Sample records for facial skin defects

  1. Thoracodorsal artery perforator - scapular flap in oromandibular reconstruction with associated large facial skin defects.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R J; Ho, M W; Brown, J S

    2015-07-01

    The reconstruction of oromandibular defects associated with extensive loss of external skin is surgically challenging. We describe 2 cases where such defects were reconstructed with a chimeric thoracodorsal artery perforator and scapular (TDAP-Scap) free flap based on the subscapular system. The flap is a reliable option in the reconstruction of through-and-through oromandibular defects. PMID:25857251

  2. Image Analysis Of Facial Skin Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartstein, Vladimir; Shaya, Steven A.

    1986-06-01

    Image processing algorithms and photographic techniques have been developed to allow objective, reproducible quantification of facial skin wrinkles, age spots, pores, and other visible skin features. The methods have been used to determine the effects of environmen-tal solar exposure on facial skin aging.

  3. Prelaminated free flap reconstruction of complex central facial defects.

    PubMed

    Pribaz, J J; Weiss, D D; Mulliken, J B; Eriksson, E

    1999-08-01

    This article is a review of five patients who underwent reconstruction of nasal and paranasal facial defects with prelaminated forearm free flaps. The defects resulted from thermal injury, gunshot wound, excision of tumor, and arteriovenous malformation (n = 2). The forearm flaps were based on the radial artery (n = 4) and ulnar artery (n = 1) and were prelaminated with grafts of skin and cartilage. All flaps were successfully transferred to the face, but revisions were needed to separate the subunits and improve appearance. A prelaminated free flap should be considered for a patient requiring reconstruction of a complex central facial defect. PMID:10654678

  4. Photodamage: treatments and topicals for facial skin.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; Pan, Brian S; Kitzmiller, W John

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of current therapies for photodamaged facial skin and their efficacy, with particular focus on studies that use the objective, quantitative evaluation methods discussed in the previous article. The role of topically applied agents including prescription drugs and cosmetics is discussed. From this information, a schema for the relative effectiveness of therapeutic modalities in reducing perceived age is presented. This information assists the facial plastic surgeon in evaluating patient expectations and selecting the most effective program. PMID:23369590

  5. Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging

    PubMed Central

    Piérard, Gérald E; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Gaspard, Ulysse; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Background Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the cheeks in this stage of the aging process. Methods Skin viscoelasticity was compared on both cheeks in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with indoor occupational activities somewhat limiting the influence of chronic sun exposure. Eighty-four healthy women comprising 36 premenopausal women and 48 early post-menopausal women off hormone replacement therapy were enrolled in two groups. The tensile characteristics of both cheeks were tested and compared in each group. A computerized suction device equipped with a 2 mm diameter hollow probe was used to derive viscoelasticity parameters during a five-cycle procedure of 2 seconds each. Skin unfolding, intrinsic distensibility, biological elasticity, and creep extension were measured. Results Both biological elasticity and creep extension were asymmetric on the cheeks of the post-menopausal women. In contrast, these differences were more discrete in the premenopausal women. Conclusion Facial skin viscoelasticity appeared to be asymmetric following menopause. The possibility of asymmetry should be taken into account in future studies of the effects of hormone replacement therapy and any antiaging procedure on the face in menopausal women. PMID:24748810

  6. Ultrastructure of elastosis in facial rhytidectomy skin

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, R.; Woodward, M.

    1981-03-01

    Skin from 19 facial rhytidectomies performed in patients with chronic solar damage was compared with postauricular skin from patients of similar age. Light microscopy demonstrated large areas of amorphous material that stained PAS positive in all 19 face-lift specimens, while none of the controls had such material. Electron microscopy of the ''elastotic'' material revealed large amorphous masses of granular material, with loss of the microfilament component of normal elastin. Current theories suggest that the elastotic material in solar-damaged skin is a product of radiation-damaged fibroblasts, rather than being either collagen or degenerated elastin. Such knowledge may help the plastic surgeons encourage rhytidectomy patients to protect themselves from solar radiation.

  7. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  8. Facial Skin Coloration Affects Perceived Health of Human Faces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian D. Stephen; Miriam J. Law Smith; Michael R. Stirrat; David I. Perrett

    2009-01-01

    Numerous researchers have examined the effects of skin condition, including texture and color, on the perception of health,\\u000a age, and attractiveness in human faces. They have focused on facial color distribution, homogeneity of pigmentation, or skin\\u000a quality. We here investigate the role of overall skin color in determining perceptions of health from faces by allowing participants\\u000a to manipulate the skin

  9. Comparison of Local Flaps and Skin Grafts to Repair Cheek Skin Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Ashayeri, Mehdi; Rasouli, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Selecting the appropriate technique for surgical incisions, and reconstruction of facial defects after skin tumour excision has always been one of the surgeon's biggest concerns. The aim of this study is to compare the results between the local flap and skin graft to reconstruct cheek defects after basal cell carcinoma excision. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, 40 patients with skin defects resulting from skin tumour (Basal cell carcinoma) excision in cheek zones (16 sub-orbital, 18 bucco-mandibular and six auricular) were treated using local flap (n = 20) and skin graft (n = 20) from October 2010 to April 2012. All patients were followed up for 12 months, postoperatively. In addition, general assessments including complications, patient satisfaction, tissue co-ordination, skin colour and hospitalisation days were obtained. Results: Five patients had postoperative hyper-pigmentation complication in the skin graft group and none occurred in the local flap (P = 0.046). In the early postoperative period (2 weeks), mean scores in patient satisfaction, tissue co-ordination and skin colour were statistically significant increase in the local flaps (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively) and in the later postoperative period (12 months) only mean scores in skin colour significantly increased in the local flaps (P < 0.001). The mean postoperative length of hospitalisation days was 1.7 ± 0.4 days in the local flap group, and 3.63 ± 1.16 days in the skin graft group (P = 0.001). Conclusion: In the local flap group: Patient satisfaction, tissue co-ordination and skin colour were improved after 2 weeks. Also in 12-months follow up visits, skin colour was improved significantly and the hyperpigmentation was reduced. Generally, in this study the local flaps had better results in clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. However, for each cheek defect the surgeon must choose the appropriate reconstruction strategy to avoid undesirable outcomes.

  10. Chronic actinic damage of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bilaç, Cemal; ?ahin, Mustafa Turhan; Öztürkcan, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Chronic actinic damage of the skin manifests itself as extrinsic skin aging (photoaging) and photocarcinogenesis. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoaging. DNA photodamage and ultraviolet-generated reactive oxygen species are the initial events that lead to most of the typical histologic and clinical manifestations of chronic photodamage of the skin. Chronic actinic damage affects all layers of the skin. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells are altered by ultraviolet radiation and can result in numerous changes in human skin, particularly the skin of fair-skinned individuals. These changes include actinic keratosis, thickening and wrinkling, elastosis, telengiectasia, solar comedones, diffuse or mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin cancers. There are many options in the treatment of changes caused by chronic actinic damage. The most effective measure of prevention of the photoaging and photocarcinogenesis is sun protection. PMID:25441468

  11. Facial skin beautification using adaptive region-aware masks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lingyu; Jin, Lianwen; Li, Xuelong

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a unified facial beautification framework with respect to skin homogeneity, lighting, and color. A novel region-aware mask is constructed for skin manipulation, which can automatically select the edited regions with great precision. Inspired by the state-of-the-art edit propagation techniques, we present an adaptive edge-preserving energy minimization model with a spatially variant parameter and a high-dimensional guided feature space for mask generation. Using region-aware masks, our method facilitates more flexible and accurate facial skin enhancement while the complex manipulations are simplified considerably. In our beautification framework, a portrait is decomposed into smoothness, lighting, and color layers by an edge-preserving operator. Next, facial landmarks and significant features are extracted as input constraints for mask generation. After three region-aware masks have been obtained, a user can perform facial beautification simply by adjusting the skin parameters. Furthermore, the combinations of parameters can be optimized automatically, depending on the data priors and psychological knowledge. We performed both qualitative and quantitative evaluation for our method using faces with different genders, races, ages, poses, and backgrounds from various databases. The experimental results demonstrate that our technique is superior to previous methods and comparable to commercial systems, for example, PicTreat, Portrait+ , and Portraiture. PMID:24710839

  12. Skin Barrier Defects in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rachana; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with complex etiology that is dependent upon interactions between the host and the environment. Acute skin lesions exhibit the features of a Th2-driven inflammatory disorder and many patients are highly atopic. The skin barrier plays key roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis, and in preventing penetration of microbial products and allergens. Defects that compromise the structural integrity, or else the immune function of the skin barrier play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. This article provides an overview of the array of molecular building blocks that are essential to maintaining healthy skin. The basis for structural defects in the skin is discussed in relation to AD, with an emphasis on filaggrin and its genetic underpinnings. Aspects of innate immunity, including the role of anti-microbial peptides and proteases are also discussed. PMID:24633617

  13. Glabrous skin grafts for plantar defects.

    PubMed

    Banis, J C

    2001-12-01

    The principle of reconstructing like to like has been a long-standing and useful concept for plastic surgeons. One arena in which this concept has not been put to its full use is that of reconstructing soft tissue deficits of the sole of the foot. Most commonly, plantar defects that are to be skin grafted are reconstructed with split- or full-thickness, nonglabrous skin grafts. Nonglabrous skin grafts have significant disadvantages when used for reconstruction of plantar defects. These include painful hyperkeratotic build up at the periphery of the skin grafts, craters, contractures, and tight subgraft fibrosis. Glabrous skin grafting has been applied widely for coverage of smaller defects in the hand and has yielded superior results with improved function and sensation, more normalcy of appearance, and increase durability. The concept of reconstructing plantar defects by this method has probably been impeded by the vague and erroneous, but broadly held, belief that donor-site healing in the foot would be problematic, that is, significant potential for excessive scarring, pain, and functional deficit. The long-standing use of glabrous skin grafts for plantar defects in this unit, however, confirms the desirability, functional advantage, and minimal morbidity of this technique. PMID:12134583

  14. Facial shape and 3D skin By Won-Sook Lee* and Andrew Soon

    E-print Network

    Lee, WonSook

    provides clues as to a person's age, health, condition, etc. Even though skin is a very salient topicFacial shape and 3D skin By Won-Sook Lee* and Andrew Soon * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * We present novel ideas for facial shape and skin simulation on extremely detailed three- dimensional

  15. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  16. Fetal Facial Defects: Associated Malformations and Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Nicolaides; D. R. Salvesen; R. J. M. Snijders; C. M. Gosden

    1993-01-01

    During an 8-year period, facial defects were observed in 146 (7%) of the 2,086 fetuses that underwent karyotyping in our unit because of fetal malformations and\\/or growth retardation. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 37 of 56 (66%) fetuses with micrognathia, in 10 of 13 (77%) with macroglossia, in 31 of 64 (48 %) with cleft lip and palate, in 5

  17. Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, I.; Tseng, S. H.; Cula, G. O.; Bargo, P. R.; Kollias, N.

