could not be preserved postoperatively in some cases, but preserving residual hearing levels can be accomplished mostly in supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas with the appropriate surgical approach. PMID:25436044

Kim, Min Joo; An, Yun Suk; Jang, Min Seok

2014-01-01

10

Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

2011-03-01

11

[Central cable system--fully automatic, continuous distraction osteogenesis for the lengthening treatment of large bone defects].  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis involving bone transport enables the reconstruction of large bone defects. The main bone fragments are usually stablilised externally, an intermediate bone segment is separated and moved through the defect at a rate of about 1 mm/day. New high-quality bone is built up in the constantly enlarging osteotomy gap. A major problem associated with the method is the fact that the fixation pins are also moved over the same distance, and cut through the soft tissue, often resulting in painful pin tract infections and ugly scars. An automatic motorized bone transport system employing a single central cable now eliminates this problem. The system can be combined with any external fixateur, since the relevant implanted parts for bone transport are independent of the external stabilizer. The surgical procedure, which is easy on the patient, consists of bone segment separation, central cable fixation, and stabilisation of the main fragments, and requires the use of numerous special tools. The distraction itself results in significantly less soft tissue irritation and pain. Pin tract infections are rare, so that changeover to internal fixation after completion of bone transport carries little risk of infection. This article details the technical features of the stabilizing system and the transport and the control systems, and describes the clinical application in a patient. PMID:15481408

Baumgart, R; Hinterwimmer, S; Krammer, M; Mutschler, W

2004-08-01

12

A deep penetrating facial congenital melanocytic tumor with bone involvement and ipsilateral eye blindness.  

PubMed

: Bone involvement has been described in tumors with melanocytic differentiation such as melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, and very rarely in cellular blue nevi and neurocristic cutaneous hamartoma. We present an unusual case of facial congenital melanocytic tumor that involved the underlying bones and maxillary sinus and led to unilateral blindness. A newborn with a large red bluish patch with peripheral brown and black macules overlying marked swelling on the left side of his face was presented. The tumor was shown by magnetic resonance imaging, scintigraphy, and histopathology to invade the underlying bones and maxillary sinus and to compress the left eyeball resulting in blindness. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, morphometric computerized microscopy, molecular genetic mutation analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization studies were more congruent with a melanocytic nevus. An 8.5-year follow-up was uneventful, with spontaneous partial shrinkage of the tumor. PMID:25222197

Bergman, Reuven; Ben-Arush, Miriam W; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Gilboa, Michael; Simon, Einav; Hershkovitz, Dov; Sabo, Edmond; Maly, Alexander; Gerami, Pedram; Goldsher, Dorith

2015-01-01

13

Crown lengthening revisited.  

PubMed

Over the last 37 years, crown-lengthening procedures have been used predictably to restore teeth broken down from caries, trauma, and extensive wear. With crown lengthening, the dentogingival junction is "re-created" at a more apical level on the root to accommodate the junctional epithelium and the connective tissue attachment. Forced eruption can be used in addition, or as an alternative, to tooth lengthening. The authors discuss the indications for tooth lengthening, forced eruption, and orthodontic extrusion, as well as the treatment planning for these procedures. PMID:10650366

Rosenberg, E S; Cho, S C; Garber, D A

1999-06-01

14

Metacarpal lengthening by distraction histiogenesis in adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Metacarpal lengthening in the hand is a new application for distraction neo-histiogenesis. Metacarpal lengthening with distraction helps in improvement in pinch function. Thumb lengthening is technically easy in comparison to other metacarpals. We present the operative treatment and post-operative outcome in nine patients with amputations and congenital anomalies. Materials and Methods: Nine patients underwent distraction osteogenesis for the treatment of amputations of the hand and other congenital anomalies. The dominant right hand was operated in eight cases and the left hand in one case. There were six males and three females. Improvement of function was always the aim of surgery. Age range was between 18 and 23 years. Thumb lengthening was performed in five patients and that of the index finger in four patients. Distraction started on the fifth post-operative day at the rate of 0.25 mm/day. Sensory function and bone consolidation was assessed before fixator removal. Results: The mean duration of distraction was 51 days (range, 42–60 days) and the distractor was removed at a mean of 150 days (range, 140 and 160 days) and the bones were lengthened by a mean of 24 mm (range, 20–28 mm) There was improvement of function in all cases. Conclusion: The metacarpal lengthening by distraction histiogenesis in congenital and traumatic amputations is safe and simple method to improve pinch function of hand. PMID:19838389

Das, Sakti Prasad; Mohanty, Ram Narayan; Das, Sanjay Kumar

2009-01-01

15

Pattern Alteration: Lengthening & Shortening  

E-print Network

, and E-373, Personal Measurement Chart, for basic alteration instructions. A garment needs lengthening if major fi tting points, such as the waist or hem line ride up evenly around the body or fall too short for comfort. You might also want... to lengthen it because of personal preference or fashion. Short- ening is needed if major fi tting points are too long and/or extra crosswise folds appear evenly around the body. Lengthening or shortening a pattern is often the only adjustment you need...

2006-08-04

16

Percutaneous Achilles Tendon Lengthening  

MedlinePLUS

... percutaneous Achilles tendon lengthening, specific complications are rare. Wound problems such as nonhealing incisions or infection can occur. The Achilles tendon can remain tight after surgery. The Achilles tendon can also completely rupture during ...

17

Quantitative evaluation of alveolar cortical bone density in adults with different vertical facial types using cone-beam computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the cortical bone densities of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes in adults with different vertical facial types using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods CBCT images (n = 142) of adult patients (20-45 years) were classified into hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent groups on the basis of linear and angular S-N/Go-Me measurements. The cortical bone densities (in Hounsfield units) at maxillary and mandibular interdental sites from the distal aspect of the canine to the mesial aspect of the second molar were measured on the images. Results On the maxillary buccal side, female subjects in the hyperdivergent group showed significantly decreased bone density, while in the posterior region, male subjects in the hyperdivergent group displayed significantly decreased bone density when compared with corresponding subjects in the other groups (p<0.001). Furthermore, the subjects in the hyperdivergent group had significantly lower bone densities on the mandibular buccal side than hypodivergent subjects. The maxillary palatal bone density did not differ significantly among groups, but female subjects showed significantly denser palatal cortical bone. No significant difference in bone density was found between the palatal and buccal sides in the maxillary premolar region. Overall, the palatal cortical bone was denser anteriorly and buccal cortical bone was denser posteriorly. Conclusion Adults with the hyperdivergent facial type tend to have less-dense buccal cortical bone in the maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes. Clinicians should be aware of the variability of cortical bone densities at mini-implant placement sites. PMID:24511514

Ozdemir, Fulya; Tozlu, Murat

2014-01-01

18

Current concepts of leg lengthening.  

PubMed

Any lower limb discrepancy may be equalised by conservative means (insoles, prosthesis and orthosis). However, their long-term acceptance is low in regard to function, costs, expenditure and appearance. Timely epiphysiodesis is the best option in uniplanar deformities with adequate remaining growth and for patients whose predicted final body height is above the 50th percentile. However, many patients present late or with multi-planar deformities, which warrant more sophisticated operative approaches. The history of surgical bone lengthening comprises 100 exciting years of struggling, development and ongoing learning. The initial strategy of acute or rapid incremental distraction had lasted almost half a century until Ilizarov recognised the benefits of biological periosteum-preserving osteotomies and incremental lengthening at slow rates (1 mm/day) at a 4 × 0.25-mm daily rhythm, well appreciated as callotasis. In parallel, ring and wire constructs made complex three-dimensional axial, translational and rotational bone moulding possible. Taylor Spatial Frames-built on hexapod strut-linked platform technology as known from flight simulators-took limb correction to a more reliable, more precise and aesthetical level, all the more that the whole process became web-based. It represents state-of-the-art methodology and technology for complex, multi-plane deformities. Due to the significant risk of secondary malalignment, indications for lengthening by unilateral fixation have shrunken to moderate amounts of length disparity and uni- to bi-planar deformities in patients with still open physes. Mechanical or motorised, minimally invasively placed nails prevent muscle fixation and, therefore, ease rehabilitation, increase patient comfort and potentially shorten the overall time of sick leave and refrain from sports activities. Hence, they offer a valuable alternative for low-grade complexity situations. It remains to be proved if the significantly higher implant costs are compensated by lower treatment costs. Overall, limb lengthening, particularly in combination with multi-planar deformity correction, can still be an arduous endeavour. In any case, wise judgement of the patient's deformity, medical and biological situation, psychosocial environment, selection of the appropriate method and hardware, as well as meticulous operating technique by an experienced surgeon are the cornerstones of successful outcomes. PMID:23730339

Hasler, Carol C; Krieg, Andreas H

2012-06-01

19

Strict X-ray beam collimation for facial bones examination can increase lens exposure  

PubMed Central

Objectives It is well accepted that collimation is a cost-effective dose-reducing tool for X-ray examinations. This phantom-based study investigated the impact of X-ray beam collimation on radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid along with the effect on image quality in facial bone radiography. Methods A three-view series (occipitomental, occipitomental 30 and lateral) was investigated, and radiation doses to the lenses and thyroid were measured using an Unfors dosemeter. Images were assessed by six experienced observers using a visual grading analysis and a total of 5400 observations were made. Results Strict collimation significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the radiation dose to the lenses of the eyes and thyroid when using a fixed projection-specific exposure. With a variable exposure technique (fixed exit dose, to simulate the behaviour of an automatic exposure control), while strict collimation was again shown to reduce thyroid dose, higher lens doses were demonstrated when compared with larger fields of exposure. Image quality was found to significantly improve using strict collimation, with observer preference being demonstrated using visual grading characteristic curves. Conclusion The complexities of optimising radiographic techniques have been shown and the data presented emphasise the importance of examining dose-reducing strategies in a comprehensive way. PMID:22374279

Powys, R; Robinson, J; Kench, P L; Ryan, J; Brennan, P C

2012-01-01

20

Confirmation of TFAP2A gene involvement in branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) and report of temporal bone anomalies.  

PubMed

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is an autosomal-dominant condition characterized by three main features, respectively: branchial defects, ocular anomalies, and craniofacial defects including cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). We report on one family with three affected, and two sporadic cases that have been found to carry missense mutations in the newly reported BOFS gene: TFAP2A. This report confirms the involvement of this transcription factor in this developmental syndrome with clinical variability. Moreover, we present CT scan temporal bone anomalies in the familial cases, related to branchial arch defects, highlighting the importance of radiological investigations for differential diagnosis. PMID:19764023

Stoetzel, C; Riehm, S; Bennouna Greene, V; Pelletier, V; Vigneron, J; Leheup, B; Marion, V; Hellé, S; Danse, J M; Thibault, C; Moulinier, L; Veillon, F; Dollfus, H

2009-10-01

21

Translational Research: Palatal-derived Ecto-mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Palate: A New Hope for Alveolar Bone and Cranio-Facial Bone Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The management of facial defects has rapidly changed in the last decade. Functional and esthetic requirements have steadily increased along with the refinements of surgery. In the case of advanced atrophy or jaw defects, extensive horizontal and vertical bone augmentation is often unavoidable to enable patients to be fitted with implants. Loss of vertical alveolar bone height is the most common cause for a non primary stability of dental implants in adults. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure loss of vertical alveolar bone height and achieve optimal pre-implantological bone regeneration before dental implant placement. Recently, it has been found that specific populations of stem cells and/or progenitor cells could be isolated from different dental resources, namely the dental follicle, the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament. Our research group has cultured palatal-derived stem cells (paldSCs) as dentospheres and further differentiated into various cells of the neuronal and osteogenic lineage, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. In this publication will be shown whether paldSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate alveolar bone tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Furthermore, using these data we have started a proof of principle clinical- and histological controlled study using stem cell-rich palatal tissues for improving the vertical alveolar bone augmentation in critical size defects. The initial results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat alveolar bone defects in humans. PMID:24921024

Grimm, Wolf Dieter; Dannan, Aous; Giesenhagen, Bernd; Schau, Ingmar; Varga, Gabor; Vukovic, Mark Alexander; Sirak, Sergey Vladimirovich

2014-01-01

22

Humeral lengthening by distraction osteogenesis: a safe procedure?  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the safety of humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame. We retrospectively reviewed 26 humeral segments in 17 patients that were lengthened at our department between 1993 and 2011. There were varying aetiologies including achondroplasia, epiphyseal dysplasia, Oilier disease, trauma or infection of the proximal humeral growth-plate, unicameral bone cyst and brachial plexus injury. Mean age at start of surgery was 17.05 years (range : 5-40). The mean lengthening achieved was 8.85 (3-13) cm. Mean lengthening percentage was 353% (range : 10-48). Average healing index was 30.56 days/cm (range : 17.46-4232). There was a significant difference in healing index between achondroplasia patients (28.79 days/cm) compared to others (33.41 days/cm). Minor problems included pin tract infection (14 segments). More important obstacles were temporary elbow flexion contracture (7 segments), premature consolidation (6 segments), radial nerve dysaesthesia (6 segments) and loosening of a Schanz screw (1 segment). Complications included one fracture and one progressive bowing after frame removal. One planned lengthening was not completely achieved. Despite a lot of obstacles, humeral lengthening using an Ilizarov frame provided a reliable method to treat the functional or cosmetic problems of upper limb shortening. PMID:24563967

Ruette, Peter; Lammens, Johan

2013-12-01

23

Mandibular lengthening by distraction osteogenesis in the setting of osteogenesis imperfecta.  

PubMed

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited disorder characterized by bone fragility and deformity. The craniofacial skeleton may be involved either primarily or by result of a concomitant diagnosis. Distraction osteogenesis has emerged as a versatile reconstructive option for many craniofacial deformities. Mandibular lengthening by distraction has not been reported in a patient with OI. We present a patient in whom mandibular lengthening was successfully performed twice for hemifacial microsomia. Bilateral lengthening was initially performed with successful airway improvement. This was followed by transport distraction on the more severely affected side for condylar reconstruction. Successful mandibular lengthening by distraction is possible in the setting of OI. PMID:25565236

Black, Jonathan S; Denny, Arlen D

2015-01-01

24

Skin and Bones: The Contribution of Skin Tone and Facial Structure to Racial Prototypicality Ratings  

PubMed Central

Previous research reveals that a more ‘African’ appearance has significant social consequences, yielding more negative first impressions and harsher criminal sentencing of Black or White individuals. This study is the first to systematically assess the relative contribution of skin tone and facial metrics to White, Black, and Korean perceivers’ ratings of the racial prototypicality of faces from the same three groups. Our results revealed that the relative contribution of metrics and skin tone depended on both perceiver race and face race. White perceivers’ racial prototypicality ratings were less responsive to variations in skin tone than were Black or Korean perceivers’ ratings. White perceivers ratings’ also were more responsive to facial metrics than to skin tone, while the reverse was true for Black perceivers. Additionally, across all perceiver groups, skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics on racial prototypicality ratings of White faces, with the reverse for Korean faces. For Black faces, the relative impact varied with perceiver race: skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics for Black and Korean perceivers, with the reverse for White perceivers. These results have significant implications for predicting who will experience racial prototypicality biases and from whom. PMID:22815966

Strom, Michael A.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Shunan; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Lee, Hoon Koo

2012-01-01

25

Occlusal load distribution through the cortical and trabecular bone of the human mid-facial skeleton in natural dentition: A three-dimensional finite element study.  

PubMed

Understanding of the occlusal load distribution through the mid-facial skeleton in natural dentition is essential because alterations in magnitude and/or direction of occlusal forces may cause remarkable changes in cortical and trabecular bone structure. Previous analyses by strain gauge technique, photoelastic and, more recently, finite element (FE) methods provided no direct evidence for occlusal load distribution through the cortical and trabecular bone compartments individually. Therefore, we developed an improved three-dimensional FE model of the human skull in order to clarify the distribution of occlusal forces through the cortical and trabecular bone during habitual masticatory activities. Particular focus was placed on the load transfer through the anterior and posterior maxilla. The results were presented in von Mises stress (VMS) and the maximum principal stress, and compared to the reported FE and strain gauge data. Our qualitative stress analysis indicates that occlusal forces distribute through the mid-facial skeleton along five vertical and two horizontal buttresses. We demonstrated that cortical bone has a priority in the transfer of occlusal load in the anterior maxilla, whereas both cortical and trabecular bone in the posterior maxilla are equally involved in performing this task. Observed site dependence of the occlusal load distribution may help clinicians in creating strategies for implantology and orthodontic treatments. Additionally, the magnitude of VMS in our model was significantly lower in comparison to previous FE models composed only of cortical bone. This finding suggests that both cortical and trabecular bone should be modeled whenever stress will be quantitatively analyzed. PMID:25458179

Janovic, Aleksa; Saveljic, Igor; Vukicevic, Arso; Nikolic, Dalibor; Rakocevic, Zoran; Jovicic, Gordana; Filipovic, Nenad; Djuric, Marija

2015-01-01

26

Telomerase dependence of telomere lengthening  

E-print Network

We have identified a ku80 mutant of Arabidopsis and show that telomerase is needed to generate the longer telomeres observed in this mutant. Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures at the ends of chromosomes that permit cells to distinguish chromosome ends from double-strand breaks, thus preventing chromosome fusion events. Ku80 deficiency results in the lengthening of telomeres, a phenotype also seen in an Arabidopsis ku70 mutant. Furthermore, homogeneous populations of ku80 mutant cells show a steady increase in the length of telomere tracts, which reach an equilibrium length and then stabilize. In contrast to that in mammals, Ku80 deficiency in Arabidopsis cells does not cause end-to-end fusion of chromosomes. This telomere lengthening is dependent on the presence of telomerase, although it is not attributable to a significant increase in telomerase activity per se. These results demonstrate the essential role of the Ku80 protein as a negative regulator of telomerase function in plant cells.

Maria Eugenia Gallego; Nicole Jalut; Charles I. White

2003-01-01

27

Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning  

PubMed Central

Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity. PMID:24665426

Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

2014-01-01

28

Nail lengthening and fingertip amputations.  

PubMed

Fingertip injuries can be treated in different ways, including shortening with primary closure, skin grafts, and local or distant flaps. Nail bed involvement complicates fingertip reconstruction and may influence the choice of treatment. Local flaps can usually replace the pulp and provide a satisfactory functional and aesthetic result, whereas reconstruction of the fingernail apparatus is more difficult. In the period between 1998 and 2001, 12 fingertip injuries with nail bed involvement were treated with a combination of local flaps (Tranquilli-Leali and Venkataswami flaps) and the eponychial flap. The eponychial flap described by Bakhach is a backward cutaneous translation flap that lengthens the nail plate and restores a good appearance of the nail apparatus. This technique is simple to use and can be used with different flaps for pulp reconstruction. PMID:14504512

Adani, Roberto; Marcoccio, Ignazio; Tarallo, Luigi

2003-10-01

29

Three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A short clinical crown may lead to poor retention form thereby leading to improper tooth preparation. Surgical crown lengthening procedure is done to increase the clinical crown length without violating the biologic width. Several techniques have been proposed for clinical crown lengthening which includes gingivectomy, apically displaced flap with or without resective osseous surgery, and surgical extrusion using periotome. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare clinically the three different surgical techniques of crown lengthening procedures. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients who reported to the department of Periodontology, were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, which include patients who underwent gingivectomy (Group A), apically repositioned flap (Group B) and surgical extrusion using periotome (Group C). Clinical measurements such as clinical crown length, gingival zenith, interdental papilla height were taken at baseline and at 3rd month post-operatively. Results: Clinical and radiographic evaluation at 3rd month suggest that surgical extrusion technique offers several advantages over the other conventional surgical techniques such as preservation of the interproximal papilla, gingival margin position and no marginal bone loss. Conclusions: This technique can be used to successfully treat a grossly damaged crown structure as a result of tooth fracture, dental caries and iatrogenic factors especially in the anterior region, where esthetics is of great concern. PMID:23946567

Nethravathy, Ramya; Vinoth, Santhana Krishnan; Thomas, Ashwin Varghese

2013-01-01

30

Sagittal Knee Kinematics following Hamstring Lengthening  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to analyze sagittal knee kinematics following hamstring lengthening. A retrospective analysis was performed of 16 children (32 knees) with cerebral palsy who underwent hamstring lengthening as an isolated surgical procedure. Gait analysis was performed prior to surgery and at a minimum of one year after surgery. Decreased stance maximum knee flexion, stance minimum knee flexion, swing maximum knee flexion, and swing minimum knee flexion were noted. Total knee excursion increased. The present study confirmed the previously reported increase in total knee excursion with decrease in stance minimum and swing maximum knee flexion after hamstring lengthening. PMID:16789447

Carney, Brian T; Oeffinger, Donna; Meo, Anne Marie

2006-01-01

31

Clinical crown lengthening in the esthetic zone.  

PubMed

Periodontal surgical procedures consisting of gingival flaps and osseous recontouring are indicated for crown lengthening of several contiguous teeth in the esthetic zone; both in cases where restorations are required and in cases where no restorations are planned, such as in patients with excessive gingival display due to altered passive eruption. Forced tooth eruption via orthodontic extrusion is the technique of choice when clinical crown lengthening is necessary on isolated teeth in the esthetic zone. PMID:17915591

Camargo, Paulo M; Melnick, Philip R; Camargo, Luciano M

2007-07-01

32

Neuromuscular injury during limb lengthening: A longitudinal follow-up by rabbit tibial model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limb lengthening has been used for many years to correct congenital anomalies and unequal leg length. Some surgeons focus on bone genesis and anatomical alignment, and pay less attention to potential damage to muscles, nerves, and vessels during the gradual stretching. In an attempt to identify the presence and extent of neuromuscular abnormalities during leg elongation, a rabbit tibial osteotomy

Tien-Yow Chuang; Rai-Chi Chan; Lin-Show Chin; Tao-Chang Hsu

1995-01-01

33

Intramedullary leg lengthening with a motorized nail  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309

2011-01-01

34

Anthropological study for the determination of the Europid and Negroid characteristics on facial bones of human fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

During my 3-month long scholarship in the Smithsonian Institute in 1991, I carried out metric and comparative anatomical (anthropological) examinations on the collection of fetal\\/newborn skeletons of the Anthropological Institute of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. I determined 85 sizes of 50 characteristic bones of about 350 complete fetal\\/new-born skeletons in standardized conditions. In the study of

Ferenc Kósa

35

YogaTechniques to Lengthen, Strengthen &  

E-print Network

YogaTechniques to Lengthen, Strengthen & De-stress atWork: This session will teach partic- ipants of all fitness levels how to integrate yoga into their daily work schedules. Partic- ipants will learn the benefits of yoga and practice these asanas (yoga positions). If you spend multiple hours at a desk

Scott, Robert A.

36

Plasticity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow in the Presence of Conditioned Medium of the Facial Nerve and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2  

PubMed Central

A number of evidences show the influence of the growth of injured nerve fibers in peripheral nervous system as well as potential implant stem cells (SCs). The SCs implementation in the clinical field is promising and the understanding of proliferation and differentiation is essential. This study aimed to evaluate the plasticity of mesenchymal SCs from bone marrow of mice in the presence of culture medium conditioned with facial nerve explants and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The growth and morphology were assessed for over 72 hours. Quantitative phenotypic analysis was taken from the immunocytochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), protein OX-42 (OX-42), protein associated with microtubule MAP-2 (MAP-2), protein ?-tubulin III (?-tubulin III), neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), and neurofilament 200 (NF-200). Cells cultured with conditioned medium alone or combined with FGF-2 showed morphological features apparently similar at certain times to neurons and glia and a significant proliferative activity in groups 2 and 4. Cells cultivated only with conditioned medium acquired a glial phenotype. Cells cultured with FGF-2 and conditioned medium expressed GFAP, OX-42, MAP-2, ?-tubulin III, NeuN, and NF-200. This study improves our understanding of the plasticity of mesenchymal cells and allows the search for better techniques with SCs. PMID:25614888

Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; Marinho, Maria Jocileide de Medeiros; Pereira, Wogelsanger Oliveira; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão; Costa, Miriam Stela Mariz de Oliveira; Júnior, Expedito Silva do Nascimento; Cavalcante, Jeferson Sousa

2014-01-01

37

A bioactive "self-fitting" shape memory polymer scaffold with potential to treat cranio-maxillo facial bone defects.  

PubMed

While tissue engineering is a promising alternative for treating critical-sized cranio-maxillofacial bone defects, improvements in scaffold design are needed. In particular, scaffolds that can precisely match the irregular boundaries of bone defects as well as exhibit an interconnected pore morphology and bioactivity would enhance tissue regeneration. In this study, a shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffold was developed exhibiting an open porous structure and the capacity to conformally "self-fit" into irregular defects. The SMP scaffold was prepared via photocrosslinking of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diacrylate using a SCPL method, which included a fused salt template. A bioactive polydopamine coating was applied to coat the pore walls. Following exposure to warm saline at T>T(trans) (T(trans)=T(m) of PCL), the scaffold became malleable and could be pressed into an irregular model defect. Cooling caused the scaffold to lock in its temporary shape within the defect. The polydopamine coating did not alter the physical properties of the scaffold. However, polydopamine-coated scaffolds exhibited superior bioactivity (i.e. formation of hydroxyapatite in vitro), osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic gene expression and extracellular matrix deposition. PMID:25063999

Zhang, Dawei; George, Olivia J; Petersen, Keri M; Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea C; Hahn, Mariah S; Grunlan, Melissa A

2014-11-01

38

Peripheral nerve lengthening as a regenerative strategy  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic function, incurring substantial financial costs and diminished quality of life. For large nerve gaps, proximal lesions, or chronic nerve injury, the prognosis for recovery is particularly poor, even with autografts, the current gold standard for treating small to moderate nerve gaps. In vivo elongation of intact proximal stumps towards the injured distal stumps of severed peripheral nerves may offer a promising new strategy to treat nerve injury. This review describes several nerve lengthening strategies, including a novel internal fixator device that enables rapid and distal reconnection of proximal and distal nerve stumps. PMID:25317163

Vaz, Kenneth M.; Brown, Justin M.; Shah, Sameer B.

2014-01-01

39

COMPLICATIONS ENCOUNTERED DURING LENGTHENING OVER AN INTRAMEDULLARY NAIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In limb-lengthening, the quest for increased patient comfort and a reduced period of external fixation has led to techniques such as lengthening over an intramedullary nail. The goals of this study were to investigate the rate and types of complications encountered during lengthening over an intramedullary nail and to identify solutions to these complications. Methods : Forty-two segments (thirty-five

MEHMET KOCAOGLU; LEVENT ERALP; ONDER KILICOGLU; HALIL BURC; MEHMET CAKMAK

40

Facial transplantation: A concise update  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation. PMID:23229268

Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.

2013-01-01

41

Effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics: changes in facial content and frames.  

PubMed

Aesthetic units of the face can be divided into facial content (FC; eyes, nose, lips, and mouth), anterior facial frame (AFF; a contour line from the trichion, the temporal line of the frontal bone, the lateral orbital rim, the most lateral line of the anterior part of the zygomatic body, the anterior border of the masseter muscle, to the inferior border of the chin), and posterior facial frame (PFF; a contour line from the hairline, the zygomatic arch, to the ramus and gonial angle area of the mandible). The size and shape of each FC and the balance and proportion between FCs create a unique appearance for each person. The facial form can be determined through the combination of AFF and PFF. In the Asian population, clinicians frequently encounter problems of FC (eg, acute nasolabial angle, protrusive and everted lips, nonconsonant lip line, or lip canting), AFF (eg, midface hypoplasia, protrusive and asymmetric chin, vertical deficiency/excess of the anterior maxilla and symphysis, or prominent zygoma), and PFF (eg, square mandibular angle). These problems can be efficiently and effectively corrected through the combination of hard tissue surgery such as anterior segmental osteotomy, genioplasty, mandibular angle reduction, malarplasty, and orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the purposes of this article were to introduce the concepts of FC, AFF, and PFF, and to explain the effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics. PMID:23147319

Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Hak

2012-11-01

42

Distraction by a monotube fixator to achieve limb lengthening: predictive factors for tibia trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Management of post trauma tibia bone gap varied with orthopedic surgeons’ experience and tools available. Study aims to determine predictive factors for distraction by a monotube fixator (DMF) outcome in post tibia trauma limb length discrepancy. Methods A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of post traumatized tibia bone gap and limb length discrepancy patients at tertiary hospitals. Patient’s informed consent and institutional ethical committee approval were obtained. Bio-data, clinical and healing indexes were documented. DMF was applied for patient that met inclusion criteria. The Statistic tests used included the Chi-square, the Student’s two-tailed t test, and the Wilcox on rank-sum test when appropriate. Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for poor outcome potential risk factors were recorded. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were evaluated. Significance level was set at a p value <0.05. Results Thirty-six patients with mean age, 37.2?±?10.3 year and male/female ratio of 1:1.25 had DMF applied. Motorcycle accident accounted for 50.0% of patients and diaphyseal segment was most commonly affected 25 (69.4%). The mean bone lengthened was 10.1?±?4.0 cm (range: 5-21 cm) and mean duration of bone transport was 105.6?±?38.2 days. The means of rate of distraction, healing index and percentage of lengthening were 0.99?±?0.14 mm/day, 15.6?±?4.3 days/cm and 38.0?±?14.3 respectively. The mean follow up was 9.7 ±4.9 months (range: 2–17.0). Per operative complications varied and outcome was satisfactory in 30 (83.3%). Obesity (p <0.0001), multiple surgery (p?=?0.012) and transfusion (p?=?0.001) correlated to poor outcome. Percentage lengthening???50%, bone gap >10 cm, anemia, blood transfusion, general anesthesia administration, distraction rate >1 mm/day, osteomyelitis and prolong partial weight bearing were significant predictive factors for poor outcome in post traumatic tibia distraction. Conclusion Distraction by a monotube fixator appears effective in achieving correction >38.0% original tibia lengthening following traumatic bone gap. Predictive factors for poor outcome were useful for prognostication. PMID:23672599

2013-01-01

43

Geared up to stretch: pennate muscle behavior during active lengthening.  

PubMed

Many locomotor activities require muscles to actively lengthen, dissipate energy and decelerate the body. These eccentric contractions can disrupt cytoskeletal structures within myofibrils and reduce force output. We examined how architectural features of pennate muscles can provide a protective mechanism against eccentric muscle damage by limiting fascicle lengthening. It has been previously shown that the angled fibers of pennate muscles change orientation when shortening. This change in fiber orientation can amplify fascicle shortening, resulting in a velocity advantage at the level of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) that is characterized by a gear ratio (MTU velocity/fascicle velocity). A muscle's architectural gear ratio (AGR) has been shown to vary as a function of force during shortening, while AGR during lengthening remains largely unknown. We independently measured fascicle length and MTU length in vitro in the bullfrog plantaris. We characterized the muscle's force-velocity curve and AGR during both shortening and lengthening across a broad range of forces (10-190% peak isometric force). AGR was measured during the isotonic portion of each contraction, to eliminate possible contributions of series elasticity to MTU length changes. We found that gear ratio varies with force during both shortening and lengthening contractions. The highest AGR was observed during lengthening contractions, indicating that lengthening of the MTU can occur with relatively little stretch of the fascicle. As fascicle strain is considered an important determinant of muscle damage, a high gear ratio may afford pennate muscles protection against the damaging effects of active lengthening. PMID:24477610

Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J

2014-02-01

44

Geared up to stretch: pennate muscle behavior during active lengthening  

PubMed Central

Many locomotor activities require muscles to actively lengthen, dissipate energy and decelerate the body. These eccentric contractions can disrupt cytoskeletal structures within myofibrils and reduce force output. We examined how architectural features of pennate muscles can provide a protective mechanism against eccentric muscle damage by limiting fascicle lengthening. It has been previously shown that the angled fibers of pennate muscles change orientation when shortening. This change in fiber orientation can amplify fascicle shortening, resulting in a velocity advantage at the level of the muscle–tendon unit (MTU) that is characterized by a gear ratio (MTU velocity/fascicle velocity). A muscle's architectural gear ratio (AGR) has been shown to vary as a function of force during shortening, while AGR during lengthening remains largely unknown. We independently measured fascicle length and MTU length in vitro in the bullfrog plantaris. We characterized the muscle's force–velocity curve and AGR during both shortening and lengthening across a broad range of forces (10–190% peak isometric force). AGR was measured during the isotonic portion of each contraction, to eliminate possible contributions of series elasticity to MTU length changes. We found that gear ratio varies with force during both shortening and lengthening contractions. The highest AGR was observed during lengthening contractions, indicating that lengthening of the MTU can occur with relatively little stretch of the fascicle. As fascicle strain is considered an important determinant of muscle damage, a high gear ratio may afford pennate muscles protection against the damaging effects of active lengthening. PMID:24477610

Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

45

Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Results Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Interpretation Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted. PMID:22489887

2012-01-01

46

Early and late fracture following extensive limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.  

PubMed

Two types of fracture, early and late, have been reported following limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH). We reviewed 25 patients with these conditions who underwent 72 segmental limb lengthening procedures involving the femur and/or tibia, between 2003 and 2011. Gender, age at surgery, lengthened segment, body mass index, the shape of the callus, the amount and percentage of lengthening and the healing index were evaluated to determine predictive factors for the occurrence of early (within three weeks after removal of the fixation pins) and late fracture (> three weeks after removal of the pins). The Mann?Whitney U test and Pearson's chi-squared test for univariate analysis and stepwise regression model for multivariate analysis were used to identify the predictive factor for each fracture. Only one patient (two tibiae) was excluded from the analysis due to excessively slow formation of the regenerate, which required supplementary measures. A total of 24 patients with 70 limbs were included in the study. There were 11 early fractures in eight patients. The shape of the callus (lateral or central callus) was the only statistical variable related to the occurrence of early fracture in univariate and multivariate analyses. Late fracture was observed in six limbs and the mean time between removal of the fixation pins and fracture was 18.3 weeks (3.3 to 38.4). Lengthening of the tibia, larger healing index, and lateral or central callus were related to the occurrence of a late fracture in univariate analysis. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the shape of the callus was the strongest predictor for late fracture (odds ratio: 19.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.91 to 128). Lateral or central callus had a significantly larger risk of fracture than fusiform, cylindrical, or concave callus. Radiological monitoring of the shape of the callus during distraction is important to prevent early and late fracture of lengthened limbs in patients with ACH or HCH. In patients with thin callus formation, some measures to stimulate bone formation should be considered as early as possible. PMID:25183602

Kitoh, H; Mishima, K; Matsushita, M; Nishida, Y; Ishiguro, N

2014-09-01

47

Facial restoration.  

PubMed

Medical science has demonstrated that fiction can be turned into fact. It is prophesied that man will be able to liver longer due to the development of synthetic organs. Sophisticated facial prostheses will be included in this progressive field. Perhaps the next century will make synthetic substitutes past history with the transplantation of organs as established practice. Or, perhaps some of the latest developments of growing skin or the use of carbonated teflon inserts will replace currently used plastics. In the meantime, we must continue to work within the limitations of our present technology. PMID:1228185

Diner, J

1975-07-01

48

Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... the Campaign Campaign Update Member Donors Corporate Partners Recognition Program 1887 Annual Giving Annual Report Donate Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision ...

49

Longitudinal Bunch Lengthening Compensation in High Charge RF Photoinjector  

SciTech Connect

In high charge RF photoinjectors for wakefield two beam acceleration studies, due to the strong longitudinal space charge, bunch lengthening between the photocathode and photoinjector exit is a critical issue. We present beam dynamics studies of bunch lengthening in an RF photoinjector for a high charge electron beam and describe methods to compensate the bunch lengthening to various degrees. In particular, the beam dynamics for bunch charge from 1nC to 30nC are studied for an S-band 2856 MHz photoinjector.

Pei, S.; Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC

2008-10-03

50

Optimum loading mode for axial stiffness testing in limb lengthening.  

PubMed

The axial stiffness of the regenerate is an indicator of bone healing after fracture or distraction osteogenesis. The axial stiffness may be assessed clinically by measuring the sharing of load between fixator and limb during loading. The aim of this study was to find out how to perform the stiffness test in order to minimize the influence of confounding factors to the test result. We investigated whether the test score was influenced by two factors: 1) the magnitude of the external load applied to the limb during the test; and 2) the patient's position during the test. The problem was approached by both a clinical study and by theoretical calculations. Thirty-three patients undergoing leg lengthening were tested regularly during the consolidation period. The stiffness test was executed with both high and low load, and in a standing and sitting position. There were significant differences in results between both the tests with high and low load, and between the standing and sitting tests. This indicated that both the magnitude of force and patient position during the test influenced the test result. Accordingly, these factors represent sources of error and must be taken into consideration when performing an axial stiffness test. The result of the theoretical calculations confirmed the result. We recommend performing the test while the patient is sitting, and to apply no more than 20% of the individual's body weight. It is also recommended that the same load be used in every test, when testing a patient several times during the treatment period. PMID:16479567

Aarnes, Gudrun T; Steen, Harald; Kristiansen, Leif Pål; Festø, Ellinor; Ludvigsen, Per

2006-03-01

51

A NEW METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF REGENERATED BONE TISSUE ON X-RAY IMAGES OF ELONGATED BONES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for quantification of bone regenerate on the basis of computer-aided analysis of digitized X- ray images is presented and its applicability in bone lengthening using Ilizarov method is demonstrated. In contrary to classical methods the internal part of the bone image is taken into consideration instead of the bone edges. Theoretical background of this concept is presented

LESZEK WOJNAR; BARBARA JASIEWICZ

52

Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions: Affect or Cognition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether observers' facial reactions to the emotional facial expressions of others represent an affective or a cognitive response to these emotional expressions. Three hypotheses were contrasted: (1) facial reactions to emotional facial expressions are due to mimicry as part of an affective empathic reaction; (2) facial reactions to emotional facial expressions are a reection of shared affectdue

Ursula Hess Pierre Philippot Sylvie Blairy; Sylvie Blairy

1998-01-01

53

Fibula-related complications during bilateral tibial lengthening  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Complications related to the fibula during distraction osteogenesis could cause malalignment. Most published studies have analyzed only migration of the fibula during lengthening, with few studies examining the effects of fibular complications. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 120 segments (in 60 patients) between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent bilateral tibial lengthening of more than 5 cm. The mean follow-up time was 4.9 (2.5–6.9) years. Results The average lengthening percentage was 34% (21–65). The ratio of mean fibular length to tibial length was 1.05 (0.91–1.11) preoperatively and 0.83 (0.65–0.95) postoperatively. The mean proximal fibular migration (PFM) was 15 (4–31) mm and mean distal fibular migration (DFM) was 9.7 (0–24) mm. Premature consolidation occurred in 10 segments, nonunion occurred in 12, and angulation of fibula occurred in 8 segments after lengthening. Valgus deformities of the knee occurred in 10 segments. Interpretation PFM induced valgus deformity of the knee, and premature consolidation of the fibula was associated with the distal migration of the proximal fibula. These mechanical malalignments could sometimes be serious enough to warrant surgical correction. Thus, during lengthening repeated radiographic examinations of the fibula are necessary to avoid complications. PMID:22329670

2012-01-01

54

Producing computer facial animation  

E-print Network

This thesis provides a starting point for computer raphics. character developers wishing to produce facial animation using Maya software. A background on past developments is given to highlight major events in the history of computer facial...

