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1

Automatic Facial Skin Defect Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin analysis is one of the most important procedures before medical cosmetology. Most conventional skin analysis systems are semi-automatic. They often require human intervention. In this study, an automatic facial skin defect detection approach is proposed. The system first detects human face in the facial image. Based on the detected face, facial features are extracted to locate regions of interest.

Chuan-Yu Chang; Shang-Cheng Li; Pau-Choo Chung; Jui-Yi Kuo; Yung-Chin Tu

2010-01-01

2

Automatic Facial Skin Defects Detection and Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently medical cosmetology has attracted significant business opportunity. Micro cosmetic surgery usually involves the minimally invasive cosmetic procedures such as non-ablative laser procedure for skin rejuvenation. However, an appropriate treatment selection for skin relies on accurate preoperative evaluation. In this paper, an automatic facial skin defects detection and recognition system is proposed. The system automatic locates the facial region and

Chuan-Yu Chang; Heng-Yi Liao

2011-01-01

3

Skin Aging Estimation by Facial Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a layered facial simulation model for skin aging with wrinkles, which includes muscle, connective tissue and skin layer. Our aim is to simulate relevant facial animation and aging with the guidance of general facial tissue anatomy, so that the model can be extended to medical and cosmetic applications. B-spline muscle patches are automatically adapted to each individual face

Yin Wu; Pierre Beylot; Nadia Magnenat-thalmann

1999-01-01

4

Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders  

PubMed Central

The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice.

Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

2005-01-01

5

Reconstructing complex central facial defects involving multiple cosmetic subunits.  

PubMed

Defects of the central face can pose significant reconstructive challenges and are some of the most frequently encountered defects in facial reconstructive surgery. Familiarity with the repair of such defects is essential. At our institution, we have found that a systematic approach to central facial defects allows for superior results. We present that approach here using several cases to demonstrate the intraoperative planning involved. The cosmetic units and subunits within the defect must be identified. The defect must then be assessed for structural defects and deep soft tissue defects, which can be repaired utilizing cartilage grafts and hinge flaps respectively. Superficial defects of the cheek, lip, and nasal sidewall can then be assessed and repaired, taking advantage of the available tissue reservoirs using adjacent sliding flaps. The remaining distal nasal defect can then be repaired, depending on size, with a full-thickness skin graft, a cheek interpolation flap, or if necessary, a paramedian forehead flap. This systematic approach to reconstructing central facial defects simplifies seemingly complex reconstructive challenges and optimizes results. PMID:24037933

Levender, Michelle M; Ratner, Desiree

2013-09-13

6

Reconstruction of a facial defect using the ear pinna as a composite flap.  

PubMed

A four-month-old, female pit bull was evaluated for multiple, resolving, second- and third-degree burn wounds. The convex surface of the left pinna was severely burned and distorted. Contraction of a large (6 cm by 4 cm), facial cutaneous defect had resulted in contracture of surrounding normal skin and dorsal displacement of both upper eyelids. Decreased ability to blink predisposed the puppy to exposure keratitis. The cutaneous facial defect was repaired using the left pinna as a composite skin flap. Surgery resulted in a successful repair of the defect and immediate return of normal eyelid function. PMID:9728471

Swainson, S W; Goring, R L; deHaan, J J; Priehs, D R; Pavletic, M M

7

Protection Against Dryness of Facial Skin: A Rational Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial skin is unique in that it gets far more exposure to the external environment than skin on other areas of the body and paradoxically, because it contains the thinnest epidermis and stratum corneum, especially on the eye lid. Environmental attacks contribute to drying of facial skin and damage to the stratum corneum. In recent years, there has been an

E. Proksch

2009-01-01

8

Ultrastructure of elastosis in facial rhytidectomy skin  

SciTech Connect

Skin from 19 facial rhytidectomies performed in patients with chronic solar damage was compared with postauricular skin from patients of similar age. Light microscopy demonstrated large areas of amorphous material that stained PAS positive in all 19 face-lift specimens, while none of the controls had such material. Electron microscopy of the ''elastotic'' material revealed large amorphous masses of granular material, with loss of the microfilament component of normal elastin. Current theories suggest that the elastotic material in solar-damaged skin is a product of radiation-damaged fibroblasts, rather than being either collagen or degenerated elastin. Such knowledge may help the plastic surgeons encourage rhytidectomy patients to protect themselves from solar radiation.

Rudolph, R.; Woodward, M.

1981-03-01

9

Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-04-01

10

Presumption of Transient Awakening of Driver by Facial Skin Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed for the development of the quantitative measurement technology of the transient awakening degree fall based on a facial skin temperature change. Generally the characteristic change that accepted sleepiness levels such as eye blink rhythm or the movement of lips by an awakening degree fall appears in the face expression. On the other hand, the facial skin temperature changes by the action of the autonomous nervous system with the awakening degree fall significantly. In this study, we demanded the relevance that there was between this face skin temperature change and a face expression change. And we tried the construction of the model that estimated awakening degree based on a change pattern of the time and space of the facial skin temperature. We used a hierarchical model neural network for the modeling. We learned an explanation variable, face expression evaluation value as a purpose variable by the change pattern of the time and space of the facial skin thermal image. Concretely Speaking, we measured a heat picture, the number of cardiac beats, and facial expression evaluation. And we presumed the facial expression evaluation value from the facial skin temperature using the model. As a result of the experiment, the proposed model showed a possibility that it could presume in the stage of 1 to 3 of a facial expression evaluation value.

Asano, Hirotoshi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

11

Combining skin texture and facial structure for face identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current face identification systems are not robust enough to accurately identify the same individual in different images with changes in head pose, facial expression, occlusion, length of hair, illumination, aging, etc. This is especially a problem for facial images that are captured using low resolution video cameras or webcams. This paper introduces a new technique for facial identification in low resolution images that combines facial structure with skin texture to accommodate changes in lighting and head pose. Experiments using this new technique show that combining facial structure features with skin texture features results in a facial identification system for low resolution images that is more robust to pose and illumination conditions than either technique used alone.

Manoni, R. E.; Canosa, R. L.

2012-02-01

12

Facial Skin Coloration Affects Perceived Health of Human Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous researchers have examined the effects of skin condition, including texture and color, on the perception of health,\\u000a age, and attractiveness in human faces. They have focused on facial color distribution, homogeneity of pigmentation, or skin\\u000a quality. We here investigate the role of overall skin color in determining perceptions of health from faces by allowing participants\\u000a to manipulate the skin

Ian D. Stephen; Miriam J. Law Smith; Michael R. Stirrat; David I. Perrett

2009-01-01

13

Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Consolo, U.; Seidenari, S.

2011-01-01

14

Coverage of skin defects without skin grafts using adipose-derived stem cells.  

PubMed

A satisfying result is difficult to achieve in the repair of a full-thickness skin defect in the facial area, including the subunits of the nose. A full-thickness skin graft, nasolabial flap, or forehead flap as a major treatment still is used despite its relative potential for secondary contracture, unmatched skin color, hypertrophic scars, and donor-site morbidity. Another option, with good wound-healing power and soft tissue regeneration without skin grafts would be helpful for initiating treatment. Adult stem cells are a useful material in tissue engineering. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), an abundant population of pluripotent cells found in the stroma of adipose tissues, have been shown to differentiate in vitro into various cell lineages. As a robust source of bioactive growth factors, ADSCs contribute to recovery from ischemic damage, and they can promote the wound-healing process as well as soft tissue regeneration. The authors have experienced several cases of facial skin defect repair using ADSCs without skin grafts. In these cases, they observed rapid coverage of the wound with the patient's own regenerated tissue. During the treatment period, ADSC treatment showed an excellent wound-healing process in terms of quantity and quality. PMID:23877753

Jo, Dong In; Yang, Hyun Jin; Kim, Soon Heum; Kim, Cheol Keun; Park, Hyung Jun; Choi, Hyun Gon; Shin, Dong Hyeok; Uhm, Ki Il

2013-07-23

15

Dermoscopic patterns of common facial inflammatory skin diseases.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Several common inflammatory dermatoses, such as rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis (SD), discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and granulomatous skin diseases manifest as erythematous macules or plaques on the facial skin. Although clinical examination represents the cornerstone of diagnosis, the broad variety of clinical features and uncommon presentations of these diseases may cause at times diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainty. Dermoscopy, in addition to its well-documented value in evaluation of skin tumours, is continuously gaining appreciation also in the field of general dermatology. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the dermoscopic patterns of common facial inflammatory skin diseases including SD, erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ER), sarcoidosis, lupus vulgaris (LV), DLE and granuloma faciale (GF). METHODS: Dermoscopic images of lesions from patients with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of SD, ER, sarcoidosis, LV, DLE or GF were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of several criteria. Selection of the dermoscopic variables included in the evaluation process was based on the data available in the literature and on our preliminary observations. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen dermoscopic images were included in the study. SD was dermoscopically characterized by dotted vessels and yellow scales, whereas ER was typified by a characteristic pattern of vascular polygons. Sarcoidosis and LV very commonly exhibited orange-yellowish areas and linear branching vessels. Features related to follicle abnormalities and linear branching vessels were the most common dermoscopic criteria of DLE and GF. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new insights into the dermoscopic variability in common facial inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:23489377

Lallas, A; Argenziano, G; Apalla, Z; Gourhant, J Y; Zaballos, P; Di Lernia, V; Moscarella, E; Longo, C; Zalaudek, I

2013-03-12

16

Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects  

PubMed Central

Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology.

Federspil, Philipp A.

2012-01-01

17

Factitious disease of periocular and facial skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical appearance of factitious (or self-inflicted) lesions on periocular skin and face.METHODS: All patients with factitious cutaneous disease who were examined at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between 1985 and 1997 were identified. For patients with lesions on the face and periocular skin, the demographic features, clinical descriptive characteristics of their lesions, associated psychopathology, and treatments were

Seyda Ugurlu; George B Bartley; Clark C Otley; Keith H Baratz

1999-01-01

18

Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects Syndrome.  

PubMed

? Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) or microcornea, dermal aplasia and sclerocornea (MIDAS) syndrome is a rare X-linked-dominant disorder. We present a patient with agenesis of corpus callosum, ocular abnormalities, and multiple skin defects. The cytogenetic studies of the MLS critical region (Xp22.2) were normal, but a skewed X-chromosome inactivation pattern (85:15) was observed. PMID:22612277

García-Rabasco, Ana; De-Unamuno, Blanca; Martínez, Francisco; Febrer-Bosch, Isabel; Alegre-de-Miquel, Víctor

2012-05-21

19

Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin.  

PubMed

Histologic studies have become increasingly important in recognizing morphologic differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged skin. Earlier histologic studies have attempted to evaluate these changes by examining anatomical sites which are not comparable, such as face and buttocks. As part of a multicenter study, we have quantitatively examined a panel of 16 histologic features in baseline facial skin biopsies from 158 women with moderate to severe photodamage. When compared to the postauricular area (photo protected), biopsies of the crow's feet area (photo exposed) had a twofold increase in melanocytes and a statistically significant increase in melanocytic atypia (p < .0001) and epidermal melanin (p < .0001). Other epidermal changes included reduced epidermal thickness (p < .01), more compact stratum corneum (p < .0001) and increased granular layer thickness (p < .0001) in the crow's feet skin. There was increased solar elastosis (p < .0001), dermal elastic tissue (p < .0001), melanophages (p < .0001), perivascular inflammation (p < .05) and perifollicular fibrosis (p < .01) but no change in the number of mast cells or dermal mucin in the photo exposed skin. Our data document quantitative differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged facial skin and provides the groundwork for future studies to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for photoaged skin. PMID:7560349

Bhawan, J; Andersen, W; Lee, J; Labadie, R; Solares, G

1995-04-01

20

Maxillofacial rehabilitation of a large facial defect resulting from an arteriovenous malformation utilizing a two-piece prosthesis.  

PubMed

Large facial defects involving the oral cavity can be difficult to restore prosthetically because of a lack of anatomic undercuts, limited means of retention, mobility of soft tissue margins, and the weight of the prosthesis. Use of skin adhesives may be precluded because of the presence of persistent moisture and saliva. The maxillofacial rehabilitation, including the design and fabrication of a 2-piece silicone prosthesis retained by the teeth, of a patient with a large facial defect as a result of treatment for an arteriovenous malformation is described. The pathogenesis and therapeutic alternatives for arteriovenous malformations is also discussed. PMID:12616227

Hecker, Donna M

2003-02-01

21

The relationship between shape symmetry and perceived skin condition in male facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that male faces high in symmetry are judged more attractive than faces low in symmetry even in images where visual cues to facial symmetry are reduced. These findings suggest that there are correlates of facial symmetry that influence male facial attractiveness independently of symmetry itself. Apparent healthiness of facial skin is one factor that may influence male

B.C. Jones; A. C. Little; D. R. Feinberg; I. S. Penton-Voak; B. P. Tiddeman; D. I. Perrett

2004-01-01

22

Fetal Facial Defects: Associated Malformations and Chromosomal Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an 8-year period, facial defects were observed in 146 (7%) of the 2,086 fetuses that underwent karyotyping in our unit because of fetal malformations and\\/or growth retardation. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 37 of 56 (66%) fetuses with micrognathia, in 10 of 13 (77%) with macroglossia, in 31 of 64 (48 %) with cleft lip and palate, in 5

K. H. Nicolaides; D. R. Salvesen; R. J. M. Snijders; C. M. Gosden

1993-01-01

23

Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

2008-03-01

24

Facial Skin Segmentation Using Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, analyzing human facial image has gained an ever-increasing importance due to its various applications. Image segmentation is required as a very important and fundamental operation for significant analysis and interpretation of images. Among the segmentation methods, image thresholding technique is one of the most well-known methods due to its simplicity, robustness, and high precision. Thresholding based on optimization of the objective function is among the best methods. Numerous methods exist for the optimization process and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) is among the most efficient and novel ones. Using this method, optimal threshold is extracted and then segmentation of facial skin is performed. In the proposed method, first, the color facial image is converted from RGB color space to Improved Hue-Luminance-Saturation (IHLS) color space, because IHLS has a great mapping of the skin color. To perform thresholding, the entropy-based method is applied. In order to find the optimum threshold, BFO is used. In order to analyze the proposed algorithm, color images of the database of Sahand University of Technology of Tabriz, Iran were used. Then, using Otsu and Kapur methods, thresholding was performed. In order to have a better understanding from the proposed algorithm; genetic algorithm (GA) is also used for finding the optimum threshold. The proposed method shows the better results than other thresholding methods. These results include misclassification error accuracy (88%), non-uniformity accuracy (89%), and the accuracy of region's area error (89%).

Bakhshali, Mohamad Amin; Shamsi, Mousa

2012-01-01

25

Culture, rehabilitation, and facial birth defects: international case studies.  

PubMed

Responses to birth defects are influenced by their cultural and social context. Two multicultural societies, Israel and Nigeria, are reviewed for attitudes toward birth defects. Israel is a developed society where cultural and national origin affect utilization of health services. Differences between Western Jews, Oriental Jews, and Arabs exist in their explanations of etiology and their attitudes toward rehabilitation and community participation. Nigeria is a developing nation with limited health resources. Facial birth defects are stigmatized, infanticide remains a practice, and attitudinal barriers to the development of rehabilitation resources exist. The economic, demographic, and spiritual causes of infanticide are reviewed historically. The persistence of infanticide, though illegal, is discussed relative to issues facing the response of Western medicine to seriously afflicted newborns as well as prenatal genetic diagnosis. The importance of culture as a variable in cleft lip and palate research is stressed. PMID:2937578

Strauss, R P

1985-01-01

26

Digital photographic imaging system for the evaluation of various facial skin lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dermatology, various imaging modalities have been developed as an assistant tool to objectively evaluate the treatment efficacy of facial skin lesion. In this study, we propose a digital photographic imaging system the evaluation of various facial skin lesions in order to maximize the clinical evaluation efficiency by integrating various independent imaging modalities. Our imaging system provides four different digital

Youngwoo Bae; Byungjo Jung

2008-01-01

27

What's in a Face? The Role of Skin Tone, Facial Physiognomy, and Color Presentation Mode of Facial Primes in Affective Priming Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants (N?=?106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this

Elena V. Stepanova; Michael J. Strube

2011-01-01

28

What's in a Face? The Role of Skin Tone, Facial Physiognomy, and Color Presentation Mode of Facial Primes in Affective Priming Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants (N?=?106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this

Elena V. Stepanova; Michael J Strube

2012-01-01

29

[Differential diagnosis of facial skin swellings (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Enlargement of the cheeks may be due to a multitude of disorders, congenital, neoplastic, and in particular inflammatory. Congenital facial anomalies include cutaneous (and osseous) hemihypertrophy of the face and unilateral angiomatous malformations (e.g. Sturge-Weber-Krabbe Syndrome). Buccal enlargement due to dermal tumours include localized haemangiomas and lymphangiomas, lipomas and other benign connective tissue neoplasms, generalized disorders of the lymphatic or reticuloendothelial system including mycosis fungoides, reticulum cell sarcoma and other soft tissue malignancies, and cutaneous manifestations of malignant haemoblastoses, in particular chronic lymphatic leukaemia. Within the very large group of inflammatory skin swellings of the face a review is made of some bacterial pyodermias, severe forms of acne vulgaris, herpes zoster, lupus vulgaris, erysipelas, rosacea, steroid dermatitis, lupus erythematosus (discoid and systemic), toxic dermatitis, allergic eczema, urticaria, Quincke's oedema, and the Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. The importance of prevention and early detection of steroid-induced dermatitis is emphasized. This disorder, which is a pseudo-inflammatory disfiguring complication of prolonged topical steroid abuse, ranks in frequency with the skin problems most often seen in dermatological practice. PMID:374316

Hornstein, O P

1979-04-01

30

Reconstruction of Large Facial Defects Using a Sensate Superficial Circumflex Iliac Perforator Flap Based on the Lateral Cutaneous Branches of the Intercostal Nerves.  

PubMed

Extensive composite facial defects present a surgical challenge because both functional and esthetic results must be considered simultaneously. Free flap transfer is a good option for extensive facial defects. However, the major concern regarding free flap reconstructions of facial defects is the bulkiness of the flaps. The use of a superficial circumflex iliac perforator (SCIP) flap, first reported in 2004, has many advantages including the availability of a thin, hairless skin paddle. In addition, the use of a sensate SCIP flap based on the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves has recently been reported, which can potentially contribute to improved quality of life. We present 2 cases of free sensate SCIP flap reconstruction for extensive facial defects after cancer resection. The flaps were successfully transferred for coverage of the defects with acceptable functional and esthetic results. Sensate SCIP flaps provide a good option for the reconstruction of large facial defects because they are thin and hairless and offer an acceptable color match. These sensate flaps based on the branches of the intercostal nerves are easily obtainable, the donor site is in a concealed area, and primary closure is possible. PMID:23615338

Iida, Takuya; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Hara, Hisako; Mihara, Makoto; Koshima, Isao

2013-04-17

31

Visible skin colouration predicts perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.  

PubMed

Although there is evidence that perception of facial age, health and attractiveness is informed by shape characteristics as well as by visible skin condition, studies on the latter have focused almost exclusively on female skin. Recent research, however, suggests that a decrease in skin colour homogeneity leads to older, less healthy and less attractive ratings of facial skin in both women and men. Here, we elaborate on the significance of the homogeneity of visible skin colouration in men by testing the hypothesis that perception of age, health and attractiveness of (non-contextual) digitally isolated fields of cheek skin only can predict that of whole facial images. Facial digital images of 160 British men (all Caucasian) aged between 10 and 70 were blind-rated for age, health and attractiveness by a total of 147 men and 154 women (mean age = 22.95, SD = 4.26), and these ratings were related to those of corresponding images of cheek skin reported by Fink et al. (J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. in press). Linear regression analysis showed that age, health and attractiveness perception of men's faces could be predicted by the ratings of cheek skin only, such that older men were viewed as older, less healthy and less attractive. This result underlines once again the potent signalling role of skin in its own right, independent of shape or other factors and suggests strongly that visible skin condition, and skin colour homogeneity in particular, plays a significant role in the perception of men's faces. PMID:22515406

Fink, B; Bunse, L; Matts, P J; D'Emiliano, D

2012-05-17

32

Prosthetic management of mid-facial defect with magnet-retained silicone prosthesis.  

PubMed

Background and aim:Mid-facial defect is one of the most disfiguring and impairing defects. A design of prosthesis that is aesthetic and stable can be precious to a patient who has lost part of his face due to surgical excision. Prosthesis can restore the patients' self-esteem and confidence, which affects the patients and their life style. The aim of this case report is to describe a technique of mid-facial silicone prosthesis fabrication.Technique:To provide an aesthetic and stable facial prosthesis, the extra-oral prosthesis was fabricated using silicone material, while the intra-oral defect was restored with obturator prosthesis, and then both prostheses were connected and attached to each other using magnets.Discussion:This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a large mid-facial defect with a two-piece prosthesis. The silicone facial prosthesis was made hollow and lighter by using an acrylic framework. Two acrylic channels were included within the facial prosthesis to provide the patient with clean and patent airways.Clinical relevanceA sectional mid-facial prosthesis was made and retained in place by using magnets, which resulted in a significant improvement in the aesthetical and functional outcome without the need for plastic surgery. Silicone prostheses are reliable alternatives to surgery and should be considered in selected cases. PMID:23625838

Buzayan, Muaiyed M

2013-04-26

33

Real-Time Universal Capture Facial Animation with GPU Skin Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROJECT ABSTRACT The project implements the real-time skin rendering algorithm presented in [1], and further integrates the rendering technique with Universal Capture (UCap) [2] facial animation. The rendering approach approximates,the appearance ofsubsurface scattering by blurring the diffuse illumination in texture space using graphics hardware. This approach, based on the offline skin rendering technique proposed by Borshukov and Lewis [3], gives

Meng Yang

34

Digital photographic imaging system for the evaluation of various facial skin lesions.  

PubMed

In dermatology, various imaging modalities have been developed as an assistant tool to objectively evaluate the treatment efficacy of facial skin lesion. In this study, we propose a digital photographic imaging system the evaluation of various facial skin lesions in order to maximize the clinical evaluation efficiency by integrating various independent imaging modalities. Our imaging system provides four different digital color images, such as standard digital color image, parallel and cross polarization digital color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent digital color image. In conclusion, by analyzing the color information and morphological features, we were able to simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions with one imaging system. PMID:19163597

Bae, Youngwoo; Jung, Byungjo

2008-01-01

35

Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color.  

PubMed

The notion that surface texture may provide important information about the geometry of visible surfaces has attracted considerable attention for a long time. The present study shows that skin texture plays a significant role in the judgment of female facial beauty. Following research in clinical dermatology, the authors developed a computer program that implemented an algorithm based on co-occurrence matrices for the analysis of facial skin texture. Homogeneity and contrast features as well as color parameters were extracted out of stimulus faces. Attractiveness ratings of the images made by male participants relate positively to parameters of skin homogeneity. The authors propose that skin texture is a cue to fertility and health. In contrast to some previous studies, the authors found that dark skin, not light skin, was rated as most attractive. PMID:11334223

Fink, B; Grammer, K; Thornhill, R

2001-03-01

36

Efficacy and Tolerability of a Facial Serum for Fine Lines, Wrinkles, and Photodamaged Skin  

PubMed Central

Background: Dermatology visits for the prevention and treatment of aging skin are rapidly increasing. The clinical sequelae including wrinkling, pigmentary changes, roughness, laxity, and telangiectasia can all result in the appearance of aging skin, impacting quality of life. A facial serum was developed with ingredients associated with an improvement in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and increase in stratum corneum barrier function. Patients were instructed to use a gentle wash before applying the formulation and a moisturizer afterwards. Objective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a facial serum in improving the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and signs of photodamage. Methods: Thirty-four female subjects (Fitzpatrick classification I–IV) with early to advanced photodamaged skin in a 12-week, single-arm, open-label clinical trial. Visits were scheduled at Baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12. Efficacy was assessed using visual grading of facial and periocular skin (modified 10-point scales); changes in viscoelasticity properties were assessed by cutometry. Cutaneous tolerability was evaluated both clinically and subjectively using a 4-point scale and monitoring adverse events. Digital photography documented treatment-related changes in skin appearance. Subjects completed self-assessments at Baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: Significant improvements in all parameters and skin condition were seen as early as Week 4 (p?0.05). There was an 18-percent improvement in overall appearance by Week 12 (p?0.05). Fine lines and coarse winkles improved by 27 and 15 percent, respectively (both p?0.05). Significant improvements were also seen in uneven pigmentation, firmness/elasticity, toned/resiliency, skin radiance, tone, and tactile roughness/smoothness (10%, 11%, 18%, 21%, 16%, and 47%, respectively; allp?0.05). By Week 12 subjects reported a 43-percent improvement in overall facial skin appearance and 24-percent reduction in mean scores for facial lines and wrinkles (bothp?0.05). Improvements were also reported in overall skin tone, firmness, dryness, appearance of pores, appearance of brown spots/facial discoloration, skin radiance, and texture (37%, 35%, 35%, 28%, 24%, 39%, 38%, respectively; allp?0.05). There was a 71-percent reduction in erythema and 94-percent reduction in skin dryness by Week 12 (both p?0.05). Conclusion: The facial serum, in combination with the wash and moisturizer, may be effective and well-tolerated when treating photodamaged skin and may improve the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Significant improvements were seen with all grading parameters as early as four weeks of usage. A controlled study is warranted to further validate these findings.

Stephens, Thomas J.; Herndon, James H.

2011-01-01

37

What's in a face? The role of skin tone, facial physiognomy, and color presentation mode of facial primes in affective priming effects.  

PubMed

Participants (N = 106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this effect depended on the mode of color presentation. The results suggest that in affective priming tasks, faces might not be processed holistically, and instead, visual features of facial priming stimuli independently affect implicit evaluations. PMID:22468422

Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

38

Correlation map analysis between appearances of Japanese facial images and amount of melanin and hemoglobin components in the skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin color reproduction becomes increasingly important with the recent progress in various imaging systems. In this paper, based on subjective experiments, correlation maps are analyzed between appearance of Japanese facial images and amount of melanin and hemoglobin components in the facial skin. Facial color images were taken by digital still camera. The spatial distributions of melanin and hemoglobin components in the facial color image were separated by independent component analysis of skin colors. The separated components were synthesized to simulate the various facial color images by changing the quantities of the two separated pigments. The synthesized images were evaluated subjectively by comparing with the original facial images. From the analysis of correlation map, we could find the visual or psychological terms that are well related to melanin components influence the appearance of facial color image.

Tsumura, Norimichi; Uetsuki, Keiji; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Miyake, Yoichi

2001-06-01

39

Management of facial burns with a collagen\\/glycosaminoglycan skin substitute—prospective experience with 12 consecutive patients with large, deep facial burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of deep facial burns remains one of the greatest challenges in burn care. We have developed a protocol over the past 20 years for management of facial burns that includes excision and coverage with thick autograft. However, the results were not perfect. Deformities of the eyelids, nose and mouth as well as the prominence of skin graft junctures demonstrated

Matthew B. Klein; Loren H. Engrav; James H. Holmes; Jeffrey B. Friedrich; Beth. A. Costa; Shari Honari; Nicole S. Gibran

2005-01-01

40

Rehabilitation of a large maxillo-facial defect using acrylic resin prosthesis.  

PubMed

Large facial defects require definitive surgical reconstruction. However, at times such reconstruction is not possible due to extensive loss of tissues that can not be corrected by surgery alone. In this case, prosthetic restoration of lost facial tissues was carried out. Introduction of newer material which gives life-like appearance to such prosthetic restoration e.g. silicone and poly-ether rubbers, and use of implants to retain these prosthesis have given a new dimension to rehabilitation of such patients. This report presents a case of prosthetic rehabilitation of extensive extra oral defect due to basal cell carcinoma of cheek, using acrylic resin material. PMID:21453630

Ahmed, Bilal; Farshad, Ali Fateh; Yazdanie, Nazia

2011-04-01

41

Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria  

PubMed Central

Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens.?  Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001).?  Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.???Keywords: aspartylglucosaminidase; lysosomal storage disease; oral mucosa; skin tumours

Arvio, P.; Arvio, M.; Kero, M.; Pirinen, S.; Lukinmaa, P.

1999-01-01

42

The role of skin texture and facial shape in representations of age and identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faces have both shape and skin texture, but the relative importance of the two in face representations is unclear. Our goals were first, to determine the contribution of shape versus texture to aftereffects for facial age and identity and second, to assess whether adaptation transferred between shape and texture, suggesting integration in a single representation. In our first experiment we

Michelle Lai; Ipek Oruç; Jason J. S. Barton

43

Stress Evaluation while Prolonged Driving Operation Using the Facial Skin Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a relation to the accident of a car and the physiological and psychological state of a driver. The stress may lead to the fall of a fatigue or attentiveness. Therefore, it is an important subject from viewpoint such as accident prevention to evaluate the mental state of a driver. The study aimed at the development of a quantitative instrumentation technology of the stress when a subject is driving for a long time. First of all, we measured the physiological and psychological stress of a driver. The facial skin temperature and ventricular rate that was driver's physiological amount were measured and compared it with visual analog scale of the subjective amount. It was able to be obtaining of the high correlation in facial skin temperature and visual analog scale from the outcome of the experiment. Therefore, the possibility of appreciable of driver's stress at a facial skin temperature was shown. As a result of the experiment, we showed a possibility that facial skin temperature could evaluate long driving stress.

Asano, Hirotoshi; Muto, Takumi; Ide, Hideto

44

Chronologic and actinically induced aging in human facial skin  

SciTech Connect

Clinical and histologic stigmata of aging are much more prominent in habitually sun-exposed skin than in sun-protected skin, but other possible manifestations of actinically induced aging are almost unexplored. We have examined the interrelation of chronologic and actinic aging using paired preauricular (sun-exposed) and postauricular (sun-protected) skin specimens. Keratinocyte cultures derived from sun-exposed skin consistently had a shorter in vitro lifespan but increased plating efficiency compared with cultures derived from adjacent sun-protected skin of the same individual, confirming a previous study of different paired body sites. Electron microscopic histologic sections revealed focal abnormalities of keratinocyte proliferation and alignment in vitro especially in those cultures derived from sun-exposed skin and decreased intercellular contact in stratified colonies at late passage, regardless of donor site. One-micron histologic sections of the original biopsy specimens revealed no striking site-related keratinocyte alterations, but sun-exposed specimens had fewer epidermal Langerhans cells (p less than 0.001), averaging approximately 50 percent the number in sun-protected skin, a possible exaggeration of the previously reported age-associated decrease in this cell population. These data suggest that sun exposure indeed accelerates aging by several criteria and that, regardless of mechanism, environmental factors may adversely affect the appearance and function of aging skin in ways amenable to experimental quantitation.

Gilchrest, B.A.; Szabo, G.; Flynn, E.; Goldwyn, R.M.

1983-06-01

45

In vivo barrier challenge and long-term recovery in human facial skin.  

PubMed

Recently, we developed a biophysical approach to characterize in vivo facial cheek skin as a function of stratum corneum (SC) depth, barrier function and during a 24-h recovery period. The current study extends this work and characterizes the human facial cheek after barrier challenge and, for the first time, facial SC barrier recovery over a 4-week period. Changes in the corneocyte size over the 4-week recovery period, and correlations with changes in Trans-Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL) were monitored. This approach allows complete characterization of SC barrier function after a full biological regeneration of the SC barrier following tape stripping. The structural and compositional changes in facial cheek were investigated using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infra Red (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, tape stripping, TEWL measurements and image analysis combined with optical microscopy to characterize the SC depth profile during the tape stripping stress and over 4-week recovery period. TEWL increased significantly from baseline after sequential tape stripping. Corneocyte size decreased with successive tape stripping. An inverse direct correlation was determined between TEWL and corneocyte surface area. After 4 weeks, the corneocyte size and TEWL for the facial cheek recovered 100% from the tape stripping procedure. The in vivo ATR-FTIR data demonstrated that lipid and sebum components on the surface of the facial cheek SC recovered within 24 h post tape stripping, whereas protein (Amide II) and water components recovered after 1 week. PMID:23278506

Gorcea, Mihaela; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E; Moore, David J

2013-01-24

46

Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol®) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin  

PubMed Central

Background French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. Methods One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. Results A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Conclusion Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.

Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

2012-01-01

47

The effects of skin colour distribution and topography cues on the perception of female facial age and health.  

PubMed

According to evolutionary psychology, the preference for some facial characteristics reflects adaptations for mate choice because they signal aspects of mate quality. Although morphological features such as facial symmetry and sexually dimorphic traits have been studied extensively in recent years, little is known about skin condition in this context. The preferences for young and healthy looking skin could offer an explanation as to why women place such an importance on the condition of their skin and its refinement through e.g., cosmetic products. Recent research showed that facial skin colour distribution significantly influences the perception of age and attractiveness of female faces, independent of skin surface topography cues. However, the relative effect of skin colour distribution and topography cues on age and health perception remains to be investigated. We present data showing that both skin colour distribution and skin surface topography cues not only significantly influence the perception of female facial age and health but also convey differential information with regard to the strength of these effects. Our data indicate that skin surface topography cues account for a large proportion of variation in facial age perception, whereas skin colour distribution seems to be a stronger health cue. PMID:18081752

Fink, B; Matts, P J

2007-12-13

48

A "round block" purse-string suture in facial reconstruction after operations for skin cancer surgery.  

PubMed

Removal of skin cancers in the head and neck region usually results in a circular or oval defect, which must be reconstructed immediately using one of several techniques. Larger defects can present a difficult aesthetic problem. The purse-string suture is particularly suited to such large defects where the skin is lax. We report 51 cases where this technique was used in the head and neck region. All defects were considerably reduced in size and some required a small skin graft to complete the reconstruction. Initially many redundant skin folds and considerable local distortion were seen but these improved with time. The technique is simple, inexpensive, and the results are satisfactory in appropriately selected cases. Comprehensive discussion to prepare patients for the gross initial distortion and the long period of retention of the suture makes the procedure acceptable to patients. PMID:12804538

Patel, K K; Telfer, M R; Southee, R

2003-06-01

49

Modified technique to fabricate a hollow light-weight facial prosthesis for lateral midfacial defect: a clinical report  

PubMed Central

Large oro-facial defects result from cancer treatment consequences in serious functional as well as cosmetic deformities. Acceptable cosmetic results usually can be obtained with a facial prosthesis. However, retention of a large facial prosthesis can be challenging because of its size and weight. This article describes prosthetic rehabilitation of a 57-year-old man having a right lateral mid-facial defect with intraoral-extraoral combination prosthesis. A modified technique to fabricate a hollow substructure in heat-polymerizing polymethyl-methacrylate to support silicone facial prosthesis was illustrated. The resultant facial prosthesis was structurally durable and light in weight facilitating the retention with magnets satisfactorily. This technique is advantageous as there is no need to fabricate the whole prosthesis again in case of damage of the silicone layer because the outer silicone layer can be removed and re-packed on the substructure if the gypsum-mold is preserved.

2010-01-01

50

First experiences with simultaneous skeletal and soft tissue reconstruction of noma-related facial defects.  

PubMed

Noma victims suffer from a three-dimensional facial soft-tissue loss. Some may also develop complex viscerocranial defects, due to acute osteitis, chronic exposure, or arrested skeletal growth. Reconstruction has mainly focused on soft tissue so far, whereas skeletal restoration was mostly avoided. After successful microvascular soft tissue free flap reconstruction, we now included skeletal restoration and mandibular ankylosis release into the initial step of complex noma surgery. One free rib graft and parascapular flap, one microvascular osteomyocutaneous flap from the subscapular system, and two sequential chimeric free flaps including vascularized bone were used as the initial steps for facial reconstruction. Ankylosis release could spare the temporomandibular joint. Complex noma reconstruction should include skeletal restoration. Avascular bone is acceptable in cases with complete vascularized graft coverage. Microsurgical chimeric flaps are preferable as they can reduce the number and complexity of secondary operations and provide viable, infection-resistant bone supporting facial growth. PMID:21780014

Giessler, Goetz A; Borsche, André; Lim, Paul K; Schmidt, Andreas B; Cornelius, C-Peter

2011-07-21

51

SKIN-SET, WOUND-HEALING AND RELATED DEFECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The physiology and biochemistry of resistance and susceptibility to tuber skinning/excoriation wounds, wound-healing and wound-related defects are of global importance because of the magnitude of the resulting food and financial losses. Wound related losses are difficult to determine because of the...