    2009-02-01

    The activity of certain bacteria in skin is known to correlate to the presence of porphyrins. In particular the presence of coproporphyrin produced by P.acnes inside plugged pores has been correlated to acne vulgaris. Another porphyrin encountered in skin is protoporphyrin IX, which is produced by the body in the pathway for production of heme. In the present work, a fluorescence spectroscopy system was developed to measure the characteristic spectrum and quantify the two types of porphyrins commonly present in human facial skin. The system is comprised of a Xe lamp both for fluorescence excitation and broadband light source for diffuse reflectance measurements. A computer-controlled filter wheel enables acquisition of sequential spectra, first excited by blue light at 405 nm then followed by the broadband light source, at the same location. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to correct the fluorescence spectrum due to the presence of skin chromophores, such as blood and melanin. The resulting fluorescence spectra were employed for the quantification of porphyrin concentration in a population of healthy subjects. The results show great variability on the concentration of these porphyrins and further studies are being conducted to correlate them with skin conditions such as inflammation and acne vulgaris.

  18. A newborn with grouped facial skin lesions and subsequent seizures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital grouped skin lesions are alarming signs of a variety of threatening diagnoses of quite different origin. The present case report shows an impressive clinical pattern of a neonate and illustrates the difficulty in differential diagnosis of mixed connective tissue disease and neonatal lupus erythematosus in newborns. This reported case is to our knowledge the first description of an unrecognized mixed connective tissue disease in the mother with an unusual clinical manifestation in the newborn, comprising skin lesions, neurological damage and non-typical antibody constellation. Case presentation We report on a Caucasian female neonate from a perinatally asymptomatic mother, who presented with grouped facial pustular-like skin lesions, followed by focal clonic seizures caused by multiple ischemic brain lesions. Herpes simplex virus infection was excluded and both the mother and her infant had the antibody pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus and neonatal lupus erythematosus, respectively. However, clinical signs in the mother showed overlapping features of mixed connective tissue disease. Conclusion This case report emphasizes congenital Lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease as important differential diagnoses of grouped skin lesions in addition to Herpes simplex virus-infection. The coexistence of different criteria for mixed connective tissue disease makes it difficult to allocate precisely maternal and congenital infantile disease. PMID:24884686

  19. Double cheek-cervical rotation flap for repair of facial defects.

    PubMed

    Lim, R Y; Strickland, S A; Lim, J W

    1993-01-01

    Repair of extensive facial defects due to cancer surgery or trauma is a challenge to restore form, function, and facade. This article studies the advantages of using the double cheek-cervical rotation flap for immediate reconstruction of 10 patients with huge facial defects. PMID:8421911

  20. Early rehabilitation of facial defects using interim removable prostheses: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Vivekanandhan; Sangeetha, Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Surgical resection of neoplasms or malformations of the face may result in defects that are not amenable to immediate surgical reconstruction. Such defects can have a severe adverse effect on patient perceptions of body image and self-esteem. In these cases, the use of an interim removable facial prosthesis can offer a rapid alternative treatment solution. The patient may then resume social interactions more comfortably while permitting easy access to the facial defect to observe tissue healing while awaiting definitive rehabilitation. This article presents a case report describing the use of interim nasal prostheses to provide rapid patient rehabilitation of facial defects. PMID:23956597

  1. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA® Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. PMID:24910280

  2. Optical characterization of facial foundation applied to skin replicas by using visible FF-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Ryota; Iwai, Toshiaki; Tsugita, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a new type of optical coherence tomography using visible-LED sources to investigate light propagation in a make-up skin and measure the thickness of facial foundation. The thickness is estimated by the difference between the three-dimensional tomographic images of a skin replica before and after applying facial foundation. Finally, we demonstrate experimentally that this work is the first step to investigate the relation between the appearance and the light propagation in the make-up skin.

  3. Variations of structural components: specific intercultural differences in facial morphology, skin type, and structures.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Aisha; Momoh, Adeyiza O; Bullocks, Jamal M

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of the differences in facial morphology and skin structure and tone among ethnic groups within the realm of plastic surgery is relevant due to the increasing number of ethnic individuals seeking cosmetic surgery. Previous classifications of ideal facial morphologic characteristics have been revised and challenged over the years to accurately reflect the differences in facial structure that are aesthetically pleasing to individuals of differing ethnic groups. The traditional neoclassic canons reflected the European Caucasian facial morphology and cannot be used to classify facial characteristics in ethnic groups due to drastic differences in measurement and proportion. In addition, differences in biophysiologic properties of ethnic skin types influence the progression of aging and the ability of skin to withstand environmental insults. Thickness of the stratum corneum, water content, and melanin composition are important factors that were analyzed in varying ethnic groups. Although it appears that Caucasian Americans are subject to earlier onset of skin wrinkling and sagging than are African Americans due to thinner stratum corneum layers and decreased water content, more research needs to be conducted to be inclusive of other ethnic groups. These data will enable plastic surgeons to treat these groups more effectively while preserving their unique characteristics. PMID:20676309

  4. Skin-fat-graft: a simple tool for reconstruction of small deep defects of the nose.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Christian; von Gregory, Henning Freiherr; Fischer, Helmut

    2014-06-01

    Small deep defects of the nose after resection of benign or malignant skin tumors are a common challenge in facial plastic surgery daily routine. The use of local flaps has several disadvantages for what reason they are a minor or no option especially in certain localizations in the lower third of the nose. Many elder patients suffer from comorbidities where complex more-staged reconstructional procedures drop out. We present a technique of nasal defect closure with a skin-fat composite graft. Between April 2010 and July 2013, we treated 42 patients with a total of 46 skin-fat-grafts to the nose. We reevaluated the esthetic and functional outcome in a retrospective analysis. In 80% of the cases, the results were rated excellent to satisfactory, 20% fair to poor. Reasons for worse validation were color and contour differences of grafts and surrounding tissue as well as alar retraction in very few cases. Nevertheless, we consider skin-fat-grafts to be a useful tool in single-layer nasal reconstruction in defects of smaller size. PMID:24918704

  5. Prognosis of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyung Suk; Yang, Won Yong; Kang, Sang Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Background In the extremities of premature infants, the skin and subcutaneous tissue are very pliable due to immaturity and have a greater degree of skin laxity and mobility. Thus, we can expect wounds to heal rapidly by wound contraction. This study investigates wound healing of full-thickness defects in premature infant extremities. Methods The study consisted of 13 premature infants who had a total of 14 cases of full-thickness skin defects of the extremities due to extravasation after total parenteral nutrition. The wound was managed with intensive moist dressings with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents. After wound closure, moisturization and mild compression were performed. Results Most of the full-thickness defects in the premature infants were closed by wound contraction without granulation tissue formation on the wound bed. The defects resulted in 3 pinpoint scars, 9 linear scars, and 2 round hypertrophic scars. The wounds with less granulation tissue were healed by contraction and resulted in linear scars parallel to the relaxed skin tension line. The wounds with more granulation tissue resulted in round scars. There was mild contracture without functional abnormality in 3 cases with a defect over two thirds of the longitudinal length of the dorsum of the hand or foot. The patients' parents were satisfied with the outcomes in 12 of 14 cases. Conclusions Full-thickness skin defects in premature infants typically heal by wound contraction with minimal granulation tissue and scar formation probably due to excellent skin mobility. PMID:23094240

  6. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

  7. Characterizing facial skin ageing in humans: disentangling extrinsic from intrinsic biological phenomena.

    PubMed

    Trojahn, Carina; Dobos, Gabor; Lichterfeld, Andrea; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Facial skin ageing is caused by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Intrinsic ageing is highly related to chronological age. Age related skin changes can be measured using clinical and biophysical methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and how clinical characteristics and biophysical parameters are associated with each other with and without adjustment for chronological age. Twenty-four female subjects of three age groups were enrolled. Clinical assessments (global facial skin ageing, wrinkling, and sagging), and biophysical measurements (roughness, colour, skin elasticity, and barrier function) were conducted at both upper cheeks. Pearson's correlations and linear regression models adjusted for age were calculated. Most of the measured parameters were correlated with chronological age (e.g., association with wrinkle score, r = 0.901) and with each other (e.g., residual skin deformation and wrinkle score, r = 0.606). After statistical adjustment for age, only few associations remained (e.g., mean roughness (R z ) and luminance (L (*)),??? = -0.507, R (2) = 0.377). Chronological age as surrogate marker for intrinsic ageing has the most important influence on most facial skin ageing signs. Changes in skin elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and yellowness seem to be caused by additional extrinsic ageing. PMID:25767806

  8. Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hazra; D. Williams; R. Roy; R. Aylmore; M. Allen; D. Hollingdale

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of defects such as `hollows' and `shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of

  9. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan® VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects. PMID:25097471

  10. The importance of skin color and facial structure in perceiving and remembering others: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Brebner, Joanne L; Krigolson, Olav; Handy, Todd C; Quadflieg, Susanne; Turk, David J

    2011-05-01

    The own-race bias (ORB) is a well-documented recognition advantage for own-race (OR) over cross-race (CR) faces, the origin of which remains unclear. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Caucasian participants age-categorized Black and White faces which were digitally altered to display either a race congruent or incongruent facial structure. The results of a subsequent surprise memory test indicated that regardless of facial structure participants recognized White faces better than Black faces. Additional analyses revealed that temporally-early ERP components associated with face-specific perceptual processing (N170) and the individuation of facial exemplars (N250) were selectively sensitive to skin color. In addition, the N200 (a component that has been linked to increased attention and depth of encoding afforded to in-group and OR faces) was modulated by color and structure, and correlated with subsequent memory performance. However, the LPP component associated with the cognitive evaluation of perceptual input was influenced by racial differences in facial structure alone. These findings suggest that racial differences in skin color and facial structure are detected during the encoding of unfamiliar faces, and that the categorization of conspecifics as members of our social in-group on the basis of their skin color may be a determining factor in our ability to subsequently remember them. PMID:21382358

  11. Facial skin blood flow responses to irritant stimuli in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether capsaicin and menthol stimuli elicit characteristic responses in facial skin blood flow (SkBF), we observed the facial SkBF response to low and high concentrations of capsaicin and menthol stimuli of 1-ml solution applied to the oral cavity for 20s in 17 healthy subjects. High concentration of capsaicin significantly increased the SkBF in all of the facial areas monitored. High concentration of menthol stimulus significantly decreased SkBF in the nose and increased that in the eyelid, and upper and lower lips. These results demonstrated that capsaicin and menthol stimuli in the oral cavity elicit characteristic responses in facial SkBF. PMID:23265982

  12. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishakha M; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Waggoner, Darrel; Greenwald, Mark; Stein, Sarah L

    2008-01-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by microphthalmia and other ocular anomalies as well as linear, jagged skin defects typically involving the scalp, face, neck, and upper trunk. Other associated characteristics include short stature, developmental delay, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, anencephaly, hydrocephalus, and seizures. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome is now known to be associated with a deletion of the X chromosome at Xp22. This is an area that has been found to include the HCCS gene, which encodes a holocytochrome c-type synthase believed to be critical in the regulation of apoptosis. We present a patient with classic clinical and genetic findings of MLS syndrome and discuss the primary characteristics and management of this disorder. PMID:18950397

  13. Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria

    PubMed Central

    Arvio, P.; Arvio, M.; Kero, M.; Pirinen, S.; Lukinmaa, P.