Koehlert, Erik Wulf

2012-06-07

55

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

56

[Horton's disease: facial manifestations].  

PubMed

Facial manifestations due to giant cell arteritis are analysed about 102 cases. The whole facial vascular territories are involved, so we have many manifestations. Diagnosis depends on artery biopsy with Doppler aid. PMID:9036519

Lample, G D; Benateau, H; Agron, L; Letellier, P; Compere, J F

1996-12-01

57

Surgical-Allogeneic Facial Reconstruction: Facial Transplants  

PubMed Central

Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA), which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mutilated patients, resulted in greater clinical results. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a literature review on the relevance and effectiveness of facial transplants in mutilated subjects. It was observed that the facial transplants recovered both the aesthetics and function of these patients and consequently improved their quality of life.

Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Bannwart, Lisiane Cristina; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Pereira, Leonardo Viana; Filho, Aljomar José Vechiato

2014-01-01

58

Facial Soft Tissue Trauma  

PubMed Central

Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459

Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

2010-01-01

59

Tibial Lengthening: Extraarticular Calcaneotibial Screw to Prevent Ankle Equinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 2003 and 2006, we used an extraarticular, cannulated, fully threaded posterior calcaneotibial screw to prevent equinus\\u000a contracture in 10 patients (four male and six female patients, 14 limbs) undergoing tibial lengthening with the intramedullary\\u000a skeletal kinetic distractor. Diagnoses were fibular hemimelia (two), mesomelic dwarfism (two), posteromedial bow (one), hemihypertrophy\\u000a (one), poliomyelitis (one), achondroplasia (one), posttraumatic limb-length discrepancy (one), and

Mohan V. Belthur; Dror Paley; Gaurav Jindal; Rolf D. Burghardt; Stacy C. Specht; John E. Herzenberg

2008-01-01

60

Bunch lengthening in the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider) damping rings  

SciTech Connect

A high level of current dependent bunch lengthening has been observed on the North damping ring of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). At currents of 3 {times} 10{sup 10} this behavior does not appear to degrade the machine's performance significantly. However, at the higher currents that are envisioned for the future one fears that its performance could be greatly degraded due to the phenomenon of bunch lengthening. This was the motivation for the work described in this paper. In this paper we calculate the longitudinal impedance of the damping ring vacuum chamber. More specifically, in this paper we find the response function of the ring to a short Gaussian bunch, which we call the Green function wake. In addition, we try to estimate the relative importance of the different vacuum chamber objects, in order to see how we might reduce the ring impedance. This paper also describes bunch length measurements performed on the North damping ring. We use the Green function wake, discussed above, to compute the bunch lengthening. Then we compare these results with those obtained from the measurements. In addition, we calculate the current dependence of the tune distribution.

Bane, K.L.F.

1990-02-01

61

Alternative lengthening of telomeres in cancer stem cells in vivo.  

PubMed

Chromosome ends are protected by telomeres that prevent DNA damage response and degradation. Telomerase expression extends telomeres and inhibits DNA damage response. Telomeres are also maintained by the recombination-based alternative lengthening pathway. Telomerase is believed to be the sole mechanism for telomere maintenance in the epidermis. We show that basal cells in the epidermis maintain telomeres both by telomerase and alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanisms in vivo. ALT was detected in epidermal stem cells in Terc(-/-) mice, and normal human epidermal keratinocytes are also ALT-positive. The ALT pathway is suppressed in primary, but not metastatic, epidermal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in Terc(+/+) mice. The ALT pathway is expressed in stem cells and basal cells in epidermal SCC in Terc(-/-) mice, and in some telomerase-positive human SCC lines. Telomeres shorten markedly in stem cells and basal cells in epidermal SCC in vivo. Telomere shortening is associated with telomeric DNA damage response and apoptosis in stem cells and basal cells. Stem cells were transformed in both primary and metastatic epidermal SCC. Genetic ablation of this small cell population resulted in significant tumor regression in vivo. We concluded that alternative lengthening of telomeres is important in epidermal homeostasis and tumorigenesis in vivo. PMID:24531712

Bojovic, B; Booth, R E; Jin, Y; Zhou, X; Crowe, D L

2015-01-29

62

Limb lengthening and peripheral nerve function—factors associated with deterioration of conduction  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Limb lengthening is performed for a diverse range of orthopedic problems. A high rate of complications has been reported in these patients, which include motor and sensory loss as a result of nerve damage. We investigated the effect of limb lengthening on peripheral nerve function. Patients and methods 36 patients underwent electrophysiological testing at 3 points: (1) preoperatively, (2) after application of external fixator/corticotomy but before lengthening, and (3) after lengthening. The limb-length discrepancy was due to a congenital etiology (n = 19), a growth disturbance (n = 9), or a traumatic etiology (n = 8). Results 2 of the traumatic etiology patients had significant changes evident on electrophysiological testing preoperatively. They both deteriorated further with lengthening. 7 of the 21 patients studied showed deterioration in nerve function after lengthening, but not postoperatively, indicating that this was due to the lengthening process and not to the surgical procedure. All of these patients had a congenital etiology for their leg-length discrepancy. Interpretation As detailed electrophysiological tests were carried out before surgery, after surgery but before lengthening, and finally after completion of lengthening, it was possible to distinguish between the effects of the operation and the effects of lengthening on nerve function. The results indicate that the etiology, site (femur or tibia), and nerve (common peroneal or tibial) had a bearing on the risk of nerve injury and that these factors had a far greater effect than the total amount of lengthening. PMID:24171677

2013-01-01

63

Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness  

E-print Network

Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness I. S. Penton, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9JU, UK Facial symmetry has been proposed as a marker relationships between facial symmetry and attractiveness. It was recently proposed that symmetry

Little, Tony

64

Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2007-01-01

65

Realistic modeling for facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major unsolved problem in computer graphics is the construc- tion and animation of realistic human facial models. Traditionally, facial models have been built painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by ad hoc parametrically controlled facial mesh defor- mations or kinematic approximation of muscle actions. Fortunately, animators are now able to digitize facial geometries through the use of scanning range

Yuencheng Lee; Demetri Terzopoulos; Keith Walters

1995-01-01

66

Computer Animation of Facial Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer facial animation still remains a very challenging topic within the computer graphics community. In this paper, a realistic and expressive computer facial animation system is developed by automated learning from Vicon Nexus facial motion capture data. Facial motion data of different emotions collected using Vicon Nexus are processed using dimensionality reduction techniques such as PCA and EMPCA. EMPCA was

Choong Seng Chan; Flora S. Tsai

2010-01-01

67

PCA facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

2013-12-01

68

Unpacking a time interval lengthens its perceived temporal distance  

PubMed Central

In quantity estimation, people often perceive that the whole is less than the sum of its parts. The current study investigated such an unpacking effect in temporal distance judgment. Our results showed that participants in the unpacked condition judged a given time interval longer than those in the packed condition, even the time interval was kept constant between the two conditions. Furthermore, this unpacking effect persists regardless of the unpacking ways we employed. Results suggest that unpacking a time interval may be a good strategy for lengthening its perceived temporal distance. PMID:25477854

Liu, Yang; Li, Shu; Sun, Yan

2014-01-01

69

Technique, indications, and results of proximal medial gastrocnemius lengthening.  

PubMed

Gastrocnemius proximal lengthening was first performed to correct spasticity in children, and was adapted for the patient with no neuromuscular condition in the late 1990s. Since then, the proximal gastrocnemius release has become less invasive and has evolved to include only the fascia overlying the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The indications for performing this procedure are a clinically demonstrable gastrocnemius contracture that influences a variety of clinical conditions in the forefoot, hindfoot, and ankle. It is a safe and easy procedure that can be performed bilaterally simultaneously, and does not require immobilization of the ankle after surgery. PMID:25456723

Barouk, Pierre

2014-12-01

70

Screening for spinal stenosis in achondroplastic patients undergoing limb lengthening.  

PubMed

The need for a screening programme for spinal stenosis in children with achondroplasia undergoing limb lengthening was identified in a tertiary limb reconstruction service. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether screening would identify the 'at risk' group. A total of 26 achondroplastic patients underwent our screening programme. Canal diameters were measured by MRI. Neurosurgical interventions were recorded. Of the patients, 13 had severe foramen magnum narrowing. Six patients required single or multiple surgical decompressions. We identified female sex, delayed milestones and a tight cervicomedullary junction as high risks. We stress upon the importance of developing a nationalized screening programme with guidelines to identify a high-risk group. PMID:24345918

Fernandes, James A; Devalia, Kailash L; Moras, Prem; Pagdin, Jonathan; Jones, Stanley; Mcmullan, John

2014-03-01

71

Facial Sports Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Enlist adequate adult supervision for all children's competitive sports. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. Facial Nerves Head and Neck Nose

72

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

PubMed

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities. PMID:23529088

Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

2013-07-01

73

Mechanisms of enhanced force production in lengthening (eccentric) muscle contractions.  

PubMed

In contrast to isometric and shortening contractions, many observations made on actively lengthening muscles cannot be readily explained with the sliding filament and cross-bridge theory. Specifically, residual force enhancement, the persistent increase in force following active muscle lengthening, beyond what one would expect based on muscle length, has not been explained satisfactorily. Here, we summarize the experimental evidence on residual force enhancement, critically evaluate proposed mechanisms for the residual force enhancement, and propose a mechanism for residual force enhancement that explains all currently agreed upon experimental observations. The proposed mechanism is based on the engagement of the structural protein titin upon muscle activation and an increase in titin's resistance to active compared with passive stretching. This change in resistance from the passive to the active state is suggested to be based on 1) calcium binding by titin upon activation, 2) binding of titin to actin upon activation, and 3) as a consequence of titin-actin binding--a shift toward stiffer titin segments that are used in active compared with passive muscle elongation. Although there is some experimental evidence for the proposed mechanism, it must be stressed that much of the details proposed here remain unclear and should provide ample research opportunities for scientists in the future. Nevertheless, the proposed mechanism for residual force enhancement explains all basic findings in this area of research. PMID:23429875

Herzog, Walter

2014-06-01

74

Restoration of facial form and function after severe disfigurement from burn injury by a composite facial allograft.  

PubMed

Composite facial allotransplantation is emerging as a treatment option for severe facial disfigurements. The technical feasibility of facial transplantation has been demonstrated, and the initial clinical outcomes have been encouraging. We report an excellent functional and anatomical restoration 1 year after face transplantation. A 59-year-old male with severe disfigurement from electrical burn injury was treated with a facial allograft composed of bone and soft tissues to restore midfacial form and function. An initial potent antirejection treatment was tapered to minimal dose of immunosuppression. There were no surgical complications. The patient demonstrated facial redness during the initial postoperative months. One acute rejection episode was reversed with a brief methylprednisolone bolus treatment. Pathological analysis and the donor's medical history suggested that rosacea transferred from the donor caused the erythema, successfully treated with topical metronidazol. Significant restoration of nasal breathing, speech, feeding, sensation and animation was achieved. The patient was highly satisfied with the esthetic result, and regained much of his capacity for normal social life. Composite facial allotransplantation, along with minimal and well-tolerated immunosuppression, was successfully utilized to restore facial form and function in a patient with severe disfigurement of the midface. PMID:21214855

Pomahac, B; Pribaz, J; Eriksson, E; Annino, D; Caterson, S; Sampson, C; Chun, Y; Orgill, D; Nowinski, D; Tullius, S G

2011-02-01

75

Radial Forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's Lengthening Pendulum  

E-print Network

Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner radial driving may easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum, and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergra...

McMillan, Matthew; Whitney, Heather M

2013-01-01

76

New insights into the behavior of muscle during active lengthening.  

PubMed Central

A muscle fiber was modeled as a series-connected string of sarcomeres, using an A. V. Hill type model for each sarcomere and allowing for some random variation in the properties of the sarcomeres. Applying stretches to this model led to the prediction that lengthening of active muscle on or beyond the plateau of the length tension curve will take place very nonuniformly, essentially by rapid, uncontrolled elongation of individual sarcomeres, one at a time, in order from the weakest toward the strongest. Such a "popped" sarcomere, at least in a single fiber, will be stretched to a length where there is no overlap between thick and thin filaments, and the tension is borne by passive components. This prediction allows modeling of many results that have previously been inexplicable, notably the permanent extra tension after stretch on the descending limb of the length tension curve, and the continued rise of tension during a continued stretch. PMID:2317547

Morgan, D L

1990-01-01

77

Impact of intestinal lengthening on the nutritional outcome for children with short bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival among children with short bowel syndrome has increased with the use of supportive nutritional techniques including parenteral and enteral nutrition. Further improvement in outcome has been sought by using intestinal lengthening procedures to lengthen the bowel, improve intestinal motility, initiate a progressive increase in intestinal mucosal mass, and thereby improve tolerance to enteral nutrition. The authors examine the growth

Reinaldo Figueroa-Colon; Paul R Harris; Elizabeth Birdsong; Frank A Franklin; Keith E Georgeson

1996-01-01

78

Acneiform facial eruptions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972

Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

2005-01-01

79

Facial cleft no. 30.  

PubMed

Midline clefts of the lower lip, mandible, tongue, and neck are rare congenital deformities and are classified as facial cleft no. 30 by Tessier. This is a report of a patient who presented with congenital fibrotic neck cord but no lower lip cleft, which has been the most frequently observed pathognomonic sign of this anomaly. The patient was treated initially for thyroglossal remnant. In the patients who present with a fibrotic cord located at the cervical midline without a lower lip cleft, the diagnosis of facial cleft no. 30 should be kept in mind. PMID:7833402

Keçeci, Y; Gencosmano?lu, R; Görken, C; Ca?da?, A

1994-09-01

80

Digital facial engraving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution introduces the basic techniques for digital facial engraving, which imitates traditional copperplate engraving. Inspired by traditional techniques, we first establish a set of basic rules thanks to which separate engraving layers are built on the top of the original photo. Separate layers are merged according to sim- ple merging rules and according to range shift\\/scale masks spe- cially

Victor Ostromoukhov

1999-01-01

81

An unusual facial sinus.  

PubMed

An unusual presentation of a chronic suppurative granuloma on the alar base area originating from a maxillary lateral incisor is reported. Treatment involved adequate endodontic therapy with simultaneous apical surgery and excision of the granuloma and sinus tract. Awareness of the possible dental origin of facial sinuses, despite their unusual location, is emphasized. PMID:8639118

Cheung, L K; Samman, N; Lee, E

1996-02-01

82

Lasers for Facial Rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser and laser-like assisted facial rejuvenation has become very popular during the last decade. Although a myriad of techniques are available, such approaches can be divided into four basic approaches. There are those that (i) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and provide a significant thermal effect (CO2 lasers); (ii) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and minimal thermal effects

David J. Goldberg

2003-01-01

83

How precise is the PRECICE compared to the ISKD in intramedullary limb lengthening?  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The PRECICE intramedullary limb lengthening system uses a new technique with a magnetic rod and a motorized external remote controller (ERC) with rotational magnetic field. We evaluated the reliability and safety of the PRECICE system. Methods We compared our preliminary results with PRECICE in 24 patients (26 nails) with the known difficulties in the use of mechanical lengthening devices such as the ISKD. We used the Paley classification for evaluation of problems, obstacles, and complications. Results 2 nails were primarily without function, and 24/26 nails lengthened over the desired distance. Lengthening desired was 38 mm and lengthening obtained was 37 mm. There were 2 nail breakages, 1 in the welding seam and 1 because of a fall that occurred during consolidation. ERC usage was problematic mostly in patients with femoral lengthening. Adjustment of the ERC was necessary in 10 of 24 cases. 15 cases had implant-associated problems, obstacles were seen in 5 cases, and complications were seen in each of 4 cases. Interpretaion The reliability of the PRECICE system is comparable to that of other intramedullary lengthening devices such as the ISKD. The motorized external remote controller and its application by the patients is a weak point of the system and needs strict supervision. PMID:24758320

Vogt, Björn; Tretow, Henning L; Schuhknecht, Britta; Gosheger, Georg; Horter, Melanie J; Rödl, Robert

2014-01-01

84

Ipsilateral motor cortical responses to TMS during lengthening and shortening of the contralateral wrist flexors  

PubMed Central

Unilateral lengthening contractions provide a greater stimulus for neuromuscular adaptation than shortening contractions in the active and non-active contralateral homologous muscle, although little is known of the potential mechanism. Here we examined the possibility that corticospinal and spinal excitability vary in a contraction-specific manner in the relaxed right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) when humans perform unilateral lengthening and shortening contractions of the left wrist flexors at the same absolute force. Corticospinal excitability in the relaxed right FCR increased more during lengthening than shortening at 80 and 100% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) diminished during shortening contractions and it became nearly abolished during lengthening. Intracortical facilitation (ICF) lessened during shortening but increased during lengthening. Interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) to the “non-active” motor cortex diminished during shortening and became nearly abolished during lengthening at 90% MVC. The amplitude of the H-reflex in the relaxed right FCR decreased during and remained depressed for 20 s after lengthening and shortening of the left wrist flexors. We discuss the possibility that instead of the increased afferent input, differences in the descending motor command and activation of brain areas that link function of the motor cortices during muscle lengthening vs. shortening may cause the contraction-specific modulation of ipsilateral motor cortical output. In conclusion, ipsilateral M1 responses to TMS are contraction-specific; unilateral lengthening and shortening contractions reduced contralateral spinal excitability but uniquely modulated ipsilateral corticospinal excitability and the networks involved in intracortical and interhemispheric connections, which may have clinical implications. PMID:21219480

Howatson, Glyn; Taylor, Mathew B.; Rider, Patrick; Motawar, Binal R.; McNally, Michael P.; Solnik, Stanislaw; DeVita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

2010-01-01

85

Radiosonographic substantiation of algorithms for examination of patients during operative lengthening of the tibia.  

PubMed

The muscles of 70 patients with lower limb shortening due to various etiologies were studied using three radiographic diagnostic methods: contrast radiography (CR), ultrasonography (US), and computed tomography (CT). The studies were performed before surgery, during lengthening using the Ilizarov external fixator, during the fixation period following distraction, and after apparatus removal. The data compiled using these modalities described alterations in the muscles during lengthening which enabled us to develop algorithms for patient examination during the process of lower extremity lengthening with the aim of solving tactical tasks. PMID:15156807

Shevtsov, V I; Diachkova, G V; Menshchikova, T I; Grebenyuk, L A

2003-01-01

86

Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

2014-01-01

87

Facial resemblance enhances trust.  

PubMed Central

Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subjects were shown faces of ostensible playing partners manipulated to resemble either themselves or an unknown person. Resemblance to the subject's own face raised the incidence of trusting a partner, but had no effect on the incidence of selfish betrayals of the partner's trust. Control subjects playing with identical pictures failed to show such an effect. In a second experiment, resemblance of the playing partner to a familiar (famous) person had no effect on either trusting or betrayals of trust. PMID:12079651

DeBruine, Lisa M

2002-01-01

88

Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment. PMID:25141118

Gabana-Silveira, Jesus Claudio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Braga, Arnaldo Feitosa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

2014-01-01

89

Systemic inflammatory responses to maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Wecompared,changes in markers,of muscle,damage,and systemic inflammation after submaximal,and maximal,lengthening muscle contractions of the elbow flex- ors. Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy young men not involved in resistance training completed a submaximal trial (10 sets of 60 lengthening contractions at 10 % maximum isometric strength, 1 min rest between sets), followed by a maxi- mal trial (10 sets of

Jonathan M Peake; Kazunori Nosaka; Makii Muthalib; Katsuhiko Suzuki

2006-01-01

90

Midfacial trauma and facial growth: a longitudinal case study of monozygotic twins.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to present a long-term follow-up of the growth of the face and the nasomaxillary complex in a pair of identical twins, one of whom had suffered severe midfacial trauma at age 2 years. Growth of the face and the nasomaxillary complex was longitudinally assessed and compared by means of facial photographs and cephalometric x-rays. Twin A suffered Le Fort II and III fractures with an associated frontal bone injury in early childhood and subsequently developed significant midface hypoplasia; twin B had no trauma and normal facial growth and development. Facial profile difference between the twins gradually became more pronounced until age 19. Twin A had obvious retrusion of the midfacial region, including the nasal bones on visual examination and radiographic study. At age 20, she underwent orthognathic surgical correction of the traumatic deformity. Her unaffected sibling, twin B, provided the genetic facial phenotype for the surgical orthognathic reconstruction. PMID:21055606

Aizenbud, Dror; Morrill, Larry R; Schendel, Stephen A

2010-11-01

91

Gradual bone distraction in craniosynostosis. Preliminary results in seven cases.  

PubMed

Seven patients with craniosynostosis (mean age 8 years, Apert syndrome, n = 4, Crouzon's disease, n = 3) underwent lengthening of the skull by gradual bone distraction. Three patients (group A) were treated by coronal craniectomy reaching the orbital fissure and gradual bone distraction. The other four (group B) underwent monobloc craniofacial disjunction and gradual bone distraction. The patients' progress was monitored clinically as well as by radiographs and photographs. The results showed that craniofacial disjunction followed by gradual bone distraction produced complete correction of exophthalmus and an improvement in the functional and aesthetic aspects of the middle third of the face without the need for bone grafts. PMID:9075285

do Amaral, C M; Di Domizio, G; Tiziani, V; Galhardi, F; Buzzo, C L; Rinco, T; Kharmandayan, P; Bueno, M A; Bolzani, N; Sabbatini, R M; Lopes, L D; Lopes, P F; Paiva, B; Paiva, R M; Turchiari, L A

1997-03-01

92

Bone tumor  

MedlinePLUS

Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... include: Genetic defects passed down through families Radiation Injury In ... or metastatic bone tumors. They behave very differently ...

93

Automatic facial expression analysis  

E-print Network

67% of the videos the majority of the frames were tracked suc- cessfully, demonstrating the need for facial trackers capable of coping with real life environments. 25 2. Affective Computing 2.2 Emotions Emotion research started with Charles Darwin... about 140 years ago with his work The Expression of The Emotions in Man and Animals (Darwin, 1872). This created a lot of controversy at the time of its publication due to its contentious claim of universality of emotions and their evolution- ary origins...

Baltrušaitis, Tadas

2014-04-08

94

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

95

Infant-directed speech: Final syllable lengthening and rate of speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speech rate has been reported to be slower in infant-directed speech (IDS) than in adult-directed speech (ADS). Studies have also found phrase-final lengthening to be more exaggerated in IDS compared with ADS. In our study we asked whether the observed overall slower rate of IDS is due to exaggerated utterance-final syllable lengthening. Two mothers of preverbal English-learning infants each participated in two recording sessions, one with her child, and another with an adult friend. The results showed an overall slower rate in IDS compared to ADS. However, when utterance-final syllables were excluded from the calculation, the speech rate in IDS and ADS did not differ significantly. The duration of utterance-final syllables differed significantly for IDS versus ADS. Thus, the overall slower rate of IDS was due to the extra-long final syllable occurring in relatively short utterances. The comparable pre-final speech rate for IDS and ADS further accentuates the final syllable lengthening in IDS. As utterances in IDS are typically phrases or clauses, the particularly strong final-lengthening cue could potentially facilitate infants' segmentation of these syntactic units. These findings are consistent with the existing evidence that pre-boundary lengthening is important in the processing of major syntactic units in English-learning infants.

Church, Robyn; Bernhardt, Barbara; Shi, Rushen; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

2005-04-01

96

[Primary management of 2 unusual facial injuries].  

PubMed

In the first patient a spinning saw-blade cut through the soft tissues and bony structures of the face in a paramedian, vertical section; in another patient a dum-dum bullet fired in suicidal intention from submentally destroyed the frontal half of the mandible and maxilla, the nose and the medial part of both orbits. The facial soft tissues, however, suffered only minor injuries. In the first patient the immediate treatment included inspection of the frontal sinus, preserving all loose bone fragments, and immediate reconstruction of the medial orbital frame employing bonewires, identification of the lacrimal ducts, reapproximation and stabilisation of these ducts with very flexible silicone threads, soft-tissue closure employing a running z-plasty, interdigitating the z-shaped wound edges caused by the saw. In the second patient stability of the remaining mandibular portions was achieved by mandibular reconstruction plates to which all remaining mandibular bone fragments were attached with bone screws or wires. The stabilized mandible allowed suspension of the tongue. PMID:3431295

Beckers, H

1987-01-01

97

Facial Gunshot Wounds: Trends in Management  

PubMed Central

Facial gunshot wounds, often comprising significant soft and bone tissue defects, pose a significant challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Whether resulting from assault, accident, or suicide attempt, a thorough assessment of the defects is essential for devising an appropriate tissue repair and replacement with a likely secondary revision. Immediately after injury, management is centered on advanced trauma life support with patient stabilization as the primary goal. Thorough examination along with appropriate imaging is critical for identifying any existing defects. Whereas past surgical management advocated delayed definitive treatment using serial debridement, today’s management favors use of more immediate reconstruction. Recent advances in microsurgical technique have shifted favor from local tissue advancement to distant free flap transfers, which improve cosmesis and function. This has resulted in a lower number of surgeries required to achieve reconstruction. Because of the diversity of injury and the complexity of facial gunshot injuries, a systematic algorithm is essential to help manage the different stages of healing and to ensure that the best outcome is achieved. PMID:22110801

Kaufman, Yoav; Cole, Patrick; Hollier, Larry H.

2009-01-01

98

Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?  

PubMed Central

Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

2012-01-01

99

Fatal facial–intracranial impalement injury in an accidental fall from a height: An autopsy case report with a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impalement injury to the face and head is of clinical and forensic pathological significance because of its diagnostic pitfalls. This injury often penetrates the orbital, nasal or oral cavity into the skull, but impaling other sites of facial bone is rare. The present case was a rare type of facial–intracranial impalement injury with a direct cerebral arterial laceration. The victim

Qi Wang; Takaki Ishikawa; Tomomi Michiue; Hitoshi Maeda

2010-01-01

100

Translocación del tercio medio facial en un paciente en edad infantil. Fijación con un nuevo sistema de placas y pines reabsorbibles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mid-facial translocation, which involves mobilization of the central facial skeletal structures together with soft tissue pedicles, provides generous access to the anterior and central regions of the skull base. One of the drawbacks of this approach in children is skeletal fixation with titanium osteosynthesis plates and screws, which may affect the growth of developing bone. Consequently, a second intervention is

Manel Coll-Anglada; Julio Acero-Sanz; Alejandro Thomas-Santamaría; Sergio Ramírez-Varela; Carlos Navarro-Vila

2010-01-01

101

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

PubMed

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

2011-01-01

102

The etiology of short stature affects the clinical outcome of lower limb lengthening using external fixation  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been used to gain height in short statured individuals. However, there have been no studies comparing the clinical outcome of limb lengthening based on the etiology of the short stature. We assessed whether different underlying diagnoses are associated with varied clinical outcomes in these patients. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature pertaining to lower limb lengthening using external fixation for short stature. Clinical outcomes including amount of lengthening, healing index (HI), and complications based on the underlying diagnosis for the short stature were documented. Results 18 clinical studies were included, with 547 patients who underwent 1,581 lower limb segment lengthening procedures. Mean follow-up was 4.3 years. The average age at lengthening was less for individuals with achondroplasia/hypochondroplasia (A/H) (14.5 years) than for those with Turner’s syndrome (TS) (18.2 years) or with constitutional short stature (CSS) (21.7 years). Mean height gained was greater in patients with A/H (9.5 cm) than in those with TS (7.7 cm) or CSS (6.1 cm) group. The HI was better in A/H (30.8 days/cm) and CSS (32 days/cm) than in TS (45.1 days/cm). The reported complication rate per segment was lower for A/H (0.68) and TS (0.71) than for CSS (1.06). Interpretation Patients with A/H tolerated larger amounts of lengthening with fewer complications than those with other diagnoses. PMID:24650027

2014-01-01

103

Power loss is greater following lengthening contractions in old versus young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with isometric and dynamic velocity-constrained (isokinetic) tasks, less is known regarding velocity-dependent (isotonic)\\u000a muscle power and recovery in older adults following repeated fatiguing lengthening contractions. We investigated voluntary\\u000a and evoked neuromuscular properties of the dorsiflexors in nine old (68.3?±?6.1 years) and nine young women (25.1?±?1.3 years)\\u000a during and following 150 lengthening contractions for up to 30 min of recovery. At baseline, the

Geoffrey A. Power; Brian H. Dalton; Charles L. Rice; Anthony A. Vandervoort

104

Crown lengthening with removable orthodontics: a combined approach for ideal esthetics.  

PubMed

Cases in which a single tooth is in need of crown lengthening while remaining esthetically pleasing represent a unique challenge. A case is presented here in which crown lengthening in a challenging esthetic situation on a canine was achieved through forced eruption with a removable orthodontic appliance. The case was considered a success by both the clinician and the patient. Fabrication of the acrylic stent is a simple procedure that can be completed chairside, and the patient's acceptance of the appliance as well as the overall cost and time invested made this a very convenient alternative. The report emphasizes the general dentist's complete control over each treatment sequence. PMID:22313821

Reyes, Elio; Barrow, Sarah; McLeod, Dwight E

2011-01-01

105

Craniofacial Bone Grafting: Wolff's Law Revisited  

PubMed Central

Bone grafts are used for the reconstruction of congenital and acquired deformities of the facial skeleton and, as such, comprise a vital component of the craniofacial surgeon's armamentarium. A thorough understanding of bone graft physiology and the factors that affect graft behavior is therefore essential in developing a more intelligent use of bone grafts in clinical practice. This article presents a review of the basic physiology of bone grafting along with a survey of pertinent concepts and current research. The factors responsible for bone graft survival are emphasized. PMID:22110789

Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Tong, Lawrence; Buchman, Steven R.

2008-01-01

106

Guide to Understanding Facial Palsy  

MedlinePLUS

... Two methods of treatment are static slings and dynamic muscle transfers. Static slings involve proce- dures in ... slings improve facial balance and eyelid clo- sure. Dynamic procedures include muscle transfers and man-made devices ...

107

Facial signs of emotional experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

35 right-handed White females (18–35 yrs) viewed positive and stress-inducing motion picture films and then reported on their subjective experience. Spontaneous facial expressions provided accurate information about more specific aspects of emotional experience than just the pleasant vs unpleasant distinction. The facial action coding system (P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen, 1978) isolated a particular type of smile that was

Paul Ekman; Wallace V. Freisen; Sonia Ancoli

1980-01-01

108

Peripheral facial palsy in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

2014-11-01

109

Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face. PMID:25132572

Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

2014-12-01

110

[A case of facial nerve palsy induced by nab-paclitaxel].  

PubMed

The patient was a 60-year-old woman who underwent total mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection for right breast cancer. She was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy( epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide[EC]and paclitaxel), hormone therapy, and radiation therapy. Multiple lung, lymph node, and bone metastases were detected after 4 years. The patient subsequently received nab-paclitaxel (nabPTX, 260 mg/m2, triweekly) and zoledronate therapy. Ptosis of her right eyebrow and the right angle of her mouth were observed after 8 courses of nabPTX, and peripheral right facial nerve palsy was diagnosed. She underwent rehabilitation, and facial nerve palsy improved after 9 months. Peripheral facial nerve palsy is a very rare adverse event of nabPTX. This is the first case report of peripheral facial nerve paralysis associated with nab- PTX. PMID:24394117

Minatani, Naoko; Kosaka, Yoshimasa; Sengoku, Norihiko; Kikuchi, Mariko; Nishimiya, Hiroshi; Waraya, Mina; Enomoto, Takumo; Tanino, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiko

2013-11-01

111

Systemic inflammatory responses to maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors. Muscle damage and systemic inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared changes in markers of muscle damage and systemic inflammation after submaximal and maximal lengthening muscle contractions of the elbow flex- ors. Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy young men not involved in resistance training completed a submaximal trial (10 sets of 60 lengthening contractions at 10 % maximum isometric strength, 1 min rest between sets), followed by a

Jonathan M Peake; Kazunori Nosaka; Makii Muthalib; Katsuhiko Suzuki

112

Distraction-induced intestinal enterogenesis: Preservation of intestinal function and lengthening after re-implantation into normal jejunum  

PubMed Central

Background Significant bowel lengthening can occur in an isolated intestinal segment with the use for linearly directed distractive forces; resulting in increased surface area and epithelial cell proliferation. We hypothesized that re-implantation of this lengthened intestine into normal jejunum would preserve this gain in intestinal length and function similar to normal jejunum. Methods An intestinal lengthening device was inserted into isolated jejunal segments in pigs, and fully expanded over 8 days. Lengthened segment were then re-implanted into normal intestinal continuity. Pigs were studied after another 28days. Function was assessed by motility, mucosal enzyme activity, barrier function and intestinal ion transport. Results Lengthened segments were significantly longer than control segments, and had nearly 2-fold greater surface area. Bowel lengthening was maintained 4 weeks after re-implantation. Motility after re-implantation was similar to non-operated pigs. Barrier function, mucosal disaccharidase levels and electrophysiologic measures declined immediately after lengthening, but returned to nearly normal levels 28 days after re-implantation. Conclusion Bowel lengthening results in a transient decline in mucosal absorptive function and smooth muscle contractility. However, function approaches that of normal bowel after re-implantation into enteric flow. These data may support the use of this technique as a potential new option for the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome. PMID:21997804

Koga, Hiroyuki; Sun, Xiaoyi; Yang, Hua; Nose, Keisuke; Somara, Sita; Bitar, Khalil N; Owyang, Chung; Okawada, Manabu; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

2011-01-01

113

The Influence of Prior Hamstring Injury on Lengthening Muscle Tissue Mechanics  

PubMed Central

Hamstring strain injuries often occur near the proximal musculotendon junction (MTJ) of the biceps femoris. Post-injury remodeling can involve scar tissue formation, which may alter contraction mechanics and influence re-injury risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the affect of prior hamstring strain injury on muscle tissue displacements and strains during active lengthening contractions. Eleven healthy and eight subjects with prior biceps femoris injuries were tested. All previously injured subjects had since returned to sport and exhibited evidence of residual scarring along the proximal aponeurosis. Subjects performed cyclic knee flexion-extension on an MRI-compatible device using elastic and inertial loads, which induced active shortening and lengthening contractions, respectively. CINE phase-contrast imaging was used to measure tissue velocities within the biceps femoris during these tasks. Numerical integration of the velocity information was used to estimate two-dimensional tissue displacement and strain fields during muscle lengthening. The largest tissue motion was observed along the distal MTJ, with the active lengthening muscle exhibiting significantly greater and more homogeneous tissue displacements. First principal strains magnitudes were largest along the proximal MTJ for both loading conditions. The previously injured subjects exhibited less tissue motion and significantly greater strains near the proximal MTJ. We conclude that localized regions of high tissue strains during active lengthening contractions may predispose the proximal biceps femoris to injury. Furthermore, post-injury remodeling may alter the in-series stiffness seen by muscle tissue and contribute to the relatively larger localized tissue strains near the proximal MTJ, as was observed in this study. PMID:20472238

Silder, Amy; Reeder, Scott B.; Thelen, Darryl G.

2010-01-01

114

Facial Tissue Depths in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate.  

PubMed

Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a craniofacial malformation affecting more than seven million people worldwide that results in defects of the hard palate, teeth, maxilla, nasal spine and floor, and maxillodental asymmetry. CLP facial soft-tissue depth (FSTD) values have never been published. The purpose of this research is to report CLP FSTD values and compare them to previously published FSTD values for normal children. Thirty-eight FSTDs were measured on cone beam computed tomography images of CLP children (n = 86; 7-17 years). MANOVA and ANOVA tests determined whether cleft type, age, sex, and bone graft surgical status affect tissue depths. Both cleft type (unilateral/bilateral) and age influence FSTDs. CLP FSTDs exhibit patterns of variation that differ from normal children, particularly around the oronasal regions of the face. These differences should be taken into account when facial reconstructions of children with CLP are created. PMID:25442980

Starbuck, John M; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine

2014-11-28

115

Compound facial expressions of emotion  

PubMed Central

Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

2014-01-01

116

Dynamic model of facial color for facial image synthesis in a virtual arm wrestling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arm wrestling system using a 4-DOF force display with virtual human is developed for the affect display of facial color and expression, aiming for the application to training and rehabilitation support. In this paper, by the simultaneous measurement of facial skin temperature and facial color images, the dynamic change of facial color and expression are analyzed under static force

Talcashi YAMADA; T. Watanabe

2004-01-01

117

The effect of width of facial canal in patients with idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis on the development of paralysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective study is to investigate whether the possible stenosis due to anatomic variations of labyrinthine segment (LS), tympanic segment (TS) and mastoid segment (MS) of the facial canal in the temporal bone is a predisposing factor in the development of paralysis. 22 patients with idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis (IPFP) were included in the study. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) with 64 detectors was used for temporal bone imaging of the patients. Reconstruction images in axial, coronal and sagittal planes were created in workstation computers from the captured images. The diameters and lengths of LS, TS and MS of the facial canal were measured. The mean values of LD, ND and SL of LS were 1.31 ± 0.39, 0.91 ± 0.27, 4.17 ± 0.48 in patient group and 1.26 ± 0.29, 0.95 ± 0.21, 4.60 ± 1.36 in control group, respectively. The mean values of LD, ND and SL of TS were 1.11 ± 0.22, 0.90 ± 0.14, 12.63 ± 1.47 in patient group and 1.17 ± 0.23, 0.85 ± 0.24, 12.10 ± 1.79 in control group, respectively. The mean values of LD, ND and SL of MS were 1.80 ± 0.30, 1.44 ± 0.29 vs. 14.3 ± 1.90 in patient group 1.74 ± 0.38, 1.40 ± 0.29, 14.15 ± 2.16 in control group, respectively. The measurements of the parameters of all three segments in patient group and control group were similar. Similar results between patient and control group were obtained in this study investigating the effect of stenosis in facial canal in the development of IPFP. PMID:25015010

Eksi, Guldem; Akbay, Ercan; Bayarogullari, Hanifi; Cevik, Cengiz; Yengil, Erhan; Ozler, Gul Soylu

2014-07-12

118

DaFEx: Database of Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a DaFEx (Database of Facial Expressions) is a database created with the purpose of providing a benchmark for the evaluation\\u000a of the facial expressivity of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). DaFEx consists of 1008 short videos containing emotional\\u000a facial expressions of the 6 Ekman’s emotions plus the neutral expression. The facial expressions were recorded by 8 italian\\u000a professional actors (4 male and

Alberto Battocchi; Fabio Pianesi; Dina Goren-bar

2005-01-01

119

Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

Alam, K.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Bäker, M.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

2009-08-01

120

Facial soft tissue thickness in Japanese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on mean soft tissue thickness measurements. Numerous studies of facial tissue thickness in adults have been published on a range of subjects from different ancestral backgrounds. Data on facial thickness in children derive primarily from Caucasoid, African-American, and Hispanic subjects. There are limited data from the few studies of Japanese children

Hajime Utsuno; Toru Kageyama; Keiichi Uchida; Mineo Yoshino; Hiroo Miyazawa; Katsuhiro Inoue

2010-01-01

121

Is Bilateral Lower Limb Lengthening Appropriate for Achondroplasia?: Midterm Analysis of the Complications and Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Use of the Ilizarov technique for limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia is controversial, with a high risk of complications\\u000a balancing cosmetic gains. Although several articles have described the complications of this procedure and satisfaction of\\u000a patients after surgery, it remains unclear whether lengthening improves the quality of life (QOL) of these patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We asked whether bilateral lower limb lengthenings

Seung-Ju Kim; Gracia Cielo Balce; Mandar Vikas Agashe; Sang-Heon Song; Hae-Ryong Song

122

Nasoalveolar molding with active columellar lengthening in severe bilateral cleft lip/palate: a clinical report.  