52

Azelaic acid 20% cream in the treatment of facial hyperpigmentation in darker-skinned patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group study assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of azelaic acid 20% cream compared with those of its vehicle for the treatment of facial hyperpigmentation in darker-skinned patients (phototypes IV to VI). Following a 24-week treatment period, azelaic acid produced significantly greater decreases in pigmentary intensity than did vehicle as measured by both an investigator's subjective

Nicholas J. Lowe; Dalia Rizk; Pearl Grimes; Mavis Billips; Stephanie Pincus

1998-01-01

53

Intracranial skip metastasis from parotid and facial skin tumors: mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed Central

Perineural and endoneural tumor spread is a form of metastatic disease in which the primary tumors spread along neural pathways and gain access to noncontiguous regions. Although rare, this type of skip metastasis into the cranial cavity occurs from tumors of the parotid gland and facial skin. Recognition of this process, evaluation of the patient with proper diagnostic procedures, and its treatment are presented. Images Figures 1,4,7,10,11 Figures 2,3,5,6,8,9,12,13

Kumar, P. P.; Patil, A. A.; Ogren, F. P.; Johansson, S. L.; Reeves, M. A.

1993-01-01

54

Warty skin changes, chronic scrotal lymphoedema, and facial dysmorphism  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man whose main complaints were wart-like skin changes and scrotal lymphoedema. Furthermore, our patient showed signs of a common hereditary disease: lymphoedema, short stature, webbed neck, low frontal and posterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures, pale blue iris, broad nose, flat philtrum, and prominent nasolabial folds. His ears were low set and retroverted with a thick helix. However, no diagnosis was made for 49 years. The interdisciplinary dialogue of various specialists to make the final diagnosis is presented and discussed.

Felcht, Moritz; Dikow, Nicola; Goebeler, Matthias; Stroebel, Philipp; Booken, Nina; Vossmerbaumer, Urs; Merx, Kirsten; Henzler, Thomas; Marx, Alexander; Moog, Ute; Goerdt, Sergij; Klemke, Claus-Detlev

2010-01-01

55

Healing of recalcitrant facial dermatitis by resting the skin.  

PubMed

In order to improve her complexion, a 62-year-old women began using a cleansing antiseptic lotion. Soon the skin over the glabella became irritated. Continued self-treatment resulted in the spread of the dermatitis to the cheeks. Physicians were consulted, and intensive oral and parenteral treatment was prescribed. Treatment continued for five years and resulted in a worsening of the erythema and the continued development of pustules, cysts, and keratotic plugs. Stopping all cleansing procedures and discontinuing all medications relieved the itching and burning in three weeks and fostered healing in four months. PMID:6456872

Gaul, L E

1981-08-01

56

Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.

Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

2012-01-01

57

Digital Image Correlation Strain Analysis for the Study of Wrinkle Formation on Facial Skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strain measurements around the eye during the blink are performed for four human subjects in order to investigate the relationship between the wrinkle formation with aging and the strains by daily motion. In addition to the strain measurement, the moisture content, the flexibility and the elasticity of the skin surface are measured for investigating the skin condition. For observing the wrinkle formed on the facial skin, the replicas of the skin surfaces are also collected. Results show that the relationship between the wrinkle and the strain distribution at the inner corner of the eye is different from that at the corner of the eye. The results indicate that different methods for the corner of the eye and the inner corner of the eye are required for avoiding the wrinkle formation.

Miura, Nagisa; Arikawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Satoru; Koike, Miyako; Murakami, Motoko; Tanno, Osamu

58

The role of skin texture and facial shape in representations of age and identity.  

PubMed

Faces have both shape and skin texture, but the relative importance of the two in face representations is unclear. Our goals were first, to determine the contribution of shape versus texture to aftereffects for facial age and identity and second, to assess whether adaptation transferred between shape and texture, suggesting integration in a single representation. In our first experiment we examined age aftereffects. We obtained young and old images of two celebrities and created hybrid images, one combining the structure of the old face with the skin texture of the young face, the other combining the young structure with the old skin texture. This allowed us to create adaptation contrasts where the two adapting faces had the same facial structure but different skin texture, and vice versa. In the second experiment, we performed a similar study but this time examining identity aftereffects between two people of a similar age. We found that both skin texture and facial shape generated significant age aftereffects, but the contribution was greater from texture than from shape. Both texture and shape also generated significant identity aftereffects, but the contribution was greater from shape than from texture. In the last experiment, we used the normal and hybrid images to determine if adaptation to one property (i.e., texture) could create aftereffects in the perception of age in the other property (i.e., shape). While there was significant within-component adaptation for texture and shape, there was no evidence of cross-component adaptation. We conclude that shape and texture contribute differently to different face representations, with texture dominating for age. The lack of cross-component adaptation transfer suggests independent encoding of shape and texture, at least for age representations. PMID:22055429

Lai, Michelle; Oruç, Ipek; Barton, Jason J S

2011-10-08

59

Laser Skin Resurfacing Treatment Outcome of Facial Scars and Wrinkles in Asians with Skin Type III\\/IV with the Unipulse® CO2 Laser System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the efficacy and complications from Unipulse ® CO2 laser resurfacing system (Nidek, California) for the treatment of scars and wrinkles in patients with Type III and IV skin type. Methodology: This is a prospective study of patients with skin type III and IV who received laser- resurfacing treatment for facial scars and wrinkles. All patients received topical

C L Goh; L Khoo

60

Patient satisfaction following Bio-Alcamid injection for facial contour defects.  

PubMed

Bio-Alcamid, a polyalkylimide gel, can be injected into subcutaneous tissue as an endoprosthesis for correcting contour deformities and soft tissue defects. We have reviewed its facial uses and longer-term outcomes over a 7-year period, including a patient satisfaction survey. 69 patients were included in the study, 89.9% undergoing treatment secondary to HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy. 55.0% of patients responded to questionnaires: 52.5% experienced severe pain associated with injections, and 50.0% experienced at least one complication (migration, hardening, irregularity). 94.4% stated an improvement in their cheek volume, 77.8% would undergo the procedure again, and 86.1% would recommend the treatment to a friend. Despite the relatively high patient satisfaction, we no longer recommend this treatment to our patients for cosmetic indications, due to significant long-term complication rates. PMID:22749703

George, D A; Erel, E; Waters, R

2012-06-30

61

Development of the Facial Skin Care Index: A Health-Related Outcomes Index for Skin Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Existing health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) tools do not appear to capture patients' specific skin cancer concerns. OBJECTIVE To describe the conceptual foundation, item generation, reduction process, and reliability testing for the Facial Skin Cancer Index (FSCI), a HRQOL outcomes tool for skin cancer researchers and clinicians. METHODS Participants in Phases I to III consisted of adult patients (N = 134) diagnosed with biopsy-proven nonmelanoma cervicofacial skin cancer. Data were collected via self-report surveys and clinical records. RESULTS Seventy-one distinct items were generated in Phase I and rated for their importance by an independent sample during Phase II; 36 items representing six theoretical HRQOL domains were retained. Test–retest I results indicated that four subscales showed adequate reliability coefficients (? = 0.60 to 0.91). Twenty-six items remained for test–retest II. Results indicated excellent internal consistency for emotional, social, appearance, and modified financial/work subscales (range 0.79 to 0.95); test–retest correlation coefficients were consistent across time (range 0.81 to 0.97; lifestyle omitted). CONCLUSION Pretesting afforded the opportunity to select items that optimally met our a priori conceptual and psychometric criteria for high data quality. Phase IV testing (validity and sensitivity before surgery and 4 months after Mohs micrographic surgery) for the 20-item FSCI is under way.

Matthews, B. Alex; Rhee, John S.; Neuburg, Marcy; Burzynski, Mary L.; Nattinger, Ann B.

2006-01-01

62

Enhanced Efficacy of a Facial Hydrating Serum in Subjects with Normal or Self-Perceived Dry Skin  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a facial hydrating serum when added to a moisturizer regimen compared to a moisturizer regimen alone. Design: Evaluator-blinded, single-center, clinical study with investigator assessments at Baseline and Week 2. Treatment: After washing with a facial cleanser in the morning and evening, subjects either applied the hydrating serum to their face followed by application of the moisturizer or applied only a moisturizer. Participants: Thirty-two women, aged 25 to 55 years with Fitzpatrick skin types I to V and normal or self-perceived dry skin completed the study. Seventeen subjects (Group 1) aged 25 to 51 years were randomly assigned to receive the facial hydrating serum in addition to a moisturizer regimen, whereas 15 subjects (Group 2) aged 34 to 55 years, were randomized to receive the moisturizer regimen alone. Measurements: Visual grading of the condition of the facial skin with regard to dryness, tactile roughness and softness, rating of irritation (subjective and objective), and digital photography. A self-assessment questionnaire was also employed to assess patient satisfaction. Results: Clinical assessments by the investigator showed statistically significant improvements (P<0.02) in facial skin parameters (reduction in dryness and increased skin softness) after two weeks of combined use of the hydrating serum and moisturizer compared to the group who used moisturizer alone. No adverse events were reported during the course of the study. Conclusion: The results from a two-week clinical study demonstrate that this facial hydrating serum was well tolerated and effective in improving facial dry skin parameters beyond that obtained with a moisturizer alone.

Werschler, W. Philip; Trookman, Nathan S.; Rizer, Ronald L.; Mehta, Rahul

2011-01-01

63

Combined topical application of lotus and green tea improves facial skin surface parameters.  

PubMed

No study has yet determined the anti-wrinkle efficacy of green tea plus lotus in Asian subjects using skin image analysis technique. In this study, the efficacy of two cosmetic active formulations intended for the treatment of facial wrinkles (green tea and lotus extract) has been evaluated in healthy subjects using a non-invasive device, the Visioscan(®) VC, and software for surface evaluation of living skin (SELS). Thirty-three healthy Asian subjects, all men, were enrolled after consent in a placebo-controlled comparative study with a split face design. One group applied multiple emulsions with green tea. The second group applied multiple emulsions with lotus extract, while a third group applied a multiple emulsion with a combination of both extracts. In all three groups, active formulations were applied to one side of the face and the placebo to the other side, once daily over the 60-day treatment course. Non-invasive measurements were performed at baseline and on days 30 and 60. Interesting and significant improvements were observed for the treatment effects on skin roughness (SEr), scaliness (SEsc), smoothness (SEsm), and wrinkling (SEw). For example, a 49.99% improvement in skin smoothness (SEsm) from baseline value and -23.22% and perfection in facial wrinkles (SEw) substantiated that combined treatment is superior over single treatments. Green tea and lotus combined in multiple emulsions brought a superior synergistic anti-aging effect. We conclude that diverse anti-oxidant constituents in both plants have a potential influence on skin surface parameters, thus indicating these plants as the future of new anti-aging products. PMID:23267660

Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

2013-04-01

64

Facial skin rejuvenation: Ablative laser resurfacing, chemical peels, or photodynamic therapy? Facts and controversies.  

PubMed

Patients and cosmetic surgeons continue to develop innovative devices and techniques in search of the elusive fountain of youth. Our efforts in the past decade can be distilled to three primary approaches: refinement of existing technologies (ablative lasers); refinement of tried-and-true techniques (chemical peeling); and innovative use of new technologies (photorejuvenation). In this contribution, the authors discuss how these three approaches are used to achieve facial skin rejuvenation. Specifically, the authors compare and contrast the clinical benefits and disadvantages of the ablative fractionated and unfractionated carbon dioxide resurfacing lasers, medium-depth and deep chemical peeling, and the combination of photodynamic therapy with intense-pulsed light. PMID:24160279

Hassan, Khaled M; Benedetto, Anthony V

65

Differences in peripheral endocannabinoid modulation of scratching behavior in facial vs. spinally-innervated skin  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoids suppress nocifensive behaviors in rodents. We presently investigated peripheral endocannabinoid modulation of itch- and pain-related behaviors elicited from facial vs. spinally-innervated skin of rats. Intradermal (id) injection of the pruritogen serotonin (5-HT) elicited significantly more hindlimb scratch bouts, and longer cumulative time scratching, when injected in the rostral back compared to the cheek. Pretreatment of skin with inhibitors of degrading enzymes for the endocannabinoids anandamide (URB597) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (JZL184) significantly reduced scratching elicited by 5-HT in the rostral back. These effects were prevented by co-treatment with antagonists of the CB1 (AM251) or CB2 receptor (AM630), implicating both receptor subtypes in endocannabinoid suppression of scratching in spinally-innervated skin. Conversely, pretreatment with either enzyme inhibitor, or with AM630 alone, increased the number of scratch bouts elicited by id 5-HT injection in the cheek. Moreover, pretreatment with JZL184 also significantly increased pain-related forelimb wipes directed to the cheek following id injection of the algogen, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; mustard oil). Thus, peripheral endocannabinoids have opposite effects on itch-related scratching behaviors in trigeminally- vs. spinally-innervated skin. These results suggest that increasing peripheral endocannabinoid levels represents a promising therapeutic approach to treat itch arising from the lower body, but caution that such treatment may not relieve, and may even exacerbate, itch and pain arising from trigeminally-innervated skin of the face or scalp.

Spradley, Jessica Marie; Davoodi, Auva; Gee, Leland Bruce; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E.

2012-01-01

66

Differences in peripheral endocannabinoid modulation of scratching behavior in facial vs. spinally-innervated skin.  

PubMed

Cannabinoids suppress nocifensive behaviors in rodents. We presently investigated peripheral endocannabinoid modulation of itch- and pain-related behaviors elicited from facial vs. spinally-innervated skin of rats. Intradermal (id) injection of the pruritogen serotonin (5-HT) elicited significantly more hindlimb scratch bouts, and longer cumulative time scratching, when injected in the rostral back compared to the cheek. Pretreatment of skin with inhibitors of degrading enzymes for the endocannabinoids anandamide (URB597) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (JZL184) significantly reduced scratching elicited by 5-HT in the rostral back. These effects were prevented by co-treatment with antagonists of the CB? (AM251) or CB? receptor (AM630), implicating both receptor subtypes in endocannabinoid suppression of scratching in spinally-innervated skin. Conversely, pretreatment with either enzyme inhibitor, or with AM630 alone, increased the number of scratch bouts elicited by id 5-HT injection in the cheek. Moreover, pretreatment with JZL184 also significantly increased pain-related forelimb wipes directed to the cheek following id injection of the algogen, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; mustard oil). Thus, peripheral endocannabinoids have opposite effects on itch-related scratching behaviors in trigeminally- vs. spinally-innervated skin. These results suggest that increasing peripheral endocannabinoid levels represents a promising therapeutic approach to treat itch arising from the lower body, but caution that such treatment may not relieve, and may even exacerbate, itch and pain arising from trigeminally-innervated skin of the face or scalp. PMID:22683515

Spradley, Jessica Marie; Davoodi, Auva; Gee, Leland Bruce; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

2012-06-06

67

Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of defects such as `hollows' and `shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of a panel may become unacceptable. Considerable time is then dedicated to minimizing their occurrence through tool modifications. This paper will investigate the use of the wavelet transform as a tool to analyze physically measured panels. The transform has two key aspects. The first is its ability to distinguish small scale local defects from large scale styling curvature. The second is its ability to characterize the shape of a defect in terms of its wavelength and a `correlation value'. The two features of the transform enable it to be used as a tool for locating and predicting the severity of defects. The paper will describe the transform and illustrate its application on test cases.

Hazra, S.; Williams, D.; Roy, R.; Aylmore, R.; Allen, M.; Hollingdale, D.

2011-05-01

68

Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels  

SciTech Connect

The appearance of defects such as 'hollows' and 'shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of a panel may become unacceptable. Considerable time is then dedicated to minimizing their occurrence through tool modifications. This paper will investigate the use of the wavelet transform as a tool to analyze physically measured panels. The transform has two key aspects. The first is its ability to distinguish small scale local defects from large scale styling curvature. The second is its ability to characterize the shape of a defect in terms of its wavelength and a 'correlation value'. The two features of the transform enable it to be used as a tool for locating and predicting the severity of defects. The paper will describe the transform and illustrate its application on test cases.

Hazra, S.; Williams, D.; Roy, R. [University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Aylmore, R.; Allen, M.; Hollingdale, D. [Land Rover, Banbury Rd, Gaydon, Warwick, CV35 0RR (United Kingdom)

2011-05-04

69

Xeroderma Pigmentosum: defective DNA repair causes skin cancer and neurodegeneration  

SciTech Connect

Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease with numerous malignancies on sun-exposed areas of the skin and eye because of an inability to repair DNA damage inflicted by harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sun. Because it is the only disease in which cancer is known to result from defective DNA repair, XP has received intense clinical and biochemical study during the last two decades. Furthermore, some patients with XP develop a primary neuronal degeneration, probably due to the inability of nerve cells to repair damage to their DNA caused by intraneuronal metabolites and physicochemical events that mimic the effects of UV radiation. Studies of XP neurodegeneration and DNA-repair defects have led to the conclusion that efficient DNA repair is required to prevent premature death of human nerve cells. Since XP neurodegeneration has similarities to premature death of nerve cells that occurs in such neurodegenerative disorders, XP may be the prototype for these more common neurodegenerations. Recent studies indicate that these degenerations also may have DNA-repair defects.

Robbins, J.H.

1988-07-15

70

Association between Oro-Facial Defects and Systemic Alterations in Children Affected by Marfan Syndrome.  

PubMed

Background: It is important to establish an early diagnosis of the Marfan Syndrome (MFS) for providing an adequate pharmacological or surgical therapy. Nevertheless, this diagnosis may be complex, given the multi-organic involvement of this disease. Aims: In this work, we evaluated the oral phenotype in a group of paediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of MFS, to quantify the association of the oro-facial defects with other systemic alterations. Settings and Design: Paediatric subjects who were aged, with a clinical diagnosis of MFS, were selected from our regional Marfan monitoring unit. Methods and Material: All the patients were subjected to Paediatric Dentistry examinations and a radiological screening with Panoramic and Cephalometric X-Rays. The aortic dilation (Aortic Z-score value), the hyperlaxity of the ligaments and scoliosis were evaluated by cardio-surgical and orthopaedics specialists. Statistical Analysis: The correlations between the oral and systemic alterations were analyzed by using the chi square test for the nominal variables. Results and Conclusions: We found a significant correlation of the Aortic Z - score with multiple oral defects which included retrognathia, malar hypoplasia, cross bite, oral respiration and an ogival palate. An association of the oral defects with hyperlaxity of the ligaments and scoliosis was also found. Thus, the data suggested that dentists should be more involved in a multidisciplinary approach, to provide an early MFS diagnosis in paediatric patients. PMID:23730650

Docimo, Raffaella; Maturo, Paolo; D'Auria, Francesca; Grego, Susanna; Costacurta, Micaela; Perugia, Cesare; Chiariello, Luigi

2013-04-01

71

Evaluation of the Driver's Mental Workload by Conversational Form based on Facial Skin Thermal Image Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lots of traffic accidents are related in physiological and psychological state of the driver. Therefore, physiological and/or psychological measurement of a driver is important for prevention of a traffic accident. The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the amount of mental workloads by Facial Skin Thermal image (FST), which is thermal image of the human face. A measurement of physiological and psychological state of the driver who is under mentally workloaded during driving task was conducted. The evaluation method for physiological index, which were FST, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), based on the correlations among those indexes was considered. A result of present experiment, an efficiency of FST in evaluation of a mental working load of a driver was shown.

Nozawa, Akio; Mizawa, Hiroki; Mizuno, Tota; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ide, Hideto

72

Role of Mitochondria in Photoaging of Human Skin: The Defective Powerhouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact pathogenesis of photoaging of the skin is not yet known. Earlier, a number of molecular pathways explaining one or more characteristics of photoaged skin have been described, but a unifying mechanistic concept is still missing. Here we propose the “Defective Powerhouse Model of Premature Skin Aging”, which reconciles most of the earlier conducted research as one concept. In

Jean Krutmann; Peter Schroeder

2009-01-01

73

Sorafenib (Nexavar(R), BAY 43-9006)-induced Hand-foot Skin Reaction with Facial Erythema  

PubMed Central

Sorafenib (Nexavar®, BAY 43-9006) is a novel, orally administered multi-kinase inhibitor that has recently been approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. It is also used to delay disease progression in patients with advanced solid organ malignancies and metastatic melanoma. Sorafenib is associated with a relatively high incidence of dermatologic adverse events. The commonly occurring dermatologic adverse events associated with sorafenib include hand-foot skin reaction, facial erythema, splinter subungual hemorrhages, alopecia, pruritus and xerosis. We report here on a case of a 50-year-old man who was diagnosed with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. He developed both facial erythema and hand-foot skin reaction after the administration of sorafenib.

Kim, Dong Ha; Son, In Pyeong; Lee, Jin Woong; Lee, Hye In; Kim, Beom Joon

2011-01-01

74

Azelaic acid and glycolic acid combination therapy for facial hyperpigmentation in darker-skinned patients: a clinical comparison with hydroquinone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group, 24-week clinical study compared the efficacy of the combination of azelaic acid 20% cream and glycolic acid 15% or 20% lotion with hydroquinone 4% in the treatment of facial hyperpigmentation in darker-skinned patients. At week 24, overall improvement and reduction in lesion area, pigmentary intensity, and disease severity were comparable in the two treatment groups.

Lenore S. Kakita; Nicholas J. Lowe

1998-01-01

75

Activated Kras Alters Epidermal Homeostasis of Mouse Skin, Resulting in Redundant Skin and Defective Hair Cycling  

PubMed Central

Germline mutations in the RAS–mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathway are associated with genodermatoses, characterized by cutaneous, cardiac, and craniofacial defects, and cancer predisposition. Whereas activating mutations in HRAS are associated with the vast majority of patients with Costello syndrome, mutations in its paralog, KRAS, are rare. To better understand the disparity among RAS paralogs in human syndromes, we generated mice that activate a gain-of-function Kras allele (Lox-Stop-Lox (LSL)-KrasG12D) in ectodermal tissue using two different Cre transgenic lines. Using Msx2-Cre or ligand-inducible keratin 15 (K15)-CrePR, the embryonic effects of activated Kras were bypassed and the effects of KrasG12D expression from its endogenous promoter were determined. We found that KrasG12D induced redundant skin, papillomas, shortened nails, and hair loss. Redundant skin was associated with basal keratinocyte hyperplasia and an increase in body surface area. Paradoxically, KrasG12D also prevented hair cycle activation. We find that KrasG12D blocks proliferation in the bulge region of the hair follicle, when activated through Msx2-Cre but not through K15-CrePR. These studies reveal that KRAS, although infrequently involved in RAS/MAPK syndromes, is capable of inducing multiple cutaneous features that grossly resemble human RAS/MAPK syndromes.

Mukhopadhyay, Anandaroop; Krishnaswami, Suguna R.; Yu, Benjamin D.-Y.

2012-01-01

76

[Combined application of electric myo-stimulation and meso-therapy for the correction of age-related changes of the facial skin].  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of mesotherapy (MT) and electrostimulation (EMS) on age-related changes of the facial skin. The secondary objective was to identify factors influencing the therapeutic efficiency of these methods. The study included 60 women aged from 30 to 59 years. All the patients were examined prior to the onset and in the end (after one month) of the corrective treatment. Facial skin conditions were assessed using a Skin XP Pro system and skin microcirculation by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). The psychological status of the patients was evaluated with the help of the Well-being-Activity-Mood test. After the primary examination, the participants of the study were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=30) included women treated by MT and EMS, the control group 2 (n=30) was comprised of the patients who did not receive the above treatment. The results of the study indicate that combine MT + EMS therapy significantly improves the state of facial skin, decreases its pigmentation, reduces the number and depth of wrinkles, enhances skin moisture, improves its elasticity and decreases porosity. Dynamics of these parameters and overall effect of correction were shown to correlate with the severity of skin changes before the treatment. Age-related changes in the facial skin were especially well-apparent in women with the lowered activity level and impaired mood. Characteristics of mood in the course of therapeutic correction correlated with dynamics of skin smoothness and elasticity. PMID:21086592

Rozhanets, A R; Turova, E A; Kul'chitskaia, D B

77

Single Treatment with 100-Microsecond Alexandrite Laser Clears Selected Acquired Melanocytic Nevi in Type IV Asian Facial Skin  

PubMed Central

Context: Small common acquired melanocytic nevi (AMNs) are common on Asian facial skin. Aims: To show that the 755 nm Alexandrite laser stacked at the 100-?s long-pulsed mode (?sAL) is an effective modality for the removal of selected AMNs. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective case series, followed up with a telephone interview. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients treated between January 2010 and April 2012 with the ?sAL laser for small AMNs was conducted. Pre- and post-treatment facial photographs and photographs of the individual lesions were analyzed by two independent dermatological surgeons for degree of clearance and complications. A telephone interview was conducted with the patients to assess their satisfaction with the procedure. Results: A total of 18 patients with 53 lesions were included. 7/18 (38.9%) of patients had ‘excellent’ results. No patients had ‘mild’ or ‘poor’ results. At 4 week post-treatment, 49/53 (92.5%) were totally cleared, with 14/53 (26.4%) reporting mild atrophy, and 11/53 (20.8%) reporting mild post-inflammatory hypopigmentation. The majority of lesions had negligible complications. 9/18 (50%) judged the procedure to be ‘excellent’, and all patients reported that they would recommend this procedure to a friend seeking removal of small facial AMNs. Conclusion: The ?sAL is an effective modality for the removal of small facial AMNs.

Wang, Etienne CE; Sen, Priya; Goh, Chee-Leok; Chua, Sze-Hon

2013-01-01

78

Treatment of facial skin using combinations of CO2, Q-switched alexandrite, and/or flashlamp-pumped dye and/or erbium lasers in the same treatment session  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin aging caused from chronological and photodamage processes results in many alterations in skin appearance. In many circumstances, patients who pursue CO2 laser resurfacing for facial rejuvenation are also concerned with other photoaging alternations that are beyond the efficacy of the CO2 laser. We demonstrated an approach to aged facial skin by using combined treatments of appropriate lasers.

Fitzpatrick, Richard E.; Manuskiatti, Woraphong; Goldman, Mitchel P.

1998-07-01

79

Fabrication of an asymmetric polyimide hollow fiber with a defect-free surface skin layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An asymmetric polyimide hollow fiber with a completely defect-free thin surface skin layer has been fabricated by using a dry\\/wet phase inversion process. Effects of the composition of spinning solution and the air gap height on the formation of the skin layer were investigated in detail. The hollow fiber showed a microporous structure at the inner surface and a defect-free

M Niwa; H Kawakami; S Nagaoka; T Kanamori; T Shinbo

2000-01-01

80

Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction with epilepsy, other heart defects, minor facial anomalies and new copy number variants  

PubMed Central

Background Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction (LVHT) is a cardiac abnormality of unknown etiology which has been described in children as well as in adults with and without chromosomal aberrations. LVHT has been reported in association with various cardiac and extracardiac abnormalities like epilepsy and facial dysmorphism. Case presentation A unique combination of LVHT, atrial septal defect, pulmonary valve stenosis, aortic stenosis, epilepsy and minor facial anomalies is presented in a 5.5?years old girl. Microarray-based genomic hybridization (array-CGH) detected six previously not described copy number variants (CNVs) inherited from a clinically unaffected father and minimally affected mother, thus, most likely, not clinically significant but rare benign variants. Conclusions Despite this complex phenotype de novo microdeletions or microduplications were not detected by array CGH. Further investigations, such as whole exome sequencing, could reveal point mutations and small indels as the possible cause.

2012-01-01

81

CASE REPORT Reconstruction and Characterization of Composite Mandibular Defects Requiring Double Skin Paddle Fibular Free Flaps.  

PubMed

Objective: Fibular free flaps are the preferred method for reconstruction of composite lateral mandibular defects. This reconstructive technique is limited by the skin paddle's inability to freely rotate when attempting to fill 2 poorly aligned defects. Reconstructive surgeons have been exploring multiple methods of creating 2 independent skin paddles based on the same peroneal blood supply. We present a variation of these techniques. Method: Our patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma presented with a left retromolar recurrence and osteoradionecrosis of the mandible with a draining anterior sinus tract. The combination of these defects warranted further composite resection with fibular free flap reconstruction. Results: A subperiosteal dissection was performed to create 2 separate septocutaneous skin paddles based on the same peroneal blood supply. This dissection and discard of proximal fibula provided the rotational freedom needed for the 2 skin islands to fill both a lateral oral defect and anterior cutaneous defect. Conclusion: Although similar reconstructive methods have been reported in the literature, the characterization of defects benefiting from these techniques is scarce and unclear. We describe clear and concise characteristics of these defects, which should be meaningful to the reconstructive surgeon when considering operative technique. PMID:23653822

Badeau, Austin M; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B

2013-04-26

82

3D imaging acquisition, modeling, and prototyping for facial defects reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach that combines optical three-dimensional imaging, reverse engineering (RE) and rapid prototyping (RP) for mold production in the prosthetic reconstruction of facial prostheses is presented. A commercial laser-stripe digitizer is used to perform the multiview acquisition of the patient's face; the point clouds are aligned and merged in order to obtain a polygonal model, which is then edited

Giovanna Sansoni; Marco Trebeschi; Gianluca Cavagnini; Giorgio Gastaldi

2009-01-01

83

Reconstruction of iatrogenic skin defects of the Achilles tendon region: an analysis of 25 consecutive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achilles tendon surgery is quite common, typical indications being acute tendon rupture and chronic tendinitis. Post-operative wound infection or skin necrosis occurs in 2.4–5% of these operations. Soft tissue reconstruction of the Achilles tendon region presents a challenge due to the limited amount of local tissue available. We interviewed 25 consecutive patients with a post-operative skin defect, caused by infection

Antti Koski; Erkki Tukiainen; Sinikka Suominen; Sirpa Asko-Seljavaara

2003-01-01

84

Signals of Personality and Health: The Contributions of Facial Shape, Skin Texture, and Viewing Angle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To what extent does information in a person's face predict their likely behavior? There is increasing evidence for association between relatively neutral, static facial appearance and personality traits. By using composite images rendered from three dimensional (3D) scans of women scoring high and low on health and personality dimensions, we…

Jones, Alex L.; Kramer, Robin S. S.; Ward, Robert

2012-01-01

85

Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age perception is a better biomarker of skin aging than chronological age. However, the optical cues that determine the perception of human skin age are difficult to assess given the complex interactions between light and the multi layered structure of the skin. The aim of the present study is to clarify the independent contribution of both diffuse and specular reflection components to the skin age perception. First, according to our results, subjects were able to estimate the age of skin only by using the diffuse reflection component. Moreover, we showed that inclusion of the specular reflection component added on average 5 years to their age estimation. Second, by artificially manipulating the specular component, we concluded that the luminance distribution affects the perceived age of the skin.

Arce-Lopera, Carlos; Igarashi, Takanori; Nakao, Keisuke; Okajima, Katsunori

2012-05-01

86

Diprosopus associated with neural tube defect and facial cleft in the first trimester.  

PubMed

We report a case of diprosopus presenting with increased nuchal translucency of 5.3 mm at 14 weeks of gestation. Ultrasonographically, the fetus presented with micrognathia, anterior indentation of the cephalic pole, abnormal cerebral hemispheres with a cystic 4th ventricle and angulation of the spine. The fetal karyotype was normal (46,XX). Following termination of pregnancy, postmortem examination established the diagnosis of diprosopus tetraophthalmus with facial cleft of the 2 faces. PMID:15067235

Bulbul, Y; Drummond, C L; Hillion, Y; Bidat, L; Ville, Y

87

Effects of facial color on virtual facial image synthesis for dynamic facial color and expression under laughing emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human facial color was applied to the affect display of virtual facial image, emotional evaluation, individual identification, and remote health care. We dynamically analyzed facial color under the emotional change of laughing by the simultaneous measurement of facial image and facial skin temperature, and proposed a dynamic facial color model. In this paper, on the basis of the proposed dynamic

Takashi YAMADA; T. Watanabe

2004-01-01

88

Treatment of defects and instable skin scars on heavily exposed parts of the leg.  

PubMed

The authors report a series of 41 patients subjected to a transfer of the sensitive fasciocutaneous flap to a defect or to instable skin scars on the leg. Described are immediate as well as longterm surgical results in relation to the sensitivity of the transferred flap and the condition of the donnor site of the flap. PMID:9018863

Kletenský, J; Tvrdek, M; Pros, Z; Nejedlý, A; Svoboda, S

1996-01-01

89

Free iliac flap for treating multiple skin defects of the hand and digits.  

PubMed

A total of eight cases with multiple skin defects of the hand and digits were resurfaced using a free iliac flap. The lesions involved both the hand and multiple digits in five patients and multiple digits in three patients. The average skin flap size was 89.3 cm(2). In three, a piece of of vascularized iliac bone was included. There was no flap loss. Flap debulking was performed in five patients at 10-12 weeks post-surgery during the operation for flap separation and inset. Secondary flap debulking was performed in one patient at 6 months post-surgery. The average static 2-point discrimination was 15.4 mm in five patients, whereas the remaining patients only exhibited sensation to pressure. This procedure may require additional refinement; however, the free iliac flap with technical refinements is a viable option for the treatment of multiple skin defects of the hand and digits. PMID:23677961

Pan, Z-H; Jiang, P-P; Xue, S

2013-05-14

90

Stem cells and molecular advances in the treatment of facial skin.  

PubMed

Stem cell technology has been discussed chiefly in terms of organ replacement in end-stage diseases. However, improved understanding of adult stem cells and a more nuanced appreciation of aging skin as a disease state has focused greater attention on the potential for truly regenerative and rejuvenative skin therapy with autologous cells. Through enhanced understanding of the normal processes of wound healing, systems of treatment and avenues of therapy are emerging based on modulation and amplification of the natural processes of wound healing. This article presents skin-specific developments in stem cell and growth factor science and suggests further avenues of investigation. PMID:23369591

Sclafani, Anthony P

2013-02-01

91

Mucormycosis in maxilla: Rehabilitation of facial defects using interim removable prostheses: A clinical case report.  

PubMed

Maxilla is one of the facial bones with rich vascular supply. Necrosis of maxillary bone is rare and may occur due to infection, trauma and rare metabolic disorders. Maxilla is essential bone forming the roof of oral cavity. Mucormycosis is one of the most common fungal infection, which affects maxilla especially in diabetes and immunocompromised patients. We report a case of maxillary necrosis due to mucormycosis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity of this lethal fungal infection. PMID:23956598

Kumar, Jayaraman Arun; Babu, Parthiban; Prabu, Komagan; Kumar, Prem

2013-07-01

92

Mucormycosis in maxilla: Rehabilitation of facial defects using interim removable prostheses: A clinical case report  

PubMed Central

Maxilla is one of the facial bones with rich vascular supply. Necrosis of maxillary bone is rare and may occur due to infection, trauma and rare metabolic disorders. Maxilla is essential bone forming the roof of oral cavity. Mucormycosis is one of the most common fungal infection, which affects maxilla especially in diabetes and immunocompromised patients. We report a case of maxillary necrosis due to mucormycosis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity of this lethal fungal infection.

Kumar, Jayaraman Arun; Babu, Parthiban; Prabu, Komagan; Kumar, Prem

2013-01-01

93

Role of mitochondria in photoaging of human skin: the defective powerhouse model.  

PubMed

The exact pathogenesis of photoaging of the skin is not yet known. Earlier, a number of molecular pathways explaining one or more characteristics of photoaged skin have been described, but a unifying mechanistic concept is still missing. Here we propose the "Defective Powerhouse Model of Premature Skin Aging", which reconciles most of the earlier conducted research as one concept. In this model, the persistence of UV radiation-induced mtDNA deletions or the infrared radiation-induced disturbance of the electron flow of the mitochondrial electron transport chain leads to inadequate energy production in dermal fibroblasts. As a consequence of this defective powerhouse, retrograde mitochondrial signaling pathways are triggered that then they transduce functional and structural alterations in the skin. This model, which is supported by a growing number of recent studies, is of direct clinical importance in preventing and treating photoaging in human skin.Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings (2009) 14, 44-49; doi:10.1038/jidsymp.2009.1. PMID:19675552

Krutmann, Jean; Schroeder, Peter

2009-08-01

94

Skin-Derived TSLP Triggers Progression from Epidermal-Barrier Defects to Asthma  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a common allergic lung disease frequently affecting individuals with a prior history of eczema/atopic dermatitis (AD); however, the mechanism underlying the progression from AD to asthma (the so-called “atopic march”) is unclear. Here we show that, like humans with AD, mice with skin-barrier defects develop AD-like skin inflammation and are susceptible to allergic asthma. Furthermore, we show that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), overexpressed by skin keratinocytes, is the systemic driver of this bronchial hyper-responsiveness. As an AD-like model, we used mice with keratinocyte-specific deletion of RBP-j that sustained high systemic levels of TSLP. Antigen-induced allergic challenge to the lung airways of RBP-j–deficient animals resulted in a severe asthmatic phenotype not seen in similarly treated wild-type littermates. Elimination of TSLP signaling in these animals blocked the atopic march, demonstrating that high serum TSLP levels were required to sensitize the lung to allergic inflammation. Furthermore, we analyzed outbred K14-TSLPtg mice that maintained high systemic levels of TSLP without developing any skin pathology. Importantly, epidermal-derived TSLP was sufficient to trigger the atopic march, sensitizing the lung airways to inhaled allergens in the absence of epicutaneous sensitization. Based on these findings, we propose that in addition to early treatment of the primary skin-barrier defects, selective inhibition of systemic TSLP may be the key to blocking the development of asthma in AD patients.