    1999-01-01

    Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens.?  Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001).?  Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.???Keywords: aspartylglucosaminidase; lysosomal storage disease; oral mucosa; skin tumours PMID:10353787

  14. Reconstruction of complex oro-facial defects using the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap.

    PubMed

    Saleh, D B; Fourie, L; Mizen, K D

    2014-07-01

    Oro-facial defects require reconstruction that provides suitable colour match and texture. Moreover inner and outer cheek lining and bulk are key considerations. In cases of severe oro-facial infections concomitant mandibular abnormality, for example trismus, can mandate the need for tissue to obturate mandibular defects. We assessed the use of the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap (MSA) in non-oncological patients with such defects. Twenty two consecutive patients were included in this case series. All patients were survivors of Cancrum Oris (NOMA). Demographic details, nutritional status and co-morbidities were recorded. Defects were classified according to the tissues destroyed; cheek, mandible, oral cavity, lip(s), nose and eye(s). Simultaneous procedures carried out were recorded. The surgical anatomy of the MSA is described. All patients had composite defects of the cheek and oral cavity plus another local anatomical structure. Adjunct procedures such as trismus release were carried out in 18/22 patients. Four patients required a return to theatre. There was no trismus recurrence observed. No flap losses were incurred. The MSA is a robust flap with minimal incidence of major complications. The MSA negates the need for microsurgical tissue transfer. Furthermore the MSA provides adequate bulk to obturate these defects. Future applications of the MSA may include complex oro-facial oncological defects. PMID:24209385

  15. Detection of Fight or Flight Reaction on Facial Skin Thermogram using Spatio-Temporal Spectrum Differential Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Tomono, Satoshi; Mizuno, Tota; Ide, Hideto

    It has been known that human being exhibits the Fight or Flight Reaction(FFR) when they feel anxiety, strain and threat. This paper describes experiments that were conducted to arouse the fight or flight reaction. Facial skin thermograms in which the temperature fluctuation in specific regions was identified were measured, and the characteristics of the temperature fluctuations in the relevant regions were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that, for nine of the ten subjects, the FFR was confirmed in the form of reacted areas indicating acute increases in skin temperature, primarily in facial expression muscles such as the procerus muscle and cheek muscles. Additionally, the spatio-temporal spectrum differential analysis method for facial skin thermograms was proposed, and as a result of detecting spatio-temporal skin temperature fluctuations in the facial skin thermograms accompanying manifestation of the FFR, a detection rate of 76.5% was obtained. Thus, the effectiveness of the proposed technique was confirmed.

  16. Digital Image Correlation Strain Analysis for the Study of Wrinkle Formation on Facial Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Nagisa; Arikawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Satoru; Koike, Miyako; Murakami, Motoko; Tanno, Osamu

    Strain measurements around the eye during the blink are performed for four human subjects in order to investigate the relationship between the wrinkle formation with aging and the strains by daily motion. In addition to the strain measurement, the moisture content, the flexibility and the elasticity of the skin surface are measured for investigating the skin condition. For observing the wrinkle formed on the facial skin, the replicas of the skin surfaces are also collected. Results show that the relationship between the wrinkle and the strain distribution at the inner corner of the eye is different from that at the corner of the eye. The results indicate that different methods for the corner of the eye and the inner corner of the eye are required for avoiding the wrinkle formation.

  17. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694

  18. The Use of Matriderm and Autologous Skin Graft in the Treatment of Full Thickness Skin Defects

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jang Hwan; Yun, In Sik; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk

    2014-01-01

    Background For patients with full thickness skin defects, autologous Split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) are generally regarded as the mainstay of treatment. However, skin grafts have some limitations, including undesirable outcomes resulting from scars, poor elasticity, and limitations in joint movement due to contractures. In this study, we present outcomes of Matriderm grafts used for various skin tissue defects whether it improves on these drawbacks. Methods From January 2010 to March 2012, a retrospective review of patients who had undergone autologous STSG with Matriderm was performed. We assessed graft survival to evaluate the effectiveness of Matriderm. We also evaluated skin quality using a Cutometer, Corneometer, Tewameter, or Mexameter, approximately 12 months after surgery. Results A total of 31 patients underwent STSG with Matriderm during the study period. The success rate of skin grafting was 96.7%. The elasticity value of the portion on which Matriderm was applied was 0.765 (range, 0.635-0.800), the value of the trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) was 10.0 (range, 8.15-11.00) g/hr/m2, and the humidification value was 24.0 (range, 15.5-30.0). The levels of erythema and melanin were 352.0 arbitrary unit (AU) (range, 299.25-402.75 AU) and 211.0 AU (range, 158.25-297.00 AU), respectively. When comparing the values of elasticity and TEWL of the skin treated with Matriderm to the values of the surrounding skin, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that a dermal substitute (Matriderm) with STSG was adopted stably and with minimal complications. Furthermore, comparing Matriderm grafted skin to normal skin using Cutometer, Matriderm proved valuable in restoring skin elasticity and the skin barrier. PMID:25075353

  19. Circular Excision and Purse-String Closure for Pediatric Facial Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Couto, Javier A; Greene, Arin K

    2015-07-01

    Standard resection of pediatric facial skin lesions consists of lenticular excision and linear closure. This one-stage procedure for circular lesions results in a linear scar 3 times longer than the diameter of the removed specimen. Circular excision and purse-string closure has been described for infantile hemangiomas to reduce the length of scar. The purpose of this study was to analyze the application of this technique for any type of circular facial skin lesion in the pediatric population.Records of consecutive pediatric patients with facial skin lesions treated with circular excision and purse-string closure from 2007-2014 were reviewed. Patient age, sex, type of lesion, location, and size were recorded. Number of stages necessary to remove the area and complications were analyzed.Seventy-seven children (74% female) underwent circular excision and purse-string closure for an infantile hemangioma (46%), pigmented nevus (27%), Spitz nevus (7%), pilomatrixoma (5%), pyogenic granuloma (5%), vascular malformation (4%), or another type of skin lesion (6%). Age at the time of resection was 6.0 years (range 4 months-17 years) and mean lesion area was 3.9?cm (range 0.2-19.6); 30% of patients underwent a second procedure and no infection or wound dehiscence occurred.Circular excision and purse-string closure is an effective technique to manage any type of circular skin lesion in the pediatric population. It is particularly useful for lesions on the face because it limits the length of a scar. A subset of patients may benefit from second procedure to convert the circular scar from a circle into a line. PMID:26107002

  20. Laser Skin Resurfacing Treatment Outcome of Facial Scars and Wrinkles in Asians with Skin Type III\\/IV with the Unipulse® CO2 Laser System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C L Goh; L Khoo

    Objective: To study the efficacy and complications from Unipulse ® CO2 laser resurfacing system (Nidek, California) for the treatment of scars and wrinkles in patients with Type III and IV skin type. Methodology: This is a prospective study of patients with skin type III and IV who received laser- resurfacing treatment for facial scars and wrinkles. All patients received topical

  1. Differential diagnosis of facial acne on black skin.

    PubMed

    Poli, Florence

    2012-11-01

    The diagnosis of acne is usually easy, but there are some pitfalls to be avoided. 'Keloid acne of the neck' and beard folliculitis are not acnes in the usual sense: both are inflammatory and fibrous reactions of the hair follicles and frizzy hair; no retentional lesions, blackheads and microcysts--are visible. Gram negative folliculitis classically occurs in acneic male subjects who have undergone extensive treatment with general antibiotics or local antiseptics, but 'de novo' cases do exist. On black skin, this condition is not exceptional, it occurs in both sexes and usually takes the nodular form. The diagnosis should be considered if there is any aggravation of acne which is resistant to classic treatment, with painful nodules on the cheeks. Treatment is based on appropriate antibiotherapy for several weeks and possibly, in a second phase, on Isotretinoin. Pityrosporum folliculitis occurs mainly on the trunk. More frequent in men than in women, it is chiefly observed in subjects living in a hot, humid climate. Demodicidosis is manifested by outbreaks of papular or papulopustular lesions of the face. On black skin the principal differential diagnosis is acne. The presence of numerous parasites is necessary for diagnosis. Clinically speaking, an important sign is when the eyelids are affected. Ivermectin is effective. Acneiform dermatitis may be induced by depigmenting preparations containing powerful dermocorticoids. It is therefore important, in cases of very inflammatory acne, to look for the other clinical signs of voluntary depigmentation. In countries where it is endemic, lepromatous leprosy should be considered. Other common dermatitis may simulate acne or else be associated with it, such as eruptive hidradenoma or molluscum contagiosum. Analysis of the different elementary lesions and the absence of retentional lesions generally enable a diagnosis to be established. PMID:23210948

  2. Comparison of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate and conventional sutures in facial skin closure

    PubMed Central

    Shivamurthy, D. M.; Singh, Sourav; Reddy, Sasidhar

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Closure of wounds to achieve an esthetically pleasing result has always been a challenge. Since time immemorial, surgeons have strived to produce “invisible scars”. This, however, has always been elusive. The introduction of tissue adhesives heralded the era of suture free closures which led to better results. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of octyl- 2-cyanoacrylate with that of the conventional sutures, in facial skin closure. Results and Conclusion: The use of octyl-2-cyanoacrylate offers many advantages such as rapidity and ease of application and superior results. PMID:22442543

  3. Evaluation of Seasonal Changes in Facial Skin With and Without Acne.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Karen; Pappas, Apostolos; Dunn, Kelly; Cula, Gabriela O; Seo, InSeok; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Batchvarova, Nikoleta

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare facial skin of adolescent males with (acne) and without acne (non-acne) over the course of 1 year. At study entry, presence of acne was determined by clinical image analysis (acne n=7, non-acne n=10). Monthly evaluations of skin condition were made using standard and fluorescent imaging, fluorescence spectroscopic analysis, sebum analysis, skin high frequency conductivity (moisture content), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and sampling of skin bacteria (aerobic and anaerobic). Data were evaluated seasonally. Over the course of the study, subjects in the acne and non-acne groups had no significant increase in their clinical acne score. Sebum production was significantly greater in subjects with acne than in those without for each season examined (P<0.019) and was lowest in the winter and highest in the fall. TEWL was higher in those with acne than without acne across all seasons (P=0.001). Skin moisture in both groups was increased during summer and fall compared with winter (P?0.016 for both seasons). Subjects with acne had a higher recovery of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria compared with subjects without acne (P?0.015). Analysis of cheek skin in the nasal area revealed significantly higher fluorescence (500-800 nm) in image-based and spectroscopic analysis from subjects with acne, suggesting the greater presence of the bacterial metabolite porphyrin in those with acne. In these cohorts of adolescent males, significant differences in sebum production, skin barrier function, moisture content, and microbial load (anaerobic and aerobic) were noted between those with and without acne. Evidence for seasonality was observed, with lower lipid production and reduced barrier function during the winter. More studies to quantify differences in skin lipid components and bacterial species among these cohorts are planned.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(6):593-601.. PMID:26091385