PubMed

Severe bilateral cleft-lip/palate patients are difficult to manage even if nasoalveolar molding therapy is advocated before surgical repair. A 5-day-old male infant with bilateral cleft-lip-palate was managed with the nasoalveolar molding technique. Periodic adjustments of the appliance were continued every week to mold the nasoalveolar complex into the desired shape for the 5 months of infancy. The cleft width of 12 mm on the right and 14 mm on the left side was completely reduced, and the absent columella was lengthened to 6 mm with the active molding appliance. The horizontal bar of the nasal stent of the appliance was modified by adding an additional 1 mm layer of resilient liner on the tissue surface to achieve rapid columellar lengthening. In severe bilateral cleft-lip/palate cases, simple modifications in the appliance can achieve rapid results. PMID:22946934

Patil, Pravinkumar G; Patil, Smita P; Sarin, Soumil

2013-02-01

123

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (pcl) Reconstruction by Transtibial Tunnel:. Suggestions of Lengthening and Slippage Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examined the biomechanical fatigue behavior of Achilles tendon autograft after posterior cruciate ligament (PLC) reconstructions. It experimented with various fixation devices and locations on the degree of initial lengthening and slippage to investigate the relationship between lengthening and slippage ratios among calcaneal and soft tissue fixation methods. Eight specimens of proximal tibia and Achilles tendon grafts were harvested from cadavers and classified into four groups according to the type of transtibial fixation technique. A cyclic load ranging from 50N to 250N was applied to each graft when fixed to the proximal tibia at 55 degrees. The soft tissue fixation method, which uses an interference screw, demonstrated a 56.4% ratio of slippage to total elongation. The use of a double cross-pin with the same method demonstrated a 45.4% slippage ratio. The former was associated with approximately 2 mm less total elongation and 13% more slippage than lengthening compared to the latter. This result was predominantly due to the poor standard of fixation compared to the same method using a double cross-pin.

Kim, Jay-Jung; Kim, Cheol-Woong

124

Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery  

E-print Network

Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences University. The procedure is done under anesthesia administered by an anesthesiologist. After surgery, you

Chapman, Michael S.

125

Facial filler and neurotoxin complications.  

PubMed

Botulinum neuromodulators and injectable dermal fillers have become part of the armamentarium in the treatment of facial aging. Their successful use requires a fundamental knowledge of anatomy and physiology and a sound understanding of their risks and complications. Although neuromodulators and fillers continue to demonstrate a strong record of safety, several notable risks exist. PMID:22723229

Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

2012-06-01

126

Olfactory Cues Modulate Facial Attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an experiment designed to investigate whether olfactory cues can influence people's judgments of facial attractive- ness. Sixteen female participants judged the attractiveness of a series of male faces presented briefly on a computer monitor using a 9-point visual rating scale. While viewing each face, the participants were simultaneously presented with either clean air or else with 1 of

Robert Osterbauer; Charles Spence

2007-01-01

127

Material properties of mandibular cortical bone in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis  

E-print Network

Material properties of mandibular cortical bone in the American alligator, Alligator of cortical bone in the mandible of juvenile Alligator mississippiensis obtained by using an ultrasonic wave Alligator bone specimens obtained from the lingual and facial surfaces of 4 fresh Alligator mandibles

128

Topological optimization for designing patient-specific large craniofacial segmental bone replacements  

E-print Network

and screws. For massive defects, the bone must be transferred with a blood supply that is indepTopological optimization for designing patient-specific large craniofacial segmental bone 10, 2010) Restoring normal function and appearance after massive facial injuries with bone loss

Paulino, Glaucio H.

129

An unusual case of facial nerve palsy following soccer related minor head injury  

PubMed Central

A 16 year old amateur soccer player sustained a minor head injury while contesting a ball in the air. He was unconscious for two minutes and remained “dizzy” for about an hour. After two days he developed a profound left lower motor neurone facial nerve palsy. He was found to have a complex fracture of the left petrous temporal bone, with fluid in the left middle ear and left mastoid. Treatment was conservative with oral steroids and oral co?amoxiclav and a left myringotomy to decompress his middle ear. The spectrum of aetiology, presentation, and prognosis for facial nerve injuries is discussed. PMID:16556777

Leitch, E F; Hanson, J R

2006-01-01

130

Genetic Factors That Increase Male Facial Masculinity Decrease Facial Attractiveness of Female Relatives  

PubMed Central

For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

2014-01-01

131

Facial expression recognition on a people-dependent personal facial expression space (PFES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a person-specific facial expression recognition method which is based on Personal Facial Expression Space (PFES) is presented. The multidimensional scaling maps facial images as points in lower dimensions in PFES. It reflects personality of facial expressions as it is based on the peak instant of facial expression images of a specific person. In constructing PFES for a person, his/her whole normalized facial image is considered as a single pattern without block segmentation and differences of 2-D DCT coefficients from neutral facial image of the same person are used as features. Therefore, in the early part of the paper, separation characteristics of facial expressions in the frequency domain are analyzed using a still facial image database which consists of neutral, smile, anger, surprise and sadness facial images for each of 60 Japanese males (300 facial images). Results show that facial expression categories are well separated in the low frequency domain. PFES is constructed using multidimensional scaling by taking these low frequency domain of differences of 2-D DCT coefficients as features. On the PFES, trajectory of a facial image sequence of a person can be calculated in real time. Based on this trajectory, facial expressions can be recognized. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this method.

Chandrasiri, N. P.; Park, Min Chul; Naemura, Takeshi; Harashima, Hiroshi

2000-04-01

132

Comparison between old and young men for responses to fast velocity maximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy exists concerning the susceptibility of elderly individuals to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. This\\u000a study investigated the hypothesis that muscle damage induced by fast maximal lengthening contractions would be greater for\\u000a old than young men. Ten old (64 ± 4 years) and young (25 ± 6 years) men performed 30 maximal voluntary lengthening contractions\\u000a of the elbow flexors at an angular velocity of 210° s?1. Prior to

Dale W. Chapman; Michael Newton; Michael R McGuigan; Kazunori Nosaka

2008-01-01

133

Structural aging: the facial recurve concept.  

PubMed

Cutaneous facial aging is responsible for the increasingly wrinkled and blotchy appearance of the skin, whereas aging of the facial structures is attributed primarily to gravity. This article purports to show, however, that the primary etiology of structural facial aging relates instead to repeated contractions of certain facial mimetic muscles, the age marker fascicules, whereas gravity only secondarily abets an aging process begun by these muscle contractions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed us to study the contrasts in the contour of the facial mimetic muscles and their associated deep and superficial fat pads in patients of different ages. The MRI model shows that the facial mimetic muscles in youth have a curvilinear contour presenting an anterior surface convexity. This curve reflects an underlying fat pad lying deep to these muscles, which acts as an effective mechanical sliding plane. The muscle's anterior surface convexity constitutes the key evidence supporting the authors' new aging theory. It is this youthful convexity that dictates a specific characteristic to the muscle contractions conveyed outwardly as youthful facial expression, a specificity of both direction and amplitude of facial mimetic movement. With age, the facial mimetic muscles (specifically, the age marker fascicules), as seen on MRI, gradually straighten and shorten. The authors relate this radiologic end point to multiple repeated muscle contractions over years that both expel underlying deep fat from beneath the muscle plane and increase the muscle resting tone. Hence, over time, structural aging becomes more evident as the facial appearance becomes more rigid. PMID:17380358

Le Louarn, Claude; Buthiau, Didier; Buis, Jacques

2007-01-01

134

Multicentric giant cell tumor of bone: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Multicentric giant cell tumor of bone is the rare variant of a lesion that is relatively common in a skeletally mature population. An otherwise healthy 13-year-old boy presenting with this entity was followed up for 6 years. During this period, the patient was diagnosed with and treated for six individual lesions. One recurrence required resection, Ilizarov bone lengthening, and subsequent ankle arthrodesis. He remains fully active and free of distant metastasis. PMID:12771839

Taylor, Kenneth F; Yingsakmongkol, Wicharn; Conard, Katrina A; Stanton, Robert P

2003-05-01

135

3D statistical facial reconstruction  

E-print Network

The aim of craniofacial reconstruction is to produce a likeness of a face from the skull. Few works in computerized assisted facial reconstruction have been done in the past, due to poor machine performances and data availability, and major works are manually reconstructions. In this paper, we present an approach to build 3D statistical models of the skull and the face with soft tissues from the skull of one individual. Results on real data are presented and seem promising.

Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan

2005-01-01

136

Automated interactive facial caricature generation  

E-print Network

as to style and content by: Ergun Akleman (Chair of ommittee) Frederic Parke (Member) Jianer Chen (Member) Thomas McKittrick (Head of Department) December 2000 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences ABSTRACT Automated Interactive Facial Caricature... to have half the patience he has shown throughout this process. I would like to thank my committee members. Thank you Frederic Parke for helping me put my thoughts and ideas into the words that allow me to communicate my ideas with simplicity snd...

Logan, Ryan C

2000-01-01

137

How is facial expression coded?  

PubMed

Facial expression is theorized to be visually represented in a multidimensional expression space, relative to a norm. This norm-based coding is typically argued to be implemented by a two-pool opponent coding system. However, the evidence supporting the opponent coding of expression cannot rule out the presence of a third channel tuned to the center of each coded dimension. Here we used a paradigm not previously applied to facial expression to determine whether a central-channel model is necessary to explain expression coding. Participants identified expressions taken from a fear/antifear trajectory, first at baseline and then in two adaptation conditions. In one condition, participants adapted to the expression at the center of the trajectory. In the other condition, participants adapted to alternating images from the two ends of the trajectory. The range of expressions that participants perceived as lying at the center of the trajectory narrowed in both conditions, a pattern that is not predicted by the central-channel model but can be explained by the opponent-coding model. Adaptation to the center of the trajectory also increased identification of both fear and antifear, which may indicate a functional benefit for adaptive coding of facial expression. PMID:25556250

Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

2015-01-01

138

Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

Tan, Pearlie W.W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

139

Facial Resurfacing With Coblation Technology  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe our experience with coblation technology for facial resurfacing Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients treated with coblation at our institution Results Twenty-four patients (22 female) underwent a total of 29 coblation procedures for aging face (n = 21) or acne scarring (n = 3). The perioral region was the most frequently treated aesthetic subunit (n = 14), followed by the lower eyelid (n = 7). Five patients underwent full-face coblation. Three patients underwent a second coblation procedure for aging face while a single patient with severe acne scarring underwent 3 procedures. Repeat coblation was delayed at least 5 months (mean, 9 months). Seventeen coblation procedures (59%) were performed concurrently with procedures including, but not limited to, injection treatment, rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, or combined face/necklift; no adverse events occurred. Seven procedures, including a full-face coblation, were performed in the office under local anesthesia and oral sedation without any adverse events. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1 week to 24 months). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the results after their final coblation treatment. Conclusions Facial coblation is a safe and effective treatment modality for facial resurfacing. PMID:18769690

Weber, Stephen M.; Downs, Brian W.; Ferraz, Mario B.J.; Wang, Tom D.; Cook, Ted A.

2008-01-01

140

Specific modulation of spinal and cortical excitabilities during lengthening and shortening submaximal and maximal contractions in plantar flexor muscles.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of the torque produced by plantar flexor muscles on cortical and spinal excitability during lengthening and shortening voluntary contractions. To that purpose, modulations of motor-evoked potential (MEP) and Hoffmann (H) reflex were compared in the soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) during anisometric submaximal and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar flexor muscles. For the submaximal shortening and lengthening contractions, the target torque was set at 50% of their respective MVC force. The results indicate that the amplitudes of both MEP and H-reflex responses, normalized to the maximal M wave, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower during lengthening compared with shortening submaximal contraction. For these two parameters, the reduction reached, respectively, 22.1 and 31.9% for the SOL and 34.5 and 29.3% for the MG. During MVC, normalized MEP and H reflex of the SOL were both reduced significantly by 19.9% (P < 0.05) and 29.9% (P < 0.001) during lengthening and shortening contraction, respectively, whereas no significant change (P > 0.05) was observed for MG. In addition, the silent period in the ongoing electromyogram (EMG) activity following the MEP was significantly (P < 0.01) briefer during lengthening than shortening contractions but did not differ (P > 0.05) between contraction intensities and muscles. Together, these results indicate that cortical and spinal mechanisms involved in the modulation of muscle activation during shortening and lengthening contractions differ between synergistic muscles according to the torque produced. Data further document previous studies reporting that the specific modulation of muscle activation during lengthening contraction is not torque dependent. PMID:25324516

Duclay, Julien; Pasquet, Benjamin; Martin, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

2014-12-15

141

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Predicts Site of Origin in Neuroendocrine Tumor Liver Metastases  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The determination of the primary tumor origin in patients with neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NELM) can pose a considerable management challenge. Recent studies have shown that the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is prevalent in some human tumors, including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET), and can be useful in predicting tumor biology. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the use of ALT as a biomarker in patients with NELM, in particular to predict the site of origin of metastases. METHODS Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed using tumor tissue from NELM patients undergoing liver resection between 1998 and 2010. These included 43 PanNET and 47 gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. The TMAs were tested for ALT using telomere-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization. The association between ALT positivity and clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes was investigated. RESULTS Alternative lengthening of telomeres was positive (ALT+) in 26 (29%) of the 90 tumors included in the TMAs. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were ALT+ in 56% of patients, compared with only 4% ALT+ among gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors (p < 0.001). The specificity of ALT for detecting pancreatic origin was 96% and the positive predictive value was 92%, and sensitivity was 56% and the negative predictive value was 70%. Additionally, ALT was associated with the pattern of metastatic disease: ALT + NELM were more likely to have oligometastases (p = 0.001) and less likely to be bilateral in distribution (p = 0.05) than were ALT tumors. In addition, ALT was associated with improved prognosis in the PanNET patient population. CONCLUSIONS Alternative lengthening of telomeres was found to be a useful biomarker in patients with NELM. This marker can be helpful in guiding therapy by identifying the site of origin in patients in whom the primary site is unknown. PMID:24655849

Dogeas, Epameinondas; Karagkounis, Georgios; Heaphy, Christopher M; Hirose, Kenzo; Pawlik, Timothy M; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Meeker, Alan; Hruban, Ralph H; Cameron, John L; Choti, Michael A

2015-01-01

142

Mechanical Characteristics of a Polymer Spring Device used to Lengthen Small Intestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) is a condition that occurs due to an insufficient amount of small intestine needed for nutrient absorption and water regulation of the body. A compression spring device is being developed in order to provide a mechanical stimulus to the tissue, as this type of force has been shown to promote lengthening of the tissue. The research completed in this thesis investigated the mechanical characteristics of the spring device and attempted to relate it to the functionality in rat and porcine intestinal tissue. Results from the evaluation of the springs show that Poly(epsilon-caprolactone), or PCL, is a sufficient polymer to use for creating a biodegradable device as the spring dimensions can be adjusted through variations in the diameter, thickness, and band size in order to provide an adequate spring constant for multiple animal types. Design of the springs, however, need to take into account the size of the gelatin capsule used, the amount of plastic deformation and creep behavior of the spring under compression for an extended time period, and the variation in the mechanical properties of the animal soft tissue that requires lengthening. Integration of the spring in-continuity requires a feature that will provide a mechanical resistance to force that is greater than the force of the spring in the compressed state. The spring still requires further development and any design should also take into account the possibility of intestinal perforations or obstructions. The polymer spring device provides a good means towards developing a treatment option for SBS, and other potential soft tissue lengthening needs of the body.

Steinberger, Douglas J.

143

Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

144

Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.  

PubMed Central

Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. Images Figs. 1 a and b. Fig. 1c., Fig. 1d. Fig. 1f. Fig. 1g. Fig. 1h. Fig. 1i. Fig. 1m. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b., Fig. 2c., Fig. 2d. Fig. 2e. Figs. 3 a and b. Fig. 3d., Fig. 3e. Fig. 3f. Fig. 4a., Fig. 4b. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b., Fig. 5c. Figs. 5d and e. Fig. 5f. Figs. 5g. and 5h. Fig. 6a., Fig. 6b. Fig. 6c. Fig. 7a. Fig. 7b. Figs. 7e and f. Fig. 8a. Fig. 8b. Fig. 8c. Fig. 8d., Fig. 8e. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Figs. 9c. and d. Fig. 9e. Fig. 9f. Figs. 9g. and h. Figs. 11a, b, and c. Figs. 11d, e, f. PMID:169753

Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

1975-01-01

145

The neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain.  

PubMed

This article reviews the definition, etiology and evaluation, and medical and neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain. A neuropathic origin for facial pain should be considered when evaluating a patient for rhinologic surgery because of complaints of facial pain. Neuropathic facial pain is caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve in the prepontine cistern and is characterized by an intermittent prickling or stabbing component or a constant burning, searing pain. Medical treatment consists of anticonvulsant medication. Neurosurgical treatment may require microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:24680498

Brown, Jeffrey A

2014-04-01

146

3D Facial Performance Capture From A Single RGBD Camera  

E-print Network

Realistic facial animation remains one of the most challenging problems in computer graphics, where facial performance capture of real people has been a key component. The current state-of-the-art technologies used to capture facial performances...

Chen, Yen-Lin

2013-05-28

147

Wire internal fixation: an obsolete, yet valuable method for surgical management of facial fractures  

PubMed Central

In some developing countries wire is still widely used in facial fractures internal fixation. This study presents the effectiveness and complications of wire osteosynthesis in a university teaching hospital in Burkina Faso and discusses some of its other benefits and disadvantages. Notes of 227 patients with facial fractures treated by wire internal fixation at department of stomatology and maxillofacial surgery of CHU Souro Sanou, Burkina Faso between 2006 and 2010 are reviewed retrospectively. A satisfactory treatment outcome was recorded in 91.2% of the 227 patients. Complications occurred in 8.8% of the patients who had operative site infection (3.1%), malocclusion (1.8%), sensory disturbance (1.8), facial asymmetry (1.3%), delayed bone union (0.9%) or enophtalmos (0.4%). The overall complications rate was 7.4% after mandibular osteosynthesis, 6.9% after Le Fort osteosynthesis and 6.5% after zygoma osteosynthesis. Post operative infections occurred irrespective to the surgical site. The other complications were more specific to the surgical site. Wire internal fixation may be a reasonable alternative for the surgical treatment of non-comminuted facial fractures and those without bone substance loss, in the setting of limited resources. PMID:25237416

Bouletreau, Pierre; Konsem, Tarcissus; Traoré, Ibraïma; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouédraogo, Dieudonné

2014-01-01

148

Associated injuries in patients with facial fractures: a review of 604 patients  

PubMed Central

Facial fractures may be associated with concomitant lesions of other parts of body with some of these injuries being life-threatening. This retrospective study reports the types of associated injury and the factors influencing their occurrence, in patients with facial fractures. In 18.2% of 604 patients, one associated injury at least was recorded. The most common associated injury was cranial trauma (9.9%), followed by limbs fractures (9.1%), chest trauma (2%), spine injury (0.5%) and eye ball rupture (0.5%). A poly trauma was recorded in 3.2% of the patients who had sustained a cerebral trauma, a spinal injury or a thoracic trauma. Death occurred in two patients (0.3%) who had respectively a spinal injury and a chest trauma. The occurrence of associated injuries correlated significantly with the fracture type with solitary mandibular fracture being a significant predictor of associated injuries. Although not statistically significant, multiple facial fractures and violence were more associated with concomitant injuries. The findings of this study recall the need for initial full examination of the trauma patients particularly victims of violence, patients presenting with multiple facial fractures or single facial bone fracture involving the mandible, the trauma patients? multidisciplinary management as well as trauma prevention. PMID:24778756

Béogo, Rasmané; Dakouré, Patrick; Savadogo, Léon Blaise; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouoba, Kampadilemba

2013-01-01

149

Cortical and Spinal Excitability during and after Lengthening Contractions of the Human Plantar Flexor Muscles Performed with Maximal Voluntary Effort  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the sites of potential specific modulations in the neural control of lengthening and subsequent isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) versus purely isometric MVCs of the plantar flexor muscles, when there is enhanced torque during and following stretch. Ankle joint torque during maximum voluntary plantar flexion was measured by a dynamometer when subjects (n?=?10) lay prone on a bench with the right ankle tightly strapped to a foot-plate. Neural control was analysed by comparing soleus motor responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M-wave, V-wave), electrical stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (CMEP) and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (MEP). Enhanced torque of 17±8% and 9±8% was found during and 2.5–3 s after lengthening MVCs, respectively. Cortical and spinal responsiveness was similar to that in isometric conditions during the lengthening MVCs, as shown by unchanged MEPs, CMEPs and V-waves, suggesting that the major voluntary motor pathways are not subject to substantial inhibition. Following the lengthening MVCs, enhanced torque was accompanied by larger MEPs (p?0.05) and a trend to greater V-waves (p?0.1). In combination with stable CMEPs, increased MEPs suggest an increase in cortical excitability, and enlarged V-waves indicate greater motoneuronal output or increased stretch reflex excitability. The new results illustrate that neuromotor pathways are altered after lengthening MVCs suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of the enhanced torque are not purely mechanical in nature. PMID:23166794

Hahn, Daniel; Hoffman, Ben W.; Carroll, Timothy J.; Cresswell, Andrew G.

2012-01-01

150

Reconstruction of bony facial contour deficiencies with polymethylmethacrylate implants: case report  

PubMed Central

Facial trauma can be considered one of the most serious aggressions found in the medical centers due to the emotional consequences and the possibility of deformity. In craniofacial surgery, the use of autologous bone is still the first choice for reconstructing bony defects or irregularities. When there is a shortage of donor bone or a patient refuses an intracranial operation, alloplastic materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) can be used. The PMMA prosthesis can be pre-fabricated, bringing advantages such as reduction of surgical time, easy technical handling and good esthetic results. This paper describes the procedures for rehabilitating a patient with PMMA implants in the region of the face, recovering the facial contours and esthetics of the patient. PMID:21952926

ABDO FILHO, Ruy C. C.; OLIVEIRA, Thais M.; LOURENÇO, Natalino; GURGEL, Carla; ABDO, Ruy C.C.

2011-01-01

151

Antagonist cocontraction of knee flexors during constant velocity muscle shortening and lengthening.  

PubMed

Electromyography (EMG) was used to study the role of antagonist cocontration of the hamstring muscles of 24 normal subjects during constant velocity muscle performance tests on a KIN COM (™) dynamometer. The hypothesis tests whether antagonist cocontraction varies dependent on joint angle, limb velocity, and type of contraction. Seated subjects performed two dynamic tests of resisted quadriceps muscle shortening and lengthening through a 65° range of knee motion under two constant velocity conditions in a single session. Each test consisted of four repetitions of maximum effort constant velocity muscle shortening and lengthening of the knee extensors; one test performed at 30° s(-1), the other at 90° s(-1). The sequence of velocity testing was randomized. Normalized values of peak amplitude EMG of knee flexors were measured every 5° in the constant velocity phase of each test and compared in a paired manner between each angle, contraction type, and velocity, by split-plot 2-way ANOVA. Antagonist hamstrings cocontraction was found to be contraction type, and velocity dependent. Cocontraction was greater at larger angles of knee flexion and at higher velocity. These results do not support the hypothesis that such activity is a function of muscle moment-arm, but are consistent with the idea that antagonist muscle function is controlled by muscle spindles and perhaps Golgi tendon organs. Because antagonist cocontraction ranged up to a mean of 32% of maximum agonist activity in normal individuals, it should be taken into consideration when interpreting clinical muscle performance tests. PMID:20870529

Snow, C J; Cooper, J; Quanbury, A O; Anderson, J E

1993-01-01

152

Gradual Lengthening of the Ulna in Patients with Multiple Hereditary Exostoses with a Dislocated Radial Head  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multiple hereditary exostoses of the forearm typically form in the distal ulna, causing disturbances in the growth of the ulna and functional disability. Multiple hereditary exostoses inhibit the growth of the ulna, leading to an acquisition of a varus deformity in the radius, which sometimes leads to dislocation of the radial head, the development of limitations in the pronation-supination of the forearm, and cosmetic problems. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of four patients who had deformities of the forearm with radial head dislocation associated with multiple hereditary exostoses, and evaluated the radiologic and clinical results of excision of the osteochondromas from the distal ulna and gradual ulnar lengthening with an Ilizarov external fixator. Results Good clinical and radiological results were obtained after a mean follow-up of 25 months. At the most recent follow-up, radial bowing, ulnar shortening, carpal slip, and the pronation/supination arch of the forearm had improved. There was little change in terms of preoperative radial articular angle and the flexion/extension arch of the elbow by the most recent follow-up. Conclusion Treatment of four forearms from four patients by excision of osteochondromas and gradual lengthening of the ulna with an Ilizarov external fixator spontaneously reduced dislocations of the radial heads without the need for any additional operative intervention. All patients were satisfied with the final results. PMID:24339304

Jung, Sung Taek

2014-01-01

153

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989

SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

2007-01-01

154

Bone Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

155

Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

2007-01-01

156

Expression-invariant Facial Identification Pohsiang Tsai  

E-print Network

. Keywords--Face Recognition, Expression-Invariant Face Recognition, Pseudo-Neutral Image I. INTRODUCTION's identity, faces with facial expressions make the recognition more difficult [2]. Facial expression Technology University of Technology, Sydney, Australia tiptran@it.uts.edu.au Longbing Cao School of Software

Cao, Longbing

157

Analysis of Facial Expressions Based on Silhouettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-verbal communication plays an important role in human communication. At the Delft University of Technology there is a project running on the automatic recognition of facial expressions. The developed system ISFER (Integrated System for Facial Expression Recognition) consists of modules suited for the analysis of a frontal view of the fa ce. As the obtained results are still far from

J. C. Wojdel; A. Wojdel; L. J. M. Rothhkrantz

158

Ophthalmic involvement in cranio-facial trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This is a retrospective descriptive case study which will look into the spectrum of ophthalmic involvement in cases with orbital and eye injuries after cranio-facial trauma and to analyse the visual and motility outcome. Material: One hundred and four cases with ophthalmic involvement after cranio-facial trauma that were referred to and seen in the eye department of a tertiary

Shantha Amrith; Seang Mei Saw; Thiam Chye Lim; Timothy Kam Yiu Lee

2000-01-01

159

Multi-angle facial image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a developmental disorder caused by maternal drinking during pregnancy. Computerized imaging techniques have been applied to study human facial dysmorphology associated with FAS. This thesis mainly describes two new facial image analysis methods: the first method is based on a multi-angle image classification technique using micro-video images of mouse embryo, images taken from several different

Ying Liu

2009-01-01

160

Complementary and integrative treatments: atypical facial pain.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of atypical facial pain for the practicing otolaryngologist. Discussion includes the definition of persistent idiopathic facial pain and its pathophysiology, clinical features, demographics, lack of findings on physical examination, use of imaging modalities and consultations, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within the framework of an holistic approach. PMID:23764815

Nguyen, Chau T; Wang, Marilene B

2013-06-01

161

Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. METHODS: We tested 24 male adolescent\\/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control

Wataru Sato; Shota Uono; Naomi Matsuura; Motomi Toichi

2009-01-01

162

Specific modulation of corticospinal and spinal excitabilities during maximal voluntary isometric, shortening and lengthening contractions in synergist muscles  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was designed to investigate the cortical and spinal mechanisms involved in the modulations of neural activation during lengthening compared with isometric and shortening maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Two muscles susceptible to different neural adjustments at the spinal level, the soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG), were compared. Twelve healthy males participated in at least two experimental sessions designed to assess corticospinal and spinal excitabilities. We compared the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation and Hoffmann reflexes (H-reflexes) during isometric and anisometric MVCs. The H-reflex and MEP responses, recorded during lengthening and shortening MVCs, were compared with those obtained during isometric MVCs. The results indicate that the maximal amplitude of both MEP and H-reflex in the SOL were smaller (P < 0.01) during lengthening MVCs compared with isometric and shortening MVCs but similar (P > 0.05) in MG for all three muscle contraction types. The silent period that follows maximal MEPs was reduced (P < 0.01) during lengthening MVCs in the SOL but not the MG. Similar observations were obtained regardless of the initial length of the MG muscle. Collectively, the current results indicate that the relative contribution of both cortical and spinal mechanisms to the modulation of neural activation differs during lengthening MVCs and between two synergist muscles. The comparison of SOL and MG responses further suggests that the specific modulation of the corticospinal excitability during lengthening MVCs depends mainly on pre- and postsynaptic inhibitory mechanisms acting at the spinal level. PMID:21502288

Duclay, Julien; Pasquet, Benjamin; Martin, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

2011-01-01

163

Primary osteoma of the orbit with atypical facial pain: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Osteoma is a benign, slowly growing tumor that mainly occurs in the bones and cavities of the middle third of the face, representing the most frequent benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. It rarely originates primarily from the orbit. Most of these lesions develop in the fourth to fifth decades of life, and are more commonly encountered in males. In the English literature, there are so far three reported cases of primary osteoma of the orbit that originated from the sphenoid bone. Here we present another case of a primary osteoma of the orbit presenting with atypical facial pain and discuss the relevant literature. PMID:22665016

Kayaci, Selim; Kanat, Ayhan; Gucer, Hasan; Seckin, Hakan

2012-01-01

164

Localization of facial region in digital images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

2011-06-01

165

Enhanced Facial Symmetry Assessment in Orthodontists  

PubMed Central

Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff—orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness. PMID:24319342

Jackson, Tate H.; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

166

Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

2014-06-01

167

How Does Facial Feedback Modulate Emotional Experience?  

PubMed Central

Contracting muscles involved in facial expressions (e.g. smiling or frowning) can make emotions more intense, even when unaware one is modifying expression (e.g. Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988). However, it is unresolved whether and how inhibiting facial expressions might weaken emotional experience. In the present study, 142 participants watched positive and negative video clips while either inhibiting their facial expressions or not. When hypothesis awareness and effects of distraction were experimentally controlled, inhibiting facial expressions weakened some emotional experiences. These findings provide new insight into ways that inhibition of facial expression can affect emotional experience: the link is not dependent on experimental demand, lay theories about connections between expression and experience, or the distraction involved in inhibiting one’s expressions. PMID:20160935

Davis, Joshua Ian; Senghas, Ann; Ochsner, Kevin N.

2009-01-01

168

Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

169

A Study Of Facial Asymmetries By The Stereometric Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to determine the part played in facial dissymmetry observed on a living person by the various constitutive elements of the cephalic tip (the soft parts - skin, muscles and the underlying bone structure) we undertook, using a biostereometric method, to evaluate asymmetries between homologous right and left dimensions on a living person's face and on a skeleton. While in an individual, a marked degree of facial dissymmetry can sometimes be observed; average differences between the right and left sides of the face may nethertheless balance out, and remain slight. Conventional anthropometrics techniques do not show up such slight values. With a view to securing a higher degree of accuracy, study of the stereometric technique of measurements. Using this technique, quasi imperceptible differences between the right and the left sides of the face on a living person as well as on a skeleton, together with variations in the orientation or angulation of anatomical segments in a three-dimensional space can be measured. We were thus able to detect, in a number of dry skulls, average differences of approxi-mately a millimetre between the two sides of the face which cannot be attributed to back of accuracy in measurements. Although statistically the difference are not always significant, the para-metric values of facial dimensions are invariably greater for the left side. On the other hand, for the sample of living subjects as a whole, the differences between homologous distances are not statistically significant. But it may be that, on a living subject, the experimenter is inclined to take measurements that are susceptible of symmetrization (for instance, the nasion in the median sagittal plane) whereas on a dry skull anatomical reference marks can be determined with the utmost accuracy. It may be inferred from there results that the softer parts tend, as a rule, to correct the dissymmetry of the underlying skeleton.

Crete, N.; Deloison, Y.; Mollard, R.

1980-07-01

170

Bone and bone turnover.  

PubMed

Children with cancer are exposed to multiple influences that may adversely affect bone health. Some treatments have direct deleterious effects on bone whilst others may have indirect effects mediated through various endocrine abnormalities. Most clinical outcome studies have concentrated on survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). There is now good evidence that earlier treatment protocols that included cranial irradiation with doses of 24 Gy or greater may result in growth hormone deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Under current protocols, BMD decreases during intensive chemotherapy and fracture risk increases. Although total body BMD may eventually return to normal after completion of chemotherapy, lumbar spine trabecular BMD may remain low for many years. The implications for long-term fracture risk are unknown. Risk factors for low BMD include high dose methotrexate, higher cumulative doses of glucocorticoids, male gender and low physical activity. BMD outcome in non-ALL childhood cancers has been less well studied but there is evidence that survivors of childhood brain or bone tumours, and survivors of bone marrow transplants for childhood malignancy, all have a high risk of long-term osteopenia. Long-term follow-up is required, with appropriate treatment of any endocrine abnormalities identified. PMID:19293605

Crofton, Patricia M

2009-01-01

171

The spectrum of facial fractures in motor vehicle accidents: an MDCT study of 374 patients.  

PubMed

Road traffic accidents are a major health problem worldwide resulting frequently in maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and spectrum of facial fractures in patients involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Using picture archiving and communication system, all requests for suspected facial trauma were retrieved during a 62-month period; 374 met the inclusion criteria. Two researchers interpreted the multidetector computed tomography images by consensus. The motor vehicles involved were divided into two groups: those involving a passenger car or a larger vehicle and those involving a motorized two-wheeler. Furthermore, the motor vehicle accidents were divided into collisions and run-off-road accidents. Of the 374 patients (aged 15-80, mean 34), 271 (72 %) were male and 103 (28 %) female. Of all patients, 262 (70 %) had a facial or skull base fracture; of these, multiple separate fractures were present in 56 %. Nasal fractures were the most common fractures followed by orbital, skull base, and maxillary fractures. Frontal bone, LeFort, and zygomatic arch fractures were always accompanied by other fractures. Fractures were more frequent in the group of collisions compared with run-off-road accidents. In the two-wheeled group, only 15 % did not have facial or skull base fractures. Fractures often occur in multitudes as 39 % of all patients have multiple facial or skull bone fractures, and thus, emergency radiologists should be familiar with the complexity of the injuries. Negative clear sinus sign and low-energy sentinel injuries should be trusted as indications of undetected injuries in MVA victims. PMID:24221020

Peltola, Elina M; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

2014-04-01

172

Cluster reduction and compensatory lengthening in the acquisition of possessive -s.  

PubMed

Previous research shows that two-year-olds' third person singular -s and plural -s are produced more accurately in utterance-final compared to utterance-medial position. However, only the third person singular is affected by coda complexity. This study explores these effects with possessive -s. Acoustic analysis of twelve two-year-olds' elicited imitations examined the use of simple versus complex codas (e.g. Sue's vs. Doug's ) both utterance-medially and utterance-finally. Morpheme production was surprisingly robust across contexts, though coda clusters were often simplified to a lengthened -s morpheme utterance-medially (e.g., Dou's [d?z]). The findings raise many questions about the development of speech planning processes across populations. PMID:23680453

Mealings, Kiri Trengove; Demuth, Katherine

2014-05-01

173

Group velocity and pulse lengthening of mismatched laser pulses in plasma channels  

SciTech Connect

Analytic solutions are presented to the non-paraxial wave equation describing an ultra-short, low-power, laser pulse propagating in aplasma channel. Expressions for the laser pulse centroid motion and laser group velocity are derived, valid for matched and mismatchedpropagation in a parabolic plasma channel, as well as in vacuum, for an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. The group velocity of amismatched laser pulse, for which the laser spot size is strongly oscillating, is found to be independent of propagation distance andsignificantly less than that of a matched pulse. Laser pulse lengthening of a mismatched pulse owing to laser mode slippage isexamined and found to dominate over that due to dispersive pulse spreading for sufficiently long pulses. Analytic results are shown tobe in excellent agreement with numerical solutions of the full Maxwell equations coupled to the plasma response. Implications for plasmachannel diagnostics are discussed.

Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim

2011-07-07

174

Alternative lengthening of telomeres renders cancer cells hypersensitive to ATR inhibitors.  

PubMed

Cancer cells rely on telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to overcome replicative mortality. ALT is mediated by recombination and is prevalent in a subset of human cancers, yet whether it can be exploited therapeutically remains unknown. Loss of the chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX associates with ALT in cancers. Here, we show that ATRX loss compromises cell-cycle regulation of the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA and leads to persistent association of replication protein A (RPA) with telomeres after DNA replication, creating a recombinogenic nucleoprotein structure. Inhibition of the protein kinase ATR, a critical regulator of recombination recruited by RPA, disrupts ALT and triggers chromosome fragmentation and apoptosis in ALT cells. The cell death induced by ATR inhibitors is highly selective for cancer cells that rely on ALT, suggesting that such inhibitors may be useful for treatment of ALT-positive cancers. PMID:25593184

Flynn, Rachel Litman; Cox, Kelli E; Jeitany, Maya; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Bryll, Alysia R; Ganem, Neil J; Bersani, Francesca; Pineda, Jose R; Suvà, Mario L; Benes, Cyril H; Haber, Daniel A; Boussin, Francois D; Zou, Lee

2015-01-16

175

Rapid induction of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres by depletion of the histone chaperone ASF1  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of activation of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway of mammalian chromosome end maintenance has remained an unresolved issue. We have discovered that co-depletion of the histone chaperones ASF1a and ASF1b in human cells induced all hallmarks of ALT in both primary and cancer cells. These included the formation of ALT associated PML bodies (APBs), extra-chromosomal telomeric DNA species an elevated frequency of telomeric sister chromatid exchanges (t-SCE) events and inter-telomeric exchange of an integrated tag. The induction of ALT characteristics in this setting led to the simultaneous suppression of telomerase. We identified that ALT induction is positively regulated by RAD17 and BLM, while negatively regulated by EXO1 and DNA2. The induction of ALT phenotypes as a consequence of ASF1 depletion strongly support the hypothesis that ALT is a consequence of a histone management dysfunction. PMID:24413054

O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Arnoult, Nausica; Lackner, Daniel H.; Oganesian, Liana; Haggblom, Candy; Corpet, Armelle; Almouzni, Genevieve; Karlseder, Jan

2013-01-01

176

Polyunsaturated lipid diet lengthens torpor and reduces body temperature in a hibernator.  