Demehri, Shadmehr; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Holtzman, Michael J.; Kopan, Raphael

2009-01-01

95

Face cooling with mist water increases cerebral blood flow during exercise: effect of changes in facial skin blood flow.  

PubMed

Facial cooling (FC) increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and during exercise; however, the mechanism of this response remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that FC causes facial vasoconstriction that diverts skin blood flow (SkBF(face)) toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA V(mean)) at rest and to a greater extent during exercise. Nine healthy young subjects (20 ± 2 years) underwent 3 min of FC by fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cold water (~4°C) at rest and during steady-state exercise [heart rate (HR) of 120 bpm]. We focused on the difference between the averaged data acquired from 1 min immediately before FC and last 1 min of FC. SkBF(face), MCA V(mean), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were higher during exercise than at rest. As hypothesized, FC decreased SkBF(face) at rest (-32 ± 4%) and to a greater extent during exercise (-64 ± 10%, P = 0.012). Although MCA V(mean) was increased by FC (Rest, +1.4 ± 0.5 cm/s; Exercise, +1.4 ± 0.6 cm/s), the amount of the FC-evoked changes in MCA V(mean) at rest and during exercise differed among subjects. In addition, changes in MCA V(mean) with FC did not correlate with concomitant changes in SkBF(face) (r = 0.095, P = 0.709). MAP was also increased by FC (Rest, +6.2 ± 1.4 mmHg; Exercise, +4.2 ± 1.2 mmHg). These findings suggest that the FC-induced increase in CBF during exercise could not be explained only by change in SkBF(face). PMID:22934059

Miyazawa, Taiki; Horiuchi, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Subudhi, Andrew W; Sugawara, Jun; Ogoh, Shigehiko

2012-08-02

96

Gasless Fetoscopy: A New Approach to Endoscopic Closure of a Lumbar Skin Defect in Fetal Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a new endoscopic approach to the correction of a myelomeningocele-like defect in fetal sheep. Methods: The fetuses of 9 pregnant ewes, with an average gestational age of 115 days, were subjected to a 3.0 × 2.0 cm removal of the skin over the lumbar spine, performed through hysterotomy. The uterus was closed, and three 5-mm endoscopic cannulas,

D. A. L. Pedreira; R. C. S. Oliveira; P. R. Valente; R. C. Abou-Jamra; A. Araújo; P. H. Saldiva

2008-01-01

97

Glycerol replacement corrects defective skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier function in aquaporin-3-deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice deficient in the epidermal water\\/glycerol transporter aquaporin-3 (AQP3) have reduced stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin elasticity, and impaired barrier recovery after SC removal. SC glycerol content is reduced 3-fold in AQP3 null mice, whereas SC structure, protein\\/lipid composition, and ion\\/osmolyte content are not changed. We show here that glycerol replacement corrects each of the defects in AQP3 null

Mariko Hara; A. S. Verkman

2003-01-01

98

Multiple retentive means for prosthetic restoration of a large facial defect - a case report.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old man who suffered from extensive extra and intraoral defects was rehabilitated with a prosthesis using multiple retaining means. The treatment was performed in two parts: externally involving the construction of an episthesis supported only by the remaining intact boundaries of the defect and retained by mini-dental implants and spectacle frame with a modified ear hook; and intraorally by an acrylic resin obturator to restore the function of the hemi-sectioned hard and soft palate. The episthesis was securely retained with minimal movement and/or dislodgment of the prosthesis during function. Multiple retentive techniques may be used to fix heavy external prostheses as an alternative to conventional implants or biological adhesives. PMID:20936194

Abdulhadi, Laith Mahmoud

2010-01-01

99

Single flap reconstruction for complex oro-facial defects using chimeric free fibular flap variants.  

PubMed

In this article, we describe the use of chimeric free fibular flaps to reconstruct three-dimensional spatial defects in the orofacial region. Recent insights into permutations possible with the chimeric fibular flap have allowed us to achieve our reconstructive objectives with a single chimeric flap and minimise donor-site morbidity as well as operating time. In an overall series of 34 free fibular flaps from 2009 to 2012, we performed twelve cases of free chimeric fibular flaps with osseo-myo-cutaneous/OMC (n=7), multi-pedicled osseo-musculo-cutaneous/Mp-OMC (n=4) and multi-pedicled osseo-cutaneous/Mp-OC (n=1) variants for either post-excisional defects or osteo-radionecroses. We had an overall flap survival rate of 100% with one partial flap loss due to the 'puppeteer' effect. Based on our experiences, we find the chimeric fibular flap to be an excellent addition to our reconstructive arsenal for complex orofacial defects. PMID:23177211

Kannan, R Y; Mathur, B S; Tzafetta, K

2012-11-21

100

Epidermal inactivation of the glucocorticoid receptor triggers skin barrier defects and cutaneous inflammation.  

PubMed

The glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) mediates the effects of physiological and pharmacological GC ligands and has a major role in cutaneous pathophysiology. To dissect the epithelial versus mesenchymal contribution of GR in developing and adult skin, we generated mice with keratinocyte-restricted GR inactivation (GR epidermal knockout or GR(EKO) mice). Developing and early postnatal GR(EKO) mice exhibited impaired epidermal barrier formation, abnormal keratinocyte differentiation, hyperproliferation, and stratum corneum (SC) fragility. At birth, GR(EKO) epidermis showed altered levels of epidermal differentiation complex genes, proteases and protease inhibitors which participate in SC maintenance, and innate immunity genes. Many upregulated genes, including S100a8/a9 and Tslp, also have increased expression in inflammatory skin diseases. Infiltration of macrophages and degranulating mast cells were observed in newborn GR(EKO) skin, hallmarks of atopic dermatitis. In addition to increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, GR(EKO) newborn and adult epidermis had increased levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, a feature of psoriasis. Although adult GR(EKO) epidermis had a mild phenotype of increased proliferation, perturbation of skin homeostasis with detergent or phorbol ester triggered an exaggerated proliferative and hyperkeratotic response relative to wild type. Together, our results show that epidermal loss of GR provokes skin barrier defects and cutaneous inflammation. PMID:22951731

Sevilla, Lisa M; Latorre, Víctor; Sanchis, Ana; Pérez, Paloma

2012-09-06

101

Glycerol replacement corrects defective skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier function in aquaporin-3-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Mice deficient in the epidermal water/glycerol transporter aquaporin-3 (AQP3) have reduced stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin elasticity, and impaired barrier recovery after SC removal. SC glycerol content is reduced 3-fold in AQP3 null mice, whereas SC structure, protein/lipid composition, and ion/osmolyte content are not changed. We show here that glycerol replacement corrects each of the defects in AQP3 null mice. SC water content, measured by skin conductance and 3H2O accumulation, was 3-fold lower in AQP3 null vs. wild-type mice, but became similar after topical or systemic administration of glycerol in quantities that normalized SC glycerol content. SC water content was not corrected by glycerol-like osmolytes such as xylitol, erythritol, and propanediol. Orally administered glycerol fully corrected the reduced skin elasticity in AQP3 null mice as measured by the kinetics of skin displacement after suction, and the delayed barrier recovery as measured by transepidermal water loss after tape-stripping. Analysis of [14C]glycerol kinetics indicated reduced blood-to-SC transport of glycerol in AQP3 null mice, resulting in slowed lipid biosynthesis. These data provide functional evidence for a physiological role of glycerol transport by an aquaglyceroporin, and indicate that glycerol is a major determinant of SC water retention, and mechanical and biosynthetic functions. Our findings establish a scientific basis for the >200-yr-old empirical practice of including glycerol in cosmetic and medicinal skin formulations. PMID:12771381

Hara, Mariko; Verkman, A S

2003-05-27

102

Location-related differences in structure and function of the stratum corneum with special emphasis on those of the facial skin.  

PubMed

Between the two different kinds of the skin covering the body, the glabrous skin is found only on the palmo-plantar surface because of its rather simple function to protect the underlying living tissue with its remarkably thick stratum corneum (SC) from strong external force and friction. Thus, its barrier function is extremely poor. In contrast, the hair-bearing skin covers almost all over the body surface regardless of the presence of long hair or vellus hair. In regard to its SC, many dermatologists and skin scientists think that it is too thin to show any site-specific differences, because the SC is just present as an efficient barrier membrane to protect our body from desiccation as well as against the invasion by external injurious agents. However, there are remarkable regional differences not only in the living skin tissue but also even in such thin SC reflecting the function of each anatomical location. These differences in the SC have been mostly disclosed with the advent of non-invasive biophysical instruments, particularly the one that enables us to measure transepidermal water loss (TEWL), the parameter of the SC barrier function, and the one that evaluates the hydration state of the skin surface, the parameter of the water-holding capacity of the SC that brings about softness and smoothness to the skin surface. These in vivo instrumental measurements of the SC have disclosed the presence of remarkable differences in the functional properties of the SC particularly between the face and other portions of the body. The SC of the facial skin is thinner, being composed of smaller layers of corneocytes than that of the trunk and limbs. It shows unique functional characteristics to provide hydrated skin surface but relatively poor barrier function, which is similar to that observed in retinoid-treated skin or to that of fresh scar or keloidal scars. Moreover, there even exist unexpected, site-dependent differences in the SC of the facial skin such as the forehead, eyelid, cheek, nose and perioral regions, although each location occupies only a small area. Between these locations, the cheek shows the lowest TEWL in contrast to the perioral region that reveals the highest one. Moreover, these features are not static but change with age particularly between children and adults and maybe also between genders. Among various facial locations, the eyelid skin is distinct from others because its SC is associated with poor skin surface lipids and a thin SC cell layer composed of large corneocytes that brings about high surface hydration state but poor barrier function, whereas the vermillion borders of the lips that are covered by an exposed part of the oral mucosa exhibit remarkably poor barrier function and low hydration state. Future studies aiming at the establishment of the functional mapping in each facial region and in other body regions will shed light on more delicate site-dependent differences, which will provide us important information in planning the strategy to start so called tailor-made skin care for each location of the body. PMID:19099543

Tagami, H

2008-12-01

103

Mixed connective tissue disease associated with skin defects of livedoid vasculitis.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old woman who had a 2-year history of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) developed rapidly evolving ulcers consistent with livedoid vasculitis (LV) in all distal extremities. She presented clinically with Raynaud's phenomenon, polyarthritis and swollen hands; serologically with high titres of ANA and anti-nRNP; and immunogenetically with HLA-DR4 and HLA-DR53. Although there was initial success in treatment except for the skin defects over the ankles, the patient died from disseminated intravascular coagulation. We suggest that LV may be a poor prognostic manifestation in MCTD. PMID:11055828

Oh, Y B; Jun, J B; Kim, C K; Lee, C W; Park, C K; Kim, T Y; Yoo, D H; Kim, S Y

2000-01-01

104

Virtual Facial Image Synthesis with Facial Color Enhancement and Expression under Emotional Change ofAnger  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we demonstrate the effects of the affect display of anger by virtual facial image synthesis with facial color enhancement and expression on the basis of the analysis of facial color under the emotional change of anger. First, we examine the relationship between the change in the facial color and the physiological index of facial skin temperature, which

Takashi YamadaI; Tomio Watanabe

2007-01-01

105

Secondary Intention Healing after Excision of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck: Statistical Evaluation of Prognostic Values of Wound Characteristics and Final Cosmetic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Most data on secondary intention healing of skin cancer defects in the head and neck are empirical and descriptive. This study statistically evaluates the prognostic value of several wound characteristics and location on the final cosmetic result of skin defects left to heal by secondary intention after tumor removal. Methods: A chart review of all facial reconstructions using secondary

Paul A. van der Eerden; Peter J. F. M. Lohuis; A. A. M. Hart; W. C. Mulder; Hade Vuyk

2008-01-01

106

Rhamm?/? fibroblasts are defective in CD44-mediated ERK1,2 motogenic signaling, leading to defective skin wound repair  

PubMed Central

Rhamm (receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility) is an hyaluronan binding protein with limited expression in normal tissues and high expression in advanced cancers. To understand its physiological functions and identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these functions, we created mice with a genetic deletion of Rhamm. We show that Rhamm?/? fibroblasts fail to resurface scratch wounds >3 mm or invade hyaluronan-supplemented collagen gels in culture. We identify a requirement for Rhamm in the localization of CD44 to the cell surface, formation of CD44–ERK1,2 (extracellular-regulated kinase 1,2) complexes, and activation/subcellular targeting of ERK1,2 to the cell nucleus. We also show that cell surface Rhamm, restricted to the extracellular compartment by linking recombinant protein to beads, and expression of mutant active mitogen-activated kinase kinase 1 (Mek1) are sufficient to rescue aberrant signaling through CD44–ERK1,2 complexes in Rh?/? fibroblasts. ERK1,2 activation and fibroblast migration/differentiation is also defective during repair of Rh?/? excisional skin wounds and results in aberrant granulation tissue in vivo. These results identify Rhamm as an essential regulator of CD44–ERK1,2 fibroblast motogenic signaling required for wound repair.

Tolg, Cornelia; Hamilton, Sara R.; Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Kooshesh, Fatemeh; Walton, Paul; McCarthy, James B.; Bissell, Mina J.; Turley, Eva A.

2006-01-01

107

Chemical Reconstruction of Skin Scars Therapy Using 100% Trichloroacetic Acid in the Treatment of Atrophic Facial Post Varicella Scars: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Context: Chickenpox (varicella) is a common viral disease caused by Varicella zoster virus. Facial atrophic scars after varicella infection are not uncommon and pose a cosmetic problem. Like atrophic scars of other aetiologies, they are a difficult condition to treat. There are not enough references in the literature regarding efficient treatment of post varicella scars. High strength Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), which is known to cause dermal collagen remodelling, was used to treat varicella scars in the present study. Aims: The study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of Chemical Reconstruction of Skin Scars (CROSS) technique using 100% TCA in the treatment of atrophic facial post varicella scars. Settings and Design: Open label, pilot study. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 patients with atrophic facial post varicella scars were treated by focal application of 100% TCA solution by pressing down upon the scar surface by a toothpick (CROSS technique). Total 4 sittings were given at 2 weekly intervals and the results evaluated after 3 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fischer's exact t-test. Results: All of the 13 patients who completed the study showed good clinical improvement, with 69% patients grading the response as excellent (>75%) improvement, whereas the rest 31% patients reporting good (51-75%) improvement. No significant complications were seen in any patient. Conclusions: CROSS technique using 100% TCA is a safe, cheap and effective therapy for the treatment of post varicella scars.

Agarwal, Nidheesh; Mittal, Asit; Kuldeep, CM; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Mehta, Sharad

2013-01-01

108

Evaluation of energy release rate for delamination defects at the skin\\/stringer interface of a stiffened composite panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with numerical investigation on a stiffened composite panel under longitudinal compression load, in presence of artificial delamination defects between skin\\/stringer interface layers.At first, both the experimental and numerical non-linear equilibrium paths were determined, until the failure load value of the structure was reached. Then local evaluation of the energy release rate parameter was performed at defect front,

E. Armentani; F. Caputo; R. Esposito; G. Godono

2004-01-01

109

Implant-supported fixed restoration of post-traumatic mandibular defect accompanied with skin grafting: A clinical report  

PubMed Central

Traumatic defects are mostly accompanied by hard and soft tissue loss. This report describes the surgical and prosthetic treatment of a patient with post-traumatic mandibular defect. A split-thickness skin graft was performed prior to implant placement and prefabricated acrylic stent was placed to hold the graft in place. The esthetic and functional demands of the patient were fulfilled by implant-supported screw-retained fixed prosthesis using CAD-CAM technology.

Noh, Kwantae; Choi, Woo-Jin

2013-01-01

110

Improved texture and appearance of human facial skin after daily topical application of barley produced, synthetic, human-like epidermal growth factor (EGF) serum.  

PubMed

A three month, open-label, single center study was conducted to determine whether a uniquely derived serum containing barley bioengineered, human-like epidermal growth factor protein could improve visible signs of photodamage and aging in facial skin. Twenty-nine females, aged 39 to 75 years, with mild to severe, fine and course rhytids, photodamage, and pigmentation were enrolled. Subjects then applied the treatment serum per the prescribed protocol twice-daily for 3 months, in addition to the use of a basic sunscreen and facial cleanser. In-person clinical evaluations and subject self-assessment questionnaires were administered at each follow up visit. In addition, clinical photography was completed at baseline, and each subsequent visit. Clinical evaluations showed statistically significant improvement in the appearance of fine lines and rhytids, skin texture, pore size, and various dyschromatic conditions apparent within the first month of use, and continuing improvement trends for the duration of the study. The treatment serum was well tolerated with minimal treatment-related complications reported throughout. Efficacy of this novel serum and treatment protocol resulted in meaningful improvements in photodamage and visible signs of aging. PMID:22527430

Schouest, Jonathan M; Luu, Teresa K; Moy, Ronald L

2012-05-01

111

Preparation of a silk fibroin spongy wound dressing and its therapeutic efficiency in skin defects.  

PubMed

A novel silk fibroin spongy wound dressing (SFSD) incorporated with nano-Ag particles was prepared by coagulating with 1.25-5.0% (v/v) poly(ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) (PGDE). The mechanical properties, moisture permeability and hygroscopicity of SFSD, and the nano-Ag release behavior from SFSD were evaluated. The results showed that the soft SFSD had satisfying tensile strength and flexibility, as well as excellent moisture permeability and absorption capability of wound exudates. The moisture permeability was 101 g/m(2) per h and the water absorption capacity of SFSD was 595.2% and 251.9% of its own weight in dry and wet states, respectively. The nano-Ag in the SFSD was released continuously at a relatively stable rate in PBS resulting in a remarkable antibacterial property. A rabbit model was used to dynamically observe the healing process of full-thickness skin defects. Full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsal side of rabbits, which were covered with SFSD and porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) for comparison. The mean healing time of the wounds covered with SFSD was 17.7 ± 2.4 days, significantly shorter than that with PADM. The histological analysis showed that the epidermal cell layer formed with SFSD was very similar to normal skin, suggesting that SFSD may provide a good component for the development of new wound dressings. PMID:21176393

Min, Sijia; Gao, Xin; Han, Chunmao; Chen, Yu; Yang, Mingying; Zhu, Liangjun; Zhang, Haiping; Liu, Lin; Yao, Juming

2010-12-21

112

Ptch1 overexpression drives skin carcinogenesis and developmental defects in K14Ptch(FVB) mice.  

PubMed

Ptch1 is a key regulator of embryonic development, acting through the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway. Ptch1 is best known as a tumor suppressor, as germline or somatic mutations in Ptch1 lead to the formation of skin basal cell carcinomas. Here we show that Ptch1 also acts as a lineage-dependent oncogene, as overexpression of Ptch1 in adult skin in K14Ptch(FVB) transgenic mice synergizes with chemically induced Hras mutations to promote squamous carcinoma development. These effects were not because of aberrant activation of SHH signaling by the K14Ptch(FVB) transgene, as developmental defects in the highest expressing transgenic lines were consistent with the inhibition of this pathway. Carcinomas from K14Ptch(FVB) transgenic mice had only a small number of nonproliferative Ptch1 transgene-positive cells, suggesting that the Ptch1 transgene is not required for tumor maintenance, but may have a critical role in cell-fate determination at the initiation stage. PMID:23223138

Kang, Hio Chung; Wakabayashi, Yuichi; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Mao, Jian-Hua; Zoumpourlis, Vassilis; Del Rosario, Reyno; Balmain, Allan

2012-12-06

113

A pilot study on the use of a plasma skin regeneration device (Portrait® PSR 3 ) in full facial rejuvenation procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new modality, the Portrait plasma skin regeneration (PSR3) system, allows precise and rapid treatment of photo-damaged skin, with controlled thermal injury and modification. Radio\\u000a frequency (RF) energy converts nitrogen gas into plasma within the handpiece. Rapid heating of the skin occurs as the plasma\\u000a rapidly gives up energy to the skin. This energy transfer is not chromophore dependent. The

Suzanne Kilmer; Natalie Semchyshyn; Geeta Shah; Richard Fitzpatrick

2007-01-01

114

[Primary plastic surgery of skin defects with delto-pectoral flap after resection of disseminated neck tumors].  

PubMed

In the paper, the authors report their experience with the use of deltopectoral fat-cutaneous grafts for primary reconstruction of jugular skin defects after the combined therapy for malignant tumors. The technic of procurement of such grafts is described. The results of the plasty performed in 20 patients are reported. Favourable results were noted in 19 patients. PMID:775746

Vtiurin, B M; Klim, K I

1976-03-01

115

Decreased Collagen Production in Chronologically Aged Skin Roles of Age-Dependent Alteration in Fibroblast Function and Defective Mechanical Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced synthesis of collagen types I and III is char- acteristic of chronologically aged skin. The present report provides evidence that both cellular fibroblast aging and defective mechanical stimulation in the aged tissue contribute to reduced collagen synthesis. The reduction in collagen synthesis due to fibroblast aging was demonstrated by a lower in vitro produc- tion of type I procollagen

James Varani; Michael K. Dame; Laure Rittie; Suzanne E. G. Fligiel; Sewon Kang; Gary J. Fisher; John J. Voorhees

2006-01-01

116

Reconstructive Outcomes Analysis of Lower Eyelid and Infraorbital Skin Defects Using 2 Hatchet Flaps: A 6-Year Experience.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: For the past 6 years, we have used double hatchet flaps for reconstruction of lower lid and infraorbital skin defects. METHODS: Twenty-five patients who underwent reconstruction of lower eyelid/infraorbital skin defects using double hatchet flaps were retrospectively analyzed. Defect size ranged from 11 × 11 to 15 × 15 mm. In addition, pearls and pitfalls of the technique are discussed along with the presentation of 3 cases. RESULTS: Flaps were highly viable in all patients. There was no eyelid retraction, scleral show, ectropion, or entropion. Mean follow-up period was 13.7 months. Patient satisfaction with respect to scar appearance was assessed by the standard 5-point scale. Overall patient satisfaction score was 4 (satisfied) in 6 patients, and was 5 (very satisfied) in 19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the critical review of outcomes in 25 patients, use of double hatchet flaps for the repair of lower lid and infraorbital skin defects gives an excellent functional and aesthetic result. Horizontal movement of the hatchet flaps avoids vertical skin tension in the lower eyelid, and hence minimizes potential complications. PMID:23241801

Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Williams, Susan Annette; Olsen, Adam

2012-12-13

117

Non-lesional atopic dermatitis (AD) skin is characterized by broad terminal differentiation defects and variable immune abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with a Th2 and “T22” immune polarity. Despite recent data showing a genetic predisposition to epidermal barrier defects in some patients, a fundamental debate still exists regarding the role of barrier abnormalities versus immune responses in initiating the disease. In order to explore whether there is an intrinsic predisposition to barrier abnormalities and/or background immune activation in AD patients an extensive study of non-lesional AD (ANL) skin is necessary. Objective To characterize ANL skin by determining whether epidermal differentiation and immune abnormalities that characterize lesional AD (AL) are also reflected in ANL skin. Methods We performed genomic and histologic profiling of both ANL and AL skin lesions (n=12 each), compared to normal human skin (n=10). Results We found that ANL is clearly distinct from normal skin with respect to terminal differentiation and some immune abnormalities, and it has a cutaneous expansion of T-cells. We also showed that ANL skin has a variable immune phenotype, which is largely determined by disease extent and severity. Whereas broad terminal differentiation abnormalities were largely similar between involved and uninvolved AD skin, perhaps accounting for the “background skin phenotype,” increased expression of immune-related genes was among the most obvious differences between AL and ANL skin, potentially reflecting the “clinical disease phenotype.” Conclusion Our study implies that systemic immune activation may play a role in alteration of the normal epidermal phenotype, as suggested by the high correlation in expression of immune genes in ANL skin with disease severity index.

Suarez-Farinas, M; Tintle, S; Shemer, A; Chiricozzi, A; Nograles, KE; Cardinale, I; Duan, S; Bowcock, AM; Krueger, James G.; Guttman-Yassky, E

2011-01-01

118

The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal  

PubMed Central

Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

Yetiser, Sertac

2012-01-01

119

Red ginseng root extract mixed with Torilus fructus and Corni fructus improves facial wrinkles and increases type I procollagen synthesis in human skin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

Red ginseng contains many bioactive constituents, including various ginsenosides that are believed to have antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and anti-aging activities. Yet, no controlled human study has explored its effects on photoaged skin. This study determined whether long-term intake of a red ginseng extract-containing Torilus fructus and Corni fructus mixture reduces facial wrinkles and increases collagen synthesis in human skin. Healthy female volunteers over 40 years of age were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive either red ginseng extract-containing herbal mixture at 3 g/day or placebo for 24 weeks. Facial wrinkles, elasticity, epidermal water content, erythema, and pigmentation were measured objectively. Facial skin samples were taken before and after treatment, and real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses were undertaken for expression of type I procollagen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and fibrillin-1, which are wrinkle-related biochemical markers. A total of 82 subjects completed the study. Facial wrinkles were significantly improved, type I procollagen gene and protein expression was increased, MMP-9 gene induction was prevented, and fibrillin-1 fiber length was elongated only in the treatment group. No changes were seen in the facial elasticity, epidermal water content, facial erythema and pigmentation, and epidermal thickness in either group. Thus a red ginseng extract-containing Torilus fructus and Corni fructus mixture improves facial wrinkles, a clinical sign of photoaging, and this improvement is associated with biochemical and histological evidence of increased collagen synthesis in the dermis. These results substantiate the alleged beneficial effects of red ginseng on photoaging and support its use as an effective "beauty food." PMID:20041778

Cho, Soyun; Won, Chong-Hyun; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Serah; So, Seung-Ho; Lee, Seong-Kye; Koo, Bon-Suk; Kim, Na-Mi; Chung, Jin Ho

2009-12-01

120

Cosmetic Facial Surgery  

PubMed Central

Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6

Adamson, Peter A.

1987-01-01

121

Goltz–Gorlin (focal dermal hypoplasia) and the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: no evidence of genetic overlap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked developmental disorder with male lethality characterized by patchy dermal hypoplasia, skeletal and dental malformations, and microphthalmia or anophthalmia. Recently, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PORCN gene have been described to cause FDH. FDH shows some clinical overlap with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome, another X-linked male lethal condition, associated with

May-Britt Harmsen; Silvia Azzarello-Burri; M Mar García González; Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach; Peter Meinecke; Dietmar Müller; Anita Rauch; Eva Rossier; Eva Seemanova; Christiane Spaich; Bernhard Steiner; Dagmar Wieczorek; Martin Zenker; Kerstin Kutsche

2009-01-01

122

Analysis of Facial Deformities in Korean Leprosy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The clinical features of various facial deformities in Korean leprosy patients were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Methods One hundred ninety six patients with leprosy were examined for various facial deformities using a nasal speculum, endoscope, and digital camera. The frequency and severity of external nasal deformities and septal perforations were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Eye deformities, ear deformities, and facial palsy were also assessed. Results Seventy-one patients (36.2%) displayed external nasal deformities: 28 minimal contractures, three cartilage contractures, two bony-cartilage contractures, and 38 skin defects. The external nasal deformity and severe form deformity in lepromatous types were more frequent compared to other types (P<0.05 for each variable). Twenty-three patients (9%) displayed septal perforations, among whom 11 had cartilaginous perforations and 12 had bony-cartilaginous perforations. The frequency of septal and bony-cartilaginous perforations did not differ significantly between the types of leprosy (P>0.05 for each variable). Sixty-one patients (31.1%) had eye deformities and 19 patients (9.7%) had facial nerve palsy, common in the borderline type. No cases of ear deformities were observed. Conclusion Korean patients had characteristic deformities according to the type of leprosy. They were different from those seen in the prior analyses of Caucasian populations.

Kim, Ji Heui; Lee, Ok Joo

2013-01-01

123

Harlequin ichthyosis: ABCA12 mutations underlie defective lipid transport, reduced protease regulation and skin-barrier dysfunction.  

PubMed

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a devastating autosomal recessive congenital skin disease. It has been vital to elucidate the biological importance of the protein ABCA12 in skin-barrier permeability, following the discovery that ABCA12 gene mutations can result in this rare disease. ATP-binding cassette transporter A12 (ABCA12) is a member of the subfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters and functions to transport lipid glucosylceramides (GlcCer) to the extracellular space through lamellar granules (LGs). GlcCer are hydrolysed into hydroxyceramides extracellularly and constitute a portion of the extracellular lamellar membrane, lipid envelope and lamellar granules. In HI skin, loss of function of ABCA12 due to null mutations results in impaired lipid lamellar membrane formation in the cornified layer, leading to defective permeability of the skin barrier. In addition, abnormal lamellar granule formation (distorted shape, reduced in number or absent) could further cause aberrant production of LG-associated desquamation enzymes, which are likely to contribute to the impaired skin barrier in HI. This article reviews current opinions on the patho-mechanisms of ABCA12 action in HI and potential therapeutic interventions based on targeted molecular therapy and gene therapy strategies. PMID:22864982

Scott, Claire A; Rajpopat, Shefali; Di, Wei-Li

2012-08-04

124

Residual facial disfigurement after the ablative surgery of a lachrymal gland carcinoma: a clinical report of the prosthetic rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Facial disfigurement after ablative surgery of a massive adeno-carcinoma of the lachrymal gland is described. A rehabilitation with a maxillofacial prosthesis was proposed to restore the aesthetic appearance of the patient without inserting craniofacial implants. Retention of a maxillofacial prosthesis, that is not anchored to implants, depends on the use of adhesives or on mechanical devices like glasses. This clinic report describes a residual anatomic defect which allowed for the double choice of wearing the facial prosthesis both with or without glasses. A retentive backside of the prosthesis was developed to engage the facial defect undercuts, which enhanced retention when the patient used the skin glue without glasses. A unique foam silicone was utilized to reduce the weight of the prosthesis and to permit its retention only by skin adhesive. PMID:15318014

Ciocca, L; Scotti, R

125

Management of massive soft tissue defects: The use of INTEGRA® artificial skin after necrotizing soft tissue infection of the chest.  

PubMed

Necrotizing soft tissue infection, such as necrotizing fasciitis, is a group of highly lethal infections especially when the chest is involved due to increased risk of pulmonary complications. Because aggressive radical debridement of all poorly perfused tissue is required, patients frequently suffer from massive skin defects, which often requires autograft skin grafting or myocutaneous flaps. However, options are limited in patients with limited autograft donor availability, or questionable underlying wound bed viability, such as in scleroderma. Here, we report the case of a 49 year old female with scleroderma who suffered from a necrotizing soft tissue infection of the chest extending to her right upper arm, underwent multiple radical debridements, and reconstruction of the consequent massive chest wall defect with INTEGRA® bilaminar dermal regeneration template. This approach required a thinner skin graft without flaps, allowed for the inherently diseased donor site to heal adequately, and avoided major infections and wound complications. This report highlights an important management option for this challenging disease. PMID:22754676

Rashid, Omar M; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Takabe, Kazuaki

2012-06-01

126

Facial artery flaps in facial oncoplastic reconstruction.  

PubMed

The face is one of the common sites for cutaneous cancer localization. It is well known that the face is the localization of more than 50% of skin cancers. Nowadays, the principles of modern "oncoplasty" recommend the complete excision of the cancer and the reconstruction with respect to cosmetic features of the face in terms of good color, good softness, and good texture of the flaps, utilized in cancer repair. The oncological and cosmetic results of facial reconstruction are strictly linked and the modern plastic and reconstructive surgeon must respect both oncological and cosmetic aspects. For that reason the best solution in facial cancer repair is the utilization of locoregional flaps based on the tributary vessels of the facial artery. In consideration of the dimension of recipient area to repair, the retroangular flap (RAF) or the submental flap could be used. This article is voted to illustrate a very large and long-term casuistry dedicated to these flaps. PMID:24037925

Fabrizio, Tommaso

2013-09-13

127

Mutilating Facial Sarcoidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a patient with massive facial sarcoidosis. While skin involvement is a common manifestation of sarcoidosis, it is unusual to see it in the dramatic form of cutaneous tumors with mutilation of the central face. There are few reports of tumoral cutaneous sarcoidosis like that of our patient.

S. M. Dumitrescu; R. A. Schwartz; S. Baredes; J. A. Whitworth; R. McDonald; M. Zarbin; P. Langer; A. Ho; W. C. Lambert

1999-01-01

128

Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig  

SciTech Connect

Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 20 mg/kg (approximately 0.4 LD%) HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with nothing or one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding non-decontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing of HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or ND-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodward, C.L.

1994-12-31

129

Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig  

SciTech Connect

Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 0.4 LD50 HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding undecontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or HD-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodard, C.L.

1993-05-13

130

Surface Facial Electromyography, Skin Conductance, and Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Light- and Season-Relevant Stimuli in Seasonal Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Learned associations between depressive behavior and environmental stimuli signaling low light availability and winter season may play a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether light and season environmental cues elicit emotional responses that are distinct in individuals with SAD. Methods Twenty-four currently depressed SAD participants were compared to 24 demographically-matched controls with no depression history on emotional responses to outdoor scenes captured under two light intensity (i.e., clear, sunny vs. overcast sky) and three season (i.e., summer with green leaves, fall with autumn foliage, and winter with bare trees) conditions. Emotion measures included surface facial electromyography (EMG) activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions, skin conductance, and self-reported mood state on the Profile of Mood States Depression–Dejection Subscale. Results Light intensity was a more salient cue than season in determining emotional reactions among SAD participants. Relative to controls, SAD participants displayed more corrugator activity, more frequent significant skin conductance responses (SCR), greater SCR magnitude, and more self-reported depressed mood in response to overcast stimuli and less corrugator activity, lower SCR magnitude, and less self-reported depressed mood in response to sunny stimuli. Limitations Study limitations include the single, as opposed to repeated, assessment and the lack of a nonseasonal depression group. Conclusions These findings suggest that extreme emotional reactivity to light-relevant stimuli may be a correlate of winter depression; and future work should examine its potential onset or maintenance significance.

Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Mahon, Jennifer N.

2011-01-01

131

A Large X-Chromosomal Deletion is Associated with Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects (MLS) and Amelogenesis Imperfecta (XAI)  

PubMed Central

A female patient is described with clinical symptoms of both microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS or MIDAS) and dental enamel defects, having an appearance compatible with X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta (XAI). Genomic DNA was purified from the patient's blood and semiquantitative multiplex PCR revealed a deletion encompassing the amelogenin gene (AMELX). Because MLS is also localized to Xp22, genomic DNA was subjected to array comparative genomic hybridization, and a large heterozygous deletion was identified. Histopathology of one primary and one permanent molar tooth showed abnormalities in the dental enamel layer, and a third tooth had unusually high microhardness measurements, possibly due to its ultrastructural anomalies as seen by scanning electron microscopy. This is the first report of a patient with both of these rare conditions, and the first description of the phenotype resulting from a deletion encompassing the entire AMELX gene. More than 50 additional genes were monosomic in this patient.

Hobson, Grace M.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Aragon, Melissa; Yuan, Zhi-an; Davis-Williams, Angelique; Banser, Linda; Kirkham, Jennifer; Brook, Alan H.

2009-01-01

132

Hair follicle defects and squamous cell carcinoma formation in Smad4 conditional knockout mouse skin.  