  4. Differences in peripheral endocannabinoid modulation of scratching behavior in facial vs. spinally-innervated skin.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Jessica Marie; Davoodi, Auva; Gee, Leland Bruce; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2012-09-01

    Cannabinoids suppress nocifensive behaviors in rodents. We presently investigated peripheral endocannabinoid modulation of itch- and pain-related behaviors elicited from facial vs. spinally-innervated skin of rats. Intradermal (id) injection of the pruritogen serotonin (5-HT) elicited significantly more hindlimb scratch bouts, and longer cumulative time scratching, when injected in the rostral back compared to the cheek. Pretreatment of skin with inhibitors of degrading enzymes for the endocannabinoids anandamide (URB597) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (JZL184) significantly reduced scratching elicited by 5-HT in the rostral back. These effects were prevented by co-treatment with antagonists of the CB? (AM251) or CB? receptor (AM630), implicating both receptor subtypes in endocannabinoid suppression of scratching in spinally-innervated skin. Conversely, pretreatment with either enzyme inhibitor, or with AM630 alone, increased the number of scratch bouts elicited by id 5-HT injection in the cheek. Moreover, pretreatment with JZL184 also significantly increased pain-related forelimb wipes directed to the cheek following id injection of the algogen, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; mustard oil). Thus, peripheral endocannabinoids have opposite effects on itch-related scratching behaviors in trigeminally- vs. spinally-innervated skin. These results suggest that increasing peripheral endocannabinoid levels represents a promising therapeutic approach to treat itch arising from the lower body, but caution that such treatment may not relieve, and may even exacerbate, itch and pain arising from trigeminally-innervated skin of the face or scalp. PMID:22683515

  5. Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, S.; Williams, D.; Roy, R.; Aylmore, R.; Allen, M.; Hollingdale, D.

    2011-05-01

    The appearance of defects such as `hollows' and `shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of a panel may become unacceptable. Considerable time is then dedicated to minimizing their occurrence through tool modifications. This paper will investigate the use of the wavelet transform as a tool to analyze physically measured panels. The transform has two key aspects. The first is its ability to distinguish small scale local defects from large scale styling curvature. The second is its ability to characterize the shape of a defect in terms of its wavelength and a `correlation value'. The two features of the transform enable it to be used as a tool for locating and predicting the severity of defects. The paper will describe the transform and illustrate its application on test cases.

  6. Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, S.; Williams, D.; Roy, R. [University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Aylmore, R.; Allen, M.; Hollingdale, D. [Land Rover, Banbury Rd, Gaydon, Warwick, CV35 0RR (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-04

    The appearance of defects such as 'hollows' and 'shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of a panel may become unacceptable. Considerable time is then dedicated to minimizing their occurrence through tool modifications. This paper will investigate the use of the wavelet transform as a tool to analyze physically measured panels. The transform has two key aspects. The first is its ability to distinguish small scale local defects from large scale styling curvature. The second is its ability to characterize the shape of a defect in terms of its wavelength and a 'correlation value'. The two features of the transform enable it to be used as a tool for locating and predicting the severity of defects. The paper will describe the transform and illustrate its application on test cases.

  7. 3D-Ultrasonography for evaluation of facial muscles in patients with chronic facial palsy or defective healing: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While standardized methods are established to examine the pathway from motorcortex to the peripheral nerve in patients with facial palsy, a reliable method to evaluate the facial muscles in patients with long-term palsy for therapy planning is lacking. Methods A 3D ultrasonographic (US) acquisition system driven by a motorized linear mover combined with conventional US probe was used to acquire 3D data sets of several facial muscles on both sides of the face in a healthy subject and seven patients with different types of unilateral degenerative facial nerve lesions. Results The US results were correlated to the duration of palsy and the electromyography results. Consistent 3D US based volumetry through bilateral comparison was feasible for parts of the frontalis muscle, orbicularis oculi muscle, depressor anguli oris muscle, depressor labii inferioris muscle, and mentalis muscle. With the exception of the frontal muscle, the facial muscles volumes were much smaller on the palsy side (minimum: 3% for the depressor labii inferior muscle) than on the healthy side in patients with severe facial nerve lesion. In contrast, the frontal muscles did not show a side difference. In the two patients with defective healing after spontaneous regeneration a decrease in muscle volume was not seen. Synkinesis and hyperkinesis was even more correlated to muscle hypertrophy on the palsy compared with the healthy side. Conclusion 3D ultrasonography seems to be a promising tool for regional and quantitative evaluation of facial muscles in patients with facial palsy receiving a facial reconstructive surgery or conservative treatment. PMID:24782657

  8. Patient satisfaction and efficacy of accent radiofrequency for facial skin wrinkle reduction

    PubMed Central

    Jaffary, Fariba; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Zarkoob, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency (RF) is a new technique to treat facial wrinkles. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Accent RF in wrinkle reduction of different areas of the face. Materials and Methods: Patients with mild to severe facial wrinkles were treated with Accent using RF energies of 35-145 W. The average energy used in this study was 83.11 W. Patients received four subsequent weekly RF sessions. Wrinkle improvement was rated by two physicians comparing 6-month post treatment photographs with pretreatment photos. Moreover, patient satisfaction was assessed at 1 and 6 months after the last session of the treatment. Results: A total of 45 women participated in this study. In terms of patient satisfaction one month after the last treatment, 8.9% of the patients declared their dissatisfaction, 53.3% were somehow satisfied, 33.3% were satisfied, and 4.4% were very satisfied. At 6 months, patient satisfaction was as follows: 4.4% dissatisfied, 31.1% somehow satisfied, 46.7% satisfied, and 17.8% very satisfied. Patient satisfaction 6 months after the last treatment was significantly higher than 1 month post treatment (P = 0.006). At 6 months, patient satisfaction was not more than 75% in any treatment areas of the face. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Accent RF may be considered as a possible effective option for facial skin rejuvenation although its efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated further in randomized controlled trials. PMID:24523783

  9. Changes in Women’s Facial Skin Color over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Burriss, Robert P.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Lovell, P. George; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Stevens, Martin; Quigley, Rachael; Payne, Jenny; Saxton, Tamsin K.; Rowland, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    Human ovulation is not advertised, as it is in several primate species, by conspicuous sexual swellings. However, there is increasing evidence that the attractiveness of women’s body odor, voice, and facial appearance peak during the fertile phase of their ovulatory cycle. Cycle effects on facial attractiveness may be underpinned by changes in facial skin color, but it is not clear if skin color varies cyclically in humans or if any changes are detectable. To test these questions we photographed women daily for at least one cycle. Changes in facial skin redness and luminance were then quantified by mapping the digital images to human long, medium, and shortwave visual receptors. We find cyclic variation in skin redness, but not luminance. Redness decreases rapidly after menstrual onset, increases in the days before ovulation, and remains high through the luteal phase. However, we also show that this variation is unlikely to be detectable by the human visual system. We conclude that changes in skin color are not responsible for the effects of the ovulatory cycle on women’s attractiveness. PMID:26134671

  10. The use of digital image speckle correlation to measure the mechanical properties of skin and facial muscular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staloff, Isabelle Afriat

    Skin mechanical properties have been extensively studied and have led to an understanding of the structure and role of the collagen and elastin fibers network in the dermis and their changes due to aging. All these techniques have either isolated the skin from its natural environment (in vitro), or, when studied in vivo, attempted to minimize the effect of the underlying tissues and muscles. The human facial region is unique compared to the other parts of the body in that the underlying musculature runs through the subcutaneous tissue and is directly connected to the dermis with collagen based fibrous tissues. These fibrous tissues comprise the superficial musculoaponeurotic system, commonly referred to as the SMAS layer. Retaining ligaments anchor the skin to the periosteum, and hold the dermis to the SMAS. In addition, traditional techniques generally collect an average response of the skin. Data gathered in this manner is incomplete as the skin is anisotropic and under constant tension. We therefore introduce the Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC) method that maps in two dimensions the skin deformation under the complex set of forces involved during muscular activity. DISC, a non-contact in vivo technique, generates spatial resolved information. By observing the detailed motion of the facial skin we can infer the manner in which the complex ensemble of forces induced by movement of the muscles distribute and dissipate on the skin. By analyzing the effect of aging on the distribution of these complex forces we can measure its impact on skin elasticity and quantify the efficacy of skin care products. In addition, we speculate on the mechanism of wrinkle formation. Furthermore, we investigate the use of DISC to map the mechanism of film formation on skin of various polymers. Finally, we show that DISC can detect the involuntary facial muscular activity induced by various fragrances.

  11. Gingiva thickness in guided tissue regeneration and associated recession at facial furcation defects.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, C R; Metzler, D G; Nicoll, B K

    1995-05-01

    Consistently successful regenerative therapy for furcation defects using membrane techniques remains a challenge for clinicians. The purpose of this study was to determine if the thickness of tissue used to cover the membrane influences postsurgery recession. Thirty-seven (37) moderate to advanced adult periodontitis patients presenting with at least one mandibular or maxillary molar class 1 or 2 facial furcation involvement participated in the study. Mid-facial presurgery recession was recorded from the cemento-enamel junction to the free gingival margin at a reproducible point. Mid-facial tissue thickness was measured using calipers at a point 5 mm apical to the gingival margin of the mucogingival flap reflected at the time of guided tissue regeneration surgery. Patients were divided into 2 groups based upon tissue thickness measurement. Patients were then re-evaluated for recession at 6 months postsurgery. Sixteen (16) patients with tissue thickness < or = 1 mm demonstrated a mean 2.1 mm increase in recession, while 21 patients with tissue thickness > 1 mm exhibited a mean 0.6 mm increase in recession. We conclude that there is less post-treatment recession (P < 0.01) for tissue thickness > 1 mm than tissue thickness < or = 1 mm. Hence, thickness of gingival tissue covering a membrane appears to be a factor to consider if post-treatment recession is to be minimized or avoided. PMID:7623260

  12. Detection of Fight or Flight Reaction on Facial Skin Thermogram using Spatio-Temporal Spectrum Differential Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Nozawa; Satoshi Tomono; Tota Mizuno; Hideto Ide

    2006-01-01

    It has been known that human being exhibits the Fight or Flight Reaction(FFR) when they feel anxiety, strain and threat. This paper describes experiments that were conducted to arouse the fight or flight reaction. Facial skin thermograms in which the temperature fluctuation in specific regions was identified were measured, and the characteristics of the temperature fluctuations in the relevant regions

