These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

The application of reverse tubular medial upper arm flap in the reconstruction of ripped facial defects  

PubMed Central

Reverse medial upper arm flap is usually utilized in the reconstruction of defects in soft tissues of head and facial skin and is with good clinical efficacy. However, it has not been used in the reconstruction of ripped defects. In this study, we used the reverse tubular medial upper arm flap to repair the ripped facial defects. The reverse tubular skin flap from the medial upper arm was longitudinally cut into two parts. One part was used for the reconstruction of ripped facial defects. The other part was used as inner lining to repair the defects of mucosa. Using this method, 3 patients with ripped facial defects were successfully repaired. Thus the reverse tubular medial upper arm flap was successfully used in the reconstruction of ripped facial defects with little surgical trauma, simple manipulation of the operation, increased success rate of the operation and reduced incidence of complications.

Dong, Xianglin; Ma, Juan; Ma, Shaolin; Wen, Hao

2014-01-01

2

Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-04-01

3

Somatosensory Contribution to Motor Learning Due to Facial Skin Deformation  

E-print Network

Somatosensory Contribution to Motor Learning Due to Facial Skin Deformation Takayuki Ito1 and DavidGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Submitted 24 February 2010; accepted in final form 28 June 2010 Ito T in the present study precedes the target move- ment, is credited to the target-related motion, even though

Malfait, Nicole

4

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) and congenital heart defects.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 43-day-old boy with branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) and congenital heart defect. On clinical examination, he presented growth retardation, epicanthal folds, small palpebral fissures, telecanthus, broadened nasal bridge, lip pseudocleft, micrognathia, dysplastic and posteriorly-rotated ears, branchial clefts, short and webbed neck, supernumerary nipple, hypotonia and decreased deep tendon reflexes. Echocardiography showed the presence of a type-A complete atrioventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. This description strengthens the possibility of congenital heart defects being part of the spectrum of anomalies seen in BOFS. PMID:19360235

Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

2009-02-01

5

Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

2008-02-01

6

See-and-treat surgery for facial skin cancer.  

PubMed

See-and-treat surgery has been described as an efficient means of streamlining specialist diagnosis and treatment, and is commonly employed in gynaecology to reduce the delay between cytological screening and definitive treatment of cervical neoplasia. Relatively young patients with predominantly benign skin lesions have been treated in see-and-treat clinics but only in the context of referrals from primary care. The author describes the treatment of tertiary referrals for facial skin malignancies under local anaesthesia at these clinics, and analyses their acceptability to patients. A total of 100 consecutive patients were included. Data on age, coexisting conditions, diagnosis, site and size of lesion, operation, and outcomes including complications and completeness of excision, were collected. A questionnaire seeking patients' opinions was also used. Ninety patients were treated and 98 lesions were removed, 94% of which were malignant. The complete excision rate was 95%. There were no complications, and 98% of patients were satisfied with the service. See-and-treat surgery is an effective, safe, and acceptable means of providing surgical management of facial skin malignancies. PMID:24927655

McKechnie, Alasdair J

2014-09-01

7

Fetal Facial Defects: Associated Malformations and Chromosomal Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an 8-year period, facial defects were observed in 146 (7%) of the 2,086 fetuses that underwent karyotyping in our unit because of fetal malformations and\\/or growth retardation. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 37 of 56 (66%) fetuses with micrognathia, in 10 of 13 (77%) with macroglossia, in 31 of 64 (48 %) with cleft lip and palate, in 5

K. H. Nicolaides; D. R. Salvesen; R. J. M. Snijders; C. M. Gosden

1993-01-01

8

Chimeric flaps and "their variations": different options for immediate reconstruction of massive facial defects.  

PubMed

The reconstruction of massive head and neck defects is a difficult challenge, requiring restoration of bone, skin, and oral lining. Their complex three-dimensional nature often dictates the need of more than a single osteocutaneous flap for intra- and extra-oral reconstruction.Conventional reconstructive options can be considered, but there is no single ideal osteocutaneous free or pedicled flap providing an unlimited length of bone and skin paddle, or that could orient the skin paddle independently of the vascularized bone. The surgeon should then be aware of more complex options for reconstruction of extensive three-dimensional defects, namely chimeric free flaps and "their variations." They can be stratified in three types, either based on their intrinsic vasculature-perforated-based, branch-based, or whether they are prefabricated (surgical junction by microanastomosis).Despite morbidity and not perfect matching in terms of skin texture and pliability, these techniques are a good alternative in the presence of partial defects, especially in the context of immediate oncological reconstruction, where facial transplantation is not considered. PMID:25397714

Horta, Ricardo; Valença-Filipe, Rita; Monteiro, Diana; Silva, Alvaro; Amarante, José Manuel

2014-10-01

9

A newborn with grouped facial skin lesions and subsequent seizures  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital grouped skin lesions are alarming signs of a variety of threatening diagnoses of quite different origin. The present case report shows an impressive clinical pattern of a neonate and illustrates the difficulty in differential diagnosis of mixed connective tissue disease and neonatal lupus erythematosus in newborns. This reported case is to our knowledge the first description of an unrecognized mixed connective tissue disease in the mother with an unusual clinical manifestation in the newborn, comprising skin lesions, neurological damage and non-typical antibody constellation. Case presentation We report on a Caucasian female neonate from a perinatally asymptomatic mother, who presented with grouped facial pustular-like skin lesions, followed by focal clonic seizures caused by multiple ischemic brain lesions. Herpes simplex virus infection was excluded and both the mother and her infant had the antibody pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus and neonatal lupus erythematosus, respectively. However, clinical signs in the mother showed overlapping features of mixed connective tissue disease. Conclusion This case report emphasizes congenital Lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease as important differential diagnoses of grouped skin lesions in addition to Herpes simplex virus-infection. The coexistence of different criteria for mixed connective tissue disease makes it difficult to allocate precisely maternal and congenital infantile disease. PMID:24884686

2014-01-01

10

Skin and Bones: The Contribution of Skin Tone and Facial Structure to Racial Prototypicality Ratings  

PubMed Central

Previous research reveals that a more ‘African’ appearance has significant social consequences, yielding more negative first impressions and harsher criminal sentencing of Black or White individuals. This study is the first to systematically assess the relative contribution of skin tone and facial metrics to White, Black, and Korean perceivers’ ratings of the racial prototypicality of faces from the same three groups. Our results revealed that the relative contribution of metrics and skin tone depended on both perceiver race and face race. White perceivers’ racial prototypicality ratings were less responsive to variations in skin tone than were Black or Korean perceivers’ ratings. White perceivers ratings’ also were more responsive to facial metrics than to skin tone, while the reverse was true for Black perceivers. Additionally, across all perceiver groups, skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics on racial prototypicality ratings of White faces, with the reverse for Korean faces. For Black faces, the relative impact varied with perceiver race: skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics for Black and Korean perceivers, with the reverse for White perceivers. These results have significant implications for predicting who will experience racial prototypicality biases and from whom. PMID:22815966

Strom, Michael A.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Shunan; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Lee, Hoon Koo

2012-01-01

11

Extended range near-infrared imaging of water and oil in facial skin.  

PubMed

Recently, near-infrared (NIR) imaging has been applied to detecting changes in skin hydration using the water OH band centered near 1460 nm. However, assigning changes in the intensity of the OH band near 1460 nm to changes in the skin's water content is complicated. Consequently, detection of small changes in facial skin water content is difficult. For highly sensitive imaging of facial skin water and oil, a near-infrared unit with a large detection range that includes the CH(3) and CH(2) stretching vibration modes at 1700-1800 nm and the strongest water bands centered near 1920 nm is required. In this study, an extended range indium gallium arsenide near-infrared camera was combined with a diffuse-illumination unit specifically developed for facial skin analysis. Images of water and oil in facial skin were obtained in real time using a combination of interference filters, such as 1950 ± 56 nm for water OH, 1775 ± 50 nm for oil CH, and 1300 ± 40 nm for background reflections. Clear near-infrared images were obtained with little mirror reflection. The water and oil content of facial skin could be evaluated even around the eyes, nose, and sides of the cheeks, which are areas that are difficult to analyze using current commercial devices. Differences were detected in the time-dependent changes of water and oil content in facial skin images obtained after the application of different types of moisturizer. The distribution of both water and oil in the facial skin could be visualized at the same time, and the images could be used to evaluate skin type and skin conditions. PMID:21819782

Egawa, Mariko; Yanai, Motohiro; Kikuchi, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuji

2011-08-01

12

[Problems with diagnosis and treatment of an odontogenic fistula of facial skin].  

PubMed

Out of 16 patients with odontogenic fistulae of the facial skin, treated with in the last two years in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Province Hospital No 1 in Rzeszów, the authors subjected to detailed analysis seven patients in whom, during the period preceding specialist stomatological treatment, difficulties occurred in the diagnosis and treatment. In all cases of development of facial skin fistulae, odontogenic origin should be considered in the first place. PMID:9538656

Lewandowski, B; Mac-Pietrasz, I

1997-02-01

13

Efficacy and Tolerability of a Facial Serum for Fine Lines, Wrinkles, and Photodamaged Skin  

PubMed Central

Background: Dermatology visits for the prevention and treatment of aging skin are rapidly increasing. The clinical sequelae including wrinkling, pigmentary changes, roughness, laxity, and telangiectasia can all result in the appearance of aging skin, impacting quality of life. A facial serum was developed with ingredients associated with an improvement in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and increase in stratum corneum barrier function. Patients were instructed to use a gentle wash before applying the formulation and a moisturizer afterwards. Objective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a facial serum in improving the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and signs of photodamage. Methods: Thirty-four female subjects (Fitzpatrick classification I–IV) with early to advanced photodamaged skin in a 12-week, single-arm, open-label clinical trial. Visits were scheduled at Baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12. Efficacy was assessed using visual grading of facial and periocular skin (modified 10-point scales); changes in viscoelasticity properties were assessed by cutometry. Cutaneous tolerability was evaluated both clinically and subjectively using a 4-point scale and monitoring adverse events. Digital photography documented treatment-related changes in skin appearance. Subjects completed self-assessments at Baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: Significant improvements in all parameters and skin condition were seen as early as Week 4 (p?0.05). There was an 18-percent improvement in overall appearance by Week 12 (p?0.05). Fine lines and coarse winkles improved by 27 and 15 percent, respectively (both p?0.05). Significant improvements were also seen in uneven pigmentation, firmness/elasticity, toned/resiliency, skin radiance, tone, and tactile roughness/smoothness (10%, 11%, 18%, 21%, 16%, and 47%, respectively; allp?0.05). By Week 12 subjects reported a 43-percent improvement in overall facial skin appearance and 24-percent reduction in mean scores for facial lines and wrinkles (bothp?0.05). Improvements were also reported in overall skin tone, firmness, dryness, appearance of pores, appearance of brown spots/facial discoloration, skin radiance, and texture (37%, 35%, 35%, 28%, 24%, 39%, 38%, respectively; allp?0.05). There was a 71-percent reduction in erythema and 94-percent reduction in skin dryness by Week 12 (both p?0.05). Conclusion: The facial serum, in combination with the wash and moisturizer, may be effective and well-tolerated when treating photodamaged skin and may improve the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Significant improvements were seen with all grading parameters as early as four weeks of usage. A controlled study is warranted to further validate these findings. PMID:21779421

Stephens, Thomas J.; Herndon, James H.

2011-01-01

14

What's in a face? The role of skin tone, facial physiognomy, and color presentation mode of facial primes in affective priming effects.  

PubMed

Participants (N = 106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this effect depended on the mode of color presentation. The results suggest that in affective priming tasks, faces might not be processed holistically, and instead, visual features of facial priming stimuli independently affect implicit evaluations. PMID:22468422

Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

2012-01-01

15

Hydroquinone-free Skin Brightener System for the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Facial Hyperpigmentation  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a multimodal skin-brightening regimen in subjects with facial hyperpigmentation. Design: Open-label, single-center clinical study with clinical assessments at baseline, Week 4, Week 8, and Week 12. Treatment: Subjects were instructed to apply the skin-brightening complex onto their facial skin, twice daily, for 12 weeks. Subjects also applied a nonprescription retinol product, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Participants: Twenty-one subjects, aged 41 to 65 years, with Fitzpatrick skin types II to IV and moderate-to-severe facial hyperpigmentation completed the study. Measurements: Overall hyperpigmentation and tolerability (objective and subjective) assessments were conducted at all visits. In addition, global improvement in hyperpigmentation was assessed at all follow-up visits. A self-assessment questionnaire was completed by subjects at Week 12. Results: At baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12, subjects were assessed for overall hyperpigmentation and global improvement. Standardized digital photographs were also taken of the subjects’ facial skin at all visits. Subjects completed a self-assessment questionnaire at Week 12. Statistically significant reductions in mean Overall Hyperpigmentation scores and significant improvements in mean Global Improvement scores compared to baseline were observed at all follow-up visits (all p<0.001). These clinical observations were supported by standardized digital photography. In addition, the skin-brightening regimen was highly rated by subjects on all of the questionnaire parameters. Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that the multimodality skin-brightening regimen may provide a comprehensive and optimal treatment option to help reduce facial hyperpigmentation. PMID:24847406

Herndon JR., James H.; Stephens, Thomas J.; Mehta, Rahul C.

2014-01-01

16

An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin  

PubMed Central

Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

2015-01-01

17

Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream  

PubMed Central

Introduction Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan® VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects. PMID:25097471

Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

2014-01-01

18

Stress Evaluation while Prolonged Driving Operation Using the Facial Skin Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a relation to the accident of a car and the physiological and psychological state of a driver. The stress may lead to the fall of a fatigue or attentiveness. Therefore, it is an important subject from viewpoint such as accident prevention to evaluate the mental state of a driver. The study aimed at the development of a quantitative instrumentation technology of the stress when a subject is driving for a long time. First of all, we measured the physiological and psychological stress of a driver. The facial skin temperature and ventricular rate that was driver's physiological amount were measured and compared it with visual analog scale of the subjective amount. It was able to be obtaining of the high correlation in facial skin temperature and visual analog scale from the outcome of the experiment. Therefore, the possibility of appreciable of driver's stress at a facial skin temperature was shown. As a result of the experiment, we showed a possibility that facial skin temperature could evaluate long driving stress.

Asano, Hirotoshi; Muto, Takumi; Ide, Hideto

19

Multimodal facial color imaging modality for objective analysis of skin lesions  

PubMed Central

We introduce a multimodal facial color imaging modality that provides a conventional color image, parallel and cross-polarization color images, and a fluorescent color image. We characterize the imaging modality and describe the image analysis methods for objective evaluation of skin lesions. The parallel and cross-polarization color images are useful for the analysis of skin texture, pigmentation, and vascularity. The polarization image, which is derived from parallel and cross-polarization color images, provides morphological information of superficial skin lesions. The fluorescent color image is useful for the evaluation of skin chromophores excited by UV-A radiation. In order to demonstrate the validity of the new imaging modality in dermatology, sample images were obtained from subjects with various skin disorders and image analysis methods were applied for objective evaluation of those lesions. In conclusion, we are confident that the imaging modality and analysis methods should be useful tools to simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions in dermatology. PMID:19123654

Bae, Youngwoo; Nelson, J. Stuart; Jung, Byungjo

2009-01-01

20

Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol®) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin  

PubMed Central

Background French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. Methods One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. Results A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Conclusion Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE. PMID:22956863

Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

2012-01-01

21

Clinical evaluation of a dioic acid-based formulation on facial skin in an Indian population.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 1,18-octadecen-9-dioic acid (dioic acid) and a Rumex occidentalis extract complex for their skin-lightening action in an Indian population. Prior to the clinical study, the efficacy of dioic as an inhibitor of melanogenesis was confirmed on dark-pigmented human melanocytes. As part of a 12-week vehicle-controlled clinical study, the skin-lightening effect of a test product containing 1% dioic acid, 2% of a Rumex occidentalis extract and sunscreens (SPF 15) was assessed on the facial skin of 71 Indian female volunteers. Change in skin colour was monitored by (A) Chroma Meter® measurement (L*, a*, b*) and Individual Typology Angle (ITA?) calculation and (B) Visual grading of standardized photographs by a dermatologist. Colorimetric measurements on volunteers' cheeks showed a significant increase of L* and ITA? compared to baseline after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of test product application. For both L* and ITA? measurements, changes were significantly different than the SPF 15-containing vehicle at weeks 4 and 12. These results were confirmed by the dermatological visual grading. The overall skin-lightening action of the test product was beyond the one observed with the SPF 15 vehicle. These findings show that a dioic acid and Rumex occidentalis complex deliver a significant skin-lightening effect on facial skin in an Indian population. PMID:22994950

Merinville, E; Byrne, A J; Visdal-Johnsen, L; Bouvry, G; Gillbro, J M; Rawlings, A V; Laloeuf, A

2012-12-01

22

Reconstruction of complex oro-facial defects using the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap.  

PubMed

Oro-facial defects require reconstruction that provides suitable colour match and texture. Moreover inner and outer cheek lining and bulk are key considerations. In cases of severe oro-facial infections concomitant mandibular abnormality, for example trismus, can mandate the need for tissue to obturate mandibular defects. We assessed the use of the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap (MSA) in non-oncological patients with such defects. Twenty two consecutive patients were included in this case series. All patients were survivors of Cancrum Oris (NOMA). Demographic details, nutritional status and co-morbidities were recorded. Defects were classified according to the tissues destroyed; cheek, mandible, oral cavity, lip(s), nose and eye(s). Simultaneous procedures carried out were recorded. The surgical anatomy of the MSA is described. All patients had composite defects of the cheek and oral cavity plus another local anatomical structure. Adjunct procedures such as trismus release were carried out in 18/22 patients. Four patients required a return to theatre. There was no trismus recurrence observed. No flap losses were incurred. The MSA is a robust flap with minimal incidence of major complications. The MSA negates the need for microsurgical tissue transfer. Furthermore the MSA provides adequate bulk to obturate these defects. Future applications of the MSA may include complex oro-facial oncological defects. PMID:24209385

Saleh, D B; Fourie, L; Mizen, K D

2014-07-01

23

Comparison of two endotracheal tube securement techniques on unplanned extubation, oral mucosa, and facial skin integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 2 standard methods (ie, twill tape versus adhesive tape) of securement on unplanned extubation, oral mucosa, and facial skin integrity of the orally intubated patient.DESIGN: A prospective, quasi-experimental design was used for the pilot study.SETTING: The setting for the pilot study included critical care units of 3 community hospitals and 1 veterans' hospital in

Susan Barnason; Jaine Graham; M. Candice Wild; Lynette Bunde Jensen; Doris Rasmussen; Paula Schulz; Sandi Woods; Brenda Carder

1998-01-01

24

Treatment of Facial Skin Laxity by a New Monopolar Radiofrequency Device  

PubMed Central

Background: Acquired facial skin laxity seems to be a result of the combination of intrinsic and extrinsic processes. For treatment of facial ageing, non-invasive procedures have become popular. Aim: We wanted to investigate the effect of a new 2.2-MHz radiofrequency (RF) device on acquired facial skin laxity. Setting: Outpatient clinic associated with an academic teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: We performed an open trial with the RF-ReFacing™ device (Meyer-Haake Medical Innovations, Wehrheim/ Germany) in the monopolar mode with a power of 8-12 W, two passes per session and repetition three times after 2 weeks without treatment. Results: A total of 20 Caucasian female patients were included (age range, 34-73 years). The procedure was performed without any analgesia. We did not see any adverse effect. The procedure was scored as most convenient or convenient by all patients. Improvement in skin laxity and fine wrinkles was seen after the second treatment in 19 of the 20 patients and after the third treatment in 100% of the patients. On a scale from 0 to 3, improvement in the lower lid, Crow’s feet and jowl line was scored 2.6±0.7 by the patients; improvement in the overall appearance of the face was scored 2.3±0.5. Blinded assessment of the photographs rated the improvement as good or better in 15 of the 20 patients, moderate in 3 patients, no change in 1 patient. Conclusions: RF-ReFacing™ treatment was effective in improvement in skin laxity. Patients’ satisfaction was high. Although RF-ReFacing™ treatment cannot substitute surgical procedure, it might prolong the time to the first surgical facial lift. The number of patients treated was small, and no quantitative measurements or histopathology was performed. Hence further studies with greater number of patients are necessary. PMID:21572674

Wollina, Uwe

2011-01-01

25

Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694

Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

2012-01-01

26

Rehabilitation of a Partial Nasal Defect with Facial Prosthesis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

>Malignancies of the midface result in cosmetic deformities that make maxillofacial prosthesis as an integral part of the treatment plan. Facial defects can be devastating in their impact on physical structure and function of the affected individual, leading to potentional compromises in quality of life. Reconstruction of nasal defects is a challenge for the prosthodontist because of esthetic and retention problems associated with the facial prosthesis. This paper reports the rehabilitation of a partial nasal defect caused by basal cell carcinoma treatment using a nasal prosthesis made with silicone elastomers and mechanical and anatomical retentive aids. The patient had no problem with the prosthesis, except for a partial loss of extrinsic coloration in the two-year follow-up. PMID:25587390

Negahdari, Ramin; Pournasrollah, Alireza; Bohlouli, Sepideh; Sighari Deljavan, Alireza

2014-01-01

27

Signals of personality and health: the contributions of facial shape, skin texture, and viewing angle.  

PubMed

To what extent does information in a person's face predict their likely behavior? There is increasing evidence for association between relatively neutral, static facial appearance and personality traits. By using composite images rendered from three dimensional (3D) scans of women scoring high and low on health and personality dimensions, we aimed to examine the separate contributions of facial shape, skin texture and viewing angle to the detection of these traits, while controlling for crucial posture variables. After controlling for such cues, participants were able to identify Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Physical Health. For personality traits, we found a reliable laterality bias, in that the right side of the face afforded higher accuracy than the left. The separate contributions of shape and texture cues varied with the traits being judged. Our findings are consistent with signaling theories suggesting multiple channels to convey multiple messages. PMID:22288693

Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

2012-12-01

28

SKIN-SET, WOUND-HEALING AND RELATED DEFECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The physiology and biochemistry of resistance and susceptibility to tuber skinning/excoriation wounds, wound-healing and wound-related defects are of global importance because of the magnitude of the resulting food and financial losses. Wound related losses are difficult to determine because of the...

29

Combined topical application of lotus and green tea improves facial skin surface parameters.  

PubMed

No study has yet determined the anti-wrinkle efficacy of green tea plus lotus in Asian subjects using skin image analysis technique. In this study, the efficacy of two cosmetic active formulations intended for the treatment of facial wrinkles (green tea and lotus extract) has been evaluated in healthy subjects using a non-invasive device, the Visioscan(®) VC, and software for surface evaluation of living skin (SELS). Thirty-three healthy Asian subjects, all men, were enrolled after consent in a placebo-controlled comparative study with a split face design. One group applied multiple emulsions with green tea. The second group applied multiple emulsions with lotus extract, while a third group applied a multiple emulsion with a combination of both extracts. In all three groups, active formulations were applied to one side of the face and the placebo to the other side, once daily over the 60-day treatment course. Non-invasive measurements were performed at baseline and on days 30 and 60. Interesting and significant improvements were observed for the treatment effects on skin roughness (SEr), scaliness (SEsc), smoothness (SEsm), and wrinkling (SEw). For example, a 49.99% improvement in skin smoothness (SEsm) from baseline value and -23.22% and perfection in facial wrinkles (SEw) substantiated that combined treatment is superior over single treatments. Green tea and lotus combined in multiple emulsions brought a superior synergistic anti-aging effect. We conclude that diverse anti-oxidant constituents in both plants have a potential influence on skin surface parameters, thus indicating these plants as the future of new anti-aging products. PMID:23267660

Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

2013-04-01

30

Comparison of three skin stretching devices for closure of skin defects on the limbs of dogs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of skin-stretching devices on the closure of defects on the extremities of dogs. Antebrachial skin defects were created on limbs of 24 dogs randomly allotted in 3 groups. Regarding skin stretchers, staples and sutures passing through them (group A), sutures and hypodermic needles (group B), and the Pavletic device (group C) were used. Undermining of the wound in left extremity was performed further in all groups. Tension and blood perfusion measurements were assessed. After stretchers removal on day 3, the defects were closed primarily and wound healing was clinically scored. The histological variables evaluated were cellular infiltration, edema, collagen orientation, and thickness of epidermis. Statistically significant differences in mean tension values were found among groups (p<0.0005) and between measurement times in undermined (p=0.001) or not-undermined (p<0.0005) wounds, whereas mean blood perfusion values did not differ significantly. Clinical scoring in group B seemed to be better, but not significantly, than groups A and C. Primary wound closure by the Pavletic device was not feasible. ?o significant differences in histological variables were found between groups. Skin stretching with staples or hypodermic needles resulted in successful management of the defects, with minor side effects on skin histology and circulation. PMID:25269717

Tsioli, Vassiliki; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Psalla, Dimitra; Savvas, Ioannis; Pavlidis, Leonidas; Karayannopoulpou, Maria

2014-09-30

31

Dog ear graft for closure of the large skin defects in meningomyelocele surgery.  

PubMed

The closure of large skin defects is one of the challenging problems in plastic surgery and neurosurgery. Different reconstructive surgical techniques can be used for closing large skin defects. We report a technique for closing the large skin defects after the surgical repair of meningomyeloceles. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25472867

Cifci, Mehmet; Serefhan, Alpay; Yücesoy, Ali Naki

2013-01-01

32

Patient satisfaction and efficacy of accent radiofrequency for facial skin wrinkle reduction  

PubMed Central

Background: Radiofrequency (RF) is a new technique to treat facial wrinkles. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Accent RF in wrinkle reduction of different areas of the face. Materials and Methods: Patients with mild to severe facial wrinkles were treated with Accent using RF energies of 35-145 W. The average energy used in this study was 83.11 W. Patients received four subsequent weekly RF sessions. Wrinkle improvement was rated by two physicians comparing 6-month post treatment photographs with pretreatment photos. Moreover, patient satisfaction was assessed at 1 and 6 months after the last session of the treatment. Results: A total of 45 women participated in this study. In terms of patient satisfaction one month after the last treatment, 8.9% of the patients declared their dissatisfaction, 53.3% were somehow satisfied, 33.3% were satisfied, and 4.4% were very satisfied. At 6 months, patient satisfaction was as follows: 4.4% dissatisfied, 31.1% somehow satisfied, 46.7% satisfied, and 17.8% very satisfied. Patient satisfaction 6 months after the last treatment was significantly higher than 1 month post treatment (P = 0.006). At 6 months, patient satisfaction was not more than 75% in any treatment areas of the face. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Accent RF may be considered as a possible effective option for facial skin rejuvenation although its efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated further in randomized controlled trials. PMID:24523783

Jaffary, Fariba; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Zarkoob, Hajar

2013-01-01

33

Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness  

PubMed Central

Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception of Chinese and Caucasian faces. Résumé Objectifs Le vieillissement entraine des changements caractéristiques de l'apparence de la peau du visage. Parmi ces changements on distingue les éléments topographiques (relâchement de la peau et rides), les taches brunes et les cernes sur le contour de l'œil. Bien que ces modifications cutanées avec l'âge soient similaires pour les visages caucasiens et chinois; leur âge d'apparition et leur degré de sévérité varient entre ces deux populations. Il y a très peu d'informations disponibles liées à l'influence du vieillissement cutané sur la perception des visages féminins par les femmes chinoises. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer la contribution des différents signes de vieillissement à la perception de l'âge et d'attirance chez ces femmes. Methodes Des photos de visages de femmes caucasiennes et chinoises d'environ 60 ans ont été manipulées de façon à réduire séparément les signes suivants: (i) le relâchement de la peau et les rides, (ii) les taches brunes, et (iii) les cernes. Enfin, tous les signes ont été atténués ensemble (iv). Des participantes chinoises ont estimé, à partir de ces photos, l'écart d'âge entre la version originale et chaque version modifiée; elles ont également évalué l'attirance des visages originaux et modifiés. Resultats Les femmes chinoises ont jugé les visages chinois plus jeunes après correction des taches qu'après correction des rides/relâchement, alors que les visages caucasiens ont été perçus les plus jeunes après correction des rides/relâchement. Les femmes chinoises ont jugé que les visages avec correction des taches étaient les plus attirants quelle que soit l'origine du visage. La manipulation des cernes a entraîné un rajeunissement des 2 types de visages et les a rendus plus attirants, m

Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

2014-01-01

34

Versatile Use of Rhomboid Flaps for Closure of Skin Defects  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study is to present our clinical experience with rhomboid flaps. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients who were operated on between January 2006 and October 2010 were included in the study. All defects were reconstructed using rhomboid flaps. Results: Twenty-four patients were operated on for various reasons, and 26 rhomboid flaps were performed. Eleven of the 24 cases were male, and the median age of participants was 47.5 years. Eight cases were operated on under general anesthesia, and 13 were locally anesthetized; the remaining cases were operated on under regional anesthesia. In 17 cases, the defect was due to a benign or malignant tumor excision, and five cases were operated on due to burn contracture. There were no occurrences of partial or total flap necrosis or hematoma in our series. Conclusion: Our series indicates that rhomboid flaps can be safely used to reconstruct small to moderately sized skin defects.

Aydin, Osman Enver; Tan, Onder; Algan, Said; Kuduban, Selma Denktas; Cinal, Hakan; Barin, Ensar Zafer

2011-01-01

35

The use of digital image speckle correlation to measure the mechanical properties of skin and facial muscular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin mechanical properties have been extensively studied and have led to an understanding of the structure and role of the collagen and elastin fibers network in the dermis and their changes due to aging. All these techniques have either isolated the skin from its natural environment (in vitro), or, when studied in vivo, attempted to minimize the effect of the underlying tissues and muscles. The human facial region is unique compared to the other parts of the body in that the underlying musculature runs through the subcutaneous tissue and is directly connected to the dermis with collagen based fibrous tissues. These fibrous tissues comprise the superficial musculoaponeurotic system, commonly referred to as the SMAS layer. Retaining ligaments anchor the skin to the periosteum, and hold the dermis to the SMAS. In addition, traditional techniques generally collect an average response of the skin. Data gathered in this manner is incomplete as the skin is anisotropic and under constant tension. We therefore introduce the Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC) method that maps in two dimensions the skin deformation under the complex set of forces involved during muscular activity. DISC, a non-contact in vivo technique, generates spatial resolved information. By observing the detailed motion of the facial skin we can infer the manner in which the complex ensemble of forces induced by movement of the muscles distribute and dissipate on the skin. By analyzing the effect of aging on the distribution of these complex forces we can measure its impact on skin elasticity and quantify the efficacy of skin care products. In addition, we speculate on the mechanism of wrinkle formation. Furthermore, we investigate the use of DISC to map the mechanism of film formation on skin of various polymers. Finally, we show that DISC can detect the involuntary facial muscular activity induced by various fragrances.

Staloff, Isabelle Afriat

36

Study on ectoparasitic defects of processed skins at Sheba Tannery, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Study on ectoparasitic skin defects and their impact on the tanning industry was carried out from November 2008 to March 2009. The objectives of the study were to identify the type of skin defects due to ectoparasitic skin diseases that caused downgrading and rejection of pickled sheep and wet blue goat skins at Sheba tannery. A cross-sectional study of pickled and wet blue goat skins processed in Sheba tannery was used as subjects of the study. Accordingly, 700 pickled sheep and 700 wet blue goat skins from each stage were randomly examined to identify the type of skin damage in the tannery. Each selected skin was sorted by size and examined for defects in natural light by skin selectors, and defects on each skin were recorded, and skins were graded into seven grades. The study revealed that scratch was the dominant defect with prevalences of 43.86% and 44.84%, respectively. The prevalence of defect observed in wet blue goat skins due to demodectic mange was 7.74%, while in pickled sheep skins, this was 0%. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of cockle ("ekek") lesions between pickled sheep skin and wet blue goat skin. Although significant association (P<0.05) was observed between cockle and scratch on both skin types, no association (P>0.05) was seen between scratch and scar. PMID:20577804

Abebayehu, Tadesse; Kibrom, Mebrahitu

2010-12-01

37

Facial and Periorbital Cellulitis due to Skin Peeling with Jet Stream by an Unauthorized Person  

PubMed Central

Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a “beauty parlor” session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role. PMID:24822131

Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya

2014-01-01

38

Anosognosia for apraxia: Experimental evidence for defective awareness of one's own bucco-facial gestures.  

PubMed

Anosognosia is a multifaceted, neuro-psychiatric syndrome characterized by defective awareness of a variety of perceptuo-motor, cognitive or emotional deficits. The syndrome is also characterized by modularity, i.e., deficits of awareness in one domain (e.g., spatial perception) co-existing with spared functions in another domain (e.g., memory). Anosognosia has mainly been reported after right hemisphere lesions. It is however somewhat surprising that no studies have thus far specifically explored the possibility that lack of awareness involves apraxia, i.e., a deficit in the ability to perform gestures caused by an impaired higher-order motor control and not by low-level motor deficits, sensory loss, or failure to comprehend simple commands. We explored this issue by testing fifteen patients with vascular lesions who were assigned to one of three groups depending on their neuropsychological profile and brain lesion. The patients were asked to execute various actions involving the upper limb or bucco-facial body parts. In addition they were also asked to judge the accuracy of these actions, either performed by them or by other individuals. The judgment of the patients was compared to that of two external observers. Results show that our bucco-facial apraxic patients manifest a specific deficit in detecting their own gestural errors. Moreover they were less aware of their defective performance in bucco-facial as compared to limb actions. Our results hint at the existence of a new form of anosognosia specifically involving apraxic deficits. PMID:25100505

Canzano, Loredana; Scandola, Michele; Pernigo, Simone; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria; Moro, Valentina

2014-12-01

39

A single-blinded randomised controlled study to determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation.  

PubMed

To determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation, twenty-three volunteers received randomised 20 min treatments three times a week for three weeks to one half of their face, with the untreated side acting as control. Regular assessments were carried out, focusing on parameters of subject satisfaction, photographic assessments, skin elasticity (Cutometer) and skin hydration (Corneometer CM825). Ninety-one percent of the volunteers reported visible changes to their skin. Blinded photographic evaluation reported a clinical response in 59% of the subjects. Objective analysis failed to show statistically significant changes in skin hydration or elasticity. The Omnilux Revive LED lamp is a safe alternative non-ablative skin rejuvenation treatment. PMID:15909229

Bhat, Jaideep; Birch, Jan; Whitehurst, Colin; Lanigan, Sean W

2005-01-01

40

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Skin Care Protocols for Facial Resurfacing: Lessons Learned from the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation’s Skin Products Assessment Research Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Skin Products Assessment Research (SPAR) Committee was created by the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation (PSEF) in 2006. SPAR study aims were to (1) develop an infrastructure for PSEF-conducted, industry sponsored research in facial aesthetic surgery and (2) test the research process by comparing outcomes of the Obagi Nu-Derm System (ONDS) versus conventional therapy as treatment adjuncts for facial resurfacing procedures. Methods The SPAR study was designed as a multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). The study was conducted in women with Fitzpatrick type I-IV skin, moderate to severe facial photo damage, and peri-ocular and/or peri-oral fine wrinkles. Patients underwent chemical peel or laser facial resurfacing and were randomized to ONDS or a standard care regimen. The study endpoints were time to re-epithelization, erythema, and pigmentation changes. Results Fifty-six women were enrolled and 82% were followed beyond re-epithelization. There were no significant differences in mean time to re-epithelialization between ONDS and control groups. The ONDS group had a significantly higher median erythema score on day of surgery (after 4 weeks of product use) which did not persist after surgery. Test-retest photo evaluations demonstrated that both inter- and intra-rater reliability were adequate for primary study outcomes. Conclusions In a clinical RCT, we demonstrated no significant difference in time to re-epithelization between patients who used the ONDS or a standard care regimen as an adjunct to facial resurfacing procedures. The SPAR research team has also provided a discussion of future challenges for PSEF sponsored clinical research for readers of this article. PMID:21364435

Pannucci, Christopher J.; Reavey, Patrick L.; Kaweski, Susan; Hamill, Jennifer B.; Hume, Keith M.; Wilkins, Edwin G.; Pusic, Andrea L.

2011-01-01

41

Localization of the defect in skin diseases analyzed in the human skin graft-nude mouse model.  

PubMed

Human skin can be grown away from its donor for prolonged periods as grafts on congenitally athymic "nude" mice. This system has been used to analyze the defect in several skin diseases, specifically to localize the site of the defect to the skin itself or to the epidermal or dermal components of the skin. In order to validate the use of the nude mouse human skin graft system in the analysis of skin defects, we have demonstrated that a systemic metabolic defect which involves the skin, namely essential fatty acid deficiency, can be differentiated from a defect residing primarily in the skin itself. Skin-marker systems have been developed for use with the nude mouse-human skin graft model to document the identity of human skin grafts and epidermal and dermal components of the grafts after prolonged periods of growth on the nude athymic mice. Y-body, a small fluorescent segment of the Y-chromosome seen in interphase cells, is used as a sex marker and serves to distinguish sex differences between the graft and the mouse recipient or between skin components of the graft. The ABH "blood-group" antigens are present on differentiated epidermal cell surfaces and identify the grafted epidermis according to the blood groups of the donor. In previous studies, lamellar ichthyosis was shown to be well maintained after prolonged periods of growth on nude athymic mice, indicating that the defect in this disease resides in the skin itself. Recombinant grafts composed of normal and lamellar ichthyosis epidermis and dermis further localize the defect to lamellar ichthyosis epidermis. Psoriasis is well maintained on the nude mouse-skin graft model. The epidermal hyperplasia and hyperproliferative epidermal cell kinetics of psoriasis are manifested in the grafts of active psoriasis maintained for prolonged periods on the nude mice, but the inflammatory component of psoriasis is absent. Recombinant graft studies utilizing normal and psoriatic epidermis and dermis demonstrate psoriasis only in recombinant grafts composed of both psoriatic epidermis and dermis. These studies indicate that psoriasis requires both psoriatic epidermis and dermis for its expression. PMID:7016453

Briggaman, R A

1980-01-01

42

Efficacy of the combined use of a facial cleanser and moisturizers for the care of mild acne patients with sensitive skin.  