PubMed

Smad4 is the common mediator for TGFbeta signals, which play important functions in many biological processes. To study the role of Smad4 in skin development and epidermal tumorigenesis, we disrupted this gene in skin using the Cre-loxP approach. We showed that absence of Smad4 blocked hair follicle differentiation and cycling, leading to a progressive hair loss of mutant (MT) mice. MT hair follicles exhibited diminished expression of Lef1, and increased proliferative cells in the outer root sheath. Additionally, the skin of MT mice exhibited increased proliferation of basal keratinocytes and epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the absence of Smad4 resulted in a block of both TGFbeta and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways, including p21, a well-known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Consequently, all MT mice developed spontaneous malignant skin tumors from 3 months to 13 months of age. The majority of tumors are malignant squamous cell carcinomas. A most notable finding is that tumorigenesis is accompanied by inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten), activation of AKT, fast proliferation and nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1. These observations revealed the essential functions of Smad4-mediated signals in repressing skin tumor formation through the TGFbeta/BMP pathway, which interacts with the Pten signaling pathway. PMID:16170355

Qiao, W; Li, A G; Owens, P; Xu, X; Wang, X-J; Deng, C-X

2006-01-12

133

Defects in skin ?? T cell function contribute to delayed wound repair in rapamycin-treated mice1  

PubMed Central

Disruptions in the normal program of tissue repair can result in poor wound healing, which perturbs the integrity of barrier tissues such as the skin. Such defects in wound repair occur in transplant recipients treated with the immunosuppressant drug rapamycin (sirolimus). Intraepithelial lymphocytes, such as ??T cells in the skin, mediate tissue repair through the production of cytokines and growth factors. The capacity of skin-resident T cells to function during rapamycin treatment was analyzed in a mouse model of wound repair. Rapamycin treatment renders skin ?? T cells unable to proliferate, migrate and produce normal levels of growth factors. The observed impairment of skin ?? T cell function is directly related to the inhibitory action of rapamycin on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Skin ?? T cells treated with rapamycin are refractory to IL-2 stimulation and attempt to survive in the absence of cytokine and growth factor signaling by undergoing autophagy. Normal wound closure can be restored in rapamycin-treated mice by addition of the skin ?? T cell-produced factor, insulin-like growth factor-1. These studies not only reveal that mTOR is a master regulator of ?? T cell function but also provide a novel mechanism for the increased susceptibility to nonhealing wounds that occurs during rapamycin administration. This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript. This version of the manuscript has not yet been copyedited or subjected to editorial proofreading by The JI; hence, it may differ from the final version published in The JI (online and in print). AAI (The JI) is not liable for errors or omissions in this author-produced version of the manuscript or in any version derived from it by the U.S. National Institutes of Health or any other third party. The final, citable version of record can be found at www.jimmunol.org.

Mills, Robyn E.; Taylor, Kristen R.; Podshivalova, Katie; McKay, Dianne B.; Jameson, Julie M.

2008-01-01

134

Medialis Pedis Flap in the Reconstruction of Palmar Skin Defects of the Digits: Clarifying the Anatomy of the Medial Plantar Artery.  

PubMed

Because of its outstanding texture, bulkiness, pliability and sensory recovery, the medialis pedis is an excellent alternative in the reconstruction of complex volar skin defects of the digits in selected patients. However, the surgical flap anatomy related with the medial plantar artery is still somewhat confusing to the point that the different journal articles and anatomy textbooks and atlases use different terminology and are, to some extent, misleading and/or incomplete. The authors report a clinical series of 15 medialis pedis free flaps in the reconstruction of skin defects of the fingers and evaluate their indications in free flap reconstruction of the skin defects of the digits. A review is made of the most relevant journal articles, anatomy textbooks, and atlases that describe the anatomy of the medial plantar artery with a special emphasis on the cutaneous branches that nourish the medialis pedis flap. PMID:23486116

Rodriguez-Vegas, Manuel

2013-03-12

135

Evidence of DNA Repair\\/Processing Defects in Cultured Skin Fibroblasts from Breast Cancer Patients1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured skin fibroblasts from 14 breast cancer (BC) patients were compared with those from 8 healthy subjects and 4 ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cases for sensitivity to low dose-rate (0.007 Gy\\/min) g-irradiation assessed by a colony-forming assay and for postirradiation DNA synthesis inhibition determined by the method of (3H)thymidine incorporation. Fibroblasts from all but two BC patients exhibited moderately enhanced radiosensitivity in

Mohammed A. Hannan; Yunus Siddiqui; Assem Rostom; Mohammed N. Al-Ahdal; Mohammad A. Chaudhary; Mohammed Kunhi

2001-01-01

136

Goltz-Gorlin (focal dermal hypoplasia) and the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: no evidence of genetic overlap.  

PubMed

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked developmental disorder with male lethality characterized by patchy dermal hypoplasia, skeletal and dental malformations, and microphthalmia or anophthalmia. Recently, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PORCN gene have been described to cause FDH. FDH shows some clinical overlap with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome, another X-linked male lethal condition, associated with mutations of HCCS in the majority of cases. We performed DNA sequencing of PORCN in 13 female patients with the clinical diagnosis of FDH as well as four female patients with MLS syndrome and no mutation in HCCS. We identified PORCN mutations in all female patients with FDH. Eleven patients seem to have constitutional PORCN alterations in the heterozygous state and two individuals are mosaic for the heterozygous sequence change in PORCN. No PORCN mutation was identified in the MLS-affected patients, providing further evidence that FDH and MLS do not overlap genetically. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) analysis revealed a random or slightly skewed XCI pattern in leukocytes of individuals with intragenic PORCN mutation suggesting that defective PORCN does not lead to selective growth disadvantage, at least in leukocytes. We conclude that the PORCN mutation detection rate is high in individuals with a clear-cut FDH phenotype and somatic mosaicism can be present in a significant proportion of patients with mild or classic FDH. PMID:19277062

Harmsen, May-Britt; Azzarello-Burri, Silvia; García González, M Mar; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Meinecke, Peter; Müller, Dietmar; Rauch, Anita; Rossier, Eva; Seemanova, Eva; Spaich, Christiane; Steiner, Bernhard; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Zenker, Martin; Kutsche, Kerstin

2009-03-11

137

Goltz-Gorlin (focal dermal hypoplasia) and the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: no evidence of genetic overlap  

PubMed Central

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked developmental disorder with male lethality characterized by patchy dermal hypoplasia, skeletal and dental malformations, and microphthalmia or anophthalmia. Recently, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PORCN gene have been described to cause FDH. FDH shows some clinical overlap with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome, another X-linked male lethal condition, associated with mutations of HCCS in the majority of cases. We performed DNA sequencing of PORCN in 13 female patients with the clinical diagnosis of FDH as well as four female patients with MLS syndrome and no mutation in HCCS. We identified PORCN mutations in all female patients with FDH. Eleven patients seem to have constitutional PORCN alterations in the heterozygous state and two individuals are mosaic for the heterozygous sequence change in PORCN. No PORCN mutation was identified in the MLS-affected patients, providing further evidence that FDH and MLS do not overlap genetically. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) analysis revealed a random or slightly skewed XCI pattern in leukocytes of individuals with intragenic PORCN mutation suggesting that defective PORCN does not lead to selective growth disadvantage, at least in leukocytes. We conclude that the PORCN mutation detection rate is high in individuals with a clear-cut FDH phenotype and somatic mosaicism can be present in a significant proportion of patients with mild or classic FDH.

Harmsen, May-Britt; Azzarello-Burri, Silvia; Garcia Gonzalez, M Mar; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Meinecke, Peter; Muller, Dietmar; Rauch, Anita; Rossier, Eva; Seemanova, Eva; Spaich, Christiane; Steiner, Bernhard; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Zenker, Martin; Kutsche, Kerstin

2009-01-01

138

Facial animation on an anatomy-based hierarchical face model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a new hierarchical 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge that provides high fidelity for realistic facial expression animation. Like real human face, the facial model has a hierarchical biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. The deformable skin model has multi-layer structure to approximate different types of soft tissue. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the skin and the fact that soft tissue is almost incompressible. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force on the skin due to muscle contraction. By the presence of the skull model, our facial model takes advantage of both more accurate facial deformation and the consideration of facial anatomy during the interactive definition of facial muscles. Under the muscular force, the deformation of the facial skin is evaluated using numerical integration of the governing dynamic equations. The dynamic facial animation algorithm runs at interactive rate with flexible and realistic facial expressions to be generated.

Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C.; Sung, Eric

2003-04-01

139

Unconscious Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies reveal that when people are exposed to emotional facial expressions, they spontaneously react with distinct facial elec- tromyographic (EMG) reactions in emotion-relevant facial muscles. These reactions reflect, in part, a tendency to mimic the facial stimuli. We investigated whether corresponding facial reactions can be elic- ited when people are unconsciously exposed to happy and angry facial expressions. Through use

Ulf Dimberg; Monika Thunberg; Kurt Elmehed

2000-01-01

140

Management of massive soft tissue defects: The use of INTEGRA(R) artificial skin after necrotizing soft tissue infection of the chest  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing soft tissue infection, such as necrotizing fasciitis, is a group of highly lethal infections especially when the chest is involved due to increased risk of pulmonary complications. Because aggressive radical debridement of all poorly perfused tissue is required, patients frequently suffer from massive skin defects, which often requires autograft skin grafting or myocutaneous flaps. However, options are limited in patients with limited autograft donor availability, or questionable underlying wound bed viability, such as in scleroderma. Here, we report the case of a 49 year old female with scleroderma who suffered from a necrotizing soft tissue infection of the chest extending to her right upper arm, underwent multiple radical debridements, and reconstruction of the consequent massive chest wall defect with INTEGRA® bilaminar dermal regeneration template. This approach required a thinner skin graft without flaps, allowed for the inherently diseased donor site to heal adequately, and avoided major infections and wound complications. This report highlights an important management option for this challenging disease.

Rashid, Omar M.; Nagahashi, Masayuki

2012-01-01

141

In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser.  

PubMed

In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology. PMID:23212157

Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

142

In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

143

Evaluation of an Amniotic Membrane-Collagen Dermal Substitute in the Management of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in a Pig  

PubMed Central

Background To minimize the inflammatory reaction and improve healing, a new modified dermal substitute composed of an atelocollagen, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and amniotic membrane (AM) was applied to full-thickness skin defects in a pig. Atelocollagen was extracted from bovine skin, and two modified dermal substitutes were generated according to the cross-linking type. Methods The AM-collagen dermal substitutes were characterized and compared with currently used dermal substitutes in a pig skin defect model. There were five experimental groups: dehydrothermal (DHT) cross-linking atelocollagen with the AM on the top (AM-DHT), DHT and chemical cross-linking atelocollagen with the AM on the top (AM-DHT/chemical), Terudermis, Integra, and AlloDerm. After 3×3 cm full-thickness skin defects on the back of a pig were created, each dermal substitutes dermal substitutes was randomly grafted on the defects. Two weeks after grafting, autologous partial-thickness skin was over-grafted on the neodermis. The take rate of the dermal substitutes, skin, and histological sections were all assessed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively. Results More rapid healing and a higher take rate were evident in the AM-DHT and Terudermis groups. Histological examination revealed fewer inflammatory cells and more fibroblast hyperplasia in these two groups. Four weeks after surgery, the amount of newly formed collagen was significantly more appropriate in the AM-DHT group. Conclusions These observations provide supporting evidence that a newly developed amniotic-collagen dermal substitute may inhibit inflammatory reactions and promote wound healing.

Kim, Hyunji; Choi, Tae Hyun; Jung, Samhyun; Kwon, Sunyoung; Kim, Junhyung; Han, Kihwan

2013-01-01

144

Welfare Interface Using Multiple Facial Features Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose a welfare interface using multiple facial features tracking, which can efficiently implement various mouse operations.\\u000a The proposed system consist of five modules: face detection, eye detection, mouth detection, facial features tracking, and\\u000a mouse control. The facial region is first obtained using skin-color model and connected-component analysis (CCs). Thereafter\\u000a the eye regions are localized using neural network (NN)-based texture

Yunhee Shin; Eun Yi Kim

2006-01-01

145

Skin Graft  

PubMed Central

Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use of skin flaps or muscle flaps. In the present review, we describe how to perform skin grafting successfully, and some variation of skin grafting.

Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

2012-01-01

146

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS): Characterization of the critical region and isolation of candidate genes  

SciTech Connect

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked male-lethal disorder characterized by abnormalities in the development of the eye, skin, and brain. We defined the MLS critical region through analysis of hybrid cell lines retaining various deletion breakpoints in Xp22, including cell lines from 17 female patients showing features of MLS. Using a combination of YAC cloning and long-range restriction analysis, the MLS candidate region was estimated to be 450-550 kb. A minimally overlapping cosmid contig comprised of 20 cosmid clones was subsequently developed in this region. These cosmids are currently being used to isolate expressed sequences using cross-species conservation studies and exon-trapping. An evolutionarily conserved sequence isolated from a cosmid within the critical region has been used to isolate several overlapping cDNAs from a human embryonic library. Northern analysis using these cDNA clones identified a 5.2 kb transcript in all tissues examined. Sequence analysis revealed a 777 base pair open reading frame encoding a putative 258 amino acid protein. Using the exon-trapping method, fifty-four putative exons have been isolated from fourteen cosmids within the critical region. The expression patterns of the genes containing these exons are being analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using reverse-transcribed mRNA from several human tissues and primers corresponding to the exon sequences. Using this approach in combination with exon connection, we determined the four of the trapped exons belong to the same cDNA transcript, which is expressed in adult retina, lymphoblast, skeletal muscle, and fetal brain. To date, we have isolated and sequenced 1 kilobase of this gene, all of which appears to be open reading frame. Both of the genes isolated from the critical region are being analyzed as possible candidates for MLS.

Schaefer, L.; Wapenaar, M.C.; Grillo, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

147

Prototyping and Transforming Facial Textures for Perception Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial perception research has benefited from the use of computer graphic methods, such as facial image prototyping and transformation. This paper describes new methods for improved prototyping and transformation of skin textures including wrinkles and stubble. We use a biologically inspired wavelet transform to capture the textural detail in different facial regions at multiple spatial scales and orientations. This information

Bernard Tiddeman; Michael Burt; David I. Perrett

2001-01-01

148

Facial adiposity: a cue to health?  

PubMed

Facial symmetry, averageness, sexual dimorphism, and skin colour/texture all serve as cues to attractiveness, but their role in the perception of health is less clear. This ambiguity could reflect the fact that these facial traits are not the only cues to health. We propose that adiposity is an important, but thus far disregarded, facial cue to health. Our results demonstrate two important prerequisites for any health cue. First, we show that facial adiposity, or the perception of weight in the face, significantly predicts perceived health and attractiveness. Second, we show that perceived facial adiposity is significantly associated with measures of cardiovascular health and reported infections. Perceived facial adiposity, or a correlate thereof, is therefore an important and valid cue to health that should be included in future studies. PMID:20120267

Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I; Stephen, Ian D

2009-01-01

149

Facial hyperpigmentation: causes and treatment.  

PubMed

By midcentury, the U.S.A. will be more ethnically and racially diverse. Skin of colour will soon constitute nearly one-half of the U.S. population, and a full understanding of skin conditions that affect this group is of great importance. Structural and functional differences in the skin, as well as the influence of cultural practices, produce variances in skin disease and presentation based on skin type. In the skin of colour population, dyschromia is a growing concern, and a top chief complaint when patients present to the physician. A thorough understanding of the aetiology and management strategies of facial hyperpigmentation is of importance in caring for those afflicted and also in the development of new therapies. PMID:24098900

Vashi, N A; Kundu, R V

2013-10-01

150

Facial transplantation and immunosuppressed patients: a new frontier in reconstructive surgery.  

PubMed

Composite tissue transplantation in reconstructing complex facial defects has developed tremendous interest over the recent years, since the first report of partial face transplantation performed in France in 2005. However, the controversy over the ethical, immunological, and psychological issues remains. Recently, we obtained IRB approval to perform partial face transplantation at Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston. Here we present the rationale and IRB application process of our unique approach to this highly controversial procedure, which focuses on partial face transplantation on patients currently on immunosuppressants due to previous transplanted organ. 'Patient selection criteria', selection process, technical and immunological protocols are discussed. We currently share the concern that life-long immunosuppression associated with facial transplantation may not outweigh its benefits as compared to the alternative reconstructive methods. We asked ourselves the question of which patient population would risk less and overall benefit more from undergoing face transplantation, and identified those currently on immunosuppressive therapy the most suitable candidates. Organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of malignancy, particularly skin cancer commonly located in the facial region, necessitating surgical resection and facial reconstruction. They also have to take immunosuppressants to prevent rejection of their primary transplanted organ, which will minimize the need for additional immunosuppression associated with facial allograft. Being a previous organ recipient also diminishes the difficulty of complying with the strict postoperative immunosuppressive regimen, commonly encountered by organ transplant recipients. This approach could be very beneficial for previously immunosuppressed patients and perhaps take its place in our reconstructive ladder options. PMID:18580458

Pomahac, Bohdan; Aflaki, Pejman; Chandraker, Anil; Pribaz, Julian J

2008-06-27

151

Automatic Skin Color Beautification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose an automatic skin beautification framework based on color-temperature-insensitive skin-color detection. To polish selected skin region, we apply bilateral filter to smooth the facial flaw. Last, we use Poisson image cloning to integrate the beautified parts into the original input. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be applied in varied light source environment. In addition, this method can naturally beautify the portrait skin.

Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Da-Yuan; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

152

Congenital Horner's syndrome with unilateral facial flushing.  

PubMed Central

Two patients with congenital Horner's syndrome had unilateral facial flushing. Both showed pupillary supersensitivity to epinephrine as well as anhidrosis on the affected side of the face and neck. Facial skin temperature after exercise increased on the intact side, but decreased on the affected side. Thermal vasodilation in the major portions of the face is regulated by sympathetic vasodilator fibres, and less predominantly by adrenergic vasoconstrictor fibres. The asymmetry of facial flushing may have been caused by impaired sympathetic vasodilation and further intensified by active vasoconstriction due to supersensitivity to circulating catecholamine on the affected side.

Saito, H

1990-01-01

153

Body image and facial burns.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: To provide the wound care practitioner with a framework for managing altered body image. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, the reader should be able to: 1. Describe theories and research relating to normal and altered body image. 2. Discuss the effect of facial burns on body image. PMID:19096284

Sainsbury, David C G

2009-01-01

154

Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

2009-02-01

155

Clinical case-study describing the use of skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the auricular concha to cover large defects of the nose  

PubMed Central

Background The composite graft from the conchal cartilage is a graft that is often used, especially in surgery on the nose, due to its capacity to resolve problems of cover and tissue deficit, arising from the removal of neoplasms or as the result of trauma, burns or following over-aggressive rhinoplasty. We have started to use skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the ear to cover large areas of the nose with very satisfying results as well as we describe in the reported clinical case. Methods The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum, which had previously been removed, using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. After this, the skin edges of the fistula were turned to recreate the inner lining of the nose and form a vascular base of wide area to accept the composite graft. The case concerns a female 74-year old patient who had undergone several oncological surgery for a relapsing basal cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the nose. The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. Results The perichondrial cutaneous graft has shown in this surgical case very favorable peculiarities that make it usable even in facial plastic surgery. Conclusions We believe that the positive experience that we achieved in the use of composite grafts for the reconstruction of large areas of the nose could be interesting for others surgeons.

2012-01-01

156

Outcomes of skin graft reconstructions with the use of Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC®) dressing for irradiated extremity sarcoma defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Flaps are currently the predominant method of reconstruction for irradiated wounds. The usefulness of split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) in this setting remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of STSGs in conjunction with VAC therapy used in the treatment of irradiated extremity wounds. METHODS: The records of 17 preoperatively radiated patients with extremity sarcomas

Alex Senchenkov; Paul M Petty; James Knoetgen; Steven L Moran; Craig H Johnson; Ricky P Clay

2007-01-01

157

Marker optimization for facial motion acquisition and deformation.  

PubMed

A long-standing problem in marker-based facial motion capture is what are the optimal facial mocap marker layouts. Despite its wide range of potential applications, this problem has not yet been systematically explored to date. This paper describes an approach to compute optimized marker layouts for facial motion acquisition as optimization of characteristic control points from a set of high-resolution, ground-truth facial mesh sequences. Specifically, the thin-shell linear deformation model is imposed onto the example pose reconstruction process via optional hard constraints such as symmetry and multiresolution constraints. Through our experiments and comparisons, we validate the effectiveness, robustness, and accuracy of our approach. Besides guiding minimal yet effective placement of facial mocap markers, we also describe and demonstrate its two selected applications: marker-based facial mesh skinning and multiresolution facial performance capture. PMID:24029906

Le, Binh H; Zhu, Mingyang; Deng, Zhigang

2013-11-01

158

Detection of facial changes for ICU patients using KNN classifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated system for detecting facial changes of patient in a hospital in Intensive Care Unit(ICU).In this research we have considered the facial changes most widely represented by eyes and mouth movements. The proposed system uses color images and it consists of three modules. The first module implements skin detection to detect the face. The second module

Muhammad Naufal Mansor; Sazali Yaacob; R. Nagarajan; Lim Sin Che; M. Hariharan; M. Ezanuddin

2010-01-01

159

High blushing propensity: fearful preoccupation or facial coloration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-seven women with high scores on the Blushing Propensity Scale (BPS) and 26 women with low BPS scores were exposed to two different video segments. One video showed the subject's own singing, recorded in a previous session and the other video showed a segment of Hitchcock's movie Psycho. During the experiment, facial coloration, facial temperature, and skin conductance level were

Sandra Mulkens; Peter J. De Jong; Susan M. Bögels

1997-01-01

160

[Peripheral facial nerve palsy].  

PubMed

Facial palsy can be defined as a decrease in function of the facial nerve, the primary motor nerve of the facial muscles. When the facial palsy is peripheral, it affects both the superior and inferior areas of the face as opposed to central palsies, which affect only the inferior portion. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis is good in most cases. In cases with significant cosmetic sequelae, a variety of surgical procedures are available (such as hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, temporalis myoplasty and Tenzel external canthopexy) to rehabilitate facial aesthetics and function. PMID:23627995

Pons, Y; Ukkola-Pons, E; Ballivet de Régloix, S; Champagne, C; Raynal, M; Lepage, P; Kossowski, M

2013-04-28

161

Dynamic analysis of facial color by using the force feedback system for virtual arm wrestling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a 4-DOF force display system for the analysis by synthesis of facial color for the interaction with anthropomorphic agent. By using the system, we analyze the changes in facial skin temperature and facial color associated with circulation dynamics in response to forced actions. On the basis of the analysis, we propose a synthetic method for

Takashi Yamada; Tomio Watanabe

2003-01-01

162

Real-time facial information acquisition system for multimodal interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time face tracking and facial information acquisition system developed for multimodal man-machine communication s presented in this paper. The sadism can track a human face and report mouth position and other facial information in real-time. A stochastic model to characterize the skin color distribution of human skin is used to transform the hue image of the HSI color space

Jian Wang; Yufeng Liang; Joseph Wilder

1999-01-01

163

Cloning and characterization of a putative human holocytochrome c-type synthetase gene (HCCS) isolated from the critical region for microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS)  

SciTech Connect

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked male-lethal disorder associated with X chromosomal rearrangements resulting in monosomy from Xpter to Xp22. Features include microphthalmia, sclerocornea, linear skin defects, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Using a cross-species conservation strategy, an expressed sequence from the 450- to the 550-kb MLS critical region on Xp22 was identified by screening a human embryo cDNA library. Northern analysis revealed a transcript of {approx}2.6 kb in all tissues examined, with weaker expression of {approx}1.2- and {approx}5.2-kb transcripts. The strongest expression was observed in heart and skeletal muscle. Sequence analysis of a 3-kb cDNA contig revealed an 807-bp open reading frame encoding a putative 268-amino-acid-protein. Comparison of the sequence with sequences in the databases revealed homology with holocytochrome c-type synthetases, which catalyze the covalent addition of a heme group onto c-type cytochromes in the mitochondria. The c-type cytochromes are required for proper functioning of the electron transport pathway. The human gene (HGMW-approved symbol HCCS) and the corresponding murine gene characterized in this paper are the first mammalian holocytochrome c-type synthetases to be described in the literature. Because of the lack of a neuromuscular phenotype in MLS, it is uncertain whether the deletion of a mitochondrial holocytochrome synthetase would contribute to the phenotype seen in MLS. The expression pattern of this gene and knowledge about the function of holocytochrome synthetases, however, suggest that it is a good candidate for X-linked encephalomyopathies typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. 25 refs., 4 figs.

Schaefer, L.; Ballabio, A.; Zoghbi, H.Y. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-06-01

164

Special locations dermoscopy: facial, acral, and nail.  

PubMed

Although dermoscopy reflects the anatomy, skin anatomy is different on facial and acral skin as well as in the nail unit. Malignant patterns on acral sites include the parallel ridge pattern and irregular diffuse pigmentation, whose presence should lead to a biopsy. Malignant patterns on the face include features of follicular invasion (signet-ring images, annular granular images, and rhomboidal structures) and atypical vessels. Malignant patterns on the nail unit include the micro-Hutchinson sign and irregular longitudinal lines. PMID:24075549

Thomas, Luc; Phan, Alice; Pralong, Pauline; Poulalhon, Nicolas; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Dalle, Stéphane

2013-08-23

165

Facial color control to represent character emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a facial color change technique, which is a combination of emotional models based on human cultural theory, emotional expression pattern using colors, and emotional reaction speed function, as opposed to previous methods that express emotions through blood flow, pulse, or skin temperature.

Kyu Ho Park; Tae Yong Kim

2009-01-01

166

A heterotopic primate model for facial composite tissue transplantation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a nonhuman primate model for heterotopic composite tissue facial transplantation in which to study the natural history of facial transplantation and evaluate immunosuppressive regimens.A composite oromandibular facial segment transplant based on the common carotid artery was evaluated. Flaps from 7 cynomolgus monkeys were transplanted to the groins of 7 recipients at the superficial femoral artery and vein. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of thymoglobulin, rapamycin, and tacrolimus. Allograft survival ranged from 6 to 129 days. Histology performed in the long-term survivor at the time of necropsy revealed extensive inflammation and necrosis of the allograft skin; however, muscle and bone elements were viable, with minimal inflammation. This heterotopic facial transplantation model avoids the potential morbidity of mandibular resection and orthotopic facial transplantation. Our work also concurs with the work of other groups who found that the skin component is the most antigenic. PMID:18216518

Silverman, Ronald P; Banks, Nia D; Detolla, Louis J; Shipley, Steven T; Panda, Aruna; Sanchez, Rigoberto A; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Pierson, Richard N; Wang, Donghua; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Holton, Luther H; Bartlett, Stephen T

2008-02-01

167

A sex difference in facial contrast and its exaggeration by cosmetics.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates the existence of a sex difference in facial contrast. By measuring carefully controlled photographic images, female faces were shown to have greater luminance contrast between the eyes, lips, and the surrounding skin than did male faces. This sex difference in facial contrast was found to influence the perception of facial gender. An androgynous face can be made to appear female by increasing the facial contrast, or to appear male by decreasing the facial contrast. Application of cosmetics was found to consistently increase facial contrast. Female faces wearing cosmetics had greater facial contrast than the same faces not wearing cosmetics. Female facial beauty is known to be closely linked to sex differences, with femininity considered attractive. These results suggest that cosmetics may function in part by exaggerating a sexually dimorphic attribute-facial contrast-to make the face appear more feminine and hence attractive. PMID:19817153

Russell, Richard

2009-01-01

168

Human facial temperatures in natural and laboratory cold.  

PubMed

Asian, European, and American Indian men were subjected to craniofacial cooling to determine relative ranking and temperature curves for various facial skin sites. Moving and still air 0 degrees C to -35 degrees C in both laboratory and subarctic outdoor settings were used. The objective was to examine resistance to facial frostbite. Facial temperatures stabilize well above freezing even under quite cold conditions and this conclusion is congruent with low incidences of facial frostbite. Racial differences in face temperatures were clearly shown at only the malar eminence, and there was some evidence that exercise can be used to enhance facial circulation. These results and those of other studies reviewed demonstrate that facial sites cooled by convection are usually ranked from forehead (warmest) through malar, cheek, and chin, to nose (coldest). When cooled by still air, the sites tend to retain that same ranking, but there is more variation in ranking. PMID:454321

Steegmann, A T

1979-03-01

169

Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Hygiene Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and Spas Hygiene Etiquette ... Patient Admission Video Division of Oral Health Water Fluoridation Leadership Advocacy, Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water ...

170

Children and Facial Paralysis  

MedlinePLUS

... en Español About Otolaryngology ENT History Children and Facial Paralysis About 40,000 people in the United States develop facial paralysis each year with children comprising a small percentage ...

171

Epidemiology of facial clefting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was performed of patients with facial clefts notified between 1960 and 1982 to the Liverpool Congenital Malformations Registry. From 1960-82 there were 325 727 births in the area surveyed and 544 cases of facial clefting were notified. When 88 patients with recognised syndromes and multiple congenital anomalies were excluded, the overall prevalence of facial clefts alone was 1.4

J R Owens; J W Jones; F Harris

1985-01-01

172

Classifying Facial Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) (23) is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images.

Gianluca Donato; Marian Stewart Bartlett; Joseph C. Hager; Paul Ekman; Terrence J. Sejnowski

1999-01-01

173

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM), facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD), genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

2010-01-01

174

Smokers' Skin May Age Faster  

MedlinePLUS

... those changes may be permanent." Facial creams and plastic surgery are options for people whose skin has been ... skin," he said. SOURCE: http://bit.ly/1chXb2h Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, online October 29, 2013. Reuters Health (c) Copyright ...

175

Colchicine-induced modulation of collagenase in human skin fibroblast cultures. II. A probe for defective regulation in epidermolysis bullosa.  

PubMed

The addition of colchicine to cultures of normal human skin fibroblasts produces a significant stimulation of collagenase. Because this finding implies a role for the microtubule system in the regulation of normal collagenase synthesis, we have used colchicine as a probe for aberrations in this enzyme in epidermolysis bullosa. In fibroblast cultures from the dominant simplex, dominant dystrophic, and recessive letalis forms of epidermolysis bullosa, 10(-6) M colchicine produced approximately a 2-fold increase in collagenase in the culture medium, a finding shown by biosynthetic studies to be attributable to enhanced synthesis of enzyme protein. In the case of typical recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, a disease characterized by excessive collagenase synthesis, the fibroblasts could also be stimulated to produce additional collagenase, despite having elevated baseline synthetic rates. In contrast, fibroblasts isolated from one recessive epidermolysis bullosa patient were resistant to the stimulatory effects of colchicine in concentrations up to 5 x 10(-6) M. In the absence of colchicine, collagenase synthesis in this patient's cells (termed REBc-) was 3-4 times that of normal controls, suggesting that the as yet undefined cellular function that is abrogated (or stimulated) by colchicine in normal cells may have been genetically impaired in these REBc- cells. Despite the resistance to colchicine, as manifested by the failure to stimulate collagenase, gross parameters of microtubular function, such as cell replication, were intact. Phenotypically, this patient had a form of epidermolysis bullosa intermediate between typical recessive dystrophic and recessive letalis forms of the disease. Although an experimentally induced blister was located in the lamina lucida, hypoplastic anchoring fibrils were also observed. These findings, in addition to the marked increase in collagenase synthesis, suggest the possibility that this patient may represent a compound heterozygote of two forms of epidermolysis bullosa and that colchicine may be useful in defining other such patients. PMID:6292310

Bauer, E A; Valle, K J; Esterly, N B

1982-12-01

176

Pediatric bilateral facial paralysis.  

PubMed

Bilateral facial paralysis is an unusual clinical entity that occurs in less than 1% of patients with facial paralysis. In children bilateral facial paralysis is even more rare, and establishing its etiology can be challenging. Four pediatric patients ranging in age from 3 to 17 years are presented who developed bilateral facial paralysis as a result of acute otitis media, Lyme disease, recurrent central nervous system leukemia, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bilateral facial paralysis are reviewed, as well as the pertinent literature. PMID:9546263

Smith, V; Traquina, D N

1998-04-01

177

Numerical modeling of facial aging.  

PubMed

Facial aging is a biological phenomenon. Skin properties change with time, and gravity and facial expressions exert mechanical deformation. Knowledge of these alterations may suggest ways to reverse them by identifying the corresponding distortional forces. The aim of this study was to determine a pattern of change for parameters of the face during the aging process, based on the numerical fitting of measures from a sample of patients. The first aspect of this study was to define adequate facial parameters and means of measuring them. Subsequently, each parameter was defined individually, and these data were analyzed as a set. The sample for the research was restricted to a group of 40 white female patients with a history of limited exposure to the sun, with ages ranging from 25 to 65. The reason for choosing this sample was the availability of frontal pattern photographs at different ages. The parameters for each patient were measured at two different ages. A strong correlation was found between age and behavior of the parameters. This aging model can be verified qualitatively by comparing photographs of a patient with manipulated photographs simulating aging. The quantitative verification of the model was done through the comparison of the measured and the predicted parameters. PMID:9655428

Pitanguy, I; Pamplona, D; Weber, H I; Leta, F; Salgado, F; Radwanski, H N

1998-07-01

178

Perforator flaps of the facial artery angiosome.  

PubMed

For small to moderate-sized defects in the head and neck region, local flaps have been the mainstay of reconstruction for years. However, in certain instances, additional flap translation is required be it advancement, transposition or rotation. In such cases, the local flap concept is combined with perforator flap know-how, allowing larger loco-regional flaps to be raised to reconstruct relatively larger defects, even in cosmetically-expensive areas. In our cohort of fifteen patients', we have utilised detailed microanatomy of the facial artery perforators to reconstruct such defects with good results. PMID:23219748

Kannan, R Y; Mathur, B S

2012-12-07

179

Racial Characteristics and Female Facial Attractiveness Perception Among United States University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research in the area of facial attractiveness has examined the role of race in the perception of beauty, revealing that regardless\\u000a of our own skin color, we tend to prefer light skin to dark skin in most matters of choice. Subsequently, the current research,\\u000a utilizing morphed faces combined in varying degrees Black, White, and Asian facial characteristics, was expected to

Nicole E. Belletti; T. Joel Wade

180

Facial cutaneous metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Facial cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma is a rare and late clinical finding that is associated with disseminated disease and a poor prognosis. Skin metastases predominantly originate from primary tumours of the lung and melanoma. Skin metastases from colon tumours occur in only 4-6.5% of cases of metastatic colorectal cancer. They are most often located on the abdominal skin. We present an unusual case in which a primary colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasised to the face. This cutaneous lesion occurred 4 years after diagnosis of the primary tumour. This case highlights the importance of prompt investigation of new or evolving skin lesions in patients with a history of malignancy. Early detection and initiation of treatment may prevent development of widespread skin metastases and extend life expectancy. PMID:24177455

Hashimi, Yasmin; Dholakia, Shamik

2013-10-31

181

Aspects of facial contrast decrease with age and are cues for age perception.  

PubMed

Age is a primary social dimension. We behave differently toward people as a function of how old we perceive them to be. Age perception relies on cues that are correlated with age, such as wrinkles. Here we report that aspects of facial contrast-the contrast between facial features and the surrounding skin-decreased with age in a large sample of adult Caucasian females. These same aspects of facial contrast were also significantly correlated with the perceived age of the faces. Individual faces were perceived as younger when these aspects of facial contrast were artificially increased, but older when these aspects of facial contrast were artificially decreased. These findings show that facial contrast plays a role in age perception, and that faces with greater facial contrast look younger. Because facial contrast is increased by typical cosmetics use, we infer that cosmetics function in part by making the face appear younger. PMID:23483959

Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Russell, Richard

2013-03-06

182

Tracking facial features with occlusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression recognition consists of determining what kind of emotional content is presented in a human face. The problem presents a complex area for exploration, since it encompasses face acquisition, facial feature tracking, facial ex- pression classification. Facial feature tracking is of the most interest. Active Appearance Model (AAM) enables accurate tracking of facial features in real-time, but lacks occlusions

MARKIN Evgeny

2006-01-01

183

Defective glycosylation of decorin and biglycan, altered collagen structure, and abnormal phenotype of the skin fibroblasts of an Ehlers–Danlos syndrome patient carrying the novel Arg270Cys substitution in galactosyltransferase I (?4GalT7)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders affecting skin and joint function. Molecular defects in extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen (type I, III, and V) and tenascin X are associated with different forms of EDS. Compound heterozygous mutations in the B4GALT7 gene, resulting in aberrant glycosylation of the dermatan sulfate proteoglycan decorin, had been described

Daniela G. Seidler; Muhammad Faiyaz-Ul-Haque; Uwe Hansen; George W. Yip; Syed H. E. Zaidi; Ahmad S. Teebi; Ludwig Kiesel; Martin Götte

2006-01-01

184

Facial Expression Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter introduces recent advances in facial expression analysis and recognition. The first part discusses general structure\\u000a of AFEA systems. The second part describes the problem space for facial expression analysis. This space includes multiple\\u000a dimensions: level of description, individual differences in subjects, transitions among expressions, intensity of facial expression,\\u000a deliberate versus spontaneous expression, head orientation and scene complexity, image

Yingli Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

185

Facial Expression Recognition Using 3D Facial Feature Distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel approach for facial expression analysis and recognition. The proposed approach relies on\\u000a the distance vectors retrieved from 3D distribution of facial feature points to classify universal facial expressions. Neural\\u000a network architecture is employed as a classifier to recognize the facial expressions from a distance vector obtained from\\u000a 3D facial feature locations. Facial expressions

Hamit Soyel; Hasan Demirel

2007-01-01

186

Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.  