  13. Anosognosia for apraxia: experimental evidence for defective awareness of one's own bucco-facial gestures.

    PubMed

    Canzano, Loredana; Scandola, Michele; Pernigo, Simone; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria; Moro, Valentina

    2014-12-01

    Anosognosia is a multifaceted, neuro-psychiatric syndrome characterized by defective awareness of a variety of perceptuo-motor, cognitive or emotional deficits. The syndrome is also characterized by modularity, i.e., deficits of awareness in one domain (e.g., spatial perception) co-existing with spared functions in another domain (e.g., memory). Anosognosia has mainly been reported after right hemisphere lesions. It is however somewhat surprising that no studies have thus far specifically explored the possibility that lack of awareness involves apraxia, i.e., a deficit in the ability to perform gestures caused by an impaired higher-order motor control and not by low-level motor deficits, sensory loss, or failure to comprehend simple commands. We explored this issue by testing fifteen patients with vascular lesions who were assigned to one of three groups depending on their neuropsychological profile and brain lesion. The patients were asked to execute various actions involving the upper limb or bucco-facial body parts. In addition they were also asked to judge the accuracy of these actions, either performed by them or by other individuals. The judgment of the patients was compared to that of two external observers. Results show that our bucco-facial apraxic patients manifest a specific deficit in detecting their own gestural errors. Moreover they were less aware of their defective performance in bucco-facial as compared to limb actions. Our results hint at the existence of a new form of anosognosia specifically involving apraxic deficits. PMID:25100505

  14. Role of Mitochondria in Photoaging of Human Skin: The Defective Powerhouse Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Krutmann; Peter Schroeder

    2009-01-01

    The exact pathogenesis of photoaging of the skin is not yet known. Earlier, a number of molecular pathways explaining one or more characteristics of photoaged skin have been described, but a unifying mechanistic concept is still missing. Here we propose the “Defective Powerhouse Model of Premature Skin Aging”, which reconciles most of the earlier conducted research as one concept. In

  15. Further Enhancement of Facial Appearance With a Hydroquinone Skin Care System Plus Tretinoin in Patients Previously Treated With Botulinum Toxin Type A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Schlessinger; Jeffrey Kenkel; Philip Werschler

    2011-01-01

    Background: A hydroquinone (HQ) skin care system has been designed for use in conjunction with nonsurgical procedures.Objective: The authors evaluate the efficacy of this system plus tretinoin for improving facial appearance in comparison to a standard skin care regimen in users of botulinum toxin Type A (BoNT-A).Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel-group study, 61 patients who received upper facial

  16. Pilot histologic and ultrastructural study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R Nelson; Darrell J Fader; Montgomery Gillard; Gopa Majmudar; Timothy M Johnson

    1995-01-01

    Background: Chemical peels are employed for a variety of benign and premalignant skin disorders.Objective: We compared clinical and histologic features with ultrastructural changes that occur after medium-depth chemical facial peel.Methods: Three men with actinically damaged facial skin underwent a single 35% trichloroacetic acid peel. Biopsy specimens were taken before the peel, and 2 weeks and 3 months after the peel,

  17. Female infant with oncocytic cardiomyopathy and microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS): A clue to the pathogenesis of oncocytic cardiomyopathy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynne M. Bird; Henry F. Krous; Lawrence F. Eichenfield; Christopher I. Swalwell; Marilyn C. Jones

    1994-01-01

    A infant girl had red stellate skin lesions on the cheeks and neck, and mildly short palpebral fissures. Her skin abnormality was typical of microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS), a newly recognized syndrome consisting of congenital linear skin defects and ocular abnormalities in females monosomic for Xp22. She died suddenly and unexpectedly at age 4 months; the cause of

  18. 3D imaging acquisition, modeling, and prototyping for facial defects reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Cavagnini, Gianluca; Gastaldi, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach that combines optical three-dimensional imaging, reverse engineering (RE) and rapid prototyping (RP) for mold production in the prosthetic reconstruction of facial prostheses is presented. A commercial laser-stripe digitizer is used to perform the multiview acquisition of the patient's face; the point clouds are aligned and merged in order to obtain a polygonal model, which is then edited to sculpture the virtual prothesis. Two physical models of both the deformed face and the 'repaired' face are obtained: they differ only in the defect zone. Depending on the material used for the actual prosthesis, the two prototypes can be used either to directly cast the final prosthesis or to fabricate the positive wax pattern. Two case studies are presented, referring to prostetic reconstructions of an eye and of a nose. The results demonstrate the advantages over conventional techniques as well as the improvements with respect to known automated manufacturing techniques in the mold construction. The proposed method results into decreased patient's disconfort, reduced dependence on the anaplasthologist skill, increased repeatability and efficiency of the whole process.

  19. O to Z flaps in facial reconstructions*

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Sara Alcántara; Cejudo, Manuel Perea; Mendonça, Francisco Manuel Ildefonso; Martínez, Francisco M. Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Local flaps are the standard procedure to reconstruct facial defects. As it occurs in any surgical procedure, the incision should be planned so that scars are located in the minimum skin tension lines. We report two cases of O to Z flaps in the supra and infraciliary regions. One of them is a hatchet flap. PMID:25831001

  20. Use of bone wax as a template for intraoperative evaluation of facial defects and shaping of polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Mavili, E; Akyürek, M

    1997-10-01

    With the advent of polymer chemistry, an increasing number of alloplastic materials are now available for use as onlay implants for reconstruction of facial bony and soft-tissue deformities. An optimal clinical result of a facial contour deformity surgery will depend not only on the choice of implant, but also on the method of giving exact shape to the implant to be used. The latter is particularly important to fit the implant into the complex configuration of a specific defect of bone and soft tissue. A template greatly enhances the accuracy of implant design. In this paper we describe a new method of fabricating polyethylene implants by using bone wax as an intraoperative template. We used this technique in four patients aged 8 to 35 years (average, 18 years) with posttraumatic and congenital facial defects without any complications. We present this method as a simple, inexpensive, and accurate alternative to the more sophisticated, but expensive and time-consuming, computer-assisted implant generation. PMID:9326788

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... widely, even among affected individuals within the same family. In addition to the characteristic eye problems and skin markings, this condition can cause abnormalities in the brain, heart, and genitourinary system. A ...

  2. Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction with epilepsy, other heart defects, minor facial anomalies and new copy number variants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction (LVHT) is a cardiac abnormality of unknown etiology which has been described in children as well as in adults with and without chromosomal aberrations. LVHT has been reported in association with various cardiac and extracardiac abnormalities like epilepsy and facial dysmorphism. Case presentation A unique combination of LVHT, atrial septal defect, pulmonary valve stenosis, aortic stenosis, epilepsy and minor facial anomalies is presented in a 5.5?years old girl. Microarray-based genomic hybridization (array-CGH) detected six previously not described copy number variants (CNVs) inherited from a clinically unaffected father and minimally affected mother, thus, most likely, not clinically significant but rare benign variants. Conclusions Despite this complex phenotype de novo microdeletions or microduplications were not detected by array CGH. Further investigations, such as whole exome sequencing, could reveal point mutations and small indels as the possible cause. PMID:22830313

  3. Development of ichthyosiform skin compensates for defective permeability barrier function in mice lacking transglutaminase 1

    PubMed Central

    Kuramoto, Nobuo; Takizawa, Toshihiro; Takizawa, Takami; Matsuki, Masato; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Robinson, John M.; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

    2002-01-01

    Transglutaminase 1 (TGase 1) is one of the genes implicated in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. Skin from TGase 1–/– mice, which die as neonates, lacks the normal insoluble cornified envelope and has impaired barrier function. Characterization of in situ dye permeability and transepidermal water loss revealed defects in the development of the skin permeability barrier in TGase 1–/– mice. In the stratum corneum of the skin, tongue, and forestomach, intercellular lipid lamellae were disorganized, and the corneocyte lipid envelope and cornified envelope were lacking. Neonatal TGase 1–/– mouse skin was taut and erythrodermic, but transplanted TGase 1–/– mouse skin resembled that seen in severe ichthyosis, with epidermal hyperplasia and marked hyperkeratosis. Abnormalities in those barrier structures remained, but transepidermal water loss was improved to control levels in the ichthyosiform skin. From these results, we conclude that TGase 1 is essential to the assembly and organization of the barrier structures in stratified squamous epithelia. We suggest that the ichthyosiform skin phenotype in TGase 1 deficiency develops the massive hyperkeratosis as a physical compensation for the defective cutaneous permeability barrier required for survival in a terrestrial environment. PMID:11805136

  4. Postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, spondylocarpal synostosis, cardiac defect, and inner ear malformation (cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome?)--a distinct syndrome?

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio B; Baujat, Geneviéve; Abadie, Véronique; Bonnet, Damien; Sidi, Daniel; Munnich, Arnold; Krakow, Deborah; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2010-03-01

    We report on two unrelated cases born to nonconsanguineous parents with a similar clinical presentation: hypotonia since the neonatal period, severe failure to thrive, postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, congenital cardiac defects (septal defect and non progressive multiple valve dysplasia), shortened extremities, carpal/tarsal and extensive vertebral synostosis, delayed carpal bone age, deafness, and inner ear malformations. Presently, both patients present with normal psychomotor development. Additional abnormal findings include extra oral frenulum, nasal speech, and vesico-ureteral reflux. Molecular analysis in one patient excluded the Noggin gene and Filamin B (FLNB) was excluded in the other patient. Although some features are similar to spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome, the exclusion of FLNB and this constellation of findings suggest a new entity, closely similar to an autosomal dominant condition reported by Forney et al. 1966 in a unique family. Identification of similarly affected patients should aid in the further elucidation of this syndrome. PMID:20186786

  5. Signals of Personality and Health: The Contributions of Facial Shape, Skin Texture, and Viewing Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alex L.; Kramer, Robin S. S.; Ward, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To what extent does information in a person's face predict their likely behavior? There is increasing evidence for association between relatively neutral, static facial appearance and personality traits. By using composite images rendered from three dimensional (3D) scans of women scoring high and low on health and personality dimensions, we aimed…

  6. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A.; Mitra, Soma R.; Stephen, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants’ skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin. PMID:26186449