PubMed

Membrane lipids of vertebrate animals that tolerate cold are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Because the lipid composition of cellular membranes in mammals can be experimentally altered by diet, we investigated whether a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids would lengthen bouts of torpor and reduce the minimum body temperature in hibernating chipmunks (Eutamias amoenus) compared with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids. Animals on the highly unsaturated diet showed significantly longer bouts of torpor, lower minimum body temperatures, and lower metabolic rates than those on a saturated diet. Animals on a control diet were intermediate. These dietary adjustments apparently influence the control of body temperature by the central nervous system, which results in a modification of the pattern of torpor. The observations also suggest a role of nutritional ecology in hibernation. PMID:3578556

Geiser, F; Kenagy, G J

1987-05-01

177

Antagonist cocontraction of knee extensors during constant velocity muscle shortening and lengthening.  

PubMed

Electromyography (EMG) was used to study the role of antagonist cocontraction of the quadriceps muscles of 24 normal subjects during constant velocity muscle performance tests on a KIN/COM dynamometer. The hypothesis tested the dependence of antagonist cocontraction on joint angle, limb velocity and type of contraction. Seated subjects performed two dynamic tests of resisted muscle shortening and lengthening of the knee flexors through a 65 degrees range of knee motion under two constant velocity conditions in a single session. Each test consisted of four repetitions of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of constant velocity muscle shortening and lengthening of the knee flexors; one test was performed at 30 degrees s(-1), the other at 90 degrees s(-1). The sequence of velocity testing was randomized. Normalized (%Max) values of peak amplitude EMG of knee extensors were measured every 5 degrees in the constant velocity phase of each test and compared in a paired manner for each angle, contraction type and velocity, by split-plot two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The level of antagonist quadriceps cocontraction was low, ranging from 5-8% Max between 70 degrees and 15 degrees of knee flexion for both velocities and contraction types. Antagonist quadriceps activity was found to be velocity dependent during agonist muscle shortening (P < 0.02). However, no other effects of angle, contraction type, or velocity were found for antagonist quadriceps. It is concluded that antagonist quadriceps and the previously reported hamstrings(46) respond differently under typical constant velocity test conditions, and these differences need to be accounted for when intepreting muscle performance tests. PMID:20719650

Snow, C J; Cooper, J; Quanbury, A O; Anderson, J E

1995-09-01

178

Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions  

PubMed Central

The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

Milutinovic, Jovana

2014-01-01

179

Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA  

PubMed Central

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

2014-01-01

180

Whale bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vertebrates, or animals that have a skeletal structure for body support, leave bones behind after their death. These bones can be placed together to recreate the skeletal frame of that animal. Bones can be examined to determine what animal the bones came from.

N/A N/A (Go Card USA;)

2007-12-21

181

Bovine dermal matrix as coverage of facial nerve grafts.  

PubMed

Introduction. Soft tissue defects over functional structures represent a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Often complex, reconstructive procedures are required. Occasionally, elderly or sick patients do not qualify for these extensive procedures. Case. We present the case of a 91-year-old lady with large hemifacial defect with exposed bone and nerves after tumor resection. We first performed radical resection including the fascia of the temporalis muscle and the frontal branch of the facial nerve. Due to the moribund elderly patient with a potentially high perioperative risk, we decided against flap reconstruction but to use bovine collagen/elastin matrix and split thickness skin graft. Results. No postoperative complications occurred and STSG and matrix healed uneventfully. Discussion. In selected cases, where complex reconstruction is not appropriate, this procedure can be a safe, easy, and fast alternative for covering soft tissue defects even on wound grounds containing nerve grafts. PMID:24550990

Kappos, E A; Engels, P E; Wettstein, R; Schaefer, D J; Kalbermatten, D F

2014-01-01

182

Bovine Dermal Matrix as Coverage of Facial Nerve Grafts  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Soft tissue defects over functional structures represent a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Often complex, reconstructive procedures are required. Occasionally, elderly or sick patients do not qualify for these extensive procedures. Case. We present the case of a 91-year-old lady with large hemifacial defect with exposed bone and nerves after tumor resection. We first performed radical resection including the fascia of the temporalis muscle and the frontal branch of the facial nerve. Due to the moribund elderly patient with a potentially high perioperative risk, we decided against flap reconstruction but to use bovine collagen/elastin matrix and split thickness skin graft. Results. No postoperative complications occurred and STSG and matrix healed uneventfully. Discussion. In selected cases, where complex reconstruction is not appropriate, this procedure can be a safe, easy, and fast alternative for covering soft tissue defects even on wound grounds containing nerve grafts. PMID:24550990

Kappos, E. A.; Engels, P. E.; Wettstein, R.; Schaefer, D. J.; Kalbermatten, D. F.

2014-01-01

183

Unexplained Facial Scar: Child Abuse or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome?  

PubMed Central

Context: Child abuse is a serious problem, and its physical manifestations can be mimicked by certain diseases and conditions. These conditions can include genetic, congenital and other disorders that may result in poor weight gain, bone fractures or skin lesions that look like bruises or burns. Case Report: This paper reports the case of a seven-year-old girl with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), which was misdiagnosed as child abuse. This child was referred to us for treatment of an unexplained facial scar that was alleged to be the result of child abuse. Conclusion: When unusual skin presentations are observed, dermatologists should consider the possibility of child abuse to protect the child. Furthermore, they should be aware of the cutaneous abnormalities that mimic injuries associated with abuse to avoid the unnecessary reporting of child abuse. PMID:25535610

Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Shapouri, Javad; Masjedi, Mohsen; Saffaei, Ali; Pourazizi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

184

Facial nerve paralysis following pediatric cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

A newborn female diagnosed with transposition of the great vessels with restrictive ventricular septal defect presented left facial peripheral nerve paralysis following anatomical surgery correction (arterial switch) by cardiopulmonary bypass. We have not found any causal factor either in the anesthesia or postoperative period. The electromyogram presented signs of peripheral nerve impairment, and the cerebral echography and electroencephalogram were normal. The facial nerve paralysis was almost recovered seven weeks after surgery. This is the first pediatric patient reported with peripheral facial nerve paralysis after cardiac surgery. PMID:8869372

Alcaraz, A; Lopez-Herce, J; Castro, P; Bustinza, A; Moroto, C

1995-09-01

185

[A case of pontine supranuclear facial palsy].  

PubMed

A 56-year-old hypertensive man suddenly developed difficulty in speaking and numbness in the right hand. On admission, he showed moderate right supranuclear facial palsy and right clumsy hand. Three weeks later, he was discharged with only right supranuclear facial palsy. MRI revealed a small infarction in the middle pons. The lesion was situated in the paramedian borderzone between the base and tegmentum. These findings suggest that supranuclear fibers to the facial nucleus descend as a separate bundle from the main pyramidal tract at the mid-pontine level. PMID:7994997

Isoe, K; Watanabe, Y; Tanaka, H; Saito, J; Fukada, M

1994-08-01

186

Should physicians have facial piercings?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional\\u000a facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Survey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a INTERVENTIONS: First, patrons were shown

Alison W. Newman; Seth W. Wright; Keith D. Wrenn; Aline Bernard

2005-01-01

187

Facial and axillary apocrine chromhidrosis.  

PubMed

Apocrine chromhidrosis is a rare, chronic, idiopathic disorder, characterized by the excretion of pigmented sweat. A 26-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of dark blue secretions on bilateral malar cheeks. On examination, upon pressure on the cheeks, a dark blue fluid was expressed, which appeared to arise primarily from the follicle. The patient had not appreciated it, but on examination of her axillae, a very subtle blue coloring was observed. Histopathologic examination revealed apocrine glands in the deep reticular dermis. Bluish cytoplasmic granules were observed in the apocrine epithelium lining, which correspond to lipofuscin granules. The diagnosis of apocrine cromhidrosis was made. We began treatment with 20 percent aluminum chloride hexahydrate solution and capsaicin cream with poor tolerance. Finally, we treated with botulinum toxin type A with a successful response. We report a case of facial and axillary apocrine cromhidrosis with good response to botulinum toxin type A. PMID:22483524

Pérez Tato, Berta; Zamora Martínez, Elena; Sánchez Albisua, Begoña; Pérez González, Yosmar C; Polimón Olabarrieta, Isabel; Marinero Escobedo, Silvia; Fernández López, Paloma

2012-03-01

188

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

PubMed Central

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

189

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.  

PubMed

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

2011-06-12

190

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

PubMed Central

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

191

Rapid facial mimicry in geladas.  

PubMed

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

192

Bone cement  

PubMed Central

The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc.

Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

2013-01-01

193

Novel approaches in 3-dimensional facial profiling to establish facial aesthetic objectives in the treatment of facial dysmorphologies.  

PubMed

When confronted with facial dysmorphologies, three-dimensional (3D) facial harmony is preferably assessed with regard to normality. This, however, presents two major challenges. The first challenge is to define normality. What makes non-dysmorphic faces appear normal? The second challenge is to situate the craniofacial dysmorphology with respect to normality. What makes the dysmorphic face not appear to be normal? To tackle these challenges, a novel approach based on a Face Space is proposed. In essence, faces are represented as points in a High-dimensional space, the dimensions of which capture important sources of allowed facial variation within a normal population. To establish an aesthetic objective of a given dysmorphic face, the novel concept of the "normal equivalent" of that face via robust projection into the Face Space is proposed. This technique is demonstrated on an artificial example in which smiling whilst showing teeth is considered a surrogate for facial dysmorphology. PMID:22046737

Claes, Peter; Walters, Mark; Clement, John

2010-03-01

194

Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

2014-01-01

195

Lengthening of a single-loop tibialis tendon graft construct after cyclic loading: a study using Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis.  

PubMed

Although single-loop tibialis tendon allografts have increased in popularity owing to their many advantages over patellar tendon and double-loop hamstring tendon autografts, some percentage of the patient population do not have clinically stable knees following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with single-loop tibialis tendon allografts. Therefore, it would be advantageous to determine the causes of increased anterior laxity which ultimately must be traced to lengthening of the graft construct. One objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) to determine the causes of lengthening of a single-loop graft construct subjected to cyclic loading. A second objective was to determine which cause(s) contributes most to an increase in length of this graft construct. Radio-opaque markers were inserted into ten grafts to measure the lengthening at the sites of the tibial and femoral fixations and between the sites of fixation. Each graft was passed through a tibial tunnel in a calf tibia, looped around a rigid cross-pin, and fixed to the tibia with a Washerloc fixation device. The grafts were cyclically loaded for 225,000 cycles from 20 to 170 N. Prior to and at intervals during the cyclic loading, simultaneous radiographs were taken. RSA was used to determine the three-dimensional coordinates of the markers from which the lengthening at the sites of fixation and between the sites of fixation was computed at each interval. The sites of the femoral and tibial fixations were the largest contributors to the increase in length of the graft construct, with maximum average values of 0.68 and 0.55 mm, respectively, after 225,000 cycles. The graft substance between the sites of fixation contributed least to lengthening of the graft, with a maximum average value of 0.31 mm. Ninety percent of the maximum average values occurred before 100,000 cycles of loading for the largest contributors. RSA proved to be a useful method for measuring lengthening due to all three causes. Lengthening of the graft construct at the sites of both fixations is sufficiently large that the combined contributions may manifest as a clinically important increase in anterior laxity. PMID:16706593

Smith, Conrad Kay; Hull, M L; Howell, S M

2006-06-01

196

An Automatic Method for Computerized Head and Facial Anthropometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Facial anthropometry plays an important role in ergonomic applications. Most ergonomically-designed products depend on stable\\u000a and accurate human body measurement data. Head and facial anthropometric dimensions provide detailed information on head and\\u000a facial surfaces to develop well-fitting, comfortable and functionally-effective facial masks, helmets or customized products.\\u000a Accurate head and facial anthropometry also allows orthognathic surgeons and orthodontists to plan optimal

Jing-Jing Fang; Sheng-Yi Fang

197

Multiple recurrences of ipsilateral facial palsy in a patient with widening of the facial canal.  

PubMed

The incidence of facial palsy (FP) is 6-12/100,000 in children, however only one in twenty experience recurrences. This report describes the clinical approach and diagnostic considerations in a child with multiple ipsilateral FP. The first occurrence of FP in conjunction with fever occurred at age 13 months, and was succeeded by more than 20 recurrences. Imaging revealed widening of the facial canal along with thickening of the facial nerve, allowing collateral inflammation and edema to induce pressure on the nerve. This is the first case describing the association between an abnormally widened facial canal and recurrent FP in childhood. PMID:25522846

Andreassen, Christer Swan; Ovesen, Therese

2015-02-01

198

Observer-Based Measurement of Facial Expression With the Facial Action Coding System  

E-print Network

), neural bases (Calder et al., 1996; Davidson, Ekman, Saron, Senulis, & Friesen, 1990), development, these include facial neuromuscular disorders (Van Swearingen & Cohn, 2005), neuroscience (Bruce & Young, 1998

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

199

Ranking of facial profiles among Asians.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the facial profile preferences in a sample of 1,189 Asian teenagers (aged 15.3 +/- 3.2 years). Five facial profile types were computer-generated by trained personnel (orthodontists and oral maxillofacial surgeons) to represent distinct facial types. Subjects were asked to rank the profiles in descending order of attractiveness. The ranking was as follows: orthognathic profile, bimaxillary retrusive profile, bimaxillary protrusive profile, mandibular retrognathic profile, and mandibular prognathic profile. The differences in rank scores between all the profile types were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Assessment of profile types among lay personnel could provide clinicians an indication into the relative attractiveness among profile types and health care workers in treatment prioritization among dysmorphic facial types. PMID:1389361

Lew, K K; Soh, G; Loh, E

1992-01-01

200

Low Bone Density (Osteopenia)  

MedlinePLUS

... are here Home » Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

201

A simulator for maxillo-facial surgery integrating cephalometry and orthodontia  

E-print Network

Objectives : This paper presents a new simulator for maxillo-facial surgery, that gathers the dental and the maxillo-facial analyses together into a single computer-assisted procedure. The idea is first to propose a repositioning of the maxilla, via the introduction of a 3D cephalometry, applied to a 3D virtual model of the patient's skull. Then, orthodontic data are integrated into this model, thanks to optical measurements of teeth plaster casts. Materials and Methods : The feasibility of the maxillo-facial demonstrator was first evaluated on a dry skull. To simulate malformations (and thus to simulate a "real" patient), the skull was modified and manually cut by the surgeon, in order to generate a given maxillo-facial malformation (with asymmetries in the sagittal, frontal and axial planes). Results : The validation of our simulator consisted in evaluating its ability to propose a bone repositioning diagnosis that will put the skull as it was in its original configuration. A first qualitative validation is...

Bettega, G; Mollard, B; Boyer, A; Raphael, B; Lavallee, S

2000-01-01

202

Effect of pulsed magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve on cerebral blood flow.  

PubMed

In these experiments we define an effective means of pulsed magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve for the purpose of increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF). In normal anesthetized dog and sheep, a focal magnetic field was directed toward the facial nerve within the temporal bone by placing a 6.5 cm figure-8 stimulation coil over the ear. In an initial set of experiments, CBF was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the cerebral vasculature was visualized by angiography. The effect of facial nerve stimulation was found to be dependent on stimulation power, frequency, and the precise positioning of the stimulation coil. Furthermore, an increase in CBF was not observed after direct electrical stimulation in the middle ear space, indicating that non-specific stimulation of the tympanic plexus, an intervening neural structure with vasoactive effects, was not responsible for the increase in CBF after pulsed magnetic stimulation. Subsequent experiments using perfusion MRI demonstrated reproducible increases in CBF throughout the forebrain that manifested bilaterally, albeit with an ipsilateral predominance. These experiments support the development of a non-invasive pulsed magnetic facial nerve stimulator that will increase CBF as a treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:23850647

Borsody, Mark K; Yamada, Chisa; Bielawski, Dawn; Heaton, Tamara; Lyeth, Bruce; Garcia, Andrea; Castro Prado, Fernando; Azpiroz, Joaquín; Sacristan, Emilio

2013-08-28

203

Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in remote locations. Remote users could perform real-time searches where network connectivity is not available. As images are enrolled at the remote locations, periodic database synchronization is necessary.

R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

2001-03-01

204

[Persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia].  

PubMed

The terms 'persistent idiopathic facial pain' (PIFP) and 'atypical odontalgia' (AO) are currently used as exclusion diagnoses for chronic toothache and chronic facial pain. Knowledge about these pain conditions in medical and dental practices is of crucial importance for the prevention of iatrogenic tissue damage by not-indicated invasive interventions, such as endodontic treatment and tooth extraction. In the present paper, etiology and pathogenesis, differential diagnostic criteria, and diagnostic approaches will be explained and relevant therapeutic principles will be outlined. PMID:23916270

Gaul, Charly; Ettlin, Dominik; Pfau, Doreen B

2013-01-01

205

Massage Therapy for Patients Undergoing Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of massage therapy on psychological, physical, and psychophysiological measures in patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Patients scheduled to undergo BMT were randomly assigned to receive either (a) massage therapy, consisting of 20-minute sessions of shoulder, neck, head, and facial massage, or (b) standard treatment. Overall effects of

Tim A. Ahles; Denise M. Tope; Briane Pinkson; Susan Walch; Danette Hann; Marie Whedon; Bradley Dain; Julia E. Weiss; Letha Mills; Peter M. Silberfarb

1999-01-01

206

Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability  

PubMed Central

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: 1) DS individuals (n=55); 2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n=55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n=55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2013-01-01

207

Bone Crusher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a tension-compression machine (or an alternative bone-breaking setup) to see how different bones fracture differently and with different amounts of force, depending on their body locations. Teams determine bone mass and volume, calculate bone density, and predict fracture force. Then they each test a small animal bone (chicken, turkey, cat) to failure, examining the break to analyze the fracture type. Groups conduct research about biomedical challenges, materials and repair methods, and design repair treatment plans specific to their bones and fracture types, presenting their design recommendations to the class.

2014-09-18

208

Sphenoid Sinus and Sphenoid Bone Fractures in Patients with Craniomaxillofacial Trauma  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Sphenoid bone fractures and sphenoid sinus fractures have a high morbidity due to its association with high-energy trauma. The purpose of this study is to describe individuals with traumatic injuries from different mechanisms and attempt to determine if there is any relationship between various isolated or combined fractures of facial skeleton and sphenoid bone and sphenoid sinus fractures. Methods We retrospectively studied hospital charts of all patients who reported to the trauma center at Hospital de San José with facial fractures from December 2009 to August 2011. All patients were evaluated by computed tomography scan and classified into low-, medium-, and high-energy trauma fractures, according to the classification described by Manson. Design This is a retrospective descriptive study. Results The study data were collected as part of retrospective analysis. A total of 250 patients reported to the trauma center of the study hospital with facial trauma. Thirty-eight patients were excluded. A total of 212 patients had facial fractures; 33 had a combination of sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures, and facial fractures were identified within this group (15.5%). Gender predilection was seen to favor males (77.3%) more than females (22.7%). The mean age of the patients was 37 years. Orbital fractures (78.8%) and maxillary fractures (57.5%) were found more commonly associated with sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. Conclusions High-energy trauma is more frequently associated with sphenoid fractures when compared with medium- and low-energy trauma. There is a correlation between facial fractures and sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. A more exhaustive multicentric case-control study with a larger sample and additional parameters will be essential to reach definite conclusions regarding the spectrum of fractures of the sphenoid bone associated with facial fractures. PMID:24436756

Cantini Ardila, Jorge Ernesto; Mendoza, Miguel Ángel Rivera; Ortega, Viviana Gómez

2013-01-01

209

Topological optimization for designing patient-specific large craniofacial segmental bone replacements  

PubMed Central

Restoring normal function and appearance after massive facial injuries with bone loss is an important unsolved problem in surgery. An important limitation of the current methods is heuristic ad hoc design of bone replacements by the operating surgeon at the time of surgery. This problem might be addressed by incorporating a computational method known as topological optimization into routine surgical planning. We tested the feasibility of using a multiresolution three-dimensional topological optimization to design replacements for massive midface injuries with bone loss. The final solution to meet functional requirements may be shaped differently than the natural human bone but be optimized for functional needs sufficient to support full restoration using a combination of soft tissue repair and synthetic prosthetics. Topological optimization for designing facial bone tissue replacements might improve current clinical methods and provide essential enabling technology to translate generic bone tissue engineering methods into specific solutions for individual patients. PMID:20628014

Sutradhar, Alok; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Miller, Michael J.; Nguyen, Tam H.

2010-01-01

210

Evaluation of 3D Facial Feature Selection for Individual Facial Model Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face recognition using 3D information has been intensively investigated in recent years. The features selected from 3D facial surfaces are invariant to pose and lighting conditions. However, they are sensitive to expression variations. In this paper, we investigate the issues on selecting good features for 3D facial shape classification, and evaluate its applicability to various types of models. Based on

Yi Sun; Lijun Yin

2006-01-01

211

Robust Eye Detection from Facial Image based on Multi-cue Facial Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eyes are one of the most important facial features and eyes detection is a crucial aspect in many useful applications. Although many eye detection methods have been developed in the last decade, a lot of problems still exist also. We presented a novel and efficient method to locate eyes from face images based on multi-cue facial information. Firstly, we made

Yepeng Guan

2007-01-01

212

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Karen L. Schmidt  

E-print Network

have not fully explored that most visibly social part of the human body, the face. The face1 Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research-624-8796 412-624-5407 (fax) Key words: nonverbal communication, social intelligence, signaling systems #12

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

213

Boosting Coded Dynamic Features for Facial Action Units and Facial Expression Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that how to extract dynamical features is a key issue for video based face analysis. In this paper, we present a novel approach of facial action units (AU) and expression recognition based on coded dynamical features. In order to capture the dynamical characteristics of facial events, we design the dynamical haar-like features to rep- resent the

Peng Yang; Qingshan Liu; Dimitris N. Metaxas

2007-01-01

214

Facial Pain Followed by Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Case Report with Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection. The treatment included extraction of the associated tooth followed by endodontic treatment of the neighboring tooth which resulted in recovery of facial nerve plasy. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making any diagnosis. It is essential to rule out other causes of facial paralysis before making the definitive diagnosis, which implies the intervention. The authors hereby, report a case of 32-year-old male patient who developed unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection with a good prognosis after appropriate treatment. PMID:25302280

GV, Sowmya; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

215

Recordings from the facial nucleus in the rat: signs of abnormal facial muscle response  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of results of electrophysiological studies in patients undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) operations to relieve hemifacial spasm (HFS), we have postulated that the abnormal muscle response characteristically found in patients with HFS is the result of irritation of the facial nerve by the blood vessel that is compressing the facial nerve near its exit from the brainstem in

A. R. Møller; C. N. Sen

1990-01-01

216

Facial reconstruction: The art of the science Facial reconstruction has now become a very important part  

E-print Network

reconstructions of not only vic- tims of mass disasters or other such events but also in daily forensicEDITORIAL Facial reconstruction: The art of the science Facial reconstruction has now become a very the fact that though the security and disaster implications of such researches have been paramount

Frey, Pascal

217

The Neuropsychology of Facial Identity and Facial Expression in Children with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We indirectly determined how children with mental retardation analyze facial identity and facial expression, and if these analyses of identity and expression were controlled by independent cognitive processes. In a reaction time study, 20 children with mild mental retardation were required to determine if simultaneously presented photographs of…

Singh, Nirbhay N.; Oswald, Donald P.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Ellis, Cynthia R.; Sage, Monica; Ferris, Jennifer R.

2005-01-01

218

Bone Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about the two main components of bone - collagen and minerals (like calcium) - and how they each contribute to its flexibility and strength. Learners will submerge 3 chicken bones in water, bleach, and vinegar, wait 24 hours, then observe and test each bone. This resource includes information about how nanoscientists are trying to produce artificial analogs to these components and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Bone Regrowth.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

219

Equine-related facial fractures.  

PubMed

Horseback riding is a common recreational activity that can cause injuries to both mounted and dismounted participants. This study examines the patterns of equine-related maxillofacial fractures presenting in a tertiary referral centre. Patients presenting over an 11-year period from 1996 to 2006 with equine-related maxillofacial fractures were identified through the trauma database. The extent of the injuries, surgical treatment and follow-up details were documented. 45 patients were identified, with an increasing incidence over the study period. 69% were male and 31% female. 31% of patients were 16-30 years of age. 73% of fractures were in the midfacial region. 67% of patients were actively treated, with 60% of these patients requiring internal fixation. 64% of patients were hospitalized. Equine-related maxillofacial fractures frequently involve a young and predominantly female population, compared with facial fractures due to other causes. Midfacial fractures were the most common site of injury. Alcohol was rarely implicated. A high proportion of patients required surgery and hospitalization. PMID:18583096

Lee, K H; Steenberg, L J

2008-11-01

220

Bone scan  

MedlinePLUS

A bone scan is an imaging test that shows areas of increased or decreased bone turnover ( metabolism ). ... have taken up less of the radioactive material. Bone scan findings must be compared with other imaging studies, in addition to clinical information. Your health ...

221

Telomere maintenance in Wilms tumors: first evidence for the presence of alternative lengthening of telomeres mechanism.  

PubMed

Unlimited proliferative potential is a hallmark of cancer, and can be achieved through the activation of telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Most tumors activate telomerase, but a significant minority, mainly of mesenchymal origin, uses a recombination-based, alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism. We investigated the presence of ALT in 34 Wilms tumor (WT) samples from 30 patients by using two approaches: (i) the detection of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (APBs) by combined PML immunofluorescence and telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization and (ii) the assessment of terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length distribution by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. In parallel, telomerase activity (TA) was determined by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Based on APB expression, ALT was detectable in five samples as the sole TMM and in six samples in association with telomerase. Seventeen samples only expressed TA and in six cases no known TMM was appreciable. Results of TRF length distribution were available in 32 cases, and a concordance between APB and TRF data in defining the ALT phenotype was found in 26/32 cases (81%). The study provides the first evidence of the presence of ALT in WT, and indicates that in a small but defined fraction of cases (about 15%) ALT is the only TMM that supports the development of WT. PMID:21769957

Venturini, Lorenza; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Motta, Rosita; Collini, Paola; Spreafico, Filippo; Terenziani, Monica; Piva, Luigi; Radice, Paolo; Perotti, Daniela; Zaffaroni, Nadia

2011-10-01

222

1500 MHZ Passive SRF Cavity for Bunch Lengthening in the NSLS-II Storage Ring  

SciTech Connect

NSLS-II is a new ultra-bright 3 GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. Ion clearing gaps are required to suppress ion effects on the beam. The natural bunch length of 3mm is planned to be lengthened by means of a third harmonic cavity in order to increase the Touschek limited lifetime. After an extensive investigation of different cavity geometries, a passive, superconducting two-cell cavity has been selected for prototyping. The cavity is HOM damped with ferrite absorbers on the beam pipes. The two-cell cavity simplifies the tuner design, compared to having two independent cells. Tradeoffs between the damping of the higher order modes, thermal isolation associated with the large beam tubes, and overall cavity length are described. A copper prototype has been constructed, and measurements of fundamental and higher order modes will be compared to calculated values.

Yanagisawa,T.; Rose, J.; Grimm, T.; Bogle, A.

2009-05-04

223

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres is characterized by reduced compaction of telomeric chromatin  

PubMed Central

Proper telomeric chromatin configuration is thought to be essential for telomere homeostasis and stability. Previous studies in mouse suggested that loss of heterochromatin marks at telomeres might favor onset of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway, by promoting homologous recombination. However, analysis of chromatin status at human ALT telomeres has never been reported. Here, using isogenic human cell lines and cellular hybrids, which rely either on telomerase or ALT to maintain telomeres, we show that chromatin compaction is reduced at ALT telomeres and this is associated with a global decrease in telomeric H3K9me3. This, subsequently, leads to upregulation of telomere transcription. Accordingly, restoration of a more condensed telomeric chromatin through telomerase-dependent elongation of short ALT telomeres reduces telomere transcription. We further show that loss of ATRX chromatin remodeler function, a frequent characteristic of ALT cells, is not sufficient to decrease chromatin condensation at telomeres nor to increase the expression of telomeric RNA species. These results offer new insight on telomeric chromatin properties in ALT cells and support the hypothesis that telomeric chromatin decondensation is important for ALT pathway. PMID:24500201

Episkopou, Harikleia; Draskovic, Irena; Van Beneden, Amandine; Tilman, Gaëlle; Mattiussi, Marina; Gobin, Matthieu; Arnoult, Nausica; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Decottignies, Anabelle

2014-01-01

224

Molecular and Morphologic Correlates of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Phenotype in High Grade Astrocytomas  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that the telomere maintenance mechanism known as Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is relatively more common in specific glioma subsets and strongly associated with ATRX mutations. We retrospectively examined 116 high grade astrocytomas (32 pediatric glioblastomas, 65 adult glioblastomas,19 anaplastic astrocytomas) with known ALT status using tissue microarrays to identify associations with molecular and phenotypic features. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against ATRX, DAXX, p53 and IDH1R132H mutant protein. EGFR amplification was evaluated by FISH. When focusing on histologic subtypes, almost half of fibrillary and gemistocytic astrocytomas (44%) demonstrated ALT. Conversely all gliosarcomas (n=4), epithelioid (n=2), giant cell (n=2) and adult small cell astrocytomas (n=7) were ALT negative. The ALT phenotype was positively correlated with the presence of round cells (p=0.002), microcysts (p<0.0002), IDH1 mutant protein (p<0.0001), ATRX protein loss (p<0.0001), strong P53 expression (p<0.0001), and absence of EGFR amplification (p=0.004). There was no significant correlation with DAXX expression. We conclude that ALT represents a specific phenotype in high grade astrocytomas with distinctive pathologic and molecular features. Future studies are required to clarify the clinical and biological significance of ALT in high grade astrocytomas, and its possible utility as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic target. PMID:22928601

Nguyen, Doreen N.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; de Wilde, Roeland F.; Orr, Brent A.; Odia, Yazmin; Eberhart, Charles G.; Meeker, Alan K.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

2013-01-01

225

Molecular and morphologic correlates of the alternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype in high-grade astrocytomas.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that the telomere maintenance mechanism known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is relatively more common in specific glioma subsets and strongly associated with ATRX mutations. We retrospectively examined 116 high-grade astrocytomas (32 pediatric glioblastomas, 65 adult glioblastomas, 19 anaplastic astrocytomas) with known ALT status using tissue microarrays to identify associations with molecular and phenotypic features. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against ATRX, DAXX, p53 and IDH1(R132H) mutant protein. EGFR amplification was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Almost half of fibrillary and gemistocytic astrocytomas (44%) demonstrated ALT. Conversely all gliosarcomas (n?=?4), epithelioid (n?=?2), giant cell (n?=?2) and adult small cell astrocytomas (n?=?7) were ALT negative. The ALT phenotype was positively correlated with the presence of round cells (P?=?0.002), microcysts (P?

Nguyen, Doreen N; Heaphy, Christopher M; de Wilde, Roeland F; Orr, Brent A; Odia, Yazmin; Eberhart, Charles G; Meeker, Alan K; Rodriguez, Fausto J

2013-05-01

226

Duration of xylogenesis in black spruce lengthened between 1950 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Reconstructions have identified the 20th century as being uniquely warm in the last 1000 years. Changes in the phenology of primary meristems converged toward increases in length of the growing season. Has the phenology of secondary meristem changed during the last century, and to what extent? Methods Timings of wood formation in black spruce, Picea mariana, were monitored for 9 years on a weekly timescale at four sites in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Models for assessing xylem phenology were defined and applied to reconstruct onset, ending and duration of xylogenesis between 1950 and 2010 using thermal thresholds on chronologies of maximum and minimum temperatures. Key Results All sites exhibited increasing trends of both annual and May–September temperatures, with the greatest changes observed at the higher latitudes. Phenological events in spring were more affected than those occurring in autumn, with cambial resumptions occurring 0·5–0·8 d decade?1 earlier. The duration of xylogenesis has lengthened significantly since 1950, although the models supplied wide ranges of variations, between 0·07 and 1·5 d decade?1, respectively. Conclusions The estimated changes in past cambial phenology demonstrated the marked effects of the recent increase in temperature on the phenological traits of secondary meristems. In the long run, the advancement of cambial activity could modify the short time window for growth of boreal species and dramatically affect the dynamics and productivity of trees in these temperature-limited ecosystems. PMID:23041380

Boulouf Lugo, Jacqueline; Deslauriers, Annie; Rossi, Sergio

2012-01-01

227

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction12  

PubMed Central

Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth. PMID:24339742

Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

2013-01-01

228

A Newly Recognized Syndrome With Characteristic Facial Features, Skeletal Dysplasia, and Developmental Delay  

PubMed Central

We describe a series of seven male patients from six different families with skeletal dysplasia, characteristic facial features, and developmental delay. Skeletal findings include patellar dislocation, short tubular bones, mild metaphyseal changes, brachymetacarpalia with stub thumbs, short femoral necks, shallow acetabular roofs, and platyspondyly. Facial features include: a flattened midface with broad nasal bridge, cleft palate or bifid uvula and synophrys. All of the patients demonstrated pre-school onset of a cognitive developmental delay with a shortened attention span. Some of the cognitive delay was masked by a warm and engaging personality. We posit that these individuals have a newly recognized syndrome characterized by the described features. There is some phenotypic overlap between these patients and Desbuquois dysplasia; however molecular testing demonstrated that this is a distinct disorder. Given the family information available for each patient, we are suspicious that the constellation of findings reported herein could be an X-linked recessive syndrome. PMID:22711505

Baratela, Wagner A.R.; Bober, Michael B.; Tiller, George E.; Okenfuss, Ericka; Ditro, Colleen; Duker, Angela; Krakow, Deborah; Stabley, Deborah L.; Sol-Church, Katia; Mackenzie, William; Lachman, Ralph; Scott, Charles I.

2014-01-01

229

Lengthening contractions differentially affect p70 s6k phosphorylation compared to isometric contractions in rat skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if p70s6k phosphorylation is dependent on the mode of resistance exercise (e.g. isometric vs. lengthening). Two groups (n = 5 each) of Female Sprague Dawley rats, ?12 weeks old, were tested. Rats were anesthetized and indwelling electrodes used\\u000a to stimulate the right hind limb muscles via the sciatic nerve. The tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of

Martin Burry; David Hawkins; Espen E. Spangenburg

2007-01-01

230

Can fast-twitch muscle fibres be selectively recruited during lengthening contractions? Review and applications to sport movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature examining the recruitment order of motor units during lengthening (eccentric) contractions was reviewed to determine if fast-twitch motor units can be active while lower threshold slow-twitch motor units are not active. Studies utilizing surface electromyogram (EMG) amplitude, single motor unit activity, spike amplitude–frequency analyses, EMG power spectrum, mechanomyographic, and phosphocreatine-to-creatine ratio (PCr\\/Cr) techniques were reviewed. Only single motor unit

Gordon R. Chalmers

2008-01-01

231

Unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills  

PubMed Central

Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practice without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) was shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant’s response or the sender’s true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several similarities and differences between the unsupervised improvement of facial decoding skills observed in the current study, unsupervised perceptual learning of simple visual stimuli described in previous studies and practice effects often observed in cognitive tasks. PMID:24578686

Huelle, Jan O.; Sack, Benjamin; Broer, Katja; Komlewa, Irina; Anders, Silke

2013-01-01

232

Facial coding is disrupted at equiluminance.  

PubMed

Human face recognition is disrupted by the reversal of luminance contrast polarity (ie photo negatives--see Galper 1970 Psychonomic Science 19 207-208; Johnston et al 1992 Perception 21 365-375), while recognition of other objects is less impacted (Nederhouser et al 2007 Vision Research 47 2134-2142; Subramaniam and Biederman 1997 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 38 998). This suggests that correct patterns of luminance contrast are important for facial coding. Here we investigate this further by minimising luminance contrast. We contrast peoples' ability to categorise cars and faces when images vary in luminance and when images are altered to predominantly contain differences in colour (equiluminance). Eliminating luminance contrast had a greater adverse impact on facial classifications relative to car categorisations. This was true even though precautions were taken to equate visibility, and despite equal levels of performance when images contained luminance contrast. These results were not due to images containing markedly different spectra, as the effect persisted for facial images altered to match car images in this regard, and performance in both tasks dropped off proportionally with increasing levels of image blur. Finally, consistent with previous observations, we show that facial coding is not only adversely impacted at equiluminance but becomes even worse when the polarity of luminance contrast is reversed. Our data show that the correct pattern of luminance contrast is very important for facial coding. We suggest that this is related to the role of luminance contrast in signalling 3-D shape from shading. PMID:24303748

Pearce, Samuel L; Arnold, Derek H

2013-01-01

233

Beyond the functional matrix hypothesis: a network null model of human skull growth for the formation of bone articulations.  

PubMed

Craniofacial sutures and synchondroses form the boundaries among bones in the human skull, providing functional, developmental and evolutionary information. Bone articulations in the skull arise due to interactions between genetic regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic factors such as functional matrices (soft tissues and cranial cavities), which mediate bone growth. These matrices are largely acknowledged for their influence on shaping the bones of the skull; however, it is not fully understood to what extent functional matrices mediate the formation of bone articulations. Aiming to identify whether or not functional matrices are key developmental factors guiding the formation of bone articulations, we have built a network null model of the skull that simulates unconstrained bone growth. This null model predicts bone articulations that arise due to a process of bone growth that is uniform in rate, direction and timing. By comparing predicted articulations with the actual bone articulations of the human skull, we have identified which boundaries specifically need the presence of functional matrices for their formation. We show that functional matrices are necessary to connect facial bones, whereas an unconstrained bone growth is sufficient to connect non-facial bones. This finding challenges the role of the brain in the formation of boundaries between bones in the braincase without neglecting its effect on skull shape. Ultimately, our null model suggests where to look for modified developmental mechanisms promoting changes in bone growth patterns that could affect the development and evolution of the head skeleton. PMID:24975579

Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

2014-09-01

234

A model of a patient-derived IDH1 mutant anaplastic astrocytoma with alternative lengthening of telomeres.  