PubMed

Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin. PMID:25483138

Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

2014-12-01

43

Single Treatment with 100-Microsecond Alexandrite Laser Clears Selected Acquired Melanocytic Nevi in Type IV Asian Facial Skin  

PubMed Central

Context: Small common acquired melanocytic nevi (AMNs) are common on Asian facial skin. Aims: To show that the 755 nm Alexandrite laser stacked at the 100-?s long-pulsed mode (?sAL) is an effective modality for the removal of selected AMNs. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective case series, followed up with a telephone interview. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients treated between January 2010 and April 2012 with the ?sAL laser for small AMNs was conducted. Pre- and post-treatment facial photographs and photographs of the individual lesions were analyzed by two independent dermatological surgeons for degree of clearance and complications. A telephone interview was conducted with the patients to assess their satisfaction with the procedure. Results: A total of 18 patients with 53 lesions were included. 7/18 (38.9%) of patients had ‘excellent’ results. No patients had ‘mild’ or ‘poor’ results. At 4 week post-treatment, 49/53 (92.5%) were totally cleared, with 14/53 (26.4%) reporting mild atrophy, and 11/53 (20.8%) reporting mild post-inflammatory hypopigmentation. The majority of lesions had negligible complications. 9/18 (50%) judged the procedure to be ‘excellent’, and all patients reported that they would recommend this procedure to a friend seeking removal of small facial AMNs. Conclusion: The ?sAL is an effective modality for the removal of small facial AMNs. PMID:23723600

Wang, Etienne CE; Sen, Priya; Goh, Chee-Leok; Chua, Sze-Hon

2013-01-01

44

Skin-based Face Detection-Extraction and Recognition of Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face detection is the foremost task in building vision-based humancomputer interaction systems and in particular in applications\\u000a such as face recognition, face identification, face tracking, expression recognition and content based image retrieval. A\\u000a robust face detection system must be able to detect faces irrespective of illuminations, shadows, cluttered backgrounds, facial\\u000a pose, orientation and facial expressions. Many approaches for face detection

Nikolaos G. Bourbakis; P. Kakumanu

2008-01-01

45

Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction with epilepsy, other heart defects, minor facial anomalies and new copy number variants  

PubMed Central

Background Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction (LVHT) is a cardiac abnormality of unknown etiology which has been described in children as well as in adults with and without chromosomal aberrations. LVHT has been reported in association with various cardiac and extracardiac abnormalities like epilepsy and facial dysmorphism. Case presentation A unique combination of LVHT, atrial septal defect, pulmonary valve stenosis, aortic stenosis, epilepsy and minor facial anomalies is presented in a 5.5?years old girl. Microarray-based genomic hybridization (array-CGH) detected six previously not described copy number variants (CNVs) inherited from a clinically unaffected father and minimally affected mother, thus, most likely, not clinically significant but rare benign variants. Conclusions Despite this complex phenotype de novo microdeletions or microduplications were not detected by array CGH. Further investigations, such as whole exome sequencing, could reveal point mutations and small indels as the possible cause. PMID:22830313

2012-01-01

46

Signals of Personality and Health: The Contributions of Facial Shape, Skin Texture, and Viewing Angle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To what extent does information in a person's face predict their likely behavior? There is increasing evidence for association between relatively neutral, static facial appearance and personality traits. By using composite images rendered from three dimensional (3D) scans of women scoring high and low on health and personality dimensions, we aimed…

Jones, Alex L.; Kramer, Robin S. S.; Ward, Robert

2012-01-01

47

Postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, spondylocarpal synostosis, cardiac defect, and inner ear malformation (cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome?)--a distinct syndrome?  

PubMed

We report on two unrelated cases born to nonconsanguineous parents with a similar clinical presentation: hypotonia since the neonatal period, severe failure to thrive, postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, congenital cardiac defects (septal defect and non progressive multiple valve dysplasia), shortened extremities, carpal/tarsal and extensive vertebral synostosis, delayed carpal bone age, deafness, and inner ear malformations. Presently, both patients present with normal psychomotor development. Additional abnormal findings include extra oral frenulum, nasal speech, and vesico-ureteral reflux. Molecular analysis in one patient excluded the Noggin gene and Filamin B (FLNB) was excluded in the other patient. Although some features are similar to spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome, the exclusion of FLNB and this constellation of findings suggest a new entity, closely similar to an autosomal dominant condition reported by Forney et al. 1966 in a unique family. Identification of similarly affected patients should aid in the further elucidation of this syndrome. PMID:20186786

Sousa, Sérgio B; Baujat, Geneviéve; Abadie, Véronique; Bonnet, Damien; Sidi, Daniel; Munnich, Arnold; Krakow, Deborah; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

2010-03-01

48

The Pelleve procedure: an effective method for facial wrinkle reduction and skin tightening.  

PubMed

Devices using radiofrequency (RF) energy and electrical energy to deliver a controlled thermal injury to heat skin have proliferated within the nonablative skin treatment market since the introduction of Thermage in 2002. By delivering continuous monopolar RF energy, rather than pulsed heating, and repeatedly bringing the skin to therapeutic temperatures until maximal contraction is obtained, the Pelleve Procedure can give obvious cosmetic results confluently over all treated areas painlessly and with no downtime. In this article, the technique, mechanism of continuous RF heating, and apparent treatment requirements to produce these results are presented. Some controversies are also addressed. PMID:21763994

Stampar, Michael

2011-05-01

49

Full thickness skin graft cover for lower limb defects following excision of cutaneous lesions.  

PubMed

Excision of cutaneous lesions in the lower limb often results in defects that cannot be closed primarily. In comparison to split-skin grafts, full-thickness skin grafts achieve a better cosmetic outcome but take with more difficulty. We aimed to study the outcome of full-thickness graft resurfacing of such defects. This study included 28 patients who underwent excision of a total of 30 lesions with full-thickness skin grafts. The data gathered included site and size of the lesion, level of excision, method of fixation of the graft, histology results, graft take and presence of donor and recipient complications. The median age of the patients was 87 years. The mean size of the defect was 18.03 cm(2) (roughly 6 x 4 cm(2)). The graft take was good (>80%) in 18 full-thickness skin grafts, while it was partial (50-75%) in 7 patients and was poor (25% or less) in 5 patients. All excision wounds healed without any need for further surgery. Donor site complications occurred in 2 patients. We conclude that, following excision of lower limb lesions, primary full-thickness skin grafting is an effective and safe method of resurfacing defects in the lower limbs with a very low incidence of donor site complications. PMID:18700107

Rao, Krishna; Tillo, Omar; Dalal, Milind

2008-01-01

50

Histopathologic and Ultrastructural Features of Gold Thread Implanted in the Skin for Facial Rejuvenation.  

PubMed

: The authors report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of gold threads, which were implanted in the cheek subcutis of a 77-year-old woman 10 years ago. These particles did not give rise to any adverse reactions and were fortuitously discovered by the surgeon during a facelift. Histopathology showed a nonpolarizing exogenous material consisting of black oval structures surrounded by a capsule of fibrosis and by a discrete inflammatory reaction with a few giant cells. In some cases, only a long fibrous tract surrounded by a moderate mononucleate infiltrate was observed. The wires were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis revealed a specific peak at 2.2 keV representative of gold that was absent in the control skin sample. As this value is specific for gold, it confirms the presence of the metal in the patient's skin. The histopathologic appearance of gold threads is particularly distinctive and easily recognizable by dermatopathologists. PMID:25321089

Moulonguet, Isabelle; Arnaud, Eric; Plantier, Françoise; da Costa, Patrick; Zaleski, Stéphane

2014-10-15

51

The healing effect of stem cells loaded in nanofibrous scaffolds on full thickness skin defects.  

PubMed

In this study, we have evaluated the wound-healing effects of unrestricted somatic stem cells loaded in chitosan-cross linked PHBV nanofibrous scaffold, implanted into the full thickness skin defects of rats. Afterwards, the scaffolds were evaluated by structural, microscopic, physical and mechanical assays and cell culture analyses. Defects were treated with the scaffolds without and with USSCs. MTT assay, immunostaining, and wound pathology were performed for groups twenty one days after implantation. SEM images showed the average diameter of about 100 nm for the nanofibrous scaffolds, increasing up to 500 nm after chitosan-crosslinking. Results of physical and mechanical analyses also showed a good resilience and compliance with movement as a skin graft. Cellular experiments showed a better cell adhesion, growth and proliferation inside the cross-linked nanofibrous scaffolds compared to un-cross linked ones. In animal models, all groups, excluding the control group, exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen at post-operative day 21. Histological and immunostaining examinations of healed wounds from all groups, especially the groups treated with stem cells. Thus, the grafting of chitosan-cross-linked nanofibrous scaffold loaded with USSC showed better results during the healing process of skin defects in rat models. PMID:23980496

Biazar, E; Keshel, S Heidari

2013-09-01

52

Burned-out endemic syphilis (Bejel): facial deformities and defects in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Endemic syphilis (bejel) is an endemic, contagious, non-sexually transmitted treponematosis of primitive communities which, if not treated, can cause deformities and defects of the face in its late stage. Several burned-out cases from Saudi Arabia are shown, and the techniques of plastic surgical repair are presented by word and illustrations. We describe in detail a total rhinoplasty (with panfacial reconstruction) in which a scalping flap was used as outer cover and superimposed on a classical island forehead flap based on a subcutaneous pedicle containing both frontal vessels for inner lining. PMID:6387735

Erdelyi, R L; Molla, A A

1984-11-01

53

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor acutely modulates the excitability of rat small-diameter trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating facial skin.  

PubMed

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays an important role in adult sensory neuron function. However, the acute effects of GDNF on primary sensory neuron excitability remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GDNF acutely modulates the excitability of adult rat trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons that innervate the facial skin by using perforated-patch clamping, retrograde-labeling and immunohistochemistry techniques. Fluorogold (FG) retrograde labeling was used to identify the TRG neurons innervating the facial skin. The FG-labeled small- and medium-diameter GDNF immunoreactive TRG neurons, and most of these neurons also expressed the GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRalpha-1). In whole-cell voltage-clamp mode, GDNF application significantly inhibited voltage-gated K(+) transient (I(A)) and sustained (I(K)) currents in most dissociated FG-labeled small-diameter TRG neurons. This effect was concentration-dependent and was abolished by co-application of the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, K252b. Under current-clamp conditions, the repetitive firing during a depolarizing pulse were significantly increased by GDNF application. GDNF application also increased the duration of the repolarization phase and decreased the duration of the depolarization phase of the action potential, and these characteristic effects were also abolished by co-application of K252b. These results suggest that acute application of GDNF enhances the neuronal excitability of adult rat small-diameter TRG neurons innervating the facial skin, via activation of GDNF-induced intracellular signaling pathway. We therefore conclude that a local release of GDNF from TRG neuronal soma and/or nerve terminals may regulate normal sensory function, including nociception. PMID:19679180

Takeda, Mamoru; Kitagawa, Junichi; Nasu, Masanori; Takahashi, Masayuki; Iwata, Koichi; Matsumoto, Shigeji

2010-01-01

54

Flag flap for coverage of a skin defect caused after debridement of chronic osteomyelitis of the proximal phalanx of the 5th toe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A skin defect caused by debridement of refractory osteomyelitis of the proximal pharanx of the 5th toe was covered by a flag flap from adjacent 4th toe. At 5 postoperative months, the toe showed smooth skin margin between the flap and recipient skin. Texture of the flap was soft with an excellent blood supply. The usefulness of this skin flap

Mitsuhiro Aoki; Kota Watanabe; Shyu-ji Kura; Toshihiko Yamashita

2003-01-01

55

Facial restoration.  

PubMed

Medical science has demonstrated that fiction can be turned into fact. It is prophesied that man will be able to liver longer due to the development of synthetic organs. Sophisticated facial prostheses will be included in this progressive field. Perhaps the next century will make synthetic substitutes past history with the transplantation of organs as established practice. Or, perhaps some of the latest developments of growing skin or the use of carbonated teflon inserts will replace currently used plastics. In the meantime, we must continue to work within the limitations of our present technology. PMID:1228185

Diner, J

1975-07-01

56

Implant-supported fixed restoration of post-traumatic mandibular defect accompanied with skin grafting: A clinical report  

PubMed Central

Traumatic defects are mostly accompanied by hard and soft tissue loss. This report describes the surgical and prosthetic treatment of a patient with post-traumatic mandibular defect. A split-thickness skin graft was performed prior to implant placement and prefabricated acrylic stent was placed to hold the graft in place. The esthetic and functional demands of the patient were fulfilled by implant-supported screw-retained fixed prosthesis using CAD-CAM technology. PMID:23508120

Noh, Kwantae; Choi, Woo-Jin

2013-01-01

57

Effect of resveratrol on cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with oxidative phosphorylation defects.  

PubMed

Few therapeutic options are available to patients with oxidative phosphorylation disorders. Administering pharmacological agents that are able to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis have been put forward as a possible treatment, yet the approach remains in need of thorough testing. We investigated the effect of resveratrol in an in vitro setting. Mitochondrial enzymatic activities were tested in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients harboring a nuclear defect in either complex II or complex IV (n?=?11), and in fibroblasts from healthy controls (n?=?11). In the latter, preincubation with resveratrol resulted in a significant increase of citrate synthase, complex II and complex IV enzyme activity. In patients with complex II or complex IV deficiency, however, activity of the deficient complex could not be substantially augmented, and response was dependent upon the residual activity. We conclude that resveratrol is not capable of normalizing oxidative phosphorylation activities in deficient cell lines. PMID:23620374

De Paepe, Boel; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Smet, Joél; Vanlander, Arnaud; Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy; Van Hove, Johan Lk; Deschepper, Ellen; Briones, Paz; Van Coster, Rudy

2014-02-01

58

Dynamic model of facial color for facial image synthesis in a virtual arm wrestling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arm wrestling system using a 4-DOF force display with virtual human is developed for the affect display of facial color and expression, aiming for the application to training and rehabilitation support. In this paper, by the simultaneous measurement of facial skin temperature and facial color images, the dynamic change of facial color and expression are analyzed under static force

Talcashi YAMADA; T. Watanabe

2004-01-01

59

Preparation of a silk fibroin spongy wound dressing and its therapeutic efficiency in skin defects.  

PubMed

A novel silk fibroin spongy wound dressing (SFSD) incorporated with nano-Ag particles was prepared by coagulating with 1.25-5.0% (v/v) poly(ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) (PGDE). The mechanical properties, moisture permeability and hygroscopicity of SFSD, and the nano-Ag release behavior from SFSD were evaluated. The results showed that the soft SFSD had satisfying tensile strength and flexibility, as well as excellent moisture permeability and absorption capability of wound exudates. The moisture permeability was 101 g/m(2) per h and the water absorption capacity of SFSD was 595.2% and 251.9% of its own weight in dry and wet states, respectively. The nano-Ag in the SFSD was released continuously at a relatively stable rate in PBS resulting in a remarkable antibacterial property. A rabbit model was used to dynamically observe the healing process of full-thickness skin defects. Full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsal side of rabbits, which were covered with SFSD and porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) for comparison. The mean healing time of the wounds covered with SFSD was 17.7 ± 2.4 days, significantly shorter than that with PADM. The histological analysis showed that the epidermal cell layer formed with SFSD was very similar to normal skin, suggesting that SFSD may provide a good component for the development of new wound dressings. PMID:21176393

Min, Sijia; Gao, Xin; Han, Chunmao; Chen, Yu; Yang, Mingying; Zhu, Liangjun; Zhang, Haiping; Liu, Lin; Yao, Juming

2012-01-01

60

Epidermal barrier defects link atopic dermatitis with altered skin cancer susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Atopic dermatitis can result from loss of structural proteins in the outermost epidermal layers, leading to a defective epidermal barrier. To test whether this influences tumour formation, we chemically induced tumours in EPI?/? mice, which lack three barrier proteins—Envoplakin, Periplakin, and Involucrin. EPI?/? mice were highly resistant to developing benign tumours when treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The DMBA response was normal, but EPI?/? skin exhibited an exaggerated atopic response to TPA, characterised by abnormal epidermal differentiation, a complex immune infiltrate and elevated serum thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). The exacerbated TPA response could be normalised by blocking TSLP or the immunoreceptor NKG2D but not CD4+ T cells. We conclude that atopy is protective against skin cancer in our experimental model and that the mechanism involves keratinocytes communicating with cells of the immune system via signalling elements that normally protect against environmental assaults. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01888.001 PMID:24843010

Cipolat, Sara; Hoste, Esther; Natsuga, Ken; Quist, Sven R; Watt, Fiona M

2014-01-01

61

Reduction of conspicuous facial pores by topical fullerene: possible role in the suppression of PGE2 production in the skin  

PubMed Central

Background Conspicuous facial pores are therapeutic targets for cosmeceuticals. Here we examine the effect of topical fullerene on conspicuous facial pores using a new image analyser called the VISIA® system. Ten healthy Japanese females participated in this study, and they received applications of 1% fullerene lotion to the face twice a day for 8 weeks. Findings Fullerene lotion significantly decreased conspicuous pores by 17.6% (p?facial pores after an 8-week treatment possibly through the suppression of PGE2 production in the epidermis. PMID:24559044

2014-01-01

62

Non-destructive detection of defects in artificial skin tissue by optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of optical coherence tomography OCT in tissue engineering facilities offers great potential for the automated detection of defects or inhomogeneities in tissue products. This non-invasive and non-destructive measurement technique enables the high speed generation of two dimensional cross sections of tissue with micron resolution. The integration of an OCT device into a tissue production facility allows the monitoring and quality control of tissue engineering products. By the selective exclusion of tissue products with insufficient quality features a high degree in production standard is guaranteed. In a first study, OCT tomograms of artificial skin equivalents were acquired and compared with microscopic images of associated histologies. As a result, a well-defined analogy of the obtained images is presented. The most common defect in terms of hole structures that occurs due to a procedural steps could be detected. Further characteristics like the topography, homogeneity and layer structure was analysed. Hence, OCT provides a powerful measurement technique to monitor the quality of tissue products in automated tissue engineering facilities.

Schmitt, R.; Marx, U.; Heymer, A.; Kaufmann, M.

2009-07-01

63

Common pathways for ultraviolet skin carcinogenesis in the repair and replication defective groups of xeroderma pigmentosum.  

PubMed

The human disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) involves DNA repair and replication deficiencies that predispose homozygous individuals to a 1000-fold increase in nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Two major forms of XP are known with different biochemical defects: one form lacks nucleotide excision repair (NER); the other lacks the capacity to replicate damaged DNA. Since the clinical symptoms of both kinds of patients are almost the same, the different cellular defects must be reconciled with common clinical outcomes. An additional question among the NER defective patients is how to reconcile widely different skin and central nervous system symptoms with mutations in the same biochemical pathway. XP involves seven genes of the NER system (XPA through G). The XPA gene codes for a protein that is central to NER and binds to a variety of UV light and chemical damage to DNA. It also acts as a nucleation center for other repair proteins to attach and carry out excision and replacement synthesis. Mutations in XPA that are within the DNA binding site produce more severe CNS disorders, than mutations in the C-terminal region of the protein that interacts with the TFIIH complex. In contrast, mutations in two members of the TFIIH complex, the XPB and XPD genes are generally very severe with both skin and CNS disorders. Missense mutations within the helicase regions of these genes are associated with DNA repair deficiencies and XPD; mutations elsewhere in these genes are correlated with symptoms of XP and Cockayne syndrome and trichothiodystrophy. This raises the question whether the CNS disorders of XPA, XPB, and XPD patients are similar, or whether a careful clinical evaluation might reveal different mechanisms of development. The XP variant lacks the capacity to replicate damaged DNA due to mutations in hRad30, a damage-specific polymerase eta. The phenotype of XP variant cells becomes unstable and the cells become much more UV-sensitive when they are transformed by methods that inactivate p53. On a p53 negative background, the induction of recombination between sister chromatids occurs much more extensively than in normal cells, and we have evidence that DNA double strand breaks which trigger an apoptotic pathway involving caspase-3 are involved. The pathway for UV carcinogenesis may be the same for all XP patients if the ultimate cause of genomic instability is an increase in replication of damaged DNA by the error-prone polymerase zeta. The presence of unrepaired damage in the NER defective groups of XP would present more substrate for the error-prone system leading to increased mutation rates. The absence of pol eta would require cells to use the error-prone pol zeta pathway, also increasing mutation rates from UV damage. A common pathway for increased mutagenesis therefore underlies both forms of XP. PMID:10699759

Cleaver, J E

2000-05-01

64

Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated the interaction of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)/sub 2/D (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D). They analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. The following four patterns of interaction with (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 were observed with cells cultured from affected patients. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)/sup 2/D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.

Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

1983-02-01

65

Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated the interaction of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)/sub 2/D (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D). We analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer containing 300 mM KCl and 10 mM sodium molybdate. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.

Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

1983-02-01

66

Reduction of facial pigmentation of melasma by topical lignin peroxidase: A novel fast-acting skin-lightening agent  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lignin peroxidase (LIP) as a skin-lightening agent in patients with melasma. A self-controlled clinical study was performed in 31 women who had melasma on both sides of the face. This study involved 8 weeks of a full-face product treatment. The skin color was measured at days 0, 7, 28 and 56 using a chromameter on the forehead and cheeks. Standardized digital photographic images of each side of the face of all subjects were captured by a complexion analysis system. Clinical scores of the pigmentation were determined by two dermatologists. After using the LIP whitening lotion for 7 days, the luminance (L*) values of the melasma and the normal skin were significantly increased from baseline. The L* values continued to increase at days 28 and 56. The melasma area severity index (MASI) score was statistically decreased after 28 days of treatment. No treatment-related adverse events were observed. LIP whitening lotion was able to eliminate the skin pigmentation after 7 days of treatment, and provides a completely innovative approach to rapid skin lightening. The LIP whitening lotion exhibited good compatibility and was well tolerated. PMID:25574195

ZHONG, SHAO-MIN; SUN, NAN; LIU, HUI-XIAN; NIU, YUE-QING; WU, YAN

2015-01-01

67

Epidermal Stem Cells Cultured on Collagen-Modified Chitin Membrane Induce In Situ Tissue Regeneration of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Mice  

PubMed Central

A Large scale of full-thickness skin defects is lack of auto-grafts and which requires the engineered skin substitutes for repair and regeneration. One major obstacle in skin tissue engineering is to expand epidermal stem cells (ESCs) and develop functional substitutes. The other one is the scaffold of the ESCs. Here, we applied type I collagen-modified chitin membrane to form collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM), which has been proved to have a great biocompatibility and degraded totally when it was subcutaneously transplanted into rat skin. ESCs were cultured, and the resulting biofilm was used to cover full-thickness skin defects in nude mice. The transplantation of ESCs- collagen- chitn biomimetic membrane (ESCs-C-CBM) has achieved in situ skin regeneration. In nude mice, compared to controls with collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM) only, the ESCs-C-CBM group had significantly more dermatoglyphs on the skin wound 10 w after surgery, and the new skin was relatively thick, red and elastic. In vivo experiments showed obvious hair follicle cell proliferation in the full-thickness skin defect. Stem cell markers examination showed active ESCs in repair and regeneration of skin. The results indicate that the collagen-modified chitin membrane carry with ESCs has successfully regenerated the whole skin with all the skin appendages and function. PMID:24516553

Shen, Yan; Dai, Libing; Li, Xiaojian; Liang, Rong; Guan, Guangxiong; Zhang, Zhi; Cao, Wenjuan; Liu, Zhihe; Mei, Shirley; Liang, Weiguo; Qin, Shennan; Xu, Jiake; Chen, Honghui

2014-01-01

68

Proteolytic Activation Cascade of the Netherton Syndrome–Defective Protein, LEKTI, in the Epidermis: Implications for Skin Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) is the defective protein of the ichthyosiform condition Netherton syndrome (NS). Strongly expressed in the most differentiated epidermal layers, LEKTI is a serine protease inhibitor synthesized as three different high-molecular-weight precursors, which are rapidly processed into shorter fragments and secreted extracellularly. LEKTI polypeptides interact with several proteases to regulate skin barrier homeostasis as well as inflammatory

Paola Fortugno; Alberto Bresciani; Chantal Paolini; Chiara Pazzagli; May El Hachem; Marina D'Alessio; Giovanna Zambruno

2011-01-01

69

A single center, pilot, double-blinded, randomized, comparative, prospective clinical study to evaluate improvements in the structure and function of facial skin with tazarotene 0.1% cream alone and in combination with GliSODin® Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula  

PubMed Central

Background Superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduces the reactive oxygen species formation associated with oxidative stress. An imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants can lead to accelerated aging. GliSODin® Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula (GAAF) is an SOD-containing dietary nutricosmetic formulated with other nutraceuticals that promote improvements in the structure and function of the skin, including hydration, elasticity, structural integrity, and photoaging caused by oxidative stress. Tazarotene cream 0.1% (TAZ) is a United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drug indicated for use in the mitigation of facial fine wrinkling, facial mottled hyper- and hypopigmentation, and benign facial lentigines when taken in conjunction with a comprehensive skin care and sun avoidance program. Objective To determine if the antioxidant, anti-aging, hydrating and skin-rejuvenating properties of GAAF complement the retinoic actions of TAZ to improve the structure and function of facial skin. Method A 90-day comparative study of ten subjects with facial photodamage; daily topical application of TAZ was used in combination with three capsules of GAAF (780 mg each) or placebo orally, with food, per the randomization allocation. Results After 90 days of treatment, TAZ alone and in combination with GAAF improved fine wrinkles (?1.2 versus 2.0), mottled hyperpigmentation (?2.2 versus 2.8) and overall photodamage (?1.0 versus 1.8), as well as patient-reported response to treatment (?2.0 versus 1.6). At week 12, TAZ/GAAF combination treatment (Group A) versus TAZ treatment alone (Group C) was of significant clinical benefit, with respect to fine wrinkling (14.7%/41.7%), overall photodamage (15.6%/53.0%), skin moisture (19.1%/103.2%), skin elasticity (12.8%/87.7%), and response to treatment (8.8%/21.4%). Conclusion The study suggests GAAF in combination with TAZ is safe and provides significant clinical benefit with relative improvement in facial fine wrinkling, overall photodamage, skin moisture and elasticity. PMID:24872715

Goldberg, Lawrence D; Crysler, Corina

2014-01-01

70

A bioactive "self-fitting" shape memory polymer scaffold with potential to treat cranio-maxillo facial bone defects.  

PubMed

While tissue engineering is a promising alternative for treating critical-sized cranio-maxillofacial bone defects, improvements in scaffold design are needed. In particular, scaffolds that can precisely match the irregular boundaries of bone defects as well as exhibit an interconnected pore morphology and bioactivity would enhance tissue regeneration. In this study, a shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffold was developed exhibiting an open porous structure and the capacity to conformally "self-fit" into irregular defects. The SMP scaffold was prepared via photocrosslinking of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diacrylate using a SCPL method, which included a fused salt template. A bioactive polydopamine coating was applied to coat the pore walls. Following exposure to warm saline at T>T(trans) (T(trans)=T(m) of PCL), the scaffold became malleable and could be pressed into an irregular model defect. Cooling caused the scaffold to lock in its temporary shape within the defect. The polydopamine coating did not alter the physical properties of the scaffold. However, polydopamine-coated scaffolds exhibited superior bioactivity (i.e. formation of hydroxyapatite in vitro), osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic gene expression and extracellular matrix deposition. PMID:25063999

Zhang, Dawei; George, Olivia J; Petersen, Keri M; Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea C; Hahn, Mariah S; Grunlan, Melissa A

2014-11-01

71

Self-Improvement of Keratinocyte Differentiation Defects During Skin Maturation in ABCA12-Deficient Harlequin Ichthyosis Model Mice  

PubMed Central

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the keratinocyte lipid transporter ABCA12. The patients often die in the first 1 or 2 weeks of life, although HI survivors’ phenotypes improve within several weeks after birth. In order to clarify the mechanisms of phenotypic recovery, we studied grafted skin and keratinocytes from Abca12-disrupted (Abca12?/?) mice showing abnormal lipid transport. Abca12?/? neonatal epidermis showed significantly reduced total ceramide amounts and aberrant ceramide composition. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of Abca12?/? neonatal epidermis revealed defective profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion and reduced protein expression of the differentiation-specific molecules, loricrin, kallikrein 5, and transglutaminase 1, although their mRNA expression was up-regulated. In contrast, Abca12?/? skin grafts kept in a dry environment exhibited dramatic improvements in all these abnormalities. Increased transepidermal water loss, a parameter representing barrier defect, was remarkably decreased in grafted Abca12?/? skin. Ten-passage sub-cultured Abca12?/? keratinocytes showed restoration of intact ceramide distribution, differentiation-specific protein expression and profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion, which were defective in primary-cultures. Using cDNA microarray analysis, lipid transporters including four ATP-binding cassette transporters were up-regulated after sub-culture of Abca12?/? keratinocytes compared with primary-culture. These results indicate that disrupted keratinocyte differentiation during the fetal development is involved in the pathomechanism of HI and, during maturation, Abca12?/? epidermal keratinocytes regain normal differentiation processes. This restoration may account for the skin phenotype improvement observed in HI survivors. PMID:20489143

Yanagi, Teruki; Akiyama, Masashi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junko; Sakai, Kaori; Miyamura, Yuki; Naoe, Ayano; Kitahara, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Shimizu, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

72

[Lid Reconstruction for Large Lower Eyelid Defects (Extending into Canthus) with Hughes Flap and Skin Graft - Possibilities and Limitations.  

PubMed

Purpose: The aim of lid reconstruction is restoration of function, comfort and cosmesis. Large defects of the lower eyelid especially with extension into the canthus are a surgical challenge. A Hughes flap combined with a skin graft is a good option not only for central defects of the lower eyelid. Methods: This article presents the surgical outcome in a series of 45 patients with large full-thickness lower eyelid defects partially extended into the canthus after tumour excision. These patients underwent reconstructive eyelid surgery using a Hughes flap, autogenous skin graft, partially combined with other surgical techniques. Results after division, possibilities and limitations are shown in this article. The analysis was based on photo documentation, surgery reports and patient statements. In all cases surgery was performed by the same surgeon. Results: 45 patients were identified during a 3-year interval. The average age at the time of eyelid reconstruction was 70.6 years (range 38-94 years). Lid defects extending into the canthus were observed in 20 patients (9 inner/11 outer canthal region). The average size of lid defect was 17?mm and ranged from 9 to 28?mm horizontally. 26 patients showed defects ??15?mm; 16 of them were identified with an extension into the canthus (8 inner/8 outer). Flap complications occurred in 14 patients after flap division; 8 with primary canthal involvement. After Hughes procedure, flap division and correction of complications (epilation, debulking, resuturing) 44 patients showed a very good lower lid position with good functional and cosmetic results. Due to incomplete lid closure 1 patient developed severe complications of corneal surface. Follow-up time ranged from 5 to 10 months (on average 6 months). In 6 patients the Hughes procedure was combined with other reconstructive techniques. Conclusions: In cases of large lower lid defects (even with extension into the canthus) the Hughes flap combined with skin graft and other reconstructive procedures leads to a well tightened lid position, shows a high grade of patient satisfaction although the complete blepharorrhaphy is necessary for 6 weeks and complications occur. For one-eyed patients a one step surgical procedure should be preferred. PMID:25275792

Sommer, F; Wozniak, K

2014-10-01

73

Tissue defect at the gunshot entrance wound: what happens to the skin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the question what happens to the tissue lost at the entrance wound, experimental studies were performed on composite models consisting of dyed pig skin and gelatin blocks. For the test shots to the skin–gelatin preparations, cartridges calibre .38 spec. with different bullet types (round nose, hollow point, flat nose, truncated cone) were used. In all shots, a multitude

M. Große Perdekamp; B. Vennemann; D. Mattern; A. Serr; S. Pollak

2005-01-01

74

The insular cortex: relationship to skin conductance responses to facial expression of emotion in temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

The insula plays an important role both in emotion processing and in the generation of epileptic seizures. In the current study we examined thickness of insular cortices and bilateral skin conductance responses (SCR) in healthy subjects in addition to a small number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. SCR measures arousal and is used to assess non-conscious responses to emotional stimuli. We used two emotion tasks, one explicitly about emotion and the other implicit. The explicit task required judgments about emotions being expressed in photographs of faces, while the implicit one required judgments about the age of the people in the photographs. Patients and healthy differed in labeling neutral faces, but not other emotions. They also differed in their SCR to emotions, though the profile depended on which hand the recordings were from. Finally, we found relationships between the thickness of the insula and SCR to each task: in the healthy group the thickness of the left insula was related to SCR to the emotion-labeling task; in the patient group it was between the thickness of the right insula and SCR in the age-labeling task. These patterns were evident only for the right hand recordings, thus underscoring the importance of bilateral recordings. PMID:24170157

Banks, Sarah J; Bellerose, Jenny; Douglas, Danielle; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

2014-03-01

75

Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig  

SciTech Connect

Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 20 mg/kg (approximately 0.4 LD%) HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with nothing or one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding non-decontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing of HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or ND-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodward, C.L.

1994-12-31

76

Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig  

SciTech Connect

Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 0.4 LD50 HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding undecontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or HD-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodard, C.L.

1993-05-13

77

Negative-pressure wound therapy induces endothelial progenitor cell mobilization in diabetic patients with foot infection or skin defects.  

PubMed

Non healing chronic wounds are difficult to treat in patients with diabetes and can result in severe medical problems for these patients and for society. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been adopted to treat intractable chronic wounds and has been reported to be effective. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of this treatment have not been elucidated. To assess the vasculogenic effect of NPWT, we evaluated the systemic mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) during NPWT. Twenty-two of 29 consecutive patients who presented at the clinic of Seoul National Universty Hospital between December 2009 and November 2010 who underwent NPWT for diabetic foot infections or skin ulcers were included in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken before NPWT (pre-NPWT) and 7-14 days after the initiation of NPWT (during-NPWT). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis showed that the number of cells in EPC-enriched fractions increased after NPWT, and the numbers of EPC colony forming units (CFUs) significantly increased during NPWT. We believe that NPWT is useful for treating patients with diabetic foot infections and skin ulcers, especially when these conditions are accompanied by peripheral arterial insufficiency. The systemic mobilization of EPCs during NPWT may be a mechanism for healing intractable wounds in diabetic patients with foot infections or skin defects via the formation of increased granulation tissue with numerous small blood vessels. PMID:24232261

Seo, Sang Gyo; Yeo, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji-Beom; Cho, Tae-Joon; Lee, Dong Yeon

2013-01-01

78

Principles of Hatchet-Skin Flap for Repair of Tissue Defects on the Cheek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To date, cheek reconstruction remains a challenge for plastic surgeons. This report presents the authors’ cheek reconstruction\\u000a technique with different types of hatchet-skin flaps, which provides satisfactory results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The cheek area was divided into three parts (P1, P2, and P3), with vertical lines passing through the medial and lateral canthus.\\u000a Different types of hatchet-skin flaps were used to repair the

Wang Zhi-guoXu; Xu Quan-chen; Kuang Rui-xia; Chen Zhen-yu; Huo Ran

79

Bovine dermal matrix as coverage of facial nerve grafts.  

PubMed

Introduction. Soft tissue defects over functional structures represent a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Often complex, reconstructive procedures are required. Occasionally, elderly or sick patients do not qualify for these extensive procedures. Case. We present the case of a 91-year-old lady with large hemifacial defect with exposed bone and nerves after tumor resection. We first performed radical resection including the fascia of the temporalis muscle and the frontal branch of the facial nerve. Due to the moribund elderly patient with a potentially high perioperative risk, we decided against flap reconstruction but to use bovine collagen/elastin matrix and split thickness skin graft. Results. No postoperative complications occurred and STSG and matrix healed uneventfully. Discussion. In selected cases, where complex reconstruction is not appropriate, this procedure can be a safe, easy, and fast alternative for covering soft tissue defects even on wound grounds containing nerve grafts. PMID:24550990

Kappos, E A; Engels, P E; Wettstein, R; Schaefer, D J; Kalbermatten, D F

2014-01-01

80

Bovine Dermal Matrix as Coverage of Facial Nerve Grafts  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Soft tissue defects over functional structures represent a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Often complex, reconstructive procedures are required. Occasionally, elderly or sick patients do not qualify for these extensive procedures. Case. We present the case of a 91-year-old lady with large hemifacial defect with exposed bone and nerves after tumor resection. We first performed radical resection including the fascia of the temporalis muscle and the frontal branch of the facial nerve. Due to the moribund elderly patient with a potentially high perioperative risk, we decided against flap reconstruction but to use bovine collagen/elastin matrix and split thickness skin graft. Results. No postoperative complications occurred and STSG and matrix healed uneventfully. Discussion. In selected cases, where complex reconstruction is not appropriate, this procedure can be a safe, easy, and fast alternative for covering soft tissue defects even on wound grounds containing nerve grafts. PMID:24550990

Kappos, E. A.; Engels, P. E.; Wettstein, R.; Schaefer, D. J.; Kalbermatten, D. F.

2014-01-01

81

In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

82

Localization of facial region in digital images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

2011-06-01

83

Skin Graft  

PubMed Central

Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use of skin flaps or muscle flaps. In the present review, we describe how to perform skin grafting successfully, and some variation of skin grafting. PMID:22570780

Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

2012-01-01

84

Analysis of the Effects of Residual Strains and Defects on Skin/Stiffener Debonding using Decohesion Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delamination is one of the predominant forms of failure in laminated composites especially when there is no reinforcement in the thickness direction. To develop composite structures that are more damage tolerant, it is necessary to understand how delamination develops and how it can affect the residual performance. A number of factors such as residual thermal strains, matrix curing shrinkage, and manufacturing defects affect how damage will grow in a composite structure. It is important to develop analysis methods that are computationally efficient that can account for all such factors. The objective of the current work is to apply a newly developed decohesion element to investigate the debond strength of skin/stiffener composite specimens. The process of initiation of delaminations and the propagation of delamination fronts is investigated. The numerical predictions are compared with published experimental results.

Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.

2003-01-01

85

Motion-artifact-robust, polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on rapid polarization switching with electro-optic Pockells cell and its application to in vivo visualization of collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin  

PubMed Central

Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this article, we constructed a motion-artifact-robust, PR-SHG microscope based on rapid polarization switching at every pixel with an electro-optic Pockells cell (PC) in synchronization with step-wise raster scanning of the focus spot and alternate data acquisition of a vertical-polarization-resolved SHG signal and a horizontal-polarization-resolved one. The constructed PC-based PR-SHG microscope enabled us to visualize orientation mapping of dermal collagen fiber in human facial skin in vivo without the influence of motion artifacts. Furthermore, it implied the location and/or age dependence of the collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin. The robustness to motion artifacts in the collagen orientation measurement will expand the application scope of SHG microscopy in dermatology and collagen-related fields. PMID:24761292

Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Ogura, Yuki; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Hirao, Tetsuji; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

2014-01-01

86

Monopolar radiofrequency skin tightening.  