PubMed Central

Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. Images Figs. 1 a and b. Fig. 1c., Fig. 1d. Fig. 1f. Fig. 1g. Fig. 1h. Fig. 1i. Fig. 1m. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b., Fig. 2c., Fig. 2d. Fig. 2e. Figs. 3 a and b. Fig. 3d., Fig. 3e. Fig. 3f. Fig. 4a., Fig. 4b. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b., Fig. 5c. Figs. 5d and e. Fig. 5f. Figs. 5g. and 5h. Fig. 6a., Fig. 6b. Fig. 6c. Fig. 7a. Fig. 7b. Figs. 7e and f. Fig. 8a. Fig. 8b. Fig. 8c. Fig. 8d., Fig. 8e. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Figs. 9c. and d. Fig. 9e. Fig. 9f. Figs. 9g. and h. Figs. 11a, b, and c. Figs. 11d, e, f.

Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

1975-01-01

187

Facial Moulage Impressions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shows how models of the face make excellent preoperative and postoperative records for the surgeon, otolaryngologist, and prosthodontist. Demonstrates the technique for the construction of a facial moulage.

1994-01-01

188

A Wavelet-Based Facial Ageing Synthesis Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facial ageing synthesis (rendering) method based on combination of wavelet transform and texture transplant is proposed in this paper. Firstly, 2D discrete wavelet transform (2D DWT) is performed on ageing templates to extract the high-frequency sub-images and high-pass filtered low-frequency sub-images, which contain the texture characteristic of ageing skin. Then the corresponding sub-images of target facial image are replaced

LIU Jian-Yi; ZHENG Nan-Ning; YOU Qu-Bo

2007-01-01

189

Face to Face: From Real Humans to Realistic Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for photo-realistic facial model- ing and animation, which includes several tools that fa- cilitate necessary tasks such as mesh processing, texture registration, and assembling of facial components. The resulting head model reflects the anatomical structure of the human head including skull, skin, and muscles. Semi- automatic generation of high-quality models from scan data for physics-based animation

Irene Albrecht; Hitoshi Yamauchi; Hans-Peter Seidel

190

Facial expression recognition with facial parts based sparse representation classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions play important role in human communication. The understanding of facial expression is a basic requirement in the development of next generation human computer interaction systems. Researches show that the intrinsic facial features always hide in low dimensional facial subspaces. This paper presents facial parts based facial expression recognition system with sparse representation classifier. Sparse representation classifier exploits sparse representation to select face features and classify facial expressions. The sparse solution is obtained by solving l1 -norm minimization problem with constraint of linear combination equation. Experimental results show that sparse representation is efficient for facial expression recognition and sparse representation classifier obtain much higher recognition accuracies than other compared methods.

Zhi, Ruicong; Ruan, Qiuqi

2009-10-01

191

A novel flap for the reconstruction of midcheek defects: "rabbit ear flap".  

PubMed

Cheek defects generally occur because of reasons such as trauma, burn, and tumor excisions. In the reconstruction of cheek defects, it is essential to cover the defects using the tissues with compatible color and similar texture. Although many techniques have been described for this purpose, local flaps are more likely to be used.In this study, we describe a new technique named "rabbit ear flap," which we used for the reconstruction of a 4.5 × 7-cm cheek defect due to basal cell carcinoma excision in a 71-year-old male patient. Two separate flaps on the extension of right facial artery with an inferior pedicle on the nasolabial region (hairless skin) and a superior pedicle flap that extended from right oral commissure to the submandibular region (hairy skin) were used. The hairy skin part of the defect was closed via the hairy skin flap, whereas the hairless region was closed with the hairless skin flap. The donor sites were closed primarily.No complication was encountered in the early or long-term follow-ups. In the 28-month follow-up of the patient, it was observed that the color and texture compatibility was fine, the natural beard integrity was obtained, the donor site scarring was minimal, and the scarring was camouflaged well in the anatomical lines.This technique is supposed to be an alternative method for reconstruction of medium-sized cheek defects because it is a simple, reliable, and single-session procedure, and because of its similar color and texture, it offers satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes due to natural beard restoration. PMID:24036812

Kilinc, Hidir; Erbatur, Serkan; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi

2013-09-01

192

Precise Localization of Facial Features Based on Cascade Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and successful scheme for locating the facial features in images at the presence of complex condition context is presented. Multiple fusion steps are taken in cascade. Based on the estimation of the color distribution of the facial features, eye and mouth probability map is constructed using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), a fusion strategy on probability maps is then constructs eye, mouth, and skin binary maps. Then the binary fusion is implied to obtain candidate location of each component. Finally, the components are verified by taking facial geometry into consideration. Experiments show that more accurate detection results can be obtained as compared to other state-of-art methods.

Chen, Ying; Ai, Chunlu; Hua, Chunjian

193

A new physical model with multilayer architecture for facial expression animation using dynamic adaptive mesh.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new physically-based 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge which provides high fidelity for facial expression animation while optimizing the computation. Our facial model has a multilayer biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators, and underlying skull structure. In contrast to existing mass-spring-damper (MSD) facial models, our dynamic skin model uses the nonlinear springs to directly simulate the nonlinear visco-elastic behavior of soft tissue and a new kind of edge repulsion spring is developed to prevent collapse of the skin model. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force applied on the skin due to muscle contraction. The presence of the skull advantageously constrain the skin movements, resulting in more accurate facial deformation and also guides the interactive placement of facial muscles. The governing dynamics are computed using a local semi-implicit ODE solver. In the dynamic simulation, an adaptive refinement automatically adapts the local resolution at which potential inaccuracies are detected depending on local deformation. The method, in effect, ensures the required speedup by concentrating computational time only where needed while ensuring realistic behavior within a predefined error threshold. This mechanism allows more pleasing animation results to be produced at a reduced computational cost. PMID:18579964

Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C; Sung, Eric

194

Dynamic Approaches for Facial Recognition Using Digital Image Speckle Correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital image analysis techniques have been extensively used in facial recognition. To date, most static facial characterization techniques, which are usually based on Fourier transform techniques, are sensitive to lighting, shadows, or modification of appearance by makeup, natural aging or surgery. In this study we have demonstrated that it is possible to uniquely identify faces by analyzing the natural motion of facial features with Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC). Human skin has a natural pattern produced by the texture of the skin pores, which is easily visible with conventional digital cameras of resolution greater than 4 mega pixels. Hence the application of the DISC method to the analysis of facial motion appears to be very straightforward. Here we demonstrate that the vector diagrams produced by this method for facial images are directly correlated to the underlying muscle structure which is unique for an individual and is not affected by lighting or make-up. Furthermore, we will show that this method can also be used for medical diagnosis in early detection of facial paralysis and other forms of skin disorders.

Rafailovich-Sokolov, Sara; Guan, E.; Afriat, Isablle; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Clark, Richard

2004-03-01

195

Focal facial dermal dysplasia, type IV, is caused by mutations in CYP26C1.  

PubMed

Focal facial dermal dysplasia (FFDD) Type IV is a rare syndrome characterized by facial lesions resembling aplasia cutis in a preauricular distribution along the line of fusion of the maxillary and mandibular prominences. To identify the causative gene(s), exome sequencing was performed in a family with two affected siblings. Assuming autosomal recessive inheritance, two novel sequence variants were identified in both siblings in CYP26C1-a duplication of seven base pairs, which was maternally inherited, c.844_851dupCCATGCA, predicting p.Glu284fsX128 and a missense mutation, c.1433G>A, predicting p.Arg478His, that was paternally inherited. The duplication predicted a frameshift mutation that led to a premature stop codon and premature chain termination, whereas the missense mutation was not functional based on its in vitro expression in mammalian cells. The FFDD skin lesions arise along the sites of fusion of the maxillary and mandibular prominences early in facial development, and Cyp26c1 was expressed exactly along the fusion line for these facial prominences in the first branchial arch in mice. Sequencing of four additional, unrelated Type IV FFDD patients and eight Type II or III TWIST2-negative FFDD patients revealed that three of the Type IV patients were homozygous for the duplication, whereas none of the Type II or III patients had CYP26C1 mutations. The seven base pairs duplication was present in 0.3% of healthy controls and 0.3% of patients with other birth defects. These findings suggest that the phenotypic manifestations of FFDD Type IV can be non-penetrant or underascertained. Thus, FFDD Type IV results from the loss of function mutations in CYP26C1. PMID:23161670

Slavotinek, Anne M; Mehrotra, Pavni; Nazarenko, Irina; Tang, Paul Ling-Fung; Lao, Richard; Cameron, Don; Li, Ben; Chu, Catherine; Chou, Chris; Marqueling, Ann L; Yahyavi, Mani; Cordoro, Kelly; Frieden, Ilona; Glaser, Tom; Prescott, Trine; Morren, Marie-Anne; Devriendt, Koen; Kwok, Pui-yan; Petkovich, Martin; Desnick, Robert J

2012-11-16

196

Visible skin color distribution plays a role in the perception of age, attractiveness, and health in female faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary psychologists have proposed that preferences for facial characteristics, such as symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism, may reflect adaptations for mate choice because they signal aspects of mate quality. Here, we show that facial skin color distribution significantly influences the perception of age and attractiveness of female faces, independent of facial form and skin surface topography. A set of three-dimensional

Bernhard Fink; Karl Grammer; Paul J. Matts

2006-01-01

197

Facial Expression in Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made to see whether the optimal degree of satisfaction portrayed in the facial expression of an advertisement varies with the commodity advertised. A subsidiary problem was to determine whether the apparent satisfaction in the facial expression of a photograph corresponds to the actual satisfaction felt by the subject who posed for it. Two sets of material were

H. E. Burtt; J. C. Clark

1923-01-01

198

Authentic Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that for the computer to be able to interact with humans, it needs to have the communication skills of humans. One of these skills is the ability to understand the emotional state of the person. The most expressive way humans dis- play emotions is through facial expressions. In most facial expression systems and databases, the emotion data

Nicu Sebe; Michael S. Lew; Ira Cohen; Yafei Sun; Theo Gevers; Thomas S. Huang

2004-01-01

199

Improving posttraumatic facial scars.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic soft-tissue injuries of the face are often the most lasting sequelae of facial trauma. The disfigurement of posttraumatic scarring lies in both their physical deformity and psychosocial ramifications. This review outlines a variety of techniques to improve facial scars and limit their lasting effects. PMID:24138743

Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Shaye, David A; Hilger, Peter A

2013-09-04

200

Median Facial Cleft in Amniotic Band Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case.

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-01-01

201

Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome.  

PubMed

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case. PMID:21731335

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-04-01

202

Perception of facial attractiveness from static and dynamic stimuli.  

PubMed

Although people we meet in real life are usually seen in motion, research on facial attractiveness has predominantly been conducted on static facial images. This raises a question about ecological validity of results obtained in such studies. Recently, several studies endeavoured to determine the concordance between attractiveness of faces seen on photos and video clips, but their results are markedly divergent, frequently indicating no concordance. In the present study, the association between attractiveness of facial images and clips was tested on a larger sample than has previously been reported (106 females, 102 males), and features under the face owner's control (scalp and facial hair, makeup, mouth expression) were controlled for. Two types of facial images were used: photographs and frames extracted from films. Correlation coefficients between attractiveness of static and dynamic faces were high (about 0.7), did not depend on facial sex or image type (photograph/frame), and did not diminish when the covariates were controlled for. Furthermore, the importance of facial averageness, femininity/ masculinity, symmetry, fattiness, skin health, and mouth expression for attractiveness proved similar for static and dynamic stimuli. This leads to the optimistic conclusion that results of studies relying on attractiveness assessments of static facial images are ecologically valid. PMID:23700955

Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

203

Facial Features Tracking for Gross Head Movement analysis and Expression Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The tracking and recognition of facial expressions from a single cameras is an important and challenging problem. We present a real-time framework for Action Units(AU)\\/Expression recognition based on facial features tracking and Adaboost. Accurate facial feature tracking is challenging due to changes in illumination, skin color variations, possible large head rotations, partial occlusions and fast head

Dimitris Metaxas; Atul Kanaujia

2007-01-01

204

Changes in facial shape with age: an analysis with three-dimensional imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appearance of the aged face has traditionally been attributed to soft tissue changes with surgical treatments targeting\\u000a ptosis of skin, SMAS, and fat. However, true facial aging is recognized as a combination of soft tissue and skeletal changes,\\u000a which continue to be integrated into a model for facial aging. With a greater understanding of these changes, techniques in\\u000a facial

Matthew C. Camp; Cody S. Carter; Wendy W. Wong; Subhas C. Gupta

2011-01-01

205

Anatomy-based facial tissue modeling using the finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomy-based facial tissue modeling for surgical simulation is a field whose time has come. Real-time facial animation has been created in the last few years using models based on the anatomical structure of the human skin. Anatomy-based models are also under development in the field of medical visualization, with which facial surgery can be realistically simulated. In this article we

Erwin Keeve I; Sabine Girod; Paula Pfeifle; Bernd Girod

1996-01-01

206

Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2007-01-01

207

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.  

PubMed

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

2011-06-12

208

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

PubMed Central

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners.

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

209

Computer Animation of Facial Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer facial animation still remains a very challenging topic within the computer graphics community. In this paper, a realistic and expressive computer facial animation system is developed by automated learning from Vicon Nexus facial motion capture data. Facial motion data of different emotions collected using Vicon Nexus are processed using dimensionality reduction techniques such as PCA and EMPCA. EMPCA was

Choong Seng Chan; Flora S. Tsai

2010-01-01

210

Chapter 11. Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions are the facial changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. Facial expression analysis has been an active research topic for behavioral scientists since the work of Darwin in 1872 [18, 22, 25, 71]. Suwa et al. [76] presented an early attempt to automatically analyze facial expressions by tracking the motion of 20

Ying-Li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

211

Skin Pigment  

MedlinePLUS

... Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers ... the body or small patches. When exposed to sunlight, melanocytes produce increased amounts of melanin, causing the ...

212

Understanding facial nerve paralysis.  

PubMed

Facial nerve paralysis has many causes and can be acute or chronic. Understanding the signs and symptoms, performing a careful patient evaluation, and obtaining appropriate diagnostic testing can help guide clinicians and improve outcomes. PMID:24153089

Matthaeus, Jaime; Hayden, Richard; Kim, Michael; Donald, Carrlene

2013-11-01

213

Association between facial cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and meningitis.  

PubMed Central

The skin is frequently a site of extrapulmonary dissemination in patients with coccidioidomycosis. Clinical experience in an endemic area suggests an association between facial cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and meningitis. Awareness of this association is important because coccidioidal meningitis is the most ominous site of spread in coccidioidomycosis. In this study, we assess whether cutaneous dissemination involving the face is associated with meningitis to a greater degree than that limited to the body. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 201 patients from 1987 to 1996 with disseminated coccidioidomycosis and found 30 patients with cutaneous involvement. Their mean age was 29.5 +/- 11.6 years; 20 patients were male; 14 were African American, 12 were Hispanic, 3 were white, and 1 was Asian. Nineteen patients had facial involvement, and 11 had isolated body involvement. Meningitis developed in 11 patients, 10 with facial involvement and 1 with only body involvement. Patients with facial lesions were more likely to have meningitis (odds ratio, 11.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 529, P = .023). The identification of a subgroup of patients at significant risk of developing meningitis may allow earlier detection and perhaps improved management of patients with meningeal disease.

Arsura, E L; Kilgore, W B; Caldwell, J W; Freeman, J C; Einstein, H E; Johnson, R H

1998-01-01

214

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

PubMed

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities. PMID:23529088

Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

2013-03-20

215

Computerized forensic facial reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions\\/approximations to stimulate recognition and identification.\\u000a Over the past 25 years, many computer-based systems have been developed, and with the recent rapid advances in medical imaging\\u000a and computer technology, the current systems claim high levels of efficiency, objectivity, and flexibility. The history of\\u000a computerized facial approximation\\/reconstruction is presented, along with a discussion of the advantages

Caroline Wilkinson

2005-01-01

216

Traumatic facial nerve injury.  

PubMed

Facial nerve trauma can be a devastating injury resulting in functional deficits and psychological distress. Deciding on the optimal course of treatment for patients with traumatic facial nerve injuries can be challenging, as there are many critical factors to be considered for each patient. Choosing from the great array of therapeutic options available can become overwhelming to both patients and physicians, and in this article, the authors present a systematic approach to help organize the physician's thought process. PMID:24138740

Lee, Linda N; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Boahene, Kofi Derek O

2013-09-05

217

A novel malformation complex of bilateral and symmetric preaxial radial ray-thumb aplasia and lower limb defects with minimal facial dysmorphic features: a case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Radial hemimelia is a congenital abnormality characterised by the partial or complete absence of the radius. The longitudinal hemimelia indicates the absence of one or more bones along the preaxial (medial) or postaxial (lateral) side of the limb. Preaxial limb defects occurred more frequently with a combination of microtia, esophageal atresia, anorectal atresia, heart defects, unilateral kidney dysgenesis, and

Ali Al Kaissi; Klaus Klaushofer; Alexander Krebs; Franz Grill

2008-01-01

218

Classifying Facial Actions  

PubMed Central

The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions.

Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

2010-01-01

219

Detection and Tracking of Facial Features in Video Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a real time system for detection and tracking of facial features in video sequences. Such system m ay be used in visual communication applications, such as teleconferencing, virtual reality, intelligent interfaces, human- machine interaction, surveillance, etc. We have used a statistical skin-color model to segment face-candidate regions in the image. The presence or absence of a face

Rogério Schmidt Feris; Teófilo Emídio De Campos; Roberto Marcondes Cesar Junior

2000-01-01

220

Acetic acid vapor levels associated with facial prosthetics  

SciTech Connect

The use of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A in the fabrication of facial prostheses may cause health hazards to the patient and the operator because of acetic acid emissions. Caution must be exercised to remove acetic acid vapors from the air and unliberated acetic acid from material applied directly to the skin.

McElroy, T.H.; Guerra, O.N.; Lee, S.A.

1985-01-01

221

Facial attractiveness and juvenile delinquency among black and white offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial pictures of black and white delinquents were significantly less attractive than pictures of corresponding groups of high school students, as judged by same-race raters. Significant differences were found among the white delinquents, but not among the black, for Quay's four behavioral dimensions of delinquency. Black delinquents were significantly darker in skin color than the black high school students, and

Norman Cavior; L. Ramona Howard

1973-01-01

222

Facial reconstruction - anatomical art or artistic anatomy?  

PubMed Central

Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury.

Wilkinson, Caroline

2010-01-01

223

Bilateral linear scleroderma "en coup de sabre" associated with facial atrophy and neurological complications  

PubMed Central

Background Linear scleroderma "en coup de sabre" (LSCS) usually affects one side of the face and head in the frontoparietal area with band-like indurated skin lesions. The disease may be associated with facial hemiatrophy. Various ophthalmological and neurological abnormalities have been observed in patients with LSCS. We describe an unusual case of LSC. Case presentation A 23 year old woman presented bilateral LSCS and facial atrophy. The patient had epileptic seizures as well as oculomotor and facial nerve palsy on the left side which also had pronounced skin involvement. Clinical features of different stages of the disease are presented. Conclusions The findings of the presented patient with bilateral LSCS and facial atrophy provide further evidence for a neurological etiology of the disease and may also indicate that classic progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome) and LSCS actually represent different spectra of the same disease.

Gambichler, Thilo; Kreuter, Alexander; Hoffmann, Klaus; Bechara, Falk G; Altmeyer, Peter; Jansen, Thomas

2001-01-01

224

Aging and facial changes--documenting clinical signs, part 1: clinical changes of the aging face.  

PubMed

The process of aging induces the transformation of the face with changes that are usually classified as either chronological or photo induced and that affect the shape, the texture, and the color of the face. Facial shape is mainly transformed by the evolution of bones and soft tissues (muscles, fat, and skin) in addition to noticeable effects of gravity. Skin texture is mainly determined by wrinkles, which arise from atrophy of the skin layers, elastosis, and facial expressions. Skin color is related to the distribution of skin chromophores and the structure of the dermis, which affects light scattering. All facial changes are dependant on sex, ethnicity, and lifestyle. They affect self-perception and social interactions and can sometimes be slowed down or reversed using appropriate clinical procedures (e.g., dermatological, surgical, and cosmetic interventions). PMID:23163070

Nkengne, Alex; Bertin, Christiane

225

Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.  

PubMed

Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:18539550

Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

2008-06-09

226

Automated down syndrome detection using facial photographs.  

PubMed

Down syndrome, the most common single cause of human birth defects, produces alterations in physical growth and mental retardation; its early detection is crucial. Children with Down syndrome generally have distinctive facial characteristics, which brings an opportunity for the computer-aided diagnosis of Down syndrome using photographs of patients. In this study, we propose a novel strategy based on machine learning techniques to detect Down syndrome automatically. A modified constrained local model is used to locate facial landmarks. Then geometric features and texture features based on local binary patterns are extracted around each landmark. Finally, Down syndrome is detected using a variety of classifiers. The best performance achieved 94.6% accuracy, 93.3% precision and 95.5% recall by using support vector machine with radial basis function kernel. The results indicate that our method could assist in Down syndrome screening effectively in a simple, non-invasive way. PMID:24110526

Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Okada, Kazunori; Zand, Dina J; Sze, Raymond; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George

2013-07-01

227

Acceptance of Disability by Teenagers with Oral-Facial Clefts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study ascertains whether the findings of Linkowski and Dunn (1974) were applicable to a sample of teenagers with oral-facial clefts. The following brief description of the nature of this birth defect and the treatment involved will help to explain why these patients are potential candidates for rehabilitation. (Author)

Starr, Philip; Heiserman, Kitty

1977-01-01

228

The application of digital surgical diagnosis and treatment technology: A promising strategy for surgical reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity always leads to serious dysfunction in mastication and facial contour damage, significantly reducing patients’ quality of life. However, surgical reconstruction of a craniomaxillofacial hard tissue defect or deformity is extremely complex and often does not result in desired facial morphology. Improving the result for patients with craniomaxillofacial defect and deformity remains a challenge for surgeons.

Li-ya Wang; Hong-ming Du; Gang Zhang; Wei Tang; Lei Liu; Wei Jing; Jie Long

2011-01-01

229

Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies provide conclusive evidence that there is a pancultural element in facial expressions of emotion. This element must be the particular associations between movements of specific facial muscles and emotions, since the results obtained in the judgeme...

P. Ekman

1971-01-01

230

Birth Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... can also result in birth defects. For most birth defects, the cause is unknown. Some birth defects can be prevented. ... about any medicines you take. Some medicines can cause serious birth defects. Babies with birth defects may need surgery or ...

231

Skin Barrier Disruption: A Requirement for Allergen Sensitization?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For at least half a century, noninvasive techniques have been available to quantify skin barrier function, and these have shown that a number of human skin conditions and disorders are associated with defects in skin permeability. In the past decade, several genes responsible for skin barrier defects observed in both monogenetic and complex polygenic disorders have been elucidated and functionally

Anna De Benedetto; Akiharu Kubo; Lisa A Beck

2012-01-01

232

Facial Gunshot Wounds: Trends in Management  

PubMed Central

Facial gunshot wounds, often comprising significant soft and bone tissue defects, pose a significant challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Whether resulting from assault, accident, or suicide attempt, a thorough assessment of the defects is essential for devising an appropriate tissue repair and replacement with a likely secondary revision. Immediately after injury, management is centered on advanced trauma life support with patient stabilization as the primary goal. Thorough examination along with appropriate imaging is critical for identifying any existing defects. Whereas past surgical management advocated delayed definitive treatment using serial debridement, today’s management favors use of more immediate reconstruction. Recent advances in microsurgical technique have shifted favor from local tissue advancement to distant free flap transfers, which improve cosmesis and function. This has resulted in a lower number of surgeries required to achieve reconstruction. Because of the diversity of injury and the complexity of facial gunshot injuries, a systematic algorithm is essential to help manage the different stages of healing and to ensure that the best outcome is achieved.

Kaufman, Yoav; Cole, Patrick; Hollier, Larry H.

2009-01-01

233

A Robust Gender and Age Estimation under Varying Facial Pose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method for gender and age estimation which is robust for facial pose changing. We propose a feature point detection method which is the Adapted Retinal Sampling Method (ARSM), and a feature extraction method. A basic concept of the ARSM is to add knowledge about the facial structure into the Retinal Sampling Method. In this method, feature points are detected based on 7 points corresponding to facial organ from face image. The reason why we used 7 points to basis of feature point detection is that facial organ is conspicuous in facial region, and it is comparatively easy to extract. As features which is robust for facial pose changing, a skin texture, a hue and a gabor jet are used for the gender and age estimation. For classification of gender and estimation of seriate age, we use a multi-layered neural network. Moreover, we examine the left-right symmetric property of the face concerning gender and age estimation by the proposed method.

Takimoto, Hironori; Mitsukura, Yasue; Fukumi, Minoru; Akamatsu, Norio

234

Digital facial engraving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution introduces the basic techniques for digital facial engraving, which imitates traditional copperplate engraving. Inspired by traditional techniques, we first establish a set of basic rules thanks to which separate engraving layers are built on the top of the original photo. Separate layers are merged according to sim- ple merging rules and according to range shift\\/scale masks spe- cially

Victor Ostromoukhov

1999-01-01

235

Facial attractiveness predicts longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current investigation, 20 undergraduate students rated 50 high school yearbook photographs from the 1920s on two measures, attractiveness and perceived health. These measures were then correlated with each other and with the photographed subjects' longevity. Facial attractiveness was found to predict future longevity, but perceived health did not. The results are discussed in terms of sexual selection theory.

Joshua J. A. Henderson; Jeremy M. Anglin

2003-01-01

236

The identification of a new role for LEKTI in the skin: The use of protein 'bait' arrays to detect defective trafficking of dermcidin in the skin of patients with Netherton syndrome.  

PubMed

Lympho-Epithelial Kazal-Type-related Inhibitor (LEKTI) has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor of various kallikreins and is thought to play a role in the regulation of skin desquamation. In order to identify and investigate the potential of LEKTI to interact with other proteins, a method was developed using immobilised proteins onto arrays and nanoUPLC/MALDI-TOF MS. Using various domains of LEKTI, we demonstrated that these domains bound a number of kallikreins (5, 13 and 14) to varied extents on the array surface. Inhibitory assays confirmed that binding on the protein array surface corresponded directly to levels of inhibition. The method was then tested using skin epidermal extracts. All forms of rLEKTI with the exception of rLEKTI 12-15, demonstrated the binding of several potential candidate proteins. Surprisingly, the major binding partners of LEKTI were found to be the antimicrobial peptide dermcidin and the serine protease cathepsin G and no kallikreins. Using confocal microscopy and Netherton syndrome skin sections, we confirmed the co-localisation of LEKTI with dermcidin and demonstrated altered trafficking of dermcidin in these patients. This potential new role for LEKTI as a multifunctional protein in the protection and transport of proteins in the epidermis and its role in disease are discussed. PMID:22588119

Bennett, Kate; Heywood, Wendy; Di, Wei-Li; Harper, John; Clayman, Gary L; Jayakumar, Arumugam; Callard, Robin; Mills, Kevin

2012-05-12

237

Nondestructive Imaging of Live Human Keloid and Facial Tissue Using Multiphoton Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To use multiphoton microscopy to image collagen fibers and matrix structure in nonfixed human keloid tissue and normal human facial skin obtained fol- lowing surgery and to compare the findings to existing knowledge of normal skin and keloid morphology to de- termine if this technology is a suitable adjunct for con- ventional histology. Methods: Epidermis was removed to expose

Victor Da Costa; Randy Wei; Ryan Lim; Chung-Ho Sun; Jimmy J. Brown; Brian J.-F. Wong

2008-01-01

238

Depigmented skin and phantom color measurements for realistic prostheses.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data was analyzed from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared with 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. RESULTS: The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162). CONCLUSION: Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. PMID:23750920

Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

2013-06-10

239

Nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the New Star Model 130 neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system for nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides (e.g., periorbital wrinkles). Facial rhytides are treated with 1.32 micrometer wavelength laser light delivered through a fiberoptic handpiece into a 5 mm diameter spot using three 300 microsecond duration pulses at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency and pulse radiant exposures extending up to 12 J/cm2. Dynamic cooling is used to cool the epidermis selectively prior to laser treatment; animal histology experiments confirm that dynamic cooling combined with nonablative laser heating protects the epidermis and selectively injures the dermis. In the human clinical study, immediately post-treatment, treated sites exhibit mild erythema and, in a few cases, edema or small blisters. There are no long-term complications such as marked dyspigmentation and persistent erythema that are commonly observed following ablative laser skin resurfacing. Preliminary results indicate that the severity of facial rhytides has been reduced, but long-term follow-up examinations are needed to quantify the reduction. The mechanism of action of this nonablative laser treatment modality may involve dermal wound healing that leads to long- term synthesis of new collagen and extracellular matrix material.

Lask, Gary P.; Lee, Patrick K.; Seyfzadeh, Manouchehr; Nelson, John S.; Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Dave, Digant; Geronemus, Roy G.; Bernstein, Leonard J.; Mittelman, Harry; Ridener, Laurie A.; Coulson, Walter F.; Sand, Bruce; Baumgarder, Jon; Hennings, David R.; Menefee, Richard F.; Berry, Michael

1997-05-01

240

Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.  

PubMed

The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences. PMID:23469703

Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

2012-01-01

241

Dry skin  

MedlinePLUS

Skin - dry; Winter itch ... Dry skin is common. It happens more often in the winter when cold air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The skin loses moisture and may ...

242

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma . Both patients have the ... type of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. What skin cancer looks like Even the same type of ...

243

Smoothing, Tightening And Contouring Skin Has Never Been Faster or Easier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A skin tightening procedure for the treatment of facial wrinkles without surgery, Thermage reduces the signs of aging skin, giving you a more youthful appearance. The Thermage procedure targets the collagen in your skin, which is a building block that supports the structure of the skin. Over time, collagen becomes depleted or damaged by the sun or other environmental factors.

Holly Vitchers

244

Dermabrasion and staged excision of facial lesions in a neurofibromatosis case for improvement of facial appearance.  

PubMed

Background:Neurofibromatosis may present with different skin lesions. Disfiguring lesions on the face might be challenging for the surgeon or clinician to correct and may have adverse effects on patients' social lives, especially in young women.Objective:To present the dermabrasion technique combined with serial excisions of a deeper accompanying lesion to treat superficial facial lesions in a young neurofibromatosis patient.Methods:Dermabrasion was applied to superficial lesions on the face, and staged excision was applied to the deeper lesion located on the forehead.Results:We obtained high patient satisfaction with the result. The deep lesion was excised totally, and superficial lesions were decreased with dermabrasion.Conclusion:Dermabrasion may become a good alternative in cases of neurofibromatosis with superficial facial lesions. PMID:24067859

Erol Karabekmez, Furkan; Duymaz, Ahmet; Karacor, Zeynep

2013-10-01

245

Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution  

PubMed Central

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment.

Wollina, Uwe

2005-01-01

246

Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution.  

PubMed

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe

2005-09-28

247

Facial plexiform neurofibromatosis: A surgical challenge.  

PubMed

Plexiform neurofibromatosis is a relatively common but potentially devastating manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). It produces very hideous deformity if the face is involved. Surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, but in the head and neck region it is limited by the infiltrating nature of these tumors, inherent operative morbidity and high rate of regrowth. We present two cases of facial neurofibromatosis managed in our hospital. The first patient presented with overhanging mass of skin folds on the right side of her face, completely obliterating her right eye. The other patient was a young male having a huge, unsightly swelling over the right cheek, resulting in pulled down right eyelids and right pinna. Physical examination revealed the presence of café au lait macules, freckling in the axillary region and multiple neurofibromas over the trunk. Reconstructive surgical procedure in the form of subtotal excision of tumor mass followed by re draping of the facial skin was performed in both cases. There was evidence of regrowth of the tumor on review after 6 months. PMID:23984232

Dogra, Bharat B; Rana, Karamvir Singh

2013-07-01

248

Facial plexiform neurofibromatosis: A surgical challenge  

PubMed Central

Plexiform neurofibromatosis is a relatively common but potentially devastating manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). It produces very hideous deformity if the face is involved. Surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, but in the head and neck region it is limited by the infiltrating nature of these tumors, inherent operative morbidity and high rate of regrowth. We present two cases of facial neurofibromatosis managed in our hospital. The first patient presented with overhanging mass of skin folds on the right side of her face, completely obliterating her right eye. The other patient was a young male having a huge, unsightly swelling over the right cheek, resulting in pulled down right eyelids and right pinna. Physical examination revealed the presence of café au lait macules, freckling in the axillary region and multiple neurofibromas over the trunk. Reconstructive surgical procedure in the form of subtotal excision of tumor mass followed by re draping of the facial skin was performed in both cases. There was evidence of regrowth of the tumor on review after 6 months.

Dogra, Bharat B.; Rana, Karamvir Singh

2013-01-01

249

Relation between facial morphology, personality and the functions of facial make-up in women.  

PubMed

Our external appearance plays a key role in everyday life's social interactions. Hence, taking care of our appearance allows us to adjust and protect ourselves, as well as communicate emotional disposition (i.e. sympathy or aversion) and social information (i.e. values, status). However, some discrete body parts or characteristics appear to be more salient than others in contributing to global body image. For example, authors showed that facial attractiveness is one of the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness and represent one of the primary factors influencing global self-esteem. Make-up is therefore ought to play a major influence in these parameters. Moreover, in a previous study whose subject was to explain the reasons that motivate women to make-up, we showed a high implication of specific psychological traits in correlation with two make-up functions (i.e. psycho-behavioural profiles 'Seduction' and 'Camouflage'; group S and group C, respectively). The purpose of this study was to assess the possible relation between our two psycho-behavioural profiles and some morphological parameters know to be involved in facial attraction (i.e. facial asymmetry and skin visual quality). First of all, our study revealed for women from the group C a greater asymmetry of the lower face (i.e. mouth area) that could be related to a possible larger amount of negative emotional experiences. Concerning make-up behaviour, women from the group S more extensively manipulated their relative facial attractiveness, by using a large range of colours, but also through a significantly longer make-up process used to adjust their visual asymmetry and therefore increase their potential of attractiveness. On the overall, our results suggest that make-up is used differentially, according to stable psychological profiles of women, to manipulate specific visual/morphological facial features involved in attractiveness. PMID:21284661

Korichi, R; Pelle-de-Queral, D; Gazano, G; Aubert, A

2011-02-01

250

Facial plastic surgery database.  

PubMed

Every facial plastic surgeon accumulates a vast library of professional slides and photographs that document his work. Manual cataloguing of the clinical and operative documentation is time consuming and provides limited analysis capabilities. The facial plastic surgery database is a state-of-the-art computer programme that allows the surgeon to sort and locate slides and photographs. Designed for the computer novice, it utilises a simple coding system to permit rapid data input. The codes can be tailored to allow for new procedures or alternative practice styles. There are sophisticated searching routines to quickly find slides and photographs based on any combination of patients and operative criteria. The database also includes an online colour atlas and workspace for recording of presentations. There are automated routines to analyse patients' clinical features, operative trends, and surgical results. Ultimately, examination of this data can be used to facilitate peer review, research, and self-education. PMID:8170012

Mendelsohn, M; Conrad, K

1994-02-01

251

Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)  

SciTech Connect

Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. (Univ. of Toronto School of Medicine, Ontario (Canada))

1989-12-01

252

The Sensitive Skin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

2012-01-01

253

Human facial beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that human faces judged to be attractive by people possess two features—averageness and symmetry—that promoted\\u000a adaptive mate selection in human evolutionary history by way of production of offspring with parasite resistance. Facial composites\\u000a made by combining individual faces are judged to be attractive, and more attractive than the majority of individual faces.\\u000a The composites possess both symmetry

Randy Thorrthill; Steven W. Gangestad

1993-01-01

254

Robust Facial Feature Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a robust technique for tracking a set of pre-determined points on a human face. To achieve robustness, the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi point tracker is extended and specialised to work on facial features by embedding knowledge about the configuration and visual characteristics of the face. The resulting tracker is designed to recover from the loss of points caused by tracking drift

Fabrice Bourel; Claude C. Chibelushi; Adrian A. Low

2000-01-01

255

Separation of mouse embryonic facial ectoderm and mesenchyme.  