PubMed

Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) have been found in the vast majority of low grade and progressive infiltrating gliomas and are characterized by the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate from ?-ketoglutarate. Recent investigations of malignant gliomas have identified additional genetic and chromosomal abnormalities which cluster with IDH1 mutations into two distinct subgroups. The astrocytic subgroup was found to have frequent mutations in ATRX, TP53 and displays alternative lengthening of telomeres. The second subgroup with oligodendrocytic morphology has frequent mutations in CIC or FUBP1, and is linked to co-deletion of the 1p/19q arms. These mutations reflect the development of two distinct molecular pathways representing the majority of IDH1 mutant gliomas. Unfortunately, due to the scarcity of endogenously derived IDH1 mutant models, there is a lack of accurate models to study mechanism and develop new therapy. Here we report the generation of an endogenous IDH1 anaplastic astrocytoma in vivo model with concurrent mutations in TP53, CDKN2A and ATRX. The model has a similar phenotype and histopathology as the original patient tumor, expresses the IDH1 (R132H) mutant protein and exhibits an alternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype. The JHH-273 model is characteristic of anaplastic astrocytoma and represents a valuable tool for investigating the pathogenesis of this distinct molecular subset of gliomas and for preclinical testing of compounds targeting IDH1 mutations or alternative lengthening of telomeres. PMID:25471051

Borodovsky, Alexandra; Meeker, Alan K; Kirkness, Ewen F; Zhao, Qi; Eberhart, Charles G; Gallia, Gary L; Riggins, Gregory J

2015-02-01

235

Should Physicians Have Facial Piercings?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians. DESIGN Survey. SETTING Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians. INTERVENTIONS First, patrons were shown photographs of models with a nontraditional piercing and asked about the appropriateness for a physician or medical student. In the second phase, patrons blinded to the purpose of the study were shown identical photographs of physician models with or without piercings and asked about competency and trustworthiness. The third phase was an assessment of attitudes of faculty regarding piercings. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Nose and lip piercings were felt to be appropriate for a physician by 24% and 22% of patrons, respectively. Perceived competency and trustworthiness of models with these types of piercings were also negatively affected. An earring in a male was felt to be appropriate by 35% of patrons, but an earring on male models did not negatively affect perceived competency or trustworthiness. Nose and eyebrow piercings were felt to be appropriate by only 7% and 5% of faculty physicians and working with a physician or student with a nose or eyebrow piercing would bother 58% and 59% of faculty, respectively. An ear piercing in a male was felt to be appropriate by 20% of faculty, and 25% stated it would bother them to work with a male physician or student with an ear piercing. CONCLUSIONS Many patrons and physicians feel that some types of nontraditional piercings are inappropriate attire for physicians, and some piercings negatively affect perceived competency and trustworthiness. Health care providers should understand that attire may affect a patient's opinion about their abilities and possibly erode confidence in them as a clinician. PMID:15836523

Newman, Alison W; Wright, Seth W; Wrenn, Keith D; Bernard, Aline

2005-01-01

236

Bone tissue remodeling and development: focus on matrix metalloproteinase functions.  

PubMed

Bone-forming cells originate from distinct embryological layers, mesoderm (axial and appendicular bones) and ectoderm (precursor of neural crest cells, which mainly form facial bones). These cells will develop bones by two principal mechanisms: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. In both cases, condensation of multipotent mesenchymal cells occurs, at the site of the future bone, which differentiate into bone and cartilage-forming cells. During long bone development, an initial cartilaginous template is formed and replaced by bone in a coordinated and refined program involving chondrocyte proliferation and maturation, vascular invasion, recruitment of adult stem cells and intense remodeling of cartilage and bone matrix. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the most important enzymes for cleaving structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), as well as other non-ECM molecules in the ECM space, pericellular perimeter and intracellularly. Thus, the bioactive molecules generated act on several biological events, such as development, tissue remodeling and homeostasis. Since the discovery of collagenase in bone cells, more than half of the MMP members have been detected in bone tissues under both physiological and pathological conditions. Pivotal functions of MMPs during development and bone regeneration have been revealed by knockout mouse models, such as chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, osteoclast recruitment and function, bone modeling, coupling of bone resorption and formation (bone remodeling), osteoblast recruitment and survival, angiogenesis, osteocyte viability and function (biomechanical properties); as such alterations in MMP function may alter bone quality. In this review, we look at the principal properties of MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs and RECK), provide an up-date on their known functions in bone development and remodeling and discuss their potential application to Bone Bioengineering. PMID:25157440

Paiva, Katiucia Batista Silva; Granjeiro, José Mauro

2014-11-01

237

TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... 42 Daniel M. Laskin, D.D.S., M.S., Director Temporomandibular Joint and Facial Pain Research Center University of ... facial pain is also stress related. Originally called temporomandibular joint or TMJ syndrome, because it was thought ...

238

About face, computergraphic synthesis and manipulation of facial imagery  

E-print Network

A technique of pictorially synthesizing facial imagery using optical videodiscs under computer control is described. Search, selection and averaging processes are performed on a catalogue of whole faces and facial features ...

Weil, Peggy

1982-01-01

239

MethMorph: Simulating Facial Deformation Due to Methamphatamine Usage  

E-print Network

-Jones based cascades and Lazy Snapping to localize facial features in healthy faces. We use the detected of these challenges is to recognize the overall facial region, as well as the chin line, mouth, eyes, and nostrils

240

Repeated facial palsies after chlorocresol inhalation.  

PubMed Central

A 42-year-old woman who experienced more than 50 attacks of left-sided facial palsies after exposure to chlorocresol was studied. Only muscles around the left side of the mouth were affected. On neurophysiological testing during chlorocresol provocation the only abnormality was a loss of motor units during maximal contraction of the left orbicularis oris muscle. This could be explained by a peripheral as well as a central effect. Extensive electrophysiological examination without chlorocresol provocation excluded a preexisting generalised nerve disorder and other diagnostic procedures did not give evidence of pathology involving the left facial nerve. A hyperreactive mechanism causing a transient block of the left facial nerve is proposed. Images PMID:3806124

Døssing, M; Wulff, C H; Olsen, P Z

1986-01-01

241

Facial Dysostoses: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Management  

PubMed Central

Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in-utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981

Trainor, Paul A.; Andrews, Brian T.

2013-01-01

242

The history of facial palsy and spasm  

PubMed Central

Although Sir Charles Bell was the first to provide the anatomic basis for the condition that bears his name, in recent years researchers have shown that other European physicians provided earlier clinical descriptions of peripheral cranial nerve 7 palsy. In this article, we describe the history of facial distortion by Greek, Roman, and Persian physicians, culminating in Razi's detailed description in al-Hawi. Razi distinguished facial muscle spasm from paralysis, distinguished central from peripheral lesions, gave the earliest description of loss of forehead wrinkling, and gave the earliest known description of bilateral facial palsy. In doing so, he accurately described the clinical hallmarks of a condition that we recognize as Bell palsy. PMID:21747074

Sajadi, Mohamad-Reza M.; Tabatabaie, Seyed Mahmoud

2011-01-01

243

Building highly realistic facial modeling and animation: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive survey on the techniques for human facial modeling and animation. The survey is carried\\u000a out from two different perspectives: facial modeling, which concerns how to produce 3D face models, and facial animation,\\u000a which regards how to synthesize dynamic facial expressions. To generate an individual face model, we can either perform individualization\\u000a of a generic model

Nikolaos Ersotelos; Feng Dong

2008-01-01

244

Similar increases in muscle size and strength in young men after training with maximal shortening or lengthening contractions when matched for total work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Training exclusively with eccentric (lengthening) contractions can result in greater muscular adaptations than training with\\u000a concentric (shortening) contractions. We aimed to determine whether training-induced increases in muscle size and strength\\u000a differed between muscles performing maximal lengthening (LC) or maximal shortening (SC) contractions when total external work\\u000a is equivalent. Nine healthy young males completed a 9-week isokinetic (0.79 rad\\/s) resistance training program

Daniel R. Moore; Mark Young; Stuart M. Phillips

245

Quantitative parameters of facial motor evoked potential during vestibular schwannoma surgery predict postoperative facial nerve function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Facial motor evoked potential (FMEP) amplitude ratio reduction at the end of the surgery has been identified as a good predictor\\u000a for postoperative facial nerve outcome. We sought to investigate variations in FMEP amplitude and waveform morphology during\\u000a vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection and to correlate these measures with postoperative facial function immediately after\\u000a surgery and at the last follow-up.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Intraoperative

Marcus André Acioly; Alireza Gharabaghi; Marina Liebsch; Carlos Henrique Carvalho; Paulo Henrique Aguiar; Marcos Tatagiba

2011-01-01

246

INVEST IN YOUR BONES Bone Basics  

E-print Network

to left) to become so fragile (see above bone figure to right) that they break. Bone Basics You may think. Keeping your bones healthy by preventing osteoporosis is particularly important as you age. Bones are changing constantly with fragments of old bone being removed and replaced by new bone. Think of bones like

247

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Results indicated that, independent of trait

Steven J. Kirsh; Jeffrey R. W. Mounts; Paul V. Olczak

2006-01-01

248

Superimposition and reconstruction in forensic facial identification: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic facial reconstruction is the reproduction of the lost or unknown facial features of an individual, for the purposes of recognition and identification. It is generally accepted that facial reconstruction can be divided into four categories: (1) replacing and repositioning damaged or distorted soft tissues onto a skull; (2) the use of photographic transparencies and drawings in an identikit-type system;

W. A. Aulsebrook; M. Y. ??can; J. H. Slabbert; P. Becker

1995-01-01

249

Objectifying Facial Expressivity Assessment of Parkinson's Patients: Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can exhibit a reduction of spontaneous facial expression, designated as “facial masking,” a symptom in which facial muscles become rigid. To improve clinical assessment of facial expressivity of PD, this work attempts to quantify the dynamic facial expressivity (facial activity) of PD by automatically recognizing facial action units (AUs) and estimating their intensity. Spontaneous facial expressivity was assessed by comparing 7 PD patients with 8 control participants. To voluntarily produce spontaneous facial expressions that resemble those typically triggered by emotions, six emotions (amusement, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, and fear) were elicited using movie clips. During the movie clips, physiological signals (facial electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG)) and frontal face video of the participants were recorded. The participants were asked to report on their emotional states throughout the experiment. We first examined the effectiveness of the emotion manipulation by evaluating the participant's self-reports. Disgust-induced emotions were significantly higher than the other emotions. Thus we focused on the analysis of the recorded data during watching disgust movie clips. The proposed facial expressivity assessment approach captured differences in facial expressivity between PD patients and controls. Also differences between PD patients with different progression of Parkinson's disease have been observed. PMID:25478003

Patsis, Georgios; Jiang, Dongmei; Sahli, Hichem; Kerckhofs, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Marie

2014-01-01

250

Suppression of mammalian bone growth by membrane transport inhibitors.  

PubMed

Bone lengthening during skeletal growth is driven primarily by the controlled enlargement of growth plate (GP) chondrocytes. The cellular mechanisms are unclear but membrane transporters are probably involved. We investigated the role of the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (NHE1) and anion exchanger (AE2) in bone lengthening and GP chondrocyte hypertrophy in Sprague-Dawley 7-day-old rat (P7) bone rudiments using the inhibitors EIPA (5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride) and DIDS (4,4-diidothiocyano-2,2-stilbenedisulphonate), respectively. We have also determined cell-associated levels of these transporters along the GP using fluorescent immunohistochemistry (FIHC). Culture of bones with EIPA or DIDS inhibited rudiment growth (50% at approx. 250 and 25 µM, respectively). Both decreased the size of the hypertrophic zone (P < 0.05) but had no effect on overall length or cell density of the GP. In situ chondrocyte volume in proliferative and hypertrophic zones was decreased (P < 0.01) with EIPA but not DIDS. FIHC labeling of NHE1 was relatively high and constant along the GP but declined steeply in the late hypertrophic zone. In contrast, AE2 labeling was relatively low in proliferative zone cells but increased (P < 0.05) reaching a maximum in the early hypertrophic zone, before falling rapidly in the late hypertrophic zone suggesting AE2 might regulate the transition phase of chondrocytes between proliferative and hypertrophic zones. The inhibition of bone growth by EIPA may be due to a reduction to chondrocyte volume set-point. However the effect of DIDS was unclear but could result from inhibition of AE2 and blocking of the transition phase. These results demonstrate that NHE1 and AE2 are important regulators of bone growth. PMID:23059814

Loqman, Mohamad Y; Bush, Peter G; Farquharson, Colin; Hall, Andrew C

2013-03-01

251

Responsible and prudent imaging in the diagnosis and management of facial fractures.  

PubMed

This article reviews the current standard of care in imaging considerations for the diagnosis and management of craniomaxillofacial trauma. Injury-specific imaging techniques and options for computer-aided surgery as related to craniomaxillofacial trauma are reviewed, including preoperative planning, intraoperative navigation, and intraoperative computed tomography. Specific imaging considerations by anatomic region include frontal sinus fractures, temporal bone fractures, midfacial fractures, mandible fractures, laryngotracheal injuries, and vascular injuries. Imaging considerations in the pediatric trauma patient are also discussed. Responsible postoperative imaging as it relates to facial trauma management and outcomes assessment is reviewed. PMID:24183372

Gelesko, Savannah; Markiewicz, Michael R; Bell, R Bryan

2013-11-01

252

Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

2008-01-01

253

[A case of herpetic facial paralysis in which cochleovestibular symptoms outweigh facial nerve symptoms].  

PubMed

A 42-year-old man presented with sensorineural hearing loss of acute onset, tinnitus, and vertigo. Physical examination revealed slight asymmetry in facial nerve functions and spontaneous nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging of the internal acoustic canal showed contrast enhancement consistent with edema-inflammation, being notable and diffuse in the seventh and eighth cranial nerve complex, and minimal in the cochlea. Non-hydropic cochleovestibular syndrome was considered and the patient was treated with antiviral and corticosteroid medications. A week later, facial paralysis improved and the acute hearing loss reversed. On the twelfth day of presentation, he had no complaints other than mild imbalance on abrupt changes in movement. In this type of herpetic facial paralysis in which cochleovestibular symptoms outweigh facial nerve symptoms, it might be argued that varicella zoster virus reactivation occurs in the spiral and/or vestibular ganglion. PMID:18443402

Avci, Suat; Kansu, Leyla; Akkuzu, Babür; Ozgirgin, Nuri; Ozlüo?lu, Levent

2008-01-01

254

Facial abnormalities in Nablus mask-like facial syndrome: multidetector computed tomography findings.  

PubMed

Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) is a rare microdeletion syndrome characterized by a mask-like facial appearance. NMLFS has been reported in only 6 patients and has a recognizable facial appearance, along with other clinical features. The first case of NMLFS has been described by Teebi in 2000, in a 4-year-old Palestinian boy. Three years later, Salpietro et al reported a second example of NMLFS in a 21-month-old girl. The same patient recently came to our hospital to undergo a computed tomography (CT) study to evaluate the degree of development of the zygomatic-maxillary region for orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. To the best of our knowledge, no reports have previously illustrated the maxillofacial CT findings of NMLFS in the radiologic data. We report the multidetector CT (MDCT) facial characteristics/abnormalities of this syndrome, emphasizing the usefulness of multiplanar reformations (MPRs) in preoperative planning. PMID:24815794

Mazziotti, Silvio; D'Angelo, Tommaso; Ascenti, Giorgio; Blandino, Alfredo

2014-08-01

255

A rare case of keloidal granuloma faciale with extra-facial lesions  

PubMed Central

Granuloma faciale (GF) is an uncommon, cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques, or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extra-facial lesions occur rarely. We present a case report of 33-year-old male who presented with keloidal lesions on face and left shoulder. The patient didn’t respond with intralesional triamcinolone and showed poor response with the addition of topical tacrolimus. Surgical excision in consultation with plastic surgeons is planned. PMID:23439975

Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Rai, Tulika; Sharma, Taniya

2013-01-01

256

Facial fuzz and funny findings. Facial hair causing otalgia and oropharyngeal pain.  

PubMed

Three patients with referred otalgia and/or oropharyngeal pain due to ectopic facial hair found in either the external auditory canal or oropharynx were treated at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Disorders. In each of these patients, annoying symptoms were relieved by simple removal of the misplaced facial hair. Sensory nerve innervation of the external ear and oropharynx and their interrelationship in referred pain are described in detail following the case reports. PMID:2743548

Papay, F A; Levine, H L; Schiavone, W A

1989-05-01

257

Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring (IFNM) Predicts Facial Nerve Outcome after Resection of Vestibular Schwannoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IFNM) is a suitable technique for intraoperative facial nerve identification and\\u000a dissection, especially in large vestibular schwannomas (VS) (acoustic neuroma). To evaluate its feasibility for estimating\\u000a functional nerve outcome after VS resection 60 patients underwent surgery using IFNM. Out of this group the last 40 patients\\u000a were included in a prospective study evaluating the prognostic

S. B. Sobottka; G. Schackert; S. A. May; M. Wiegleb; G. Reiß

1998-01-01

258

Multi-curve spectrum representation of facial movements and expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method of multi-curve spectrum representation of facial movements and expressions. Based on 3DMCF (3D muscle-controlled facial) model, facial movements and expressions are controlled by 21 virtual muscles. So, facial movements and expressions can be described by a group of time-varying curves of normalized muscle contraction, called multi-curve spectrum. The structure and basic characters of multi-curve spectrum is introduced. The performance of the proposed method is among the best. This method needs small quantity of data, and is easy to apply. It can also be used to transplant facial animation between different faces.

Pei, Li; Zhang, Zhijiang; Chen, Zhixiang; Zeng, Dan

2009-07-01

259

Until they have faces: the ethics of facial allograft transplantation  

PubMed Central

The ethical discussion of facial allograft transplantation (FAT) for severe facial deformity, popularly known as facial transplantation, has been one sided and sensationalistic. It is based on film and fiction rather than science and clinical experience. Based on our experience in developing the first IRB approved protocol for FAT, we critically discuss the problems with this discussion, which overlooks the plight of individuals with severe facial deformities. We discuss why FAT for facial deformity is ethically and surgically justified despite its negative portrayal in the media. PMID:16319234

Agich, G; Siemionow, M

2005-01-01

260

Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such pro- totypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze

Ying-li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2001-01-01

261

Annotation: Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), the most frequent known interstitial deletion identified in man, is associated with chromosomal microdeletions in the q11 band of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS are reported to have a characteristic behavioural phenotype with high rates of behavioural, psychiatric, neuropsychological and…

Murphy, K. C.

2005-01-01

262

Facial type, expression, and viseme generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of generating facial models and various poses of these models is a necessary part of most present-day movies, and usually required for any interactive game which features humans as a primary character. The generation of this face data can be approached in ways varying from pure computation to pure data acquisition. Computational models are flexible but can lack

James Skorupski; Jerry Yee; Josh McCoy; James Davis

2007-01-01

263

Facial age affects emotional expression decoding  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces. PMID:24550859

Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Werheid, Katja

2014-01-01

264

Anthropometric definitions of dysmorphic facial signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photoanthropometric method is presented, which enables an objective definition of facial structures. It may support the clinical description of patients with dysmorphic syndromes. Eighteen parameters were studied. The measuring points were elected on the base of anthropological criteria. The measurements were related to reference values in the same face. The obtained indices were compared to an age related control

S. Stengel-Rutkowski; P. Schimanek; A. Wernheimer

1984-01-01

265

Facial shape and judgements of female attractiveness.  

PubMed

The finding that photographic and digital composites (blends) of faces are considered to be attractive has led to the claim that attractiveness is averageness. This would encourage stabilizing selection, favouring phenotypes with an average facial structure. The 'averageness hypothesis' would account for the low distinctiveness of attractive faces but is difficult to reconcile with the finding that some facial measurements correlate with attractiveness. An average face shape is attractive but may not be optimally attractive. Human preferences may exert directional selection pressures, as with the phenomena of optimal outbreeding and sexual selection for extreme characteristics. Using composite faces, we show here that, contrary to the averageness hypothesis, the mean shape of a set of attractive faces is preferred to the mean shape of the sample from which the faces were selected. In addition, attractive composites can be made more attractive by exaggerating the shape differences from the sample mean. Japanese and caucasian observers showed the same direction of preferences for the same facial composites, suggesting that aesthetic judgements of face shape are similar across different cultural backgrounds. Our finding that highly attractive facial configurations are not average shows that preferences could exert a directional selection pressure on the evolution of human face shape. PMID:8145822

Perrett, D I; May, K A; Yoshikawa, S

1994-03-17

266

Learning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition  

E-print Network

in interactive video games as well. In order to enhance the interaction and attractiveness of the games - recogLearning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition Daniel Gill1,2 and Yaniv Ninio2 1 and within this framework learns the desired shape metric parameters from la- beled training samples

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Automated Prediction of Preferences Using Facial Expressions  

E-print Network

on covert videos of the observers' faces. The two algorithms are almost as accurate as human judges stimuli are preferred by human observers just by viewing covertly recorded videos of the observers' faces, tends to focus on the six basic emotions defined by [10], and the Facial Action Coding System [11

Todorov, Alex

268

Unwanted Facial Hair: Affects, Effects and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following is a review of a satellite symposium held at the EHRS Meeting in June 2006. U.B.P. reminded the audience that unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important issue; over 40% of the women in the general population have some degree of UFH, and its psychological and psychosocial impact should not be underestimated. The treatment of UFH involves many

U. Blume-Peytavi; U. Gieler; R. Hoffmann; S. Lavery; J. Shapiro

2007-01-01

269

Stereotactic Mesencephalotomy for Cancer - Related Facial Pain  

PubMed Central

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

Kim, Deok-ryeong; Lee, Sang-won

2014-01-01

270

Postoperative Care of the Facial Laceration  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this investigation is to examine factors involved in the postoperative care of traumatic lacerations. An evidence-based comprehensive literature review was conducted. There are a limited number of scientifically proven studies that guide surgeons and emergency room physicians on postoperative care. Randomized controlled trials must be conducted to further standardize the postoperative protocol for simple facial lacerations. PMID:22132257

Medel, Nicholas; Panchal, Neeraj; Ellis, Edward

2010-01-01

271

Flexible signal generator for facial nerve detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

During surgical intervention on patient face, the facial nerve must be protected. To avoid the risk of its damage, we propose an electronic device that could detect the presence of this nerve. Thanks to its excitability, it was possible therefore to record a noticeable muscular electric reaction on the face. An active stimulating electrode would be placed on the patient

Habib ELKHORCHANI; Hamadi GHARIANI; A. Benhamida; M. Ghorbel

2004-01-01

272

[Facial Disability Index and Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale: Validation of the German Versions.  

PubMed

Background: A validated instrument to measure patient-related outcome and quality of life in facial palsy is not available in German language. Methods: 2 appropriate questionnaires, the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) scale and the Facial Disability Index (FDI) were translated and validated according to international guidelines. The internal consistency of both German versions was assessed. The results of FaCE and FDI were correlated with results of the SF-36, the House-Brackmann scale and the Stennert index. Results: 122 facial palsy patients with a median duration of 4.7 months were included. FaCE and FDI showed good to very good psychometric characteristics with Cronbach's alpha values between 0.667 and 0.907. Both questionnaires were able to distinguish different degrees of facial palsy. The comparison to the SF-36 shows the highest correlation with the subscale social function. Discussion: The German versions of the FDI and FaCE are valid and should now be applied more frequently to assess the disease-specific quality of life in patients with facial palsy. PMID:25089633

Volk, G F; Steigerwald, F; Vitek, P; Finkensieper, M; Kreysa, H; Guntinas-Lichius, O

2014-08-01

273

Facial expression (mood) recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

PubMed Central

Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial parameters were extracted from a facial image and were used to train several generalized and specialized neural networks. Based on initial testing, the best performing generalized and specialized neural networks were recruited into decision making committees which formed an integrated committee neural network system. The integrated committee neural network system was then evaluated using data obtained from subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Results and conclusion The system correctly identified the correct facial expression in 255 of the 282 images (90.43% of the cases), from 62 subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Committee neural networks offer a potential tool for image based mood detection. PMID:19656402

Kulkarni, Saket S; Reddy, Narender P; Hariharan, SI

2009-01-01

274

Impact of Orthodontic Decompensation on Bone Insertion  

PubMed Central

There has always been concern in determining the relationship between orthodontic tooth movement and the consequent biological costs to the periodontium and tooth root. The possibility of evaluating the tooth and bone morphology by CBCT allows more accurate analysis of qualitative and quantitative aspects of these processes. This paper presents a case report of a 20-year-old male patient with Class III malocclusion and hyperdivergent facial pattern, who was surgically treated. A significant amount of labial movement of mandibular incisors was performed during orthodontic treatment before surgery. CBCT was used for evaluation of buccal and lingual bone plates before and after tooth decompensation. The changes in the bone insertion level of maxillary and mandibular incisors in the present case encourage a reflection on the treatment protocol in individuals with dentoskeletal discrepancies. PMID:25436157

Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Nary Filho, Hugo; Borgo, Evandro José; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida

2014-01-01

275

Aberrant patterns of visual facial information usage in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Deficits in facial emotion perception have been linked to poorer functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between abnormal emotion perception and functional outcome remains poorly understood. To better understand the nature of facial emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we used the Bubbles Facial Emotion Perception Task to identify differences in usage of visual facial information in schizophrenia patients (n = 20) and controls (n = 20), when differentiating between angry and neutral facial expressions. As hypothesized, schizophrenia patients required more facial information than controls to accurately differentiate between angry and neutral facial expressions, and they relied on different facial features and spatial frequencies to differentiate these facial expressions. Specifically, schizophrenia patients underutilized the eye regions, overutilized the nose and mouth regions, and virtually ignored information presented at the lowest levels of spatial frequency. In addition, a post hoc one-tailed t test revealed a positive relationship of moderate strength between the degree of divergence from "normal" visual facial information usage in the eye region and lower overall social functioning. These findings provide direct support for aberrant patterns of visual facial information usage in schizophrenia in differentiating between socially salient emotional states. PMID:23713505

Clark, Cameron M; Gosselin, Frédéric; Goghari, Vina M

2013-05-01

276

Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and J. H. J. Schaminée (2010), A new European Landscape Classification (LANMAP): A transparent, flexible and user-oriented methodology to distinguish landscapes, Ecological Indicators, 10(1), 87-103. Stöckli, R., and P. L. Vidale (2004), European plant phenology and climate as seen in a 20-year AVHRR land-surface parameter dataset, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25(17), 3303-3330. White, M. A., et al. (2009), Intercomparison, interpretation, and assessment of spring phenology in North America estimated from remote sensing for 1982-2006, Global Change Biology, 15(10), 2335-2359.

Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

2013-12-01

277

Facial height in Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the standards of facial height in 30 young (14-year-old) Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion, and assess whether sexual dimorphism is evident. METHODS: The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses by Wylie-Johnson, Siriwat-Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield and Horn. RESULTS: Results showed dimorphism for total anterior facial height (TAFH), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), anterior facial height (AFH), total posterior facial height (TPFH) and upper posterior facial height (UPFH) measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The standards of facial heights in young Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion were observed. Sexual dimorphism was identified in five out of thirteen evaluated variables at this age range.

Vieira, Fabiano Paiva; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Janson, Guilherme; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Sathler, Renata Carvalho; Henriques, Rafael Pinelli

2014-01-01

278

Bear Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.

Science Update;

2004-03-08

279

Bone Sialoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for a protein nucleator of hydroxyapatite crystal formation has been a focus for the isolation and characterization of the major non-collagenous proteins in bone. Of the proteins characterized to date, bone sialoprotein (BSP) has emerged as the only bona fide candidate for nucleation. BSP is a highly glycosylated and sulphated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized

B. Ganss; R. H. Kim; J. Sodek

1999-01-01

280

Temporal bone findings in Pierre Robin syndrome.  

PubMed

This is the first complete report on the histopathologic study of the temporal bones from an infant with a well-documented Pierre Robin syndrome (micrognathia, glossoptosis and cleft palate), demonstrating multiple middle and inner ear anomalies. The anomalies are basically architectural malformations rather than neutral or end organ developmental anomalies. The anomalies in this case, except for a few points, are somewhat similar in both ears. Multiple anomalies include: abnormal narrowing of the crus commune-utricle junction, superiorly located crus commune and posterior semicircular canal, underdeveloped modiolus, absence of the bony septum between the middle and apical coil (existence of scala communis in left ear), abnormally small internal auditory meatus, and abnormal direction of internal auditory canal, large cartilaginous mass around the superior semicircular canal and in the tympanic end of the fissula ante fenestram, small facial nerve, large facial bony canal dehiscence, anomalic stapes, etc. PMID:979492

Igarashi, M; Filippone, M V; Alford, B R

1976-11-01

281

Description of sex difference as prescription for sex change: on the origins of facial feminization surgery.  

PubMed

This article explores the research project that led to the development of facial feminization surgery, a set of bone and soft tissue reconstructive surgical procedures intended to feminize the faces of male-to-female trans- women. Conducted by a pioneering surgeon in the mid-1980s, this research consisted of three steps: (1) assessments of sexual differences of the skull taken from early 20th-century physical anthropology, (2) the application of statistical analyses taken from late 20th-century orthodontic research, and (3) the vetting of this new morphological and metric knowledge in a dry skull collection. When the 'feminine type' of early 20th-century physical anthropology was made to articulate with the 'female mean' of 1970s' statistical analysis, these two very different epistemological artifacts worked together to produce something new: a singular model of a distinctively female skull. In this article, I show how the development of facial feminization surgery worked across epistemic styles, transforming historically racialized and gendered descriptions of sex difference into contemporary surgical prescriptions for sex change. Fundamental to this transformation was an explicit invocation of the scientific origins of facial sexual dimorphism, a claim that frames surgical sex change of the face as not only possible, but objectively certain. PMID:25362828

Plemons, Eric D

2014-10-01

282

Distraction osteogenesis: a method to improve facial balance in asymmetric patients.  

PubMed

Distraction osteogenesis is a well-established surgical procedure to elongate the maxillofacial skeleton. The authors propose a new method to balance facial asymmetry by means of distraction of the inferior borders of the mandible, without change of the occlusion, using an alveolar device. Nine patients with asymmetry were treated. Records included panoramic radiographs and computed tomographic scans. Preoperatively, stereolithographic models and virtual-reality surgery were performed to have a precise surgical planning. The surgical procedure was based on segmental inferior osteotomy and simultaneous positioning of the alveolar device upside-down. Postoperative clinical evaluation demonstrated that a very impressive elongation of the inferior bony border with simultaneous expansion of the soft tissues had been achieved, resulting in a satisfying facial balance. The postdistraction radiographs showed the ossification of the gap, and the new bone formation was observed and confirmed by biopsy. Distraction osteogenesis of the inferior border of the mandible and the chin represents a new method to correct facial asymmetry and is a valid alternative to the traditional techniques. In addition, surgical virtual reality and stereolithographic models are, without a doubt, an advantage in defining the vector of distraction and in simulating the final result. PMID:20216446

Robiony, Massimo

2010-03-01

283

Vangl2-Regulated Polarisation of Second Heart Field-Derived Cells Is Required for Outflow Tract Lengthening during Cardiac Development  

PubMed Central

Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the mechanism by which cells orient themselves in the plane of an epithelium or during directed cell migration, and is regulated by a highly conserved signalling pathway. Mutations in the PCP gene Vangl2, as well as in other key components of the pathway, cause a spectrum of cardiac outflow tract defects. However, it is unclear why cells within the mesodermal heart tissue require PCP signalling. Using a new conditionally floxed allele we show that Vangl2 is required solely within the second heart field (SHF) to direct normal outflow tract lengthening, a process that is required for septation and normal alignment of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with the ventricular chambers. Analysis of a range of markers of polarised epithelial tissues showed that in the normal heart, undifferentiated SHF cells move from the dorsal pericardial wall into the distal outflow tract where they acquire an epithelial phenotype, before moving proximally where they differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Thus there is a transition zone in the distal outflow tract where SHF cells become more polarised, turn off progenitor markers and start to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. Membrane-bound Vangl2 marks the proximal extent of this transition zone and in the absence of Vangl2, the SHF-derived cells are abnormally polarised and disorganised. The consequent thickening, rather than lengthening, of the outflow wall leads to a shortened outflow tract. Premature down regulation of the SHF-progenitor marker Isl1 in the mutants, and accompanied premature differentiation to cardiomyocytes, suggests that the organisation of the cells within the transition zone is important for maintaining the undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis. PMID:25521757

Rhee, Hong Jun; Eley, Lorraine; Phillips, Helen M.; Rigby, Hannah F.; Dean, Charlotte; Chaudhry, Bill; Henderson, Deborah J.

2014-01-01

284

PT-ACRAMTU, a platinum–acridine anticancer agent, lengthens and aggregates, but does not stiffen or soften DNA  

PubMed Central

We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the dose-dependent change in conformational and mechanical properties of DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU ([PtCl(en)(ACRAMTU-S)](NO3)2, (en = ethane-1,2-diamine, ACRAMTU = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea. PT-ACRAMTU is the parent drug of a family of nonclassical platinum-based agents that show potent activity in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Its acridine moiety intercalates between DNA bases, while the platinum group forms monoadducts with DNA bases. AFM images show that PT-ACRAMTU causes some DNA looping and aggregation at drug-to-base pair ratio (rb) of 0.1 and higher. Very significant lengthening of the DNA was observed with increasing doses of PT-ACRAMTU, and reached saturation at an rb of 0.15. At rb of 0.1, lengthening was 0.6 nm per drug molecule, which is more than one fully stretched base pair stack can accommodate, indicating that ACRAMTU also disturbs the stacking of neighboring base pair stacks. Analysis of the AFM images based on the worm-like chain (WLC) model showed that PT-ACRAMTU did not change the flexibility of (non-aggregated) DNA, despite the extreme lengthening. The persistence length of untreated DNA and DNA treated with PT-ACRAMTU was in the range of 49 to 65 nm. Potential consequences of the perturbations caused by this agent for the recognition and processing of the DNA adducts it forms are discussed. PMID:23636685

Dutta, Samrat; Snyder, Matthew J.; Rosile, David; Binz, Kristen L.; Roll, Eric H.; Suryadi, Jimmy; Bierbach, Ulrich; Guthold, Martin

2013-01-01

285

Reanimation of early facial paralysis with hypoglossal/facial end-to-side neurorrhaphy: a new approach.  

PubMed

The classic hypoglossal transfer to the facial nerve invariably results in profound functional deficits in speech, mastication, and swallowing, and causes synkinesis and involuntary movements in the facial muscles despite good reanimation. Techniques such as a hypoglossal/facial nerve interpositional jump graft and splitting the hypoglossal nerve cause poor functional results in facial reanimation and mild-to-moderate hemiglossal atrophy, respectively. Direct hypoglossal/facial nerve cross-over through end-to-side coaptation without tension was done in three fresh cadavers and four patients. The patients had facial paralysis for less than 7 months. Complete mobilization of the facial nerve trunk and its main branches beyond the pes anserinus from the stylomastoid foramen, division of the frontal branch, if necessary, and superior elevation of the hypoglossal nerve after dividing the descendens hypoglossi, thyrohyoidal branches, occipital artery, and retromandibular veins were performed. The end of the facial nerve was hooked up through both a quarter of a partial oblique neurotomy and a perineurial window at the side of the hypoglossal nerve. Temporalis muscle transfer to the eyelids and the first stage of cross-facial nerve transfer were performed simultaneously. None of the patients experienced hemiglossal atrophy, synkinesis, and involuntary movements of the facial muscles. Regarding facial reanimation, one patient had excellent, one patient good, and the others fair and poor results after a follow-up of at least 1 year. PMID:10954315

Yoleri, L; Songür, E; Yoleri, O; Vural, T; Ca?da?, A

2000-07-01

286

Management of firearm injuries to the facial skeleton: Outcomes from early primary intervention  

PubMed Central

Aim: Treatment of maxillofacial firearm injuries is still controversial with regard to timing of management. We postulate that not all maxillofacial firearm injuries need be delayed and that many may be treated early. To this end, a 19-year retrospective study was undertaken seeking to evaluate patients treated for firearm injuries to the facial skeleton at our center. The criteria which dictated when to operate are presented as are the results, benefits, and outcomes of the patients treated acutely. Patients and Methods: From 1991 to 2010, 51 patients with maxillofacial firearm injuries were treated; 30/51 patients received early primary repair and simultaneous open reduction for facial fractures. These underwent primary debridement and arch bar placement followed by open reduction of fractures (with or without osteosynthesis) and primary wound closure. Patient age ranged from 8 to 50 years, with a mean age of 24.4±7.8 years. Primary early intervention was done when there was no gross infection, no bone comminution or extensive soft tissue avulsion (precluding wound coverage), and when general health, concomitant injuries requiring more urgent attention or those requiring major grafts did not preclude this. Primary intervention included extensive oral and extraoral irrigation (dilute hydrogen peroxide + povidone iodide), debridement of the facial wound, removal of floating fragments (teeth particles, debris, and shell fragments) precluding viable bone within the wound, access to the bone, finding the scattered bone segments and putting them back into place to restore bone continuity. Projectiles beyond the wound were not searched for. Tooth roots within the alveolus were not extracted at this stage. In addition to arch bars, titanium miniplates or wire osteosynthesis was done when necessary. All wounds were closed primarily (using local advancement flaps when necessary) and all patients were placed on antibiotics (cephalosporin + aminoglycoside or ciprofloxacin) upon admission. Results: Of 51 patients, 30 were treated acutely and 21 warranted delayed intervention. In the acute-treated group, 6/30 patients had minor complications such as scarring and wound discharge. Early intervention for firearm wounds to the face was effective for facial firearm injuries in selected cases. This resulted in restoration of occlusion and continuity of the jaw, fixation of luxated teeth, early return of function, prevention of segment displacement and tissue contracture, less scarring, and decreased the need for major bone graft reconstruction later on. Those treated secondarily were only debrided and had arch bars placed. Definitive treatment of hard and soft tissue management was rendered in another subsequent operation. Bone reduction was more difficult because of scarring, and displacement of remaining segments. No significant differences were noted in terms of infection or other major complications. Conclusions: Firearm wounds were associated with a high incidence of maxillofacial injuries requiring surgical intervention. Many may be treated definitively and acutely with procedures designed to repair both bone and soft tissue injuries simultaneously aiming to restore bony continuity, esthetics and function using the tissues at hand (especially in the mandible). Early treatment is advocated because the course of healing is not disrupted with another subsequent operation (in the same wound) and because it may decrease hospital stay without increasing patient morbidity in selected patients. Patients with residual defects can be treated later as out-patients. PMID:21769208

Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar

2011-01-01

287

RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals  

PubMed Central

Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio) in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans). We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans), and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face length in carnivorans, this relationship is not conserved across mammals in general. PMID:22741925

2012-01-01

288

Event-Related Alpha Suppression in Response to Facial Motion  

PubMed Central

While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors. PMID:24586735

Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J.; Spencer, Janine V.; O’Brien, Justin M. D.

2014-01-01

289

Computer-aided design and rapid prototyping-assisted contouring of costal cartilage graft for facial reconstructive surgery.  