PubMed

The development of nonablative monopolar capacitive radiofrequency technology (ThermaCool System, Thermage, Inc., Hayward, California) has contributed to the noninvasive trend in facial skin rejuvenation. In contrast to traditional ablative resurfacing techniques, the ThermaCool System protects the skin surface from injury while selectively heating the underlying dermis. Preservation of epidermal integrity minimizes recovery and the risk of complications. Published clinical evidence documents the efficacy of monopolar capacitive radiofrequency skin tightening and supports its use for mild to moderate facial skin laxity and rhytides. Currently, monopolar capacitive radiofrequency represents the gold standard of treatments designed to tighten skin in a noninvasive fashion. PMID:17544932

Abraham, Manoj T; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

2007-05-01

87

A Local-Global Graph Approach for Facial Expression Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present a local global graph (LGG) method for recognizing facial expressions from static images irrespective of different illumination conditions, shadows and cluttered backgrounds. First, a neural color constancy based skin detection procedure to detect skin in complex real world images is presented. Second, the LGG method for detecting faces and facial expressions with a maximum confidence

P. Kakumanu; Nikolaos G. Bourbakis

2006-01-01

88

Hierarchical Face Modeling and Fast 3D Facial Expression Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new hierarchical facial model that conforms to the human anatomy for realistic and fast 3D facial expression synthesis. The facial model has a skin\\/muscle\\/skull structure. The deformable skin model uses a kind of nonlinear springs to directly simulate the nonlinear visco-elastic behavior of soft tissue, and a new kind of edge repulsion springs is developed to

Yu Zhang; Edmond C. Prakash; Eric Sung

2002-01-01

89

Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism  

PubMed Central

Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with the latter produce some melanin. We hypothesized that increasing plasma tyrosine concentrations using nitisinone, an FDA-approved inhibitor of tyrosine degradation, could stabilize tyrosinase and improve pigmentation in individuals with OCA1. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mice homozygous for either the Tyrc-2J null allele or the Tyrc-h allele, which model OCA-1A and OCA-1B, respectively. Only nitisinone-treated Tyrc-h/c-h mice manifested increased pigmentation in their fur and irides and had more pigmented melanosomes. High levels of tyrosine improved the stability and enzymatic function of the Tyrc-h protein and also increased overall melanin levels in melanocytes from a human with OCA-1B. These results suggest that the use of nitisinone in OCA-1B patients could improve their pigmentation and potentially ameliorate vision loss. PMID:21968110

Onojafe, Ighovie F.; Adams, David R.; Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Dolinska, Monika B.; Alur, Ramakrishna P.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Gahl, William A.; Brooks, Brian P.

2011-01-01

90

Structural aging: the facial recurve concept.  

PubMed

Cutaneous facial aging is responsible for the increasingly wrinkled and blotchy appearance of the skin, whereas aging of the facial structures is attributed primarily to gravity. This article purports to show, however, that the primary etiology of structural facial aging relates instead to repeated contractions of certain facial mimetic muscles, the age marker fascicules, whereas gravity only secondarily abets an aging process begun by these muscle contractions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed us to study the contrasts in the contour of the facial mimetic muscles and their associated deep and superficial fat pads in patients of different ages. The MRI model shows that the facial mimetic muscles in youth have a curvilinear contour presenting an anterior surface convexity. This curve reflects an underlying fat pad lying deep to these muscles, which acts as an effective mechanical sliding plane. The muscle's anterior surface convexity constitutes the key evidence supporting the authors' new aging theory. It is this youthful convexity that dictates a specific characteristic to the muscle contractions conveyed outwardly as youthful facial expression, a specificity of both direction and amplitude of facial mimetic movement. With age, the facial mimetic muscles (specifically, the age marker fascicules), as seen on MRI, gradually straighten and shorten. The authors relate this radiologic end point to multiple repeated muscle contractions over years that both expel underlying deep fat from beneath the muscle plane and increase the muscle resting tone. Hence, over time, structural aging becomes more evident as the facial appearance becomes more rigid. PMID:17380358

Le Louarn, Claude; Buthiau, Didier; Buis, Jacques

2007-01-01

91

Facial transplantation: A concise update  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation. PMID:23229268

Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.

2013-01-01

92

Effects of a Facial Cream Containing the Minor Alkaloid Anatabine on Improving the Appearance of the Skin in Mild to Moderate Rosacea: An Open-Label Case Series Study  

PubMed Central

Background Current medical and scientific research indicates that rosacea, a chronic and often debilitating skin condition that primarily affects the central face, may be caused by an overactive or excessive inflammatory immune response. Regardless of etiology, the accompanying redness and inflammation is unsightly and difficult for the patient. Anatabine is an alkaloid from the plant family Solanaceae that has been shown in several preclinical studies to modulate proinflammatory signaling pathways. Objective A cream containing anatabine was developed and evaluated in an open-label case series study for safety and effects on the appearance of the skin in 10 patients with mild to moderate rosacea. Methods Patients applied the cream to the face twice daily for a period of 30 days. Patients and the study physician completed safety and efficacy assessments at study end. Results Results showed that 50% of the patients self-reported improvement in the appearance of their skin, and the physician noted improvement in 70% of the patients. Photographs taken before and after 30 days of cream use provide visual evidence of the improvement in several patients. There were no complications or adverse events reported by any of the patients in the study, indicating that the anatabine cream was safe and very well tolerated. Conclusion The results of this open-label case series show that a facial cream containing anatabine can improve the appearance of the skin in patients with mild to moderate rosacea and suggest that a double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial in a larger number of subjects is warranted. PMID:24348385

Lanier, Ryan K.; Cohen, Amy E.; Weinkle, Susan H.

2013-01-01

93

A novel malformation complex of bilateral and symmetric preaxial radial ray-thumb aplasia and lower limb defects with minimal facial dysmorphic features: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radial hemimelia is a congenital abnormality characterised by the partial or complete absence of the radius. The longitudinal hemimelia indicates the absence of one or more bones along the preaxial (medial) or postaxial (lateral) side of the limb. Preaxial limb defects occurred more frequently with a combination of microtia, esophageal atresia, anorectal atresia, heart defects, unilateral kidney dysgenesis, and some axial skeletal defects. Postaxial acrofacial dysostoses are characterised by distinctive facies and postaxial limb deficiencies, involving the 5th finger, metacarpal/ulnar/fibular/and metatarsal. Case presentation The patient, an 8-year-old-boy with minimal craniofacial dysmorphic features but with profound upper limb defects of bilateral and symmetrical absence of the radius and the thumbs respectively. In addition, there was a unilateral tibio-fibular hypoplasia (hemimelia) associated with hypoplasia of the terminal phalanges and malsegmentation of the upper thoracic vertebrae, causing effectively the development of thoracic kyphosis. Conclusion In the typical form of the preaxial acrofacial dysostosis, there are aberrations in the development of the first and second branchial arches and limb buds. The craniofacial dysmorphic features are characteristic such as micrognathia, zygomatic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and preaxial limb defects. Nager and de Reynier in 1948, who used the term acrofacial dysostosis (AFD) to distinguish the condition from mandibulofacial dysostosis. Neither the facial features nor the limb defects in our present patient appear to be absolutely typical with the previously reported cases of AFD. Our patient expands the phenotype of syndromic preaxial limb malformation complex. He might represent a new syndromic entity of mild naso-maxillary malformation in connection with axial and extra-axial malformation complex. PMID:18950501

Al Kaissi, Ali; Klaushofer, Klaus; Krebs, Alexander; Grill, Franz

2008-01-01

94

Reconstruction of a large nasal defect.  

PubMed

A 77-year-old man was referred for treatment of a biopsy-proven multirecurrence basal cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the nose. The lesion was removed and the resulting surgical defect involved the full thickness of the nasal skin leaving intact the underlying perichondrium and cartilages of the whole nasal dorsum including both sidewalls (Figure 1). The authors performed a reconstruction of a surgical defect greater than two-thirds of the nose using a single-staged bilateral Burow's wedge flap and a full-thickness skin graft from the glabella. All scars were camouflaged in the natural facial boundaries and the surgical reconstruction was performed in a single stage. The final nasal contour, symmetry and function were still good when the patient was seen 1 year after surgery. PMID:23210844

Goulão, João

2014-10-01

95

Odontogenic skin sinus: a commonly overlooked skin presentation.  

PubMed

Facial skin lesions present routinely to clinic and are largely dermatological in origin. Odontogenic infections are an unusual cause of facial lesion and are well-described in the dental literature; however they are regularly overlooked and mismanaged, often to considerable aesthetic detriment. We present such a case and highlight important avoidable pitfalls. PMID:22542730

Herd, M K; Aldridge, T; Colbert, S D; Brennan, P A

2012-12-01

96

Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... the Campaign Campaign Update Member Donors Corporate Partners Recognition Program 1887 Annual Giving Annual Report Donate Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision ...

97

Facial nerve paralysis following pediatric cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

A newborn female diagnosed with transposition of the great vessels with restrictive ventricular septal defect presented left facial peripheral nerve paralysis following anatomical surgery correction (arterial switch) by cardiopulmonary bypass. We have not found any causal factor either in the anesthesia or postoperative period. The electromyogram presented signs of peripheral nerve impairment, and the cerebral echography and electroencephalogram were normal. The facial nerve paralysis was almost recovered seven weeks after surgery. This is the first pediatric patient reported with peripheral facial nerve paralysis after cardiac surgery. PMID:8869372

Alcaraz, A; Lopez-Herce, J; Castro, P; Bustinza, A; Moroto, C

1995-09-01

98

Pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap combined with skin grafting for the reconstruction of anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn.  

PubMed

Successful reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn represents a very challenging surgery. Herein we report the first case using pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap combined with skin grafting to treat this injury with severe infection and exposure of pericardium and ribs in a Chinese patient. Following the performance of chest debridement to remove necrotic and infected tissues and the injection of broad-spectrum antibiotics to reduce infection, a pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap was used to cover the exposed pericardium and ribs, and skin grafting from the right leg of the patient was done to cover the exposed vital tissues. The patient was followed up for a total of 3·5 years, and satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes were obtained without complications. This report provides an effective method for the surgeons who encounter similar cases where reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall is required. PMID:23490336

Zhao, Jing-Chun; Xian, Chun-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ao; Shi, Kai

2015-02-01

99

Reconstruction of Traumatic Defect of the Lower Third of the Leg Using a Combined Therapy: Negative Pressure Wound Therapy, Acellular Dermal Matrix, and Skin Graft  

PubMed Central

The reconstruction of lower third of the leg is one of the most challenging problems for plastic and reconstructive surgeons and current approaches are still disappointing. We show an easy option to obtain a coverage of traumatic pretibial defects with good aesthetic and functional results: the association of negative pressure wound therapy, acellular dermal matrix, and skin graft. The choice of this combined therapy avoids other surgical procedures such as local perforator flaps and free flaps that require more operating time, special equipment, and adequate training. PMID:25177509

Brongo, Sergio; Campitiello, Nicola; Rubino, Corrado

2014-01-01

100

Aesthetically and functionally satisfying reconstruction of an Achilles tendon and overlying skin defect in a 15 year old girl: A case report.  

PubMed

Achilles tendon and overlying soft tissue reconstruction presents an interdisciplinary challenge. In the literature many possible procedures are described, but each reconstruction in this region has its specific demands. Single stage reconstruction is normally pursued, but it is not always the best procedure for the patient, either aesthetically or functionally. We present a case of a 15 year old girl who suffered a soft tissue defect of 10cm×6cm in size at the area of the Achilles tendon due to a contact burn by an exhaust pipe during a motorcycle accident. For this case, reconstruction of the soft tissue defect using a free temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF) and a full-thickness skin autograft was the best means to provide a satisfying result for both the patient and the surgeon. PMID:25000817

Wurzer, Paul; Eberl, Robert; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Parvizi, Daryousch; Rappl, Thomas; Spendel, Stephan

2015-03-01

101

Assessment of Facial Muscle Exercise Using Oral Cavity Rehabilitative Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the assessment of facial muscle exercise using an oral cavity rehabilitative device. The physiological parameters investigated are labial closure strength (LCS), tongue strength (TS), right (ER) and left (EL) facial skin elasticity. A total of thirteen females aged forty years old and above with the mean age of 44.5 years old were recruited in the study. Subjects

F. Ibrahim; N. Arifin; N. M. Zarmani; Z. Abdul Rahim

102

Young Children's Ability to Match Facial Features Typical of Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined (1) the ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to racially classify Negro and Caucasian facial features in the absence of skin color as a racial cue; and (2) the relative value attached to the facial features of Negro and Caucasian races. Subjects were 21 middle income, Caucasian children from a privately owned nursery school in…

Lacoste, Ronald J.

103

Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects (MLS) associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a patient with Familial 12.9Mb Terminal Xp deletion  

PubMed Central

Background Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant male-lethal developmental disorder characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and linear skin defects of the face and neck. Additional features affecting the eyes, heart, brain or genitourinary system can occur, corroborating the intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability. The majority of patients display monosomy of the Xp22.2 region, where the holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS) gene is located. Case presentation We describe a 15-year-old-female affected by MLS syndrome and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD has not previously been reported as a component of MLS. Our patient shows a large deletion of 12.9 Mb, involving Xp22.32-p22.2, which encompasses both the HCCS gene and autism X-linked genes. Conclusion Thus, patients with a large deletion at Xp22 might display MLS with ASD, due to the deletion of contiguous genes, although the highly variable phenotype of these patients could be influenced by several genetic mechanisms, including different tissue-specific X-inactivation and somatic mosaicism. PMID:25182979

2014-01-01

104

Clinical case-study describing the use of skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the auricular concha to cover large defects of the nose  

PubMed Central

Background The composite graft from the conchal cartilage is a graft that is often used, especially in surgery on the nose, due to its capacity to resolve problems of cover and tissue deficit, arising from the removal of neoplasms or as the result of trauma, burns or following over-aggressive rhinoplasty. We have started to use skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the ear to cover large areas of the nose with very satisfying results as well as we describe in the reported clinical case. Methods The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum, which had previously been removed, using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. After this, the skin edges of the fistula were turned to recreate the inner lining of the nose and form a vascular base of wide area to accept the composite graft. The case concerns a female 74-year old patient who had undergone several oncological surgery for a relapsing basal cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the nose. The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. Results The perichondrial cutaneous graft has shown in this surgical case very favorable peculiarities that make it usable even in facial plastic surgery. Conclusions We believe that the positive experience that we achieved in the use of composite grafts for the reconstruction of large areas of the nose could be interesting for others surgeons. PMID:22429738

2012-01-01

105

Dermatological Feasibility of Multimodal Facial Color Imaging Modality for Cross-Evaluation of Facial Actinic Keratosis  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose Digital color image analysis is currently considered as a routine procedure in dermatology. In our previous study, a multimodal facial color imaging modality (MFCIM), which provides a conventional, parallel- and cross-polarization, and fluorescent color image, was introduced for objective evaluation of various facial skin lesions. This study introduces a commercial version of MFCIM, DermaVision-PRO, for routine clinical use in dermatology and demonstrates its dermatological feasibility for cross-evaluation of skin lesions. Methods/Results Sample images of subjects with actinic keratosis or non-melanoma skin cancers were obtained at four different imaging modes. Various image analysis methods were applied to cross-evaluate the skin lesion and, finally, extract valuable diagnostic information. DermaVision-PRO is potentially a useful tool as an objective macroscopic imaging modality for quick prescreening and cross-evaluation of facial skin lesions. Conclusion DermaVision-PRO may be utilized as a useful tool for cross-evaluation of widely distributed facial skin lesions and an efficient database management of patient information. PMID:20923462

Bae, Youngwoo; Son, Taeyoon; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kim, Jae-Hong; Choi, Eung Ho; Jung, Byungjo

2010-01-01

106

Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions: Affect or Cognition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether observers' facial reactions to the emotional facial expressions of others represent an affective or a cognitive response to these emotional expressions. Three hypotheses were contrasted: (1) facial reactions to emotional facial expressions are due to mimicry as part of an affective empathic reaction; (2) facial reactions to emotional facial expressions are a reection of shared affectdue

Ursula Hess Pierre Philippot Sylvie Blairy; Sylvie Blairy

1998-01-01

107

Regeneration of full-thickness skin defects using umbilical cord blood stem cells loaded into modified porous scaffolds.  

PubMed

In this study, we have demonstrated the ability of cord blood (CB)-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) and chitosan-modified poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffold to promote skin regeneration. Afterward, the scaffolds were evaluated by structural, microscopic, physical, and mechanical assays and cell culture analyses. Results of structural, physical, and mechanical analyses also showed a good resilience and compliance with movement as a skin graft. Cellular experiments showed a better cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation inside the modified scaffolds compared with unmodified ones. In animal models with histological examinations, all groups, excluding the control group especially the groups treated with stem cells, exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen at postoperative day 21. These data suggest that chitosan-modified PHBV scaffold loaded with CB-derived USSCs could significantly contribute to wound repair and be potentially used in the tissue engineering. PMID:24346243

Zeinali, Reza; Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Tavirani, Mostafa Rezaei; Asadipour, Kamal

2014-01-01

108

Missing facial parts computed by a morphable model and transferred directly to a polyamide laser-sintered prosthesis: an innovation study.  

PubMed

Mirroring of missing facial parts and rapid prototyping of templates have become widely used in the manufacture of prostheses. However, mirroring is not applicable for central facial defects, and the manufacture of a template still requires labour-intensive transformation into the final facial prosthesis. We have explored innovative techniques to meet these remaining challenges. We used a morphable model of a face for the reconstruction of missing facial parts that did not have mirror images, and skin-coloured polyamide laser sintering for direct manufacture of the prosthesis. From the knowledge gleaned from a data set of 200 coloured, three-dimensional scans, we generated a missing nose that was statistically compatible with the remaining parts of the patient's face. The planned prosthesis was manufactured directly from biocompatible skin-coloured polyamide powder by selective laser sintering, and the prosthesis planning system produced a normal-looking reconstruction. The polyamide will need adjustable colouring, and we must be able to combine it with a self-curing resin to fulfil the requirements of realistic permanent use. PMID:21458119

Mueller, A A; Paysan, P; Schumacher, R; Zeilhofer, H-F; Berg-Boerner, B-I; Maurer, J; Vetter, T; Schkommodau, E; Juergens, P; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K

2011-12-01

109

Producing computer facial animation  

E-print Network

This thesis provides a starting point for computer raphics. character developers wishing to produce facial animation using Maya software. A background on past developments is given to highlight major events in the history of computer facial...

Koehlert, Erik Wulf

2012-06-07

110

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

111

[Horton's disease: facial manifestations].  

PubMed

Facial manifestations due to giant cell arteritis are analysed about 102 cases. The whole facial vascular territories are involved, so we have many manifestations. Diagnosis depends on artery biopsy with Doppler aid. PMID:9036519

Lample, G D; Benateau, H; Agron, L; Letellier, P; Compere, J F

1996-12-01

112

[History of skin graft].  

PubMed

Skin graft is the most common and simple procedure to cover superficial defect. Skin of variable thickness and size is completely detached from its origin (donor site) to cover a defect (recipient site). This simple procedure is the result of a long and eventful technical and theoretical evolvement. The aim of this article is to re-trace the history of skin grafting, from its discovery until today. PMID:19939539

Boudana, D; Wolber, A; Coeugniet, E; Martinot-Duquennoy, V; Pellerin, P

2010-08-01

113

Retinal pathology and skin barrier defect in mice carrying a Stargardt disease-3 mutation in elongase of very long chain fatty acids-4  

PubMed Central

Purpose Autosomal dominant Stargardt disease-3 (STGD3) is caused by mutations in elongase of very long chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4). The goal of this study was to generate and characterize heterozygous and homozygous knockin-mice that carry a human STGD3 pathogenic mutation in the mouse Elovl4 gene. Methods Recombinant Stgd3-knockin mice were generated using a DNA construct which introduced a pathogenic five-base pair deletion and two point mutations in exon 6 of the Elovl4 gene. Stgd3-mouse genotypes were confirmed by Southern blot analysis and expression of wild-type (wt) and mutated Elovl4 mRNAs assayed by nuclease protection assay. The retinal phenotype of heterozygous Stgd3 mice was characterized by morphological studies, elecroretinographic (ERG) analysis and assay of lipofuscin accumulation. Homozygous Stgd3 mice were examined for both retinal and gross morphology. They were also analyzed for skin morphology and skin barrier function, and for epidermal lipid content using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS). Results The Stgd3 allele codes for a truncated mouse Elovl4 protein, which also contains the same aberrant 8-amino acid C-terminus encoded by the human pathogenic STGD3 allele. Heterozygous Stgd3 mice expressed equal amounts of both wt and mutant Elovl4 mRNAs in the retina, showed no significant changes in retinal morphology, but did show accumulation of lipofuscin and reduced visual function. Homozygous Stgd3 mice were born with an expected Mendelian frequency, without any initial gross anatomical or behavioral abnormalities. By 6-12 h postpartum, they became dehydrated and died. A skin permeability assay detected a defect in epidermal barrier function. Homozygous mutant epidermis expressed a normal content of mutated Elovl4 mRNA and contained all four epidermal cellular layers. HPLC/MS analysis of epidermal lipids revealed the presence of all barrier lipids with the exception of the complete absence of acylceramides, the critical lipids for barrier function of the skin. Conclusions The generated Stgd3-knockin mice are a genetic model of human STGD3 and reproduce features of the human disease: accumulation of lipofuscin and reduced visual functions. Homozygous Stgd3 mice showed a complete absence of acylceramides from the epidermis. Their absence suggests a role for Elovl4 in acylceramide synthesis, and in particular, a role in the synthesis of the unique very long chain C30-C40 fatty acids present in skin acylceramides. PMID:17356513

McMahon, Anne; Butovich, Igor A.; Mata, Nathan L.; Klein, Martin; Ritter, Robert; Richardson, James; Birch, David G.; Edwards, Albert O.

2007-01-01

114

Surgical-Allogeneic Facial Reconstruction: Facial Transplants  

PubMed Central

Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA), which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mutilated patients, resulted in greater clinical results. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a literature review on the relevance and effectiveness of facial transplants in mutilated subjects. It was observed that the facial transplants recovered both the aesthetics and function of these patients and consequently improved their quality of life.

Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Bannwart, Lisiane Cristina; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Pereira, Leonardo Viana; Filho, Aljomar José Vechiato

2014-01-01

115

PRFM Enhance Wound Healing Process in Skin Graft.  

PubMed

Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery often used skin graft on defects that cannot be covered primarily by a local flap. However, wound healing using skin graft is slow, most of the time the graft is contractured and the take of graft is not optimal. Platelet rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) is a new generation of concentrated platelets that produce natural fibrin and reported to speed up the healing process. Application of PRFM in the skin graft implants is expected to increase the survival of the graft. We used porcine as animal models to elucidate the effect of autologous PRFM on wound healing in full-thickness (FTSG) and split-thickness (STSG) skin grafts. Survival level of the skin graft was determined by using ImageJ software based on the formation of collagen type 1 and graft take. We observed that the use of PRFM in FTSG and STSG increased type 1 collagen formation. We also found that PRFM addition in STSG gave the best skin graft take. PMID:25536135

Reksodiputro, Mirta; Widodo, Dini; Bashiruddin, Jenny; Siregar, Nurjati; Malik, Safarina

2014-12-01

116

Aspects of Facial Contrast Decrease with Age and Are Cues for Age Perception  

PubMed Central

Age is a primary social dimension. We behave differently toward people as a function of how old we perceive them to be. Age perception relies on cues that are correlated with age, such as wrinkles. Here we report that aspects of facial contrast–the contrast between facial features and the surrounding skin–decreased with age in a large sample of adult Caucasian females. These same aspects of facial contrast were also significantly correlated with the perceived age of the faces. Individual faces were perceived as younger when these aspects of facial contrast were artificially increased, but older when these aspects of facial contrast were artificially decreased. These findings show that facial contrast plays a role in age perception, and that faces with greater facial contrast look younger. Because facial contrast is increased by typical cosmetics use, we infer that cosmetics function in part by making the face appear younger. PMID:23483959

Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Russell, Richard

2013-01-01

117

Facial Soft Tissue Trauma  

PubMed Central

Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459

Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

2010-01-01

118

Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.  

PubMed Central

Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. Images Figs. 1 a and b. Fig. 1c., Fig. 1d. Fig. 1f. Fig. 1g. Fig. 1h. Fig. 1i. Fig. 1m. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b., Fig. 2c., Fig. 2d. Fig. 2e. Figs. 3 a and b. Fig. 3d., Fig. 3e. Fig. 3f. Fig. 4a., Fig. 4b. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b., Fig. 5c. Figs. 5d and e. Fig. 5f. Figs. 5g. and 5h. Fig. 6a., Fig. 6b. Fig. 6c. Fig. 7a. Fig. 7b. Figs. 7e and f. Fig. 8a. Fig. 8b. Fig. 8c. Fig. 8d., Fig. 8e. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Figs. 9c. and d. Fig. 9e. Fig. 9f. Figs. 9g. and h. Figs. 11a, b, and c. Figs. 11d, e, f. PMID:169753

Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

1975-01-01

119

Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome.  

PubMed

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case. PMID:21731335

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-04-01

120

Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness  

E-print Network

Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness I. S. Penton, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9JU, UK Facial symmetry has been proposed as a marker relationships between facial symmetry and attractiveness. It was recently proposed that symmetry

Little, Tony

121

Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2007-01-01

122

[Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis and granuloma facial with extra facial presentation, the same pathology?].  

PubMed

Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis is a rare fibro inflammatory lesion of unknown etiology which occurs usually in the upper respiratory tract mucosa of middle-aged adults. The histologic features show an eosinophilic vasculitis and an angiocentric fibrosis with onion-skin pattern. Firstly described as a mucosal variant of the granuloma facial, which is a rare cutaneous vasculitis with eosinophils, it is considerated by some authors as separated entities. Four cases have been described in the orbit and three of them were in fact an extension of a sinusal lesion. We report the first case affecting a 69-years-old male patient who showed an isolated orbital involvement in association with granuloma facial, extra facial. This observation illustrates the relationship between these two pathologies and consolidates the first hypothesis of a single disease with cutaneous or mucosal involvement. PMID:21736992

Depaepe, Lauriane; Chouvet, Brigitte; Claudy, Alain; Thomas, Luc; Berger, Françoise; Balme, Brigitte

2011-06-01

123

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.  

PubMed

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

2011-06-12

124

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

PubMed Central

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

125

The Resolution of Facial Expressions of Emotion Shichuan Du and Aleix M. Martinez  

E-print Network

of emotion are a consequence of the movement of the muscles underneath the skin of our face (Duchenne, 1862 as the Duchenne (1862) smile. It requires the activation of two facial muscles: the zygomatic major (AU 12

Martinez, Aleix M.

126

Realistic modeling for facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major unsolved problem in computer graphics is the construc- tion and animation of realistic human facial models. Traditionally, facial models have been built painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by ad hoc parametrically controlled facial mesh defor- mations or kinematic approximation of muscle actions. Fortunately, animators are now able to digitize facial geometries through the use of scanning range

Yuencheng Lee; Demetri Terzopoulos; Keith Walters

1995-01-01

127

Computer Animation of Facial Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer facial animation still remains a very challenging topic within the computer graphics community. In this paper, a realistic and expressive computer facial animation system is developed by automated learning from Vicon Nexus facial motion capture data. Facial motion data of different emotions collected using Vicon Nexus are processed using dimensionality reduction techniques such as PCA and EMPCA. EMPCA was

Choong Seng Chan; Flora S. Tsai

2010-01-01

128

PCA facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

2013-12-01

129

Facial Sports Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... Enlist adequate adult supervision for all children's competitive sports. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. Facial Nerves Head and Neck Nose

130

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

PubMed

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities. PMID:23529088

Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

2013-07-01

131

Facial region watermarking robust against rotation, scaling and translation attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a watermarking system for images containing a single frontal facial region that is robust against rotation, scaling and translation attacks. The system presented can automatically detect the facial region within the host image, using an algorithm that does not rely on skin color information and is therefore insensitive to the variations of apparent skin color of the subject. The system then normalizes the rotation, scale and translation of the facial region. Therefore, the system is able to re-synchronize the watermark in the event of a rotation, scaling and translation attack. The experiments showed that the proposed system performed well under such attack. The system also showed good performance against common signal processing attacks such as filtering and JPEG compression.

Setyawan, Iwan; Timotius, Ivanna K.

2013-03-01

132

Using the Peng flap for a wide dorsal nasal defect.  

PubMed

Reconstructions of large surgical defects of the central part of the nose pose a challenge for the surgeon due to its cosmetically prominent location. Treatment options include second intention healing, full-thickness skin grafts and various local flaps. In the present case the "Peng flap" was used for the reconstruction of a 3.1 × 7 cm sized deep defect of the convex curve of the central nasal area in a 66-year-old woman. The Peng flap was performed as single-stage procedure without complications. Good cosmetic outcome was provided by the use of adjacent skin from the lax perinasal area, the placement of the scar lines between facial cosmetic units, and the excellent tissue match for the sebaceous nasal skin. Considering the few complications of a single-stage procedure associated with an excellent aesthetic outcome, the Peng flap should be considered not only as an effective choice for reconstruction of the cosmetically complex midline nasal tip but also the convex curve of the central nose. PMID:25135801

Deluca, Jenny; Tappeiner, Lukas; Pichler, Maria; Eisendle, Klaus

2014-11-01

133

Facial transplantation: the first 9 years.  

PubMed

Since the first facial transplantation in 2005, 28 have been done worldwide with encouraging immunological, functional, psychological, and aesthetic outcomes. Unlike solid organ transplantation, which is potentially life-saving, facial transplantation is life-changing. This difference has generated ethical concerns about the exposure of otherwise young and healthy individuals to the sequelae of lifelong, high-dose, multidrug immunosuppression. Nevertheless, advances in immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive protocols, microsurgical techniques, and computer-aided surgical planning have enabled broader clinical application of this procedure to patients. Although episodes of acute skin rejection continue to pose a serious threat to face transplant recipients, all cases have been controlled with conventional immunosuppressive regimens, and no cases of chronic rejection have been reported. PMID:24783986

Khalifian, Saami; Brazio, Philip S; Mohan, Raja; Shaffer, Cynthia; Brandacher, Gerald; Barth, Rolf N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

2014-12-13

134

Facial reconstruction – anatomical art or artistic anatomy?  

PubMed Central

Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury. PMID:20447245

Wilkinson, Caroline

2010-01-01

135

Portable hyperspectral imager for assessment of skin disorders: preliminary measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygenation of the facial skin was evaluated in rosacea using a hyperspectral camera. A portable imaging system utilizing crossed-polarization optics for illumination and recording is described. Relative oxygen saturation was determined from rosacea features and compared with normal skin. Saturation maps and light absorption spectra showed a significant increase in the oxygen saturation of the blood in rosacea-affected skin.

Beach, James M.; Lanoue, Mark A.; Brabham, Kori; Khoobehi, Bahram

2005-04-01

136

Defective expression of HLA class I and CD1a molecules in boy with Marfan-like phenotype and deep skin ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a boy with low expression of HLA class I molecules on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which is associated with immunodeficiency. The patient, who had a Marfan-like phenotype, had chronic deep skin ulcers and sinobronchiectasis. Immunohistologic examination of the ulcerated skin showed a dense perivascular infiltrate composed of normal mature lymphocytes and macrophages. All cells in

Alessandro Plebani; Virginia Monafo; Roberto Cattaneo; Graziella Carella; Duilio Brugnoni; Fabio Facchetti; Simonetta Battocchio; Antonella Meini; Luigi D. Notarangelo; Marzia Duse; Alberto G. Ugazio

1996-01-01

137

Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

138

Automated Down syndrome detection using facial photographs.  

PubMed

Down syndrome, the most common single cause of human birth defects, produces alterations in physical growth and mental retardation; its early detection is crucial. Children with Down syndrome generally have distinctive facial characteristics, which brings an opportunity for the computer-aided diagnosis of Down syndrome using photographs of patients. In this study, we propose a novel strategy based on machine learning techniques to detect Down syndrome automatically. A modified constrained local model is used to locate facial landmarks. Then geometric features and texture features based on local binary patterns are extracted around each landmark. Finally, Down syndrome is detected using a variety of classifiers. The best performance achieved 94.6% accuracy, 93.3% precision and 95.5% recall by using support vector machine with radial basis function kernel. The results indicate that our method could assist in Down syndrome screening effectively in a simple, non-invasive way. PMID:24110526

Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Okada, Kazunori; Zand, Dina J; Sze, Raymond; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George

2013-01-01

139

Acneiform facial eruptions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972

Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

2005-01-01

140

Facial cleft no. 30.  

PubMed

Midline clefts of the lower lip, mandible, tongue, and neck are rare congenital deformities and are classified as facial cleft no. 30 by Tessier. This is a report of a patient who presented with congenital fibrotic neck cord but no lower lip cleft, which has been the most frequently observed pathognomonic sign of this anomaly. The patient was treated initially for thyroglossal remnant. In the patients who present with a fibrotic cord located at the cervical midline without a lower lip cleft, the diagnosis of facial cleft no. 30 should be kept in mind. PMID:7833402

Keçeci, Y; Gencosmano?lu, R; Görken, C; Ca?da?, A

1994-09-01

141

Nondestructive Imaging of Live Human Keloid and Facial Tissue Using Multiphoton Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To use multiphoton microscopy to image collagen fibers and matrix structure in nonfixed human keloid tissue and normal human facial skin obtained fol- lowing surgery and to compare the findings to existing knowledge of normal skin and keloid morphology to de- termine if this technology is a suitable adjunct for con- ventional histology. Methods: Epidermis was removed to expose

Victor Da Costa; Randy Wei; Ryan Lim; Chung-Ho Sun; Jimmy J. Brown; Brian J.-F. Wong

2008-01-01

142

Facial Gunshot Wounds: Trends in Management  

PubMed Central

Facial gunshot wounds, often comprising significant soft and bone tissue defects, pose a significant challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Whether resulting from assault, accident, or suicide attempt, a thorough assessment of the defects is essential for devising an appropriate tissue repair and replacement with a likely secondary revision. Immediately after injury, management is centered on advanced trauma life support with patient stabilization as the primary goal. Thorough examination along with appropriate imaging is critical for identifying any existing defects. Whereas past surgical management advocated delayed definitive treatment using serial debridement, today’s management favors use of more immediate reconstruction. Recent advances in microsurgical technique have shifted favor from local tissue advancement to distant free flap transfers, which improve cosmesis and function. This has resulted in a lower number of surgeries required to achieve reconstruction. Because of the diversity of injury and the complexity of facial gunshot injuries, a systematic algorithm is essential to help manage the different stages of healing and to ensure that the best outcome is achieved. PMID:22110801

Kaufman, Yoav; Cole, Patrick; Hollier, Larry H.

2009-01-01

143

Dry skin  

MedlinePLUS

Skin - dry; Winter itch ... Dry skin is common. It happens more often in the winter when cold air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The skin loses moisture and may ...

144

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Skin cancer It is possible to find skin cancer early. ... a dermatologist. Learn more. Common types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) This is the most ...

145

Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects  

PubMed Central

Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

2014-01-01

146

Digital facial engraving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution introduces the basic techniques for digital facial engraving, which imitates traditional copperplate engraving. Inspired by traditional techniques, we first establish a set of basic rules thanks to which separate engraving layers are built on the top of the original photo. Separate layers are merged according to sim- ple merging rules and according to range shift\\/scale masks spe- cially

Victor Ostromoukhov

1999-01-01

147

An unusual facial sinus.  

PubMed

An unusual presentation of a chronic suppurative granuloma on the alar base area originating from a maxillary lateral incisor is reported. Treatment involved adequate endodontic therapy with simultaneous apical surgery and excision of the granuloma and sinus tract. Awareness of the possible dental origin of facial sinuses, despite their unusual location, is emphasized. PMID:8639118

Cheung, L K; Samman, N; Lee, E

1996-02-01

148

Lasers for Facial Rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser and laser-like assisted facial rejuvenation has become very popular during the last decade. Although a myriad of techniques are available, such approaches can be divided into four basic approaches. There are those that (i) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and provide a significant thermal effect (CO2 lasers); (ii) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and minimal thermal effects

David J. Goldberg

2003-01-01

149

Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution  

PubMed Central

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe

2005-01-01

150

Ellis-van Creveld syndrome with facial hemiatrophy.  

PubMed

Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by chondrodysplasia and polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and congenital defects of the heart. We present here a case of a 16-year-old short-limbed dwarf with skeletal deformities and bilateral postaxial polydactyly, dysplastic nails and teeth, also having left-sided facial hemiatrophy. The diagnosis of EVC syndrome was made on the basis of clinical and radiological features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EVC syndrome with facial hemiatrophy in the medical literature from India. PMID:20445298

Bhat, Yasmeen J; Baba, Asif Nazir; Manzoor, Sheikh; Qayoom, Seema; Javed, Sheikh; Ajaz, Hakeem

2010-01-01

151

Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi'an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (?5 mites/cm(2)) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation. PMID:22135150

Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

2011-12-01

152

Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*  

PubMed Central

Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (?5 mites/cm2) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation. PMID:22135150

Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

2011-01-01

153

Penile reconstruction with dermal template and vacuum therapy in severe skin and soft tissue defects caused by Fournier's gangrene and hidradenitis suppurativa.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to improve the treatment of patients with complete skin loss of the penile shaft after Fournier's gangrene or hidradenitis suppurativa using modern biomatrices and topical negative pressure therapy. From January 2010 to December 2011, three patients with Fournier's gangrene or hidradenitis suppurativa were treated. After initial radical debridements, topical negative pressure therapy was applied for wound stabilisation. After that dermal templates (acellular dermal matrix) were used to achieve early healing and topical negative pressure-dressing in a special setting or a special foam compression bandage was used together with a urinary catheter. After integration of the dermal template, a split-thickness skin graft is used for coverage and again secured with a circular total negative pressure-dressing. In all cases, the split-thickness skin grafts healed very well applying this therapy concept. The patients were very satisfied with the functional as well as with the aesthetic outcome. We suggest a new method of staged reconstruction to successfully preserve the functionality of the penis after complete loss of the skin and soft tissue of the penile shaft using modern biomatrices and topical negative pressure therapy. PMID:24618357

Ludolph, Ingo; Titel, Torsten; Beier, Justus P; Dragu, Adrian; Schmitz, Marweh; Wullich, Bernd; Horch, Raymund E

2014-02-21

154

Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

2014-01-01

155

Facial resemblance enhances trust.  