  7. Harlequin ichthyosis model mouse reveals alveolar collapse and severe fetal skin barrier defects.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Teruki; Akiyama, Masashi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Sakai, Kaori; Nishie, Wataru; Tanaka, Shinya; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    Harlequin ichthyosis (HI), which is the most severe genodermatosis, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in ABCA12, a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. To investigate the pathomechanism of HI and the function of the ABCA12 protein, we generated ABCA12-deficient mice (Abca12(-/-)) by targeting Abca12. Abca12(-/-) mice closely reproduce the human HI phenotype, showing marked hyperkeratosis with eclabium and skin fissure. Lamellar granule abnormalities and defective ceramide distribution were remarkable in the epidermis. Skin permeability assay of Abca12(-/-) fetuses revealed severe skin barrier dysfunction after the initiation of keratinization. Surprisingly, the Abca12(-/-) mice also demonstrated lung alveolar collapse immediately after birth. Lamellar bodies in alveolar type II cells of the Abca12(-/-) mice lacked normal lamellar structures. The level of surfactant protein B, an essential component of alveolar surfactant, was reduced in the Abca12(-/-) mice. Fetal therapeutic trials with systemic administration of retinoid or dexamethasone, which are effective for HI and respiratory distress, respectively, to the pregnant mother mice neither improved the skin phenotype nor extended the survival period. Our HI model mice reproduce the human HI skin phenotype soon after the initiation of fetal skin keratinization and provide evidence that ABCA12 plays pivotal roles in lung and skin barrier functions. PMID:18632686

  8. Skin microbiome imbalance in patients with STAT1/STAT3 defects impairs innate host defense responses

    PubMed Central

    Smeekens, Sanne P.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Riza, Anca; van de Veerdonk, Frank; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, Joost; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Netea, Mihai G.; Gevers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) are primary immunodeficiencies mainly caused by mutations in STAT1 and STAT3, respectively. CMC and HIES patients have an increased risk for skin and mucosal infections with fungal pathogens and Staphylococcus aureus. However, it is unknown whether the genetic defects in these patients also affect the skin and mucosal microbiome, which in turn may influence host defense mechanisms. Methods The skin and oral microbiome of CMC and HIES patients was compared to that of healthy controls at five body sites using 16S rRNA sequencing. The influence of skin colonizers on the immune response was investigated using in-vitro experiments. Results The microbiome of CMC and HIES patients contained more Gram-negative bacteria, especially Acinetobacter spp, and less of the normal Corynebacterium spp., compared to healthy controls. Exposure of human primary leukocytes to Acinetobacter suppressed the cytokine response to C. albicans and S. aureus, while the normal Corynebacteria did not suppress cytokine responses. Discussion These results demonstrate that central mediators of immune responses like STAT1 and STAT3 not only directly influence immune responses, but also result in changes of the skin microbiome that in turn can amplify the defective immune response against fungal and microbial pathogens. PMID:23796786

  9. Evaluation of pain associated with facial injections using CoolSkin® in rhytidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Farhan; Ellison, Timothy; Traylor-Knowles, Mimi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the use of the CoolSkin® (Elbio, Seoul, Korea) skin-cooling device to reduce injection pain during rhytidectomy. Method Nineteen patients underwent rhytidectomy using the CoolSkin at ?4°C on the first side lateral injection. The second side was then started without the cooling. Patients were offered cooling if they desired it on the second side. Surveys were administered 24 hours after the procedure, comparing pain (scale 0–5) and investigating treatment preferences. Patient healing was tracked for 6 weeks. Results Mean pain score for the untreated side was 4.63 versus 2.37 for the CoolSkin-treated side (P < 0.001). All patients asked for the second side to be cooled, and 89% were in favor of the chilling procedure when surveyed 24 hours afterwards. Sixty eight percent of patients stated that this device reduced fear of future injections. No flap loss or healing sequelae were noted from device use. Conclusion The CoolSkin device is an effective tool to reduce injection pain laterally during rhytidectomy. PMID:22003304

  10. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies the Skin Color Genes IRF4, MC1R, ASIP, and BNC2 Influencing Facial Pigmented Spots.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie C; Hamer, Merel A; Gunn, David A; Deelen, Joris; Lall, Jaspal S; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Beekman, Marian; Slagboom, P Eline; Kayser, Manfred; Liu, Fan; Nijsten, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Facial pigmented spots are a common skin aging feature, but genetic predisposition has yet to be thoroughly investigated. We conducted a genome-wide association study for pigmented spots in 2,844 Dutch Europeans from the Rotterdam Study (mean age: 66.9±8.0 years; 47% male). Using semi-automated image analysis of high-resolution digital facial photographs, facial pigmented spots were quantified as the percentage of affected skin area (mean women: 2.0% ±0.9, men: 0.9% ±0.6). We identified genome-wide significant association with pigmented spots at three genetic loci: IRF4 (rs12203592, P=1.8 × 10(-27)), MC1R (compound heterozygosity score, P=2.3 × 10(-24)), and RALY/ASIP (rs6059655, P=1.9 × 10(-9)). In addition, after adjustment for the other three top-associated loci the BNC2 locus demonstrated significant association (rs62543565, P=2.3 × 10(-8)). The association signals observed at all four loci were successfully replicated (P<0.05) in an independent Dutch cohort (Leiden Longevity Study n=599). Although the four genes have previously been associated with skin color variation and skin cancer risk, all association signals remained highly significant (P<2 × 10(-8)) when conditioning the association analyses on skin color. We conclude that genetic variations in IRF4, MC1R, RALY/ASIP, and BNC2 contribute to the acquired amount of facial pigmented spots during aging, through pathways independent of the basal melanin production. PMID:25705849

  11. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Lindsay; Alessandra Grillo; Giovanni B. Ferrero; A. Baldini; A. Ballabio; H. Y. Zoghbi; E. J. Roth; E. Magenis; M. Grompe; M. Hulten

    1994-01-01

    The microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome (MIM309801) is a severe developmental disorder observed in XX individuals with distal Xp segmental monosomy. The phenotype of this syndrome overlaps with that of both Aicardi (MIM 305050) and Goltz (MIM 305600) syndromes, two X-linked dominant, male-lethal disorders. Here the authors report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of 3 patients with

  12. Face cooling with mist water increases cerebral blood flow during exercise: effect of changes in facial skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Taiki; Horiuchi, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Subudhi, Andrew W; Sugawara, Jun; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2012-01-01

    Facial cooling (FC) increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and during exercise; however, the mechanism of this response remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that FC causes facial vasoconstriction that diverts skin blood flow (SkBF(face)) toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA V(mean)) at rest and to a greater extent during exercise. Nine healthy young subjects (20 ± 2 years) underwent 3 min of FC by fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cold water (~4°C) at rest and during steady-state exercise [heart rate (HR) of 120 bpm]. We focused on the difference between the averaged data acquired from 1 min immediately before FC and last 1 min of FC. SkBF(face), MCA V(mean), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were higher during exercise than at rest. As hypothesized, FC decreased SkBF(face) at rest (-32 ± 4%) and to a greater extent during exercise (-64 ± 10%, P = 0.012). Although MCA V(mean) was increased by FC (Rest, +1.4 ± 0.5 cm/s; Exercise, +1.4 ± 0.6 cm/s), the amount of the FC-evoked changes in MCA V(mean) at rest and during exercise differed among subjects. In addition, changes in MCA V(mean) with FC did not correlate with concomitant changes in SkBF(face) (r = 0.095, P = 0.709). MAP was also increased by FC (Rest, +6.2 ± 1.4 mmHg; Exercise, +4.2 ± 1.2 mmHg). These findings suggest that the FC-induced increase in CBF during exercise could not be explained only by change in SkBF(face). PMID:22934059

  13. The Cosmetic Results of a Simple Method for Repairing Preputial Skin Defect in Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Ghavami-Adel, Maryam; Mollaeean, Mansour; Hooman, Nakysa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hypospadias is a common birth defect of the penis. Besides the abnormal position of the urethral opening, there is usually a ventral preputial defect with preputial redundancy in dorsal shaft. There are many flap procedures for correcting this defect. Here, we present our experience of skin coverage procedure with better cosmetic results. Methods: It is a prospective study on patients with mid-shaft to glandular hypospadias operated from June 2008 to December 2012. The operations were performed by one surgeon in two hospitals and the cosmetic results were evaluated by the surgeon, parents, and another pediatric surgeon by a satisfaction questionnaire. In this procedure, inner prepuce was incised curvilinearly, remaining 5 mm in medial and 8 mm in lateral aspects of the inner prepuce. For skin repair, dorsal flaps were approximated in midline along median raphe. Findings: Sixty-three patients with mean age of 25.75±8.46 (7-93) months were followed up for 7.06±3.34 (2-15( months. There were 4 complications. The overall satisfaction with penile skin coverage was 93.7% for parents and 98.4% for surgeons. Patients’ age and primary site of meatus had a significant correlation with cosmetic results (P<0.05), while urethroplasty techniques and post-operative complications were not significant. Conclusion: Reapproximation of dorsal flaps in midline is a simple method and can be used in most cases of uncomplicated primary hypospadias. By this technique a more normal appearance can be achieved. PMID:25755862

  14. Clinical spectrum of females with HCCS mutation: from no clinical signs to a neonatal lethal form of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Segmental Xp22.2 monosomy or a heterozygous HCCS mutation is associated with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) or MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea) syndrome, an X-linked disorder with male lethality. HCCS encodes the holocytochrome c-type synthase involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and programmed cell death. Methods We characterized the X-chromosomal abnormality encompassing HCCS or an intragenic mutation in this gene in six new female patients with an MLS phenotype by cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR. The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern was determined and clinical data of the patients were reviewed. Results Two terminal Xp deletions of ?11.2 Mb, two submicroscopic copy number losses, one of ~850 kb and one of ?3 Mb, all covering HCCS, 1 nonsense, and one mosaic 2-bp deletion in HCCS are reported. All females had a completely (>98:2) or slightly skewed (82:18) XCI pattern. The most consistent clinical features were microphthalmia/anophthalmia and sclerocornea/corneal opacity in all patients and congenital linear skin defects in 4/6. Additional manifestations included various ocular anomalies, cardiac defects, brain imaging abnormalities, microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, and facial dysmorphism. However, no obvious clinical sign was observed in three female carriers who were relatives of one patient. Conclusion Our findings showed a wide phenotypic spectrum ranging from asymptomatic females with an HCCS mutation to patients with a neonatal lethal MLS form. Somatic mosaicism and the different ability of embryonic cells to cope with an OXPHOS defect and/or enhanced cell death upon HCCS deficiency likely underlie the great variability in phenotypes. PMID:24735900

  15. A case of extensive hyaline deposition in facial skin caused by erythropoietic protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Tewari, A; Fassihi, H; McGibbon, D; Robson, A; Sarkany, R

    2014-08-01

    Although erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is relatively uncommon, affecting approximately 1 in 140 000 individuals in the U.K., it is an important disease not to miss owing to the risk of acute severe liver disease in 2% of cases. EPP occurs with clinical and histological changes in the skin associated with free-radical-associated dermal vascular damage. This also mediates the painful photosensitivity. Severe and disfiguring hyaline deposition is extremely rare. We demonstrate that severe EPP can cause disfiguring hyaline infiltration of the skin on the hands and face, which sheds light on the mechanism of photosensitivity in EPP; it must also be differentiated from conditions such as lipoid proteinosis. PMID:24701996