PubMed

Complex 3-D defects of the facial skeleton are difficult to reconstruct with freehand carving of autogenous bone grafts. Onlay bone grafts are hard to carve and are associated with imprecise graft-bone interface contact and bony resorption. Autologous cartilage is well established in ear reconstruction as it is easy to carve and is associated with minimal resorption. In the present study, we aimed to reconstruct the hypoplastic orbitozygomatic region in a patient with left hemifacial microsomia using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping to facilitate costal cartilage carving and grafting. A three-step process of (1) 3-D reconstruction of the computed tomographic image, (2) mirroring the facial skeleton, and (3) modeling and rapid prototyping of the left orbitozygomaticomalar region and reconstruction template was performed. The template aided in donor site selection and extracorporeal contouring of the rib cartilage graft to allow for an accurate fit of the graft to the bony model prior to final fixation in the patient. We are able to refine the existing computer-aided design and rapid prototyping methods to allow for extracorporeal contouring of grafts and present rib cartilage as a good alternative to bone for autologous reconstruction. PMID:23730421

Lee, Shu Jin; Lee, Heow Pueh; Tse, Kwong Ming; Cheong, Ee Cherk; Lim, Siak Piang

2012-06-01

290

Computer-Aided Design and Rapid Prototyping–Assisted Contouring of Costal Cartilage Graft for Facial Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Complex 3-D defects of the facial skeleton are difficult to reconstruct with freehand carving of autogenous bone grafts. Onlay bone grafts are hard to carve and are associated with imprecise graft-bone interface contact and bony resorption. Autologous cartilage is well established in ear reconstruction as it is easy to carve and is associated with minimal resorption. In the present study, we aimed to reconstruct the hypoplastic orbitozygomatic region in a patient with left hemifacial microsomia using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping to facilitate costal cartilage carving and grafting. A three-step process of (1) 3-D reconstruction of the computed tomographic image, (2) mirroring the facial skeleton, and (3) modeling and rapid prototyping of the left orbitozygomaticomalar region and reconstruction template was performed. The template aided in donor site selection and extracorporeal contouring of the rib cartilage graft to allow for an accurate fit of the graft to the bony model prior to final fixation in the patient. We are able to refine the existing computer-aided design and rapid prototyping methods to allow for extracorporeal contouring of grafts and present rib cartilage as a good alternative to bone for autologous reconstruction. PMID:23730421

Lee, Shu Jin; Lee, Heow Pueh; Tse, Kwong Ming; Cheong, Ee Cherk; Lim, Siak Piang

2012-01-01

291

Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique  

PubMed Central

Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

2014-01-01

292

Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique.  

PubMed

Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

2014-01-01

293

Information extraction from image sequences of real-world facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information extraction of facial expressions deals with facial-feature detection, feature tracking, and capture of the spatiotemporal relationships among features. It is a funda- mental task in facial expression analysis and will ultimately determine the performance of expression recognition. For a real-world facial expression sequence, there are three chal- lenges: (1) detection failure of some or all facial features due to

Haisong Gu; Qiang Ji

2005-01-01

294

Facial transplantation: the first 9 years.  

PubMed

Since the first facial transplantation in 2005, 28 have been done worldwide with encouraging immunological, functional, psychological, and aesthetic outcomes. Unlike solid organ transplantation, which is potentially life-saving, facial transplantation is life-changing. This difference has generated ethical concerns about the exposure of otherwise young and healthy individuals to the sequelae of lifelong, high-dose, multidrug immunosuppression. Nevertheless, advances in immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive protocols, microsurgical techniques, and computer-aided surgical planning have enabled broader clinical application of this procedure to patients. Although episodes of acute skin rejection continue to pose a serious threat to face transplant recipients, all cases have been controlled with conventional immunosuppressive regimens, and no cases of chronic rejection have been reported. PMID:24783986

Khalifian, Saami; Brazio, Philip S; Mohan, Raja; Shaffer, Cynthia; Brandacher, Gerald; Barth, Rolf N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

2014-12-13

295

Facial reconstruction – anatomical art or artistic anatomy?  

PubMed Central

Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury. PMID:20447245

Wilkinson, Caroline

2010-01-01

296

Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

2014-06-01

297

Automated Down syndrome detection using facial photographs.  

PubMed

Down syndrome, the most common single cause of human birth defects, produces alterations in physical growth and mental retardation; its early detection is crucial. Children with Down syndrome generally have distinctive facial characteristics, which brings an opportunity for the computer-aided diagnosis of Down syndrome using photographs of patients. In this study, we propose a novel strategy based on machine learning techniques to detect Down syndrome automatically. A modified constrained local model is used to locate facial landmarks. Then geometric features and texture features based on local binary patterns are extracted around each landmark. Finally, Down syndrome is detected using a variety of classifiers. The best performance achieved 94.6% accuracy, 93.3% precision and 95.5% recall by using support vector machine with radial basis function kernel. The results indicate that our method could assist in Down syndrome screening effectively in a simple, non-invasive way. PMID:24110526

Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Okada, Kazunori; Zand, Dina J; Sze, Raymond; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George

2013-01-01

298

Bone Densitometry  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... In people with osteoporosis, new bone has less calcium in it and is therefore weaker than the ... 1 Some antacids contain aluminum hydroxide, which prevents calcium from being absorbed by the body. People who ...

299

Interpreting Bones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity which introduces students to the nature and challenges of paleoanthropology. In the exercise, students identify diagrammed bones and make interpretations about the creature. Presents questions and tasks employed in the lesson. (ML)

Weymouth, Patricia P.

1986-01-01

300

Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome.  

PubMed

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case. PMID:21731335

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-04-01

301

Facial Fracture Management in Northwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial fracture is gradually become a public health problem in our community due to the attendant morbidity and mortality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the pattern of facial fracture in Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to provide information regarding gender, age, etiology, and diagnosis of patients with maxillofacial fractures. Materials and Methods: A 1-year review of patients diagnosed and treated for facial fractures in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital between January 2011 and December 2011. The diagnosis was based on radiographic data and clinical examination. The main analysis outcome measures were etiology, age, gender, site, and treatment. Data were organized and presented by means of descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: A total of 40 patients were treated in this period. Over 95% were male, 81% were caused by road traffic crash (RTC) and 86.4% were in the 21-30 years group. Most patients (52%) had mandibular fractures, and the most common site was the body. Most patients with midfacial fractures had fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary region (36%), while fractures of the parasymphyseal region were more common in the mandible 156 (31%). The most common treatment for jaw fractures was mandibulomaxillary fixation (MMF). Stable zygomatic complex fractures were reduced (elevated) intraorally, and unstable ones were supported by antral packs. Conclusions: This study highlights facial fractures secondary to RTC as a serious public health problem in our environment. Preventive strategies remain the cheapest way to reduce direct and indirect costs of the sequelae of RTC. It also bring to the fore the necessity to shift to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of fractures. PMID:24741422

Taiwo, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Godwin, Ndubuizi Ugochukwu; Ibikunle, Adebayo Aremu

2013-01-01

302

Familial Facial disfigurement in Multiple Familial Trichoepithelioma  

PubMed Central

Trichoepithelioma is an uncommon, benign hamartomatous tumor of the pilosebaceous follicle. Presenting as multiple papules and nodules on face and neck, they pose a significant cosmetic problem in affected individuals. Familial involvement of this dermatosis occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern, the locus being located on chromosome 9p21, which causes multiple facial lesions in family members and their kins. Here, we report a case of multiple familial trichoepithelioma causing considerable disfigurement of the face. PMID:24551711

Kataria, Usha; Agarwal, Deepti; Chhillar, Dinesh

2013-01-01

303

Facial Composite System Using Genetic Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article deals with genetic algorithms and their application in face identification. The purpose of the research is to develop a free and open-source facial composite system using evolutionary algorithms, primarily processes of selection and breeding. The initial testing proved higher quality of the final composites and massive reduction in the composites processing time. System requirements were specified and future research orientation was proposed in order to improve the results.

Zahradníková, Barbora; Duchovi?ová, So?a; Schreiber, Peter

2014-12-01

304

Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters\\u000a of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections,\\u000a trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the\\u000a presence of typical symptoms

Josef Finsterer

2008-01-01

305

Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations  

PubMed Central

The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is discussed. PMID:19503770

Bowler, Patrick J

2009-01-01

306

Voiceless Arabic vowels recognition using facial EMG.  

PubMed

This work attempts to recognize the Arabic vowels based on facial electromyograph (EMG) signals, to be used for people with speech impairment and for human computer interface. Vowels were selected since they are the most difficult letters to recognize by people in Arabic language. Twenty subjects (7 females and 13 males) were asked to pronounce three Arabic vowels continuously in a random order. Facial EMG signals were recorded over three channels from the three main facial muscles that are responsible for speech. The EMG signals are then pre-processed to eliminate noise and interference signals. Segmentation procedure was implemented to extract the time event that corresponds to each vowel based on a moving standard deviation window. The accuracy of the segmentation procedure was found to be 94%. The recognition of the vowels was carried out by extracting features from the EMG in three domains: the temporal, the spectral, and the time frequency using the wavelet packet transform. Classification of the extracted features was then finally performed using different classification methods implemented in the WEKA software. The random forest classifier with time frequency features showed the best performance with an accuracy of 77% evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation. PMID:21409427

Fraiwan, Luay; Lweesy, Khaldon; Al-Nemrawi, Ayat; Addabass, Sondos; Saifan, Rasha

2011-07-01

307

Automatic image assessment from facial attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal consumer photography collections often contain photos captured by numerous devices stored both locally and via online services. The task of gathering, organizing, and assembling still and video assets in preparation for sharing with others can be quite challenging. Current commercial photobook applications are mostly manual-based requiring significant user interactions. To assist the consumer in organizing these assets, we propose an automatic method to assign a fitness score to each asset, whereby the top scoring assets are used for product creation. Our method uses cues extracted from analyzing pixel data, metadata embedded in the file, as well as ancillary tags or online comments. When a face occurs in an image, its features have a dominating influence on both aesthetic and compositional properties of the displayed image. As such, this paper will emphasize the contributions faces have on affecting the overall fitness score of an image. To understand consumer preference, we conducted a psychophysical study that spanned 27 judges, 5,598 faces, and 2,550 images. Preferences on a per-face and per-image basis were independently gathered to train our classifiers. We describe how to use machine learning techniques to merge differing facial attributes into a single classifier. Our novel methods of facial weighting, fusion of facial attributes, and dimensionality reduction produce stateof- the-art results suitable for commercial applications.

Ptucha, Raymond; Kloosterman, David; Mittelstaedt, Brian; Loui, Alexander

2013-03-01

308

Quantifying facial expression recognition across viewing conditions.  

PubMed

Facial expressions are key to social interactions and to assessment of potential danger in various situations. Therefore, our brains must be able to recognize facial expressions when they are transformed in biologically plausible ways. We used synthetic happy, sad, angry and fearful faces to determine the amount of geometric change required to recognize these emotions during brief presentations. Five-alternative forced choice conditions involving central viewing, peripheral viewing and inversion were used to study recognition among the four emotions. Two-alternative forced choice was used to study affect discrimination when spatial frequency information in the stimulus was modified. The results show an emotion and task-dependent pattern of detection. Facial expressions presented with low peak frequencies are much harder to discriminate from neutral than faces defined by either mid or high peak frequencies. Peripheral presentation of faces also makes recognition much more difficult, except for happy faces. Differences between fearful detection and recognition tasks are probably due to common confusions with sadness when recognizing fear from among other emotions. These findings further support the idea that these emotions are processed separately from each other. PMID:16364393

Goren, Deborah; Wilson, Hugh R

2006-04-01

309

Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Reconstructive surgery of the facial nerve is not daily routine for most head and neck surgeons. The published experience on strategies to ensure optimal functional results for the patients are based on small case series with a large variety of surgical techniques. On this background it is worthwhile to develop a standardized approach for diagnosis and treatment of patients asking for facial rehabilitation. Conclusion A standardized approach is feasible: Patients with chronic facial palsy first need an exact classification of the palsy's aetiology. A step-by-step clinical examination, if necessary MRI imaging and electromyographic examination allow a classification of the palsy's aetiology as well as the determination of the severity of the palsy and the functional deficits. Considering the patient's desire, age and life expectancy, an individual surgical concept is applicable using three main approaches: a) early extratemporal reconstruction, b) early reconstruction of proximal lesions if extratemporal reconstruction is not possible, c) late reconstruction or in cases of congenital palsy. Twelve to 24 months after the last step of surgical reconstruction a standardized evaluation of the therapeutic results is recommended to evaluate the necessity for adjuvant surgical procedures or other adjuvant procedures, e.g. botulinum toxin application. Up to now controlled trials on the value of physiotherapy and other adjuvant measures are missing to give recommendation for optimal application of adjuvant therapies. PMID:21040532

2010-01-01

310

Long-term influence of infant periosteoplasty on facial growth and occlusion in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

This retrospective, long-term study evaluated the influence of two different treatment protocols, one including infant periosteoplasty, on facial growth and occlusion in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP). Thirty-five patients with records of 5-, 8- and 16-19-year-olds were included. Sixteen of these received infant periosteoplasty (BCLP-pp) to the cleft alveolus in conjunction with lip repair and a one-stage closure of the palate. The remaining 19 patients with a two-stage closure of the palate did not have an infant periosteoplasty (BCLP-np). The bone formation induced by periosteoplasty in the BCLP-np group was insufficient and both groups had secondary bone grafting to the alveolar clefts before the eruption of the lateral incisor or the canine. Facial growth was evaluated with cephalometry at the recorded ages and dental arch relationships with the Huddart and Bodenham crossbite scores at the age of 16-19 years. Until 19 years a significant retrusion of the maxillary position (SNA) was observed in both groups. At 16-19 years of age there was no significant difference of maxillary protrusion (SNA), intermaxillary position (ANB), maxillary length (ss-pm) or vertical skeletal relationships (ML/NSL, Ml/NL) between the two groups. However, a significant difference of the crossbite scores was found. The BCLP-pp group did not show more facial growth problems but more malocclusion and the insufficient bone formation of the alveolar clefts after infant periosteoplasty required a secondary bone grafting. PMID:22747348

Andlin Sobocki, Anna; Tehrani, David; Skoog, Valdemar

2012-09-01

311

Time Perception and Dynamics of Facial Expressions of Emotions  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were run to examine the effects of dynamic displays of facial expressions of emotions on time judgments. The participants were given a temporal bisection task with emotional facial expressions presented in a dynamic or a static display. Two emotional facial expressions and a neutral expression were tested and compared. Each of the emotional expressions had the same affective valence (unpleasant), but one was high-arousing (expressing anger) and the other low-arousing (expressing sadness). Our results showed that time judgments are highly sensitive to movements in facial expressions and the emotions expressed. Indeed, longer perceived durations were found in response to the dynamic faces and the high-arousing emotional expressions compared to the static faces and low-arousing expressions. In addition, the facial movements amplified the effect of emotions on time perception. Dynamic facial expressions are thus interesting tools for examining variations in temporal judgments in different social contexts. PMID:24835285

Fayolle, Sophie L.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

2014-01-01

312

Effects of anticipation on perception of facial expressions.  

PubMed

Human beings do not passively perceive the facial expressions of other people, but predict observed facial expressions by employing past experiences. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether and how anticipation affected the perception of facial expressions. A 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA on anticipation, orientation, and facial expression was performed on RTs and recognition accuracy in Experiments 1 and 2. The results showed that anticipation reduced susceptibility to negative facial expressions. In this regard, anticipation might be considered as an effective emotion-regulation strategy. In addition, a decreased inversion effect for positive facial expressions was found in the predictable condition, which might reflect a switch from feature-based to holistic processing. PMID:24724522

Ran, Guang Ming; Chen, Xu; Pan, Yan Gu; Hu, Tian Qiang; Ma, Jing

2014-02-01

313

[Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis and granuloma facial with extra facial presentation, the same pathology?].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis is a rare fibro inflammatory lesion of unknown etiology which occurs usually in the upper respiratory tract mucosa of middle-aged adults. The histologic features show an eosinophilic vasculitis and an angiocentric fibrosis with onion-skin pattern. Firstly described as a mucosal variant of the granuloma facial, which is a rare cutaneous vasculitis with eosinophils, it is considerated by some authors as separated entities. Four cases have been described in the orbit and three of them were in fact an extension of a sinusal lesion. We report the first case affecting a 69-years-old male patient who showed an isolated orbital involvement in association with granuloma facial, extra facial. This observation illustrates the relationship between these two pathologies and consolidates the first hypothesis of a single disease with cutaneous or mucosal involvement. PMID:21736992

Depaepe, Lauriane; Chouvet, Brigitte; Claudy, Alain; Thomas, Luc; Berger, Françoise; Balme, Brigitte

2011-06-01

314

Hierarchical Face Modeling and Fast 3D Facial Expression Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new hierarchical facial model that conforms to the human anatomy for realistic and fast 3D facial expression synthesis. The facial model has a skin\\/muscle\\/skull structure. The deformable skin model uses a kind of nonlinear springs to directly simulate the nonlinear visco-elastic behavior of soft tissue, and a new kind of edge repulsion springs is developed to

Yu Zhang; Edmond C. Prakash; Eric Sung

2002-01-01

315

The Minotaur Syndrome: Plastic surgery of the facial skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article remarks on the possibility of recontouring the face by working on the facial skeleton with the sole purpose of softening the facial appearance. The author describes a one-step surgical procedure performed on a 38-year-old man who had serious social problems because of his aggressive and threatening facial appearance that contrasted with his gentle personality. The author coins the

Paolo G. Morselli

1993-01-01

316

Intraoperative Monitoring and Facial Nerve Outcomes after Vestibular Schwannoma Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the predictive value of proximal fa- cial nerve electrical threshold and proximal-to-distal facial muscle compound action potential amplitude ratio on facial nerve outcomes after resection of vestibular schwannomas. Study Design: Retrospective case review. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Patients: Two hundred twenty-nine patients undergoing resec- tion of vestibular schwannomas with intraoperative facial nerve monitoring at a single institution.

Brandon Isaacson; Paul R. Kileny; Hussam El-Kashlan

2003-01-01

317

Histopathologic and functional effects of facial nerve following electrical stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to investigate the functional and histopathologic changes in facial nerve due to the application of\\u000a various violent and numerous electrical stimuli to the facial nerve. The study was carried out with Wistar rats weighing between\\u000a 200 and 300 g. The facial nerves of the subjects were located and stimulated with electrical stimulator. Then five groups

Emrah Sapmaz; Irfan Kaygusuz; Hayrettin Cengiz Alpay; Nusret Akpolat; Erol Keles; Turgut Karlidag; Israfil Orhan; Sinasi Yalcin

2010-01-01

318

Bone marrow transplant  

MedlinePLUS

Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

319

The natural history of primary temporal bone myxoma.  

PubMed

Primary myxomas of the temporal bone are rare tumors. If misdiagnosed, they can grow into locally aggressive expansile masses resulting in hearing loss, facial paralysis, dural invasion, and mass effect on the adjacent brain parenchyma. This case demonstrates the natural history of an extraordinarily rare tumor over a longer period not previously described. The importance of correlating histopathologic findings with diagnostic imaging features to enable an accurate diagnosis is also emphasized. PMID:22483549

Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Deavers, Michael; DeMonte, Franco; Gidley, Paul W

2012-08-01

320

The Minotaur syndrome: plastic surgery of the facial skeleton.  

PubMed

This article remarks on the possibility of recontouring the face by working on the facial skeleton with the sole purpose of softening the facial appearance. The author describes a one-step surgical procedure performed on a 38-year-old man who had serious social problems because of his aggressive and threatening facial appearance that contrasted with his gentle personality. The author coins the term Minotaur Syndrome to describe the discrepancy between the patient's true personality versus his negative facial appearance. PMID:8517226

Morselli, P G

1993-01-01

321

Psychologic factors in the development of facial dermatoses.  

PubMed

In medical literature, as well as in daily practice, some common facial dermatoses are considered to be influenced or triggered by emotional factors. The main damager is stress, but depression and anxiety may play a role, among other factors. Some patients may experience a vicious cycle: Their facial dermatosis is triggered or worsened by stress, and in turn, the exacerbation itself is a major stressogenic stimulus. It appears that clinical wisdom and experience preceded clinical investigation in this field. Although patients testify that their emotional state may sometimes influence their facial condition, only limited experimental data exist so far, and only a few facial dermatoses were investigated. PMID:25441469

Orion, Edith; Wolf, Ronni

2014-01-01

322

Enhancing Facial Aesthetics with Muscle Retraining Exercises-A Review  

PubMed Central

Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. ‘Smile’ is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects. PMID:25302289

D’souza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; D’souza, Henston; Shetty, Omkar

2014-01-01

323

Results of intraoral cortical bone screw fixation technique for mandibular fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intraoral cortical bone screw fixation technique carries many advantages over traditional methods of intermaxillary fixation. Simplicity of the technique, reduction of operative time, and reduction of risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis make this an important technique in the armamentarium of busy facial trauma surgeons. Since 1992, 45 mandibular fractures in 29 patients treated with the

KYLE F. GORDON; J. MARK REED; VINOD K. ANAND

1995-01-01

324

Bone Graft Alternatives  

MedlinePLUS

... or during a surgical procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone ... bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous bone grafts for spinal ...

325

[Bone transplant].  

PubMed

We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

San Julián, M; Valentí, A

2006-01-01

326

Caenorhabditis elegans POT-2 telomere protein represses a mode of alternative lengthening of telomeres with normal telomere lengths  

PubMed Central

Canonical telomere repeats at chromosome termini can be maintained by a telomerase-independent pathway termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Human cancers that survive via ALT can exhibit long and heterogeneous telomeres, although many telomerase-negative tumors possess telomeres of normal length. Here, we report that Caenorhabditis elegans telomerase mutants that survived via ALT possessed either long or normal telomere lengths. Most ALT strains displayed end-to-end chromosome fusions, suggesting that critical telomere shortening occurred before or concomitant with ALT. ALT required the 9-1-1 DNA damage response complex and its clamp loader, HPR-17. Deficiency for the POT-2 telomere binding protein promoted ALT in telomerase mutants, overcame the requirement for the 9-1-1 complex in ALT, and promoted ALT with normal telomere lengths. We propose that telomerase-deficient human tumors with normal telomere lengths could represent a mode of ALT that is facilitated by telomere capping protein dysfunction. PMID:22547822

Cheng, Chen; Shtessel, Ludmila; Brady, Megan M.; Ahmed, Shawn

2012-01-01

327

3D Facial Landmark Localization3D Facial Landmark Localization using Combinatorial Search and  

E-print Network

as an index of early brain dysmorphogenesis in neuropsychiatric disorders Down syndrome Autism Schizophrenia Bipolar disorder Fetal alcohol syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome Cornelia de Large syndrome Joubert syndrome ... Patterns tend to be subtle #12;07/10/2012 2 Facial

Whelan, Paul F.

328

[Human cervico-facial morphogenesis. Evaluation of acquired data and current outlook. (Part 1: facial morphogenesis)].  

PubMed

The embryonic development of the face has been studied in many reviews, this work purposes only to clear up some points which remain obscure concerning cervico-facial morphogenesis. In the first part of this study only the facial development, properly speaking, is considered, although it cannot be separate of cervical development to which a second study will be reserved. In the present study we recall the particular aspects of the neurulation in the cephalic area, then the establishment of the facial processes. Then we approach among other things the way to consider the maxillary process with regard to the other facial processes. After is considered constitution and natured of the prechordal plate which has been diversely explained. Finally, the modelling of the face is evocated, in which the dissociation between the olfactive and buccal spheres is pointed out, with the disparition of the muzzle, as it is established in the haplorhinae, a class of primates in which the human being is involved. This phenomenon raises different questions, in particular about the relation of this disposition with the nasoseptal center, the medial part of the nasodorsal center. PMID:9737912

Onolfo, J P; Leperchey, F; Barbet, J P

1997-06-01

329

Discrimination of facial identity and facial affect by temporal and frontal lobectomy patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which lobectomy affects ability to discriminate facial identity or facial expression. Fifteen right temporal, 15 left temporal, 5 right frontal, and 4 left frontal lobectomy patients, pair-matched for age, sex, and education to normal control subjects, participated in this study. Tasks included a Facial Identity Matching Task and a Facial Affect Matching task. The lobectomized patients as a whole were significantly impaired on both tasks (22% decrement in performance). The patients made twice as many errors resulting from perseveration of response-set of the first condition (identity or emotion matching) into the second condition. The site of lobectomy did not influence general performance on any one task or selective performance on any subset of affective categories. It was concluded that all four brain regions play a significant and equal role in face processing, and that circuits more specifically dedicated to visual face processing, which are responsible for hemispheric dominance affects and affect/identity dissociations, are probably located more posteriorly in the brain. Finally, it was concluded that perseveration of acquired habit may, under specific conditions, characterize temporal lobe dysfunction just as much as frontal lobe dysfunction. PMID:8185894

Braun, C M; Denault, C; Cohen, H; Rouleau, I

1994-03-01

330

Dermatological Feasibility of Multimodal Facial Color Imaging Modality for Cross-Evaluation of Facial Actinic Keratosis  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose Digital color image analysis is currently considered as a routine procedure in dermatology. In our previous study, a multimodal facial color imaging modality (MFCIM), which provides a conventional, parallel- and cross-polarization, and fluorescent color image, was introduced for objective evaluation of various facial skin lesions. This study introduces a commercial version of MFCIM, DermaVision-PRO, for routine clinical use in dermatology and demonstrates its dermatological feasibility for cross-evaluation of skin lesions. Methods/Results Sample images of subjects with actinic keratosis or non-melanoma skin cancers were obtained at four different imaging modes. Various image analysis methods were applied to cross-evaluate the skin lesion and, finally, extract valuable diagnostic information. DermaVision-PRO is potentially a useful tool as an objective macroscopic imaging modality for quick prescreening and cross-evaluation of facial skin lesions. Conclusion DermaVision-PRO may be utilized as a useful tool for cross-evaluation of widely distributed facial skin lesions and an efficient database management of patient information. PMID:20923462

Bae, Youngwoo; Son, Taeyoon; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kim, Jae-Hong; Choi, Eung Ho; Jung, Byungjo

2010-01-01

331

Laser welding of rat's facial nerve.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to compare regeneration of the severed nerves that were repaired by laser welding with those repaired by microsurgical suturing and evaluate the value in use of laser nerve welding in the head and neck area. In 12 rats the buccal branches of the facial nerves on the both sides were transected, and CO2 laser welding of the epineurium was performed on the right side and microsurgical suture technique was applied on the left side. In six rats Cholera Toxin B Subunit (CTb) was injected in the epineurium distal to the nerve anastomosis site at postoperative week 4. Another six rats were treated exactly in the same way in postoperative week 8. Six normal rats were used as controls. Intact facial nerve was observed after injection of CTb as well. Neurons of facial nuclei labeled positively by CTb were detected immunohistochemically, and the numbers were counted. CTb-positive neurons in the control group were 1311 +/- 258 (n = 6). CTb-positive neurons in the group (n = 6) with laser nerve welding were 1174 +/- 122 in postoperative week 4 and 1562 +/- 565 in postoperative week 8. CTb-positive neurons in the group (n = 6) with microsurgical suture were 1066 +/- 89 in postoperative week 4 and 1443 +/- 531 in postoperative week 8. CTb-positive neurons were seen significantly more in the group with laser welding than in the group with microsurgical suture in postoperative week (P = 0.028), but there was not much difference in postoperative week 8 (P = 0.463). None of 12 rats showed dehiscence at the nerve anastomosis done by laser welding. This study shows that nerve regeneration is more apparent in the nerve repaired by laser welding than in that repaired by microsurgical suture. PMID:16327562

Hwang, Kun; Kim, Sun Goo; Kim, Dae Joong; Lee, Chang Hyun

2005-11-01

332

Facial expression recognition using constructive neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer-based recognition of facial expressions has been an active area of research for quite a long time. The ultimate goal is to realize intelligent and transparent communications between human beings and machines. The neural network (NN) based recognition methods have been found to be particularly promising, since NN is capable of implementing mapping from the feature space of face images to the facial expression space. However, finding a proper network size has always been a frustrating and time consuming experience for NN developers. In this paper, we propose to use the constructive one-hidden-layer feed forward neural networks (OHL-FNNs) to overcome this problem. The constructive OHL-FNN will obtain in a systematic way a proper network size which is required by the complexity of the problem being considered. Furthermore, the computational cost involved in network training can be considerably reduced when compared to standard back- propagation (BP) based FNNs. In our proposed technique, the 2-dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is applied over the entire difference face image for extracting relevant features for recognition purpose. The lower- frequency 2-D DCT coefficients obtained are then used to train a constructive OHL-FNN. An input-side pruning technique previously proposed by the authors is also incorporated into the constructive OHL-FNN. An input-side pruning technique previously proposed by the authors is also incorporated into the constructive learning process to reduce the network size without sacrificing the performance of the resulting network. The proposed technique is applied to a database consisting of images of 60 men, each having the resulting network. The proposed technique is applied to a database consisting of images of 60 men, each having 5 facial expression images (neutral, smile, anger, sadness, and surprise). Images of 40 men are used for network training, and the remaining images are used for generalization and testing. Confusion matrices calculated in both network training and testing for 4 facial expressions (smile, anger, sadness, and surprise) are used to evaluate the performance of the trained network. By extensive simulations it is shown that when compared with the BP-based method, the proposed technique constructs OHL- FNN with significantly smaller number of hidden units and weights, and simultaneously yielding improved recognition performance.

Ma, Liying; Khorasani, Khashayar

2001-08-01

333

Languages and interfaces for facial animation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes high-level tools for specifying, controlling, and synchronizing temporal and spatial characteristics for 3D animation of facial expressions. The proposed approach consists of hierarchical levels of controls. Specification of expressions, phonemes, emotions, sentences, and head movements by means of a high-level language is shown. The various aspects of synchronization are also emphasized. Then, association of the control different interactive devices and media which allows the animator greater flexibility and freedom, is discussed. Experiments with input accessories such as the keyboard of a music synthesizer and gestures from the DataGlove are illustrated.

Magnenat-Thalmann, N. [Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

1995-05-01

334

Facial pain due to elongated styloid process.  

PubMed

Pain is the most frequent cause of suffering and disability. The etiology of orofacial pain is still elusive. However, the etiology has to be ascertained for definitive treatment. Only after a systematic and careful evaluation can a treating surgeon be aware of the underlying cause. Though dental causes predominate in the diagnosis of orofacial pain, the rare cause of facial pain have to be excluded, which would prevent unnecessary and fruitless dental treatment. The present case is an example of a rare condition that may be overlooked during examination. This paper will describe a case of vague unilateral orofacial pain, the diagnosis of which zeroed down to an elongated styloid process. PMID:24015020

Kar, Indu Bhusan; Mishra, Niranjan; Raut, Subhrajit; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar

2013-04-01

335

Major facial trauma after helicopter landing.  

PubMed

Injuries in civil aviation can occur as a consequence of work-related accidents happening in airport. The ground crew can sustain slips, trips, falls, and machinery accidents. Most such accidents are observed when aircraft is departing. This clinical report describes a case of an airport ground assistant severely injured by a helicopter after the strike with a main rotor blade that was slowing after that the craft was landed and the engine was stopped, and reports surgical emergency treatment of life-threatening facial lesions. PMID:21778853

Becelli, Roberto; Morello, Roberto; Renzi, Giancarlo; Matarazzo, Giorgio; Dominici, Chiara

2011-07-01

336

Bone substitutes: new concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filling of bone defects resulting from trauma or surgical resections of tumors requires bone grafts or bone substitutes. Bone substitute must be biocompatible, osteoconductive, and must present good mechanical properties. Among biomaterials classicaly used, calcium phosphate ceramic appear to be suitable alternatives to bone grafts. Calcium phosphate are known able to promote new bone formation on contact and have

D. Heymann; N. Passuti

1999-01-01

337

Use of facial composite systems in US law enforcement agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial composite images are often used in the criminal investigation process to facilitate the search for and identification of someone who has committed a crime. Since the use of facial composite images is sometimes relied upon as an integral part of an investigation, it is important to ascertain information about the various decisions made and procedures implemented by law enforcement

Dawn McQuiston-Surrett; Lisa D. Topp; Roy S. Malpass

2006-01-01

338

Robust detection of facial features by generalized symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locating facial features is crucial for various face recognition schemes. The authors suggest a robust facial feature detector based on a generalized symmetry interest operator. No special tuning is required if the face occupies 15-60% of the image. The operator was tested on a large face data base with a success rate of over 95%

Daniel Reisfeld; Yehezkel Yeshurun

1992-01-01

339

A Local-Global Graph Approach for Facial Expression Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present a local global graph (LGG) method for recognizing facial expressions from static images irrespective of different illumination conditions, shadows and cluttered backgrounds. First, a neural color constancy based skin detection procedure to detect skin in complex real world images is presented. Second, the LGG method for detecting faces and facial expressions with a maximum confidence

P. Kakumanu; Nikolaos G. Bourbakis

2006-01-01

340

Assessment of Facial Muscle Exercise Using Oral Cavity Rehabilitative Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the assessment of facial muscle exercise using an oral cavity rehabilitative device. The physiological parameters investigated are labial closure strength (LCS), tongue strength (TS), right (ER) and left (EL) facial skin elasticity. A total of thirteen females aged forty years old and above with the mean age of 44.5 years old were recruited in the study. Subjects

F. Ibrahim; N. Arifin; N. M. Zarmani; Z. Abdul Rahim

341

Psychometric Testing of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…

Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew

2010-01-01

342

Reconstruction of massive facial avulsive injury, secondary to animal bite.  

PubMed

Management of facial soft tissue trauma requires complex reconstruction surgery. Animal bite on face is a common cause of facial tissue trauma with severe destruction. Evaluation of unit involvement is the first effort, followed by designation of reconstruction. In this case, we performed multiple reconstruction options. PMID:24527975

Motamed, Sadrollah; Niazi, Feizollah; Moosavizadeh, Seyed Mehdi; Gholizade Pasha, Abdolhamid; Motamed, Ali

2014-02-01

343

Ultrasonic assessment of facial soft tissue thicknesses in adult Egyptians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of a three-dimensional plastic face on an unknown human skull has been practiced sporadically since the latter part of the last century. In recent years, the technique has been revived and applied to forensic science cases. The morphometric method of forensic facial reconstruction rests heavily on the use of facial soft tissue depth measurements. Moreover, it has been

Inas Hassan El-Mehallawi; Eman Mostafa Soliman

2001-01-01

344

Statistically deformable face models for cranio-facial reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic facial reconstruction aims at estimating the facial outlook associated to an unknown skull specimen. Estimation is based on tabulated average values of soft tissue thicknesses measured at a sparse set of landmarks on the skull. Traditional 'plastic' methods apply modeling clay or plasticine on a cast of the skull approximating the estimated tissue depths at the landmarks and interpolating

P. Claes; D. Vandermeulen; P. Suetens; S. De Greef; G. Willems

2005-01-01

345

Digital imaging in the assessment of facial deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A1999 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeonscombination of digital imaging and conventional radiographic techniques has been used to obtain a life-size composite image of the facial soft tissue profile, the skull, and the teeth, anatomically superimposed on each other. The system overcomes major problems associated with assessment of facial deformity such as magnification, the exposure of photographs and

K. B. Fanibunda; P. R. Thomas

1999-01-01

346

Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial

Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

2008-01-01

347

Analysis of Facial Dynamics Using a Tensor Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that the dynamics of facial motion are important in the perception of gender, identity, and emotion. In this paper we show that it is possible to use a multi-linear tensor framework to extract facial motion signatures and to cluster these signatures by gender or by emotion. Here, we consider only the dynamics of internal features of the

Lisa Gralewski; Neill W. Campbell; Edward Morrison; Ian Penton-voak

2006-01-01

348

Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers in both literate and preliterate cultures chose the predicted emotion for photographs of the face, although agreement was higher in the literate samples. These findings suggest that the pan-cultural element in facial displays of emotion is the association between facial muscular movements and discrete primary emotions, although cultures may still differ in what evokes an emotion, in rules for

Paul Ekman; E. Richard Sorenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1969-01-01

349

Gender classification by combining clothing, hair and facial component classifiers  

E-print Network

design feature extraction methods for hair and clothing; these features have seldom been used in previousGender classification by combining clothing, hair and facial component classifiers Bing Li a , Xiao classification Facial components Clothing feature Hair feature Classifier combination Local binary pattern

Lu, Bao-Liang

350

Relationships between Facial Discrimination and Social Adjustment in Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-two adults with mental retardation of heterogeneous etiology performed four facial emotion discrimination tasks and two facial nonemotion tasks. Staff members familiar with the participants completed measures of social adjustment (the Socialization and Communication domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Social Performance…

Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.; Hoch, Theodore A.

2006-01-01

351

Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…

Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.

2007-01-01

352

Beyond Facial Expressions: Learning Human Emotion from Body Gestures  

E-print Network

Beyond Facial Expressions: Learning Human Emotion from Body Gestures Caifeng Shan, Shaogang Gong 4NS, UK {cfshan, sgg, pmco}@dcs.qmul.ac.uk Abstract Vision-based human affect analysis facial expressions, we investigate affective body gesture analysis in video sequences, a relatively

Gong, Shaogang

353

Common Patterns of Facial Ontogeny in the Hominid Lineage  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Common Patterns of Facial Ontogeny in the Hominid Lineage REBECCA ROGERS ACKERMANN,* AND GAIL E. KROVITZ Recent evaluation of Neanderthal and modern human ontogeny suggests that taxon are more universal among hominoids, by examining the ontogeny of facial shape in Australopithecus afri

Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers

354

Assessment of dental and facial aesthetics in adolescents.  

PubMed

The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) is currently widely used for clinical, as well as epidemiological purposes. The Aesthetic Component (AC) of this index focuses on dental aesthetics and does not include facial aesthetics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether dental aesthetics as measured by the AC of the IOTN correlates with facial aesthetics. Facial attractiveness of 69 males and 75 females was scored on facial photographs at two different ages (11-13 years and 14-16 years). Scoring of the AC of the IOTN was undertaken on the dental casts. Increments between the observations at the two ages were calculated. To assess the association between scores of dental and facial aesthetics, correlation coefficients were calculated. There was a highly significant influence of orthodontic treatment on facial and dental aesthetic scores in the group which was not treated orthodontically at the first observation, but was treated orthodontically at the second observation. No correlation, however, was found between the increments in the facial aesthetic score and those in the dental aesthetic score. The results indicate that facial and dental aesthetics are influenced by different factors, and both should be evaluated when judging dentofacial aesthetics. PMID:9753821

al Yami, E A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Van 't Hof, M A

1998-08-01

355

Facial Expressions of Emotion: Are Angry Faces Detected More Efficiently?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid detection of facial expressions of anger or threat has obvious adaptive value. In this study, we examined the ef® ciency of facial processing by means of a visual search task. Participants searched displays of schematic faces and were required to determine whether the faces displayed were all the same or whether one was different. Four main results were

Victoria Lester; Riccardo Russo; R. J. Bowles; Alessio Pichler; Kevin Dutton

2000-01-01

356

Differences in facial expressions of four universal emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facial action coding system (FACS) was used to examine recognition rates in 105 healthy young men and women who viewed 128 facial expressions of posed and evoked happy, sad, angry and fearful emotions in color photographs balanced for gender and ethnicity of poser. Categorical analyses determined the specificity of individual action units for each emotion. Relationships between recognition rates

Christian G. Kohler; Travis Turner; Neal M. Stolar; Warren B. Bilker; Colleen M. Brensinger; Raquel E. Gur; Ruben C. Gur

2004-01-01

357

A vision system for observing and extracting facial action parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a computer vision system for observing the “action units” of a face using video sequences as input. The visual observation (sensing) is achieved by using an optimal estimation optical flow method coupled with a geometric and a physical (muscle) model describing the facial structure. This modeling results in a time-varying spatial patterning of facial shape and a parametric

Irfan A. Essa; Alex Pentland

1994-01-01

358

Computer Simulation of Antidromic Facial Nerve Response Waveform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion: An assessment of facial nerve (FN) damage on the basis of antidromic facial nerve response (AFNR) was established by computer simulation analysis. Computer simulation has the advantage of being able to assume any type of lesion. In the near future, computer analysis should provide another experimental method which displaces animal experiments, thus circumventing the ethical dilemma associated with animal

Mitsuru Iwai; Taizo Takeda; Hiroaki Nakatani; Akinobu Kakigi

2009-01-01

359

Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Stimulation on Facial Nerve Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if exposure to electromag- netic fields influences regeneration of the transected fa- cial nerve in the rat. Design and Methods: The left facial nerve was tran- sected in the tympanic section of the fallopian canal in 24 rats randomly assigned to 2 groups. The cut ends of the facial nerve were reapproximated without sutures within the fallopian

John M. Byers; Keith F. Clark; Glenn C. Thompson

1998-01-01

360

Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates  

PubMed Central

The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage. PMID:22237906

Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E.