PubMed Central

Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subjects were shown faces of ostensible playing partners manipulated to resemble either themselves or an unknown person. Resemblance to the subject's own face raised the incidence of trusting a partner, but had no effect on the incidence of selfish betrayals of the partner's trust. Control subjects playing with identical pictures failed to show such an effect. In a second experiment, resemblance of the playing partner to a familiar (famous) person had no effect on either trusting or betrayals of trust. PMID:12079651

DeBruine, Lisa M

2002-01-01

156

Nasolabial facial artery and vein as recipient vessels for midface microsurgical reconstruction.  

PubMed

Although free flap transfer is commonly performed to reconstruct facial defects, the submandibular facial artery and vein have historically been considered as adequate recipient vessels for microsurgical reconstruction. If the vascular pedicles of the free flap are short, vein grafts are necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine the indications for and effectiveness of using the nasolabial facial vessels for midfacial reconstruction. A retrospective chart review of 6 patients undergoing microsurgical reconstruction for defects of the face revealed 6 free tissue transfers in which the nasolabial facial artery and vein were considered for use as recipient vessels. Flap success rates were evaluated. Six patients (5 men and 1 woman) underwent 6 free flap transfers. Five anterior helix free flaps were used for the reconstruction of defects in the lower third of the nose. Nasal defects were due to trauma in 4 patients and squamous cell carcinoma in 1 patient. In 1 neurofibromatosis type 1 case, a radial forearm flap was used for reconstruction of the left orbital defect. The facial artery and vein in the nasolabial fold were used as the recipient artery and vein in every case. The mean length of follow-up was 5.8 years. All flaps survived. All patients were satisfied with the degree of aesthetic improvement after surgery.Use of the facial artery and vein in the nasolabial fold for facial reconstruction is reliable and safe. The nasolabial facial artery and vein should be considered as primary recipient vessels in microsurgical reconstruction of the midface. PMID:21558949

Oh, Suk Joon; Jeon, Man Kyung; Koh, Sung Hoon

2011-05-01

157

Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment. PMID:25141118

Gabana-Silveira, Jesus Claudio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Braga, Arnaldo Feitosa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

2014-01-01

158

Skin optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin

M. J. C. Van Gemert; S. L. Jacques; H. J. C. M. Sterenborg; W. M. Star

1989-01-01

159

Granuloma faciale: a rare disease from a dermoscopy perspective*  

PubMed Central

The granuloma faciale is a rare and benign skin disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic leukocitoclastic vasculitis. It is characterized by skin lesions predominantly facial whose course is chronic and slowly progressive. The diagnosis is based on clinical features, histopathology and, more recently, in dermoscopy. We describe the case of a male patient, 40 years old, with a sarcoid lesion on the malar site, whose histopathological examination revealed a mixed inflammatory infiltrate with presence of Grenz zone. Dermoscopy revealed a pink background with white striations. The definitive diagnosis is made by histopathologic evaluation, and dermatoscopy can be helpful. It is known to be resistant to therapy, oral medications, intralesional and surgical procedures are options. PMID:24346891

Teixeira, Danilo Augusto; Estrozi, Bruna; Ianhez, Mayra

2013-01-01

160

Skin Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

161

Hand skin reconstruction from skeletal landmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies related to three-dimensional facial reconstruction have been previously reported. On the other hand, no extensive\\u000a work has been found in the literature about hand reconstruction as an identification method. In this paper, the feasibility\\u000a of virtual reconstruction of hand skin based on (1) its skeleton and (2) another hand skin and skeleton used as template was\\u000a assessed. One

P. Lefèvre; S. Van Sint Jan; J. P. Beauthier; M. Rooze

2007-01-01

162

Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated,

Ian D. Stephen; Vinet Coetzee; Miriam Law Smith; David I. Perrett

2009-01-01

163

Down syndrome detection from facial photographs using machine learning techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition; one in every 691 babies in United States is born with it. Patients with Down syndrome have an increased risk for heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems and the early detection of the syndrome is fundamental for managing the disease. Clinically, facial appearance is an important indicator in diagnosing Down syndrome and it paves the way for computer-aided diagnosis based on facial image analysis. In this study, we propose a novel method to detect Down syndrome using photography for computer-assisted image-based facial dysmorphology. Geometric features based on facial anatomical landmarks, local texture features based on the Contourlet transform and local binary pattern are investigated to represent facial characteristics. Then a support vector machine classifier is used to discriminate normal and abnormal cases; accuracy, precision and recall are used to evaluate the method. The comparison among the geometric, local texture and combined features was performed using the leave-one-out validation. Our method achieved 97.92% accuracy with high precision and recall for the combined features; the detection results were higher than using only geometric or texture features. The promising results indicate that our method has the potential for automated assessment for Down syndrome from simple, noninvasive imaging data.

Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Sze, Raymond; Zand, Dina; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George

2013-02-01

164

Mental retardation, congenital heart defect, cleft palate, short stature, and facial anomalies: A new X-linked multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome: Clinical description and molecular studies  

SciTech Connect

We report on two brothers and their two maternal uncles with severe mental retardation, congenital heart defect, cleft or highly arched palate, short stature and craniofacial anomalies consisting of microcephaly, abnormal ears, bulbous nose, broad nasal bridge, malar hypoplasia, and micro-gnathia. Three of the four patients died at an early age. The mother of the two brothers had an atrial septal defect. She is assumed to be manifesting carrier of a mutant gene, which is expressed in her two sons and two brothers. By multipoint linkage analysis it is found that the most likely location of the responsible gene is the pericentromeric region Xp21.3-q21.3 with DMD and DXS3 as flanking markers. Maximum information is obtained with marker DXS453 (Z = 1.20 at {theta} = 0.0). 24 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Hamel, B.C.J.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Ropers, H.H. [University Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schoonbrood-Lenssen, A.M.J. [Institute for the Mentally Retarded, Echt (Netherlands)

1994-07-15

165

Skin Detail Analysis for Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel framework to localize in a photograph prominent irregularities in facial skin, in par- ticular nevi (moles, birthmarks). Their characteristic con- figuration over a face is used to encode the person's identity independent of pose and illumination. This approach ex- tends conventional recognition methods, which usually dis- regard such small scale variations and thereby miss poten-

Jean-sebastien Pierrard; Thomas Vetter

2007-01-01

166

Automatic facial expression analysis  

E-print Network

67% of the videos the majority of the frames were tracked suc- cessfully, demonstrating the need for facial trackers capable of coping with real life environments. 25 2. Affective Computing 2.2 Emotions Emotion research started with Charles Darwin... about 140 years ago with his work The Expression of The Emotions in Man and Animals (Darwin, 1872). This created a lot of controversy at the time of its publication due to its contentious claim of universality of emotions and their evolution- ary origins...

Baltrušaitis, Tadas

2014-04-08

167

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

168

Bilateral radial agenesis with absent thumbs, complex heart defect, short stature, and facial dysmorphism in a patient with pure distal microduplication of 5q35.2-5q35.3  

PubMed Central

Background A partial duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 5 (5q35--?>?qter) is known to be associated with a distinct phenotype referred to as Hunter-McAlpine syndrome. Clinical spectrum of this disorder mainly consists of mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, skeletal anomalies, and craniofacial dysmorphism featuring flat facies, micrognathia, large, low-set dysplastic ears, hypertelorism, almond-shaped, down-slanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, small nose, long philtrum, small mouth, and thin upper lip. Less frequent remarkable findings include craniosynostosis, heart defect, hypoplastic phalanges, preaxial polydactyly, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernia. In most patients with a partial duplication of 5q the aberration occurred due to an inherited unbalanced translocation, therefore the phenotype was not reflective of pure trisomy 5q. Case presentation We report on a 9.5-year-old boy with some feature of Hunter-McAlpine syndrome including short stature, complex heart defect (dextrocardia, dextroversion, PFO), bilateral cryptorchidism, hypothyroidism, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Additionally, bilateral radial agenesis with complete absence of Ist digital rays, ulnar hypoplasia with bowing, choroidal and retinal coloboma, abnormal biliary vesicle were identified, which have never been noted in 5q trisomy patients. Karyotype analysis, sequencing and MLPA for TBX5 and SALL4 genes were unremarkable. Array comparative genomic hybridization detected a duplication on 5q35.2-5q35.3, resulting from a de novo chromosomal rearrangement. Our proband carried the smallest of all previously reported pure distal 5q trisomies encompassing terminal 5.4-5.6 Mb and presented with the most severe limb malformation attributed to the increased number of distal 5q copies. Conclusions We postulate that a terminal distal trisomy of 5q35.2-5q35.3, which maps 1.1 Mb telomeric to the MSX2 gene is causative for both radial agenesis and complex heart defect in our proband. A potential candidate gene causative for limb malformation in our proband could be FGFR4, which maps relatively in the closest position to the chromosomal breakage site (about 1.3 Mb) from all known 5q duplications. Since the limb malformation as well as the underlying genetic defect are distinct from other 5q trisomy patient we propose that a position effect resulting in altered long-range regulation of the FGFR4 (alternatively MSX2) may be responsible for the limb malformation in our proband. PMID:23342975

2013-01-01

169

Matrix Metalloproteinases of Epithelial Origin in Facial Sebum of Patients with Acne and their Regulation by Isotretinoin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acne vulgaris is a skin disorder of the sebaceous follicles, involving hyperkeratinization and perifollicular inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have a predominant role in inflammatory matrix remodeling and hyperproliferative skin disorders. We investigated the expression of MMP and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) in facial sebum specimens from acne patients, before and after treatment with isotretinoin. Gelatin zymography and Western-blot analysis

Eleni Papakonstantinou; Alexios J. Aletras; Evelyn Glass; Panagiotis Tsogas; Alexander Dionyssopoulos; James Adjaye; Sabine Fimmel; Panagiotis Gouvousis; Ralf Herwig; Hans Lehrach; Christos C. Zouboulis; George Karakiulakis

2005-01-01

170

Botulinum toxin injection for facial wrinkles.  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin injection for treatment of facial wrinkles is the most frequently performed cosmetic procedure in the United States, and it is one of the most common entry procedures for clinicians seeking to incorporate aesthetic treatments into their practice. Treatment of frown lines and crow's feet, which are the cosmetic indications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and horizontal forehead lines, offers predictable results, has few adverse effects, and is associated with high patient satisfaction. Wrinkles are formed by dermal atrophy and repetitive contraction of underlying facial musculature. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Injection of small quantities of botulinum toxin into specific overactive muscles causes localized muscle relaxation that smooths the overlying skin and reduces wrinkles. Botulinum toxin effects take about two weeks to fully develop and last three to four months. Dynamic wrinkles, seen during muscle contraction, yield more dramatic results than static wrinkles, which are visible at rest. Botulinum toxin injection is contraindicated in persons with keloidal scarring, neuromuscular disorders (e.g., myasthenia gravis), allergies to constituents of botulinum toxin products, and body dysmorphic disorder. Minor bruising can occur with botulinum toxin injection. Temporary blepharoptosis and eyebrow ptosis are rare complications that are technique-dependent; incidence declines as injector skill improves. PMID:25077722

Small, Rebecca

2014-08-01

171

Bacterial Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Pigment Disorders Blistering Diseases Parasitic Skin Infections Bacterial Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers Nail Disorders Topics in Bacterial Skin ...

172

Fungal Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Pigment Disorders Blistering Diseases Parasitic Skin Infections Bacterial Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers Nail Disorders Topics in Fungal Skin ...

173

Diagnosis and management of facial pigmented macules.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of pigmented macules on the mottled chronic sun-damaged skin of the face is challenging and includes lentigo maligna (LM), pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, solar lentigo, and lichen-planus-like keratosis. Although dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of the unaided eye, the accurate diagnosis and management of pigmented facial macules remains one of the most challenging scenarios in daily practice. This is related to the fact that pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, lichen-planus-like keratosis, and LM may reveal overlapping criteria, making their differential diagnosis clinically difficult. For this reason, practical rules have been introduced, which should help to minimize the risk for inappropriate diagnosis and management of LM. PMID:24314382

Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Moscarella, Elvira; Longo, Caterina; Simonetti, Vito; Zalaudek, Iris

2014-01-01

174

Granuloma faciale effectively treated with topical pimecrolimus.  

PubMed

Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare skin disorder with a chronic-relapsing course. Cutaneous lesions affect predominantly the face of middle-aged Caucasian men with characteristic reddish papules, nodules, or plaques; however, various atypical cases with unusual morphology or extra facial involvement have been reported (1-3). Despite many treatment options, both surgical and medical, GF remains therapeutically resistant and even if effective treatment is achieved, the condition often recurs. A 60-year-old woman was referred to our department with skin lesions that appeared in spring of 2008 and were resistant to topical antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment. There were no other subjective complains except for aggravation from sun exposure. Clinical examination revealed four erythematous plaques localized symmetrically on both sides of the nose, on the right cheek, and between the eyebrows (Fig. 1a). A wide range of differential diagnoses were taken into consideration, including: cutaneous lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, polymorphic light eruption, Jessner-Kanof lymphocytic infiltration, and erythema fixum. Hematological and biochemical blood investigations were within normal ranges, and the serology for Treponema (T.) pallidum and Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi and the ANA test were negative. The histologic evaluation revealed diffuse hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and a dense perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the upper dermis, demarcated from the epidermis by a highly demonstrative Grenz zone. Polymorphous infiltrate of lymphocyte, neutrophils, eosinophils, and plasma cells was seen around the small- and middle-sized vessels in the papillary dermis (Fig. 1b). The patient was treated with chloroquine 250 mg po bid. and topical betamethasone valerate cream for three months. The lack of significant therapeutic response led us to switch treatment to topical 1% pimecrolimus cream, applied twice daily for a period of three months. A follow-up visit after six months showed visual improvement of highly satisfying cosmetic outcome (Fig. 2). Granuloma faciale is a rare skin disease of unknown etiology. The first case was reported by Wigley in 1945 as "eosinophilic granuloma", and was later named granuloma faciale by Pincus (4). A spectrum of exogenic and endogenic factors such as actinic exposure, trauma, allergy (1), an Arthus-like reaction, or light irradiation (5) have been suspected to trigger the disease. GF has been typically described in middle-aged white men, though it can occur in any gender, race, or age group. Our case features GF changes in a middle-aged woman, which is a relatively rare phenomenon. GF clinical presentation is characterized with variously colored papules, nodules, or plaques, commonly elevated and soft. These lesions have a well-defined border and may vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters, as in our patient. Lesions are situated almost exclusively on the face (2,3), but may rarely appear on the trunk, scalp, and extremities which has been termed extrafacial GF (1). GF lesions are generally symptomless but some patients may complain of tender itching, stinging, or burning sensations. Histological findings play a crucial role in confirming the clinical diagnosis. A Grenz zone of uninvolved dermis located beneath the epidermis and a polymorphous infiltrate of lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and occasionally mast cells are the most characteristic indications. Sometimes, leukocytoclastic vasculitis can be observed, although this is often referred to as an epiphenomenon. With the chronification of the process lesions may show considerable storiform fibrosis (7). Even the pathophysiology of GF is unknown; more recent theories suggested that a proliferation of unknown T-cell lymphocytes cause IL-5 production and eosinophil hemotaxis to the lesional skin (6). Recently, Cesinaro at al. reported a significant number of GF cases associated with an abnormal content of IgG4 plasma cells, proposing that GF might represent a localized form of IgG4-related sclerosing diseases. This

Dourmishev, Lyubomir; Ouzounova-Raykova, Vessela; Broshtilova, Valentina; Miteva, Lyubka

2014-12-01

175

Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?  

PubMed Central

Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

2012-01-01

176

Facial transplants in Xenopus laevis embryos.  

PubMed

Craniofacial birth defects occur in 1 out of every 700 live births, but etiology is rarely known due to limited understanding of craniofacial development. To identify where signaling pathways and tissues act during patterning of the developing face, a 'face transplant' technique has been developed in embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis. A region of presumptive facial tissue (the "Extreme Anterior Domain" (EAD)) is removed from a donor embryo at tailbud stage, and transplanted to a host embryo of the same stage, from which the equivalent region has been removed. This can be used to generate a chimeric face where the host or donor tissue has a loss or gain of function in a gene, and/or includes a lineage label. After healing, the outcome of development is monitored, and indicates roles of the signaling pathway within the donor or surrounding host tissues. Xenopus is a valuable model for face development, as the facial region is large and readily accessible for micromanipulation. Many embryos can be assayed, over a short time period since development occurs rapidly. Findings in the frog are relevant to human development, since craniofacial processes appear conserved between Xenopus and mammals. PMID:24748020

Jacox, Laura A; Dickinson, Amanda J; Sive, Hazel

2014-01-01

177

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

PubMed

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

2011-01-01

178

An elastic-viscoplastic model for excised facial tissues.  

PubMed

Unified constitutive equations for elastic-viscoplastic materials were modified and used to model the highly nonlinear elastic and rate-dependent inelastic response exhibited in recent experiments on excised facial tissues. These included the skin and the underlying supportive tissue SMAS (the Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System). This study indicates a number of relevant results: The skin is more strain rate dependent than the SMAS; the nonlinearity of the elasticity of the skin is greater than that of the SMAS; both tissues exhibit a hardening effect indicated by increased resistance to inelastic deformation due to stress acting over a time period; the hardening effect leads to a decrease in time dependence and an increased elastic range, which is more pronounced for SMAS. Consequently, the SMAS can be viewed as the firmer elastic foundation of the more viscous skin. Moreover, the relaxation time for the skin is fairly short so the skin would be expected to conform to the deformation of the SMAS if it remained attached to the SMAS during stretching. This is relevant when it is undesirable to separate the skin from the SMAS for physiological reasons. PMID:10412449

Rubin, M B; Bodner, S R; Binur, N S

1998-10-01

179

Guide to Understanding Facial Palsy  

MedlinePLUS

... Two methods of treatment are static slings and dynamic muscle transfers. Static slings involve proce- dures in ... slings improve facial balance and eyelid clo- sure. Dynamic procedures include muscle transfers and man-made devices ...

180

Skin Aging  

MedlinePLUS

... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

181

Skin Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

182

Facial signs of emotional experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

35 right-handed White females (18–35 yrs) viewed positive and stress-inducing motion picture films and then reported on their subjective experience. Spontaneous facial expressions provided accurate information about more specific aspects of emotional experience than just the pleasant vs unpleasant distinction. The facial action coding system (P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen, 1978) isolated a particular type of smile that was

Paul Ekman; Wallace V. Freisen; Sonia Ancoli

1980-01-01

183

Dental infection simulating skin lesion.  

PubMed

Orocutaneous fistulas or cutaneous sinus, a tract of dental origin, is an uncommon but well-documented condition that usually requires emergency treatment. Such condition may be misdiagnosed by physicians and dentists and may sometimes be confused with bone and skin tumor, osteomyelitis, congenital fistula, salivary gland fistula, pyogenic granuloma, infected cyst, deep mycotic infection, and other pathologies. A case of facial sinus tract that was initially misdiagnosed by a physician as a nonodontogenic lesion is presented. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy was the treatment of choice for this case. Facial cutaneous sinus tracts must be considered of dental origin. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment minimize patient discomfort and esthetic problems, reducing the possibility of further complications such as sepsis and osteomyelitis. PMID:22892779

Abuabara, Allan; Schramm, Celso Alfredo; Zielak, João César; Baratto-Filho, Flares

2012-01-01

184

Peripheral facial palsy in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

2014-11-01

185

The evolution of injectable poly-L-lactic acid from the correction of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy to aging-related facial contour deficiencies.  

PubMed

Loss of facial volume due to skeletal resorption and facial fat redistribution is considered a primary cause for increased skin folding and sagging associated with aging. The objective of this review is to examine how use of injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) for correction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated facial lipoatrophy supports wider use in treating aging-related facial changes given its approval for aesthetic use. A literature review of studies evaluating injectable PLLA for the treatment of HIV-associated or aging-related contour deficiencies was conducted via MEDLINE, supplemented by the author's clinical experience. In clinical trials of HIV-related facial lipoatrophy, injectable PLLA increased dermal thickness for up to 96 weeks. Another study showed significant improvements in aging-related nasolabial fold wrinkles that lasted up to 25 months. Understanding differences in the use of injectable PLLA between patients with HIV and those with aging-related facial changes will help physicians optimize patient treatment. PMID:22052268

Burgess, Cheryl

2011-09-01

186

Dynamics of autonomic nervous system responses and facial expressions to odors  

PubMed Central

Why we like or dislike certain products may be better captured by physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) than by conscious or classical sensory tests. Responses to pleasant and unpleasant food odors presented in varying concentrations were assessed continuously using facial expressions and responses of the ANS. Results of 26 young and healthy female participants showed that the unpleasant fish odor triggered higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, lower skin temperature, fewer neutral facial expressions and more disgusted and angry expressions (p < 0.05). Neutral facial expressions differentiated between odors within 100 ms, after the start of the odor presentation followed by expressions of disgust (180 ms), anger (500 ms), surprised (580 ms), sadness (820 ms), scared (1020 ms), and happy (1780 ms) (all p-values < 0.05). Heart rate differentiated between odors after 400 ms, whereas skin conductance responses differentiated between odors after 3920 ms. At shorter intervals (between 520 and 1000 ms and between 2690 and 3880 ms) skin temperature for fish was higher than that for orange, but became considerable lower after 5440 ms. This temporal unfolding of emotions in reactions to odors, as seen in facial expressions and physiological measurements supports sequential appraisal theories. PMID:24592246

He, Wei; Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; de Wijk, René A.

2014-01-01

187

Can Facial Cosmetics Affect the Matching Accuracy of Face Recognition Antitza Dantcheva, Cunjian Chen, Arun Ross  

E-print Network

Can Facial Cosmetics Affect the Matching Accuracy of Face Recognition Systems? Antitza Dantcheva-permanent cosmetic alterations, such as makeup, tend to be simple, cost efficient and socially ac- ceptable; and (h) alter the perceived skin quality and color. In addition to the aforementioned effects, cosmetics

Ross, Arun Abraham

188

Frontal-view face detection and facial feature extraction using color and morphological operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel algorithm for front-view facial contour detection and features extraction is described. A skin-color face segmentation method is developed to detect the face region firstly. In order to more precisely locate the face contour and features such as eyes, mouth and nostrils, we eliminate the ears and neck from the face region by using morphological operations and knowledge about

Jian-gang Wang; Eric Sung

1999-01-01

189

Neisseria meningitidis as a cause of facial cellulitis.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old man presented with facial cellulitis and found to have Neisseria meningitidis bacteraemia with no evidence of infection outside of the facial soft tissue. He was treated with a course of intravenous ceftriaxone and transitioned to oral amoxicillin on discharge with significant improvement of his symptoms. N meningitidis is best recognised as a causal agent of bacterial meningitis. To our knowledge N meningitidis cellulitis has only been described in 12 other cases. In this case series we describe and summarise our case, along with the 12 cases already reported in the literature. We report this case series to highlight the importance of recognising N meningitidis in the differential in patients presenting with acute skin and soft tissue infections especially involving the periorbital, head and neck regions. PMID:24626385

Ozaki, Brent; Kittai, Adam; Chang, Suzanne

2014-01-01

190

Effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics: changes in facial content and frames.  

PubMed

Aesthetic units of the face can be divided into facial content (FC; eyes, nose, lips, and mouth), anterior facial frame (AFF; a contour line from the trichion, the temporal line of the frontal bone, the lateral orbital rim, the most lateral line of the anterior part of the zygomatic body, the anterior border of the masseter muscle, to the inferior border of the chin), and posterior facial frame (PFF; a contour line from the hairline, the zygomatic arch, to the ramus and gonial angle area of the mandible). The size and shape of each FC and the balance and proportion between FCs create a unique appearance for each person. The facial form can be determined through the combination of AFF and PFF. In the Asian population, clinicians frequently encounter problems of FC (eg, acute nasolabial angle, protrusive and everted lips, nonconsonant lip line, or lip canting), AFF (eg, midface hypoplasia, protrusive and asymmetric chin, vertical deficiency/excess of the anterior maxilla and symphysis, or prominent zygoma), and PFF (eg, square mandibular angle). These problems can be efficiently and effectively corrected through the combination of hard tissue surgery such as anterior segmental osteotomy, genioplasty, mandibular angle reduction, malarplasty, and orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the purposes of this article were to introduce the concepts of FC, AFF, and PFF, and to explain the effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics. PMID:23147319

Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Hak

2012-11-01

191

Advancement Perforator Cheek Flap for Aesthetic One-Stage Reconstruction of Postoncological Extended Split-Thickness Defects of the Nasal Sidewall  

PubMed Central

Aesthetic reconstruction of soft tissue nasal sidewall loss has an important influence on the appearance of the nose. The unique character of this subunit and the complex relationships with a number of different facial or nasal subunits make the excision of large tumors difficult to manage. Numerous techniques are described in the literature, but a primary reconstruction with a final good result is not often possible. The authors develop an advancement cheek flap for an aesthetic one-stage reconstruction of postoncological extended nasal sidewall defects. Between January 2009 and July 2012, 16 patients (mean age, 63.3?yr) underwent excision of skin tumors of nasal sidewall and immediate reconstruction with an advancement cheek flap nourished by perforators from the transverse facial branch of the superficial temporal artery. The tumors were excised with 0.4–0.6?cm lateral margins and defects size ranged from 2.6 × 2.6?cm to 3.5 × 5?cm. Oncological radicality was obtained in all cases. The aesthetic results were excellent in all patients. No scar revision was needed. The authors' advancement cheek flap can be considered the first choice for reconstruction of split-thickness defect of nasal sidewall larger than 2.5?cm because it reestablishes in one stage the nasal contour detail. PMID:24288460

Milia, Arianna; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Cordova, Adriana

2013-01-01

192

Endoscopic application in aesthetic and reconstructive facial bone surgery.  

PubMed

Twenty-three cases of endoscopically assisted facial bone surgery were performed over the past 3 years. Our series is consistent with 16 cases of aesthetic contouring surgery and 12 treatments of facial bone fracture, including three cases for recontouring of frontal bone, three cases for recontouring of zygoma, endoscopically assisted correction of three zygomatic and blowout fractures, four cases for rhinoplasty and septoplasty for deviated nose, and three cases for mandible contouring surgery. To accomplish this technique, a rigid 4-mm, 30-degree down-angled endoscope was used. The frontal bone or zygomatic arch was approached endoscopically through two or three small incisions on the frontal or temporoparietal scalp. All endoscopic instruments were then manipulated through these incisions. The approach for endoscopically assisted rhinoplasty is the same as with standard rhinoplasty procedures. The approach for zygoma complex and maxillary sinus needs an intraoral incision. Recontouring of zygoma, mandible, and nasal dorsum by an air-driven burr and rasp was performed with endoscopic visual assistance. A plate and screw fixation for zygomatic arch fracture requires an additional small skin incision over the plate for the trocar method. The duration of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 30 months. The postoperative course was satisfactory with a few complications. The extra time needed for the endoscopic procedures was less than 1 hour. Endoscopically assisted facial bone surgery can be performed with adequate visualization and direct manipulation of all facial bones. Complications usually associated with extensive incisions in the bicoronal approach may be avoided. Poor visualization in the conventional approach for operation of orbit, nose, maxillae, and mandible may be avoided by use of the endoscope. This technique may prove to be ideal for aesthetic surgery for facial skeleton with smaller scar and less morbidity. PMID:9734446

Park, D H; Lee, J W; Song, C H; Han, D G; Ahn, K Y

1998-09-01

193

Facial Tissue Depths in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate.  

PubMed

Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a craniofacial malformation affecting more than seven million people worldwide that results in defects of the hard palate, teeth, maxilla, nasal spine and floor, and maxillodental asymmetry. CLP facial soft-tissue depth (FSTD) values have never been published. The purpose of this research is to report CLP FSTD values and compare them to previously published FSTD values for normal children. Thirty-eight FSTDs were measured on cone beam computed tomography images of CLP children (n = 86; 7-17 years). MANOVA and ANOVA tests determined whether cleft type, age, sex, and bone graft surgical status affect tissue depths. Both cleft type (unilateral/bilateral) and age influence FSTDs. CLP FSTDs exhibit patterns of variation that differ from normal children, particularly around the oronasal regions of the face. These differences should be taken into account when facial reconstructions of children with CLP are created. PMID:25442980

Starbuck, John M; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine

2014-11-28

194

[Intracranial-intratemporal anastomosis of the facial nerve (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Using the microsurgical technique during the exstripation of the acustic neuroma in the otosurgical as well as neurosurgical approach of the procedure, it was possibel to achieve not only a considerable drop in the mortality rate, but also a preservation of the facial nerve. Our technique of intracranial/intratemporal anastomosis allow in cases with deep defects of the facial nerve in the cerebellopontine angle a relatively reliable rehabilitation of the nerve at the time of a tumor resection. The success is based on the teamwork between ENT- and Neurosurgeons. 8 patients were operated until now. In all cases the satisfactory return of the face motoric has been noted within 3/4-11/2 years after the operation. PMID:7453428

Draf, W; Samii, M

1980-05-01

195

Compound facial expressions of emotion  

PubMed Central

Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

2014-01-01

196

Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... to flares, and treat symptoms when they occur. Rosacea © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Rosacea — Frequent redness (flushing) of the face; small red ... and thicker skin. Your physician can usually diagnose rosacea with a thorough medical history and physical exam. ...

197

Genetic Modifiers of the Physical Malformations in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome/DiGeorge Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid, and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that "Tbx1", a…

Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

2008-01-01

198

Innervation of hairs in the facial skin of marsupial mammals.  

PubMed Central

The innervation of pelage, guard hairs and vibrissae hairs was studied in five species of marsupial mammals by means of electron microscopy for the first time. This study showed that members of different superfamilies in marsupial mammals displayed the same pattern of hair innervation. This also resembled the pattern seen in the placental mammals. All types of hairs had both longitudinal and transverse lanceolate nerve terminals. Pelage hairs did not have any Merkel cells. Guard hairs were very richly innervated and had free nerve endings, lanceolate nerve endings, many Merkel cells with their associated nerve endings and pilo-Ruffini nerve endings. Vibrissae hairs had free nerve endings, Merkel nerve endings and lamellated corpuscles, but pilo-Ruffini nerve endings were not seen in this investigation. Because of the profusion and variety of innervation in guard hairs of the marsupial mammals, these hairs may have a similar function to vibrissae hairs in placental mammals. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:2032935

Loo, S K; Halata, Z

1991-01-01

199

Traumatic ventricular septal defect.  

PubMed Central

A 26 year old man was admitted to hospital following a traffic accident. He had been sitting in the back of a car without wearing a seat belt. He suffered crush injuries on the anterior chest wall, trunk, and legs. On admission he was awake and cooperative, but restless, and obviously in severe pain. Radiography of the skull, facial bones, chest, spine, pelvis, and legs revealed a shaft fracture of the left femur and tibia and fracture of the 7th and 8th right ribs. The patient was transferred to the University Hospital of Zurich for further assessment and surgical repair of the lower limb fractures three days later. Because of worsening clinical condition with onset of partial respiratory insufficiency and new loud systolic murmur at the left sternal edge, a transthoracic echocardiography was performed, which showed an apical ventricular septal defect. Surgery was performed immediately. The ventricular septal defect was successfully repaired using a Teflon felt patch and interrupted sutures with pledgets, and sealed with glue. At six months' follow up the patient was doing well. Ventricular septal defects after blunt chest trauma occur either because of heart compression between sternum and the spine or because of myocardial infarction. In the present case the ventricular septal defect appeared three days after the accident, probably secondary to a post-traumatic myocardial infarction. Patients with blunt chest trauma and suspicion of cardiac contusion should be monitored carefully. Images PMID:9391298

Genoni, M.; Jenni, R.; Turina, M.

1997-01-01

200

DaFEx: Database of Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a DaFEx (Database of Facial Expressions) is a database created with the purpose of providing a benchmark for the evaluation\\u000a of the facial expressivity of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). DaFEx consists of 1008 short videos containing emotional\\u000a facial expressions of the 6 Ekman’s emotions plus the neutral expression. The facial expressions were recorded by 8 italian\\u000a professional actors (4 male and

Alberto Battocchi; Fabio Pianesi; Dina Goren-bar

2005-01-01

201

What's new in objective assessment and treatment of facial hyperpigmentation?  

PubMed

Facial hyperpigmentation is common and challenging to treat in darker-skinned populations. A Medline literature search of articles published up to October 2013 reporting the objective assessment of and/or treatment for melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, lichen planus pigmentosus, and erythema dyschromicum perstans was reviewed. Objective assessment was only reported for melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Furthermore, randomized controlled trial evidence was only reported for melasma. Although progress has been made, there is a need to develop more objective outcome measures and effective treatments for hyperpigmentation. PMID:24679999

Molinar, Vanessa E; Taylor, Susan C; Pandya, Amit G

2014-04-01

202

Facial soft tissue thickness in Japanese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on mean soft tissue thickness measurements. Numerous studies of facial tissue thickness in adults have been published on a range of subjects from different ancestral backgrounds. Data on facial thickness in children derive primarily from Caucasoid, African-American, and Hispanic subjects. There are limited data from the few studies of Japanese children

Hajime Utsuno; Toru Kageyama; Keiichi Uchida; Mineo Yoshino; Hiroo Miyazawa; Katsuhiro Inoue

2010-01-01

203

Skin Substitutes  

PubMed Central

In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

2014-01-01

204

Birth Defects  

MedlinePLUS

A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

205

Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery  

E-print Network

Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences University. The procedure is done under anesthesia administered by an anesthesiologist. After surgery, you

Chapman, Michael S.

206

Facial filler and neurotoxin complications.  

PubMed

Botulinum neuromodulators and injectable dermal fillers have become part of the armamentarium in the treatment of facial aging. Their successful use requires a fundamental knowledge of anatomy and physiology and a sound understanding of their risks and complications. Although neuromodulators and fillers continue to demonstrate a strong record of safety, several notable risks exist. PMID:22723229

Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

2012-06-01

207

Olfactory Cues Modulate Facial Attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an experiment designed to investigate whether olfactory cues can influence people's judgments of facial attractive- ness. Sixteen female participants judged the attractiveness of a series of male faces presented briefly on a computer monitor using a 9-point visual rating scale. While viewing each face, the participants were simultaneously presented with either clean air or else with 1 of

Robert Osterbauer; Charles Spence

2007-01-01

208

Unexplained Facial Scar: Child Abuse or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome?  

PubMed Central

Context: Child abuse is a serious problem, and its physical manifestations can be mimicked by certain diseases and conditions. These conditions can include genetic, congenital and other disorders that may result in poor weight gain, bone fractures or skin lesions that look like bruises or burns. Case Report: This paper reports the case of a seven-year-old girl with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), which was misdiagnosed as child abuse. This child was referred to us for treatment of an unexplained facial scar that was alleged to be the result of child abuse. Conclusion: When unusual skin presentations are observed, dermatologists should consider the possibility of child abuse to protect the child. Furthermore, they should be aware of the cutaneous abnormalities that mimic injuries associated with abuse to avoid the unnecessary reporting of child abuse. PMID:25535610

Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Shapouri, Javad; Masjedi, Mohsen; Saffaei, Ali; Pourazizi, Mohsen

2014-01-01

209

Genetic Factors That Increase Male Facial Masculinity Decrease Facial Attractiveness of Female Relatives  

PubMed Central

For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

2014-01-01

210

Facial expression recognition on a people-dependent personal facial expression space (PFES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a person-specific facial expression recognition method which is based on Personal Facial Expression Space (PFES) is presented. The multidimensional scaling maps facial images as points in lower dimensions in PFES. It reflects personality of facial expressions as it is based on the peak instant of facial expression images of a specific person. In constructing PFES for a person, his/her whole normalized facial image is considered as a single pattern without block segmentation and differences of 2-D DCT coefficients from neutral facial image of the same person are used as features. Therefore, in the early part of the paper, separation characteristics of facial expressions in the frequency domain are analyzed using a still facial image database which consists of neutral, smile, anger, surprise and sadness facial images for each of 60 Japanese males (300 facial images). Results show that facial expression categories are well separated in the low frequency domain. PFES is constructed using multidimensional scaling by taking these low frequency domain of differences of 2-D DCT coefficients as features. On the PFES, trajectory of a facial image sequence of a person can be calculated in real time. Based on this trajectory, facial expressions can be recognized. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this method.

Chandrasiri, N. P.; Park, Min Chul; Naemura, Takeshi; Harashima, Hiroshi

2000-04-01

211

The design of a face recognition system based on skin color and geometrical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research of face recognition technology in this paper is developed towards face detection technology of skin color segmentation and face geometrical characteristics. In addition, a software system that takes advantage of facial recognition to recognize the number of people is designed. The software is mainly composed of image pre-processing, skin color region detection, morphological processing, and recognizing the number

Xu-Yang; Fang-lv

2011-01-01

212

Novel skin brightener used as monotherapy for moderate melasma in skin of color.  

PubMed

Melasma is a chronic, relapsing disorder that can be disfiguring and can have adverse effects on quality of life. Recently, a unique hydroquinone-free topical product addressing multiple pathways involved in pigmentation was shown to have similar efficacy and equally well tolerated as 4% hydroquinone in females with facial hyperpigmentation. The goal herein was to further assess the efficacy and tolerability of this new multimodality product for the control of moderate melasma in skin of color. Six female subjects with Fitzpatrick skin types IV-V in good general health between the ages of 46 and 63 years with moderate epidermal facial melasma are presented herein. Subjects applied the skin brightener twice daily, morning and evening, and returned to the clinic at weeks 4, 8, and 12. By week 12, Investigator Overall Hyperpigmentation scores and MASI scores improved by an average of 22% and 38% from baseline, respectively. Additionally, 100% of subjects showed at least a 25% increase in Global Improvement at week 12. The skin brightener was well tolerated with no reports of erythema, edema, scaling, burning/stinging, or itching. Results from these case studies suggest that this multimodality skin brightener may provide an alternative treatment to hydroquinone for moderate melasma in skin of color. However additional clinical studies would be needed. PMID:24595584

Grimes, Pearl E

2014-03-01

213

After sun reversal of DNA damage: enhancing skin repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV-induced DNA damage has been directly linked to skin cancer, and DNA repair is an important protection against this neoplasm. This is illustrated by the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum wherein a serious defect in DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers dramatically increases the rate of skin cancer. In other instances in which skin cancer rates are elevated, deficits in DNA

Daniel B. Yarosh; Matthew T. Canning; Danielle Teicher; David A. Brown

2005-01-01

214

Skin Cancer in Skin of Color  

PubMed Central

Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

Bradford, Porcia T.

2009-01-01

215

[No interrupted surgical defects of the white upper lip: repair by a combined advancement and rotation flap in the lip subunit].  