PubMed

Orofacial clefts are the most frequent craniofacial defects, which affect 1.5 in 1,000 newborns worldwide. Orofacial clefting is caused by abnormal facial development. In human and mouse, initial growth and patterning of the face relies on several small buds of tissue, the facial prominences. The face is derived from six main prominences: paired frontal nasal processes (FNP), maxillary prominences (MxP) and mandibular prominences (MdP). These prominences consist of swellings of mesenchyme that are encased in an overlying epithelium. Studies in multiple species have shown that signaling crosstalk between facial ectoderm and mesenchyme is critical for shaping the face. Yet, mechanistic details concerning the genes involved in these signaling relays are lacking. One way to gain a comprehensive understanding of gene expression, transcription factor binding, and chromatin marks associated with the developing facial ectoderm and mesenchyme is to isolate and characterize the separated tissue compartments. Here we present a method for separating facial ectoderm and mesenchyme at embryonic day (E) 10.5, a critical developmental stage in mouse facial formation that precedes fusion of the prominences. Our method is adapted from the approach we have previously used for dissecting facial prominences. In this earlier study we had employed inbred C57BL/6 mice as this strain has become a standard for genetics, genomics and facial morphology. Here, though, due to the more limited quantities of tissue available, we have utilized the outbred CD-1 strain that is cheaper to purchase, more robust for husbandry, and tending to produce more embryos (12-18) per litter than any inbred mouse strain. Following embryo isolation, neutral protease Dispase II was used to treat the whole embryo. Then, the facial prominences were dissected out, and the facial ectoderm was separated from the mesenchyme. This method keeps both the facial ectoderm and mesenchyme intact. The samples obtained using this methodology can be used for techniques including protein detection, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, microarray studies, and RNA-seq. PMID:23603693

Li, Hong; Williams, Trevor

2013-04-12

256

A Humanlike Predictor of Facial Attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a method for estimating human facial attractiveness, based on supervised learning techniques. Numerous facial features that describe facial geometry, color and texture, combined with an average human attractiveness score for each facial image, are used to train various predictors. Facial attractiveness ratings produced by the final predictor are found to be highly correlated with human ratings, markedly

Amit Kagian; Gideon Dror; Tommer Leyvand; Daniel Cohen-or; Eytan Ruppin

2006-01-01

257

Large facial nerve schwannomas without facial palsy: case reports and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although approximately 30% of facial nerve schwannoma cases present with no facial palsy, a large facial nerve schwannoma extending to the middle and posterior cranial fossa quite rarely presents without facial palsy. The authors encountered two patients with large facial nerve schwannoma who presented with only hearing impairment and no facial palsy. The first patient was a 64-year-old woman who

Yuichi Kubota; Takakazu Kawamata; Osami Kubo; Hidetoshi Kasuya; Yoshihiro Muragaki; Tomokatsu Hori

2005-01-01

258

New-onset facial paralysis and undiagnosed recurrence of cutaneous malignancy: evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Perineural invasion of cranial nerves, including the facial nerve by squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, is a poor prognostic factor for recurrent disease and disease-specific mortality. We discuss 2 patients who presented to the Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery service with complete facial nerve paralysis and a history of skin cancer. Based on our experience with these patients, we recommend that patients who present with facial nerve paralysis and a history of cutaneous malignancy undergo aggressive management including early intervention and complete exploration of the facial nerve from the geniculate ganglion out to the periphery. Such rigorous care achieves the best possible oncologic outcomes for a proven aggressive disease. PMID:16500480

Scurry, W Cooper; Isaacson, Jon E; Fedok, Fred G

259

The combined free partial vastus lateralis with anterolateral thigh perforator flap reconstruction of extensive composite defects.  

PubMed

Myocutaneous (MC) free flaps are useful for many reconstructive indications. Perforator flaps have become standard of care. The anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) donor site is popular. With the ALT flap varying sizes of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle can be harvested as a MC flap. The skin islands of these flaps have a great range of freedom when dissected on their perforator. It was hypothesised that the VL-ALT perforator flap would offer adequate tissue volume combining maximal freedom in planning with minimal donor site morbidity. From November 2001 to February 2003 a free partial VL with ALT perforator flap was used in 11 patients to reconstruct large defects. Indications for adding a muscular component were exposed bone, skull base, (artificial) dura, or osteosynthesis material, open sinuses, and lack of muscular bulk. Flaps were planned as standard ALT flaps, after which three types of dissection were performed: I. true MC flap; II. muscle flap with a skin island on one perforator, which could be rotated up to 180 degrees ; III. chimera skin perforator flap with muscle being harvested on a separate branch from the source vessel or on a side branch of the skin perforator. Mean skin size of the MC-ALT flaps was 131 cm2. Mean muscle part size of the MC-ALT flaps was 268 cm3. Muscular parts were custom designed for all defects. No total or partial flap failures were seen. Colour mismatch was seen in 6 of 8 patients, when skin was used in the facial area in this all white population. Excessive flap bulk was found in 8 of 11 patients at 6 weeks, however, only in 2 of 11 patients after 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the functional result (8 of 11 patients) as well as the cosmetic result of their reconstruction (7 of 11 patients). All less satisfied patients had received their flap for external facial skin reconstruction. Donor site morbidity was minimal. The combined free partial VL with ALT perforator flap proved valuable as a (chimera type) MC flap with maximal freedom of planning to meet specific reconstructive demands and minimal donor site morbidity. PMID:16043151

Posch, N A S; Mureau, M A M; Flood, S J; Hofer, S O P

2005-07-25

260

Walk-through injuries: glass door facial injuries.  

PubMed

During 1998, 13 patients were treated in the Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center for complex facial soft-tissue injuries caused by passing through large, clear glass doors. All epidemiological details were gathered and analyzed. Of 1,100 soft-tissue facial injury admissions in 1 year, 13 patients had a substantial soft-tissue facial injury after passing through a glass barrier. Nine were injured during leisure time activity, five in a shopping mall, and four in their residence. Interestingly, the authors found a common pattern of facial injuries in all patients. It consisted of large, irregular, composite skin and soft-tissue flaps as well as large, tom, irregular skin lacerations. The nose was injured predominantly, and the injury was particularly complex. Their recommended management of these injuries is a thorough and careful evaluation of flap viability. Surgical management of avulsed, viable flaps includes margin debridement and repositioning. If the flap is narrow enough, it can be debrided and the margins adapted primarily. If viability of part of the flap is in doubt, that part should be debrided and used as a composite graft. When this graft dies, a full-thickness graft is taken from another facial site. The cosmesis of such a graft is better than using the debrided, thin segment as a skin graft that is too thin. The authors emphasize that there is a need to encourage authorities to reinforce regulations relating to injury prevention from architectural glass. The first is to use special glazing, either tempered glass, laminated glass, or both. The other method of improving safety is by indicating glass using decorations or warning stickers, or by making it partly translucent. Unless these regulations are obeyed, fatal or complex trauma may occur. PMID:11405360

Gur, E; Barnea, Y; Leshem, D; Zaretski, A; Amir, A; Weiss, J; Shpitzer, T; Shafir, R

2001-06-01

261

Dissociation of sad facial expressions and autonomic nervous system responding in boys with disruptive behavior disorders  

PubMed Central

Although deficiencies in emotional responding have been linked to externalizing behaviors in children, little is known about how discrete response systems (e.g., expressive, physiological) are coordinated during emotional challenge among these youth. We examined time-linked correspondence of sad facial expressions and autonomic reactivity during an empathy-eliciting task among boys with disruptive behavior disorders (n = 31) and controls (n = 23). For controls, sad facial expressions were associated with reduced sympathetic (lower skin conductance level, lengthened cardiac preejection period [PEP]) and increased parasympathetic (higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) activity. In contrast, no correspondence between facial expressions and autonomic reactivity was observed among boys with conduct problems. Furthermore, low correspondence between facial expressions and PEP predicted externalizing symptom severity, whereas low correspondence between facial expressions and RSA predicted internalizing symptom severity.

Marsh, Penny; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Williams, Bailey

2009-01-01

262

The effect of chitosan hydrogel containing DMEM/F12 medium on full-thickness skin defects after deep dermal burn.  

PubMed

Burn wound excision is considered necessary to prepare skin for grafting, and the success of graft "take" is thought to be dependent on the vascular supply to the wound. We previously showed that photocrosslinkable chitosan hydrogel containing DMEM/F12 medium (medium-Az-CH-LA) is a biocompatible and biodegradable biomaterial that promotes re-epithelialization and neovascularization. The current study was designed to determine the effect of medium-Az-CH-LA on deep dermal burn. Sixteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups that were treated with medium-Az-CH-LA (n=5) or a collagen sponge (n=5). Under anesthesia, the dorsal fur was shaved and the skin was exposed to water at 95 degrees C for 10s. After 2h, damaged tissue was removed from the fascia and dressed with medium-Az-CH-LA or a collagen sponge. Specimens were obtained after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 32 days for histological analysis. There was no significant difference in the time required for wound closure between the two groups, but the thickness of the granulation tissue in the medium-Az-CH-LA-treated group was greater than that in the collagen sponge-treated group. Moreover, degradation and neovascularization occurred earlier in the group treated with medium-Az-CH-LA compared with the collagen sponge-treated group. These findings suggest that early degradative and angiogenic activities of medium-Az-CH-LA may be beneficial for granulation tissue formation in deep dermal burn wounds. PMID:17475411

Kiyozumi, Tetsuro; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Masayuki; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shimizu, Jun; Yura, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Shinya; Okada, Yoshiaki; Kikuchi, Makoto

2007-05-01

263

Plakoglobin rescues adhesive defects induced by ectodomain truncation of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 1: implications for exfoliative toxin-mediated skin blistering.  

PubMed

Desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) is a desmosomal cadherin that is essential to epidermal integrity. In the blistering diseases bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome, pathogenesis depends on cleavage of Dsg1 by a bacterial protease, exfoliative toxin A, which removes residues 1 to 381 of the Dsg1 ectodomain. However, the cellular responses to Dsg1 cleavage that precipitate keratinocyte separation to induce blister formation are unknown. Here, we show that ectodomain-deleted Dsg1 (?381-Dsg1) mimics the toxin-cleaved cadherin, disrupts desmosomes, and reduces the mechanical integrity of keratinocyte sheets. In addition, we demonstrate that truncated Dsg1 remains associated with its catenin partner, plakoglobin, and causes a reduction in the levels of endogenous desmosomal cadherins in a dose-dependent manner, leading us to hypothesize that plakoglobin sequestration by truncated Dsg1 destabilizes other cadherins. Accordingly, a triple-point mutant of the ectodomain-deleted cadherin, which is uncoupled from plakoglobin, does not impair adhesion, indicating that this interaction is essential to the pathogenic potential of truncated Dsg1. Moreover, we demonstrate that increasing plakoglobin levels rescues cadherin expression, desmosome organization, and functional adhesion in cells expressing ?381-Dsg1 or treated with exfoliative toxin A. Finally, we report that histone deacetylase inhibition up-regulates desmosomal cadherins and prevents the loss of adhesion induced by Dsg1 truncation. These findings further our understanding of the mechanism of exfoliative toxin-induced pathology and suggest novel strategies to suppress blistering in bulbous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome. PMID:21075858

Simpson, Cory L; Kojima, Shin-ichiro; Cooper-Whitehair, Victoria; Getsios, Spiro; Green, Kathleen J

2010-11-12

264

Facial Reconstruction by Biosurgery: Cell Transplantation Versus Cell Homing  

PubMed Central

The face distinguishes one human being from another. When the face is disfigured because of trauma, tumor removal, congenital anomalies, or chronic diseases, the patient has a strong desire for functional and esthetic restoration. Current practice of facial reconstruction using autologous grafts, synthetic fillers, and prostheses is frequently below the surgeon's and patient's expectations. Facial reconstruction is yet to take advantage of recent advances in seemingly unrelated fields of stem cell biology, chemical engineering, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. “Biosurgery,” a new concept that we propose, will incorporate novel principles and strategies of bioactive cues, biopolymers, and/or cells to restore facial defects. Small facial defects can likely be reconstructed by cell homing and without cell transplantation. A critical advantage of cell homing is that agilely recruited endogenous cells have the potential to harness the host's innate capacity for regeneration, thus accelerating the rate of regulatory and commercialization processes for product development. Large facial defects, however, may not be restorable without cell delivery per our understanding at this time. New breakthrough in biosurgery will likely originate from integrated strategies of cell biology, cytokine biology, chemical engineering, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. Regardless of cell homing or cell delivery approaches, biosurgery not only will minimize surgical trauma and repetitive procedures, but also produce long-lasting results. At the same time, caution must be exercised against the development of products that lack scientific basis or dogmatic combination of cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules. Together, scientifically derived biosurgery will undoubtedly develop into new technologies that offer increasingly natural reconstruction and/or augmentation of the face.

Stosich, Michael S.; Moioli, Eduardo K.; Lee, Chang Hun; Fu, Susan Y.; Bastian, Barbara; Eisig, Sidney B.; Zemnick, Candice; Ascherman, Jeffrey; Wu, June; Rohde, Christine; Ahn, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

265

Real-time Face and Facial Feature Tracking and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human face provides a variety of different communicativefunctions. In this paper, we present approachesfor real-time face\\/facial feature tracking andtheir applications. First, we present techniques oftracking human faces. It is revealed that human skincolorcan be used as a major feature for tracking humanfaces. An adaptive stochastic model has beendeveloped to characterize the skin-color distributions.Based on the maximum likelihood method, the

Jie Yang; Rainer Stiefelhagen; Uwe Meier

1998-01-01

266

Skin - clammy  

MedlinePLUS

Sweat - cold; Clammy skin; Cold sweat ... Clammy skin may be an emergency. Call your doctor or 911 immediately. ... care depends on what is causing the clammy skin. Call for medical help if you are not ...

267

Evolutionary Psychology of Facial Attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human face communicates an impressive number of visual signals. Although adults' ratings of facial attractiveness are consistent across studies, even cross-culturally, there has been considerable controversy surrounding attempts to identify the facial features that cause faces to be judged attractive or unattractive. Studies of physical attractiveness have attempted to identify the features that contribute to attractiveness by studying the

Bernhard Fink; Ian Penton-Voak

2002-01-01

268

PLANNING RECONSTRUCTION FOR FACIAL ASYMMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of 3D shape modeling to plan reconstructive facial surgery for children born with facial asymmetry. The study used 3D images synthesized from high resolution CT scans. The images were manipulated using geometric morphometrics and the principal components of variation were derived. The software developed allows the user to either reconstruct how the whole face would

ALLAN PONNIAH; HELEN WITHEROW; ROBERT EVANS; DAVID DUNAWAY; ROBIN RICHARDS; CLIFF RUFF

269

Emotional Facial Expressions in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we review empirical evidence regarding the relationship between facial expression and emotion during infancy. We focus on differential emotions theory’s view of this relationship because of its theoretical and methodological prominence. We conclude that current evidence fails to support its proposal regarding a set of pre-specified facial expressions that invariably reflect a corresponding set of discrete emotions

Linda A. Camras; Jennifer M. Shutter

2010-01-01

270

Facial expression and piano performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies (Caterina et al. 2004) carried out on the body and facial expressions of pianists during thei r per- formances, have shown that there is a specific rela tion be- tween non verbal expressions and music structure. We tried to compare the value of single facial acti on unit movements- such as eyebrow raising and frowning - f ound

Luisa Bonfiglioli; Roberto Caterina; Iolanda Incasa; Mario Baroni

2006-01-01

271

Facial Attractiveness and Physical Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has documented that more facially attractive people are perceived by others to be physically healthier. Using self-reports, observer ratings, daily diary methodology, and psychophysiological assessments, this study provides limited empirical evidence that more facially attractive people (N = 100) may be physically healthier than unattractive people. Discussion suggests the value of an evolutionary psychological perspective for understanding the

Todd K. Shackelford; Randy J. Larsen

1999-01-01

272

Depth-dependent ordering, two-length-scale phenomena, and crossover behavior in a crystal featuring a skin layer with defects  

SciTech Connect

Structural defects in a crystal are responsible for the ''two-length-scale'' behavior in which a sharp central peak is superimposed over a broad peak in critical diffuse x-ray scattering. We have previously measured the scaling behavior of the central peak by scattering from a near-surface region of a V{sub 2}H crystal, which has a first-order transition in the bulk. As the temperature is lowered toward the critical temperature, a crossover in critical behavior is seen, with the temperature range nearest to the critical point being characterized by mean-field exponents. Near the transition, a small two-phase coexistence region is observed. The values of transition and crossover temperatures decay with depth. An explanation of these experimental results is here proposed by means of a theory in which edge dislocations in the near-surface region occur in walls oriented in the two directions normal to the surface. The strain caused by the dislocation lines causes the ordering in the crystal to occur as growth of roughly cylindrically shaped regions. After the regions have reached a certain size, the crossover in the critical behavior occurs, and mean-field behavior prevails. At a still lower temperature, the rest of the material between the cylindrical regions orders via a weak first-order transition.

Del Genio, Charo I. [University of Houston, Houston; Bassler, Kevin E. [University of Houston, Houston; Korzhenevskii, Alexander L. [Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering, St. Petersburg; Barabash, Rozaliya [ORNL; Trenkler, PhD Johann [Lithography Optics Division, Carl Zeiss Germany; Reiter, George [University of Houston, Houston; Moss, Simon [University of Houston, Houston

2010-01-01

273

Skin expansion in burn patients: problems, rules and indications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin expansion in burn patients can be a useful method for secondary skin resurfacing, scar revision or facial remodelling. However, complications and problems occur more often in these patients than in any other. In this paper the incidence of complication in the first and second stages of expansion will be presented. Several rules will then be stated and we will

C. Echinard

1996-01-01

274

Problems with India ink skin markings.  

PubMed

India ink skin markings allow consistently reproducible radiation field setups. The authors report a case in which a facial tattoo was applied with an injection, resulting in permanent "black eyes." The vaccination technique has not been associated with this complication. PMID:7352251

Haselow, R E; Krause, D A

1980-02-01

275

Living related hemi-face skin transplant using radial forearm free flap for a xeroderma pigmentosa patient: early outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Xeroderma pigmentosa (XP) is a hereditary disease characterized by deficient repair of DNA damage that occurred on exposure of the skin to ultraviolet irradiation. The affected children have a propensity to develop multiple skin cancers mainly in the face and eventually die before the age of 20. HYPOTHESIS: Allograft replacement of facial skin by a healthy skin from normal

Ayman Amin; Mahmoud Bassiouny; Kareem Sallam; Galal Ghally; Hanaa El-Karaksy; Alaa El-Haddad

2010-01-01

276

Ultraviolet A Induces Generation of Squalene Monohydroperoxide Isomers in Human Sebum and Skin Surface Lipids In Vitro and In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the outermost surface of human skin, skin surface lipids are first-line targets of solar ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, we hypothesized that ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B irradiation induce photo-oxidation of skin surface lipids. To test this, sebum samples were collected from facial skin of 17 healthy volunteers, weighed, and immediately irradiated with either ultraviolet B or ultraviolet A. Squalene, the

Swarna Ekanayake Mudiyanselage; Matthias Hamburger; Peter Elsner; Jens J Thiele

2003-01-01

277

Parry-Romberg syndrome: facial atrophy and its relationship with other regions of the body.  

PubMed

Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) is an uncommon disorder and characterized by a slowly, an acquired progressive atrophy involving skin, soft tissue, cartilage, and bony structures. Accompanying atrophies of the other parts of the body are rarely reported. The aim of this study is to report a case that had contralateral lower extremity atrophy with PRS, and to review the related etiologic features, physiopathology, and mechanism. The patient who admitted for his facial atrophy also had atrophy of his contralateral extremity. This extremity was also short in length when compared with other extremity. To obtain detailed information regarding the severity of involvement routine laboratory investigations including antinuclear antibody (ANA), magnetic resonance imagine (MRI) of the craniofacial region and lower extremities, MR angiography of the lower extremities and brain, 3-dimension computed tomography (CT) scan of the craniofacial region were performed. Normal or negative laboratory findings included results of blood count, renal and hepatic function biochemical tests, rheumatoid factor, C-reactive protein, anti-dsDNA antibody except ANA that were positive. His lower extremity and brain MR angiography were normal. In the 3-dimensional cranial CT, there was no abnormality or defect in the bony structures. His brain MRI showed no pathologic changes, and his facial MRI demonstrated noteworthy atrophy to the sternocleidomastoid, masseter, pterygoid muscles, and subcutaneus soft tissues on the right side of the face. Additionally, MR investigation of his lower extremities revealed decreased volume in muscles and bony structures of the effected extremity compared with the other extremity, but pathologic evidence of fatty degeneration associated with muscle atrophy was not demonstrated. The patient had isolated contralateral lower extremity involvement combined with hemifacial atrophy (without affecting any other part of the body). Although more accepted theory is the sympathic nervous system dysfunction, autoimmunity may play a roll in the etiology of our case as ANA abnormality was found in multiple tests. PMID:19745718

Duymaz, Ahmet; Karabekmez, Furkan Erol; Keskin, Mustafa; Tosun, Zekeriya

2009-10-01

278

The role of the anterolateral thigh flap in complex defects of the scalp and cranium.  

PubMed

In this study, we introduced scalp reconstruction using free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps and evaluated postoperative outcomes in nine patients between March 2000 and April 2012. Five patients had problems of exposed prosthesis, three required reconstruction after resection of scalp tumor and one patient presented with third degree flame burns of the scalp. All flaps survived without re-exploration, except three flaps with tip necrosis requiring secondary procedures of debridement and small Z-plasty reconstructions. The superficial temporal artery and its concomitant vein were used as recipient vessels, apart from two cases where previous surgery and flame burns excluded these choices, for which facial arteries and veins were used instead. Primary closure of the donor-site was possible in six cases; with skin grafting performed for the other three patients. All donor sites healed without complications. The ALT flap offers the advantage of customizable size, option of fascia lata as vascularized dural replacement, and minimal flap atrophy typical of muscle flaps. Indications include very large defects, defects with exposed prosthesis, or defects with bone or dural loss. Our experience lends credible support to the use of customized free ALT flaps to achieve functional and cosmetically superior result for the reconstruction of large scalp defects, especially with bone exposure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2013. PMID:23640870

Lin, Pao-Yuan; Miguel, Ros; Chew, Khong-Yik; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Chia-Shen Yang, Johnson

2013-05-01

279

A preliminary study of differentially expressed genes in expanded skin and normal skin: implications for adult skin regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adults, severely damaged skin heals by scar formation and cannot regenerate to the original skin structure. However, tissue\\u000a expansion is an exception, as normal skin regenerates under the mechanical stretch resulting from tissue expansion. This technique\\u000a has been used clinically for defect repair and organ reconstruction for decades. However, the phenomenon of adult skin regeneration\\u000a during tissue expansion has

Mei Yang; Yimin Liang; Lingling Sheng; Guoxiong Shen; Kai Liu; Bin Gu; Fanjun Meng; Qingfeng Li

2011-01-01

280

Facial Expression and Speech: Neuroanatomical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the neuroanatomy and pathology of facial expression and findings on the neuroanatomical connections between expressions of the face and speech. The facial musculature is briefly dealt with in terms of its innervation by the facial nerve and its relationship to the soft palate at the peripheral system level. After considering the facial nuclei, the supranuclear innervation of

Ronald S. Van Gelder; Leo Van Gelder

1990-01-01

281

Left hemisphere representations of emotional facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have suggested that the right hemisphere is superior at processing emotional facial expressions because it contains stored perceptual ‘templates’ of facial expressions. We tested each hemisphere of a split-brain patient on two tasks involving emotional facial expressions. Both hemispheres performed equally well and significantly above chance matching facial expressions with emotion words. The subject's right hemisphere consistently performed well

Valerie E. Stone; Laura Nisenson; James C. Eliassen; Michael S. Gazzaniga

1996-01-01

282

Facial Shape Localization Using Probability Gradient Hints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter proposes a novel method to localize facial shape represented by a series of facial landmarks. In our method, the problem of facial shape localization is formulated with a Bayesian inference. Specifically, given a face image, the posterior probability of the facial shape is naturally decomposed into two parts: the likelihood function of local textures and the prior constraints

Zhiheng Niu; Shiguang Shan; Xilin Chen

2009-01-01

283

Facial Attractiveness: Beauty and the Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we explore the notion of facial attractiveness through the appli- cation of machine learning techniques. We construct a machine that learns from facial images and their respective attractiveness ratings to produce human-like evaluation of facial attractiveness. Our work is based on the un- derlying theory that there are objective regularities in facial attractiveness to be analyzed and

Yael Eisenthal; Gideon Dror; Eytan Ruppin

2006-01-01

284

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

PubMed

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

285

A 3D Facial Expression Database For Facial Behavior Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, human facial expressions have been studied using either 2D static images or 2D video sequences. The 2D-based analysis is incapable of handing large pose variations. Although 3D modeling techniques have been extensively used for 3D face recognition and 3D face animation, barely any research on 3D facial expression recognition using 3D range data has been reported. A primary factor

Lijun Yin; Xiaozhou Wei; Yi Sun; Jun Wang; Matthew J. Rosato

2006-01-01

286

Facial nerve hemangioma: a case report.  

PubMed

Although hemangiomas are relatively common in the head and neck, those that originate in the facial nerve are extremely rare. These benign tumors have the potential to compress or invade the adjacent facial nerve and thereby produce facial paralysis and other associated symptoms. We present a case of facial nerve hemangioma in a 15-year-old girl that initially manifested as unilateral facial weakness. We also discuss the diagnostic imaging and management options. PMID:23780592

Wu, Edward C; Rothholtz, Vanessa S; Zardouz, Shawn; Lee, Alice D; Djalilian, Hamid R

2013-06-01

287

Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change in a speaker's emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description

Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Glenn I. Roisman; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Thomas S. Huang

2006-01-01

288

Seborrheic Area Erythema as a Common Skin Manifestation in Japanese Patients with Dermatomyositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although dermatomyositis (DM)-associated facial erythema was noted in the nasolabial folds of Japanese patients, DM-associated facial erythema other than heliotrope rash has drawn little attention in previous studies. Objectives: To characterize phenotypical features and frequencies of erythema, especially those in the seborrheic area of the head, in DM patients. Methods: A retrospective study on skin manifestations in 33 DM

N. Okiyama; H. Kohsaka; N. Ueda; T. Satoh; I. Katayama; K. Nishioka; H. Yokozeki

2008-01-01

289

Hyaluronic acid gel in skin rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Hyaluronans have become the most popular agents used for soft tissue augmentation in the entire facial area. They are biodegradeable, nonpermanent and have a remarkable safety profile. Their natural biocompatibility means that no pretreatment skin test is necessary. The soft pliable enhancement of natural tissue turgor and contour makes them very acceptable in the lips and perioral and periocular regions. The more viscous agents are very helpful in the treatment of facial lipoatrophy particularly in the region of the cheeks and chin. PMID:17373144

Carruthers, Jean; Carruthers, Alastair

290

Skin culture  

MedlinePLUS

... culture if the sample involves the mucous membranes . See also: Herpes culture ... There is no preparation needed for a culture. For information on how to prepare for a skin or mucosal sample, see: Skin lesion biopsy Gum biopsy

291

Skin Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

Muller, Eric

1998-01-01

292

Quantitative evaluation of skin condition in an epidemiological survey of females living in northern versus southern Japan.  

PubMed

Image analysis and biophysical methods were used to compare the skin condition of a group of females ranging in age from 5 to 65 years who had lived all of their lives in either Kagoshima (n=300), located in southern Japan, or Akita (n=302), located in northern Japan. Kagoshima annually receives approximately 1.5 times more solar UVB radiation than Akita. The methods used and corresponding skin parameters reported in this survey were: high resolution digital imaging followed by computer analysis of facial images for facial skin wrinkling and hyperpigmentation; silicone skin replicas followed by Moiré interferometry for facial skin surface roughness (texture); the Minolta Chromameter for skin color (L*a*b*) on sun-exposed (forehead) and sun-protected (upper inner arm) skin sites; the Corneometer for skin capacitance (hydration) on the cheek and ventral forearm; the Sebumeter for sebum excretion rate on the forehead; and the Minolta Spot Thermometer for skin temperature on the upper cheek. Compared with Japanese women living in Akita, Japanese women living in Kagoshima had significantly longer facial wrinkles, higher number of wrinkles, larger hyperpigmented spots, higher number of spots, rougher facial skin texture, more yellow foreheads and upper inner arms, darker foreheads, and less stratum corneum hydration in the cheeks and arms. When compared on an age-for-age basis, the average 40-year-old Kagoshima women has the same level of facial wrinkling as a 48-year-old Akita women, a delay of 8 years for living in the northern latitude. For facial hyperpigmentation, the delay is 16 years; the average 40-year-old Kagoshima women has the same level of facial hyperpigmentation as a 56-year-old Akita women. The results further testify to the skin damaging effects of sun exposure and may be useful in public health education to promote everyday sun protection. PMID:11514124

Hillebrand, G G; Miyamoto, K; Schnell, B; Ichihashi, M; Shinkura, R; Akiba, S

2001-08-01

293

The evolution of injectable poly-L-lactic acid from the correction of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy to aging-related facial contour deficiencies.  

PubMed

Loss of facial volume due to skeletal resorption and facial fat redistribution is considered a primary cause for increased skin folding and sagging associated with aging. The objective of this review is to examine how use of injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) for correction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated facial lipoatrophy supports wider use in treating aging-related facial changes given its approval for aesthetic use. A literature review of studies evaluating injectable PLLA for the treatment of HIV-associated or aging-related contour deficiencies was conducted via MEDLINE, supplemented by the author's clinical experience. In clinical trials of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy, injectable PLLA increased dermal thickness for up to 96 weeks. Another study showed significant improvements in aging-related nasolabial fold wrinkles that lasted up to 25 months. Understanding differences in the use of injectable PLLA between patients with HIV and those with aging-related facial changes will help physicians optimize patient treatment. PMID:22052268

Burgess, Cheryl

2011-09-01

294

Skin Aging  

MedlinePLUS

Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

295

Frontal-view face detection and facial feature extraction using color and morphological operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel algorithm for front-view facial contour detection and features extraction is described. A skin-color face segmentation method is developed to detect the face region firstly. In order to more precisely locate the face contour and features such as eyes, mouth and nostrils, we eliminate the ears and neck from the face region by using morphological operations and knowledge about

Jian-gang Wang; Eric Sung

1999-01-01

296

A Design of Gender and Age Estimation System Based on Facial Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to propose a method of gender and age estimation which is robust for environmental changing. We propose a feature-point detection method which is the advanced retinal sampling method (ARSM), and a feature extraction method. As features for the gender and age estimation, facial shape, skin texture, hue and Gabor-feature are used. In order to

Hironori TAKIMOTO; Y. Mitsukura; M. Fukumi; N. Akamatsu

2006-01-01

297

Laser abrasion for cosmetic and medical treatment of facial actinic damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown the carbon dioxide (COâ) laser to be effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. After COâ laser abrasion, normal skin and marked cosmetic improvement of the lip were noted. In our study, twenty-three patients were treated with COâ laser abrasions for cosmetic improvement of facial lines and actinic changes. Pre- and postoperative histopathologic examinations were made

L. M. David; G. P. Lask; E. Glassberg; R. Jacoby; R. P. Abergel

1989-01-01

298

Birth Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... The institute is a leader in research on birth defects, their causes, their prevention and treatments, and their long-term health outcomes. The NICHD is aware that the term "birth defects" carries negative undertones and that the term does ...

299

Birth Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... mothers. These defects, which include conditions such as hemophilia and color-blindness, are called X-linked because ... all cerebral palsy is considered a birth defect. Therapy to improve motor skills, surgery, and braces and ...

300

Facial reconstruction--anatomical art or artistic anatomy?  

PubMed

Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury. PMID:20447245

Wilkinson, Caroline

2010-02-01

301

Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).  

PubMed

Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients. PMID:24053080

Basi?-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanovi?; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

2013-06-01

302

Angiosarcoma in a patient with immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Immunodeficiency, Centromeric region instability, and Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome (OMIM #242860) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective DNA methylation. Hematological disease and malignancy (macrophage activation syndrome, myelodysplastic syndrome, and Hodgkin lymphoma) have been reported in three patients. To date, there have been no reports of either epithelial or mesenchymal malignancies. We present a patient with all

M. van den Brand; U. E. Flucke; P. Bult; C. M. R. Weemaes; M. van Deuren

2011-01-01

303

Genetic Modifiers of the Physical Malformations in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome/DiGeorge Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid, and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that "Tbx1", a…

Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

2008-01-01

304

Recognizing Upper Face Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop an automatic system to analyze subtle changes in upper face expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal image sequence. Our system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression based on Facial Action Coding System (FACS) action units (AUs). Multi-state facial component models are proposed

Ying-li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2000-01-01

305

Computer facial animation: framework, problems, and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is devoted to the problems of automatic computer facial animation. Based on the experience of Intel Facial Animation Library (IFAL) development, animation framework, methods, problems and perspectives are analyzed. IFAL is used as a part of \\

A. Fedorov; T. Firsova; V. Kuriakin; E. Martinova; V. Zhislina

306

Facial Expression Analysis by Computational Intelligence Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study involved two research fields: facial expression (i.e. psychological as well as computer-vision facets of the facial-expression-analysis problem domain) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The thesis begins, therefore, with two introductory chapte...

M. Pantic

2000-01-01

307

Learning from essential facial parts and local features for automatic facial expression recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop an automatic facial expression recognition system which establishes relations between facial expressions and the facial parts changes. Here, the differences between neutral and emotional states are used to help locating and identifying the essential facial parts for human expressions. For face description, region-based method to compute LBP features is applied then the most important ones

Yi Ji; Khalid Idrissi

2010-01-01

308

Skin aging and dry skin.  

PubMed

Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

Hashizume, Hideo

2004-08-01

309

Facial plexiform neurofibroma: is it truly just skin deep?  

PubMed

A middle-aged Chinese woman presented with a slowly enlarging mass over the right side of her face that was later proven histologically to be a plexiform neurofibroma. This was associated with a localised depression over her right temple. There were no other features of neurofibromatosis-1. The presentation and biological behaviour of plexiform neurofibromas are reviewed in this manuscript. Particular attention is paid to the interaction of plexiform neurofibromas with their surrounding structures, as well as the postulated mechanisms by which this occurs. PMID:24099762

Huang, Wenhui; Chong, Wei-Sheng

2013-10-07

310

Innervation of hairs in the facial skin of marsupial mammals.  