  16. Combined visible light and infrared light-emitting diode (LED) therapy enhances wound healing after laser ablative resurfacing of photodamaged facial skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario A. Trelles; Inés Allones; Esther Mayo

    2006-01-01

    LED therapy accelerates healing post-resurfacing. Laser ablative resurfacing is still the most effective method for the rejuvenation of severely photoaged and photodamaged facial skin, but the long-healing time coupled with other troublesome sequelae mean a long patient downtime. Phototherapy with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has recently been attracting attention in accelerating wound healing. The current study was designed to assess the

  17. Comparison of changes in facial skin temperature caused by ethyl chloride spraying, ice block rubbing and cold gel packing in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Im, Y-G; Park, H-J; Chae, H-Y; Kim, B-G; Lim, H-S; Park, J-I; Kim, J-H

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three cryotherapeutic modalities (ethyl chloride spraying, ice block rubbing and cold gel packing) on facial skin temperature. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 men, 15 women; mean age, 29·4 ± 3·2 years) participated in this study. Each of the three modalities was randomly applied to the skin over the right masseter muscle. The skin surface temperature was recorded at baseline and every 5 min for 60 min after the application of one of the three cryotherapeutic modalities. Immediately after application, cold gel packing demonstrated the greatest reduction in surface temperature (10·6 °C), followed by ethyl chloride spraying (4·3 °C) and ice block rubbing (3·7 °C) (P < 0·001). During the 60-min post-application period, ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing produced similar skin surface temperature changes. The skin surface remained coldest for the longest period of time after cold gel packing. The median time for recovery of the baseline temperature after application of the cold gel pack was about three to four times longer than that for the other modalities (P < 0·001). Ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing resulted in less reduction and faster recovery of skin surface temperature than did cold gel packing. In conclusion, ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing had a limited cooling effect on the facial skin tissue and could not reduce the skin surface temperature enough for local analgesia. Moreover, the cooling effect of cold gel packing was remarkable, but not sufficient for local analgesia. PMID:22994138

  18. Hypopharynx and larynx defect repair after resection for pyriform fossa cancer with a platysma skin flap.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qian; Liang, Faya; Huang, Xiaoming; Han, Ping; Pan, Yong; Zheng, Yiqing

    2015-02-01

    We used a platysma skin flap to repair larynx and hypopharynx defects to improve postoperative laryngeal function in patients with pyriform fossa cancer. Larynx-sparing surgery and postoperative radiotherapy were used in 10 patients with pyriform fossa cancer. The surgical approaches of lymph node dissection of the neck, vertical partial laryngectomy, and pyriform fossa resection were adopted, and a platysma skin flap was used to repair the resulting defects. In this group, the overall 3-year survival rate was 75% according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the local control rate was 90%. Additionally, all patients were able to speak fluently with mild-to-moderate hoarseness. The tracheal tube was removed in all cases. Laryngeal fistulas were observed in 1 patient during radiotherapy. In conclusion, a platysma skin flap can be used to rebuild the larynx and hypopharynx in larynx-sparing resection for pyriform fossa cancer. These patients can obtain good postoperative function in swallowing, breathing, and pronunciation. PMID:25428776

  19. Reconstruction of Digital Skin Defects with the Free Wrist Crease Flap.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gan-Lin; Meng, Hong; Huang, Jian-Hua; Hong, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Hua-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Tao; Luo, He-Yuan; Liu, Wei-Yong

    2015-07-01

    Background?Soft-tissue digital defects frequently need to be covered by a flap rather than a skin graft. In hand surgery, functional preservation and aesthetic appearance are often as important as procedural efficacy. Objective?We present our clinical experience with reconstruction of digital skin defects with the free wrist crease flap. Methods?From January 2012 to September 2013, 14 digits of 14 patients (10 males, 4 females) were included for evaluation. The procedure was performed with brachial plexus block anesthesia. The superficial palmar branch of the radial artery, a subcutaneous superficial vein, and the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve were included in the free wrist crease flap. The flaps were used to reconstruct the skin defect of injured digits through microvascular anastomosis, and donor sites were closed primarily. Results?Postoperative follow-up time ranged from 3 to 25 months. All digital deformities were corrected, all flaps survived completely without ischemia, and none were aesthetically bulky. The area of free wrist crease flaps ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 cm by 2.0 to 3.1 cm. Slight wound infections appeared in two cases. Venous crisis occurred in one case, but it was successfully addressed after vascular exploration and reanastomosis. Sensation determined by static two-point discrimination measured in these flaps 2 months postsurgery was "good" at a mean 9.7?±?2.1?mm (range, 6-14 mm). The mean motion range of the distal interphalangeal joint and proximal interphalangeal joint was 23.4?±?6.9 degrees (0-42 degrees) and 75.8?±?22.1 degrees (0-98 degrees) preoperatively. The mean motion range of the distal interphalangeal joint recovered to 40.3?±?5.7 degrees (36-42 degrees), and that of the proximal interphalangeal joint was 90.3?±?15.3 degrees (85-98 degrees) postoperatively. Both joints reached normal motion angle and difference was statistically significant preoperatively and postoperatively (p?skin defects of digits. PMID:25938933

  20. Reduced inflammatory threshold indicates skin barrier defect in transglutaminase 3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bognar, Peter; Nemeth, Ilona; Mayer, Balazs; Haluszka, Dora; Wikonkal, Norbert; Ostorhazi, Eszter; John, Susan; Paulsson, Mats; Smyth, Neil; Pasztoi, Maria; Buzas, Edit I; Szipocs, Robert; Kolonics, Attila; Temesvari, Erzsebet; Karpati, Sarolta

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a transglutaminase 3 knockout (TGM3/KO) mouse was generated that showed impaired hair development, but no gross defects in the epidermal barrier, although increased fragility of isolated corneocytes was demonstrated. Here we investigated the functionality of skin barrier in vivo by percutaneous sensitization to FITC in TGM3/KO (n=64) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (n=36). Cutaneous inflammation was evaluated by mouse ear swelling test (MEST), histology, serum IgE levels, and by flow cytometry from draining lymph nodes. Inflammation-induced significant MEST difference (P<0.0001) was detected between KO and WT mice and was supported also by histopathology. A significant increase of CD4+ CD25+-activated T cells (P<0.01) and elevated serum IgE levels (P<0.05) in KO mice indicated more the development of FITC sensitization than an irritative reaction. Propionibacter acnes-induced intracutaneous inflammation showed no difference (P=0.2254) between the reactivity of WT and KO immune system. As in vivo tracer, FITC penetration from skin surface followed by two-photon microscopy demonstrated a more invasive percutaneous penetration in KO mice. The clinically uninvolved skin in TGM3/KO mice showed impaired barrier function and higher susceptibility to FITC sensitization indicating that TGM3 has a significant contribution to the functionally intact cutaneous barrier. PMID:23884312

  1. Female infant with oncocytic cardiomyopathy and microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS): A clue to the pathogenesis of oncocytic cardiomyopathy?

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.M.; Krous, H.F.; Eichenfield, L.F.; Swalwell, C.I.; Jones, M.C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A infant girl had red stellate skin lesions on the cheeks and neck, and mildly short palpebral fissures. Her skin abnormality was typical of microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS), a newly recognized syndrome consisting of congenital linear skin defects and ocular abnormalities in females monosomic for Xp22. She died suddenly and unexpectedly at age 4 months; the cause of death was ascribed to oncocytic cardiomyopathy. Oncocytic cardiomyopathy occurs only in young children, who present with refractory arrhythmias leading to cardiac arrest. The coexistence of two rare conditions, one of which is mapped to the X chromosome, and an excess of affected females with oncocytic cardiomyopathy is also X-linked, with Xp22 being a candidate region. Overlapping manifestations in the two conditions (ocular abnormalities in cases of oncocytic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias in MLS) offer additional support for this hypothesis. 43 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Chemical Reconstruction of Skin Scars Therapy Using 100% Trichloroacetic Acid in the Treatment of Atrophic Facial Post Varicella Scars: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Nidheesh; Mittal, Asit; Kuldeep, CM; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Mehta, Sharad

    2013-01-01

    Context: Chickenpox (varicella) is a common viral disease caused by Varicella zoster virus. Facial atrophic scars after varicella infection are not uncommon and pose a cosmetic problem. Like atrophic scars of other aetiologies, they are a difficult condition to treat. There are not enough references in the literature regarding efficient treatment of post varicella scars. High strength Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), which is known to cause dermal collagen remodelling, was used to treat varicella scars in the present study. Aims: The study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of Chemical Reconstruction of Skin Scars (CROSS) technique using 100% TCA in the treatment of atrophic facial post varicella scars. Settings and Design: Open label, pilot study. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 patients with atrophic facial post varicella scars were treated by focal application of 100% TCA solution by pressing down upon the scar surface by a toothpick (CROSS technique). Total 4 sittings were given at 2 weekly intervals and the results evaluated after 3 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fischer's exact t-test. Results: All of the 13 patients who completed the study showed good clinical improvement, with 69% patients grading the response as excellent (>75%) improvement, whereas the rest 31% patients reporting good (51-75%) improvement. No significant complications were seen in any patient. Conclusions: CROSS technique using 100% TCA is a safe, cheap and effective therapy for the treatment of post varicella scars. PMID:24163530

  3. Rare complication of silicone fluid injection presenting as multiple calcification and skin defect in both legs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hwan Jun

    2015-03-01

    In the past, many materials have been injected for soft tissue augmentation including paraffin (mineral oil) and other non-biocompatible products. Liquid silicone as one of these materials has a long and notorious history as an injectable material for soft tissue augmentation. However, complications, including cellulitis, ulcerations, migration, and nodule formation, have also been reported with silicone injections. This article aims to demonstrate the diagnosis and treatment of multiple calcification and skin defect after silicone fluid injection for soft tissue augmentation. A 65-year-old female presented with skin defect and calcifications had been steadily increasing in size over a 3-month period. Examination confirmed pain, swelling, induration, and 5 × 5 cm sized skin defect with marginal and adjacent calcification in the left lateral malleolar area. She had been injected silicone fluid for soft tissue of lower extremity augmentation and contouring 30 years ago. Serial surgical debridement of this entire zone of calcification and ulceration was undertaken. The defect was closed by a split thickness skin graft. She was satisfied with the aesthetic appearance of the lateral malleolar area, relieving the symptoms of cellulitis. PMID:25564484

  4. Facial skin breakdown in patients with non-invasive ventilation devices: report of two cases and indications for treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Maruccia, Michele; Ruggieri, Martina; Onesti, Maria G