PubMed

A solid understanding of anatomy, basic surgical principles, and tissue movement is essential when undertaking the reconstruction of facial cutaneous surgical defects. Aesthetic facial reconstruction requires understanding ability to use the tissue adjacent to the defect to create a reconstruction that preserves the function of the area and the cosmetic facial units and subunits. The closure of non interrupted white upper lip defects by using a combined advancement and rotation flap is preferred for defects not overtaking 2.5 cm in diameter. PMID:25252575

Guillot, P

2013-01-01

216

Lip segmentation and tracking for facial palsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed the asymmetry analyzing system for facial palsy patient's rehabilitation progress study. Using PC standard imaging device, captured 640*480 RGB image is converted into HSV space. A Lip-shape mask is extracted by thresholding. By taking 5 regions consisted in one region on lip and four regions on face skin, reasonable thresholds are determined by Fuzzy C-Means clustering. The extreme points on the lip shape mask are extracted to get the seeds for tracking. Segmented seed points are tracking by Iterative Lucas-Kanade tracking method in pyramids at 30 fps and recording simultaneously. To reduce the disk writing load on computer, we use asynchronous mode file writing, which is going to transfer to and review by clinician. Tracking shows quite reliable results, but sometimes the tracked points are following along the lip line because of the similar contrasts. Therefore, the first strategy to improve the reliability of tracking is using the high contrast points, such as left and right maximal point of lip shape. The second is clustering some points near the maximal points and eliminating outlying tracking points. The third is rechecking the lip shape using lip segmentation when the operator confirms that subject's maximal lip moving. Left and right tracking points are compared in forms of trajectory plot.

Park, MinJae; Seo, JongMo; Park, KwangSuk

2006-02-01

217

Skin Pigment  

MedlinePLUS

... their way into the skin. Diseases such as hemochromatosis or hemosiderosis or some drugs and chemicals that ... C. Schalock, MD VIEW STUDENT STORIES Pronunciations bilirubin hemochromatosis hemosiderosis hypopigmentation malaria melanin melanocytes siderosis tinea versicolor ...

218

Skin turgor  

MedlinePLUS

... decreased tearing )? Tests that may be performed: Blood chemistry (such as a chem-20 ) CBC Urinalysis Intravenous fluids may be needed for severe dehydration. You may need medicines to treat other conditions that affect skin turgor and elasticity.

219

Mature Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press ... Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts ...

220

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

221

The role of full-thickness skin grafting and steroid injection in the treatment of auricular keloids.  

PubMed

Keloids are a response to wound healing that occurs due to hyperproliferation of dermal collagen in response to skin injury (Olabanji et al, Surg Pract. 2005;9:2-7). Multiple modalities have been described in the literature to target these lesions, but treatment and prevention remain a challenge because of the high rate of recurrence (Brissett and Sherris, Facial Plast Surg. 2001;17:263-272; Kelly, Dermatol Ther. 2004;17:212-218; Robles and Berg, Clin Dermatol. 2007;25:26-32; Porter, Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2002;35:207-220, viii). We studied the rate of recurrence of auricular keloids through a technique previously described in the literature (Converse and Stallings, Plast Reconstr Surg. 1972;49:461-463), but over a series of patients. Keloids were treated with total excision in combination with coverage of the resulting defect with a full-thickness skin graft and intradermal injection of triamcinolone acetonide solution at the periphery of the donor and recipient sites. From April 2006 to February 2007, 10 patients with auricular keloids were done using this technique, and during an 11-month follow-up no recurrence was observed. These results support that full-thickness skin grafts can be used to address keloid lesions without recurrence. PMID:20395794

Brown, Nefertiti A; Ortega, F Raymond

2010-05-01

222

Senescent Skin  

PubMed Central

The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

Kushniruk, William

1974-01-01

223

Skin Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In assigning health priorities, skin diseases are sometimes thought of, in planning terms, as small-time players in the global league of illness compared with diseases that cause signif- icant mortality, such as HIV\\/AIDS, community-acquired pneu- monias, and tuberculosis. However, skin problems are generally among the most common diseases seen in primary care settings in tropical areas, and in some regions

Roderick Hay; Sandra E. Bendeck; Suephy Chen; Roberto Estrada; Anne Haddix; Tonya McLeod; Antoine Mahé

224

Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.

Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

225

Frontal-view face detection and facial feature extraction using color, shape and symmetry based cost functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an algorithm for detecting human faces and facial features, such as thelocation of the eyes, nose, and mouth. First, a supervised pixel-based color classifier isemployed to mark all pixels that are within a prespecified distance of "skin color," which iscomputed from a training set of skin patches. This color-classification map is then smoothedby Gibbs random field model-based filters

Eli Saber; A. Murat Tekalp

1998-01-01

226

Skin care and incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

227

[Facial Demodex infection among college students in Tangshan].  

PubMed

A survey indicated that the prevalence of Demodex infection among 512 college students in Tangshan was 36.3% (186/512), that of males and females was 39.3% (81/206) and 34.3% (105/306) respectively (P>0.05). The infection of Demodex folliculorum accounted for 82.3% (153/186), followed by D. brevis (7.5%, 14/186) and mixed infection (10.2%, 19/186). The prevalence was 47.0% (93/198) in subjects with oily skin, 26.6% (37/139) in those with dry skin, and 33.9% (56/165) in mixed-type skin (P<0.05). Subjects with facial diseases (62.0%, 75/121), such as rosacea and acne, were more likely to be infected with Demodex than those with healthy skin (27.6%, 80/290) (P<0.05). Prevalence in those lived in humid environment (67.9%, 95/140) was higher than those lived in the desiccating environment (24.5%, 91/372) (P<0.05). PMID:19852374

Cao, Yong-Sheng; You, Qin-Xiu; Wang, Lin; Lan, Hai-Bo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Xing-Hua; Yang, Huan; Xiong, Yan-Jie; Tian, Xi-Feng

2009-06-01

228

3D statistical facial reconstruction  

E-print Network

The aim of craniofacial reconstruction is to produce a likeness of a face from the skull. Few works in computerized assisted facial reconstruction have been done in the past, due to poor machine performances and data availability, and major works are manually reconstructions. In this paper, we present an approach to build 3D statistical models of the skull and the face with soft tissues from the skull of one individual. Results on real data are presented and seem promising.

Berar, M; Bailly, G; Payan, Y; Berar, Maxime; Desvignes, Michel; Payan, Yohan

2005-01-01

229

Automated interactive facial caricature generation  

E-print Network

as to style and content by: Ergun Akleman (Chair of ommittee) Frederic Parke (Member) Jianer Chen (Member) Thomas McKittrick (Head of Department) December 2000 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences ABSTRACT Automated Interactive Facial Caricature... to have half the patience he has shown throughout this process. I would like to thank my committee members. Thank you Frederic Parke for helping me put my thoughts and ideas into the words that allow me to communicate my ideas with simplicity snd...

Logan, Ryan C

2000-01-01

230

Papulopustular rosacea, skin immunity and Demodex: pityriasis folliculorum as a missing link.  

PubMed

Papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is a common facial skin disease, characterized by erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. Its physiopathology is still being discussed, but recently several molecular features of its inflammatory process have been identified: an overproduction of Toll-Like receptors 2, of a serine protease, and of abnormal forms of cathelicidin. The two factors which stimulate the Toll-like receptors to induce cathelicidin expression are skin infection and cutaneous barrier disruption: these two conditions are, at least theoretically, fulfilled by Demodex, which is present in high density in PPR and creates epithelial breaches by eating cells. So, the major pathogenic mechanisms of Demodex and its role in PPR are reviewed here in the context of these recent discoveries. In this review, the inflammatory process of PPR appears to be a consequence of the proliferation of Demodex, and strongly supports the hypothesis that: (1) in the first stage a specific (innate or acquired) immune defect against Demodex allows the proliferation of the mite; (2) in the second stage, probably when some mites penetrate into the dermis, the immune system is suddenly stimulated and gives rise to an exaggerated immune response against the Demodex, resulting in the papules and the pustules of the rosacea. In this context, it would be very interesting to study the immune molecular features of this first stage, named "pityriasis folliculorum", where the Demodex proliferate profusely with no, or a low immune reaction from the host: this entity appears to be a missing link in the understanding of rosacea. PMID:22017468

Forton, F M N

2012-01-01

231

A possible cranio-oro-facial phenotype in Cockayne syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Cockayne Syndrome CS (Type A – CSA; or CS Type I OMIM #216400) (Type B – CSB; or CS Type II OMIM #133540) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disease caused by defects in DNA repair characterized by progressive cachectic dwarfism, progressive intellectual disability with cerebral leukodystrophy, microcephaly, progressive pigmentary retinopathy, sensorineural deafness photosensitivity and possibly orofacial and dental anomalies. Methods We studied the cranio-oro-facial status of a group of 17 CS patients from 15 families participating in the National Hospital Program for Clinical Research (PHRC) 2005 « Clinical and molecular study of Cockayne syndrome ». All patients were examined by two investigators using the Diagnosing Dental Defects Database (D[4]/phenodent) record form. Results Various oro-facial and dental anomalies were found: retrognathia; micrognathia; high- arched narrow palate; tooth crowding; hypodontia (missing permanent lateral incisor, second premolars or molars), screwdriver shaped incisors, microdontia, radiculomegaly, and enamel hypoplasia. Eruption was usually normal. Dental caries was associated with enamel defects, a high sugar/carbohydrate soft food diet, poor oral hygiene and dry mouth. Cephalometric analysis revealed mid-face hypoplasia, a small retroposed mandible and hypo-development of the skull. Conclusion CS patients may have associated oro-dental features, some of which may be more frequent in CS children – some of them being described for the first time in this paper (agenesis of second permanent molars and radiculomegaly). The high susceptibility to rampant caries is related to a combination of factors as well as enamel developmental defects. Specific attention to these anomalies may contribute to diagnosis and help plan management. PMID:23311583

2013-01-01

232

How is facial expression coded?  

PubMed

Facial expression is theorized to be visually represented in a multidimensional expression space, relative to a norm. This norm-based coding is typically argued to be implemented by a two-pool opponent coding system. However, the evidence supporting the opponent coding of expression cannot rule out the presence of a third channel tuned to the center of each coded dimension. Here we used a paradigm not previously applied to facial expression to determine whether a central-channel model is necessary to explain expression coding. Participants identified expressions taken from a fear/antifear trajectory, first at baseline and then in two adaptation conditions. In one condition, participants adapted to the expression at the center of the trajectory. In the other condition, participants adapted to alternating images from the two ends of the trajectory. The range of expressions that participants perceived as lying at the center of the trajectory narrowed in both conditions, a pattern that is not predicted by the central-channel model but can be explained by the opponent-coding model. Adaptation to the center of the trajectory also increased identification of both fear and antifear, which may indicate a functional benefit for adaptive coding of facial expression. PMID:25556250

Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

2015-01-01

233

Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

Tan, Pearlie W.W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

234

Facial Resurfacing With Coblation Technology  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe our experience with coblation technology for facial resurfacing Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients treated with coblation at our institution Results Twenty-four patients (22 female) underwent a total of 29 coblation procedures for aging face (n = 21) or acne scarring (n = 3). The perioral region was the most frequently treated aesthetic subunit (n = 14), followed by the lower eyelid (n = 7). Five patients underwent full-face coblation. Three patients underwent a second coblation procedure for aging face while a single patient with severe acne scarring underwent 3 procedures. Repeat coblation was delayed at least 5 months (mean, 9 months). Seventeen coblation procedures (59%) were performed concurrently with procedures including, but not limited to, injection treatment, rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, or combined face/necklift; no adverse events occurred. Seven procedures, including a full-face coblation, were performed in the office under local anesthesia and oral sedation without any adverse events. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1 week to 24 months). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the results after their final coblation treatment. Conclusions Facial coblation is a safe and effective treatment modality for facial resurfacing. PMID:18769690

Weber, Stephen M.; Downs, Brian W.; Ferraz, Mario B.J.; Wang, Tom D.; Cook, Ted A.

2008-01-01

235

Targeted gene transfer into rat facial muscles by nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the feasibility of using nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) for gene transfer into rat facial muscles. LISWs are generated by irradiating a black natural rubber disk placed on the target tissue with nanosecond pulsed laser light from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, which is widely used in head and neck surgery and proven to be safe. After injection of plasmid deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) coding for Lac Z into rat facial muscles, pulsed laser is used to irradiate the laser target on the skin surface without incision or exposure of muscles. Lac Z expression is detected by X-gal staining of excised rat facial skin and muscles. Strong Lac Z expression is observed seven days after gene transfer, and sustained for up to 14 days. Gene transfer is achieved in facial muscles several millimeters deep from the surface. Gene expression is localized to the tissue exposed to LISWs. No tissue damage from LISWs is observed. LISW is a promising nonviral target gene transfer method because of its high spatial controllability, easy applicability, and minimal invasiveness. Gene transfer using LISW to produce therapeutic proteins such as growth factors could be used to treat nerve injury and paralysis.

Kurita, Akihiro; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Satoh, Yasushi; Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Obara, Minoru; Shiotani, Akihiro

2011-09-01

236

Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

237

A Hyperelastic Finite-Element Model of Human Skin for Interactive Real-Time Surgical Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite-element (FE) model of human skin is pro- posed for future use in an interactive real-time surgical simulation to teach surgeons procedures, such as facial reconstruction using skin-flap repair. For this procedure, skin is cut into flaps that are stretched to cover openings in the face. Thus, the model must recre- ate the visual, haptic, and force feedback expected

Rudy J. Lapeer; Paul D. Gasson; Vasudev Karri

2011-01-01

238

E4F1 is essential for epidermal stem cell maintenance and skin homeostasis Matthieu Lacroix1, 3, 4, 10, &  

E-print Network

1 E4F1 is essential for epidermal stem cell maintenance and skin homeostasis Matthieu Lacroix1, 3: Role of E4F1 in skin homeostasis Key words: E4F1, p53, knock-out, epidermal stem cells, skin inserm in the entire skin or in the basal compartment of the epidermis induces skin homeostasis defects, as evidenced

Boyer, Edmond

239

Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.  

PubMed

Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage. PMID:22913441

Oblong, John E

2012-01-01

240

The neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain.  

PubMed

This article reviews the definition, etiology and evaluation, and medical and neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain. A neuropathic origin for facial pain should be considered when evaluating a patient for rhinologic surgery because of complaints of facial pain. Neuropathic facial pain is caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve in the prepontine cistern and is characterized by an intermittent prickling or stabbing component or a constant burning, searing pain. Medical treatment consists of anticonvulsant medication. Neurosurgical treatment may require microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:24680498

Brown, Jeffrey A

2014-04-01

241

3D Facial Performance Capture From A Single RGBD Camera  

E-print Network

Realistic facial animation remains one of the most challenging problems in computer graphics, where facial performance capture of real people has been a key component. The current state-of-the-art technologies used to capture facial performances...

Chen, Yen-Lin

2013-05-28

242

Touraine Solente Gole syndrome: The elephant skin disease.  

PubMed

Touraine Solente Gole syndrome is a rare hereditary syndrome of primary pachydermoperiostosis, with the characteristic triad of pachydermia (or elephant like skin), periostosis and acropachia. A 27-year-old patient presented with aesthetic deformity of forehead due to deep skin folds and coarsening of facial features due to progressive thickening of skin. Associated palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with broadened of finger and toe tips and digital clubbing were noticed. Dermatologic evaluation revealed cutis verticis gyrata of scalp, seborrhoeic hyperplasia of face and hyperhidrosis. Natural history of the disease and aetiopathogenesis were reviewed. Aesthetic correction of forehead through frontal rhytidectomy was attempted. PMID:24459353

Rajan, T M Sheeja; Sreekumar, N C; Sarita, S; Thushara, K R

2013-09-01

243

Touraine Solente Gole syndrome: The elephant skin disease  

PubMed Central

Touraine Solente Gole syndrome is a rare hereditary syndrome of primary pachydermoperiostosis, with the characteristic triad of pachydermia (or elephant like skin), periostosis and acropachia. A 27-year-old patient presented with aesthetic deformity of forehead due to deep skin folds and coarsening of facial features due to progressive thickening of skin. Associated palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with broadened of finger and toe tips and digital clubbing were noticed. Dermatologic evaluation revealed cutis verticis gyrata of scalp, seborrhoeic hyperplasia of face and hyperhidrosis. Natural history of the disease and aetiopathogenesis were reviewed. Aesthetic correction of forehead through frontal rhytidectomy was attempted. PMID:24459353

Rajan, T. M. Sheeja; Sreekumar, N. C.; Sarita, S.; Thushara, K. R.

2013-01-01

244

Unmasking Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to Unmasking Skin, a feature article in the November 2000 issue of National Geographic Magazine, which offers an in-depth look at the body's largest organ. Visitors are invited to "go skin deep and beyond" with a photo gallery, a multimedia interview with the story's photographer, and related Web sites. The site also includes a portion of the feature article, a related Online Extra article, and a short piece about goosebumps. While not as comprehensive as the print article itself, this Web site provides an intriguing look at a part of the body that's often taken for granted.

2002-01-01

245

Lifestyle Factors and Visible Skin Aging in a Population of Japanese Elders  

PubMed Central

Background The number of studies that use objective and quantitative methods to evaluate facial skin aging in elderly people is extremely limited, especially in Japan. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study we attempted to characterize the condition of facial skin (hyperpigmentation, pores, texture, and wrinkling) in Japanese adults aged 65 years or older by using objective and quantitative imaging methods. In addition, we aimed to identify lifestyle factors significantly associated with these visible signs of aging. Methods The study subjects were 802 community-dwelling Japanese men and women aged at least 65 years and living in the town of Kurabuchi (Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan), a mountain community with a population of approximately 4800. The facial skin condition of subjects was assessed quantitatively using a standardized facial imaging system and subsequent computer image analysis. Lifestyle information was collected using a structured questionnaire. The association between skin condition and lifestyle factors was examined using multivariable regression analysis. Results Among women, the mean values for facial texture, hyperpigmentation, and pores were generally lower than those among age-matched men. There was no significant difference between sexes in the severity of facial wrinkling. Older age was associated with worse skin condition among women only. After adjusting for age, smoking status and topical sun protection were significantly associated with skin condition among both men and women. Conclusions Our study revealed significant differences between sexes in the severity of hyperpigmentation, texture, and pores, but not wrinkling. Smoking status and topical sun protection were significantly associated with signs of visible skin aging in this study population. PMID:19700917

Asakura, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Milojevic, Ai; Michikawa, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Yuriko; Nakano, Makiko; Iwasawa, Satoko; Hillebrand, Greg; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Ono, Masaji; Kinjo, Yoshihide; Akiba, Suminori; Takebayashi, Toru

2009-01-01

246

Skinning maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let M be a hyperbolic $3$ -manifold with nonempty totally geodesic boundary. We prove that there are upper and lower bounds on the diameter of the skinning map of M that depend only on the volume of the hyperbolic structure with totally geodesic boundary, answering a question of Minsky. This is proved via a filling theorem, which states that as

Richard Peabody Kent

2010-01-01

247

The thoracodorsal artery perforator-scapular osteocutaneous (TDAP-SOC) flap for reconstruction of palatal and maxillary defects.  

PubMed

Despite technical advances over the past 3 decades, subtotal, total, and extended total maxillectomy defects remain challenging reconstructive problems. In particular, postoncologic resection of the maxilla results in complex 3-dimensional defects of the midface, which cause severe functional and esthetic deformities. Such defects generally require composite tissue flaps for reconstruction. Rebuilding the palate and maxilla is especially challenging because it requires reconstitution of the facial buttresses, occlusion, replacement of bony hard palate, and the thin intraoral and intranasal lining which normally constitute the soft palate. Various methods of reconstruction have been applied to this area in search of an ideal soft tissue-bone flap to restore the bony framework of the maxilla and palate while providing an internal lining. Osteocutaneous and osteomuscular flaps such originating from the scapular, iliac, peroneal, and radial vascular systems have been attempted with good success. We devised an osteocutaneous flap based on the scapular vascular system, which provided bone and soft tissue to successfully reconstruct the palate and maxilla in 2 patients. The skin paddle received its blood supply from the major perforating vessels of the thoracodorsal artery, and the scapular bone was nourished by the angular vessels. Although free tissue transfer using thoracodorsal perforator flaps has been described, this flap has not been previously reported in the literature as an osteocutaneous tissue transfer. With the use of rigid fixation, excellent results have been obtained with this technique for palatal and maxillary reconstruction. PMID:15613885

Bidros, Rafi Sirop; Metzinger, Stephen Eric; Guerra, Aldo Benjamin

2005-01-01

248

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989

SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

2007-01-01

249

Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND There is uncertainty over whether maternal smoking is associated with birth defects. We conducted the first ever comprehensive systematic review to establish which specific malformations are associated with smoking. METHODS Observational studies published 1959–2010 were identified (Medline), and included if they reported the odds ratio (OR) for having a non-chromosomal birth defect among women who smoked during pregnancy compared with non-smokers. ORs adjusted for potential confounders were extracted (e.g. maternal age and alcohol), otherwise unadjusted estimates were used. One hundred and seventy-two articles were used in the meta-analyses: a total of 173 687 malformed cases and 11 674 332 unaffected controls. RESULTS Significant positive associations with maternal smoking were found for: cardiovascular/heart defects [OR 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.17]; musculoskeletal defects (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05–1.27); limb reduction defects (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.15–1.39); missing/extra digits (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.99–1.41); clubfoot (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10–1.47); craniosynostosis (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03–1.73); facial defects (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.35); eye defects (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11–1.40); orofacial clefts (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36); gastrointestinal defects (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.18–1.36); gastroschisis (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.28–1.76); anal atresia (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06–1.36); hernia (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.23–1.59); and undescended testes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.25). There was a reduced risk for hypospadias (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95) and skin defects (OR 0.82, 0.75–0.89). For all defects combined the OR was 1.01 (0.96–1.07), due to including defects with a reduced risk and those with no association (including chromosomal defects). CONCLUSIONS Birth defects that are positively associated with maternal smoking should now be included in public health educational materials to encourage more women to quit before or during pregnancy. PMID:21747128

Hackshaw, Allan; Rodeck, Charles; Boniface, Sadie

2011-01-01

250

Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

2007-01-01

251

Expression-invariant Facial Identification Pohsiang Tsai  

E-print Network

. Keywords--Face Recognition, Expression-Invariant Face Recognition, Pseudo-Neutral Image I. INTRODUCTION's identity, faces with facial expressions make the recognition more difficult [2]. Facial expression Technology University of Technology, Sydney, Australia tiptran@it.uts.edu.au Longbing Cao School of Software

Cao, Longbing

252

Analysis of Facial Expressions Based on Silhouettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-verbal communication plays an important role in human communication. At the Delft University of Technology there is a project running on the automatic recognition of facial expressions. The developed system ISFER (Integrated System for Facial Expression Recognition) consists of modules suited for the analysis of a frontal view of the fa ce. As the obtained results are still far from

J. C. Wojdel; A. Wojdel; L. J. M. Rothhkrantz

253

Ophthalmic involvement in cranio-facial trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This is a retrospective descriptive case study which will look into the spectrum of ophthalmic involvement in cases with orbital and eye injuries after cranio-facial trauma and to analyse the visual and motility outcome. Material: One hundred and four cases with ophthalmic involvement after cranio-facial trauma that were referred to and seen in the eye department of a tertiary

Shantha Amrith; Seang Mei Saw; Thiam Chye Lim; Timothy Kam Yiu Lee

2000-01-01

254

Multi-angle facial image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a developmental disorder caused by maternal drinking during pregnancy. Computerized imaging techniques have been applied to study human facial dysmorphology associated with FAS. This thesis mainly describes two new facial image analysis methods: the first method is based on a multi-angle image classification technique using micro-video images of mouse embryo, images taken from several different

Ying Liu

2009-01-01

255

Complementary and integrative treatments: atypical facial pain.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of atypical facial pain for the practicing otolaryngologist. Discussion includes the definition of persistent idiopathic facial pain and its pathophysiology, clinical features, demographics, lack of findings on physical examination, use of imaging modalities and consultations, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis within the framework of an holistic approach. PMID:23764815

Nguyen, Chau T; Wang, Marilene B

2013-06-01

256

Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. METHODS: We tested 24 male adolescent\\/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control

Wataru Sato; Shota Uono; Naomi Matsuura; Motomi Toichi

2009-01-01

257

Eyebrow Reconstruction Using a Composite Skin Graft from Sideburns  

PubMed Central

Summary: Wide resection of malignant skin tumors in the upper orbital region often results in soft-tissue defects involving the eyebrow. We used composite skin grafts from the area around the sideburns for 1-stage reconstruction of skin and eyebrow defects. The results were aesthetically satisfying because the hair and shape of these regions were similar to those of the original eyebrow, and donor-site closure was easy with inconspicuous scar. The survival of full-thickness skin graft area of composite grafts from sideburn facilitates revascularization of thicker hair follicles in the graft and allows safe, natural eyebrow reconstruction. PMID:25674371

Shibata, Minoru; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Kubo, Tateki; Hosokawa, Ko

2015-01-01

258

Treating cutis verticis gyrata using skin expansion method.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and clinical effect of repairing scalp defect after the excision of cutis verticis gyrata using expanded scalp skin flaps. For this purpose, 8 patients with cutis verticis gyrata were subjected to scalp skin expander implantation under the skin. After saline injection and scalp expansion for 2-3 months, the cutis verticis gyrata was excised and the expanded scalp flaps were applied to recover the skin defect. As a result, the flaps and hair grew well without contractures and significant scarring, suggesting that this method is useful for surgical correction of cutis verticis gyrata. PMID:22052001

Zhao, Donghong; Li, Jiang; Wang, Kehua; Guo, Xiaoping; Lang, Yuhong; Peng, Lijun; Wang, Qin; Li, Yamin

2012-03-01

259

Facial, Cervical, and Mediastinal Emphysema of the Clarinet Player: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervicofacial emphysema may arise due to the leakage of air from a defect in the aerodigestive tract to the fascial layers of neck and face. Rarely, it may be caused by insufflation of air through the Stensen’s duct. Case Report: We present a case with diffuse facial, cervical and mediastinal emphysema due to playing a wind instrument immediately after a facial trauma. There was no mucosal defect or laceration noticed by examination which could explain the origin of the emphysema. Despite the widespread cervicofacial emphysema with mediastinal involvement, the patient significantly improved within 48 hours without any intervention. Conclusion: Even though cervicofacial emphysema ameliorates spontaneously, increased care must be taken, especially when there is pneumomediastinum and/or pneumothorax.

Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kesgin, Selcan; Tezcan, Erkan; Köyba??, Serap

2014-01-01

260

A finite element model of the face including an orthotropic skin model under in vivo tension.  

PubMed

Computer models of the human face have the potential to be used as powerful tools in surgery simulation and animation development applications. While existing models accurately represent various anatomical features of the face, the representation of the skin and soft tissues is very simplified. A computer model of the face is proposed in which the skin is represented by an orthotropic hyperelastic constitutive model. The in vivo tension inherent in skin is also represented in the model. The model was tested by simulating several facial expressions by activating appropriate orofacial and jaw muscles. Previous experiments calculated the change in orientation of the long axis of elliptical wounds on patients' faces for wide opening of the mouth and an open-mouth smile (both 30(o)). These results were compared with the average change of maximum principal stress direction in the skin calculated in the face model for wide opening of the mouth (18(o)) and an open-mouth smile (25(o)). The displacements of landmarks on the face for four facial expressions were compared with experimental measurements in the literature. The corner of the mouth in the model experienced the largest displacement for each facial expression (?11-14 mm). The simulated landmark displacements were within a standard deviation of the measured displacements. Increasing the skin stiffness and skin tension generally resulted in a reduction in landmark displacements upon facial expression. PMID:23919890

Flynn, Cormac; Stavness, Ian; Lloyd, John; Fels, Sidney

2015-05-01

261

Enhanced Facial Symmetry Assessment in Orthodontists  

PubMed Central

Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff—orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness. PMID:24319342

Jackson, Tate H.; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

262

Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

2014-06-01

263

How Does Facial Feedback Modulate Emotional Experience?  

PubMed Central

Contracting muscles involved in facial expressions (e.g. smiling or frowning) can make emotions more intense, even when unaware one is modifying expression (e.g. Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988). However, it is unresolved whether and how inhibiting facial expressions might weaken emotional experience. In the present study, 142 participants watched positive and negative video clips while either inhibiting their facial expressions or not. When hypothesis awareness and effects of distraction were experimentally controlled, inhibiting facial expressions weakened some emotional experiences. These findings provide new insight into ways that inhibition of facial expression can affect emotional experience: the link is not dependent on experimental demand, lay theories about connections between expression and experience, or the distraction involved in inhibiting one’s expressions. PMID:20160935

Davis, Joshua Ian; Senghas, Ann; Ochsner, Kevin N.

2009-01-01

264

Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

265

Allergy testing - skin  

MedlinePLUS

Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

266

Skin Allergy Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...

267

Maternal phenylketonuria pregnancy outcome: a preliminary report of facial dysmorphology and major malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion It is clear from the preliminary data that major malformations, i.e. intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly and cardiac defects, tend to decrease in frequency as the blood phenylalanine level drops, but not enough to suggest that phenylalanine levels of 600µmol\\/L are safe levels. The facial dysmorphic features may be used as a sensitive indicator that blood phenylalanine levels should be

B. Rouse; L. Lockhart; R. Matalon; C. Azen; R. Koch; W. Hanley; H. Levy; F. dela Cruz; E. Friedman

1990-01-01

268

A Study Of Facial Asymmetries By The Stereometric Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to determine the part played in facial dissymmetry observed on a living person by the various constitutive elements of the cephalic tip (the soft parts - skin, muscles and the underlying bone structure) we undertook, using a biostereometric method, to evaluate asymmetries between homologous right and left dimensions on a living person's face and on a skeleton. While in an individual, a marked degree of facial dissymmetry can sometimes be observed; average differences between the right and left sides of the face may nethertheless balance out, and remain slight. Conventional anthropometrics techniques do not show up such slight values. With a view to securing a higher degree of accuracy, study of the stereometric technique of measurements. Using this technique, quasi imperceptible differences between the right and the left sides of the face on a living person as well as on a skeleton, together with variations in the orientation or angulation of anatomical segments in a three-dimensional space can be measured. We were thus able to detect, in a number of dry skulls, average differences of approxi-mately a millimetre between the two sides of the face which cannot be attributed to back of accuracy in measurements. Although statistically the difference are not always significant, the para-metric values of facial dimensions are invariably greater for the left side. On the other hand, for the sample of living subjects as a whole, the differences between homologous distances are not statistically significant. But it may be that, on a living subject, the experimenter is inclined to take measurements that are susceptible of symmetrization (for instance, the nasion in the median sagittal plane) whereas on a dry skull anatomical reference marks can be determined with the utmost accuracy. It may be inferred from there results that the softer parts tend, as a rule, to correct the dissymmetry of the underlying skeleton.

Crete, N.; Deloison, Y.; Mollard, R.

1980-07-01

269

Analysis of TFAP2A mutations in Branchio-Oculo-Facial Syndrome indicates functional complexity within the AP-2? DNA-binding domain.  

PubMed

Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the AP-2 transcription factor family has an important regulatory function in human craniofacial development. Notably, mutations in TFAP2A, the gene encoding AP-2?, have been identified in patients with Branchio-Oculo-Facial Syndrome (BOFS). BOFS is an autosomal-dominant trait that commonly presents with facial clefting, eye defects and branchial skin anomalies. Examination of multiple cases has suggested either simple haploinsufficiency or more complex genetic causes for BOFS, especially as the clinical manifestations are variable, with no clear genotype-phenotype correlation. Mutations occur throughout TFAP2A, but mostly within conserved sequences within the DNA contact domain of AP-2?. However, the consequences of the various mutations for AP-2? protein function have not been evaluated. Therefore, it remains unclear if all BOFS mutations result in similar changes to the AP-2? protein or if they each produce specific alterations that underlie the spectrum of phenotypes. Here, we have investigated the molecular consequences of the mutations that localize to the DNA-binding region. We show that although individual mutations have different effects on DNA binding, they all demonstrate significantly reduced transcriptional activities. Moreover, all mutant derivatives have an altered nuclear:cytoplasmic distribution compared with the predominantly nuclear localization of wild-type AP-2? and several can exert a dominant-negative activity on the wild-type AP-2? protein. Overall, our data suggest that the individual TFAP2A BOFS mutations can generate null, hypomorphic or antimorphic alleles and that these differences in activity, combined with a role for AP-2? in epigenetic events, may influence the resultant pathology and the phenotypic variability. PMID:23578821

Li, Hong; Sheridan, Ryan; Williams, Trevor

2013-08-15

270

Amphibian Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of permeability to better understand why amphibians are extremely sensitive to pollution. Learners soak one regular hard-boiled egg and one peeled hard-boiled egg in dyed water and then record how the eggs' circumference and appearance change after 24 hours. Learners investigate how the peeled egg represents amphibian skin and how amphibians are affected by pollution.

Aquarium, Omaha'S H.

2009-01-01

271

A novel method for real-time skin impedance measurement during radiofrequency skin tightening treatments.  

PubMed

The thermal effects of monopolar and bipolar radiofrequency (RF) have been proven to be beneficial in skin tightening. Nevertheless, these effects were frequently partial or unpredictable because of the uncontrolled nature of monopolar or unipolar RF and the superficial nature of energy flow for bipolar or tripolar configurations. One of the hypotheses for lack or predictability of efficacy of the first-generation RF therapy skin tightening systems is lack of adaptation of delivered power to differences in individual skin impedance. A novel multisource phase-controlled system was used (1 MHz, power range 0-65 W) for treatment and real-time skin impedance measurements in 24 patients (EndyMed PRO™; EndyMed, Cesarea, Israel). This system allows continuous real-time measurement of skin impedance delivering constant energy to the patient skin independent of changes in its impedance. More than 6000 unique skin impedance measurements on 22 patients showed an average session impedance range was 215-584 Ohm with an average of 369 Ohm (standard deviation of 49 Ohm). Analyzing individual pulses (total of 600 readings) showed a significant decrease in impedance during the pulse. These findings validate the expected differences in skin impedance between individual patients and in the same patients during the treatment pulse. Clinical study on 30 patients with facial skin aging using the device has shown high predictability of efficacy (86.7% of patients had good results or better at 3 months' follow-up [decrease of 2 or more grades in Fitzpatrick's wrinkle scale]). The real-time customization of energy according to skin impedance allows a significantly more accurate and safe method of nonablative skin tightening with more consistent and predictable results. PMID:21332912

Harth, Yoram; Lischinsky, Daniel

2011-03-01

272

Cutaneous innervation of the human face as assessed by skin biopsy  

PubMed Central

The morphology of cutaneous sensory and autonomic innervation in human trigeminal territory is still unknown. The aim of this study is to describe facial cutaneous innervation using skin biopsy. This new tool could be useful in understanding the mechanisms underlying several facial pain conditions. In 30 healthy subjects, we quantified epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs) and dermal myelinated fibers (MFs) in V1, V2 and V3, using indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy applied to 2-mm punch skin biopsies from areas adjacent to the eyebrow, upper and lower lip. Using selective markers, we also evaluated the distribution of peptidergic, cholinergic and noradrenergic fibers. Facial skin appeared abundantly innervated and rich in annexes. The ENF density decreased and the MF density increased, moving from the supraorbital to the perioral skin. Noradrenergic sudomotor fibers were particularly and constantly expressed compared with other body sites. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide-immunoreactive (VIP-ir) fibers appeared peculiar for their constant presence in the subepidermal neural plexus – in close contact, but without colocalization with calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (Sub-P)-ir fibers. Finally, in perioral skin samples, we observed striated muscle fibers with their motor nerves and motor endplates. Our work provides the first morphological study of human facial cutaneous innervation, highlighting some unique features of this territory. Quantification of unmyelinated and myelinated fibers on 2-mm punch biopsies appeared to be feasible and reliable. Facial skin biopsy may be a new approach with which to study and to better characterize facial pain syndromes. PMID:23078075

Nolano, Maria; Provitera, Vincenzo; Caporaso, Giuseppe; Stancanelli, Annamaria; Leandri, Massimo; Biasiotta, Antonella; Cruccu, Giorgio; Santoro, Lucio; Truini, Andrea

2013-01-01

273

Cutaneous skin tag  

MedlinePLUS

Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

274

The interaction of inflammatory cells in granuloma faciale  

PubMed Central

Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by single or multiple reddish-brown cutaneous plaques or nodules. Although this condition is benign, its clinical course is extremely chronic with poor response to therapy. The typical histopathological features of GF include vasculitis with mixed cellular infiltration; however, its etiopathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we describe the case of a 76-year-old man with GF resistant to topical steroids. Biopsy of the lesion revealed i) dense mixed inflammatory cellular infiltrates of lymphocytes, histiocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, ii) mild perivascular nuclear dust and swollen endothelium of blood vessels, and iii) a narrow Grenz zone beneath the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated mixed cellular infiltrates intermixed with CD1a+ dendritic cells, CD68+ histiocytes, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. PMID:25386252

Nakahara, Takeshi; Moroi, Yoichi; Tashiro, Akari; Kiryu, Hiromaro; Furue, Masutaka

2010-01-01

275

[Rosacea - dermocosmetic management: skin-care and corrective make-up].  

PubMed

Rosacea is a common disorder of facial skin. The main symptoms are facial flushing and redness, then persistent redness and pimple-like bumps. The use of gentle cleansing routine and products developed especially for rosacea minimizes skin irritation. Wearing sun protection and limitating sun exposure is highly recommended. Because of its chronic evolution, clinical symptoms such as red-faced effects can substantially impact the quality of life of patients. Corrective make-up can be used to conceal those symptoms, hence improving the quality of life of patients without aggrieving lesions. PMID:25151935

Deshayes, Ph

2014-09-01

276

Guidelines and recommendations for assessment of somatosensory function in oro-facial pain conditions--a taskforce report.  