PubMed Central

The innervation of pelage, guard hairs and vibrissae hairs was studied in five species of marsupial mammals by means of electron microscopy for the first time. This study showed that members of different superfamilies in marsupial mammals displayed the same pattern of hair innervation. This also resembled the pattern seen in the placental mammals. All types of hairs had both longitudinal and transverse lanceolate nerve terminals. Pelage hairs did not have any Merkel cells. Guard hairs were very richly innervated and had free nerve endings, lanceolate nerve endings, many Merkel cells with their associated nerve endings and pilo-Ruffini nerve endings. Vibrissae hairs had free nerve endings, Merkel nerve endings and lamellated corpuscles, but pilo-Ruffini nerve endings were not seen in this investigation. Because of the profusion and variety of innervation in guard hairs of the marsupial mammals, these hairs may have a similar function to vibrissae hairs in placental mammals. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11

Loo, S K; Halata, Z

1991-01-01

311

Bilateral sequential facial palsy during chickenpox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial palsy is a rare neurological complication of chickenpox. A 5-year-old girl exhibited a right facial palsy followed\\u000a by the appearance of the characteristic chicken pox exanthem. Subsequently she suffered a left facial palsy. In this patient\\u000a both pathophysiological mechanisms responsible and their relation to the phase of infection are illustrated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion Facial palsy as a complication of chickenpox can

M. van der Flier; C. van Koppenhagen; F. J. M. Disch; H. W. Mauser; J. H. G. M. Bistervels; J. A. A. M. van Diemen-Steenvoorde

1999-01-01

312

Real-Time Facial Feature Point Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localization of facial feature points is an important step for many subsequent facial image analysis tasks. In this paper,\\u000a we proposed a new coarse-to-fine method for extracting 20 facial feature points from image sequences. In particular, the Viola-Jones\\u000a face detection method is extended to detect small-scale facial components with wide shape variations, and linear Kalman filters\\u000a are used to smoothly

Ce Zhan; Wanqing Li; Philip Ogunbona; Farzad Safaei

2007-01-01

313

Face Recognition Based on Multiple Facial Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic face recognition system based on multiple facial features is described in this paper. Each facial fea- ture is represented by a Gabor-based complex vector and is localized by an automatic facial feature detection scheme. Two face recognition approaches, named Two-Layer Near- est Neighbor (TLNN) and Modular Nearest Feature Line (MNFL) respectively, are proposed. Both TLNN and MNFL are

Rui Liao; Stan Z. Li

2000-01-01

314

New “golden” ratios for facial beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four experiments, we tested the existence of an ideal facial feature arrangement that could optimize the attractiveness of any face given its facial features. Participants made paired comparisons of attractiveness between faces with identical facial features but different eye–mouth distances and different interocular distances. We found that although different faces have varying attractiveness, individual attractiveness is optimized when the

Pamela M. Pallett; Stephen Link; Kang Lee

2010-01-01

315

Feature selection for facial expression recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In daily interactions, humans convey their emotions through facial expression and other means. There are several facial expressions that reflect distinctive psychological activities such as happiness, surprise or anger. Accurate recognition of these activities via facial image analysis will play a vital role in natural human-computer interfaces, robotics and mimetic games. This paper focuses on the extraction and selection of

P. Li; Son Lam Phung; A. Bouzerdom; F. H. C. Tivive

2010-01-01

316

A novel method for evaluating facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beauty is an abstract concept that is inherently difficult to quantify and evaluate. The analysis of facial attractiveness has received much research attention in the past. Recent work has shown that facial attractiveness can be learned by machine, using supervised learning techniques. This paper proposes a computational method for estimating facial attractiveness based on Gabor features and support vector machine

Yili Chen; Huiyun Mao; Lianwen Jin

2010-01-01

317

Skin Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Penetration of the skin is a key element in cutaneous reactions to xenobiotics, drugs, or other compounds. The structure of\\u000a the skin is described in the present chapter. Based on this structure analysis, theoretical diffusion models are presented.\\u000a The inter- and intraindividual variation in the skin-barrier function is discussed and the complex influence of a carrier\\u000a medium on percutaneous absorption

Hans Schaefer; Thomas E. Redelmeier; Jürgen Lademann

318

Point Defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Point defects are pervasive. They are present in all materials, as a result of the intrinsic thermodynamic equilibrium and of the inevitable levels of impurities. Indeed, elementary chemical thermodynamics shows that if a defect formation reaction (e.g., Frenkel or Schottky formation as discussed below) is associated with a free energy gD, then the equilibrium mole fraction, xD, of defects is given by: x_D = exp ( { - {g_D }/{{nkT} ), where n is the number of defects created in the defect formation process. The equation shows that xd > 0 for T > 0, and also demonstrates that properties dependent on defects will show "Arrhenius"-like temperature dependence.

Catlow, C. R. A.

319

Facial plastic surgery area acquisition method based on point cloud mathematical model solution.  

PubMed

It is one of the hot research problems nowadays to find a quick and accurate method of acquiring the facial plastic surgery area to provide sufficient but irredundant autologous or in vitro skin source for covering extensive wound, trauma, and burnt area. At present, the acquisition of facial plastic surgery area mainly includes model laser scanning, point cloud data acquisition, pretreatment of point cloud data, three-dimensional model reconstruction, and computation of area. By using this method, the area can be computed accurately, but it is hard to control the random error, and it requires a comparatively longer computation period. In this article, a facial plastic surgery area acquisition method based on point cloud mathematical model solution is proposed. This method applies symmetric treatment to the point cloud based on the pretreatment of point cloud data, through which the comparison diagram color difference map of point cloud error before and after symmetry is obtained. The slicing mathematical model of facial plastic area is got through color difference map diagram. By solving the point cloud data in this area directly, the facial plastic area is acquired. The point cloud data are directly operated in this method, which can accurately and efficiently complete the surgery area computation. The result of the comparative analysis shows the method is effective in facial plastic surgery area. PMID:24036743

Li, Xuwu; Liu, Fei

2013-09-01

320

Skin of Color  

MedlinePLUS

... skin care Mom and baby skin care Nails Pregnancy and breastfeeding Sensitive skin Skin of color Stress and skin Sunscreens Tattoos and body piercings Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold ...

321

Surgery for the extensive facial port-wine stain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to true hemangiomas, which are vascular neoplasms, port-wine stains (PWS) are vascular malformations. They consist of mature teleangiectatic vessels in the dermis and the adjacent subcutis. The series of 50 patients here reported have been treated by subtotal excision of their PWS, covering the resulting defects with carefully selected full-thickness skin grafts.

L. Clodius

1985-01-01

322

Epidermal Permeability Barrier (EPB) measurement in mammalian skin  

PubMed Central

A defective skin epidermal permeability barrier (EPB) is responsible for a high mortality rate in premature infants, and is an important risk factor in inflammatory skin diseases such as eczema. We report here fast and accurate methods for measurement of EPB in animal models or in human patients using simple techniques that monitor diffusion of dyes (X-Gal or Lucifer Yellow) through the upper epidermis and measure transepidermal water loss (TEWL) resulting from a defective skin barrier. Accurate diagnosis and early detection of EPB defects in human patients are critical for effective treatment of certain classes of inflammatory skin diseases.

Indra, Arup Kumar; Leid, Mark

2012-01-01

323

Disseminated pneumocephalus secondary to an unusual facial trauma.  

PubMed

Pneumocephalus can be secondary to a postintrathecal procedure, sinus fracture, basilar skull fracture, congenital skull defect, neoplasm, gas producing organism, barotrauma, neurosurgery, paranasal sinus surgery, mask or nasal continuous positive-airway pressure. Unusual facial traumas can also be rare causes of pneumocephalus. Here, we present such a case in whom an air compressor tip injury to both eyes led to the disseminated pneumocephalus. We report this rare case with the computed tomography findings and try to explain the possible mechanism of the pnemocephalus. PMID:12039023

Yildiz, Altan; Duce, Meltem Nass; Ozer, Caner; Apaydin, F Demir; E?ilmez, Hulusi; Kara, Engin

2002-04-01

324

Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development,

Luba Kalaydjieva

2006-01-01

325

Facial recognition at the CIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an

Susan Gragg

1997-01-01

326

Facial Sculpting and Tissue Augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. Until recently, deep facial sculpting was exclu- sively the domain of surgical interventions. Recent advances in the available array of dermal and subdermal fillers combined with an esthetic appreciation by both surgeons and nonsurgeons alike of the positive effect of filling the volume-depleted face have led to an expansion in the indications for the use of soft tissue augmenting

JEAN D. A. CARRUTHERS; ALASTAIR CARRUTHERS

327

Facial pain in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Facial pain is a debilitating disorder if left untreated. It has been suggested that the most commonly undiagnosed facial pain conditions include neuropathic and myofascial pains because their pathophysiologies are not well understood. Facial neuralgias are otherwise rare in children. They are not acknowledged in most paediatric tests, there are few published reports on them, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) has not been described in children. Some of the most common forms of facial pain will be considered and some considerations concerning the problem of atypical facial pain in young age and its treatment will be discussed. PMID:15926004

Grazzi, L; Usai, S; Rigamonti, A

2005-05-01

328

Facial Expressions, Emotions, and Sign Languages  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as “surprise” to complex and culture specific concepts such as “carelessly.” The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by referring to three dimensions on which facial expressions vary: semantic, compositional, and iconic.

Elliott, Eeva A.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2013-01-01

329

Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...

330

Skin Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It is, in terms of both weight, between 6 and 9 pounds, and surface area, about 2 square yards. Your skin separates the inside of your body from the ...

331

[Neurological disease and facial recognition].  

PubMed

To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system. PMID:22764352

Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

2012-07-01

332

Affect bursts: dynamic patterns of facial expression.  

PubMed

Affect bursts consist of spontaneous and short emotional expressions in which facial, vocal, and gestural components are highly synchronized. Although the vocal characteristics have been examined in several recent studies, the facial modality remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the facial correlates of affect bursts that expressed five different emotions: anger, fear, sadness, joy, and relief. Detailed analysis of 59 facial actions with the Facial Action Coding System revealed a reasonable degree of emotion differentiation for individual action units (AUs). However, less convergence was shown for specific AU combinations for a limited number of prototypes. Moreover, expression of facial actions peaked in a cumulative-sequential fashion with significant differences in their sequential appearance between emotions. When testing for the classification of facial expressions within a dimensional approach, facial actions differed significantly as a function of the valence and arousal level of the five emotions, thereby allowing further distinction between joy and relief. The findings cast doubt on the existence of fixed patterns of facial responses for each emotion, resulting in unique facial prototypes. Rather, the results suggest that each emotion can be portrayed by several different expressions that share multiple facial actions. PMID:21707163

Krumhuber, Eva G; Scherer, Klaus R

2011-08-01

333

Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

334

Mycobacterium chelonae facial infections following injection of dermal filler.  

PubMed

A cluster of 3 facial Mycobacterium chelonae infections occurred after cosmetic dermal filler injections at a plastic surgery clinic. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that M chelonae isolated from the clinic tap water were identical to the patient wound isolates. Review of injection procedures identified application of nonsterile ice to the skin prior to injection as a possible source of M chelonae. Surveys of regional laboratories and a national plastic surgery listserv identified no other cases related to the injection of this brand of dermal filler. This is the first report of cutaneous M chelonae infections following the injection of dermal fillers. It adds to a growing body of literature on postinjection M chelonae infections and reinforces the importance of optimal skin disinfection steps prior to percutaneous procedures. Level of Evidence: 5. PMID:23335647

Rodriguez, Jan M; Xie, Yingda L; Winthrop, Kevin L; Schafer, Sean; Sehdev, Paul; Solomon, Joel; Jensen, Bette; Toney, Nadege C; Lewis, Paul F

2013-01-18

335

Reconstructions of eyelid defects  

PubMed Central

Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important.

Subramanian, Nirmala

2011-01-01

336

Use of ITAP implants for prosthetic reconstruction of extra-oral craniofacial defects.  

PubMed

We report the outcomes of a single-stage, surface-mounted implant used as a bone-anchor for prosthetic reconstruction of complex facial defects. The implant used differs from other designs of osseointegrated bone-anchor because it was designed to be implanted in one-stage with the added intention of integrating with the adjacent soft-tissue. Our aim was to extend the principles underlying the intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prosthesis (ITAP) into the design of infection-free implants suitable for direct skeletal attachment of a prosthesis to the craniofacial skeleton. The implants were manufactured incorporating a porous flange structure coated with hydroxyapatite to encourage soft-tissue integration. These were inserted into the cranial facial skeleton at a number of different sites in 6 adult patients. A total of 16 implants were inserted using a one-stage procedure and implants were followed up for periods of 18 months - 7 years. One implant loosened at 3 months. This implant experienced multiple episodes of infection and was replaced with another ITAP implant 4 years later. The replacement is now stable and has never been infected at 18 months after insertion. One other patient experienced a few minor episodes of superficial infection (not requiring antibiotics) in the first year but no episodes thereafter. One patient died during follow-up (death unrelated to implant surgery). Patients were asked for their personal opinions using a structured questionnaire. All the patients were either very satisfied, or satisfied with their ITAP implants. Two patients reported problems with skin irritation under their prosthesis. All would be happy to undergo this type of surgery again. We conclude that a single-stage, surface-mounted implant designed to incorporate the principles of ITAP can be used to produce an effective bone-anchor for an external prosthesis in the reconstruction of complex craniofacial defects. PMID:23270664

Kang, Norbert V; Morritt, Daniel; Pendegrass, Catherine; Blunn, Gordon

2012-12-25

337

The design of a face recognition system based on skin color and geometrical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research of face recognition technology in this paper is developed towards face detection technology of skin color segmentation and face geometrical characteristics. In addition, a software system that takes advantage of facial recognition to recognize the number of people is designed. The software is mainly composed of image pre-processing, skin color region detection, morphological processing, and recognizing the number

Xu-Yang; Fang-lv

2011-01-01

338

Skin Care for Acne-Prone Skin  

MedlinePLUS

Skin Care for Acne-prone Skin What Dermatologists Recommend Skin care can be just as important as the treatment(s) you use to clear your acne. Proper skin care can reduce possible side effects from prescription medications. ...

339

Stratum corneum proteases and dry skin conditions.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the role of stratum corneum (SC) proteases and their inhibitors in normal and xerotic skin conditions. The importance of the corneodesmosome for SC integrity is also discussed, and the effect of proteases on its disassembly. The relevance of each enzyme class is outlined, as well as their potential inhibitors. It is becoming much clearer, however, that the LEKTI family of inhibitors are critical for SC enzyme control. Delayed desquamation is the accumulation of corneocytes on the surface of the SC that leads ultimately to the cosmetic condition commonly termed as "dry skin". The reductions of serine protease activity are a consistent theme in dry skin, and non-eczematous atopic dermatitis otherwise known as atopic xerosis leading to retention hyperkeratosis. Flaky skin is normally seen on the body whereas a rough skin is observed on the face. Increased protease activity occurs in most, if not all, inflammatory dermatoses, ranging from the genetic disorders, psoriasis and eczematous atopic dermatitis to sub-clinical barrier abnormalities induced by surfactants or by environmental influences as a result of premature desquamation. In some of these conditions a thinner SC is apparent, e.g., eczematous atopic skin or on photodamaged facial skin. A better understanding of the proteolytic events and of the regulatory mechanisms involved in desquamation should enable the design of new treatments for skin disorders associated with faulty desquamation. This new knowledge will be an important basis for new developments in 'corneotherapy' and 'corneocare'. PMID:23053051

Rawlings, Anthony V; Voegeli, Rainer

2012-10-09

340

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... young men. 12 Survival rates Basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are the two most common forms of skin ... if detected early. 2 Both basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas have cure rates approaching 95 percent if detected ...

341

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

342

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

PubMed Central

Non-verbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this paper we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and non-verbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of non-verbal visual behaviour during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions.

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

343

[Facial palsy in Equatorial Africa].  

PubMed

The author presents the analysis of 29 cases of facial palsy collected in Shaba, Zaire (former Katanga, Belgian Congo) between 1984-1988 in the region called Copperbelt. Because to date there has been no work done on these problems in this part of Africa, it would be interesting to present a short report. Patients with facial palsy came to the ENT Department mostly for other reasons, and very late. Only 5 patients came before 3 mos after the onset. The different etiologies were as follows: 2--post traumatic, 7--otogenic, 9--tumors, 4--iatrogenic, 6--Bells palsy, 1--other. The assessment, comparison and the treatment of such cases in an underdeveloped country is very difficult or almost impossible. The small number of cases is insufficient for any conclusions, but the author tried to get some data, which would be a starting point in the future researches. PMID:8255587

Pietruski, J

1993-01-01

344

A possible cranio-oro-facial phenotype in Cockayne syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Cockayne Syndrome CS (Type A – CSA; or CS Type I OMIM #216400) (Type B – CSB; or CS Type II OMIM #133540) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disease caused by defects in DNA repair characterized by progressive cachectic dwarfism, progressive intellectual disability with cerebral leukodystrophy, microcephaly, progressive pigmentary retinopathy, sensorineural deafness photosensitivity and possibly orofacial and dental anomalies. Methods We studied the cranio-oro-facial status of a group of 17 CS patients from 15 families participating in the National Hospital Program for Clinical Research (PHRC) 2005 « Clinical and molecular study of Cockayne syndrome ». All patients were examined by two investigators using the Diagnosing Dental Defects Database (D[4]/phenodent) record form. Results Various oro-facial and dental anomalies were found: retrognathia; micrognathia; high- arched narrow palate; tooth crowding; hypodontia (missing permanent lateral incisor, second premolars or molars), screwdriver shaped incisors, microdontia, radiculomegaly, and enamel hypoplasia. Eruption was usually normal. Dental caries was associated with enamel defects, a high sugar/carbohydrate soft food diet, poor oral hygiene and dry mouth. Cephalometric analysis revealed mid-face hypoplasia, a small retroposed mandible and hypo-development of the skull. Conclusion CS patients may have associated oro-dental features, some of which may be more frequent in CS children – some of them being described for the first time in this paper (agenesis of second permanent molars and radiculomegaly). The high susceptibility to rampant caries is related to a combination of factors as well as enamel developmental defects. Specific attention to these anomalies may contribute to diagnosis and help plan management.

2013-01-01

345

Cosmetic eyelid and facial surgery.  

PubMed

The goal of cosmetic surgery is to reverse anatomical changes that occur in the face with aging. It is a rapidly growing subdiscipline of ophthalmic plastic surgery and includes forehead, eyelid, mid-face, lower face, and neck surgery, most performed by ophthalmic plastic surgeons. The current article reviews updates in cosmetic eyelid and facial surgery, including minimally invasive techniques such as cable suspensions, injections, and fillers. PMID:18929758

Ben Simon, Guy J; McCann, John D

346

Predicting Facial Beauty without Landmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A fundamental task in artificial intelligence and computer vision is to build machines that can behave like a human in recognizing\\u000a a broad range of visual concepts. This paper aims to investigate and develop intelligent systems for learning the concept\\u000a of female facial beauty and producing human-like predictors. Artists and social scientists have long been fascinated by the notion of

Douglas Gray; Kai Yu; Wei Xu; Yihong Gong

2010-01-01

347

Congenital Cataracts - Facial Dysmorphism - Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key words Disease name\\/synonyms Definition\\/diagnostic criteria Epidemiology Abstract Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. To date, it has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity;

Marianne de Visser

348

Frontal-view face detection and facial feature extraction using color, shape and symmetry based cost functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an algorithm for detecting human faces and facial features, such as thelocation of the eyes, nose, and mouth. First, a supervised pixel-based color classifier isemployed to mark all pixels that are within a prespecified distance of "skin color," which iscomputed from a training set of skin patches. This color-classification map is then smoothedby Gibbs random field model-based filters

Eli Saber; A. Murat Tekalp

1998-01-01

349

Facial Rehabilitation: A Neuromuscular Reeducation, Patient-Centered Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with facial paralysis and distorted facial expressions and movements secondary to a facial neuromotor disorder experience substantial physical, psychological, and social disability. Previously, facial rehabilitation has not been widely available or considered to be of much benefit. An emerging rehabilitation science of neuromuscular reeducation and evidence for the efficacy of facial neuromuscular reeducation, a process of facilitating the return

Jessie VanSwearingen

2008-01-01

350

[Reconstruction of the mouth floor using a musculo-mucosal buccinator flap supplied by facial vessels. Report of ten cases].  

PubMed

The buccinator muscle is a wide, flat quadrangular muscle. Its medial surface is covered by the oral mucosa. It receives its arterial blood supply from two main arteries: the facial and buccal arteries. A musculo-mucosal flap can be raised on the facial artery with or without the facial vein. In the case of absence of the facial vein, venous drainage is possible into the peri-arterial loose areolar tissue. A nasolabial skin incision facilitates facial artery identification and simplifies flap dissection in the loose areolar plane, superficial to the facial artery. The mean dimensions of the flap are 3.5 cm in width and 7 cm in length. The flap extends from the superior buccal sulcus to the inferior alveolar ridge. Its rotation enables reconstruction of the anterior and lateral floor of the mouth. The donor site is closed in two layers. The authors present a series of ten patients reconstructed with this flap after excision of a squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth. The results are excellent with perfect tongue function and no esthetic sequelae. The facial artery should be preserved during neck dissection, and the ipsilateral mandibular molar teeth must be extracted. Its simplicity and reliability makes this flap a useful alternative in floor of mouth reconstruction. PMID:9768068

Abou Chebel, N; Beziat, J L; Torossian, J M

1998-06-01

351

Facial Resurfacing With Coblation Technology  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe our experience with coblation technology for facial resurfacing Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients treated with coblation at our institution Results Twenty-four patients (22 female) underwent a total of 29 coblation procedures for aging face (n = 21) or acne scarring (n = 3). The perioral region was the most frequently treated aesthetic subunit (n = 14), followed by the lower eyelid (n = 7). Five patients underwent full-face coblation. Three patients underwent a second coblation procedure for aging face while a single patient with severe acne scarring underwent 3 procedures. Repeat coblation was delayed at least 5 months (mean, 9 months). Seventeen coblation procedures (59%) were performed concurrently with procedures including, but not limited to, injection treatment, rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, or combined face/necklift; no adverse events occurred. Seven procedures, including a full-face coblation, were performed in the office under local anesthesia and oral sedation without any adverse events. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1 week to 24 months). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the results after their final coblation treatment. Conclusions Facial coblation is a safe and effective treatment modality for facial resurfacing.

Weber, Stephen M.; Downs, Brian W.; Ferraz, Mario B.J.; Wang, Tom D.; Cook, Ted A.

2008-01-01

352

The biology of facial fillers.  

PubMed

The biologic behavior of a facial filler determines its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to look at the relevant biology as part of a logical basis for making treatment decisions. Historical perspectives and biologic characteristics such as local tissue reaction (including phagocytosis and granulomatous inflammation) cross-linking, particle concentration, immunogenicity, biofilm formation, gel hardness, and collagen neogenesis are considered. Bovine collagen is the most immunogenic facial filler. Porcine and bioengineered human collagen implants have very low immunogenicity, but allergic reactions and elevations of IgG are possible. Cross-linking and concentration affect the longevity of collagen and hyaluronic acid fillers. Gel hardness affects how a hyaluronic acid filler flows through the syringe and needle. Calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-L-lactic acid, and polymethylmethacrylate fillers have been shown to stimulate collagen neogenesis. It appears that any facial filler can form a granuloma. Bacterial biofilms may play a role in the activation of quiescent granulomas. Various authors interpret the definition and significance of a granuloma differently. PMID:19415574

Bentkover, Stuart H

2009-05-04

353

Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death.

Tan, Pearlie W.W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

354

Repeated short presentations of morphed facial expressions change recognition and evaluation of facial expressions.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether sensitivity to and evaluation of facial expressions varied with repeated exposure to non-prototypical facial expressions for a short presentation time. A morphed facial expression was presented for 500 ms repeatedly, and participants were required to indicate whether each facial expression was happy or angry. We manipulated the distribution of presentations of the morphed facial expressions for each facial stimulus. Some of the individuals depicted in the facial stimuli expressed anger frequently (i.e., anger-prone individuals), while the others expressed happiness frequently (i.e., happiness-prone individuals). After being exposed to the faces of anger-prone individuals, the participants became less sensitive to those individuals' angry faces. Further, after being exposed to the faces of happiness-prone individuals, the participants became less sensitive to those individuals' happy faces. We also found a relative increase in the social desirability of happiness-prone individuals after exposure to the facial stimuli. PMID:23179582

Moriya, Jun; Tanno, Yoshihiko; Sugiura, Yoshinori

2012-11-21

355

The effectiveness of neuromuscular facial retraining combined with electromyography in facial paralysis rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe study goal was to present the effectiveness of neuromuscular facial retraining techniques used in combination with electromyography for improving facial function even in cases of longstanding paralysis.

Gaye W Cronin; Ronald Leif Steenerson

2003-01-01

356

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

PubMed

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Man Wai Li, Liman

2013-03-15

357

Facial baroparesis caused by scuba diving.  

PubMed

Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkable bulging of the right tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear. PMID:22953110

Kamide, Daisuke; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

2012-02-19

358

Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving  

PubMed Central

Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkable bulging of the right tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear.

Kamide, Daisuke; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

2012-01-01

359

Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing factors. Methods: Eight hundred and forty-eight Hangzhou residents received the survey between March 2004 and September 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the accelerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types II, III and IV were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type II seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types III and IV. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

Wang, Yi-na; Fang, Hong; Zhu, Wei-fang

2009-01-01

360

Diminished Neural and Cognitive Responses to Facial Expressions of Disgust in Patients with Psoriasis: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis produces significant psychosocial disability; however, little is understood about the neurocognitive mechanisms that mediate the adverse consequences of the social stigma associated with visible skin lesions, such as disgusted facial expressions of others. Both the feeling of disgust and the observation of disgust in others are known to activate the insula cortex. We investigated whether the social impact of

C Elise Kleyn; Shane McKie; Andrew R Ross; Daniela Montaldi; Lloyd J Gregory; Rebecca Elliott; Clare L Isaacs; Ian M Anderson; Helen L Richards; J F William Deakin; Donal G Fortune; Christopher E M Griffiths

2009-01-01

361

The effect of double bridles and jaw-clamping crank nosebands on facial cutaneous and ocular temperature in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any apparatus that restricts a horse’s movement can compromise welfare. Eye temperature as measured remotely using infrared thermography is emerging as a correlate of salivary cortisol concentrations in horses. This article explores the effect on the temperature of the eyes and facial skin of horses wearing devices that restrict jaw movements. In certain equestrian disciplines, unacceptable equine oral activity, such

Paul McGreevy; Amanda Warren-Smith; Yann Guisard

362

Facial symmetry and the perception of beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary, as well as cultural, pressures may contribute to our perceptions of facial attractiveness. Biologists predict\\u000a that facial symmetry should be attractive, because it may signal mate quality. We tested the prediction that facial symmetry\\u000a is attractive by manipulating the symmetry of individual faces and observing the effect on attractiveness, and by examining\\u000a whether natural variations in symmetry (between faces)

Gillian Rhodes; Fiona Proffitt; Jonathon M. Grady; Alex Sumich

1998-01-01

363

A history of facial and ocular prosthetics.  

PubMed

This article traces the history of facial and ocular prosthetics. Creative individuals who have made significant contributions are highlighted and the evolution of techniques and materials is presented. In view of the significance placed upon facial beauty in today's society, it becomes incumbent upon us to recognize the ingenuity and skill of those in the past to gain appreciation for the present state of the art and to provide incentive for improving facial and ocular prosthetic restorations in the future. PMID:2248700

Reisberg, D J; Habakuk, S W

1990-01-01

364

Facial nerve palsy aboard a commercial aircraft.  

PubMed

Facial baroparesis is facial nerve palsy secondary to barotrauma. This phenomenon is frequently seen in divers, but is under-reported there and has rarely been described in aviators or passengers aboard commercial aircraft. We describe a 24-yr-old healthy aviator who experienced an episode of facial nerve palsy during ascent while traveling as a passenger aboard a commercial flight. The probable pathogenesis of this phenomenon in this case is described. PMID:15619863

Grossman, Alon; Ulanovski, David; Barenboim, Erez; Azaria, Bella; Goldstein, Liav

2004-12-01

365

Pupillary anomaly masquerading as a glaucomatous visual field defect: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients are often referred to ophthalmologists with focal visual field defects on routine testing, possibly related to a potential diagnosis of glaucoma. However, examination of the individual patient's ocular characteristics as well as facial characteristics may often reveal a cause of the visual field defect. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a patient who was found to have a superior visual

Niall Patton; Adrian Tey

2004-01-01

366

Functional and esthetic assessment of radial forearm flap donor site repaired with split thickness skin graft.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional and esthetic outcomes of radial forearm flap (RFF) donor site repaired with split thickness skin graft (STSG). Nineteen patients underwent surgical reconstruction of oro-facial defects by the use of RFF and their donor sites were reconstructed with STSG. The patients were followed up at least for 12 months postoperatively and the left hand was the non-dominant hand in all of them. Objective methods including pinch strength, grip strength, range of motion, current perception threshold (CPT) and two-point discrimination, and subjective methods including patients interview, visual analogue score (VAS) about function, sensitivity, pain and color match, were collectively employed for donor site assessment. Our data revealed some degree of reduction in motor function and sensation compared to the non-donor hand. The difference of pinch strength means was 9.81% and of the grip strength was 12.6%. The difference of wrist flexion means was 17.6% and of wrist extension was 13.4%. However, none of the patients had functional defects of forearm supination and pronation, wrist ulnar deviation or wrist radial deviation. Subjective evaluation showed that the donor site repaired with STSG was well accepted by the patients particularly from a functional point of view. These results demonstrate that STSG represents a favorable choice for RFF donor site repair. PMID:20589506

Lee, Jong-Ho; Alrashdan, Mohammad S; Kim, Su-Gon; Rim, Jae-Seok; Jabaiti, Samir; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Soung-Min

2010-06-30

367

Targeted gene transfer into rat facial muscles by nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the feasibility of using nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) for gene transfer into rat facial muscles. LISWs are generated by irradiating a black natural rubber disk placed on the target tissue with nanosecond pulsed laser light from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, which is widely used in head and neck surgery and proven to be safe. After injection of plasmid deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) coding for Lac Z into rat facial muscles, pulsed laser is used to irradiate the laser target on the skin surface without incision or exposure of muscles. Lac Z expression is detected by X-gal staining of excised rat facial skin and muscles. Strong Lac Z expression is observed seven days after gene transfer, and sustained for up to 14 days. Gene transfer is achieved in facial muscles several millimeters deep from the surface. Gene expression is localized to the tissue exposed to LISWs. No tissue damage from LISWs is observed. LISW is a promising nonviral target gene transfer method because of its high spatial controllability, easy applicability, and minimal invasiveness. Gene transfer using LISW to produce therapeutic proteins such as growth factors could be used to treat nerve injury and paralysis.

Kurita, Akihiro; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Satoh, Yasushi; Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Obara, Minoru; Shiotani, Akihiro

2011-09-01

368

Automated Tracking of Facial Features in Patients with Facial Neuromuscular Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial neuromuscular dysfunction severely impacts adaptive and expressive behavior and emotional health. Appropriate treatment is aided by quantitative and effi- cient assessment of facial motion impairment. We vali- dated a newly developed method of quantifying facial motion, automated face analysis (AFA), by comparing it with an established manual marking method, the Maximal Static Response Assay (MSRA). In the AFA, motion

Galen S. Wachtman; Jeffrey F. Cohn; Jessie M. VanSwearingen; Ernest K. Manders

2001-01-01

369

The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused

Kathrin Kaulard; Douglas W. Cunningham; Heinrich H. Bülthoff; Christian Wallraven

2012-01-01

370

The use of facial motion and facial form during the processing of identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that facial motion can carry information about age, gender, emotion and, at least to some extent, identity. By combining recent computer animation techniques with psychophysical methods, we show that during the computation of identity the human face recognition system integrates both types of information: individual non-rigid facial motion and individual facial form. This has important implications

Barbara Knappmeyer; Ian M. Thornton

2003-01-01

371

Facial animation reflecting personal characteristics by automatic head modeling and facial muscle adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new automatic character modeling system which can generate an individualized head model only from a facial range scan data and an individualized facial animation with expression change. The head modeling system consists of two core modules: the head modeling module which can generate a head model from a personal facial range scan data using automatic mesh completion,

Akinobu Maejima; Hiroyuki Kubo; Shigeo Morishima

2010-01-01

372

Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. CASE PRESENTATION: In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in

Katharina Junghans; Saskia Rohrbach; Maik Ellies; Rainer Laskawi

2007-01-01

373

Oxygenation and microcirculation during skin stretching in undermined and nonundermined skin.  

PubMed

The aim of this experimental study was to assess the skin microcirculation of undermined and nonundermined wound edges closed with a skin-stretching device. In eight piglets, 9 x 9-cm wounds were created on both flanks by excision of the skin and the subcutaneous layer down to the muscular fascia, with general anesthesia. On one flank, the surrounding skin was completely undermined. For a period of 30 minutes, wound closure was performed with a stretching device, using the principle of load cycling. The device stretched the skin and moved the opposing wound edges toward each other. During this period, laser Doppler flowmetry and transcutaneous oximetry were simultaneously used to monitor microcirculation and oxygenation in the stretched skin of both flanks. Undermining of the surrounding skin produced a 12 percent decrease in the laser Doppler flowmetry signal and a 21 percent decrease in the transcutaneous oximetry value. Skin stretching resulted in decreases in the laser Doppler flowmetry signals and the transcutaneous oximetry values, whether or not the skin was undermined. Releasing the stretching device resulted in rapid normalization of the laser Doppler flowmetry values in undermined and nonundermined skin and a slow return of the transcutaneous oximetry values to close to baseline levels in nonundermined skin. The transcutaneous oximetry values in undermined skin did not return to baseline levels; each period of skin stretching resulted in an additional decrease in the transcutaneous oximetry values. Stretching of undermined skin for 30 minutes produced a significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in skin oxygenation. As a result, 50 percent of the undermined stretched skin demonstrated skin necrosis at the wound edges, which was still present after 1 week. Wound healing in the nonundermined stretched skin proceeded without problems. It is concluded from these experiments that the viability of undermined skin becomes compromised as a result of significantly decreased oxygen availability in the skin during and after stretching. Consequently, it is recommended that skin stretching be performed on nonundermined skin, rather than undermined skin. In addition, when skin is stretched to close a large defect, it is logical to use cyclic loading, so that recuperation of the skin circulation can occur. Furthermore, laser Doppler flowmetry seemed to produce atypical signals in monitoring of skin viability of wound edges closed with a skin-stretching device. PMID:14504513

Melis, Paris; Noorlander, Maril L; van der Kleij, Ad J; van Noorden, Cornelis J F; van der Horst, Chantal M A M

2003-10-01

374

Autologous fat grafting and facial reconstruction.  

PubMed

There is tremendous interest in autologous fat grafting for the management of soft tissue volume deficiencies, treatment of cutaneous injuries, and regeneration of missing parts. Given its relative abundance and proximity to the surface of the skin, adipose tissue seems an excellent choice for the treatment of both congenital and acquired soft tissue defects, but the mesenchymal stem cells contained within the fat may provide unexpected opportunities for tissue replacement and repair. Although adipose transfer has been successfully used for reconstructive purposes since the end of the 19th century, numerous controversies about adipose harvesting, processing, delivery, survival, and efficacy still persist today. The purpose of this article was to highlight current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications of fat grafting for reconstruction of the face. PMID:22337433

Wetterau, Meredith; Szpalski, Caroline; Hazen, Alexes; Warren, Stephen M

2012-01-01

375

Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.  

PubMed

Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage. PMID:22913441

Oblong, John E

376

Novel use of skin substitute as rescue therapy in complicated giant exomphalos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant exomphalos can be successfully managed using conservative or surgical techniques. However, if treatment is complicated by sepsis, early skin cover of the defect becomes necessary. Options include split skin grafting, but in the presence of ongoing infection the risk of graft failure is high and limited skin is available for regrafting. We describe the novel use of a skin

Sarah L. Almond; Anju Goyal; Edwin C. Jesudason; Kenneth E. Graham; Bruce Richard; Andrew Selby; Paul D. Losty

2006-01-01

377

Difficulties in differentiation of Parry–Romberg syndrome, unilateral facial sclerodermia, and Rasmussen syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Parry–Romberg syndrome (progressive facial hemiatrophy) is a unilateral, slowly progressive atrophy affecting the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, and bones. The relationship between Parry–Romberg syndrome and connective tissue disorders, especially scleroderma en coup de sabre, is still unclear. The neurological symptoms, including epilepsy, migraine, and brain lesion, on neuroimaging may be similar. Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is connected with chronic inflammation and

Justyna Paprocka; Ewa Jamroz; Dariusz Adamek; Elzbieta Marszal; Marek Mandera

2006-01-01

378

Delayed Transcutaneous Extrusion of Embolic Coils After Embolization of Facial Artery Pseudoaneurysm  

PubMed Central

Summary External carotid artery (ECA) pseudoaneurysm is a known complication of treatment for head and neck cancer. We report a case of facial artery pseudoaneurysm arising after irradiation and salvage surgery for advanced tonsillar cancer, that was treated with endovascular embolization. The case was complicated by delayed transcutaneous extrusion of embolization coils through the skin of the anterior neck. We review the literature for related cases of coil extrusion in the head and neck, and discuss the implications for pseudoaneurysm surveillance.

Hetts, S.W.; Mong, S.; Sincic, R.; English, J.D.; Wilson, M.W.

2012-01-01

379

Image-based control of skin melanin texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a useful tool for controlling the skin melanin texture of facial photographs. Controlling the skin melanin texture is an important task in the reproduction of posters, TV commercials, movies, and so on. We used component maps of melanin, which were obtained by a previous method [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2169 (1999)] as the first processing step. We propose to control the melanin texture continuously and physiologically, based on the analysis of 123 skin textures in our database. The physiological validity for the change of the melanin texture is confirmed by comparing the synthesized image with an ultraviolet image, which can be used to predict the change of melanin texture due to aging. The control processes are implemented on programmable graphics hardware, and real-time processing is achieved for a facial videostream.

Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Takase, Koichi; Okaguchi, Saya; Hori, Kimihiko; Miyake, Yoichi

2006-09-01

380

Side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis via transposition of the intratemporal facial nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The technique of facial nerve repair with side-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis is presented and evaluated in five patients\\u000a who were operated on for facial nerve paralysis after acoustic schwannoma surgery, or had cranial base trauma.\\u000a \\u000a The end-to-end hypoglossal-facial anastomosis is accompanied by hemilingual paralysis, with difficulty in swallowing, chewing\\u000a and speaking. In this new technique, the facial nerve is mobilised in

J. Rebol; V. Milojkovi?; V. Didanovi?

2006-01-01

381

Facial nerve mapping and monitoring in lymphatic malformation surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEstablish the efficacy of preoperative facial nerve mapping and continuous intraoperative EMG monitoring in protecting the facial nerve during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

Jospeh Chiara; Greg Kinney; Jefferson Slimp; Gi Soo Lee; Sepehr Oliaei; Jonathan A. Perkins

2009-01-01

382

Facial pigmentation associated with amiodarone.  

PubMed

Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used drugs for treatment of cardiac arrhythmia. Several undesirable effects are associated with its long-term use. This report describes the case of a 71-year-old female patient, with a diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia, who presented with a stigmatizing blue-gray facial pigmentation and altered serum values of thyroid hormones associated with the intake of amiodarone. The patient was referred to her cardiologist. The aim of this report is to increase clinicians' awareness about the potential adverse effects of this drug. PMID:23823354

Gonzalez-Arriagada, Wilfredo Alejandro; Silva, Alan Roger Santos; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

2013-07-01

383

Demodicosis among university medical students in Malaysia and the effects of facial cleanser and moisturizer usage.  

PubMed

Demodicosis is an infestation of the skin with Demodex, an ectoparasite commonly found on the face. A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the presence of the ectoparasite and the outcome of facial cleanser and moisturizer usage on its infestation. Universal sampling was performed among 390 medical students, age 20-25 years old in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The biodata of the participants and information on the use of facial cleanser and moisturizer were obtained through questionnaire. Skin samples were obtained using both skin scraping and cellophane tape method and were subsequently examined directly by microscopy. The results show an overall prevalence of 17.2%. Males (21.5%) were affected more often than females (12.8%) (p = 0.022). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of the ectoparasite among different ethnic groups, age-groups and the presence of existing facial problems among the subjects. A lower infestation rate (11.45%) was found to be associated with the use of a moisturizer (p = 0.033). Both species of ectoparasites that infest man, Demodexfolliculorum and D. brevis, were detected in this study either as single or mixed infestations. PMID:22299405

Isa, Noor Hayati Mohd; Loong, Loh Wai; Fang, Gee Hui; Mohamad, Abdul Malek; Razali, Nurasilah; Rani, Nur Izzati; Manap, Siti Nor Azreen Abd; Abdullah, Syamsa Rizal

2011-11-01

384

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed.

SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

2007-01-01

385

Facial feedback hypotheses: Evidence, implications, and directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review evaluates four facial feedback hypotheses, each proposing a certain relation between the face and emotions. It addresses criticisms of the data, considers implications for emotional and social processes, and advises directions for future research. The current data support the following: Facial actions are sensitive to social context, yet correspond to the affective dimension of emotions; matches with specific

Daniel N. McIntosh

1996-01-01

386

Unspoken Vowel Recognition Using Facial Electromyogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to identify speech using the facial muscle activity without the audio signals. The paper presents an effective technique that measures the relative muscle activity of the articulatory muscles. Five English vowels were used as recognition variables. This paper reports using moving root mean square (RMS) of surface electromyogram (SEMG) of four facial muscles to segment the signal

Sridhar P Arjunan; Dinesh K Kumar; Wai C Yau; Hans Weghorn

2006-01-01

387

Facial feature extraction and pose determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined approach for facial feature extraction and determination of gaze direction isproposed that employs some improved variations of the adaptive Hough transform for curvedetection, minima analysis of feature candidates, template matching for inner facial featurelocalization, active contour models for inner face contour detection and projective geometryproperties for accurate pose determination. The aim is to provide a sufficient set of

Athanasios Nikolaidis; Ioannis Pitas

2000-01-01

388

Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

2007-01-01

389

Restorative Interventions for HIV Facial Lipoatrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial lipoatrophy is a common and distressing manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy. The changes in facial appearance can reduce quality of life, self esteem and antiretroviral adherence. Apart from the modest benefits of thymidine-based nucleoside analog cessation, there are no proven therapies for lipoatrophy. Management of established fat loss can be challenging as restoration of lost fat mass is extremely gradual.

Dianne Care; Steven Liew; Sean Emery

390

Facial action unit recognition with sparse representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel framework for recognition of facial action unit (AU) combinations by viewing the classification as a sparse representation problem. Based on this framework, we represent a facial image exhibiting the combination of AUs as a sparse linear combination of basis constituting an overcomplete dictionary. We build an overcomplete dictionary whose main elements are mean Gabor features

Mohammad H. Mahoor; Mu Zhou; Kevin L. Veon; Seyed Mohammad Mavadati; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2011-01-01

391

Direct needle fixation in endoscopic facial rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several authors have described the application of video endoscopy to facial rejuvenation to minimize incisions. Methods of fixation used in this technique include miniplates, tunnels in the outer tissues, and tissue glues. Objective: In this study, we examined the efficacy of endoscopic facial rejuvenation with direct transcutaneous needle fixation. Methods: Detailed preoperative markings were placed to outline important anatomical

Carlos Casagrande; Renato Saltz; Roberto Chem; Rinaldo Pinto; Marcus Collares

2000-01-01

392

Facial feature detection using distance vector fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for eye and mouth detection and eye center and mouth corner localization, based on geometrical information is presented in this paper. First, a face detector is applied to detect the facial region, and the edge map of this region is calculated. The distance vector field of the face is extracted by assigning to every facial image pixel

Stylianos Asteriadis; Nikos Nikolaidis; Ioannis Pitas

2009-01-01

393

The Ideal of Facial Beauty: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review article we examine the question as to which parameters of facial attraction are amenable to measurement and which tools are available to perform these measurements. The evaluation of facial images, artistic standards, cephalometry, and anthropometry are discussed. Furthermore, we consider how the attractiveness of a face is influenced by symmetry, averageness and distinguishing features such as dental

Mirjam Hönn; Gernot Göz

2007-01-01

394

Effects of Facial Hair in Oxygen Masks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to determine whether or not hazards are associated with facial hair on Naval aircrewmen using oxygen breathing equipment. The study showed that undesirable conditions do exist because of facial hair, but there is no evidence...

D. G. Naber

1972-01-01

395

Young children's stereotyping of facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Showed 65 preschoolers (3-61\\/2 yrs old) facial photographs of peers who by adult standards would be considered attractive or unattractive. It was found that Ss reliably discriminated differences in facial attractiveness; furthermore, their judgments were in the same direction as adults' judgments. Also, Ss showed a significant preference for attractive children as potential friends and corresponding dislike of unattractive children.

Karen K. Dion

1973-01-01

396

Brain systems for assessing facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The aim of the present investigation is to address whether the

Joel S. Winston; John O’Doherty; James M. Kilner; David I. Perrett; Raymond J. Dolan

2007-01-01

397

Shape analysis of female facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that female facial attractiveness is associated with exaggerated sex-specific facial traits and averageness. Here we applied geometric morphometrics, a method for multivariate statistical analysis of shape, to measure geometric averageness and geometric sexual dimorphism of natural female face profiles. Geometric averageness and geometric sexual dimorphism correlate with attractiveness ratings. However, principal component analysis extracted a shape

Dario Riccardo Valenzano; Andrea Mennucci; Giandonato Tartarelli; Alessandro Cellerino

2006-01-01

398

An interactive facial expression generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to generate vivid facial expressions by computers has been an inter- esting and challenging problem for a long time. Some research adopts an anatomical approach by studying the relationships between the expressions and the underlying bones and muscles. On the other hand, MPEG4's SNHC (synthetic\\/natural hybrid coding) provides mechanisms which allow detailed descriptions of facial expressions and animations. Unlike

Chuan-kai Yang; Wei-ting Chiang

2008-01-01

399

Skin Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the notion of colorblind equality fit with the social and economic realities of black Americans? Challenging the increasingly popular argument that blacks should settle down, stop whining, and get jobs, Skin Trade insists that racism remains America's premier national story and its grossest national product. From Aunt Jemima Pancakes to ethnic Barbie dolls, corporate America peddles racial and

Ann duCille

1996-01-01

400

Congenital Defects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are two general categories (not necessarily mutually exclusive) of congenital defects: (1) abnormalities that have an hereditary basis, such as single and multiple genes, or chromosomal abberration; and (2) abnormalities that are caused by nonhereditary factors, such as malnutrition, maternal disease, radiation, infections, drugs, or…

Goldman, Allen S.; And Others

401

[The V-Y surgical flap vascularized by the musculoaponeurotic layer for covering scalp defects].  

PubMed

The author describes a method for covering skin defects of the scalp combining the principles of V-Y plasty and vascularization by means of the musculoaponeurotic layer. It is a simple operation, using the hairy skin in the vicinity of the defect with direct closure of the defect after transposition of the flap. With regard to the satisfactory cosmetic results, the method is suitable not only for primary defects after excision of tumours but also for medium-sized alopecias. PMID:7725178

Gabetta, I; Drazan, L; Skricka, T; Perrotta, F

1994-12-01

402

How Does Facial Feedback Modulate Emotional Experience?  

PubMed Central

Contracting muscles involved in facial expressions (e.g. smiling or frowning) can make emotions more intense, even when unaware one is modifying expression (e.g. Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988). However, it is unresolved whether and how inhibiting facial expressions might weaken emotional experience. In the present study, 142 participants watched positive and negative video clips while either inhibiting their facial expressions or not. When hypothesis awareness and effects of distraction were experimentally controlled, inhibiting facial expressions weakened some emotional experiences. These findings provide new insight into ways that inhibition of facial expression can affect emotional experience: the link is not dependent on experimental demand, lay theories about connections between expression and experience, or the distraction involved in inhibiting one’s expressions.

Davis, Joshua Ian; Senghas, Ann; Ochsner, Kevin N.

2009-01-01

403

Mutations in ZBTB24 Are Associated with Immunodeficiency, Centromeric Instability, and Facial Anomalies Syndrome Type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal-recessive immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is mainly characterized by recurrent, often fatal, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. About 50% of patients carry mutations in the DNA methyltransferase 3B gene (DNMT3B) (ICF1). The remaining patients carry unknown genetic defects (ICF2) but share with ICF1 patients the same immunological and epigenetic features, including hypomethylation of juxtacentromeric repeat sequences. We

Jun Wang; Judit Balog; Caner Aytekin; Laurence Duprez; Alina Ferster; Giorgio Gimelli; Ismail Reisli; Catharina Schuetz; Ansgar Schulz; Yves Sznajer; Cisca Wijmenga

2011-01-01

404

Clear acrylic resin device for orientation and placement of a small facial prosthesis.  

PubMed

A small-sized facial prosthesis can be difficult to orient accurately in correct relationship to a defect. This problem may be reduced by embedding a magnet in the prosthesis and constructing a magnetic holding device from clear acrylic resin. This device can be used as a stand during adhesive application to reduce adhesive contamination and acts as orientation guide during prosthesis placement. PMID:10842134

Mekayarajjananonth, T; Huband, M L; Guerra, L R

2000-06-01

405

Averaging facial expression over time  

PubMed Central

The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time.

Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David

2010-01-01

406

A preliminary study of differentially expressed genes in expanded skin and normal skin: implications for adult skin regeneration.  

PubMed

In adults, severely damaged skin heals by scar formation and cannot regenerate to the original skin structure. However, tissue expansion is an exception, as normal skin regenerates under the mechanical stretch resulting from tissue expansion. This technique has been used clinically for defect repair and organ reconstruction for decades. However, the phenomenon of adult skin regeneration during tissue expansion has caused little attention, and the mechanism of skin regeneration during tissue expansion has not been fully understood. In this study, microarray analysis was performed on expanded human skin and normal human skin. Significant difference was observed in 77 genes, which suggest a network of several integrated cascades, including cytokines, extracellular, cytoskeletal, transmembrane molecular systems, ion or ion channels, protein kinases and transcriptional systems, is involved in the skin regeneration during expansion. Among these, the significant expression of some regeneration related genes, such as HOXA5, HOXB2 and AP1, was the first report in tissue expansion. Data in this study suggest a list of candidate genes, which may help to elucidate the fundamental mechanism of skin regeneration during tissue expansion and which may have implications for postnatal skin regeneration and therapeutic interventions in wound healing. PMID:21286735

Yang, Mei; Liang, Yimin; Sheng, Lingling; Shen, Guoxiong; Liu, Kai; Gu, Bin; Meng, Fanjun; Li, Qingfeng

2011-02-01

407

Allergy testing - skin  

MedlinePLUS

Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

408

About MRSA Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... my family from MRSA skin infections? About MRSA Skin Infections: What is MRSA? MRSA is methicillin-resistant ... What are the signs and symptoms of MRSA skin infections? Most staph skin infections, including MRSA, appear ...

409

Skin Pigmentation Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

410

Skin lesion of coccidioidomycosis  

MedlinePLUS

... skin. The skin rash, or skin lesions, include erythema nodosum or erythema multiforme . They are thought to be ... the initial (primary) infection Erythema multiforme (target lesions) Erythema nodosum Papular rash Skin lesion of widespread (disseminated) disease: ...

411

Skin care and incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF YOUR SKIN Using diapers and other products ... Over time, the skin can break down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

412

Automated Facial Action Coding System for Dynamic Analysis of Facial Expressions in Neuropsychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen’s Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, which can facilitate statistical study of large populations in disorders affecting facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity.

Hamm, Jihun; Kohler, Christian G.; Gur, Ruben C.; Verma, Ragini

2011-01-01

413

Puckering and Blowing Facial Expressions in People With Facial Movement Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: People with facial movement disorders are instructed to perform various facial movements as part of their physical therapy rehabilitation. A difference in the movement of the orbicularis oris muscle has been demonstrated among people without facial nerve impairments when instructed to “pucker your lips” and to “blow, as if blowing out a candle.” The objective of this study was to determine whether the within-subject difference between “pucker your lips” and “blow, as if blowing out a candle” found in people without facial nerve impairments is present in people with facial movement disorders. Subjects and Methods: People (N=68) with unilateral facial movement disorders were observed as they produced puckering and blowing movements. Automated facial image analysis of both puckering and blowing was used to determine the difference between facial actions for the following movement variables: maximum speed, amplitude, duration, and corresponding asymmetry. Results: There was a difference between the amplitudes of movement for puckering and blowing. “Blow, as if blowing out a candle” produced a larger amplitude of movement. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that puckering and blowing movements in people with facial movement disorders differ in a manner that is consistent with differences found in people who are healthy. This information may be useful in the assessment of and intervention for facial movement disorders affecting the lower face.

Denlinger, Rachel L; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Schmidt, Karen L

2008-01-01

414

Automated Facial Action Coding System for dynamic analysis of facial expressions in neuropsychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen's Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, and they can facilitate a statistical study of large populations in disorders known to impact facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity. PMID:21741407

Hamm, Jihun; Kohler, Christian G; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

2011-06-29

415

Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.  

PubMed

The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane

2013-02-18

416

Amphibian Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of permeability to better understand why amphibians are extremely sensitive to pollution. Learners soak one regular hard-boiled egg and one peeled hard-boiled egg in dyed water and then record how the eggs' circumference and appearance change after 24 hours. Learners investigate how the peeled egg represents amphibian skin and how amphibians are affected by pollution.

Aquarium, Omaha'S H.

2009-01-01

417

[Cosmetic facial surgery. The application of botulinum neurotoxin type A].  

PubMed

During the past decade, cosmetic facial treatments have become a standard element of the work of both dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. A shift has taken place from invasive surgical treatments in the direction of minimally invasive treatments. One of the most frequently carried out minimally invasive treatments is the treatment with botulinum neurotoxin type A. Since botulism was first described in the 18th century, this neurotoxin has undergone a slow development to botox which is now manufactured. Botox attaches itself to the nerve endings and is subsequently taken up in the vesicles which contain acetylcholine. Botox blocks, there, the protein which is responsible for the production of acetylcholine. Botox reduces wrinkles in the skin at the muscles offacial expression and is therefore employed in areas with dynamic wrinkles. Appropriate areas include frown lines in the glabella, lines in the forehead, lateral periorbital lines, hyperactivity in the muscles of the upper lip, hypertrophy of the musculus masseter. PMID:22043640

Jaspers, G W C; Pijpe, J; Schepers, R H; Jansma, J

2011-10-01

418

Tribometrology of Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative assessment of both skin health and skin care products is suggested based on skin tribological properties. Simultaneous multi-sensor measurements of both coefficient of friction and contact electrical impedance allow for fast and quantitative evaluation of skin conditions such as dryness and moisturization, and early diagnosis of skin diseases or of the deterioration in skin functions at a stage

Norm Gitis; Raja Sivamani

2004-01-01

419

The Science Inside Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS;)

2009-01-01

420

Facial symmetry is positively associated with self-reported extraversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fink et al. (2005) reported significant associations between facial symmetry and scores on some of the “big five” personality dimensions derived from self-report data. In particular, they identified a positive association between facial symmetry and extraversion, but negative associations between facial symmetry and both agreeableness and openness. Fink et al. (2005) used a measure of facial symmetry based on analysis

Nicholas Pound; Ian S. Penton-Voak; William M. Brown

2007-01-01

421

Respirator Fit and Facial Dimensions of Two Minority Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seal of a respirator to a worker's face can be influenced by the worker's facial dimensions. Males and females of the same and different racial\\/ethnic backgrounds exhibit different facial dimension measurements. This research was conducted to ascertain the relationship between facial dimensions influenced by race\\/ethnicity and gender to respirator fit. Facial dimensions and respirator fit were measured on 186

William J. Brazile; Roy M. Buchan; Del R. Sandfort; Walter Melvin; Janet A. Johnson; Michael Charney

1998-01-01

422

Image Warping by Radial Basis Functions: Application to Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human face is an elastic object. A natural paradigm for representing facial expressions is to form a complete 3D model of facial muscles and tissues. However, determining the actual parameter values for synthesizing and animating facial expressions is tedious; evaluating these parameters for facial expression analysis out of grey-level images is ahead of the state of the art in

Nur Arad; Nira Dyn; Daniel Reisfeld; Yehezkel Yeshurun

1994-01-01

423

Automatic Recognition of Facial Actions in Spontaneous Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous facial expressions differ from posed expressions in both which muscles are moved, and in the dy- namics of the movement. Advances in the field of automatic facial expression measurement will require development and assessment on spontaneous behavior. Here we present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous facial expressions. We employ a user indepen- dent

Marian Stewart Bartlett; Gwen C. Littlewort; Mark G. Frank; Claudia Lainscsek; Ian R. Fasel; Javier R. Movellan

2006-01-01

424

Categorical perception of affective and linguistic facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX discrimination and identification tasks on morphed affective and linguistic facial expression continua. The continua

Stephen McCullough; Karen Emmorey

2009-01-01

425

Facial soft tissue thickness in Japanese female children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on soft tissue thickness measurements. Many studies of facial tissue thickness in adults have been published that take racial background into account. However, the only data on facial thickness in children are derived from studies of American, British, and Hispanic children. The authors therefore measured facial tissue thickness in Japanese children,

Hajime Utsuno; Tooru Kageyama; Toshio Deguchi; Mineo Yoshino; Hiroo Miyazawa; Katsuhiro Inoue

2005-01-01

426

Relationship between natural tooth shade and skin colour.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of skin colour and tooth shade. One hundred and twenty six individuals aging between 18 to 25 years participated in this study. Colour of the maxillary central incisors was examined by VITA easy shade. Tooth shades were assigned to four ordinal values. Nivea Beauty Protect Foundation shade sample was used as a guide to assess facial skin colour Shin colours were also assigned to four ordinal values. Spearman test revealed that there was a significant relationship between tooth shade and skin colour Total co-relation factor was 51.6% (p <0 .01). Co-relation factors were 57% for women and 27% for men (p <0 .01). The highest tooth shade prevalence belonged to the second group and the highest skin colour prevalence was also in the second skin colour group. PMID:23888526

Nourbakhsh, M; Mousavinejad, N; Adli, A R; Harati, M

2013-06-01

427

The roles of phellem (skin) tensile-related fractures and phellogen shear-related fractures in susceptibility to tuber-skinning injury and skin-set development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of potato tubers to excoriation (idiom = skinning injury) during harvest is a widespread problem that results\\u000a in costly disease, defects, and shrinkage. Little is known about the physiology associated with susceptibility of immature\\u000a periderm and the development of full and final resistance to skinning injury (skin-set) upon periderm maturation. The objective\\u000a of this research was to determine

Edward C. Lulai

2002-01-01

428

Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Mrs PS, 78 years of age, presented with acute left-sided otalgia, ear swelling and subsequent unilateral facial paralysis (Figure 1). She denied any otorrhoea or hearing loss. Past medical history relevant to the presenting complaint included: * Bell palsy diagnosed 20 years ago with no residual effect * biopsy confirmed benign parotid lump (diagnosed 3 years previously). Histopathology revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. Mrs PS declined surgical intervention at the time * chicken pox as a child * normal fasting blood glucose 1 month previously and no known immune compromise. Examination revealed yellow crusts and small vesicles on the external acoustic meatus (Figure 2). A 10 mm well defined firm and nontender nodule was palpable at the ramus of the mandible. PMID:21597548

Yeong, Siew Swan; Tassone, Peter

2011-05-01

429

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

PubMed Central

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges.

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

430

Facial recognition at the CIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an 'electronic mug book.' Using some simple collateral information about a suspect (height, age and sex) and a photograph, the system gives users the ability to identify an unknown person with a reasonable probability. The system matches information extracted from the photographs with similar information extracted from a database of photographs of existing suspects. The technology was subsequently transferred to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for use by the Border Patrol.

Gragg, Susan

1997-01-01

431

Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed.

Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

432

New "Golden" Ratios for Facial Beauty  

PubMed Central

In four experiments, we tested the existence of an ideal facial feature arrangement that could optimize the attractiveness of any face given its facial features. Participants made paired comparisons of attractiveness between faces with identical facial features but different eye-mouth distances and different interocular distances. We found that although different faces have varying attractiveness, individual attractiveness is optimized when the face’s vertical distance between the eyes and the mouth is approximately 36% of its length, and the horizontal distance between the eyes is approximately 46% of the face’s width. These “new” golden ratios match those of an average face.

Pallett, Pamela M.; Link, Stephen; Lee, Kang

2009-01-01

433

Symptomatic varix of the facial vein.  

PubMed

Varices of the facial and neck region are extremely rare, and the most prevalent varices in this region affect the orbital vein. To date, no report on a patent and symptomatic varix of the facial vein has been published, because these varices are particularly rare and most often thrombosed at the time of diagnosis. We present a patient with a prominent patent varix of the right facial vein. After a magnetic resonance imaging scan and duplex ultrasonography, the lesion was treated via surgical exploration, ligation, and complete excision. At 6 months of follow-up, no signs of recurrence were noted. PMID:23988543

Teraa, Martin; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Moll, Frans L; de Borst, Gert Jan

2013-08-26

434

The history of facial palsy and spasm  

PubMed Central

Although Sir Charles Bell was the first to provide the anatomic basis for the condition that bears his name, in recent years researchers have shown that other European physicians provided earlier clinical descriptions of peripheral cranial nerve 7 palsy. In this article, we describe the history of facial distortion by Greek, Roman, and Persian physicians, culminating in Razi's detailed description in al-Hawi. Razi distinguished facial muscle spasm from paralysis, distinguished central from peripheral lesions, gave the earliest description of loss of forehead wrinkling, and gave the earliest known description of bilateral facial palsy. In doing so, he accurately described the clinical hallmarks of a condition that we recognize as Bell palsy.

Sajadi, Mohamad-Reza M.; Tabatabaie, Seyed Mahmoud

2011-01-01

435

Eye movement during facial affect recognition by patients with schizophrenia, using Japanese pictures of facial affect.  

PubMed

A possible relationship between recognition of facial affect and aberrant eye movement was examined in patients with schizophrenia. A Japanese version of standard pictures of facial affect was prepared. These pictures of basic emotions (surprise, anger, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness) were shown to 19 schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy controls who identified emotions while their eye movements were measured. The proportion of correct identifications of 'disgust' was significantly lower for schizophrenic patients, their eye fixation time was significantly longer for all pictures of facial affect, and their eye movement speed was slower for some facial affects (surprise, fear, and sadness). One index, eye fixation time for "happiness," showed a significant difference between the high- and low-dosage antipsychotic drug groups. Some expected facial affect recognition disorder was seen in schizophrenic patients responding to the Japanese version of affect pictures, but there was no correlation between facial affect recognition disorder and aberrant eye movement. PMID:22185055

Shiraishi, Yuko; Ando, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Sayaka; Norikane, Kazuya; Kurayama, Shigeki; Abe, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yasushi

2011-10-01

436

Superficial musculoaponeurotic system flap for reconstruction of the intraoral defects.  

PubMed

Intraoral tumors are the main causes of the intraoral and maxillofacial defects. Skin grafts and several soft tissue flaps can be used to reconstruct the intraoral defects including local, regional, and free flaps. Here we present a case of intraoral adenocystic carcinoma treated with segmental maxillectomy, resection of the parotid gland, and the buccal mucosa leaving a full-thickness intraoral defect. The defect was covered with a superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) flap elevated using the preauricular incision. Reconstruction with SMAS flap for temporal defects and parotidectomy defects has been described in the literature. To our knowledge, the use of this flap for intraoral defects has not been reported. The proximity of the flap to the defect and ease of harvest in cases including total parotidectomy are few of the reasons we use and recommend this flap in reconstruction of intraoral defects. PMID:24037938

Kocaaslan, Nihal Durmus; Akdeniz, Zeynep Deniz; Celebiler, Ozhan; Numanoglu, Ayhan

2013-09-13

437

Novel approaches in 3-dimensional facial profiling to establish facial aesthetic objectives in the treatment of facial dysmorphologies.  

PubMed

When confronted with facial dysmorphologies, three-dimensional (3D) facial harmony is preferably assessed with regard to normality. This, however, presents two major challenges. The first challenge is to define normality. What makes non-dysmorphic faces appear normal? The second challenge is to situate the craniofacial dysmorphology with respect to normality. What makes the dysmorphic face not appear to be normal? To tackle these challenges, a novel approach based on a Face Space is proposed. In essence, faces are represented as points in a High-dimensional space, the dimensions of which capture important sources of allowed facial variation within a normal population. To establish an aesthetic objective of a given dysmorphic face, the novel concept of the "normal equivalent" of that face via robust projection into the Face Space is proposed. This technique is demonstrated on an artificial example in which smiling whilst showing teeth is considered a surrogate for facial dysmorphology. PMID:22046737

Claes, Peter; Walters, Mark; Clement, John

2010-03-01

438

Symmetry and Human Facial Attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symmetry may act as a marker of phenotypic and genetic quality and is preferred during mate selection in a variety of species. Measures of human body symmetry correlate with attractiveness, but studies manipulating human face images report a preference for asymmetry. These results may reflect unnatural feature shapes and changes in skin textures introduced by image processing. When the shape

David I Perrett; D. Michael Burt; Ian S Penton-Voak; Kieran J Lee; Duncan A Rowland; Rachel Edwards

1999-01-01

439

Ventricular septal defect  

MedlinePLUS

VSD; Interventricular septal defect ... known as a ventricular septal defect, or a VSD. Ventricular septal defect is one of the most ... lungs, leading to heart failure. The cause of VSD is not yet known. This defect often occurs ...

440

Correction of large facial encephalocele with bilateral rare craniofacial clefts.  

PubMed

Treatment of Tessier number 3, 11 craniofacial clefts represent a surgical challenge with complex bone and soft tissue deficits of the lip, cheek, medial orbit, and forehead. The severity of the presenting defect will ultimately determine the number of reconstructive stages required as well as the timing of each stage. Initial surgery in infancy is aimed at functional correction. We present the case of a patient with an expanding fronto-orbital encephalocele, a right number 3, 11 cleft and a left number 3, 10 cleft. The initial procedure repaired the encephalocele and reconstructed the supraorbital and forehead regions. Subsequent surgeries corrected the bilateral facial clefts with cleft lip repair, rotation of the forehead and nasal unit, cheek advancement, and a lower eyelid transposition flap. PMID:21239931

Wan, Derrick C; Lazareff, Jorge A; Jarrahy, Reza; Bradley, James P

2011-01-01

441

The application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein on absorbable collagen sponge (rhBMP-2\\/ACS) to reconstruction of maxillofacial bone defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facial skeleton supports a diverse variety of functions, and thus its morphology is equally diverse. In addition, the\\u000a facial bones are altered from normal by a wide variety of processes including trauma, infection, cysts, neoplasms, congenital\\u000a defects, developmental deformities, periodontal disease, tooth extraction, atrophy, and edentulous bone loss. The potential\\u000a for successful reconstruction of these defects is based upon

Daniel B. Spagnoli

442

Facial Appearance Transfer and Persistence After Three-Dimensional Virtual Face Transplantation.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND:: Facial appearance transfer (FAT) from donor to recipient in face transplantation is a concern. Previous studies of FAT and Facial Appearance Persistence (FAP, preservation of Recipient's facial likeness) in face transplants simulated using two-dimensional photograph manipulations found low FAT (2.6%) and high FAP (66%). Three-dimensional computer simulation of complex facial transplant patterns may improve the accuracy of FAT and FAP estimations. METHODS:: Three-dimensional virtual models of human faces were generated from de-identified CT angiographs and used as "Donors" or "Recipients" for virtual face transplantation (VFT). Surgical planning software was used to perform 73 VFTs by creating specific facial defects (Mandibular, Midface or Large) in the Recipient models and restoring them with allografts extracted from the Donor models. Twenty independent reviewers evaluated the resemblance of each resulting Post-transplant model to the Donor (FAT) and Recipient (FAP). The results were analyzed using tests for equal results with one-sample and pairwise Rao-Scott Pearson chi-square testing, correcting for clustering and multiple testing. RESULTS:: Overall rates of FAP and FAT were high (69.2%) and low (32.4%), respectively. The Mandibular pattern had the highest rates of FAP and lowest rates of FAT. FAP and FAT were similar across genders. CONCLUSIONS:: FAP is high whereas FAT is low after VFT. Appearance transfer and persistence after VFT are more dependant on the anatomy than on the size of transplanted facial aesthetic units. This information may reassure recipients of partial face transplants as well as donor families. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: not ratable. PMID:23783063

Chandawarkar, Akash A; Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Bueno, Ericka M; Jania, Camille K; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Caterson, Edward J; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Pomahac, Bohdan

2013-06-18

443

Non-photorealistic 3-D Facial Animation on the PDA Based on Facial Expression Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a facial expression recognition-synthesis system. In the front, it detects a facial area within the given image and then classifies its facial expression into 7 emotional weightings. Such weighting information, transmitted to the PDA via a mobile network, is used for non-photorealistic fa- cial expression animation. The cartoon-like shading method, adopted as a non- photorealistic 3-D technique,

Soo-mi Choi; Yong-guk Kim; Don-soo Lee; Sung-oh Lee; Gwi-tae Park

2004-01-01

444

Facial identity and facial speech processing: Familiar faces and voices in the McGurk effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to investigate the claims made by Bruce and Young (1986) for the independence of facial identity\\u000a and facial speech processing. A well-reported phenomenon in audiovisual speech perception—theMcGurk effect (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976), in which synchronous but conflicting auditory and visual phonetic information is presented to\\u000a subjects—was utilized as a dynamic facial speech processing task. An element

Stephanie Walker; Vicki Bruce; Claire O’Malley

1995-01-01

445

NF-?B accumulation associated with COL1A1 transactivators defects during chronological aging represses type I collagen expression through a -112/-61-bp region of the COL1A1 promoter in human skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The aging process, especially of the skin, is governed by changes in the epidermal, dermo-epidermal, and dermal compartments. Type I collagen, which is the major component of dermis extracellular matrix (ECM), constitutes a prime target for intrinsic and extrinsic aging-related alterations. In addition, under the aging process, pro-inflammatory signals are involved and collagens are fragmented owing to enhanced matrix metalloproteinase activities, and fibroblasts are no longer able to properly synthesize collagen fibrils. Here, we demonstrated that low levels of type I collagen detected in aged skin fibroblasts are attributable to an inhibition of COL1A1 transcription. Indeed, on one hand, we observed decreased binding activities of specific proteins 1 and 3, CCAAT-binding factor, and human collagen-Krüppel box, which are well-known COL1A1 transactivators acting through the -112/-61-bp promoter sequence. On the other hand, the aging process was accompanied by elevated amounts and binding activities of NF-?B (p65 and p50 subunits), together with an increased number of senescent cells. The forced expression of NF-?B performed in young fibroblasts was able to establish an old-like phenotype by repressing COL1A1 expression through the short -112/-61-bp COL1A1 promoter and by elevating the senescent cell distribution. The concomitant decrease of transactivator functions and increase of transinhibitor activity is responsible for ECM dysfunction, leading to aging/senescence in dermal fibroblasts. PMID:22673730

Bigot, Nicolas; Beauchef, Gallic; Hervieu, Magalie; Oddos, Thierry; Demoor, Magali; Boumediene, Karim; Galéra, Philippe

2012-06-07

446

Innovations in minimally invasive facial treatments.  

PubMed

Patients are seeking healthier lives, and at the same time their concern about having a beautiful face and maintaining a youthful appearance over time has increased. Traditionally, surgeries based on tissue resection and resurfacing were the focus in facial rejuvenation. Over the last decade, minimally invasive procedures have expanded exponentially because of the variety of cosmetic products available on the market and because patients are looking for a better appearance with nonincision methods. The understanding of the aging process, facial anatomy, and ideal proportions is extremely important for successful rejuvenation procedures. Also, neuromodulators, chemical peels, filler properties, correct indications, and effectiveness must be well known by the injector for favorable results. Therefore, knowledge of all facial cosmetic options and an adequate facial analysis are essential for a better performance. In this article, the authors review some different product options and show cases of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures for the face currently used. PMID:23761118

Jurado, José Roberto Parisi; Lima, Leila Freire Rego; Olivetti, Isabela Peixoto; Arroyo, Helena Hotz; de Oliveira, Ingrid Helena Lopes

2013-06-12

447

Facial nerve neuritis secondary to ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

We describe a patient who developed facial nerve injury following significant exposure to UV radiation. A 49-y-old construction worker developed erythema and edema on the left side of his face (exposed side) 12 h after working within 18 in of a compromised metal halide incandescent light bulb for a total of 2 h. One month later, the patient noted a painful burning sensation over the left side of his face associated with marked left facial weakness and inability to close his eye (peripheral VIIth nerve palsy). Two months later, synkinetic left facial movements were consistent with aberrant regeneration. Over the next several months, forceful episodic spasmodic activity developed in the muscles of facial expression on the left, identical to that seen in hemifacial spasm. Rarely has UV radiation been implicated in damage to subcutaneous nerves. This case demonstrates that significant neurologic morbidity may follow high exposure to UV radiation. PMID:12882496

Bryant, Sean M; Cumpston, Kirk L; Leikin, Jerrold B; Mycyk, Mark B; Pallasch, Erin; Rezak, Michael

2003-08-01

448

Facial feature extraction from color images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust facial feature extraction algorithm is required for many applications. The method proposed in this paper utilizes techniques of color segmentation and color thresholding to isolate and pinpoint the eyes, nostrils, and mouth on a color image

Thomas C. Chang; T. S. Huang; Carol Novak

1994-01-01

449

Laptop Computer: Based Facial Recognition System Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrollin...

R. A. Cain G. B. Singleton

2001-01-01

450

Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed.

Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

2011-01-01

451

Effects of a three-session skin rejuvenation treatment using stabilized hyaluronic acid-based gel of non-animal origin on skin elasticity: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the effects of micropuncture injections of stabilized hyaluronic acid-based\\u000a gel of non-animal origin (NASHA™, Restylane Vital™) on skin elasticity, a major aspect of skin ageing. Patients (n = 19) underwent a series of three treatment sessions, spaced 4 weeks apart, with NASHA injected into the lower facial cheeks.\\u000a Using the suction principle, 12

Tilmann Reuther; Julia Bayrhammer; Martina Kerscher

2010-01-01

452