2012-01-01

361

Young Children's Ability to Match Facial Features Typical of Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined (1) the ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to racially classify Negro and Caucasian facial features in the absence of skin color as a racial cue; and (2) the relative value attached to the facial features of Negro and Caucasian races. Subjects were 21 middle income, Caucasian children from a privately owned nursery school in…

Lacoste, Ronald J.

362

Dem Bones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case, students enter the world of a forensic anthropologist who must determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Students, in turn, simulate some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, exa

Alease Bruce

2001-09-01

363

Broken bone  

MedlinePLUS

... or strips of wood. Immobilize the area both above and below the injured bone. Apply ice packs to reduce pain and swelling. Take steps to prevent shock . Lay the person flat, elevate the feet about 12 inches above the head, and cover the person with a ...

364

Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions  

PubMed Central

Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

2014-01-01

365

The efficiency of dynamic and static facial expression recognition  

PubMed Central

Unlike frozen snapshots of facial expressions that we often see in photographs, natural facial expressions are dynamic events that unfold in a particular fashion over time. But how important are the temporal properties of expressions for our ability to reliably extract information about a person's emotional state? We addressed this question experimentally by gauging human performance in recognizing facial expressions with varying temporal properties relative to that of a statistically optimal (“ideal”) observer. We found that people recognized emotions just as efficiently when viewing them as naturally evolving dynamic events, temporally reversed events, temporally randomized events, or single images frozen in time. Our results suggest that the dynamic properties of human facial movements may play a surprisingly small role in people's ability to infer the emotional states of others from their facial expressions. PMID:23620533

Gold, Jason M.; Barker, Jarrett D.; Barr, Shawn; Bittner, Jennifer L.; Bromfield, W. Drew; Chu, Nicole; Goode, Roy A.; Lee, Doori; Simmons, Michael; Srinath, Aparna

2012-01-01

366

Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.  

PubMed

Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

2014-01-01

367

Device for lengthening of a musculotendinous unit by direct continuous traction in the sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Retraction, atrophy and fatty infiltration are signs subsequent to chronic rotator cuff tendon tears. They are associated with an increased pennation angle and a shortening of the muscle fibers in series. These deleterious changes of the muscular architecture are not reversible with current repair techniques and are the main factors for failed rotator cuff tendon repair. Whereas fast stretching of the retracted musculotendinous unit results in proliferation of non-contractile fibrous tissue, slow stretching may lead to muscle regeneration in terms of sarcomerogenesis. To slowly stretch the retracted musculotendinous unit in a sheep model, two here described tensioning devices have been developed and mounted on the scapular spine of the sheep using an expandable threaded rod, which has been interposed between the retracted tendon end and the original insertion site at the humeral head. Traction is transmitted in line with the musculotendinous unit by sutures knotted on the expandable threaded rod. The threaded rod of the tensioner is driven within the body through a rotating axis, which enters the body on the opposite side. The tendon end, which was previously released (16?weeks prior) from its insertion site with a bone chip, was elongated with a velocity of 1?mm/day. Results After several steps of technical improvements, the tensioner proved to be capable of actively stretching the retracted and degenerated muscle back to the original length and to withstand the external forces acting on it. Conclusion This technical report describes the experimental technique for continuous elongation of the musculotendinous unit and reversion of the length of chronically shortened muscle. PMID:22551079

2012-01-01

368

Facial nerve demyelination and vascular compression are both needed to induce facial hyperactivity: A study in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It is generally assumed that hemifacial spasm (HFS) is caused by vascular compression of the facial nerve at the root exit zone (REZ), but the mechanism for the development of HFS is not known. Evidence has been previously presented that the signs of HFS are caused by hyperactivity of the facial motonucleus that is caused by the irritation to

A. Kuroki; A. R. Møller

1994-01-01

369

Facial firework injury: a case series.  

PubMed

Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future. PMID:25035740

Tadisina, Kashyap K; Abcarian, Ariane; Omi, Ellen

2014-07-01

370

Facial transplants in Xenopus laevis embryos.  

PubMed

Craniofacial birth defects occur in 1 out of every 700 live births, but etiology is rarely known due to limited understanding of craniofacial development. To identify where signaling pathways and tissues act during patterning of the developing face, a 'face transplant' technique has been developed in embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis. A region of presumptive facial tissue (the "Extreme Anterior Domain" (EAD)) is removed from a donor embryo at tailbud stage, and transplanted to a host embryo of the same stage, from which the equivalent region has been removed. This can be used to generate a chimeric face where the host or donor tissue has a loss or gain of function in a gene, and/or includes a lineage label. After healing, the outcome of development is monitored, and indicates roles of the signaling pathway within the donor or surrounding host tissues. Xenopus is a valuable model for face development, as the facial region is large and readily accessible for micromanipulation. Many embryos can be assayed, over a short time period since development occurs rapidly. Findings in the frog are relevant to human development, since craniofacial processes appear conserved between Xenopus and mammals. PMID:24748020

Jacox, Laura A; Dickinson, Amanda J; Sive, Hazel

2014-01-01

371

Nongoitrous autoimmune thyroiditis with facial palsy.  

PubMed

We report a case of severe hypothyroidism with nongoitrous, autoimmune thyroiditis and pituitary hyperplasia in a 13-year-old boy, who presented with sudden palsy on the left side of his face. Prednisolone and antiviral medication was administered. However, the facial palsy did not improve completely. The medications were replaced with thyroxine, and the facial palsy recovered. Endocrinological testing showed severe hypothyroidism as follows: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level >100 µIU/mL, T4 of 1.04 µg/dL, T3 of 0.31 ng/mL, and free T4 of 0.07 ng/dL. Level of serum antithyroid peroxidase antibodies was 1,933.39 IU/mL, and that of antithyroglobulin antibodies was 848.16 IU/mL. Level of TSH receptor antibodies was >40 IU/L. Bioassay result for TSH receptor stimulating antibodies was negative. Thyroid sonography revealed no increase in the size or vascularity of the bilateral gland. Thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc showed decreased uptake, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enlarged pituitary gland. PMID:24904880

Lee, Hyung Jik; Kim, Jin Kyung

2013-12-01

372

Facial and dental changes in adulthood.  

PubMed

The purpose of this longitudinal investigation was to study the dentofacial changes occurring between 25 and 46 years of age in an untreated normal sample. Measurements were made from cephalograms and dental casts available on 15 women and 15 men at age 25 and 46 years. The findings indicate that females exhibited significant increases in all skeletal facial linear dimensions, a decrease in cranial base angle and mandibular prominence, an increase in skeletal convexity and facial divergence. Most of these changes were of relatively small magnitude. Over the span of the study, significant crowding occurred in the mandibular arch. Males exhibited similar significant increases in all skeletal linear dimensions, a decrease in cranial base angle, and increases in maxillary skeletal prominence and skeletal convexity. Increased crowding with age was seen in both maxillary and mandibular arches. In conclusion, the findings indicate that a clinically significant increase in tooth size-arch length discrepancies occurred between 25 and 46 years of age. These changes should be considered as part of the normal "maturational" process. Furthermore, the relative changes in the position of the lips, nose, and chin, cause the lips to appear more retrusive at 46 years of age. These changes should be taken into consideration when orthodontists are considering various treatment and retention options for their adult patients. PMID:8059754

Bishara, S E; Treder, J E; Jakobsen, J R

1994-08-01

373

Nongoitrous autoimmune thyroiditis with facial palsy  

PubMed Central

We report a case of severe hypothyroidism with nongoitrous, autoimmune thyroiditis and pituitary hyperplasia in a 13-year-old boy, who presented with sudden palsy on the left side of his face. Prednisolone and antiviral medication was administered. However, the facial palsy did not improve completely. The medications were replaced with thyroxine, and the facial palsy recovered. Endocrinological testing showed severe hypothyroidism as follows: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level >100 µIU/mL, T4 of 1.04 µg/dL, T3 of 0.31 ng/mL, and free T4 of 0.07 ng/dL. Level of serum antithyroid peroxidase antibodies was 1,933.39 IU/mL, and that of antithyroglobulin antibodies was 848.16 IU/mL. Level of TSH receptor antibodies was >40 IU/L. Bioassay result for TSH receptor stimulating antibodies was negative. Thyroid sonography revealed no increase in the size or vascularity of the bilateral gland. Thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc showed decreased uptake, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enlarged pituitary gland. PMID:24904880

Lee, Hyung Jik

2013-01-01

374

Botulinum toxin injection for facial wrinkles.  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin injection for treatment of facial wrinkles is the most frequently performed cosmetic procedure in the United States, and it is one of the most common entry procedures for clinicians seeking to incorporate aesthetic treatments into their practice. Treatment of frown lines and crow's feet, which are the cosmetic indications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and horizontal forehead lines, offers predictable results, has few adverse effects, and is associated with high patient satisfaction. Wrinkles are formed by dermal atrophy and repetitive contraction of underlying facial musculature. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Injection of small quantities of botulinum toxin into specific overactive muscles causes localized muscle relaxation that smooths the overlying skin and reduces wrinkles. Botulinum toxin effects take about two weeks to fully develop and last three to four months. Dynamic wrinkles, seen during muscle contraction, yield more dramatic results than static wrinkles, which are visible at rest. Botulinum toxin injection is contraindicated in persons with keloidal scarring, neuromuscular disorders (e.g., myasthenia gravis), allergies to constituents of botulinum toxin products, and body dysmorphic disorder. Minor bruising can occur with botulinum toxin injection. Temporary blepharoptosis and eyebrow ptosis are rare complications that are technique-dependent; incidence declines as injector skill improves. PMID:25077722

Small, Rebecca

2014-08-01

375

Anthropological facial approximation in three dimensions (AFA3D): computer-assisted estimation of the facial morphology using geometric morphometrics.  

PubMed

This study presents Anthropological Facial Approximation in Three Dimensions (AFA3D), a new computerized method for estimating face shape based on computed tomography (CT) scans of 500 French individuals. Facial soft tissue depths are estimated based on age, sex, corpulence, and craniometrics, and projected using reference planes to obtain the global facial appearance. Position and shape of the eyes, nose, mouth, and ears are inferred from cranial landmarks through geometric morphometrics. The 100 estimated cutaneous landmarks are then used to warp a generic face to the target facial approximation. A validation by re-sampling on a subsample demonstrated an average accuracy of c. 4 mm for the overall face. The resulting approximation is an objective probable facial shape, but is also synthetic (i.e., without texture), and therefore needs to be enhanced artistically prior to its use in forensic cases. AFA3D, integrated in the TIVMI software, is available freely for further testing. PMID:25088006

Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Dutailly, Bruno; Charton, Jérôme; Santos, Frédéric; Desbarats, Pascal; Coqueugniot, Hélène

2014-11-01

376

Comparison of hemihypoglossal- and accessory-facial neurorrhaphy for treating facial paralysis in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-end (HemiHN-FN) and accessory-facial nerve end-to-end (AN-FN) neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve graft (PNG) for reanimating facial paralysis in a rat FN injury model. A total of 25 rats with complete unilateral facial paralysis resulting from section of the right FN were divided into 5 groups (n=5 each) that were submitted to immediate, delayed (3 months after FN injury) or no (control) FN reconstruction procedures involving HemiHN-FN or AN-FN neurorrhaphy. Approximately 3 months after FN reconstruction, cholera toxin subunit B conjugate Alexa 555 (CTB-Alexa 555) was injected into the ipsilateral whisker pad muscle and CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons were observed in the hypoglossal or accessory nuclei of all the FN reconstruction rats, but none of these neurons were found in the controls. There were numerous myelinated and nonmyelinated axons in both PNG and repaired FN of the FN reconstruction rats. No differences were found for these numbers between the two neurorrhaphy methods for each of the treatment time points, indicating the equal effectiveness of axon regeneration. However, a significantly higher number of CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus of the immediate HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats when compared to that in the accessory nucleus of the immediate AN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats, consistent with the surface values of the recorded MAPs at the whisker pad muscle while electro-stimulating the FN. These results suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy produces more efficient innervation of the paralyzed facial muscles than AN-FN neurorrhaphy without sacrificing ipsilateral hypoglossal function. Taking into consideration the clinical relevance of these findings for postoperative complications and functional reanimation in relation to the central plasticity, we suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy may be the preferable facial reanimation procedure after an FN injury. PMID:25454640

Li, Dezhi; Wan, Hong; Feng, Jie; Wang, Shiwei; Su, Diya; Hao, Shuyu; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

2014-12-15

377

From Bone Biology to Bone Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone development is one of the key processes characterizing childhood and adolescence. Understanding this process is not only important for physicians treating pediatric bone disorders, but also for clinicians and researchers dealing with postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis. Bone densitometry has great potential to enhance our understanding of bone development. The usefulness of densitometry in children and adolescents would be increased

E. Schoenau; G. Saggese; F. Peter; G. I. Baroncelli; N. J. Shaw; N. J. Crabtree; Z. Zadik; C. M. Neu; C. Noordam; G. Radetti; Z. Hochberg

2004-01-01

378

Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding oro-facial injuries and oro-facial protective devices among physical instructors in Bangalore  

PubMed Central

Background: Sports specific dental injuries are seen to occur frequently among children and young athletes. Dental injury is a distressing event often causing psychological as well as physical problems. The risk of children getting dental injuries during sports activities can be minimized by using a mouth guard and other oro-facial protective devices. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of physical instructors in Bangalore, regarding oro-facial injuries and orofacial protective devices. Material & Methods: A self-completion questionnaire was sent to 50 physical instructors of schools, sports academies and gymnasiums situated in the South of Bangalore city. The questionnaire sought information about the knowledge of the incidence of oro-facial injuries, common sports causing oro-facial injuries and oro-facial protective devices and their role in the prevention of injuries. The data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The population under study comprised of 92 males and 8 females. About 38% of oro-facial injuries were reported by physical instructors in the previous year. Physical instructors had knowledge regarding oro-facial protective devices like mouth guards (54%) and helmet (40%). The attitude and practice regarding the usage of mouth guards was found to be minimal. Conclusion: The physical instructors had knowledge especially through the media on the protective effectiveness of mouth guards in reducing the oro facial injuries. Despite their awareness, only 4% of them recommended the mandatory use of the mouth guards. Majority of them could not recommend its usage as they were unaware of its availability and the reason for not using the mouth is its improper fitting. How to cite the article: Neeraja G, Bharadwaj S, Shah K, Subramaniam P. Knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding oro-facial injuries and oro-facial protective devices among physical instructors in Bangalore. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):1-6. PMID:25083024

Neeraja, G; Bharadwaj, Srivats; Shah, Kinjal; Subramaniam, Priya

2014-01-01

379

Chimeric flaps and "their variations": different options for immediate reconstruction of massive facial defects.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of massive head and neck defects is a difficult challenge, requiring restoration of bone, skin, and oral lining. Their complex three-dimensional nature often dictates the need of more than a single osteocutaneous flap for intra- and extra-oral reconstruction.Conventional reconstructive options can be considered, but there is no single ideal osteocutaneous free or pedicled flap providing an unlimited length of bone and skin paddle, or that could orient the skin paddle independently of the vascularized bone. The surgeon should then be aware of more complex options for reconstruction of extensive three-dimensional defects, namely chimeric free flaps and "their variations." They can be stratified in three types, either based on their intrinsic vasculature-perforated-based, branch-based, or whether they are prefabricated (surgical junction by microanastomosis).Despite morbidity and not perfect matching in terms of skin texture and pliability, these techniques are a good alternative in the presence of partial defects, especially in the context of immediate oncological reconstruction, where facial transplantation is not considered. PMID:25397714

Horta, Ricardo; Valença-Filipe, Rita; Monteiro, Diana; Silva, Alvaro; Amarante, José Manuel

2014-10-01

380

Sagittal split ramus osteotomy for aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign pseudocystic osseous lesion characterized by a fibrous connective tissue stroma with cellular fibrous tissue, multinucleated giant cells, and large blood-filled spaces with no endothelial lining. The entity is uncommon in facial bones, and it rarely involves the mandibular condyle. Resection of the lesion is the most accepted treatment. The present case is the 11th reported case of aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandibular condyle in the existing literature and the first where, rather than using conventional extra oral approach, sagittal split ramus osteotomy was used to excise the lesion successfully with no recurrence after 3 years of follow-up. PMID:25565239

Bhandari, Amit; Sharma, Rohit; Muralidharan, Chiyyarath Gopalan

2015-01-01

381

New perspectives in the management of severe cranio-facial deformity.  

PubMed Central

It is postulated that craniosynostosis is due to a growth abnormality in all or part of the cranial capsule. Release of the stenosed part in the first months of life will re-establish the balance between the rapidly growing brain and eye, and the cranial capsule. Three periods for operative treatment are described: early, intermediate and late. Only in the early period can operative treatment restore normal growth dynamics; in the late period the aim is correction of an established deformity. The relationship between cranial clefts and frontonasal encephaloceles is explored. If the space-occupying encephalocele is removed early, the distorted facial bones adopt a more normal position, whereas cranial clefts do not respond to early operation by remoulding. The treatment of the acquired deformities of acute cranio-facial trauma have taken on new perspectives with the application of the multi-disciplinary approach and surgical techniques developed in the treatment of congenital deformities resulting in considerable reduction in the period of hospitalisation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6742741

David, D. J.

1984-01-01

382

Electromyographic Responses to Emotional Facial Expressions in 6-7 Year Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to examine facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore whether facial mimicry was related to the severity of impairment in social responsiveness. Facial electromyographic activity in response to angry, fearful, sad and happy facial expressions was recorded in twenty 6-7 year old…

Deschamps, P. K. H.; Coppes, L.; Kenemans, J. L.; Schutter, D. J. L. G.; Matthys, W.

2015-01-01

383

Impaired holistic coding of facial expression and facial identity in congenital prosopagnosia.  

PubMed

We test 12 individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), who replicate a common pattern of showing severe difficulty in recognising facial identity in conjunction with normal recognition of facial expressions (both basic and 'social'). Strength of holistic processing was examined using standard expression composite and identity composite tasks. Compared to age- and sex-matched controls, group analyses demonstrated that CPs showed weaker holistic processing, for both expression and identity information. Implications are (a) normal expression recognition in CP can derive from compensatory strategies (e.g., over-reliance on non-holistic cues to expression); (b) the split between processing of expression and identity information may take place after a common stage of holistic processing; and (c) contrary to a recent claim, holistic processing of identity is functionally involved in face identification ability. PMID:21333662

Palermo, Romina; Willis, Megan L; Rivolta, Davide; McKone, Elinor; Wilson, C Ellie; Calder, Andrew J

2011-04-01

384

Impaired holistic coding of facial expression and facial identity in congenital prosopagnosia  

PubMed Central

We test 12 individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), who replicate a common pattern of showing severe difficulty in recognising facial identity in conjunction with normal recognition of facial expressions (both basic and ‘social’). Strength of holistic processing was examined using standard expression composite and identity composite tasks. Compared to age- and sex-matched controls, group analyses demonstrated that CPs showed weaker holistic processing, for both expression and identity information. Implications are (a) normal expression recognition in CP can derive from compensatory strategies (e.g., over-reliance on non-holistic cues to expression); (b) the split between processing of expression and identity information may take place after a common stage of holistic processing; and (c) contrary to a recent claim, holistic processing of identity is functionally involved in face identification ability. PMID:21333662

Palermo, Romina; Willis, Megan L.; Rivolta, Davide; McKone, Elinor; Wilson, C. Ellie; Calder, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

385

Facial lesions in piglets with intact or grinded teeth  

PubMed Central

Background Piglets are born with eight sharp teeth that during nursing can cause facial lesions on littermates and teat lesions on the sow. Teeth grinding in piglets is therefore often practiced to reduce these lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of grinding piglet teeth in regard to the occurrence of lesions. In this study the piglets' teeth were grinded in 28 litters, and in 36 litters the piglets' teeth were kept intact. Twice, one time during the first week and one time during the second week after birth facial lesions of the piglets were scored and the teats of the sows were examined for lesions. The facial lesion score accounted for the amount and severity of lesions. The individual observations on piglets in the litter were synthesized in a litter facial lesion score. Findings 69.8% and 43.5% of the piglets had facial lesions in week 1 and week 2 respectively. The effect of treatment was not significant on litter facial lesion score. The litter facial lesion score was higher in week 1 than in week 2 (p < 0.001) and higher in large litters (p = 0.003) than in small litters. Mortality between week 1 and week 2 was higher in litters with intact teeth (p = 0.02). Sow teat lesions only occurred if litters had intact teeth. Conclusions According to our results teeth grinding is only justifiable in large litters. PMID:22480262

2012-01-01

386

Facial disability index (FDI): Adaptation to Spanish, reliability and validity  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To adapt to Spanish the facial disability index (FDI) described by VanSwearingen and Brach in 1995 and to assess its reliability and validity in patients with facial nerve paresis after parotidectomy. Study Design: The present study was conducted in two different stages: a) cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire and b) cross-sectional study of a control group of 79 Spanish-speaking patients who suffered facial paresis after superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. The cross-cultural adaptation process comprised the following stages: (I) initial translation, (II) synthesis of the translated document, (III) retro-translation, (IV) review by a board of experts, (V) pilot study of the pre-final draft and (VI) analysis of the pilot study and final draft. Results: The reliability and internal consistency of every one of the rating scales included in the FDI (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) was 0.83 for the complete scale and 0.77 and 0.82 for the physical and the social well-being subscales. The analysis of the factorial validity of the main components of the adapted FDI yielded similar results to the original questionnaire. Bivariate correlations between FDI and House-Brackmann scale were positive. The variance percentage was calculated for all FDI components. Conclusions: The FDI questionnaire is a specific instrument for assessing facial neuromuscular dysfunction which becomes a useful tool in order to determine quality of life in patients with facial nerve paralysis. Spanish adapted FDI is equivalent to the original questionnaire and shows similar reliability and validity. The proven reproducibi-lity, reliability and validity of this questionnaire make it a useful additional tool for evaluating the impact of facial nerve paralysis in Spanish-speaking patients. Key words:Parotidectomy, facial nerve paralysis, facial disability. PMID:22926474

Gonzalez-Cardero, Eduardo; Cayuela, Aurelio; Acosta-Feria, Manuel; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose-Luis

2012-01-01

387

Histopathologic and functional effects of facial nerve following electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to investigate the functional and histopathologic changes in facial nerve due to the application of various violent and numerous electrical stimuli to the facial nerve. The study was carried out with Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 300 g. The facial nerves of the subjects were located and stimulated with electrical stimulator. Then five groups were created with 18 subjects in each group: Group 1, 1 milliampere (mA) electrical stimulus applied; Group 2, 2 mA electrical stimulus applied; Group 3, 3 mA electrical stimulus applied; Group 4, 4 mA electrical stimulus applied; Group 5, 5 mA electrical stimulus applied. All groups were divided into three sub-groups, each consisting of six subjects. The facial nerves of the subjects in first sub-group were stimulated 10 times, in second sub-group were stimulated 20 times and those in third sub-group were stimulated 30 times. The functions of the facial nerves were evaluated on first day, first week and first month, respectively. The facial nerves with branches were dissected from the surrounding tissues carefully. These specimens were investigated by light microscope about axonal degeneration, macrovacuolization and vascular congestion. Loss of facial functions was not observed in the subjects during follow-up process. There was no significant difference between groups regarding axonal degeneration, macrovacuolization and vascular congestion (P > 0.05). While less axonal degeneration was observed in group which was stimulated 10 times, more axonal degeneration was observed in groups which were stimulated 20 and 30 times (P < 0.05). The axonal degeneration, macrovacuolization and vascular congestion were observed more in 1-day groups (P < 0.05). Consequently, lesser violence and lesser number of electrical stimulus application to the facial nerve appears to be an important criterion for not damaging the facial nerve in patients in whom stimulators have been used. PMID:19784664

Sapmaz, Emrah; Kaygusuz, Irfan; Alpay, Hayrettin Cengiz; Akpolat, Nusret; Keles, Erol; Karlidag, Turgut; Orhan, Israfil; Yalcin, Sinasi

2010-04-01

388

An alternative treatment for facial nerve tumors: short-term results of radiotherapy.  

PubMed

A review of medical records of patients undergoing radiotherapy for facial nerve tumors was undertaken to determine subsequent facial nerve results, hearing results, and tumor control. Two patients with facial nerve tumors received this treatment. Facial nerve function remains excellent in one patient and significantly improved in the other. Neither tumor demonstrated growth. Current philosophies of facial nerve schwannoma management attempt to balance tumor control with facial nerve function. Radiotherapy for these tumors appears to preserve short-term facial function and may be a viable alternative to surgical management. PMID:18833535

Hillman, Todd A; Chen, Douglas A; Fuhrer, Russell

2008-10-01

389

Warsaw set of emotional facial expression pictures: a validation study of facial display photographs  

PubMed Central

Emotional facial expressions play a critical role in theories of emotion and figure prominently in research on almost every aspect of emotion. This article provides a background for a new database of basic emotional expressions. The goal in creating this set was to provide high quality photographs of genuine facial expressions. Thus, after proper training, participants were inclined to express “felt” emotions. The novel approach taken in this study was also used to establish whether a given expression was perceived as intended by untrained judges. The judgment task for perceivers was designed to be sensitive to subtle changes in meaning caused by the way an emotional display was evoked and expressed. Consequently, this allowed us to measure the purity and intensity of emotional displays, which are parameters that validation methods used by other researchers do not capture. The final set is comprised of those pictures that received the highest recognition marks (e.g., accuracy with intended display) from independent judges, totaling 210 high quality photographs of 30 individuals. Descriptions of the accuracy, intensity, and purity of displayed emotion as well as FACS AU's codes are provided for each picture. Given the unique methodology applied to gathering and validating this set of pictures, it may be a useful tool for research using face stimuli. The Warsaw Set of Emotional Facial Expression Pictures (WSEFEP) is freely accessible to the scientific community for non-commercial use by request at http://www.emotional-face.org. PMID:25601846

Olszanowski, Michal; Pochwatko, Grzegorz; Kuklinski, Krzysztof; Scibor-Rylski, Michal; Lewinski, Peter; Ohme, Rafal K.

2015-01-01

390

The study of higher origin of facial artery and its surgical significance.  

PubMed

Facial artery plays a key role in blood supply of the face. Facial artery one of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery originates within the carotid triangle. Variation in the origin of the facial artery was observed on two sides out of 60 sides in 30 cadavers. Facial artery was observed originating at the level just below the maxillary artery within the parotid gland. Facial artery may originate as linguo-facial trunk or thyro-linguo-facial trunk. Other developmental variations have also been described in the literature like, agenesis of facial artery, enlarged facial artery, hypoplastic facial artery. Variability in situation may complicate the surgery. Therefore maxillofacial surgeon, plastic surgeons and head & neck surgeon should be aware of such variation. PMID:25621238

Mangalgiri, Ashutosh; Namdev, Laxmi Narayan; Mahore, Devendra; Kapre, Madan

2015-03-01

391

Evaluation of mandibular reconstruction with particulate cancellous bone marrow and titanium mesh after mandibular resection due to tumor surgery.  

PubMed

There are numerous treatment modalities for mandibular defects after tumor surgery. Autogenous particulate cancellous bone marrow graft combined with titanium mesh (PCBM-MESH) is an alternative procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PCBM-MESH for mandibular reconstruction. There were a total of 10 cases from 2000 to 2011. Mandibles were successfully reconstructed in 9 cases; however, reconstruction failed in 1 case. Overall, the recovery of facial contours was excellent; conversely, the evaluation of prosthetic treatment varied widely. Thus, we suggest 3 steps for mandibular reconstruction: (1) recover the continuity of bone segments; (2) simulate optimum facial contours and dental occlusion; and (3) perform the occlusion with dental prostheses. PCBM-MESH is a valuable method for mandibular defects-particularly for restoring facial contours and a favorable alveolar ridge. PMID:24637525

Miyamoto, Ikuya; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Yoshiga, Daigo; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tetsu

2014-04-01

392

Foreign body resulting in chronic otomastoiditis and facial palsy.  

PubMed

We present a case of a foreign body in the ear of 5-year-old girl child. She presented with features of chronic suppurative otitis media with facial nerve palsy. On exploration exuberant granulation was found in attic and middle ear. A foreign body (seed) was found buried within the granulation tissue which was removed. Bony facial canal was dehiscent in the tympanic segment. She had recovery of facial nerve function. The case is being reported to increase awareness among otolaryngologist and to consider foreign body as a differential diagnosis in cases of complicated CSOM; especially in children. PMID:25500549

Verma, Roshan Kumar; Gupta, Bhumika; Panda, Naresh K

2015-02-01

393

BeautiPHIcation™: a global approach to facial beauty.  

PubMed

The recent availability of safe volumizing fillers has provided cosmetic physicians with the tools necessary to contour facial features non-surgically and cost-effectively. This review focuses on outlining objective parameters necessary for creating a template to maximize each individual's facial beauty. Phi relationships can be approached for all facial features and rely on the establishment of smooth ogee curves in all dimensions. Once goals have been determined and a budget established, a logical syntax is used to create an algorithm for selecting products and procedures. The methodology leads to consistent and pleasing results with a high rate of patient satisfaction. PMID:21824535

Swift, Arthur; Remington, Kent

2011-07-01

394

Violent video game play impacts facial emotion recognition.  

PubMed

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent video game play. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Typically, happy faces are identified faster than angry faces (the happy-face advantage). Results indicated that playing a violent video game led to a reduction in the happy face advantage. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the current models of aggressive behavior. PMID:17593563

Kirsh, Steven J; Mounts, Jeffrey R W

2007-01-01

395

Facial Nerve Palsy: Providing Eye Comfort and Cosmesis  

PubMed Central

Development of facial nerve palsy (FNP) may lead to dramatic change in the patient's facial function, expression, and emotions. The ophthalmologist may play an important role in the initial evaluation, and the long-term management of patients with new-onset of FNP. In patients with expected temporary facial weakness, no efforts should be wasted to ensure proper corneal protection. Patients with permanent functional deficit may require combination of surgical procedures tailored to the patient's clinical findings that may require good eye comfort and cosmesis. PMID:20616921

Alsuhaibani, Adel H.

2010-01-01

396

Dynamic evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several visual assessment methods have been proposed for evaluating facial nerve function. They are of value clinically, but they have drawbacks when objective, quantitative, and reproducible assessment is required. To solve these problems, we used moire topography, which helps visualize information in three dimensions. We previously reported that one could evaluate the severity of facial palsy by observing characteristic patterns of the moire strips produced by facial movement. Accordingly, we developed a new form of the dynamic evaluation by recording the dynamic changes in moire strip patterns on the face on a videotape.

Yuen, Koji; Inokuchi, Ikuo; Maeta, Manabu; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Masuda, Yu

1994-02-01

397

Potential of an electric prosthesis for dynamic facial reanimation.  

PubMed

Chronic facial paralysis is a devastating condition with severe functional and emotional consequences. The current surgical armamentarium permits the predictable reestablishment of a protective blink as well as good resting symmetry. Yet the ultimate goal of symmetric, spontaneous emotional expression remains elusive despite significant progress in the areas of peripheral nerve grafting and free tissue transfer. This commentary explores the possibility of an implantable electrical prosthesis for facial reanimation. It reviews animal studies supporting this concept as well as recent human data suggesting that such an implant could rescue denervated facial musculature, thus overcoming a major hurdle for existing reanimation techniques. PMID:21636836

Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

2011-09-01

398

Toward DNA-based facial composites: preliminary results and validation.  

PubMed

The potential of constructing useful DNA-based facial composites is forensically of great interest. Given the significant identity information coded in the human face these predictions could help investigations out of an impasse. Although, there is substantial evidence that much of the total variation in facial features is genetically mediated, the discovery of which genes and gene variants underlie normal facial variation has been hampered primarily by the multipartite nature of facial variation. Traditionally, such physical complexity is simplified by simple scalar measurements defined a priori, such as nose or mouth width or alternatively using dimensionality reduction techniques such as principal component analysis where each principal coordinate is then treated as a scalar trait. However, as shown in previous and related work, a more impartial and systematic approach to modeling facial morphology is available and can facilitate both the gene discovery steps, as we recently showed, and DNA-based facial composite construction, as we show here. We first use genomic ancestry and sex to create a base-face, which is simply an average sex and ancestry matched face. Subsequently, the effects of 24 individual SNPs that have been shown to have significant effects on facial variation are overlaid on the base-face forming the predicted-face in a process akin to a photomontage or image blending. We next evaluate the accuracy of predicted faces using cross-validation. Physical accuracy of the facial predictions either locally in particular parts of the face or in terms of overall similarity is mainly determined by sex and genomic ancestry. The SNP-effects maintain the physical accuracy while significantly increasing the distinctiveness of the facial predictions, which would be expected to reduce false positives in perceptual identification tasks. To the best of our knowledge this is the first effort at generating facial composites from DNA and the results are preliminary but certainly promising, especially considering the limited amount of genetic information about the face contained in these 24 SNPs. This approach can incorporate additional SNPs as these are discovered and their effects documented. In this context we discuss three main avenues of research: expanding our knowledge of the genetic architecture of facial morphology, improving the predictive modeling of facial morphology by exploring and incorporating alternative prediction models, and increasing the value of the results through the weighted encoding of physical measurements in terms of human perception of faces. PMID:25194685

Claes, Peter; Hill, Harold; Shriver, Mark D

2014-11-01

399

A rare cause of lateral facial swelling  

PubMed Central

A case of chronic, recurrent and asymptomatic facial swelling in a young male is presented. Swelling extended from lower midface to upper lateral neck and right commissure to anterior massetric border. History, clinical signs and symptoms and examination pointed towards the benign nature of the swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology tapered the diagnostic possibilities to a salivary cyst or pseudocyst. Ultrasonography identified the lesion to contain echogenic fluid with irregular borders. “Tail sign” was absent on contrast magnetic resonance imaging, excluding the involvement of the sublingual gland. Surgical excision of the lesion was done along with submandibular gland as both were in continuity via a bottle-neck tract. Final histopathological diagnosis was that of the submandibular gland extravasation phenomenon. As per the best of our knowledge, it is the first case report of a submandibular gland extravasation causing swelling in a retrograde direction onto the face. PMID:25593883

Mohanty, Sujata; Gulati, Ujjwal; Vandana; Singh, Sapna

2014-01-01

400

Constructive Autoassociative Neural Network for Facial Recognition  

PubMed Central

Autoassociative artificial neural networks have been used in many different computer vision applications. However, it is difficult to define the most suitable neural network architecture because this definition is based on previous knowledge and depends on the problem domain. To address this problem, we propose a constructive autoassociative neural network called CANet (Constructive Autoassociative Neural Network). CANet integrates the concepts of receptive fields and autoassociative memory in a dynamic architecture that changes the configuration of the receptive fields by adding new neurons in the hidden layer, while a pruning algorithm removes neurons from the output layer. Neurons in the CANet output layer present lateral inhibitory connections that improve the recognition rate. Experiments in face recognition and facial expression recognition show that the CANet outperforms other methods presented in the literature. PMID:25542018

Fernandes, Bruno J. T.; Cavalcanti, George D. C.; Ren, Tsang I.

2014-01-01

401

Facial and vocal expressions of emotion.  

PubMed

A flurry of theoretical and empirical work concerning the production of and response to facial and vocal expressions has occurred in the past decade. That emotional expressions express emotions is a tautology but may not be a fact. Debates have centered on universality, the nature of emotion, and the link between emotions and expressions. Modern evolutionary theory is informing more models, emphasizing that expressions are directed at a receiver, that the interests of sender and receiver can conflict, that there are many determinants of sending an expression in addition to emotion, that expressions influence the receiver in a variety of ways, and that the receiver's response is more than simply decoding a message. PMID:12415074

Russell, James A; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Fernandez-Dols, Jose-Miguel

2003-01-01

402

Diagnosis and management of facial pigmented macules.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of pigmented macules on the mottled chronic sun-damaged skin of the face is challenging and includes lentigo maligna (LM), pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, solar lentigo, and lichen-planus-like keratosis. Although dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of the unaided eye, the accurate diagnosis and management of pigmented facial macules remains one of the most challenging scenarios in daily practice. This is related to the fact that pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, lichen-planus-like keratosis, and LM may reveal overlapping criteria, making their differential diagnosis clinically difficult. For this reason, practical rules have been introduced, which should help to minimize the risk for inappropriate diagnosis and management of LM. PMID:24314382

Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Moscarella, Elvira; Longo, Caterina; Simonetti, Vito; Zalaudek, Iris

2014-01-01

403

Granuloma faciale effectively treated with topical pimecrolimus.  

PubMed

Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare skin disorder with a chronic-relapsing course. Cutaneous lesions affect predominantly the face of middle-aged Caucasian men with characteristic reddish papules, nodules, or plaques; however, various atypical cases with unusual morphology or extra facial involvement have been reported (1-3). Despite many treatment options, both surgical and medical, GF remains therapeutically resistant and even if effective treatment is achieved, the condition often recurs. A 60-year-old woman was referred to our department with skin lesions that appeared in spring of 2008 and were resistant to topical antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment. There were no other subjective complains except for aggravation from sun exposure. Clinical examination revealed four erythematous plaques localized symmetrically on both sides of the nose, on the right cheek, and between the eyebrows (Fig. 1a). A wide range of differential diagnoses were taken into consideration, including: cutaneous lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, polymorphic light eruption, Jessner-Kanof lymphocytic infiltration, and erythema fixum. Hematological and biochemical blood investigations were within normal ranges, and the serology for Treponema (T.) pallidum and Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi and the ANA test were negative. The histologic evaluation revealed diffuse hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and a dense perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the upper dermis, demarcated from the epidermis by a highly demonstrative Grenz zone. Polymorphous infiltrate of lymphocyte, neutrophils, eosinophils, and plasma cells was seen around the small- and middle-sized vessels in the papillary dermis (Fig. 1b). The patient was treated with chloroquine 250 mg po bid. and topical betamethasone valerate cream for three months. The lack of significant therapeutic response led us to switch treatment to topical 1% pimecrolimus cream, applied twice daily for a period of three months. A follow-up visit after six months showed visual improvement of highly satisfying cosmetic outcome (Fig. 2). Granuloma faciale is a rare skin disease of unknown etiology. The first case was reported by Wigley in 1945 as "eosinophilic granuloma", and was later named granuloma faciale by Pincus (4). A spectrum of exogenic and endogenic factors such as actinic exposure, trauma, allergy (1), an Arthus-like reaction, or light irradiation (5) have been suspected to trigger the disease. GF has been typically described in middle-aged white men, though it can occur in any gender, race, or age group. Our case features GF changes in a middle-aged woman, which is a relatively rare phenomenon. GF clinical presentation is characterized with variously colored papules, nodules, or plaques, commonly elevated and soft. These lesions have a well-defined border and may vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters, as in our patient. Lesions are situated almost exclusively on the face (2,3), but may rarely appear on the trunk, scalp, and extremities which has been termed extrafacial GF (1). GF lesions are generally symptomless but some patients may complain of tender itching, stinging, or burning sensations. Histological findings play a crucial role in confirming the clinical diagnosis. A Grenz zone of uninvolved dermis located beneath the epidermis and a polymorphous infiltrate of lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and occasionally mast cells are the most characteristic indications. Sometimes, leukocytoclastic vasculitis can be observed, although this is often referred to as an epiphenomenon. With the chronification of the process lesions may show considerable storiform fibrosis (7). Even the pathophysiology of GF is unknown; more recent theories suggested that a proliferation of unknown T-cell lymphocytes cause IL-5 production and eosinophil hemotaxis to the lesional skin (6). Recently, Cesinaro at al. reported a significant number of GF cases associated with an abnormal content of IgG4 plasma cells, proposing that GF might represent a localized form of IgG4-related sclerosing diseases. This

Dourmishev, Lyubomir; Ouzounova-Raykova, Vessela; Broshtilova, Valentina; Miteva, Lyubka

2014-12-01

404

Persistent facial swelling and tinnitus complicating septorhinoplasty.  