PubMed

The goals of an international taskforce on somatosensory testing established by the Special Interest Group of Oro-facial Pain (SIG-OFP) under the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) were to (i) review the literature concerning assessment of somatosensory function in the oro-facial region in terms of techniques and test performance, (ii) provide guidelines for comprehensive and screening examination procedures, and (iii) give recommendations for future development of somatosensory testing specifically in the oro-facial region. Numerous qualitative and quantitative psychophysical techniques have been proposed and used in the description of oro-facial somatosensory function. The selection of technique includes time considerations because the most reliable and accurate methods require multiple repetitions of stimuli. Multiple-stimulus modalities (mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical) have been applied to study oro-facial somatosensory function. A battery of different test stimuli is needed to obtain comprehensive information about the functional integrity of the various types of afferent nerve fibres. Based on the available literature, the German Neuropathic Pain Network test battery appears suitable for the study of somatosensory function within the oro-facial area as it is based on a wide variety of both qualitative and quantitative assessments of all cutaneous somatosensory modalities. Furthermore, these protocols have been thoroughly described and tested on multiple sites including the facial skin and intra-oral mucosa. Standardisation of both comprehensive and screening examination techniques is likely to improve the diagnostic accuracy and facilitate the understanding of neural mechanisms and somatosensory changes in different oro-facial pain conditions and may help to guide management. PMID:21241350

Svensson, P; Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; List, T; Eliav, E; Ettlin, D; Michelotti, A; Tsukiyama, Y; Matsuka, Y; Jääskeläinen, S K; Essick, G; Greenspan, J D; Drangsholt, M

2011-05-01

277

Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions  

PubMed Central

The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

Milutinovic, Jovana

2014-01-01

278

Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA  

PubMed Central

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

2014-01-01

279

Psychologic consequences of facial dermatoses.  

PubMed

The attractiveness of the human body has always been an important issue in the fields of sociology, psychology, and psychiatry and also in the field of dermatology. In psychodermatology, one often discovers how all these fields intermingle to produce elaborate situations and extreme human difficulties. Perfect skin is widely adored in literature, poetry, and biblical texts, as well as in advertisements, movies, and television. Because in most societies the face is the body part that is visible, imperfections of the skin are also visible; therefore, its flawed appearance bears the potential to become a source of misery to some. PMID:25441470

Orion, Edith; Wolf, Ronni

2014-01-01

280

[A case of pontine supranuclear facial palsy].  

PubMed

A 56-year-old hypertensive man suddenly developed difficulty in speaking and numbness in the right hand. On admission, he showed moderate right supranuclear facial palsy and right clumsy hand. Three weeks later, he was discharged with only right supranuclear facial palsy. MRI revealed a small infarction in the middle pons. The lesion was situated in the paramedian borderzone between the base and tegmentum. These findings suggest that supranuclear fibers to the facial nucleus descend as a separate bundle from the main pyramidal tract at the mid-pontine level. PMID:7994997

Isoe, K; Watanabe, Y; Tanaka, H; Saito, J; Fukada, M

1994-08-01

281

Should physicians have facial piercings?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional\\u000a facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Survey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a INTERVENTIONS: First, patrons were shown

Alison W. Newman; Seth W. Wright; Keith D. Wrenn; Aline Bernard

2005-01-01

282

Facial and axillary apocrine chromhidrosis.  

PubMed

Apocrine chromhidrosis is a rare, chronic, idiopathic disorder, characterized by the excretion of pigmented sweat. A 26-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of dark blue secretions on bilateral malar cheeks. On examination, upon pressure on the cheeks, a dark blue fluid was expressed, which appeared to arise primarily from the follicle. The patient had not appreciated it, but on examination of her axillae, a very subtle blue coloring was observed. Histopathologic examination revealed apocrine glands in the deep reticular dermis. Bluish cytoplasmic granules were observed in the apocrine epithelium lining, which correspond to lipofuscin granules. The diagnosis of apocrine cromhidrosis was made. We began treatment with 20 percent aluminum chloride hexahydrate solution and capsaicin cream with poor tolerance. Finally, we treated with botulinum toxin type A with a successful response. We report a case of facial and axillary apocrine cromhidrosis with good response to botulinum toxin type A. PMID:22483524

Pérez Tato, Berta; Zamora Martínez, Elena; Sánchez Albisua, Begoña; Pérez González, Yosmar C; Polimón Olabarrieta, Isabel; Marinero Escobedo, Silvia; Fernández López, Paloma

2012-03-01

283

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

PubMed Central

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

284

Rapid facial mimicry in geladas.  

PubMed

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

285

Novel approaches in 3-dimensional facial profiling to establish facial aesthetic objectives in the treatment of facial dysmorphologies.  

PubMed

When confronted with facial dysmorphologies, three-dimensional (3D) facial harmony is preferably assessed with regard to normality. This, however, presents two major challenges. The first challenge is to define normality. What makes non-dysmorphic faces appear normal? The second challenge is to situate the craniofacial dysmorphology with respect to normality. What makes the dysmorphic face not appear to be normal? To tackle these challenges, a novel approach based on a Face Space is proposed. In essence, faces are represented as points in a High-dimensional space, the dimensions of which capture important sources of allowed facial variation within a normal population. To establish an aesthetic objective of a given dysmorphic face, the novel concept of the "normal equivalent" of that face via robust projection into the Face Space is proposed. This technique is demonstrated on an artificial example in which smiling whilst showing teeth is considered a surrogate for facial dysmorphology. PMID:22046737

Claes, Peter; Walters, Mark; Clement, John

2010-03-01

286

Effects of a three-session skin rejuvenation treatment using stabilized hyaluronic acid-based gel of non-animal origin on skin elasticity: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the effects of micropuncture injections of stabilized hyaluronic acid-based\\u000a gel of non-animal origin (NASHA™, Restylane Vital™) on skin elasticity, a major aspect of skin ageing. Patients (n = 19) underwent a series of three treatment sessions, spaced 4 weeks apart, with NASHA injected into the lower facial cheeks.\\u000a Using the suction principle, 12

Tilmann Reuther; Julia Bayrhammer; Martina Kerscher

2010-01-01

287

Dermatoscopic features of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas  

PubMed Central

Background: The dermatoscopic features of facial lentigo maligna (LM), facial lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) and acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) have been well described. This is the first description of the dermatoscopic appearance of a clinical series of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas. Objective: To describe the dermatoscopic features of a series of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas in an Australian skin cancer practice. Method: Single observer retrospective analysis of dermatoscopic images of a one-year series of cutaneous non-facial, non-acral melanomas reported as having a lentiginous growth pattern detected in an open access primary care skin cancer clinic in Australia. Lesions were scored for presence of classical criteria for facial LM; modified pattern analysis (“Chaos and Clues”) criteria; and the presence of two novel criteria: a lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border, and large polygons. Results: 20 melanomas occurring in 14 female and 6 male patients were included. Average patient age was 64 years (range: 44–83). Lesion distribution was: trunk 35%; upper limb 40%; and lower limb 25%. The incidences of criteria identified were: asymmetry of color or pattern (100%); lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border (90%); asymmetrically pigmented follicular openings (APFO’s) (70%); grey blue structures (70%); large polygons (45%); eccentric structureless area (15%); bright white lines (5%). 20% of the lesions had only the novel criteria and/or APFO’s. Limitations: Single observer, single center retrospective study. Conclusions: Cutaneous non-facial non-acral melanomas with a lentiginous growth pattern may have none or very few traditional criteria for the diagnosis of melanoma. Criteria that are logically expected in lesions with a lentiginous growth pattern (lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border, APFO’s) and the novel criterion of large polygons may be useful in increasing sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of these lesions. Further study is required to establish the significance of these observations. PMID:24520520

Keir, Jeff

2014-01-01

288

An Automatic Method for Computerized Head and Facial Anthropometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Facial anthropometry plays an important role in ergonomic applications. Most ergonomically-designed products depend on stable\\u000a and accurate human body measurement data. Head and facial anthropometric dimensions provide detailed information on head and\\u000a facial surfaces to develop well-fitting, comfortable and functionally-effective facial masks, helmets or customized products.\\u000a Accurate head and facial anthropometry also allows orthognathic surgeons and orthodontists to plan optimal

Jing-Jing Fang; Sheng-Yi Fang

289

Bipolar radiofrequency for facial rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Combined approaches using light and radiofrequency represent an innovative approach to whole body rejuvenation. Synergistic results using combined modalities are a major advantage of this technology. In addition, by using lower levels of light energy, darker skin phenotypes can be treated with a lower risk for pigment dyschromia and scarring. PMID:17544931

Sadick, Neil

2007-05-01

290

Multiple recurrences of ipsilateral facial palsy in a patient with widening of the facial canal.  

PubMed

The incidence of facial palsy (FP) is 6-12/100,000 in children, however only one in twenty experience recurrences. This report describes the clinical approach and diagnostic considerations in a child with multiple ipsilateral FP. The first occurrence of FP in conjunction with fever occurred at age 13 months, and was succeeded by more than 20 recurrences. Imaging revealed widening of the facial canal along with thickening of the facial nerve, allowing collateral inflammation and edema to induce pressure on the nerve. This is the first case describing the association between an abnormally widened facial canal and recurrent FP in childhood. PMID:25522846

Andreassen, Christer Swan; Ovesen, Therese

2015-02-01

291

Observer-Based Measurement of Facial Expression With the Facial Action Coding System  

E-print Network

), neural bases (Calder et al., 1996; Davidson, Ekman, Saron, Senulis, & Friesen, 1990), development, these include facial neuromuscular disorders (Van Swearingen & Cohn, 2005), neuroscience (Bruce & Young, 1998

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

292

Confirmation of TFAP2A gene involvement in branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) and report of temporal bone anomalies.  

PubMed

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is an autosomal-dominant condition characterized by three main features, respectively: branchial defects, ocular anomalies, and craniofacial defects including cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). We report on one family with three affected, and two sporadic cases that have been found to carry missense mutations in the newly reported BOFS gene: TFAP2A. This report confirms the involvement of this transcription factor in this developmental syndrome with clinical variability. Moreover, we present CT scan temporal bone anomalies in the familial cases, related to branchial arch defects, highlighting the importance of radiological investigations for differential diagnosis. PMID:19764023

Stoetzel, C; Riehm, S; Bennouna Greene, V; Pelletier, V; Vigneron, J; Leheup, B; Marion, V; Hellé, S; Danse, J M; Thibault, C; Moulinier, L; Veillon, F; Dollfus, H

2009-10-01

293

Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779413

Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

2011-01-01

294

Preliminary performance assessment of computer automated facial approximations using computed tomography scans of living individuals.  

PubMed

ReFace (Reality Enhancement Facial Approximation by Computational Estimation) is a computer-automated facial approximation application jointly developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and GE Global Research. The application derives a statistically based approximation of a face from a unidentified skull using a dataset of ~400 human head computer tomography (CT) scans of living adult American individuals from four ancestry groups: African, Asian, European and Hispanic (self-identified). To date only one unpublished subjective recognition study has been conducted using ReFace approximations. It indicated that approximations produced by ReFace were recognized above chance rates (10%). This preliminary study assesses: (i) the recognizability of five ReFace approximations; (ii) the recognizability of CT-derived skin surface replicas of the same individuals whose skulls were used to create the ReFace approximations; and (iii) the relationship between recognition performance and resemblance ratings of target individuals. All five skin surface replicas were recognized at rates statistically significant above chance (22-50%). Four of five ReFace approximations were recognized above chance (5-18%), although with statistical significance only at the higher rate. Such results suggest reconsideration of the usefulness of the type of output format utilized in this study, particularly in regard to facial approximations employed as a means of identifying unknown individuals. PMID:24314512

Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H; Monson, Keith L

2013-12-10

295

Ranking of facial profiles among Asians.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the facial profile preferences in a sample of 1,189 Asian teenagers (aged 15.3 +/- 3.2 years). Five facial profile types were computer-generated by trained personnel (orthodontists and oral maxillofacial surgeons) to represent distinct facial types. Subjects were asked to rank the profiles in descending order of attractiveness. The ranking was as follows: orthognathic profile, bimaxillary retrusive profile, bimaxillary protrusive profile, mandibular retrognathic profile, and mandibular prognathic profile. The differences in rank scores between all the profile types were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Assessment of profile types among lay personnel could provide clinicians an indication into the relative attractiveness among profile types and health care workers in treatment prioritization among dysmorphic facial types. PMID:1389361

Lew, K K; Soh, G; Loh, E

1992-01-01

296

Glucocorticoid Receptor Is Required for Skin Barrier Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the contribution of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in skin development and the mechanisms underlying this function, we have analyzed two mouse models in which GR has been functionally inactivated: the knockout GR\\/ mice and the dimerization mutant GRdim\\/dim that mediates defective DNA binding-dependent transcription. Because GR null mice die perinatally, we evaluated skin architecture of late embryos by

Pilar Bayo; Ana Sanchis; Ana Bravo; Jose Luis Cascallana; Katrin Buder; Jan Tuckermann; Gunther Schutz; Paloma Perez

2007-01-01

297

Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in remote locations. Remote users could perform real-time searches where network connectivity is not available. As images are enrolled at the remote locations, periodic database synchronization is necessary.

R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

2001-03-01

298

[Persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia].  

PubMed

The terms 'persistent idiopathic facial pain' (PIFP) and 'atypical odontalgia' (AO) are currently used as exclusion diagnoses for chronic toothache and chronic facial pain. Knowledge about these pain conditions in medical and dental practices is of crucial importance for the prevention of iatrogenic tissue damage by not-indicated invasive interventions, such as endodontic treatment and tooth extraction. In the present paper, etiology and pathogenesis, differential diagnostic criteria, and diagnostic approaches will be explained and relevant therapeutic principles will be outlined. PMID:23916270

Gaul, Charly; Ettlin, Dominik; Pfau, Doreen B

2013-01-01

299

Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability  

PubMed Central

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: 1) DS individuals (n=55); 2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n=55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n=55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2013-01-01

300

Gunshot-related transport of micro-organisms from the skin of the entrance region into the bullet path  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin defect of a gunshot entrance wound is caused by the retrograde and anterograde displacement of skin particles. In the present study, we investigated whether gunshots to bacterially contaminated skin are associated with the transport of micro-organisms into the bullet path. The shots were fired into composite models of pig skin and gelatin blocks. The outer surface of the

M. Große Perdekamp; B. P. Kneubuehl; A. Serr; B. Vennemann; S. Pollak

2006-01-01

301

Vegfd can compensate for loss of Vegfc in zebrafish facial lymphatic sprouting.  

PubMed

Lymphangiogenesis is a dynamic process that involves the sprouting of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) from veins to form lymphatic vessels. Vegfr3 signalling, through its ligand Vegfc and the extracellular protein Ccbe1, is essential for the sprouting of LECs to form the trunk lymphatic network. In this study we determined whether Vegfr3, Vegfc and Ccbe1 are also required for development of the facial and intestinal lymphatic networks in the zebrafish embryo. Whereas Vegfr3 and Ccbe1 are required for the development of all lymphatic vessels, Vegfc is dispensable for facial lymphatic sprouting but not for the complete development of the facial lymphatic network. We show that zebrafish vegfd is expressed in the head, genetically interacts with ccbe1 and can rescue the lymphatic defects observed following the loss of vegfc. Finally, whereas knockdown of vegfd has no phenotype, double knockdown of both vegfc and vegfd is required to prevent facial lymphatic sprouting, suggesting that Vegfc is not essential for all lymphatic sprouting and that Vegfd can compensate for loss of Vegfc during lymphatic development in the zebrafish head. PMID:24903752

Astin, Jonathan W; Haggerty, Michael J L; Okuda, Kazuhide S; Le Guen, Ludovic; Misa, June P; Tromp, Alisha; Hogan, Benjamin M; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

2014-07-01

302

Local flap reconstruction of large scalp defects.  

PubMed

Scalp defects can have a number of origins, and their repair is dependent upon their location, size and depth. In the case of the scalp, the repair of even small defects is complicated. Local flaps are the reference for the reconstruction of such defects. Knowledge of scalp anatomy is essential for preparing these flaps, which must be based on one or two vascular pedicles to afford a large rotation angle--thereby facilitating closure of the defect. The parietal zone is the location offering the greatest flap mobilization possibilities. We present a case involving the repair of a major pericranial frontoparietal scalp defect. A local transverse posterior transpositioning scalp flap was raised with the posterior auricular and occipital arteries as vascular pedicle. Following repositioning of the flap, a free partial-thickness skin graft from the thigh was used to cover the donor zone. A review is provided of the different techniques for the reconstruction of large scalp defects. PMID:18830178

García del Campo, José Antonio; García de Marcos, José Antonio; del Castillo Pardo de Vera, José Luis; García de Marcos, María Jesús

2008-10-01

303

Evaluation of 3D Facial Feature Selection for Individual Facial Model Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face recognition using 3D information has been intensively investigated in recent years. The features selected from 3D facial surfaces are invariant to pose and lighting conditions. However, they are sensitive to expression variations. In this paper, we investigate the issues on selecting good features for 3D facial shape classification, and evaluate its applicability to various types of models. Based on

Yi Sun; Lijun Yin

2006-01-01

304

Robust Eye Detection from Facial Image based on Multi-cue Facial Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eyes are one of the most important facial features and eyes detection is a crucial aspect in many useful applications. Although many eye detection methods have been developed in the last decade, a lot of problems still exist also. We presented a novel and efficient method to locate eyes from face images based on multi-cue facial information. Firstly, we made

Yepeng Guan

2007-01-01

305

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Karen L. Schmidt  

E-print Network

have not fully explored that most visibly social part of the human body, the face. The face1 Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research-624-8796 412-624-5407 (fax) Key words: nonverbal communication, social intelligence, signaling systems #12

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

306

Boosting Coded Dynamic Features for Facial Action Units and Facial Expression Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that how to extract dynamical features is a key issue for video based face analysis. In this paper, we present a novel approach of facial action units (AU) and expression recognition based on coded dynamical features. In order to capture the dynamical characteristics of facial events, we design the dynamical haar-like features to rep- resent the

Peng Yang; Qingshan Liu; Dimitris N. Metaxas

2007-01-01

307

Facial Pain Followed by Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Case Report with Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection. The treatment included extraction of the associated tooth followed by endodontic treatment of the neighboring tooth which resulted in recovery of facial nerve plasy. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making any diagnosis. It is essential to rule out other causes of facial paralysis before making the definitive diagnosis, which implies the intervention. The authors hereby, report a case of 32-year-old male patient who developed unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection with a good prognosis after appropriate treatment. PMID:25302280

GV, Sowmya; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

308

Recordings from the facial nucleus in the rat: signs of abnormal facial muscle response  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of results of electrophysiological studies in patients undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) operations to relieve hemifacial spasm (HFS), we have postulated that the abnormal muscle response characteristically found in patients with HFS is the result of irritation of the facial nerve by the blood vessel that is compressing the facial nerve near its exit from the brainstem in

A. R. Møller; C. N. Sen

1990-01-01

309

Facial reconstruction: The art of the science Facial reconstruction has now become a very important part  

E-print Network

reconstructions of not only vic- tims of mass disasters or other such events but also in daily forensicEDITORIAL Facial reconstruction: The art of the science Facial reconstruction has now become a very the fact that though the security and disaster implications of such researches have been paramount

Frey, Pascal

310

The Neuropsychology of Facial Identity and Facial Expression in Children with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We indirectly determined how children with mental retardation analyze facial identity and facial expression, and if these analyses of identity and expression were controlled by independent cognitive processes. In a reaction time study, 20 children with mild mental retardation were required to determine if simultaneously presented photographs of…

Singh, Nirbhay N.; Oswald, Donald P.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Ellis, Cynthia R.; Sage, Monica; Ferris, Jennifer R.

2005-01-01

311

CSD skin test  

MedlinePLUS

Cat scratch disease skin test ... cat scratch disease is injected just under the skin. After 48 to 72 hours, a health care ... no special preparation. People with dermatitis or other skin irritations should have the test performed on an ...

312

Skin (Pressure) Sores  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

313

Skin rejuvenation by radiofrequency therapy: methods, effects and risks.  

PubMed

Treatment of sun-damaged skin and wrinkles is attracting increasing interest as the possible approaches expand. Recently mono- und bipolar radiofrequency devices have been introduced as new treatment options for skin rejuvenation. Initial studies have demonstrated changes in collagen content of the skin as the molecular basis of skin texture improvement. However, there are many possible risks and side effects. We describe a patient referred to us with severe facial scarring as a result of a bipolar radiofrequency treatment performed by non-medical personnel. Due to the risk of permanent tissue damage, the indications for radiofrequency interventions should be made carefully. Potential contraindications should be considered and written informed consent about all possible side effects and risk factors should be obtained. According to current knowledge, the experience of the physician using radiofrequency devices is most important in determining the outcome of this procedure. Therefore the use of radiofrequency therapy requires extensive training. PMID:18564210

Paasch, Uwe; Bodendorf, Marc Oliver; Grunewald, Sonja; Simon, Jan Christoph

2009-03-01

314

Equine-related facial fractures.  

PubMed

Horseback riding is a common recreational activity that can cause injuries to both mounted and dismounted participants. This study examines the patterns of equine-related maxillofacial fractures presenting in a tertiary referral centre. Patients presenting over an 11-year period from 1996 to 2006 with equine-related maxillofacial fractures were identified through the trauma database. The extent of the injuries, surgical treatment and follow-up details were documented. 45 patients were identified, with an increasing incidence over the study period. 69% were male and 31% female. 31% of patients were 16-30 years of age. 73% of fractures were in the midfacial region. 67% of patients were actively treated, with 60% of these patients requiring internal fixation. 64% of patients were hospitalized. Equine-related maxillofacial fractures frequently involve a young and predominantly female population, compared with facial fractures due to other causes. Midfacial fractures were the most common site of injury. Alcohol was rarely implicated. A high proportion of patients required surgery and hospitalization. PMID:18583096

Lee, K H; Steenberg, L J

2008-11-01

315

Impaired Biomechanical Properties of Diabetic Skin  

PubMed Central

Diabetic skin is known to have deficient wound healing properties, but little is known of its intrinsic biomechanical properties. We hypothesize that diabetic skin possesses inferior biomechanical properties at baseline, rendering it more prone to injury. Skin from diabetic and nondiabetic mice and humans underwent biomechanical testing. Real-time PCR was performed for genes integral to collagen synthesis and degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9, and TIMP-1 protein levels were assessed by ELISA and zymography. Collagen I and III content was assessed using Western blot analysis. At baseline, both murine and human diabetic skin was biomechanically inferior compared to nondiabetic skin, with decreased maximum stress and decreased modulus (P < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in collagen synthesis were significantly up-regulated, and genes involved in collagen degradation were significantly down-regulated in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.01). In addition, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 protein ratios were significantly lower in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.05). Collagen I levels and I:III ratios were lower in diabetic skin (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the predisposition of diabetics to wounds may be the result of impaired tissue integrity at baseline, and are due, in part, to a defect in the regulation of collagen protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21514435

Bermudez, Dustin M.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Lind, Robert; Beason, David P.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

2011-01-01

316

Skin tension related to tension reduction sutures.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the skin tension of several fascial/subcutaneous tensile reduction sutures. Six upper limbs and 8 lower limbs of 4 fresh cadavers were used. At the deltoid area (10 cm below the palpable acromion) and lateral thigh (midpoint from the palpable greater trochanter to the lateral border of the patella), and within a 3 × 6-cm fusiform area of skin, subcutaneous tissue defects were created. At the midpoint of the defect, a no. 5 silk suture was passed through the dermis at a 5-mm margin of the defect, and the defect was approximated. The initial tension to approximate the margins was measured using a tensiometer.The tension needed to approximate skin without any tension reduction suture (S) was 6.5 ± 4.6 N (Newton). The tensions needed to approximate superficial fascia (SF) and deep fascia (DF) were 7.8 ± 3.4 N and 10.3 ± 5.1 N, respectively. The tension needed to approximate the skin after approximating the SF was 4.1 ± 3.4 N. The tension needed to approximate the skin after approximating the DF was 4.9 ± 4.0 N. The tension reduction effect of approximating the SF was 38.8 ± 16.4% (2.4 ± 1.5 N, P = 0.000 [ANOVA, Scheffé]). The tension reduction effect of approximating the DF was 25.2% ± 21.9% (1.5 ± 1.4 N, P = 0.001 [ANOVA, Scheffé]). The reason for this is thought to be that the SF is located closely to the skin unlike the DF. The results of this study might be a basis for tension reduction sutures. PMID:25569413

Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon; Kim, Kyung Yong; Han, Seung Ho; Hwang, Se Jin

2015-01-01

317

Skin Cancer in Skin of Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the United States.1 While skin cancer is less common in people with skin of color,\\u000a it is more often associated with an increased incidence of morbidity and mortality as compared to white counterparts.2,3 This\\u000a imbalance has significant public health concerns. Current skin cancer campaigns focus on Caucasian patients in high-risk groups.\\u000a There

Brooke A. Jackson

318

Artificial Skin in Robotics.  

E-print Network

??Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems.… (more)

Strohmayr, Michael

2012-01-01

319

Unilateral Multiple Facial Nerve Branch Reconstruction Using “End-to-side Loop Graft” Supercharged by Hypoglossal Nerve  

PubMed Central

Background: Extensive facial nerve defects between the facial nerve trunk and its branches can be clinically reconstructed by incorporating double innervation into an end-to-side loop graft technique. This study developed a new animal model to evaluate the technique’s ability to promote nerve regeneration. Methods: Rats were divided into the intact, nonsupercharge, and supercharge groups. Artificially created facial nerve defects were reconstructed with a nerve graft, which was end-to-end sutured from proximal facial nerve stump to the mandibular branch (nonsupercharge group), or with the graft of which other end was end-to-side sutured to the hypoglossal nerve (supercharge group). And they were evaluated after 30 weeks. Results: Axonal diameter was significantly larger in the supercharge group than in the nonsupercharge group for the buccal (3.78 ± 1.68 vs 3.16 ± 1.22; P < 0.0001) and marginal mandibular branches (3.97 ± 2.31 vs 3.46 ± 1.57; P < 0.0001), but the diameter was significantly larger in the intact group for all branches except the temporal branch. In the supercharge group, compound muscle action potential amplitude was significantly higher than in the nonsupercharge group (4.18 ± 1.49 mV vs 1.87 ± 0.37 mV; P < 0.0001) and similar to that in the intact group (4.11 ± 0.68 mV). Retrograde labeling showed that the mimetic muscles were double-innervated by facial and hypoglossal nerve nuclei in the supercharge group. Conclusions: Multiple facial nerve branch reconstruction with an end-to-side loop graft was able to achieve axonal distribution. Additionally, axonal supercharge from the hypoglossal nerve significantly improved outcomes. PMID:25426357

Sasaki, Ryo; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Niimi, Yosuke; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Mariko; Yamato, Masayuki

2014-01-01

320

Transvenous approach to carotid-cavernous fistula via facial vein cut down.  

PubMed

Endovascular access to carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF) can be obtained through a transfemoral approach to the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) or superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). If the transfemoral approach cannot be utilized, direct surgical exposure of the SOV can provide access to the CCF. The authors present an alternate approach to a CCF in a 66-year-old woman in whom the IPS was thrombosed and the facial vein so tortuous at its origin that it could not be passed with a wire. The facial vein was exposed surgically at the angle of the mandible after percutaneous attempts failed. After localization of the anterior facial vein with ultrasound, a 1 cm skin incision was made over the margin of the mandible. The dissected vein was cannulated using a micropuncture technique and a 0.018 inch wire. A four French short access sheath was inserted and sutured to the vein. Subsequent venogram allowed navigation of an SL-10 microcatheter over a Synchro soft microwire (both Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) via the SOV into the cavernous sinus, and coil embolization was performed with angiographic cure of the fistula. No complications were encountered and the cosmetic result of the small incision of the mandibular region was excellent and less conspicuous than it would have been on the eyelid. This technical note illustrates that facial vein cut down is an attractive and safe alternate approach to endovascular management of CCF via a transvenous route in patients with a focally narrowed and tortuous IPS and common facial vein. PMID:24387933

Thiex, Ruth; Gross, Bradley A; Gupta, Rishi; Wyers, Mark C; Frerichs, Kai U; Thomas, Ajith J

2014-07-01

321

Sympathetic skin responses of the face and neck evoked by electrical stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were recorded from different facial regions and neck in 25 subjects evoked by electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. Recordings from all regions were cross-compared with each other and within right and left sides individually. In one subject postauricular SSR, and in another subject upper lip SSR could not be elicited on

Serpil Kuyucu Yildiz; Sule Ayd?n Turkoglu; Nebil Yildiz; Ayhan Ozturk; Fatma Tore

2007-01-01

322

Congenital Defects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two general categories (not necessarily mutually exclusive) of congenital defects: (1) abnormalities that have an hereditary basis, such as single and multiple genes, or chromosomal abberration; and (2) abnormalities that are caused by nonhereditary factors, such as malnutrition, maternal disease, radiation, infections, drugs, or…

Goldman, Allen S.; And Others

323

Reconstruction of bony facial contour deficiencies with polymethylmethacrylate implants: case report  

PubMed Central

Facial trauma can be considered one of the most serious aggressions found in the medical centers due to the emotional consequences and the possibility of deformity. In craniofacial surgery, the use of autologous bone is still the first choice for reconstructing bony defects or irregularities. When there is a shortage of donor bone or a patient refuses an intracranial operation, alloplastic materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) can be used. The PMMA prosthesis can be pre-fabricated, bringing advantages such as reduction of surgical time, easy technical handling and good esthetic results. This paper describes the procedures for rehabilitating a patient with PMMA implants in the region of the face, recovering the facial contours and esthetics of the patient. PMID:21952926

ABDO FILHO, Ruy C. C.; OLIVEIRA, Thais M.; LOURENÇO, Natalino; GURGEL, Carla; ABDO, Ruy C.C.

2011-01-01

324

Unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills  

PubMed Central

Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practice without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) was shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant’s response or the sender’s true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several similarities and differences between the unsupervised improvement of facial decoding skills observed in the current study, unsupervised perceptual learning of simple visual stimuli described in previous studies and practice effects often observed in cognitive tasks. PMID:24578686

Huelle, Jan O.; Sack, Benjamin; Broer, Katja; Komlewa, Irina; Anders, Silke

2013-01-01

325

Facial coding is disrupted at equiluminance.  

PubMed

Human face recognition is disrupted by the reversal of luminance contrast polarity (ie photo negatives--see Galper 1970 Psychonomic Science 19 207-208; Johnston et al 1992 Perception 21 365-375), while recognition of other objects is less impacted (Nederhouser et al 2007 Vision Research 47 2134-2142; Subramaniam and Biederman 1997 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 38 998). This suggests that correct patterns of luminance contrast are important for facial coding. Here we investigate this further by minimising luminance contrast. We contrast peoples' ability to categorise cars and faces when images vary in luminance and when images are altered to predominantly contain differences in colour (equiluminance). Eliminating luminance contrast had a greater adverse impact on facial classifications relative to car categorisations. This was true even though precautions were taken to equate visibility, and despite equal levels of performance when images contained luminance contrast. These results were not due to images containing markedly different spectra, as the effect persisted for facial images altered to match car images in this regard, and performance in both tasks dropped off proportionally with increasing levels of image blur. Finally, consistent with previous observations, we show that facial coding is not only adversely impacted at equiluminance but becomes even worse when the polarity of luminance contrast is reversed. Our data show that the correct pattern of luminance contrast is very important for facial coding. We suggest that this is related to the role of luminance contrast in signalling 3-D shape from shading. PMID:24303748

Pearce, Samuel L; Arnold, Derek H

2013-01-01

326

Should Physicians Have Facial Piercings?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians. DESIGN Survey. SETTING Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians. INTERVENTIONS First, patrons were shown photographs of models with a nontraditional piercing and asked about the appropriateness for a physician or medical student. In the second phase, patrons blinded to the purpose of the study were shown identical photographs of physician models with or without piercings and asked about competency and trustworthiness. The third phase was an assessment of attitudes of faculty regarding piercings. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Nose and lip piercings were felt to be appropriate for a physician by 24% and 22% of patrons, respectively. Perceived competency and trustworthiness of models with these types of piercings were also negatively affected. An earring in a male was felt to be appropriate by 35% of patrons, but an earring on male models did not negatively affect perceived competency or trustworthiness. Nose and eyebrow piercings were felt to be appropriate by only 7% and 5% of faculty physicians and working with a physician or student with a nose or eyebrow piercing would bother 58% and 59% of faculty, respectively. An ear piercing in a male was felt to be appropriate by 20% of faculty, and 25% stated it would bother them to work with a male physician or student with an ear piercing. CONCLUSIONS Many patrons and physicians feel that some types of nontraditional piercings are inappropriate attire for physicians, and some piercings negatively affect perceived competency and trustworthiness. Health care providers should understand that attire may affect a patient's opinion about their abilities and possibly erode confidence in them as a clinician. PMID:15836523

Newman, Alison W; Wright, Seth W; Wrenn, Keith D; Bernard, Aline

2005-01-01

327

Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

2014-01-01

328

TMJ - Another Cause of Headache and Facial Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... 42 Daniel M. Laskin, D.D.S., M.S., Director Temporomandibular Joint and Facial Pain Research Center University of ... facial pain is also stress related. Originally called temporomandibular joint or TMJ syndrome, because it was thought ...

329

About face, computergraphic synthesis and manipulation of facial imagery  

E-print Network

A technique of pictorially synthesizing facial imagery using optical videodiscs under computer control is described. Search, selection and averaging processes are performed on a catalogue of whole faces and facial features ...

Weil, Peggy

1982-01-01

330

MethMorph: Simulating Facial Deformation Due to Methamphatamine Usage  

E-print Network

-Jones based cascades and Lazy Snapping to localize facial features in healthy faces. We use the detected of these challenges is to recognize the overall facial region, as well as the chin line, mouth, eyes, and nostrils

331

Repeated facial palsies after chlorocresol inhalation.  

PubMed Central

A 42-year-old woman who experienced more than 50 attacks of left-sided facial palsies after exposure to chlorocresol was studied. Only muscles around the left side of the mouth were affected. On neurophysiological testing during chlorocresol provocation the only abnormality was a loss of motor units during maximal contraction of the left orbicularis oris muscle. This could be explained by a peripheral as well as a central effect. Extensive electrophysiological examination without chlorocresol provocation excluded a preexisting generalised nerve disorder and other diagnostic procedures did not give evidence of pathology involving the left facial nerve. A hyperreactive mechanism causing a transient block of the left facial nerve is proposed. Images PMID:3806124

Døssing, M; Wulff, C H; Olsen, P Z

1986-01-01

332

Facial Dysostoses: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Management  

PubMed Central

Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in-utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981

Trainor, Paul A.; Andrews, Brian T.

2013-01-01

333

The history of facial palsy and spasm  

PubMed Central

Although Sir Charles Bell was the first to provide the anatomic basis for the condition that bears his name, in recent years researchers have shown that other European physicians provided earlier clinical descriptions of peripheral cranial nerve 7 palsy. In this article, we describe the history of facial distortion by Greek, Roman, and Persian physicians, culminating in Razi's detailed description in al-Hawi. Razi distinguished facial muscle spasm from paralysis, distinguished central from peripheral lesions, gave the earliest description of loss of forehead wrinkling, and gave the earliest known description of bilateral facial palsy. In doing so, he accurately described the clinical hallmarks of a condition that we recognize as Bell palsy. PMID:21747074

Sajadi, Mohamad-Reza M.; Tabatabaie, Seyed Mahmoud

2011-01-01

334

Skin Pigmentation Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in ... damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin. Others affect ...

335

Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...

336

Building highly realistic facial modeling and animation: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive survey on the techniques for human facial modeling and animation. The survey is carried\\u000a out from two different perspectives: facial modeling, which concerns how to produce 3D face models, and facial animation,\\u000a which regards how to synthesize dynamic facial expressions. To generate an individual face model, we can either perform individualization\\u000a of a generic model

Nikolaos Ersotelos; Feng Dong

2008-01-01

337

Complete calvarial agenesis in conjunction with a tessier 1-13 facial cleft.  

PubMed

Amniotic band sequence (ABS) is a condition in which rupture of the amniotic sac leads to the development of a broad spectrum of fetal anomalies. A newborn male presented at term with multiple craniofacial and skeletal anomalies, including attachment of the placenta to the head, a paramedian facial cleft, and multiple skeletal anomalies. The patient has undergone several operations to date. The initial operation was performed to remove the attached placenta off the underlying dura, which was with a collagen matrix bound to a silicone membrane. The patient subsequently underwent split-thickness skin grafting with complete survival of the graft. PMID:22839097

Addona, Tommaso; Friedman, Ariella; Post, Alexander; Weiss, Nirit; Silver, Lester; Taub, Peter J

2012-07-01

338

Quantitative parameters of facial motor evoked potential during vestibular schwannoma surgery predict postoperative facial nerve function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Facial motor evoked potential (FMEP) amplitude ratio reduction at the end of the surgery has been identified as a good predictor\\u000a for postoperative facial nerve outcome. We sought to investigate variations in FMEP amplitude and waveform morphology during\\u000a vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection and to correlate these measures with postoperative facial function immediately after\\u000a surgery and at the last follow-up.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Intraoperative

Marcus André Acioly; Alireza Gharabaghi; Marina Liebsch; Carlos Henrique Carvalho; Paulo Henrique Aguiar; Marcos Tatagiba

2011-01-01

339

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Results indicated that, independent of trait

Steven J. Kirsh; Jeffrey R. W. Mounts; Paul V. Olczak

2006-01-01

340

Superimposition and reconstruction in forensic facial identification: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic facial reconstruction is the reproduction of the lost or unknown facial features of an individual, for the purposes of recognition and identification. It is generally accepted that facial reconstruction can be divided into four categories: (1) replacing and repositioning damaged or distorted soft tissues onto a skull; (2) the use of photographic transparencies and drawings in an identikit-type system;

W. A. Aulsebrook; M. Y. ??can; J. H. Slabbert; P. Becker

1995-01-01

341

Objectifying Facial Expressivity Assessment of Parkinson's Patients: Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can exhibit a reduction of spontaneous facial expression, designated as “facial masking,” a symptom in which facial muscles become rigid. To improve clinical assessment of facial expressivity of PD, this work attempts to quantify the dynamic facial expressivity (facial activity) of PD by automatically recognizing facial action units (AUs) and estimating their intensity. Spontaneous facial expressivity was assessed by comparing 7 PD patients with 8 control participants. To voluntarily produce spontaneous facial expressions that resemble those typically triggered by emotions, six emotions (amusement, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, and fear) were elicited using movie clips. During the movie clips, physiological signals (facial electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG)) and frontal face video of the participants were recorded. The participants were asked to report on their emotional states throughout the experiment. We first examined the effectiveness of the emotion manipulation by evaluating the participant's self-reports. Disgust-induced emotions were significantly higher than the other emotions. Thus we focused on the analysis of the recorded data during watching disgust movie clips. The proposed facial expressivity assessment approach captured differences in facial expressivity between PD patients and controls. Also differences between PD patients with different progression of Parkinson's disease have been observed. PMID:25478003

Patsis, Georgios; Jiang, Dongmei; Sahli, Hichem; Kerckhofs, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Marie

2014-01-01

342

Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes  

DOEpatents

Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

Pinnau, Ingo (Austin, TX); Koros, William J. (Austin, TX)

1990-01-01

343

Impaired spermatogenesis is not an obligate expression of receptor-defective androgen resistance.  

PubMed

We are studying a man who presented at age 21 years with severe extragenital subvirilization despite high-normal to above-normal levels of plasma testosterone for at least 5 years. At puberty, his penis, scrotum, and testes matured normally, and he did not develop gynecomastia; however, his voice, muscularity, and facial, sexual, and body hair remained immature. A 2.5-ml ejaculate yielded normal results for sperm density, morphology, and motility. Because persistent undervirilization was emotionally disabling, he has received pharmacologic doses of testosterone enanthate intramuscularly for 3.5 years. The treatment has improved his virilization and masculine self-image substantially, and his semen analysis has remained well within the normal range. The androgen receptor in his genital skin fibroblasts has a distinctively mutant phenotype: it has a low affinity (increased apparent equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd) for 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and two synthetic androgens, mibolerone (MB) and methyltrienolone (MT), and its binding capacity (Bmax) is normal for the other two ligands, but questionably low for MT. In addition, it up-regulates its activity normally in response to prolonged incubation with androgen, and its androgen-receptor complexes are not thermolabile. Our study of this man permits two conclusions: impaired spermatogenesis is not the irreducible expression of receptor-defective androgen resistance in man; and androgen pharmacotherapy may be remedial for those in whom extragenital subvirilization is emotionally costly and subnormal spermatogenesis is not an inevitable side effect of such therapy. PMID:2705470

Pinsky, L; Kaufman, M; Killinger, D W

1989-01-01

344

Epidemiological studies of the influence of sunlight on the skin.  

PubMed

We examined and interviewed 809 randomly selected individuals (56% women and 44% men, mean age 44 years) from 4 Swedish cities; 1.7% had the sun-reactive skin type I, 26.2% type II, 61.3% type III and 10.7% type IV. Some variations in the distribution of skin types were found between the cities. One hundred subjects (12.4%), mostly women (p less than 0.001), had a history of polymorphous light eruption. People with skin type IV had significantly fewer facial skin problems than the rest of the subjects (p less than 0.05). The majority of subjects with atopic eczema, acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis experienced improvement after exposure to sunlight. Individuals with rosacea also experienced improvement more often than impairment from exposure to sunlight. Facial telangiectases occurred in 57% of the subjects, unilaterally in 8.5% of the cases. The occurrence of telangiectases increased with increasing age (p less than 0.001), increasing sunbathing (p less than 0.01) and poor pigmentation ability (p less than 0.05). PMID:2748434

Berg, M

1989-04-01

345

Clinical applications of CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of various pathologic skin disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 laser skin resurfacing devices are widely used in cosmetic surgery for the treatment of facial rhytides, acne scars and aging skin. This technique is also useful in the treatment of various benign and premalignant or multiple pathological skin conditions and disorders originating in the epidermal, dermal and skin appendages, vascular lesions, epidermal nevi, infected wounds and ulcers, and keloids. Various surgical techniques have been developed in our clinic using laser resurfacing in the treatment of more than 2,000 patients with various skin pathologic disorders. We describe our experience with the various techniques used. The precise depth control and ablation properties combined with the hemostatic and sterilizing effects of the CO2 laser beam, reduction of the possibility of bleeding, infection and damage to healthy tissues, make the CO2 laser resurfacing techniques the treatment of choice for cosmetic surgery and treatment of benign, premalignant and multiple pathologic skin conditions.

Giler, Shamai

1997-12-01

346

Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

2008-01-01

347

[A case of herpetic facial paralysis in which cochleovestibular symptoms outweigh facial nerve symptoms].  

PubMed

A 42-year-old man presented with sensorineural hearing loss of acute onset, tinnitus, and vertigo. Physical examination revealed slight asymmetry in facial nerve functions and spontaneous nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging of the internal acoustic canal showed contrast enhancement consistent with edema-inflammation, being notable and diffuse in the seventh and eighth cranial nerve complex, and minimal in the cochlea. Non-hydropic cochleovestibular syndrome was considered and the patient was treated with antiviral and corticosteroid medications. A week later, facial paralysis improved and the acute hearing loss reversed. On the twelfth day of presentation, he had no complaints other than mild imbalance on abrupt changes in movement. In this type of herpetic facial paralysis in which cochleovestibular symptoms outweigh facial nerve symptoms, it might be argued that varicella zoster virus reactivation occurs in the spiral and/or vestibular ganglion. PMID:18443402

Avci, Suat; Kansu, Leyla; Akkuzu, Babür; Ozgirgin, Nuri; Ozlüo?lu, Levent

2008-01-01

348

Facial abnormalities in Nablus mask-like facial syndrome: multidetector computed tomography findings.  

PubMed

Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) is a rare microdeletion syndrome characterized by a mask-like facial appearance. NMLFS has been reported in only 6 patients and has a recognizable facial appearance, along with other clinical features. The first case of NMLFS has been described by Teebi in 2000, in a 4-year-old Palestinian boy. Three years later, Salpietro et al reported a second example of NMLFS in a 21-month-old girl. The same patient recently came to our hospital to undergo a computed tomography (CT) study to evaluate the degree of development of the zygomatic-maxillary region for orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. To the best of our knowledge, no reports have previously illustrated the maxillofacial CT findings of NMLFS in the radiologic data. We report the multidetector CT (MDCT) facial characteristics/abnormalities of this syndrome, emphasizing the usefulness of multiplanar reformations (MPRs) in preoperative planning. PMID:24815794

Mazziotti, Silvio; D'Angelo, Tommaso; Ascenti, Giorgio; Blandino, Alfredo

2014-08-01

349

Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo.  

PubMed

Photoaging accounts for most age-related changes in skin appearance. It has been suggested that both astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, and collagen hydrolysate can be used as antiaging modalities in photoaged skin. However, there is no clinical study using astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate. We investigated the effects of using a combination of dietary astaxanthin and collagen hydrolysate supplementation on moderately photoaged skin in humans. A total of 44 healthy subjects were recruited and treated with astaxanthin (2 mg/day) combined with collagen hydrolysate (3 g/day) or placebos, which were identical in appearance and taste to the active supplementation for 12 weeks. The elasticity and hydration properties of facial skin were evaluated using noninvasive objective devices. In addition, we also evaluated the expression of procollagen type I, fibrillin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -12, and ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in artificially UV-irradiated buttock skin before and after treatment. The supplement group showed significant improvements in skin elasticity and transepidermal water loss in photoaged facial skin after 12 weeks compared with the placebo group. In the supplement group, expression of procollagen type I mRNA increased and expression of MMP-1 and -12 mRNA decreased compared with those in the placebo group. In contrast, there was no significant difference in UV-induced DNA damage between groups. These results demonstrate that dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate can improve elasticity and barrier integrity in photoaged human facial skin, and such treatment is well tolerated. PMID:24955642

Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Hyun Hee; Cho, Soyun; Lee, Se-Rah; Shin, Mi-Hee; Chung, Jin Ho

2014-07-01

350

A rare case of keloidal granuloma faciale with extra-facial lesions  

PubMed Central

Granuloma faciale (GF) is an uncommon, cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques, or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extra-facial lesions occur rarely. We present a case report of 33-year-old male who presented with keloidal lesions on face and left shoulder. The patient didn’t respond with intralesional triamcinolone and showed poor response with the addition of topical tacrolimus. Surgical excision in consultation with plastic surgeons is planned. PMID:23439975

Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Rai, Tulika; Sharma, Taniya

2013-01-01

351

Facial fuzz and funny findings. Facial hair causing otalgia and oropharyngeal pain.  

PubMed

Three patients with referred otalgia and/or oropharyngeal pain due to ectopic facial hair found in either the external auditory canal or oropharynx were treated at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Disorders. In each of these patients, annoying symptoms were relieved by simple removal of the misplaced facial hair. Sensory nerve innervation of the external ear and oropharynx and their interrelationship in referred pain are described in detail following the case reports. PMID:2743548

Papay, F A; Levine, H L; Schiavone, W A

1989-05-01

352

Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring (IFNM) Predicts Facial Nerve Outcome after Resection of Vestibular Schwannoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IFNM) is a suitable technique for intraoperative facial nerve identification and\\u000a dissection, especially in large vestibular schwannomas (VS) (acoustic neuroma). To evaluate its feasibility for estimating\\u000a functional nerve outcome after VS resection 60 patients underwent surgery using IFNM. Out of this group the last 40 patients\\u000a were included in a prospective study evaluating the prognostic

S. B. Sobottka; G. Schackert; S. A. May; M. Wiegleb; G. Reiß

1998-01-01

353

Multi-curve spectrum representation of facial movements and expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method of multi-curve spectrum representation of facial movements and expressions. Based on 3DMCF (3D muscle-controlled facial) model, facial movements and expressions are controlled by 21 virtual muscles. So, facial movements and expressions can be described by a group of time-varying curves of normalized muscle contraction, called multi-curve spectrum. The structure and basic characters of multi-curve spectrum is introduced. The performance of the proposed method is among the best. This method needs small quantity of data, and is easy to apply. It can also be used to transplant facial animation between different faces.

Pei, Li; Zhang, Zhijiang; Chen, Zhixiang; Zeng, Dan

2009-07-01

354

Until they have faces: the ethics of facial allograft transplantation  

PubMed Central

The ethical discussion of facial allograft transplantation (FAT) for severe facial deformity, popularly known as facial transplantation, has been one sided and sensationalistic. It is based on film and fiction rather than science and clinical experience. Based on our experience in developing the first IRB approved protocol for FAT, we critically discuss the problems with this discussion, which overlooks the plight of individuals with severe facial deformities. We discuss why FAT for facial deformity is ethically and surgically justified despite its negative portrayal in the media. PMID:16319234

Agich, G; Siemionow, M

2005-01-01

355

Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such pro- totypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze

Ying-li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2001-01-01

356

Annotation: Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), the most frequent known interstitial deletion identified in man, is associated with chromosomal microdeletions in the q11 band of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS are reported to have a characteristic behavioural phenotype with high rates of behavioural, psychiatric, neuropsychological and…

Murphy, K. C.

2005-01-01

357

Facial type, expression, and viseme generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of generating facial models and various poses of these models is a necessary part of most present-day movies, and usually required for any interactive game which features humans as a primary character. The generation of this face data can be approached in ways varying from pure computation to pure data acquisition. Computational models are flexible but can lack

James Skorupski; Jerry Yee; Josh McCoy; James Davis

2007-01-01

358

Facial age affects emotional expression decoding  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions convey important information on emotional states of our interaction partners. However, in interactions between younger and older adults, there is evidence for a reduced ability to accurately decode emotional facial expressions. Previous studies have often followed up this phenomenon by examining the effect of the observers' age. However, decoding emotional faces is also likely to be influenced by stimulus features, and age-related changes in the face such as wrinkles and folds may render facial expressions of older adults harder to decode. In this paper, we review theoretical frameworks and empirical findings on age effects on decoding emotional expressions, with an emphasis on age-of-face effects. We conclude that the age of the face plays an important role for facial expression decoding. Lower expressivity, age-related changes in the face, less elaborated emotion schemas for older faces, negative attitudes toward older adults, and different visual scan patterns and neural processing of older than younger faces may lower decoding accuracy for older faces. Furthermore, age-related stereotypes and age-related changes in the face may bias the attribution of specific emotions such as sadness to older faces. PMID:24550859

Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Werheid, Katja

2014-01-01

359

Anthropometric definitions of dysmorphic facial signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photoanthropometric method is presented, which enables an objective definition of facial structures. It may support the clinical description of patients with dysmorphic syndromes. Eighteen parameters were studied. The measuring points were elected on the base of anthropological criteria. The measurements were related to reference values in the same face. The obtained indices were compared to an age related control

S. Stengel-Rutkowski; P. Schimanek; A. Wernheimer

1984-01-01

360

Facial shape and judgements of female attractiveness.  

PubMed

The finding that photographic and digital composites (blends) of faces are considered to be attractive has led to the claim that attractiveness is averageness. This would encourage stabilizing selection, favouring phenotypes with an average facial structure. The 'averageness hypothesis' would account for the low distinctiveness of attractive faces but is difficult to reconcile with the finding that some facial measurements correlate with attractiveness. An average face shape is attractive but may not be optimally attractive. Human preferences may exert directional selection pressures, as with the phenomena of optimal outbreeding and sexual selection for extreme characteristics. Using composite faces, we show here that, contrary to the averageness hypothesis, the mean shape of a set of attractive faces is preferred to the mean shape of the sample from which the faces were selected. In addition, attractive composites can be made more attractive by exaggerating the shape differences from the sample mean. Japanese and caucasian observers showed the same direction of preferences for the same facial composites, suggesting that aesthetic judgements of face shape are similar across different cultural backgrounds. Our finding that highly attractive facial configurations are not average shows that preferences could exert a directional selection pressure on the evolution of human face shape. PMID:8145822

Perrett, D I; May, K A; Yoshikawa, S

1994-03-17

361

Learning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition  

E-print Network

in interactive video games as well. In order to enhance the interaction and attractiveness of the games - recogLearning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition Daniel Gill1,2 and Yaniv Ninio2 1 and within this framework learns the desired shape metric parameters from la- beled training samples

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

Automated Prediction of Preferences Using Facial Expressions  

E-print Network

on covert videos of the observers' faces. The two algorithms are almost as accurate as human judges stimuli are preferred by human observers just by viewing covertly recorded videos of the observers' faces, tends to focus on the six basic emotions defined by [10], and the Facial Action Coding System [11

Todorov, Alex

363

Unwanted Facial Hair: Affects, Effects and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following is a review of a satellite symposium held at the EHRS Meeting in June 2006. U.B.P. reminded the audience that unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important issue; over 40% of the women in the general population have some degree of UFH, and its psychological and psychosocial impact should not be underestimated. The treatment of UFH involves many

U. Blume-Peytavi; U. Gieler; R. Hoffmann; S. Lavery; J. Shapiro

2007-01-01

364

Stereotactic Mesencephalotomy for Cancer - Related Facial Pain  

PubMed Central

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

Kim, Deok-ryeong; Lee, Sang-won

2014-01-01

365

Postoperative Care of the Facial Laceration  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this investigation is to examine factors involved in the postoperative care of traumatic lacerations. An evidence-based comprehensive literature review was conducted. There are a limited number of scientifically proven studies that guide surgeons and emergency room physicians on postoperative care. Randomized controlled trials must be conducted to further standardize the postoperative protocol for simple facial lacerations. PMID:22132257

Medel, Nicholas; Panchal, Neeraj; Ellis, Edward

2010-01-01

366

Flexible signal generator for facial nerve detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

During surgical intervention on patient face, the facial nerve must be protected. To avoid the risk of its damage, we propose an electronic device that could detect the presence of this nerve. Thanks to its excitability, it was possible therefore to record a noticeable muscular electric reaction on the face. An active stimulating electrode would be placed on the patient

Habib ELKHORCHANI; Hamadi GHARIANI; A. Benhamida; M. Ghorbel

2004-01-01

367

The characteristics of bacterial nanocellulose gel releasing silk sericin for facial treatment.  

PubMed

BackgroundRecently, naturally derived facial masks with beneficial biological properties have received increasing interest. In this study, silk sericin-releasing bacterial nanocellulose gel was developed to be applied as a bioactive mask for facial treatment.ResultsThe silk sericin-releasing bacterial nanocellulose gel produced at a pH of 4.5 had an ultrafine and extremely pure fiber network structure. The mechanical properties and moisture absorption ability of the gel were improved, compared to those of the commercially available paper mask. Silk sericin could be control-released from the gel. A peel test with porcine skin showed that the gel was less adhesive than the commercially available paper mask, which would be removed from the face more easily without pain. The in vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the gel was not toxic to L929 mouse fibroblast and HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. Furthermore, when implanted subcutaneously and evaluated according to ISO10993-6 standard, the gel was not irritant to tissue.ConclusionThe silk sericin-releasing bacterial nanocellulose gel had appropriate physical and biological properties and safety for the facial treatment application. PMID:25487808

Aramwit, Pornanong; Bang, Nipaporn

2014-12-01

368

[Facial Disability Index and Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale: Validation of the German Versions.  

PubMed

Background: A validated instrument to measure patient-related outcome and quality of life in facial palsy is not available in German language. Methods: 2 appropriate questionnaires, the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) scale and the Facial Disability Index (FDI) were translated and validated according to international guidelines. The internal consistency of both German versions was assessed. The results of FaCE and FDI were correlated with results of the SF-36, the House-Brackmann scale and the Stennert index. Results: 122 facial palsy patients with a median duration of 4.7 months were included. FaCE and FDI showed good to very good psychometric characteristics with Cronbach's alpha values between 0.667 and 0.907. Both questionnaires were able to distinguish different degrees of facial palsy. The comparison to the SF-36 shows the highest correlation with the subscale social function. Discussion: The German versions of the FDI and FaCE are valid and should now be applied more frequently to assess the disease-specific quality of life in patients with facial palsy. PMID:25089633

Volk, G F; Steigerwald, F; Vitek, P; Finkensieper, M; Kreysa, H; Guntinas-Lichius, O

2014-08-01

369

Facial expression (mood) recognition from facial images using committee neural networks  

PubMed Central

Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial parameters were extracted from a facial image and were used to train several generalized and specialized neural networks. Based on initial testing, the best performing generalized and specialized neural networks were recruited into decision making committees which formed an integrated committee neural network system. The integrated committee neural network system was then evaluated using data obtained from subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Results and conclusion The system correctly identified the correct facial expression in 255 of the 282 images (90.43% of the cases), from 62 subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Committee neural networks offer a potential tool for image based mood detection. PMID:19656402

Kulkarni, Saket S; Reddy, Narender P; Hariharan, SI

2009-01-01

370

[LLL plasty: simple procedure for coverage of cutaneous defects].  

PubMed

Skin defects may be due to several causes: trauma, surgical excision of malignant or benign, even malformative pathologies. The aim of this work is to report the interest of the LLL flap (L for Lozenge) (Dufourmental flap) in the coverage of the skin defects that sometimes may reach high dimensions or being located in areas of lower skin extensibility. We report a study involving 26 patients who all benefited from this technique having skin defects due to different causes and serving in different locations. LLL plasty allowed a first closure in all patients. The cosmetic result was good and no recovery was necessary. LL plasty was first described in 1962 to cover limited skin defects. However, it requires some precision in its execution. This is a simple and reproducible procedure with considerable interest for its potential in the coverage of cutaneous defects in the face and that can reach up than 8cm. The scar would be reduced if we took care to match the areas of sutures with the shaded areas of the face (groove…). While allowing a better distribution of tension, this technique has demonstrated its superiority compared to direct suture, which the indication is limited by the size of the defect and its location (peri-orificial…) and other techniques that are similar as the Limberg flap. PMID:21251745

Ettalbi, S; Droussi, H; Ouahbi, S; Ibnouzahir, M; Boukind, E H

2013-08-01

371

Tfap2a-dependent changes in mouse facial morphology result in clefting that can be ameliorated by a reduction in Fgf8 gene dosage  

PubMed Central

Failure of facial prominence fusion causes cleft lip and palate (CL/P), a common human birth defect. Several potential mechanisms can be envisioned that would result in CL/P, including failure of prominence growth and/or alignment as well as a failure of fusion of the juxtaposed epithelial seams. Here, using geometric morphometrics, we analyzed facial outgrowth and shape change over time in a novel mouse model exhibiting fully penetrant bilateral CL/P. This robust model is based upon mutations in Tfap2a, the gene encoding transcription factor AP-2?, which has been implicated in both syndromic and non-syndromic human CL/P. Our findings indicate that aberrant morphology and subsequent misalignment of the facial prominences underlies the inability of the mutant prominences to fuse. Exencephaly also occured in some of the Tfap2a mutants and we observed additional morphometric differences that indicate an influence of neural tube closure defects on facial shape. Molecular analysis of the CL/P model indicates that Fgf signaling is misregulated in the face, and that reducing Fgf8 gene dosage can attenuate the clefting pathology by generating compensatory changes. Furthermore, mutations in either Tfap2a or Fgf8 increase variance in facial shape, but the combination of these mutations restores variance to normal levels. The alterations in variance provide a potential mechanistic link between clefting and the evolution and diversity of facial morphology. Overall, our findings suggest that CL/P can result from small gene-expression changes that alter the shape of the facial prominences and uncouple their coordinated morphogenesis, which is necessary for normal fusion. PMID:25381013

Green, Rebecca M.; Feng, Weiguo; Phang, Tzulip; Fish, Jennifer L.; Li, Hong; Spritz, Richard A.; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Hooper, Joan; Jamniczky, Heather; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Williams, Trevor

2015-01-01

372

Tfap2a-dependent changes in mouse facial morphology result in clefting that can be ameliorated by a reduction in Fgf8 gene dosage.  

PubMed

Failure of facial prominence fusion causes cleft lip and palate (CL/P), a common human birth defect. Several potential mechanisms can be envisioned that would result in CL/P, including failure of prominence growth and/or alignment as well as a failure of fusion of the juxtaposed epithelial seams. Here, using geometric morphometrics, we analyzed facial outgrowth and shape change over time in a novel mouse model exhibiting fully penetrant bilateral CL/P. This robust model is based upon mutations in Tfap2a, the gene encoding transcription factor AP-2?, which has been implicated in both syndromic and non-syndromic human CL/P. Our findings indicate that aberrant morphology and subsequent misalignment of the facial prominences underlies the inability of the mutant prominences to fuse. Exencephaly also occured in some of the Tfap2a mutants and we observed additional morphometric differences that indicate an influence of neural tube closure defects on facial shape. Molecular analysis of the CL/P model indicates that Fgf signaling is misregulated in the face, and that reducing Fgf8 gene dosage can attenuate the clefting pathology by generating compensatory changes. Furthermore, mutations in either Tfap2a or Fgf8 increase variance in facial shape, but the combination of these mutations restores variance to normal levels. The alterations in variance provide a potential mechanistic link between clefting and the evolution and diversity of facial morphology. Overall, our findings suggest that CL/P can result from small gene-expression changes that alter the shape of the facial prominences and uncouple their coordinated morphogenesis, which is necessary for normal fusion. PMID:25381013

Green, Rebecca M; Feng, Weiguo; Phang, Tzulip; Fish, Jennifer L; Li, Hong; Spritz, Richard A; Marcucio, Ralph S; Hooper, Joan; Jamniczky, Heather; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Williams, Trevor

2015-01-01

373

Aberrant patterns of visual facial information usage in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Deficits in facial emotion perception have been linked to poorer functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between abnormal emotion perception and functional outcome remains poorly understood. To better understand the nature of facial emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia, we used the Bubbles Facial Emotion Perception Task to identify differences in usage of visual facial information in schizophrenia patients (n = 20) and controls (n = 20), when differentiating between angry and neutral facial expressions. As hypothesized, schizophrenia patients required more facial information than controls to accurately differentiate between angry and neutral facial expressions, and they relied on different facial features and spatial frequencies to differentiate these facial expressions. Specifically, schizophrenia patients underutilized the eye regions, overutilized the nose and mouth regions, and virtually ignored information presented at the lowest levels of spatial frequency. In addition, a post hoc one-tailed t test revealed a positive relationship of moderate strength between the degree of divergence from "normal" visual facial information usage in the eye region and lower overall social functioning. These findings provide direct support for aberrant patterns of visual facial information usage in schizophrenia in differentiating between socially salient emotional states. PMID:23713505

Clark, Cameron M; Gosselin, Frédéric; Goghari, Vina M

2013-05-01

374

Facial height in Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the standards of facial height in 30 young (14-year-old) Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion, and assess whether sexual dimorphism is evident. METHODS: The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses by Wylie-Johnson, Siriwat-Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield and Horn. RESULTS: Results showed dimorphism for total anterior facial height (TAFH), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), anterior facial height (AFH), total posterior facial height (TPFH) and upper posterior facial height (UPFH) measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The standards of facial heights in young Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion were observed. Sexual dimorphism was identified in five out of thirteen evaluated variables at this age range.

Vieira, Fabiano Paiva; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Janson, Guilherme; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Sathler, Renata Carvalho; Henriques, Rafael Pinelli

2014-01-01

375

Hydrophobically modified polymers can minimize skin irritation potential caused by surfactant-based cleansers  

PubMed Central

Summary Introduction The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to cleansers that contain surfactants can create polymer–surfactant complexes that are less irritating to the skin than commercially available mild cleansers. Our objective was to compare the tolerability and efficacy of a test foaming liquid facial cleanser containing HMPs with a commercial liquid nonfoaming facial cleanser in women with sensitive skin. Methods In this randomized, prospective, double-blind, comparative study, women (n = 20 per group) with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema, acne, or rosacea used a test gentle foaming liquid facial cleanser containing HMPs or a commercial gentle liquid nonfoaming facial cleanser daily for 3 weeks. Investigators assessed irritation and skin condition. Study subjects also assessed their skin properties and the performance of each cleanser. Results Clinicians as well as study subjects consistently rated the test cleanser as effective or slightly more effective at improving symptoms than the commercial cleanser, although no significant differences between groups were observed. At weeks 1 and 3, respectively, more users of the commercial cleanser reported irritation (20% and 10%) than users of the test cleanser (5% and 5%). In addition, subject self-assessments of skin condition and cleansing properties were slightly more improved with the test cleanser than with the commercial cleanser. Conclusions Both the test foaming cleanser containing HMPs and the commercial nonfoaming cleanser were effective and well accepted by most women in the study. Improvements were observed by both clinicians and subjects in the group using the test cleanser containing HMPs in all evaluated skin categories. PMID:24305430

Draelos, Zoe; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

2013-01-01

376

Genetics of Aplasia Cutis Reveal Novel Regulators of Skin Morphogenesis.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms that control skin morphogenesis are complex and only incompletely understood. Aplasia cutis manifests with localized skin defects at birth and is a feature in various syndromes. Identifying the genes that cause these genetic skin conditions provides the opportunity to define novel regulators of skin morphogenesis. Recently, human genetic approaches have led to the identification of aplasia cutis-causing mutations in genes that have previously not been implicated to have an important role in skin biology. These findings reveal novel molecular mechanisms that are involved in skin formation during development.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 30 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.413. PMID:25355129

Marneros, Alexander G

2014-10-30

377

Reanimation of early facial paralysis with hypoglossal/facial end-to-side neurorrhaphy: a new approach.  

PubMed

The classic hypoglossal transfer to the facial nerve invariably results in profound functional deficits in speech, mastication, and swallowing, and causes synkinesis and involuntary movements in the facial muscles despite good reanimation. Techniques such as a hypoglossal/facial nerve interpositional jump graft and splitting the hypoglossal nerve cause poor functional results in facial reanimation and mild-to-moderate hemiglossal atrophy, respectively. Direct hypoglossal/facial nerve cross-over through end-to-side coaptation without tension was done in three fresh cadavers and four patients. The patients had facial paralysis for less than 7 months. Complete mobilization of the facial nerve trunk and its main branches beyond the pes anserinus from the stylomastoid foramen, division of the frontal branch, if necessary, and superior elevation of the hypoglossal nerve after dividing the descendens hypoglossi, thyrohyoidal branches, occipital artery, and retromandibular veins were performed. The end of the facial nerve was hooked up through both a quarter of a partial oblique neurotomy and a perineurial window at the side of the hypoglossal nerve. Temporalis muscle transfer to the eyelids and the first stage of cross-facial nerve transfer were performed simultaneously. None of the patients experienced hemiglossal atrophy, synkinesis, and involuntary movements of the facial muscles. Regarding facial reanimation, one patient had excellent, one patient good, and the others fair and poor results after a follow-up of at least 1 year. PMID:10954315

Yoleri, L; Songür, E; Yoleri, O; Vural, T; Ca?da?, A

2000-07-01

378

Audit on titanium reconstruction of mandibular defects for jaw lesions  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of the study is to audit the titanium reconstruction of jaw defects in benign conditions in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore. Methods and Material: A retrospective study of titanium reconstruction of mandibular defects due to jaw lesions at Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India, between May 2008 and May 2011. Results: Mouth opening, facial symmetry, occlusion, chewing ability, plate exposure and patient satisfaction were used as outcome measures. Conclusions: The three-dimensional titanium plate is a reasonable material for immediate mandible reconstruction after surgical resection of benign jaw pathologies. PMID:25210382

Paul, S. Arun; Karthik, A. Kaneesh; Chacko, Rabin; Karunya, Whinny

2014-01-01

379

The telltale face: possible mechanisms behind defector and cooperator recognition revealed by emotional facial expression metrics.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the role of facial cues in cooperator and defector recognition. First, a face image database was constructed from pairs of full face portraits of target subjects taken at the moment of decision-making in a prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) and in a preceding neutral task. Image pairs with no deficiencies (n = 67) were standardized for orientation and luminance. Then, confidence in defector and cooperator recognition was tested with image rating in a different group of lay judges (n = 62). Results indicate that (1) defectors were better recognized (58% vs. 47%), (2) they looked different from cooperators (p < .01), (3) males but not females evaluated the images with a relative bias towards the cooperator category (p < .01), and (4) females were more confident in detecting defectors (p < .05). According to facial microexpression analysis, defection was strongly linked with depressed lower lips and less opened eyes. Significant correlation was found between the intensity of micromimics and the rating of images in the cooperator-defector dimension. In summary, facial expressions can be considered as reliable indicators of momentary social dispositions in the PDG. Females may exhibit an evolutionary-based overestimation bias to detecting social visual cues of the defector face. PMID:24094284

Kovács-Bálint, Zsófia; Bereczkei, Tamás; Hernádi, István

2013-11-01

380

Treatment of facial post-burn hyperpigmentation using micro-plasma radiofrequency technology.  

PubMed

Management of facial post-burn hyperpigmentation is a common and challenging problem for dermatologists and plastic surgeons. The recent development of micro-plasma radiofrequency technology, which allows precise and rapid treatment with controlled thermal injury, can be an effective treatment of post-burn hyperpigmentation. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of micro-plasma radiofrequency treatment of post-burn hyperpigmentation. The study included 35 patients with Fitzpatrick skin type III or IV and facial post-burn hyperpigmentation. Patients received three to five treatments at 8-week intervals. A roller tip was used with the power setting at 60-90 W, and 3-4 passes were made in different directions. The degree of improvement and complications were recorded. Improvement of hyperpigmentation was evaluated by patient self-assessment and by plastic surgeons who compared digital photographs taken before treatment and 2 months after the last treatment. The results showed that post-burn hyperpigmentation responded favorably to micro-plasma radiofrequency treatment with very few complications. The average pain score using a visual analog scale from 0 to 10 was 6.7?±?0.7. After a series of treatments, 32 of the 35 patients had achieved a >51 % improvement of their hyperpigmentation, and 3 patients had achieved a fair improvement. The mean score for improvement of hyperpigmentation was 4.28. Patient self-evaluations indicated good satisfaction with the cosmetic outcomes, and some softening of the scars. Micro-plasma radiofrequency technology is appropriate, effective, and safe for the treatment of facial post-burn hyperpigmentation, and provides a promising noninvasive treatment for superficial facial injuries. PMID:25209007

Wang, Lian-Zhao; Ding, Jin-Ping; Yang, Ming-Yong; Chen, Dian-Wei; Chen, Bo

2015-01-01

381

Whatâs On My Skin?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, based on the Science Friday segment Life on Our Skin, students will formulate a hypothesis about which area of skin on their bodies may have the most or least amount or kinds of bacteria.

Science, Talking

2011-04-22

382

Studying Our Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigative activities enabling students to explore the many purposes of our skin can create meaningful understanding of its functions. These activities can also help children construct an understanding of the skin as an always present but constantly ch

Sunal, Cynthia S.; Walters, Jeffrey J.

1999-11-01

383

Skin of Color  

MedlinePLUS

... of color Stress and skin Sunscreens Tattoos and body piercings Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments ... is the key to alleviating scarring problems. Avoid body piercing and unnecessary surgeries. If a wound does occur, ...

384

Components of skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

385

Squamous cell skin cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight. Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

386

A new simple technique for making facial dimples.  

PubMed

In Asia, especially in China, women think a dimple is an important part of a beautiful smiling face. The dimple can make them more confident. Unfortunately, not all women have dimples. Hence, with the development of the Chinese economy, there is an increasing demand among Chinese women for the creation of dimples. Most women hope the impairment of the operation will be slight and the period of recovery short so they can go to work as quickly as possible. Some of them want to have dimples only when they smile. The authors have used a new simple technique to form 56 dimples for 36 women. During the operation, they use a syringe needle to guide a monofilament nylon suture through the dermis and the active facial muscles (usually the buccinator). A sling is formed between the skin and the buccinator muscle. The knot is tied, and the dimple is created. After the operation, patients have been satisfied with the shape of the dimples. Furthermore, hematoma and infection never occurred. As a result, on the basis of their experience, the authors conclude that this technique is simple and easy to duplicate. Moreover, this technique has many benefits. For example, with this procedure, it is easy to adjust the bulk of dimples by adjusting the tension of the knot and the amount of dermis tissue the injection needle sutures. Because no tissue is resected, there is mild postoperative swelling. Consequently, patients can return to work or other activities 2 days after the operation. PMID:17549557

Bao, Shiwei; Zhou, Chuande; Li, Senkai; Zhao, Muxin

2007-01-01

387

Rapid Response of Facial Vitiligo to 308nm Excimer Laser and Topical Calcipotriene  

PubMed Central

Objective: Vitiligo is a common depigmenting condition that carries a high psychosocial morbidity. Many of the current topical and light therapies aid in repigmentation but require extensive treatment periods and carry unwanted side effects. The excimer laser is a newer treatment option that can induce repigmentation in an abbreviated time frame without global exposure to radiation. This case series provides further evidence to support the use of excimer laser in treating vitiligo especially of the face. Design: Patients with extensive facial depigmentation were treated with excimer laser twice weekly and calcipotriene daily until they developed significant repigmentation. Setting: Evaluation and treatment was performed at the Veterans Affairs outpatient dermatology clinic in Tampa, Florida. Participants: Three patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI were selected. These patients had failed a variety of topical treatments including steroids and calcipotriene, but were light naïve prior to beginning the study. Measurements: The primary outcome measure employed was percent repigmentation by visual estimation. The average dose of radiation, number of treatments, and weeks of therapy were also recorded. Results: All three patients experienced greater than 75 percent repigmentation of their facial vitiligo over a treatment course from 10 to 20 weeks. Conclusion: The excimer laser is a viable treatment for vitiligo and may yield results more expeditiously than other commonly utilized therapies. The rapid response may be correlated with skin type, but a more extensive study needs to be undertaken to further evaluate this correlation. PMID:21779415

Liu, Stephanie; Cohen, George

2011-01-01

388

Ethanol-induced Retinal Defects are Rescued by Retinoic Acid Supplement in Developing Zebrafish Pooja Muralidharan, Swapnalee Sarmah, James A. Marrs  

E-print Network

, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing a spectrum of defects including facial abnormalities, sensory (visual defect syndrome. Advisor: James A. Marrs, Department of Biology, School of Science, Indiana University

Zhou, Yaoqi

389

Maternal diet supplementation with methyl donors and increased parity affect the incidence of craniofacial defects in the offspring of twisted gastrulation mutant mice.  

PubMed

Diets rich in methyl-donating compounds, including folate, can provide protection against neural tube defects, but their role in preventing craniofacial defects is less clear. Mice deficient in Twisted gastrulation (TWSG1), an extracellular modulator of bone morphogenetic protein signaling, manifest both midline facial defects and jaw defects, allowing study of the effects of methyl donors on various craniofacial defects in an experimentally tractable animal model. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of maternal dietary supplementation with methyl donors on the incidence and type of craniofacial defects among Twsg1(-/-) offspring. Nulliparous and primiparous female mice were fed an NIH31 standard diet (control) or a methyl donor supplemented (MDS) diet (folate, vitamin B-12, betaine, and choline). Observed defects in the pups were divided into those derived mostly from the first branchial arch (BA1) (micrognathia, agnathia, cleft palate) and midline facial defects in the holoprosencephaly spectrum (cyclopia, proboscis, and anterior truncation). In the first pregnancy, offspring of mice fed the MDS diet had lower incidence of BA1-derived defects (12.8% in MDS vs. 32.5% in control; P = 0.02) but similar incidence of midline facial defects (6.4% in MDS vs. 5.2% in control; P = 1.0). Increased maternal parity was independently associated with increased incidence of craniofacial defects after adjusting for diet (from 37.7 to 59.5% in control, P = 0.04 and from 19.1 to 45.3% in MDS, P = 0.045). In conclusion, methyl donor supplementation shows protective effects against jaw defects, but not midline facial defects, and increased parity can be a risk factor for some craniofacial defects. PMID:23343680

Billington, Charles J; Schmidt, Brian; Zhang, Lei; Hodges, James S; Georgieff, Michael K; Schotta, Gunnar; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Petryk, Anna

2013-03-01

390

Caring for Tattooed Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... releases Press kits Sign in Account Home Skin health tips Caring for tattooed skin Caring for tattooed skin ... getting a piercing or tattoo. Risks Explains common health risks associated with tattoos and piercings. Safety tips What you should know before getting a piercing ...

391

A Collodion Baby with Facial Dysmorphism, Limb Anomalies, Pachygyria and Genital Hypoplasia: A Mild Form of Neu-Laxova Syndrome or a New Entity?  

PubMed Central

Neu-Laxova syndrome is a rare, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, central nervous system anomalies, skin findings, such as ichthyosis, edema, collodion baby and harlequin fetus, facial dysmorphic features, limb anomalies and genital hypoplasia. Although it is generally a lethal condition, cases of such patients who lived beyond 6 months and 10 months of age have been reported. Here, we describe an 8-year-old boy who was born with collodion membrane, facial dysmorphic features, limb anomalies, genital hypoplasia and pachygyria. He had no major health problems over the course of 8 years of follow-up, except for mild mental/motor retardation, ichthyosis, facial dysmorphic features and limb anomalies. Based on these features, we suggest that because Neu-Laxova syndrome represents a heterogeneous phenotype, our case may be a milder variant of this syndrome or a new genetic entity. PMID:24371398

Derbent, Murat; Seçkin, Deniz; Bikmaz, Yunus Emre; A?ildere, Muhte?em; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Lévy, Nicolas; Gürakan, Berkan

2013-01-01

392

Event-Related Alpha Suppression in Response to Facial Motion  

PubMed Central

While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors. PMID:24586735

Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J.; Spencer, Janine V.; O’Brien, Justin M. D.