PubMed

Septorhinoplasty (SRP) is commonly performed for correcting nasal bony and cartilaginous deformities. Traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is often seen at specific anatomic locations and has rarely been associated to SRP. We report such an unusual case where an AVF developed from a terminal branch of the facial artery. After septorhinoplasty a patient reported pulsatile tinnitus, starting one day after surgery. Swelling on the left side of the nasal pyramid was still present two weeks after the procedure. Clinically, a traumatic AVF was suspected which was confirmed by subsequent Doppler ultrasound examination and angiography. The lesion had developed an important venous pouch and arterial contribution was from the internal carotid as well as external carotid system bilaterally. Complete resection was done by external approach. PMID:23847822

Van der Zijden, T; Claes, J; Vanhoenacker, F M; Claes, G

2013-01-01

405

The Effect of Altering the Mechanical Loading Environment on the Expression of Bone Regenerating Molecules in Cases of Distraction Osteogenesis  

PubMed Central

Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical technique where gradual and controlled separation of two bony fragments following an osteotomy leads to the induction of new bone formation in the distracted gap. DO is used for limb lengthening, correction of bony deformities, and the replacement of bone loss secondary to infection, trauma, and tumors. Although DO gives satisfactory results in most cases, one major drawback of this technique is the prolonged period of time the external fixator has to be kept on until the newly formed bone consolidates thus leading to numerous complications. Numerous attempts at accelerating bone formation during DO have been reported. One specific approach is manipulation of the mechanical environment during DO by applying changes in the standard protocol of distraction. Attempts at changing this mechanical environment led to mixed results. Increasing the rate or applying acute distraction, led to poor bone formation in the distracted zone. On the other hand, the addition of compressive forces (such as weight bearing, alternating distraction with compression or by over-lengthening, and then shortening) has been reported to increase bone formation. It still remains unclear why these alterations may lead to changes in bone formation. While the cellular and molecular changes occurring during the standard DO protocol, specifically increased expression of transforming growth factor-?1, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and bone morphogenic proteins have been extensively investigated, the literature is sparse on the changes occurring when this protocol is altered. It is the purpose of this article to review the pertinent literature on the changes in the expression of various proteins and molecules as a result of changes in the mechanical loading technique in DO and try to define potential future research directions. PMID:25540639

Alzahrani, Mohammad M.; Anam, Emad A.; Makhdom, Asim M.; Villemure, Isabelle; Hamdy, Reggie Charles

2014-01-01

406

Bone substitutes and bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Prompted by severe problems in autogeneic and allogeneic bone transplantation, intensive efforts were made to find sufficient\\u000a substitutes. A main demand on these materials, especially in healing of osseous defects, is to achieve results comparable\\u000a to those of auto- or allografts. These must be related to their biomechanical and particularly to their biological properties,\\u000a i. e. the ability to

H. Stützle; K. Hallfeldt; H. Mandelkow; S. Keßler; L. Schweiberer

1998-01-01

407

Telomere dysfunction and activation of alternative lengthening of telomeres in B-lymphocytes infected by Epstein-Barr virus.  

PubMed

Malignant cells achieve replicative immortality by two alternative mechanisms, a common one dependent on de novo synthesis of telomeric DNA by telomerase, and a rare one based on telomere recombination known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms human B-lymphocytes into lymphoblastoid cell lines with unlimited growth potential in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that newly EBV-infected cells exhibit multiple signs of telomere dysfunction, including the occurrence of extra-chromosomal telomeres, telomere fusion and telomere length heterogeneity, and undergo progressive increase in telomere length without a parallel increase in telomerase activity. This phenotype is accompanied by the accumulation of telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies and telomeric-sister chromatid exchange, suggesting that EBV infection promotes the activation of ALT. Newly infected cells also display a significant reduction of telomere-associated TRF2 and express low levels of TRF1, TRF2, POT1 and ATRX, pointing to telomere de-protection as an important correlate of ALT activation. Collectively, these findings highlight the involvement of recombination-dependent mechanisms for maintenance of telomere homeostasis in EBV-induced B-cell immortalization. PMID:23708666

Kamranvar, S A; Chen, X; Masucci, M G

2013-12-01

408

Muscle lengthening surgery causes differential acute mechanical effects in both targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles.  

PubMed

Epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT) is a major determinant of muscle force exerted, as well as length range of force exertion. Therefore, EMFT is of importance in remedial surgery performed, e.g., in spastic paresis. We aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) muscle lengthening surgery (involving preparatory dissection (PD) and subsequent proximal aponeurotomy (AT)) affects the target muscle force exerted at its distal and proximal tendons differentially, (2) forces of non-operated synergistic muscles are affected as well, (3) PD causes some of these effects. In three conditions (control, post-PD, and post-AT exclusively on m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL)), forces exerted by rat anterior crural muscles were measured simultaneously. Our results confirm hypotheses (1-2), and hypothesis (3) in part: Reduction of EDL maximal force differed by location (i.e. 26.3% when tested distally and 44.5% when tested proximally). EDL length range of active force exertion increased only distally. Force reductions were shown also for non-operated tibialis anterior (by 11.9%), as well as for extensor hallucis longus (by 8.4%) muscles. In tibialis anterior only, part of the force reduction (4.9%) is attributable to PD. Due to EMFT, remedial surgery should be considered to have differential effects for targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles. PMID:23837929

Ate?, Filiz; Özde?lik, Rana N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

2013-10-01

409

Stretch speed-dependent myofiber damage and functional deficits in rat skeletal muscle induced by lengthening contraction.  

PubMed

Exercise involving lengthening contraction (LC) often results in delayed myofiber damage and functional deficits over the ensuing days. The present study examined whether the stretch speed of LC is a determinant of damage severity. Under isoflurane anesthesia, LC was repeatedly induced in rat ankle extensor muscles at different stretch speeds (angular velocities of 50, 100, 200, and 400 deg/sec) over a fixed stretch range of motion (90°). The number of muscle fibers labeled with Evans blue dye, a marker of muscle fiber damage associated with increased membrane permeability, increased with the angular velocity of LC (by 20% of all myofibers at 400 deg/sec). Muscle fibers with cross-sectional areas in the range of 3600-4800 ?m(2), corresponding to type IIb fiber size, exhibited the most severe damage as revealed by the largest decrease in the number of fibers 3 days after LC at 200 deg/sec, suggesting that muscle damage occurred preferentially in type IIb myofibers. Isometric torque of dorsiflexion measured 2 days after LC decreased progressively with LC angular velocity (by 68% reduction at 400 deg/sec). The angular velocity of muscle stretch during LC is thus a critical determinant of the degree of damage, and LC appears to damage type IIb fibers preferentially, resulting in a disproportionate reduction in isometric torque. This LC response is an important consideration for the design of physical conditioning and rehabilitation regimens. PMID:25413330

Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Itoh, Yuta; Miyazu-Inoue, Masumi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Taguchi, Toru; Kawakami, Keisuke

2014-11-01

410

Stretch speed?dependent myofiber damage and functional deficits in rat skeletal muscle induced by lengthening contraction  

PubMed Central

Abstract Exercise involving lengthening contraction (LC) often results in delayed myofiber damage and functional deficits over the ensuing days. The present study examined whether the stretch speed of LC is a determinant of damage severity. Under isoflurane anesthesia, LC was repeatedly induced in rat ankle extensor muscles at different stretch speeds (angular velocities of 50, 100, 200, and 400 deg/sec) over a fixed stretch range of motion (90°). The number of muscle fibers labeled with Evans blue dye, a marker of muscle fiber damage associated with increased membrane permeability, increased with the angular velocity of LC (by 20% of all myofibers at 400 deg/sec). Muscle fibers with cross?sectional areas in the range of 3600–4800 ?m2, corresponding to type IIb fiber size, exhibited the most severe damage as revealed by the largest decrease in the number of fibers 3 days after LC at 200 deg/sec, suggesting that muscle damage occurred preferentially in type IIb myofibers. Isometric torque of dorsiflexion measured 2 days after LC decreased progressively with LC angular velocity (by 68% reduction at 400 deg/sec). The angular velocity of muscle stretch during LC is thus a critical determinant of the degree of damage, and LC appears to damage type IIb fibers preferentially, resulting in a disproportionate reduction in isometric torque. This LC response is an important consideration for the design of physical conditioning and rehabilitation regimens. PMID:25413330

Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Itoh, Yuta; Miyazu?Inoue, Masumi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Taguchi, Toru; Kawakami, Keisuke

2014-01-01

411

Induction of alternative lengthening of telomeres-associated PML bodies by p53/p21 requires HP1 proteins  

PubMed Central

Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a recombination-mediated process that maintains telomeres in telomerase-negative cancer cells. In asynchronously dividing ALT-positive cell populations, a small fraction of the cells have ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (APBs), which contain (TTAGGG)n DNA and telomere-binding proteins. We found that restoring p53 function in ALT cells caused p21 up-regulation, growth arrest/senescence, and a large increase in cells containing APBs. Knockdown of p21 significantly reduced p53-mediated induction of APBs. Moreover, we found that heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is present in APBs, and knockdown of HP1? and/or HP1? prevented p53-mediated APB induction, which suggests that HP1-mediated chromatin compaction is required for APB formation. Therefore, although the presence of APBs in a cell line or tumor is an excellent qualitative marker for ALT, the association of APBs with growth arrest/senescence and with “closed” telomeric chromatin, which is likely to repress recombination, suggests there is no simple correlation between ALT activity level and the number of APBs or APB-positive cells. PMID:19468068

Jiang, Wei-Qin; Zhong, Ze-Huai; Nguyen, Akira; Henson, Jeremy D.; Toouli, Christian D.; Braithwaite, Antony W.

2009-01-01

412

Loss of ATRX, Genome Instability, and an Altered DNA Damage Response Are Hallmarks of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Pathway  

PubMed Central

The Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway is a telomerase-independent pathway for telomere maintenance that is active in a significant subset of human cancers and in vitro immortalized cell lines. ALT is thought to involve templated extension of telomeres through homologous recombination, but the genetic or epigenetic changes that unleash ALT are not known. Recently, mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex and histone H3.3 were found to correlate with features of ALT in pancreatic neuroendocrine cancers, pediatric glioblastomas, and other tumors of the central nervous system, suggesting that these mutations might contribute to the activation of the ALT pathway in these cancers. We have taken a comprehensive approach to deciphering ALT by applying genomic, molecular biological, and cell biological approaches to a panel of 22 ALT cell lines, including cell lines derived in vitro. Here we show that loss of ATRX protein and mutations in the ATRX gene are hallmarks of ALT–immortalized cell lines. In addition, ALT is associated with extensive genome rearrangements, marked micronucleation, defects in the G2/M checkpoint, and altered double-strand break (DSB) repair. These attributes will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of ALT positive human cancers. PMID:22829774

Lovejoy, Courtney A.; Li, Wendi; Reisenweber, Steven; Thongthip, Supawat; Bruno, Joanne; de Lange, Titia; De, Saurav; Petrini, John H. J.; Sung, Patricia A.; Jasin, Maria; Rosenbluh, Joseph; Zwang, Yaara; Weir, Barbara A.; Hatton, Charlie; Ivanova, Elena; Macconaill, Laura; Hanna, Megan; Hahn, William C.; Lue, Neal F.; Reddel, Roger R.; Jiao, Yuchen; Kinzler, Kenneth; Vogelstein, Bert; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Meeker, Alan K.

2012-01-01

413

What causes bone loss?  

MedlinePLUS

... or keeps your body from making enough bone. Weak bones can break easily, even without an obvious ... to be poorly absorbed can also lead to weak bones. Some of these are: Gastric bypass (weight- ...

414

Disorders of Bone Remodeling  

PubMed Central

The skeleton provides mechanical support for stature and locomotion, protects vital organs, and controls mineral homeostasis. A healthy skeleton must be maintained by constant bone modeling to carry out these crucial functions throughout life. Bone remodeling involves the removal of old or damaged bone by osteoclasts (bone resorption) and the subsequent replacement of new bone formed by osteoblasts (bone formation). Normal bone remodeling requires a tight coupling of bone resorption to bone formation to guarantee no alteration in bone mass or quality after each remodeling cycle. However, this important physiological process can be derailed by a variety of factors, including menopause-associated hormonal changes, age-related factors, changes in physical activity, drugs, and secondary diseases, which lead to the development of various bone disorders in both women and men. We review the major diseases of bone remodeling, emphasizing our current understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:20936937

Feng, Xu; McDonald, Jay M.

2013-01-01

415

Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

1991-01-01

416

Genetics Home Reference: Oral-facial-digital syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... the oral cavity (the mouth and teeth), facial features, and digits (fingers and toes). Researchers have identified ... their patterns of signs and symptoms. However, the features of the various types overlap significantly, and some ...

417

Privacy Preserving Facial and Fingerprint Multi-biometric Authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cases of identity theft can be mitigated by the adoption of secure authentication methods. Biohashing and its variants, which utilizes secret keys and biometrics, are promising methods for secure authentication; however, their shortcoming is the degraded performance under the assumption that secret keys are compromised. In this paper, we extend the concept of Biohashing to multi-biometrics - facial and fingerprint traits. We chose these traits because they are widely used, howbeit, little research attention has been given to designing privacy preserving multi-biometric systems using them. Instead of just using a single modality (facial or fingerprint), we presented a framework for using both modalities. The improved performance of the proposed method, using face and fingerprint, as against either facial or fingerprint trait used in isolation is evaluated using two chimerical bimodal databases formed from publicly available facial and fingerprint databases.

Anzaku, Esla Timothy; Sohn, Hosik; Ro, Yong Man

418

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

419

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

420

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

421

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

422

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

423

Facial features influence the categorization of female sexual orientation.  

PubMed

Social categorization is a rapid and automatic process, and people rely on various facial cues to accurately categorize each other into social groups. Recently, studies have demonstrated that people integrate different cues to arrive at accurate impressions of others' sexual orientations. The amount of perceptual information available to perceivers could affect these categorizations, however. Here, we found that, as visual information decreased from full faces to internal facial features to just pairs of eyes, so did the accuracy of judging women's sexual orientation. Yet and still, accuracy remained significantly greater than chance across all conditions. More important, however, participants' response bias varied significantly depending on the facial feature judged. Perceivers were significantly more likely to consider that a target may be lesbian as they viewed less of the faces. Thus, although facial features may be continuously integrated in person construal, they can differentially affect how people see each other. PMID:24494440

Tskhay, Konstantin O; Feriozzo, Melissa M; Rule, Nicholas O

2013-01-01

424

Effects of parental socio-economic conditions on facial attractiveness.  

PubMed

Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434) to analyze the association between an individual's parental socio-economic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income) and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old), controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood. PMID:25548886

Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

2014-01-01

425

Gait Analysis before and after Gastrocnemius Fascia Lengthening for Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity in a 10-Year-Old Diplegic Child  

PubMed Central

Purpose. This case study quantified kinematic and kinetic effects of gastrocnemius lengthening on gait in a Cerebral Palsy child with equinus foot. Methods. A 10-year-old diplegic child with Cerebral Palsy was evaluated with Gait Analysis (GA) before and after gastrocnemius fascia lengthening, investigating the lower limb joints kinematics and kinetics. Results. Kinematics improved at the level of distal joints, which are directly associated to gastrocnemius, and also at the proximal joint (like hip); improvements were found in ankle kinetics, too. Conclusions. This case study highlighted that GA was effective not only to quantify the results of the treatment but also to help preoperative decision making in dealing with CP child. PMID:20339527

Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Santambrogio, Giorgio Cesare; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

2010-01-01

426

Dinosaur Bone Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity features two connected hands-on activities about dinosaur bones. Using chicken or turkey bones and regular household items, learners explore the scientific process of studying fossilized bones. By exposing the bones to vinegar or heat, learners begin to understand how paleontologists use chemical processes to study the bones of animals long dead and gone. Use this bone-themed activity around the Thanksgiving holiday and repurpose some leftovers.

Lawrence Hall of Science

2005-01-01

427

Low-reactive-level laser treatment in facial paralysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out with a 41-year-old female patient with facial paralysis as a consequence of facial nerve injury during neurosurgery. Low-reactive level laser treatment (LLLT) with a diode laser of 830 nm, 40 mw, continuous wave, spot area 3 mm2, was applied twice a week for 2 weeks, then 1 weekly session following up to 30 sessions, resulting in about 80% improvement of the motor activity.

Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Ladalardo, Thereza C.; Bologna, Elisangela; Castanho Garrini, Ana E.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Campos, Roberto A. d. C.

2000-03-01

428

Facial Reanimation by Masseteric Muscle- Mandibular Periosteum Transfer  

PubMed Central

Permanent facial paralysis is a catastrophic event for involved patients. In long lasting paralysis with severe facial muscles atrophy, masseter muscle transfer is a very good choice. But its greatest problem is postoperative elongation of flap and gradual diminishing of early results and loss of symmetry. This article advocate a new modification for resolving this problem with concomitant elevation of mandibular periosteum with masseter muscle, as a unit for lip and midface elevation. PMID:25489504

Abbasi, Ruholah

2013-01-01

429

Acute Peripheral Facial Palsy after Chickenpox: A Rare Association  

PubMed Central

Chickenpox, resulting from primary infection by the varicella-zoster virus, is an exanthematous disease very common during childhood and with good prognosis. However, serious complications, namely, neurological syndromes, may develop during its course, especially in risk groups, including adolescents. Peripheral facial palsy is a rare neurologic complication that has been previously described. Conclusion. We report the case of a teenager with peripheral facial palsy as a complication of chickenpox, aiming to increase the awareness of this rare association. PMID:25057424

Lopes, Andreia

2014-01-01

430

[Oro-facial-digital syndrome type I: phenotypic variable expression].  

PubMed

Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1; OMIM #311200) is a developmental disorder transmitted as an X-linked dominant condition with embryonic male lethality. It is associated with malformation of the oral cavity, face, and digits. Furthermore, it is characterized by the presence of milia, hypotrichosis and polycystic kidney disease. We present two cases with clinical diagnosis of oral-facial-digital syndrome type I with some phenotypic variability between them. PMID:25362921

Boldrini, María Pía; Giovo, María Elsa; Bogado, Claudia

2014-12-01

431

Evaluating developmental shape changes in Homo antecessor subadult facial morphology.  

PubMed

The fossil ATD6-69 from Atapuerca, Spain, dated to ca. 900 ka (thousands of years ago) has been suggested to mark the earliest appearance of modern human facial features. However, this specimen is a subadult and the interpretation of its morphology remains controversial, because it is unclear how developmental shape changes would affect the features that link ATD6-69 to modern humans. Here we analyze ATD6-69 in an evolutionary and developmental context. Our modern human sample comprises cross-sectional growth series from four populations. The fossil sample covers human specimens from the Pleistocene to the Upper Paleolithic, and includes several subadult Early Pleistocene humans and Neanderthals. We digitized landmarks and semilandmarks on surface and CT scans and analyzed the Procrustes shape coordinates using multivariate statistics. Ontogenetic allometric trajectories and developmental simulations were employed in order to identify growth patterns and to visualize potential adult shapes of ATD6-69. We show that facial differences between modern and archaic humans are not exclusively allometric. We find that while postnatal growth further accentuates the differences in facial features between Neanderthals and modern humans, those features that have been suggested to link ATD6-69's morphology to modern humans would not have been significantly altered in the course of subsequent development. In particular, the infraorbital depression on this specimen would have persisted into adulthood. However, many of the facial features that ATD6-69 shares with modern humans can be considered to be part of a generalized pattern of facial architecture. Our results present a complex picture regarding the polarity of facial features and demonstrate that some modern human-like facial morphology is intermittently present in Middle Pleistocene humans. We suggest that some of the facial features that characterize recent modern humans may have developed multiple times in human evolution. PMID:23998458

Freidline, Sarah E; Gunz, Philipp; Harvati, Katerina; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2013-10-01

432

Dento-facial relationships in individuals with normal occlusion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of selected facial measurements with mesio-distal crown widths and dental arch dimensions in individuals with normal occlusions. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 276 subjects with Angle's Class I normal occlusions. Three-dimensional images of the face and dental casts were captured and analyzed using stereophotogrammetric systems. Significant correlations were found between the sagittal facial variables and both upper and lower dental arch dimensions and to lesser degree with the horizontal and vertical variables. The values of correlation coefficients calculated between facial and dental crown measurements ranged from .01 to .50 for upper teeth and .01 to .49 for lower teeth. The values of correlation coefficients between facial and upper dental arch dimensions ranged from .01 to .55 and those between facial and lower dental arch dimensions ranged from .01 to .60. A principal components analysis showed that the sagittal dimensions, face height, nose, labial fissure, binocular widths were positively associated with dental arch dimensions and mesio-distal crown diameters in males. On the other hand, only the sagittal variables were associated with dental dimensions in females. The results of this study confirm that positive associations exist between facial and dental arch dimensions. These relationships should be taken into consideration when attempts are made to modify dental arch size as part of orthodontic treatment. Moreover, these relationships are also relevant to prosthodontists involved with selecting tooth sizes that display optimal functional balance with the craniofacial structures. PMID:23755965

Al-Khatib, Ali R; Rajion, Zainul A; Masudi, Sam'an M; Hassan, Rozita; Townsend, Grant C

2013-08-01

433

Psychopathy and Identification of Facial Expressions of Emotion  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the association between psychopathy and identification of facial expressions of emotion. Previous research in this area is scant and has produced contradictory findings (Blair et. al., 2001, 2004; Glass & Newman, 2006; Kosson et al., 2002). One hundred and forty-five male jail inmates, rated using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version participated in a facial affect recognition task. Participants were shown faces containing one of five emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, or shame) displayed at one of two different levels of intensity of expression (100% or 60%). The authors predicted that psychopathy would be associated with decreased affect recognition, particularly for sad and fearful emotional expressions, and decreased recognition of less intense displays of facial affect. Results were largely consistent with expectations in that psychopathy was negatively correlated with overall facial recognition of affect, sad facial affect, and recognition of less intense displays of affect. An unexpected negative correlation with recognition of happy facial affect was also found. These results suggest that psychopathy may be associated with a general deficit in affect recognition. PMID:21547246

Hastings, Mark E.; Tangney, June P.; Stuewig, Jeff

2011-01-01

434

Comparison of Facial Nerve Paralysis in Adults and Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose Facial nerve injury can occur in the regions ranging from the cerebral cortex to the motor end plate in the face, and from many causes including trauma, viral infection, and idiopathic factors. Facial nerve paralysis in children, however, may differ from that in adults. We, therefore, evaluated its etiology and recovery rate in children and adults. Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated the records of 975 patients, ranging in age from 0 to 88 years, who displayed facial palsy at Kyung Hee Medical Center between January 1986 and July 2005. Results The most frequent causes of facial palsy in adults were Bell's palsy (54.9%), infection (26.8%), trauma (5.9%), iatrogenic (2.0%), and tumors (1.8%), whereas the most frequent causes of facial palsy in children were Bell's palsy (66.2%), infection (14.6%), trauma (13.4%), birth trauma (3.2%), and leukemia (1.3%). Recovery rates in adults were 91.4% for Bell's palsy, 89.0% for infection, and 64.3% for trauma, whereas recovery rates in children were 93.1% for Bell's palsy, 90.9% for infection, and 42.9% for trauma. Conclusion These results show that causes of facial palsy are similar in adults and children, and recovery rates in adults and children are not significantly different. PMID:18972592

Cha, Chang Il; Hong, Chang Kee; Park, Moon Suh

2008-01-01

435

Similar increases in muscle size and strength in young men after training with maximal shortening or lengthening contractions when matched for total work.  

PubMed

Training exclusively with eccentric (lengthening) contractions can result in greater muscular adaptations than training with concentric (shortening) contractions. We aimed to determine whether training-induced increases in muscle size and strength differed between muscles performing maximal lengthening (LC) or maximal shortening (SC) contractions when total external work is equivalent. Nine healthy young males completed a 9-week isokinetic (0.79 rad/s) resistance training program of the elbow flexors whereby they performed LC with one arm and an equivalent volume of total external work with the contralateral arm as SC. Training increased isometric peak torque for both LC (~10%) and SC (~20%) with no difference (P = 0.14) between conditions. There were also similar increases in isokinetic peak torque at both slow (0.79 rad/s) and fast (5.24 rad/s) shortening and lengthening peak torque for both LC (~8-10%) and SC (~9-20%). Training increased work per repetition similarly for both LC (~17%) and SC (~22%), in spite of ~40% greater work per repetition with LC. The increase in muscle cross-sectional area with training was also similar (P = 0.37) between LC (~6.5%) and SC (~4.6%). We conclude that increases in muscle size and strength with short-term unilateral resistance training are unrelated to muscle contraction type when matched for both exercise intensity (i.e. maximal contractions) and total external work. PMID:21755358

Moore, Daniel R; Young, Mark; Phillips, Stuart M

2012-04-01

436

Diagnostic relevance of transcranial magnetic and electric stimulation of the facial nerve in the management of facial palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEarlier investigations have suggested that isolated conduction block of the facial nerve to transcranial magnetic stimulation early in the disorder represents a very sensitive and potentially specific finding in Bell's palsy differentiating the disease from other etiologies.

Dennis A. Nowak; Stefan Linder; Helge Topka

2005-01-01

437

Preoperative Identification of Facial Nerve in Vestibular Schwannomas Surgery Using Diffusion Tensor Tractography  

PubMed Central

Objective Facial nerve palsy is a common complication of treatment for vestibular schwannoma (VS), so preserving facial nerve function is important. The preoperative visualization of the course of facial nerve in relation to VS could help prevent injury to the nerve during the surgery. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) for preoperative identification of facial nerve. Methods We prospectively collected data from 11 patients with VS, who underwent preoperative DTT for facial nerve. Imaging results were correlated with intraoperative findings. Postoperative DTT was performed at postoperative 3 month. Facial nerve function was clinically evaluated according to the House-Brackmann (HB) facial nerve grading system. Results Facial nerve courses on preoperative tractography were entirely correlated with intraoperative findings in all patients. Facial nerve was located on the anterior of the tumor surface in 5 cases, on anteroinferior in 3 cases, on anterosuperior in 2 cases, and on posteroinferior in 1 case. In postoperative facial nerve tractography, preservation of facial nerve was confirmed in all patients. No patient had severe facial paralysis at postoperative one year. Conclusion This study shows that DTT for preoperative identification of facial nerve in VS surgery could be a very accurate and useful radiological method and could help to improve facial nerve preservation. PMID:25289119

Choi, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Min-Su; Kwon, Hyeok-Gyu; Jang, Sung-Ho

2014-01-01

438

Identification of Facial Shape by Applying Golden Ratio to the Facial Measurements: An Interracial Study in Malaysian Population  

PubMed Central

Background: The “golden ratio” is considered as a universal facial aesthetical standard. Researcher's opinion that deviation from golden ratio can result in development of facial abnormalities. Aims: This study was designed to study the facial morphology and to identify individuals with normal, short, and long face. Materials and Methods: We studied 300 Malaysian nationality subjects aged 18-28 years of Chinese, Indian, and Malay extraction. The parameters measured were physiognomical facial height and width of face, and physiognomical facial index was calculated. Face shape was classified based on golden ratio. Independent t test was done to test the difference between sexes and among the races. Results: The mean values of the measurements and index showed significant sexual and interracial differences. Out of 300 subjects, the face shape was normal in 60 subjects, short in 224 subjects, and long in 16 subjects. Conclusion: As anticipated, the measurements showed variations according to gender and race. Only 60 subjects had a regular face shape, and remaining 240 subjects had irregular face shape (short and long). Since the short and long shape individuals may be at risk of developing various disorders, the knowledge of facial shapes in the given population is important for early diagnostic and treatment procedures. PMID:23272303

Packiriswamy, Vasanthakumar; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas

2012-01-01

439

HP1-Mediated Formation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres-Associated PML Bodies Requires HIRA but Not ASF1a  

PubMed Central

Approximately 10% of cancers use recombination-mediated Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) instead of telomerase to prevent telomere shortening. A characteristic of cells that utilize ALT is the presence of ALT-associated PML nuclear bodies (APBs) containing (TTAGGG)n DNA, telomere binding proteins, DNA recombination proteins, and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). The function of APBs is unknown and it is possible that they are functionally heterogeneous. Most ALT cells lack functional p53, and restoration of the p53/p21 pathway in these cells results in growth arrest/senescence and a substantial increase in the number of large APBs that is dependent on two HP1 isoforms, HP1? and HP1?. Here we investigated the mechanism of HP1-mediated APB formation, and found that histone chaperones, HIRA and ASF1a, are present in APBs following activation of the p53/p21 pathway in ALT cells. HIRA and ASF1a were also found to colocalize inside PML bodies in normal fibroblasts approaching senescence, providing evidence for the existence of a senescence-associated ASF1a/HIRA complex inside PML bodies, consistent with a role for these proteins in induction of senescence in both normal and ALT cells. Moreover, knockdown of HIRA but not ASF1a significantly reduced p53-mediated induction of large APBs, with a concomitant reduction of large HP1 foci. We conclude that HIRA, in addition to its physical and functional association with ASF1a, plays a unique, ASF1a-independent role, which is required for the localization of HP1 to PML bodies and thus for APB formation. PMID:21347226

Jiang, Wei-Qin; Nguyen, Akira; Cao, Ying; Chang, Andy C.-M.; Reddel, Roger R.

2011-01-01

440

Leiomyosarcoma With Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Is Associated With Aggressive Histologic Features, Loss of ATRX Expression, and Poor Clinical Outcome.  

PubMed

Leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with poor patient survival. Recently, it was shown that 53% to 62% of leiomyosarcomas use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as their telomere maintenance mechanism. The molecular basis of this mechanism has not been elucidated. Studies of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor have suggested that the inactivation of either ?-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated (DAXX) protein is associated with the ALT phenotype. In this study, we sought to determine the clinicopathologic features of leiomyosarcoma with the ALT phenotype and the possible relationship between this phenotype and ATRX/DAXX expression. Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) promoter mutation analysis was also performed. Ninety-two leiomyosarcomas derived from the uterus, retroperitoneum/intra-abdomen, and various other sites were analyzed. Telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that 59% (51/86) of leiomyosarcomas had the ALT phenotype. Loss of ATRX expression was observed in 33% of the tumors (30/92), and all but 2 ATRX-deficient tumors were ALT positive. Both the ALT phenotype and loss of ATRX expression were associated with epithelioid/pleomorphic cell morphology, tumor necrosis, and poor differentiation. None of the 92 cases lost DAXX expression. No TERT promoter mutation was detected (n=39). For survival analysis, poor differentiation, high FNCLCC grade, tumor size, and ALT phenotype were correlated with poor overall survival in univariate analysis. Tumor size and ALT phenotype remained independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. We concluded that the ALT phenotype in the leiomyosarcoma is associated with aggressive histologic features, loss of ATRX expression, and poor clinical outcome. PMID:25229770

Liau, Jau-Yu; Tsai, Jia-Huei; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Hsu, Hung-Han; Yang, Ching-Yao

2015-02-01

441

Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness.  

PubMed

Testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics in males may signal immunological competence and are sexually selected for in several species. In humans, oestrogen-dependent characteristics of the female body correlate with health and reproductive fitness and are found attractive. Enhancing the sexual dimorphism of human faces should raise attractiveness by enhancing sex-hormone-related cues to youth and fertility in females, and to dominance and immunocompetence in males. Here we report the results of asking subjects to choose the most attractive faces from continua that enhanced or diminished differences between the average shape of female and male faces. As predicted, subjects preferred feminized to average shapes of a female face. This preference applied across UK and Japanese populations but was stronger for within-population judgements, which indicates that attractiveness cues are learned. Subjects preferred feminized to average or masculinized shapes of a male face. Enhancing masculine facial characteristics increased both perceived dominance and negative attributions (for example, coldness or dishonesty) relevant to relationships and paternal investment. These results indicate a selection pressure that limits sexual dimorphism and encourages neoteny in humans. PMID:9732869

Perrett, D I; Lee, K J; Penton-Voak, I; Rowland, D; Yoshikawa, S; Burt, D M; Henzi, S P; Castles, D L; Akamatsu, S

1998-08-27

442

Lip segmentation and tracking for facial palsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed the asymmetry analyzing system for facial palsy patient's rehabilitation progress study. Using PC standard imaging device, captured 640*480 RGB image is converted into HSV space. A Lip-shape mask is extracted by thresholding. By taking 5 regions consisted in one region on lip and four regions on face skin, reasonable thresholds are determined by Fuzzy C-Means clustering. The extreme points on the lip shape mask are extracted to get the seeds for tracking. Segmented seed points are tracking by Iterative Lucas-Kanade tracking method in pyramids at 30 fps and recording simultaneously. To reduce the disk writing load on computer, we use asynchronous mode file writing, which is going to transfer to and review by clinician. Tracking shows quite reliable results, but sometimes the tracked points are following along the lip line because of the similar contrasts. Therefore, the first strategy to improve the reliability of tracking is using the high contrast points, such as left and right maximal point of lip shape. The second is clustering some points near the maximal points and eliminating outlying tracking points. The third is rechecking the lip shape using lip segmentation when the operator confirms that subject's maximal lip moving. Left and right tracking points are compared in forms of trajectory plot.

Park, MinJae; Seo, JongMo; Park, KwangSuk

2006-02-01

443

Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks  

PubMed Central

Background A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers’ recognition of the emotional expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Conclusions/Significance Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa’s smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art “yugen (profound grace and subtlety)”, which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness. PMID:23940748

Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

2013-01-01

444

Facial Schwannomas: Various Presentations and their Management with Literature Review.  

PubMed

Facial schwannomas or neuromas are rare entity. They often are confused with vestibular schwannomas on imaging, especially if they are limited to the cisternal segment of the facial nerve. Awareness regarding this entity is paramount for the early diagnosis and correct management which may differ from patient to patient. We share the different clinical presentations of this rare benign tumour and discuss their management strategies in light of the affected segment of the nerve. The results were analyzed along with review of literature. Three cases of facial schwannomas were analyzed retrospectively during last 4 years and their presentation, imaging, preferred surgical approaches, intra-operative findings and post grafting results are discussed. All three patients underwent surgical excision with sural nerve cable grafting and have no recurrence till date. However, the facial paresis remained the same in one of the cases while improvement was observed in two patients. The improvement was delayed in one patient as documented by electromyography of facial muscles. Facial schwannomas are slow growing tumours with low incidence. Usual presentations can sometimes be masked. Appropriate management decision needs to be arrived after considering three determinants i.e. the patient's age, hearing status and the severity of facial paresis (House-Brackmann grading). Nerve reconstruction after excision should be performed in each case and sometimes the results may be delayed. It is thus important to keep a close surviellance during the follow up and to perform the electrophysiological tests frequently so as to detect the earliest signs of regeneration (which can be delayed up to 18 months). PMID:24427737

Kumar, Ashish; Deopujari, Chandrashekhar; Shah, Anand

2013-12-01

445

Dispersion assessment in the location of facial landmarks on photographs.  

PubMed

The morphological assessment of facial features using photographs has played an important role in forensic anthropology. The analysis of anthropometric landmarks for determining facial dimensions and angles has been considered in diverse forensic areas. Hence, the quantification of the error associated to the location of facial landmarks seems to be necessary when photographs become a key element of the forensic procedure. In this work, we statistically evaluate the inter- and intra-observer dispersions related to the facial landmark identification on photographs. In the inter-observer experiment, a set of 18 facial landmarks was provided to 39 operators. They were requested to mark only those that they could precisely place on 10 photographs with different poses (frontal, oblique, and lateral views). The frequency of landmark location was studied together with their dispersion. Regarding the intra-observer evaluation, three participants identified 13 facial points on five photographs classified in the frontal and oblique views. Each landmark location was repeated five times at intervals of at least 24 h. The frequency results reveal that glabella, nasion, subnasale, labiale superius, and pogonion obtained the highest location frequency in the three image categories. On the contrary, the lowest rate corresponds to labiale inferius and menton. Meanwhile, zygia, gonia, and gnathion were significantly more difficult to locate than other facial landmarks. They produced a significant effect on the dispersion depending on the pose of the image where they were placed, regardless of the type of observer that positioned them. In particular, zygia and gonia presented a statistically greater variation in the three image poses, while the location of gnathion is less precise in oblique view photographs. Hence, our findings suggest that the latter landmarks tend to be highly variable when determining their exact position. PMID:24878615

Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Cordón, O; Damas, S

2015-01-01

446

Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions/approximations to stimulate recognition and identification. Over the past 25 years, many computer-  

E-print Network

REVIEW Abstract Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions by the wider forensic science field. In addi- tion, constant re-evaluation and assessment will promote further improvement and increase reliability. Key Words: Forensic; human identification; facial reconstruction; facial

Frey, Pascal

447

Bone scan appearances following biopsy of bone and bone marrow  

SciTech Connect

The influence of sternal marrow aspiration, iliac crest marrow aspiration, and iliac crest bone biopsy on bone scan appearances was examined. Eighteen patients were scanned a mean of 9.9 days after sternal marrow aspiration with a Salah needle. Bone scans obtained in 9 patients a mean of 10 days aftr iliac crest trephine marrow biopsy with a Jamshidi needle showed no abnormality at the biopsy site. In 18 patients with metabolic bone disease who had undergone iliac crest bone biopsy with an 8 mm needle, a scan abnormality due to the biopsy was usually present when the interval between the biopsy and the scan was 5 days to 2 months. Patients who were scanned within 3 days of iliac crest bone biopsy or more than 2 months after biopsy had normal scan appearance at the biopsy site.

McKillop, J.H.; Maharaj, D.; Boyce, B.F.; Fogelman, I.

1984-10-01

448