2014-01-01

393

More than one way to skin . . .  

PubMed Central

Epithelial stem cells in the skin are specified during development and are governed by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions to differentially adopt the cell fates that enable them to form the epidermis, hair follicle, and sebaceous gland. In the adult, each of three epithelial lineages maintains their own stem cell population for self-renewal and normal tissue homeostasis. However, in response to injury, at least some of these stem cell niches can be mobilized to repair an epithelial tissue whose resident stem cells have been damaged. How do these stem cell populations respond to multiple signaling networks, activate migration, and proliferation, and differentiate along a specific lineage? Recent clues add new pieces to this multidimensional puzzle. Understanding how these stem cells maintain normal homeostasis and wound repair in the skin is particularly important, as these mechanisms, when defective, lead to skin tissue diseases including cancers. PMID:18413712

Fuchs, Elaine; Horsley, Valerie

2008-01-01

394

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer  

Cancer.gov

No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

395

Information extraction from image sequences of real-world facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information extraction of facial expressions deals with facial-feature detection, feature tracking, and capture of the spatiotemporal relationships among features. It is a funda- mental task in facial expression analysis and will ultimately determine the performance of expression recognition. For a real-world facial expression sequence, there are three chal- lenges: (1) detection failure of some or all facial features due to

Haisong Gu; Qiang Ji

2005-01-01

396

Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An up-to-date discussion of defects in nonmetals emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes is presented. The treatment encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids and some discussion of extended defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries. Nonstoichiometry, fast-ion conduction, nonradiative transitions, and their consequences are considered, and radiation damage and enhanced diffusion, radiolysis, and the photographic effect are addressed. A chapter on surfaces discusses surface reconstruction and surface electronic states and associated properties such as catalysis and corrosion. Other topics examined include crystalline and amorphous materials and the significance of defects in metal-insulator transitions, intercalates, and polymers.

Hayes, W.; Stoneham, A. M.

397

Skin Conditions of Youths 12-17, United States. Vital and Health Statistics; Series 11, Number 157.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of the National Center for Health Statistics presents national estimates of the prevalence of facial acne and other skin lesions among noninstitutionalized youths aged 12-17 years by age, race, sex, geographic region, population size of place of residence, family income, education of parent, overall health, indications of stress,…

Roberts, Jean; Ludford, Jacqueline

398

Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

2014-06-01

399

Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique  

PubMed Central

Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

2014-01-01

400

Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique.  

PubMed

Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

2014-01-01

401

Laser abrasion for cosmetic and medical treatment of facial actinic damage  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser to be effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. After CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion, normal skin and marked cosmetic improvement of the lip were noted. In our study, twenty-three patients were treated with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasions for cosmetic improvement of facial lines and actinic changes. Pre- and postoperative histopathologic examinations were made on two patients. Preoperative examination of specimens from actinically damaged skin showed atypical keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, with overlying dense compact orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Abundant solar elastosis was seen in the papillary dermis. Postoperative histologic specimens showed a normal-appearing epidermis with fibrosis in the papillary dermis and minimal solar elastosis (about four weeks after laser treatment). At present, various modalities are available for the regeneration of the aged skin, including chemical peels and dermabrasion. Significantly fewer complications were noted with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion than with these methods. Thus, CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion can be useful in the cosmetic and medical treatment of the aged skin. Marked clinical and histologic improvement has been demonstrated.

David, L.M.; Lask, G.P.; Glassberg, E.; Jacoby, R.; Abergel, R.P.

1989-06-01

402

Facial Fracture Management in Northwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial fracture is gradually become a public health problem in our community due to the attendant morbidity and mortality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the pattern of facial fracture in Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to provide information regarding gender, age, etiology, and diagnosis of patients with maxillofacial fractures. Materials and Methods: A 1-year review of patients diagnosed and treated for facial fractures in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital between January 2011 and December 2011. The diagnosis was based on radiographic data and clinical examination. The main analysis outcome measures were etiology, age, gender, site, and treatment. Data were organized and presented by means of descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: A total of 40 patients were treated in this period. Over 95% were male, 81% were caused by road traffic crash (RTC) and 86.4% were in the 21-30 years group. Most patients (52%) had mandibular fractures, and the most common site was the body. Most patients with midfacial fractures had fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary region (36%), while fractures of the parasymphyseal region were more common in the mandible 156 (31%). The most common treatment for jaw fractures was mandibulomaxillary fixation (MMF). Stable zygomatic complex fractures were reduced (elevated) intraorally, and unstable ones were supported by antral packs. Conclusions: This study highlights facial fractures secondary to RTC as a serious public health problem in our environment. Preventive strategies remain the cheapest way to reduce direct and indirect costs of the sequelae of RTC. It also bring to the fore the necessity to shift to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of fractures. PMID:24741422

Taiwo, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Godwin, Ndubuizi Ugochukwu; Ibikunle, Adebayo Aremu

2013-01-01

403

Familial Facial disfigurement in Multiple Familial Trichoepithelioma  

PubMed Central

Trichoepithelioma is an uncommon, benign hamartomatous tumor of the pilosebaceous follicle. Presenting as multiple papules and nodules on face and neck, they pose a significant cosmetic problem in affected individuals. Familial involvement of this dermatosis occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern, the locus being located on chromosome 9p21, which causes multiple facial lesions in family members and their kins. Here, we report a case of multiple familial trichoepithelioma causing considerable disfigurement of the face. PMID:24551711

Kataria, Usha; Agarwal, Deepti; Chhillar, Dinesh

2013-01-01

404

Facial Composite System Using Genetic Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article deals with genetic algorithms and their application in face identification. The purpose of the research is to develop a free and open-source facial composite system using evolutionary algorithms, primarily processes of selection and breeding. The initial testing proved higher quality of the final composites and massive reduction in the composites processing time. System requirements were specified and future research orientation was proposed in order to improve the results.

Zahradníková, Barbora; Duchovi?ová, So?a; Schreiber, Peter

2014-12-01

405

Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters\\u000a of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections,\\u000a trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the\\u000a presence of typical symptoms

Josef Finsterer

2008-01-01

406

Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations  

PubMed Central

The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is discussed. PMID:19503770

Bowler, Patrick J

2009-01-01

407

Methylisothiazolinone: An Emergent Allergen in Common Pediatric Skin Care Products  

PubMed Central

Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as “gentle,” “sensitive,” “organic,” or “hypoallergenic” often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children. PMID:25342949

Schlichte, Megan J.

2014-01-01

408

Evaluation of analgesic effect of skin-to-skin contact compared to oral glucose in preterm neonates.  

PubMed

Nonpharmacological interventions are important alternatives for pain relief during minor procedures in preterm neonates. Skin-to-skin contact or kangaroo mother care is a human and efficient way of caring for low-weight preterm neonates. The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic effect of kangaroo care compared to oral glucose on the response of healthy preterm neonates to a low-intensity acute painful stimulus. Ninety-five preterm neonates with a postmenstrual age of 28-36 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups in a single-blind manner. In group 1 (isolette, n=33), the neonate was in the prone position in the isolette during heel lancing and did not receive analgesia. In group 2 (kangaroo method, n=31), the neonate was held in skin-to-skin contact for 10 min before and during the heel-lancing procedure. In group 3 (glucose, n=31), the neonate was in the prone position in the isolette and received oral glucose (1 ml, 25%) 2 min before heel lancing. A smaller variation in heart rate (p=0.0001) and oxygen saturation (p=0.0012), a shorter duration of facial activity (brow bulge, eye squeeze and nasolabial furrowing) (p=0.0001), and a lower PIPP (Premature Infant Pain Profile) score (p=0.0001) were observed in group 2. In conclusion, skin-to-skin contact produced an analgesic effect in preterm newborns during heel lancing. PMID:18434021

Freire, Nájala Borges de Sousa; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho

2008-09-30

409

Voiceless Arabic vowels recognition using facial EMG.  

PubMed

This work attempts to recognize the Arabic vowels based on facial electromyograph (EMG) signals, to be used for people with speech impairment and for human computer interface. Vowels were selected since they are the most difficult letters to recognize by people in Arabic language. Twenty subjects (7 females and 13 males) were asked to pronounce three Arabic vowels continuously in a random order. Facial EMG signals were recorded over three channels from the three main facial muscles that are responsible for speech. The EMG signals are then pre-processed to eliminate noise and interference signals. Segmentation procedure was implemented to extract the time event that corresponds to each vowel based on a moving standard deviation window. The accuracy of the segmentation procedure was found to be 94%. The recognition of the vowels was carried out by extracting features from the EMG in three domains: the temporal, the spectral, and the time frequency using the wavelet packet transform. Classification of the extracted features was then finally performed using different classification methods implemented in the WEKA software. The random forest classifier with time frequency features showed the best performance with an accuracy of 77% evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation. PMID:21409427

Fraiwan, Luay; Lweesy, Khaldon; Al-Nemrawi, Ayat; Addabass, Sondos; Saifan, Rasha

2011-07-01

410

Automatic image assessment from facial attributes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal consumer photography collections often contain photos captured by numerous devices stored both locally and via online services. The task of gathering, organizing, and assembling still and video assets in preparation for sharing with others can be quite challenging. Current commercial photobook applications are mostly manual-based requiring significant user interactions. To assist the consumer in organizing these assets, we propose an automatic method to assign a fitness score to each asset, whereby the top scoring assets are used for product creation. Our method uses cues extracted from analyzing pixel data, metadata embedded in the file, as well as ancillary tags or online comments. When a face occurs in an image, its features have a dominating influence on both aesthetic and compositional properties of the displayed image. As such, this paper will emphasize the contributions faces have on affecting the overall fitness score of an image. To understand consumer preference, we conducted a psychophysical study that spanned 27 judges, 5,598 faces, and 2,550 images. Preferences on a per-face and per-image basis were independently gathered to train our classifiers. We describe how to use machine learning techniques to merge differing facial attributes into a single classifier. Our novel methods of facial weighting, fusion of facial attributes, and dimensionality reduction produce stateof- the-art results suitable for commercial applications.

Ptucha, Raymond; Kloosterman, David; Mittelstaedt, Brian; Loui, Alexander

2013-03-01

411

Quantifying facial expression recognition across viewing conditions.  

PubMed

Facial expressions are key to social interactions and to assessment of potential danger in various situations. Therefore, our brains must be able to recognize facial expressions when they are transformed in biologically plausible ways. We used synthetic happy, sad, angry and fearful faces to determine the amount of geometric change required to recognize these emotions during brief presentations. Five-alternative forced choice conditions involving central viewing, peripheral viewing and inversion were used to study recognition among the four emotions. Two-alternative forced choice was used to study affect discrimination when spatial frequency information in the stimulus was modified. The results show an emotion and task-dependent pattern of detection. Facial expressions presented with low peak frequencies are much harder to discriminate from neutral than faces defined by either mid or high peak frequencies. Peripheral presentation of faces also makes recognition much more difficult, except for happy faces. Differences between fearful detection and recognition tasks are probably due to common confusions with sadness when recognizing fear from among other emotions. These findings further support the idea that these emotions are processed separately from each other. PMID:16364393

Goren, Deborah; Wilson, Hugh R

2006-04-01

412

Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Reconstructive surgery of the facial nerve is not daily routine for most head and neck surgeons. The published experience on strategies to ensure optimal functional results for the patients are based on small case series with a large variety of surgical techniques. On this background it is worthwhile to develop a standardized approach for diagnosis and treatment of patients asking for facial rehabilitation. Conclusion A standardized approach is feasible: Patients with chronic facial palsy first need an exact classification of the palsy's aetiology. A step-by-step clinical examination, if necessary MRI imaging and electromyographic examination allow a classification of the palsy's aetiology as well as the determination of the severity of the palsy and the functional deficits. Considering the patient's desire, age and life expectancy, an individual surgical concept is applicable using three main approaches: a) early extratemporal reconstruction, b) early reconstruction of proximal lesions if extratemporal reconstruction is not possible, c) late reconstruction or in cases of congenital palsy. Twelve to 24 months after the last step of surgical reconstruction a standardized evaluation of the therapeutic results is recommended to evaluate the necessity for adjuvant surgical procedures or other adjuvant procedures, e.g. botulinum toxin application. Up to now controlled trials on the value of physiotherapy and other adjuvant measures are missing to give recommendation for optimal application of adjuvant therapies. PMID:21040532

2010-01-01

413

Time Perception and Dynamics of Facial Expressions of Emotions  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were run to examine the effects of dynamic displays of facial expressions of emotions on time judgments. The participants were given a temporal bisection task with emotional facial expressions presented in a dynamic or a static display. Two emotional facial expressions and a neutral expression were tested and compared. Each of the emotional expressions had the same affective valence (unpleasant), but one was high-arousing (expressing anger) and the other low-arousing (expressing sadness). Our results showed that time judgments are highly sensitive to movements in facial expressions and the emotions expressed. Indeed, longer perceived durations were found in response to the dynamic faces and the high-arousing emotional expressions compared to the static faces and low-arousing expressions. In addition, the facial movements amplified the effect of emotions on time perception. Dynamic facial expressions are thus interesting tools for examining variations in temporal judgments in different social contexts. PMID:24835285

Fayolle, Sophie L.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

2014-01-01

414

Effects of anticipation on perception of facial expressions.  

PubMed

Human beings do not passively perceive the facial expressions of other people, but predict observed facial expressions by employing past experiences. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether and how anticipation affected the perception of facial expressions. A 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA on anticipation, orientation, and facial expression was performed on RTs and recognition accuracy in Experiments 1 and 2. The results showed that anticipation reduced susceptibility to negative facial expressions. In this regard, anticipation might be considered as an effective emotion-regulation strategy. In addition, a decreased inversion effect for positive facial expressions was found in the predictable condition, which might reflect a switch from feature-based to holistic processing. PMID:24724522

Ran, Guang Ming; Chen, Xu; Pan, Yan Gu; Hu, Tian Qiang; Ma, Jing

2014-02-01

415

Facts about Birth Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir On ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

416

Birth Defects Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... and Developmental Disabilities National Center Homepage Share Compartir Birth Defects Quiz Your browser does not support iFrames. Related Pages Share the Birth Defects Quiz Birth Defects Folic Acid Healthy Pregnancy ...

417

Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods.Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400\\/cm2 on the breast

Sydney Selwyn; Harold Ellis

1972-01-01

418

The Minotaur Syndrome: Plastic surgery of the facial skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article remarks on the possibility of recontouring the face by working on the facial skeleton with the sole purpose of softening the facial appearance. The author describes a one-step surgical procedure performed on a 38-year-old man who had serious social problems because of his aggressive and threatening facial appearance that contrasted with his gentle personality. The author coins the

Paolo G. Morselli

1993-01-01

419

Intraoperative Monitoring and Facial Nerve Outcomes after Vestibular Schwannoma Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the predictive value of proximal fa- cial nerve electrical threshold and proximal-to-distal facial muscle compound action potential amplitude ratio on facial nerve outcomes after resection of vestibular schwannomas. Study Design: Retrospective case review. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Patients: Two hundred twenty-nine patients undergoing resec- tion of vestibular schwannomas with intraoperative facial nerve monitoring at a single institution.

Brandon Isaacson; Paul R. Kileny; Hussam El-Kashlan

2003-01-01

420

Histopathologic and functional effects of facial nerve following electrical stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to investigate the functional and histopathologic changes in facial nerve due to the application of\\u000a various violent and numerous electrical stimuli to the facial nerve. The study was carried out with Wistar rats weighing between\\u000a 200 and 300 g. The facial nerves of the subjects were located and stimulated with electrical stimulator. Then five groups

Emrah Sapmaz; Irfan Kaygusuz; Hayrettin Cengiz Alpay; Nusret Akpolat; Erol Keles; Turgut Karlidag; Israfil Orhan; Sinasi Yalcin

2010-01-01

421

The new Genetico-Racial Skin Classification: How to maximize the safety of any peel or laser treatment on any Asian, Caucasian or Black patient  

PubMed Central

The popular skin classifications, notably the ‘Fitzpatrick’ and ‘Obaji’ classifications, are primarily based on skin colour. Other criteria are occasionally considered, such as the degree of skin oiliness, thickness, sensibility, etc. Although these classifications are easy to understand and apply, their simplicity limits their precision, sophistication and applicability. The new genetico-racial skin classification proposed herein suggests that skin response to any peel or laser treatment is genetically programmed and is, therefore, linked to the genetic and racial origin of the patient. In other words, in addition to skin colour, the patient’s facial features and ancestry should be taken into account when classifying any skin. The new genetico-racial skin classification enables the physician to determine with great precision, and before any peel or laser treatment, the level of the patient’s suitability and the expected postoperative outcomes; therefore, reducing the likelihood of complications. PMID:22379368

Fanous, Nabil; Côté, Valérie; Fanous, Amanda

2011-01-01

422

Polyacrylamide hydrogel injection in the management of human immunodeficiency virus-related facial lipoatrophy: results of the LIPOPHILL open-label study.  

PubMed

Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can cause potentially stigmatizing facial lipoatrophy. Encouraging preliminary results have been reported with 2.5% polyacrylamide hydrogel for facial reconstruction. The aim of this multicenter, open-label noncomparative pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradermal facial injections of polyacrylamide hydrogel in HIV-infected patients with severe facial lipoatrophy. The patients received between two and six injections every 4 weeks, according to the aesthetic results. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by means of facial ultrasonography and photography at baseline and months 6, 12, and 24. Adverse events, patient satisfaction, and quality of life were also assessed. One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled and received at least one injection. Mean cheek skin thickness was 9.7 mm [95% CI: 9.1 to 10.2] at baseline. It rose by an average of 4.4 mm [95% CI: 3.9 to 4.9; p<0.001] at month 12 and a further 0.87 mm [95% CI: 0.52 to 1.23; p<0.001] at month 24. The Overall Treatment Satisfaction scale showed an improvement in more than 88% of patients at all visits, based on the appreciations of the patients, their close relatives and physicians, and on independent assessment of facial photographs. Quality of life improved significantly over time, as shown by the lipodystrophy-specific ABCD scale. No severe adverse effects related to the polyacrylamide hydrogel were noted. Polyacrylamide hydrogel injections were well tolerated and significantly improved the aesthetic aspect and quality of life of HIV-infected patients with facial lipoatrophy. PMID:21801082

Mole, Bernard; Gillaizeau, Florence; Carbonnel, Elisabeth; Pierre, Isabelle; Brazille, Patricia; Grataloup, Christine; Mercier, Sylvie; Duracinsky, Martin; Weiss, Laurence; Piketty, Christophe

2012-03-01

423

The Minotaur syndrome: plastic surgery of the facial skeleton.  

PubMed

This article remarks on the possibility of recontouring the face by working on the facial skeleton with the sole purpose of softening the facial appearance. The author describes a one-step surgical procedure performed on a 38-year-old man who had serious social problems because of his aggressive and threatening facial appearance that contrasted with his gentle personality. The author coins the term Minotaur Syndrome to describe the discrepancy between the patient's true personality versus his negative facial appearance. PMID:8517226

Morselli, P G

1993-01-01

424

Psychologic factors in the development of facial dermatoses.  

PubMed

In medical literature, as well as in daily practice, some common facial dermatoses are considered to be influenced or triggered by emotional factors. The main damager is stress, but depression and anxiety may play a role, among other factors. Some patients may experience a vicious cycle: Their facial dermatosis is triggered or worsened by stress, and in turn, the exacerbation itself is a major stressogenic stimulus. It appears that clinical wisdom and experience preceded clinical investigation in this field. Although patients testify that their emotional state may sometimes influence their facial condition, only limited experimental data exist so far, and only a few facial dermatoses were investigated. PMID:25441469

Orion, Edith; Wolf, Ronni

2014-01-01

425

Enhancing Facial Aesthetics with Muscle Retraining Exercises-A Review  

PubMed Central

Facial attractiveness plays a key role in social interaction. ‘Smile’ is not only a single category of facial behaviour, but also the emotion of frank joy which is expressed on the face by the combined contraction of the muscles involved. When a patient visits the dental clinic for aesthetic reasons, the dentist considers not only the chief complaint but also the overall harmony of the face. This article describes muscle retraining exercises to achieve control over facial movements and improve facial appearance which may be considered following any type of dental rehabilitation. Muscle conditioning, training and strengthening through daily exercises will help to counter balance the aging effects. PMID:25302289

D’souza, Raina; Kini, Ashwini; D’souza, Henston; Shetty, Omkar

2014-01-01

426

The skin microbiome  

PubMed Central

The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment. PMID:21407241

Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.

2012-01-01

427

Universal Seed Skin Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a principled approach for general skin segmentation using graph cuts. We present the idea of a highly adaptive\\u000a universal seed thereby exploiting the positive training data only. We model the skin segmentation as a min-cut problem on\\u000a a graph defined by the image color characteristics. The prior graph cuts based approaches for skin segmentation do not provide\\u000a general

Rehanullah Khan; Allan Hanbury; Julian Stöttinger

2010-01-01

428

Facial clefts in the west of Scotland in the period 1980-1984: epidemiology and genetic diagnoses.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and eighty six cases of cleft lip, cleft palate, or both were identified in a study attempting complete ascertainment of babies with facial clefts born to women resident in the west of Scotland in a five year period beginning 1 January 1980. The total birth prevalence (TBP) of these defects over this period was 1.53 per 1000. The TBP for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL[P] was 0.74 per 1000 and for cleft palate (CP) was 0.79 per 1000; 26% of CL[P] and 39.5% of CP cases had one or more major congenital anomaly associated with their facial cleft and in over half of these cases a specific genetic or syndrome diagnosis could be made. In comparison to previous European reports this study shows a high incidence of associated abnormalities and a remarkably low ratio of CL[P]:CP cases. PMID:8182717

FitzPatrick, D R; Raine, P A; Boorman, J G

1994-01-01

429

Macroscopic enamel defects of primary anterior teeth--types, prevalence, and distribution.  

PubMed

A total of 40.7% of 509 exfoliated primary anterior teeth from children who were healthy products of uneventful pregnancies exhibited at least one macroscopic enamel defect. Twenty percent of the teeth exhibited hypoplastic defects (HD), 12.4% exhibited white-cream opacities (WCO), and 9.8% exhibited yellow-brown opacities (YBO). Slightly more than a third (33.6%) of the teeth had defects we considered to be developmental enamel defects (DED). The occurrence of DED did not vary with gender, side of mouth, individual tooth types, or racial background. DED occurred with increased frequency on maxillary teeth, facial surfaces, and the middle third of affected surfaces. These locations have thicker enamel than other sites and may be more susceptible to insult if vulnerability is a function of metabolic demand of the rapidly secreting ameloblasts. Twenty-five per cent of the maxillary incisors and 10.1% of the mandibular incisors exhibited HD whose locations coincided with enamel forming at birth. A third (33.3%) of the canines exhibited HD, which occurred most commonly in the middle third of the facial surfaces. These defects are believed to occur approximately six months postnatally and may be primarily due to mechanical trauma. YBO most commonly occurred on the middle third of the facial surfaces, while WCO on the gingival third. Neither YBO nor WCO followed a chronologic pattern. PMID:1886825

Needleman, H L; Leviton, A; Allred, E

1991-01-01

430

Skin as an Organ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is part of the Skin Deep Project, which examines the science behind skin. Skin Deep is developed by AAAS and funded by NeutrogenaIn this lesson, students will examine the skin and how it functions as an organ and as part of a larger body system. By taking a closer look at the anatomy and function of the integumentary system, students will further their general knowledge of organ systems in general. Further, they will benefit from realizing that any part of a system may itself be considered as a systema subsystemwith its own internal parts and interactions. Additional links are given for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2006-03-14

431

Skin disease in antiquity.  

PubMed

Dermatological conditions and treatment in antiquity can be assessed by studying ancient skin, artefacts illustrating medical disorders and literature from the classified period as well as Egyptian papyri, cuneiform tablets and the Bible. It is often more useful and informative to study naturally preserved skin rather than artificially mummified skin. Great care must be taken in making retrospective diagnosis. Skin manifestations of internal diseases are, and have always been, of the greatest clinical importance. Study of the past may give an insight into the epidemiological aspects of diseases such as TB, leprosy and syphilis which have spread across the world with serious social consequences. PMID:16521362

Liddell, Keith

2006-01-01

432

3D Facial Landmark Localization3D Facial Landmark Localization using Combinatorial Search and  

E-print Network

as an index of early brain dysmorphogenesis in neuropsychiatric disorders Down syndrome Autism Schizophrenia Bipolar disorder Fetal alcohol syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome Cornelia de Large syndrome Joubert syndrome ... Patterns tend to be subtle #12;07/10/2012 2 Facial

Whelan, Paul F.

433

[Human cervico-facial morphogenesis. Evaluation of acquired data and current outlook. (Part 1: facial morphogenesis)].  

PubMed

The embryonic development of the face has been studied in many reviews, this work purposes only to clear up some points which remain obscure concerning cervico-facial morphogenesis. In the first part of this study only the facial development, properly speaking, is considered, although it cannot be separate of cervical development to which a second study will be reserved. In the present study we recall the particular aspects of the neurulation in the cephalic area, then the establishment of the facial processes. Then we approach among other things the way to consider the maxillary process with regard to the other facial processes. After is considered constitution and natured of the prechordal plate which has been diversely explained. Finally, the modelling of the face is evocated, in which the dissociation between the olfactive and buccal spheres is pointed out, with the disparition of the muzzle, as it is established in the haplorhinae, a class of primates in which the human being is involved. This phenomenon raises different questions, in particular about the relation of this disposition with the nasoseptal center, the medial part of the nasodorsal center. PMID:9737912

Onolfo, J P; Leperchey, F; Barbet, J P

1997-06-01

434

Discrimination of facial identity and facial affect by temporal and frontal lobectomy patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which lobectomy affects ability to discriminate facial identity or facial expression. Fifteen right temporal, 15 left temporal, 5 right frontal, and 4 left frontal lobectomy patients, pair-matched for age, sex, and education to normal control subjects, participated in this study. Tasks included a Facial Identity Matching Task and a Facial Affect Matching task. The lobectomized patients as a whole were significantly impaired on both tasks (22% decrement in performance). The patients made twice as many errors resulting from perseveration of response-set of the first condition (identity or emotion matching) into the second condition. The site of lobectomy did not influence general performance on any one task or selective performance on any subset of affective categories. It was concluded that all four brain regions play a significant and equal role in face processing, and that circuits more specifically dedicated to visual face processing, which are responsible for hemispheric dominance affects and affect/identity dissociations, are probably located more posteriorly in the brain. Finally, it was concluded that perseveration of acquired habit may, under specific conditions, characterize temporal lobe dysfunction just as much as frontal lobe dysfunction. PMID:8185894

Braun, C M; Denault, C; Cohen, H; Rouleau, I

1994-03-01

435

Gillies fan flap for the reconstruction of an upper lip defect caused by noma: case presentation.  

PubMed

The case of a 65-year-old noma patient with a defect involving her upper lip is presented. The defect also included missing teeth numbers eleven, twelve, 21, and 22 and the adjoining alveolus. One-stage lip reconstruction was carried out with Gillies fan flap followed by vestibuloplasty and commissuroplasty. An acrylic partial denture was subsequently fabricated to replace the missing teeth and thereby restore function. Even though the incidence of cancrum oris has reduced worldwide, cases are still being reported in Africa and can leave behind a significant facial defect. Whereas most cases of lip defects reported from the Western world are due to cancer, cancrum oris could be the cause of lip defects in sub-Saharan Africa. Gillies fan flap could be employed for the reconstruction of a relatively large defect of the lip and the disadvantage of microstomia could be minimized for the restoration of articulation, speech, and masticatory functions of the lip. PMID:23674921

Bello, Seidu Adebayo

2012-01-01

436

Gillies fan flap for the reconstruction of an upper lip defect caused by noma: case presentation  

PubMed Central

The case of a 65-year-old noma patient with a defect involving her upper lip is presented. The defect also included missing teeth numbers eleven, twelve, 21, and 22 and the adjoining alveolus. One-stage lip reconstruction was carried out with Gillies fan flap followed by vestibuloplasty and commissuroplasty. An acrylic partial denture was subsequently fabricated to replace the missing teeth and thereby restore function. Even though the incidence of cancrum oris has reduced worldwide, cases are still being reported in Africa and can leave behind a significant facial defect. Whereas most cases of lip defects reported from the Western world are due to cancer, cancrum oris could be the cause of lip defects in sub-Saharan Africa. Gillies fan flap could be employed for the reconstruction of a relatively large defect of the lip and the disadvantage of microstomia could be minimized for the restoration of articulation, speech, and masticatory functions of the lip. PMID:23674921

Bello, Seidu Adebayo

2012-01-01

437

Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure of the skin to sunlight causes damage to the underlying connective tissue with a loss of elasticity and firmness. Silicon (Si) was suggested to have an important function in the formation and maintenance of connective tissue. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid ("ch-OSA") is a bioavailable form of silicon which was found to increase the hydroxyproline concentration in the dermis of animals. The effect of ch-OSA on skin, nails and hair was investigated in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Fifty women with photodamaged facial skin were administered orally during 20 weeks, 10 mg Si/day in the form of ch-OSA pellets (n=25) or a placebo (n=25). Noninvasive methods were used to evaluate skin microrelief (forearm), hydration (forearm) and mechanical anisotropy (forehead). Volunteers evaluated on a virtual analog scale (VAS, "none=0, severe=3") brittleness of hair and nails. The serum Si concentration was significantly higher after a 20-week supplementation in subjects with ch-OSA compared to the placebo group. Skin roughness parameters increased in the placebo group (Rt:+8%; Rm: +11%; Rz: +6%) but decreased in the ch-OSA group (Rt: -16%; Rm: -19%; Rz: -8%). The change in roughness from baseline was significantly different between ch-OSA and placebo groups for Rt and Rm. The difference in longitudinal and lateral shear propagation time increased after 20 weeks in the placebo group but decreased in the ch-OSA group suggesting improvement in isotropy of the skin. VAS scores for nail and hair brittleness were significantly lower after 20 weeks in the ch-OSA group compared to baseline scores. Oral intake of ch-OSA during the 20 weeks results in a significant positive effect on skin surface and skin mechanical properties, and on brittleness of hair and nails. PMID:16205932

Barel, A; Calomme, M; Timchenko, A; De Paepe, K; Paepe, K De; Demeester, N; Rogiers, V; Clarys, P; Vanden Berghe, D

2005-10-01

438

Postdevelopment defect evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of defects after development is a critical issue in photolithography. A special category of post development defects is the satellite defect which is located in large exposed areas generally in proximity to large unexposed regions of photoresist. We have investigated the formation of this defect type on ESCAP and ACETAL DUV resists with and without underlying organic BARCs, In

Osamu Miyahara; Yukio Kiba; Yuko Ono

2001-01-01

439

Laser welding of rat's facial nerve.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to compare regeneration of the severed nerves that were repaired by laser welding with those repaired by microsurgical suturing and evaluate the value in use of laser nerve welding in the head and neck area. In 12 rats the buccal branches of the facial nerves on the both sides were transected, and CO2 laser welding of the epineurium was performed on the right side and microsurgical suture technique was applied on the left side. In six rats Cholera Toxin B Subunit (CTb) was injected in the epineurium distal to the nerve anastomosis site at postoperative week 4. Another six rats were treated exactly in the same way in postoperative week 8. Six normal rats were used as controls. Intact facial nerve was observed after injection of CTb as well. Neurons of facial nuclei labeled positively by CTb were detected immunohistochemically, and the numbers were counted. CTb-positive neurons in the control group were 1311 +/- 258 (n = 6). CTb-positive neurons in the group (n = 6) with laser nerve welding were 1174 +/- 122 in postoperative week 4 and 1562 +/- 565 in postoperative week 8. CTb-positive neurons in the group (n = 6) with microsurgical suture were 1066 +/- 89 in postoperative week 4 and 1443 +/- 531 in postoperative week 8. CTb-positive neurons were seen significantly more in the group with laser welding than in the group with microsurgical suture in postoperative week (P = 0.028), but there was not much difference in postoperative week 8 (P = 0.463). None of 12 rats showed dehiscence at the nerve anastomosis done by laser welding. This study shows that nerve regeneration is more apparent in the nerve repaired by laser welding than in that repaired by microsurgical suture. PMID:16327562

Hwang, Kun; Kim, Sun Goo; Kim, Dae Joong; Lee, Chang Hyun

2005-11-01

440

Centrofacial malignant T-cell lymphoma exhibiting recurrent fever and skin ulcer in a 3-year-old girl.  

PubMed

A rare case of undetermined fever and skin ulcers is reported. The patient had an 8-month history of recurrent fever, destructive ulceration of the midline facial tissue, and symmetrical skin ulcer in the cheeks and the back of the hand. Pathological examination revealed that the patient had lethal midline granuloma (centrofacial malignant T-cell lymphoma), which is very rare in childhood. Centrofacial malignant T-cell lymphoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis of unexplained fever and skin ulcer in children. PMID:12487833

Kakihara, Toshio; Imai, Chihaya; Hotta, Hiromitsu; Ikarashi, Yukie; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Makoto

2002-12-01

441

Use of platelet rich fibrin in a fenestration defect around an implant  

PubMed Central

Guided bone regeneration (GBR) in implant therapy is especially useful for implant placement with dehiscence defects or fenestration defects. In alveolar ridges with marked facial/buccal depressions or in knifeedge alveolar crests, the position and direction of fixture placement is restricted. Improvement of alveolar ridge morphology becomes possible with GBR. This article describes a case in which the fenestration defect around an implant was treated by the application of platelet rich fibrin, a second generation platelet concentrate along with bone graft, and guided tissue regeneration membrane. PMID:22628974

Vijayalakshmi, R.; Rajmohan, C. S.; Deepalakshmi, D.; Sivakami, G.

2012-01-01

442

Facial expression recognition using constructive neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer-based recognition of facial expressions has been an active area of research for quite a long time. The ultimate goal is to realize intelligent and transparent communications between human beings and machines. The neural network (NN) based recognition methods have been found to be particularly promising, since NN is capable of implementing mapping from the feature space of face images to the facial expression space. However, finding a proper network size has always been a frustrating and time consuming experience for NN developers. In this paper, we propose to use the constructive one-hidden-layer feed forward neural networks (OHL-FNNs) to overcome this problem. The constructive OHL-FNN will obtain in a systematic way a proper network size which is required by the complexity of the problem being considered. Furthermore, the computational cost involved in network training can be considerably reduced when compared to standard back- propagation (BP) based FNNs. In our proposed technique, the 2-dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is applied over the entire difference face image for extracting relevant features for recognition purpose. The lower- frequency 2-D DCT coefficients obtained are then used to train a constructive OHL-FNN. An input-side pruning technique previously proposed by the authors is also incorporated into the constructive OHL-FNN. An input-side pruning technique previously proposed by the authors is also incorporated into the constructive learning process to reduce the network size without sacrificing the performance of the resulting network. The proposed technique is applied to a database consisting of images of 60 men, each having the resulting network. The proposed technique is applied to a database consisting of images of 60 men, each having 5 facial expression images (neutral, smile, anger, sadness, and surprise). Images of 40 men are used for network training, and the remaining images are used for generalization and testing. Confusion matrices calculated in both network training and testing for 4 facial expressions (smile, anger, sadness, and surprise) are used to evaluate the performance of the trained network. By extensive simulations it is shown that when compared with the BP-based method, the proposed technique constructs OHL- FNN with significantly smaller number of hidden units and weights, and simultaneously yielding improved recognition performance.

Ma, Liying; Khorasani, Khashayar

2001-08-01

443

Languages and interfaces for facial animation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes high-level tools for specifying, controlling, and synchronizing temporal and spatial characteristics for 3D animation of facial expressions. The proposed approach consists of hierarchical levels of controls. Specification of expressions, phonemes, emotions, sentences, and head movements by means of a high-level language is shown. The various aspects of synchronization are also emphasized. Then, association of the control different interactive devices and media which allows the animator greater flexibility and freedom, is discussed. Experiments with input accessories such as the keyboard of a music synthesizer and gestures from the DataGlove are illustrated.

Magnenat-Thalmann, N. [Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

1995-05-01

444

Facial pain due to elongated styloid process.  

PubMed

Pain is the most frequent cause of suffering and disability. The etiology of orofacial pain is still elusive. However, the etiology has to be ascertained for definitive treatment. Only after a systematic and careful evaluation can a treating surgeon be aware of the underlying cause. Though dental causes predominate in the diagnosis of orofacial pain, the rare cause of facial pain have to be excluded, which would prevent unnecessary and fruitless dental treatment. The present case is an example of a rare condition that may be overlooked during examination. This paper will describe a case of vague unilateral orofacial pain, the diagnosis of which zeroed down to an elongated styloid process. PMID:24015020

Kar, Indu Bhusan; Mishra, Niranjan; Raut, Subhrajit; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar

2013-04-01

445

Major facial trauma after helicopter landing.  

PubMed

Injuries in civil aviation can occur as a consequence of work-related accidents happening in airport. The ground crew can sustain slips, trips, falls, and machinery accidents. Most such accidents are observed when aircraft is departing. This clinical report describes a case of an airport ground assistant severely injured by a helicopter after the strike with a main rotor blade that was slowing after that the craft was landed and the engine was stopped, and reports surgical emergency treatment of life-threatening facial lesions. PMID:21778853

Becelli, Roberto; Morello, Roberto; Renzi, Giancarlo; Matarazzo, Giorgio; Dominici, Chiara

2011-07-01

446

[Cryotherapy in treatment of skin demodecosis].  

PubMed

Demodecosis is wide spread chronic skin disorder caused by the mite - Demodex folliculorum. It frequently involves the mid facial region: nasolabial folder, the nose, the chin and eyes. The treatment depends on the severity of the inflammatory skin disorder and includes complex of oral and topical drug treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the efficiency of criotherapy in complex treatment of demodecosis. We have observed 38 patients of both sexes aged 19-54. The patients were divided into two groups - "A" and "B". Patients with erythematosquamose form of the disease were treated with Trichopol peros and oral antibiotics in case of inflammatory lesions. For topical treatment in group "A" Rosamet cream was used. In group "B" Rosamet cream and criotherapy were used. The results of our study have demonstrated effectiveness of criotherapy in combination with Rosamet cream. A significantly faster decrease of inflammatory lesions and reduce the erythema was observed in group "B". Therefore the usage of criotherapy with Rosamet cream is recommended to get quick therapeutic effect. PMID:19556638

Beridze, L R; Katsitadze, A G; Katsitadze, T G

2009-05-01

447