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) provides an effective ventilatory support in patients with respiratory failure without endotracheal intubation. However, there are potential problems with its clinical application and the development of pressure ulcers represents a common complication. Often several intensive care units treat facial skin breakdown related to NIV. In this article, we report our experience in treatment and prevention of these lesions, emphasising the higher risk of certain age groups to develop them, such as preterm infants and elderly patients with comorbidities. We performed daily disinfection of the lesions followed by application of topical cream containing hyaluronic acid (HA) sodium salt. In addition, in order to prevent worsening of injury, we applied a cushion made of gauze pad containing HA sodium salt between the skin and the masks, so as to reduce friction between the NIV devices and the skin. Local medical treatment allowed complete reepithelialisation of the injured skin areas. Systematic monitoring of patients' faces is essential to detect early damages and to intervene with appropriate therapy, especially in preterm infants and elderly. Moreover, refining the devices with the proposed protective cushion can reduce pressure ulcers and increase comfort for the patients. PMID:23870043

  5. A pilot study on the use of a plasma skin regeneration device (Portrait® PSR 3 ) in full facial rejuvenation procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Kilmer; Natalie Semchyshyn; Geeta Shah; Richard Fitzpatrick

    2007-01-01

    A new modality, the Portrait plasma skin regeneration (PSR3) system, allows precise and rapid treatment of photo-damaged skin, with controlled thermal injury and modification. Radio\\u000a frequency (RF) energy converts nitrogen gas into plasma within the handpiece. Rapid heating of the skin occurs as the plasma\\u000a rapidly gives up energy to the skin. This energy transfer is not chromophore dependent. The

  6. An Open Label Clinical Trial of a Multi-Ingredient Anti-Aging Moisturizer Designed to Improve the Appearance of Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Herndon, James H; Jiang, Lily; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2015-07-01

    An open label clinical trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer designed to improve the appearance of facial skin. Parameters studied included fine lines and wrinkles, clarity/brightness, visual roughness, tactile roughness, evenness of skin tone (redness), evenness of skin tone (hyperpigmentation) and overall appearance. Thirty-seven female subjects, ages 35-60 years completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the facial anti-aging moisturizer include: Astragalus membranaceus root extract, a peptide blend including palmitoyl tripeptide-38, standardized rosemary leaf extract (ursolic acid), tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). Subjects were instructed to apply the moisturizer twice daily, once in the morning and once in the evening. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of product usage. Clinical evaluations were conducted at each visit. A self-assessment questionnaire was conducted at week 4, week 8, and week 12. The self-assessment questionnaire included product efficacy inquiries and product aesthetic inquiries. Digital photography was conducted at baseline, week 8, and week 12. After 8 weeks of twice daily use, clinical evaluation results show that the multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer produced a statistically significant improvement in the scores of all clinical grading parameters assessed compared to baseline. A greater statistically significant improvement was seen at 12 weeks. At week 12, there was a statistically significant percentage of favorable results versus unfavorable results in all product efficacy and product aesthetic self-assessment questionnaire results. Digital photography supported the clinical grading and self-assessment questionnaire results. Additionally, the multi-ingredient anti-aging moisturizer is judged to be mild and well tolerated. Several tolerability parameters were assessed at all time points with no statistically significant increase in any of the scores compared to baseline.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(7):699-704. PMID:26151786

  7. The use of absorbable interceed(®) pouch with double-layer skin closure for partial defect of breast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Bae, Youngtae

    2014-01-01

    Generally, a partial breast defect can be covered with surrounding breast tissue. However, when the tumor is located in the upper central and inner quadrant, simple closure with breast tissue is insufficient because rotation of breast tissue is difficult in this location. We introduce a surgical technique using an absorbable Interceed(®) pouch with double-layer skin closure for a remnant defect. A total of 43 patients with breast cancer underwent conventional breast-conserving surgery, following which an Interceed(®) pouch with double-layer skin closure was applied for a remnant defect of the breast. Patients assessed their own cosmetic outcomes based on a four-point scoring system. The mean age of the patients and their mean body mass index were 51.2 years and 23.1 kg/m(2) , respectively. Cosmetic outcomes were self-reported to be excellent in 13 cases (30.2%), good in 26 cases (60.5%), fair in three cases (7.0%), and poor in one case (2.3%). Postoperative complications occurred in two cases (4.6%). In conclusion, a use of an absorbable Interceed(®) pouch with double-layer skin closure is a simple, feasible, ancillary surgical technique to correct an upper central and inner quadrant breast defect without significant complications. PMID:24890770

  8. Epidermal Stem Cells Cultured on Collagen-Modified Chitin Membrane Induce In Situ Tissue Regeneration of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan; Dai, Libing; Li, Xiaojian; Liang, Rong; Guan, Guangxiong; Zhang, Zhi; Cao, Wenjuan; Liu, Zhihe; Mei, Shirley; Liang, Weiguo; Qin, Shennan; Xu, Jiake; Chen, Honghui

    2014-01-01

    A Large scale of full-thickness skin defects is lack of auto-grafts and which requires the engineered skin substitutes for repair and regeneration. One major obstacle in skin tissue engineering is to expand epidermal stem cells (ESCs) and develop functional substitutes. The other one is the scaffold of the ESCs. Here, we applied type I collagen-modified chitin membrane to form collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM), which has been proved to have a great biocompatibility and degraded totally when it was subcutaneously transplanted into rat skin. ESCs were cultured, and the resulting biofilm was used to cover full-thickness skin defects in nude mice. The transplantation of ESCs- collagen- chitn biomimetic membrane (ESCs-C-CBM) has achieved in situ skin regeneration. In nude mice, compared to controls with collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM) only, the ESCs-C-CBM group had significantly more dermatoglyphs on the skin wound 10 w after surgery, and the new skin was relatively thick, red and elastic. In vivo experiments showed obvious hair follicle cell proliferation in the full-thickness skin defect. Stem cell markers examination showed active ESCs in repair and regeneration of skin. The results indicate that the collagen-modified chitin membrane carry with ESCs has successfully regenerated the whole skin with all the skin appendages and function. PMID:24516553

  9. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Grillo, A.; Ferrero, G.B.; Baldini, A.; Ballabio, A.; Zoghbi, H.Y.; Roth, E.J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Magenis, E.; Grompe, M. [Oregon Health Science Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Hulten, M. [East Birmingham Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-01-15

    The microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome (MIM309801) is a severe developmental disorder observed in XX individuals with distal Xp segmental monosomy. The phenotype of this syndrome overlaps with that of both Aicardi (MIM 305050) and Goltz (MIM 305600) syndromes, two X-linked dominant, male-lethal disorders. Here the authors report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of 3 patients with this syndrome. Two of these patients are females with a terminal Xpter-p22.2 deletion. One of these 2 patients had an aborted fetus with anencephaly and the same chromosome abnormality. The third patient is an XX male with Xp/Yp exchange spanning the SRY gene which results in distal Xp monosomy. The extensive clinical variability observed in these patients and the results of the molecular analysis suggest that X-inactivation plays an important role in determining the phenotype of the MLS syndrome. The authors propose that the MLS, Aicardi, and Goltz syndromes are due to the involvement of the same gene(s), and that different patterns of X-inactivation are responsible for the phenotypic differences observed in these 3 disorders. However, they cannot rule out that each component of the MLS phenotype is caused by deletion of a different gene (a contiguous gene syndrome). 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. RECONSTRUCTION OF FLOOR OF MOUTH DEFECTS BY THE FACIAL ARTERY MUSCULO-MUCOSAL FLAP FOLLOWING CANCER ABLATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tareck Ayad; Frederic Kolb; Erwan De Mones; Gerard Mamelle; Stephane Temam

    Background. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with the use of the facial artery musculo-mucosal (FAMM) flap for floor of mouth (FOM) reconstruction following cancer ablation to assess its reliability, associated complica- tions, and functional results. Methods. This was a retrospective analysis of 61 FAMM flaps performed for FOM reconstruction from 1997 to 2006. Results. No

  11. Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Intense Pulsed Light Source for Facial Skin Hair Removal for Home Use

    PubMed Central

    Biron, Julie A.; Thompson, Brynne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this Institutional Review Board-approved, open label, prospective study was to study the safety and efficacy of a novel pulsed light home hair removal device in patients with unwanted facial hair. Materials and methods: Seventeen patients were recruited into the clinical trial; two patients were lost to follow-up. Patients received six biweekly treatments with the novel home-pulsed light device in the facial areas below the level of the cheekbone. Follow-up visits were made at one and three months following the last treatment. Results: The results showed statistically significant hair reduction numbers (22.7 at baseline to 4.4 at the end of the one-month follow-up time period and 7.0 at the end of the three-month follow-up time period) and percentages of 83.3 percent at one month post home-pulsed light device treatments and 78.1 percent at three months following the novel home-pulsed light device treatments. No adverse events with the device in the clinical evaluation were observed. Conclusion: This novel home use pulsed light device is a safe and effective at-home intense pulsed light device for facial hair removal.

  12. Reduction of conspicuous facial pores by topical fullerene: possible role in the suppression of PGE2 production in the skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conspicuous facial pores are therapeutic targets for cosmeceuticals. Here we examine the effect of topical fullerene on conspicuous facial pores using a new image analyser called the VISIA® system. Ten healthy Japanese females participated in this study, and they received applications of 1% fullerene lotion to the face twice a day for 8 weeks. Findings Fullerene lotion significantly decreased conspicuous pores by 17.6% (p?facial pores after an 8-week treatment possibly through the suppression of PGE2 production in the epidermis. PMID:24559044

  13. Goltz–Gorlin (focal dermal hypoplasia) and the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: no evidence of genetic overlap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    May-Britt Harmsen; Silvia Azzarello-Burri; M Mar García González; Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach; Peter Meinecke; Dietmar Müller; Anita Rauch; Eva Rossier; Eva Seemanova; Christiane Spaich; Bernhard Steiner; Dagmar Wieczorek; Martin Zenker; Kerstin Kutsche

    2009-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked developmental disorder with male lethality characterized by patchy dermal hypoplasia, skeletal and dental malformations, and microphthalmia or anophthalmia. Recently, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PORCN gene have been described to cause FDH. FDH shows some clinical overlap with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome, another X-linked male lethal condition, associated with

  14. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  15. Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae utilizing tissue expanders with embodiment injection site: case report.

    PubMed

    Foustanos, A; Zavrides, H

    2006-01-01

    Although highly specialized burn centers have significantly reduced mortality rates following extensive total body surface area burns, survivors are often left with grotesque facial disfigurement. Hypertrophic scars and tissue defects are the most common cause of functional and aesthetic problems in the head and neck region. Plastic surgeons use full-thickness or split-thickness skin grafts, pedicled flaps, free flaps, transplantation of bone or cartilage and tissue expansion. The authors present a case of a patient who suffered from third-degree flame burns to the face. Prior skin grafting procedures left him with severe scar deformity of the face. The patient was treated utilizing multiple tissue expansion. Facial animation has retained and facial integrity has been aesthetically restored and, with the use of make-up, it is near normal in social settings at conversational distances. The tissue expansion technique is advantageous in facial reconstruction because it makes it possible to resurface even wider defects with neighboring skin, similar in colour and texture, and superior to skin obtained elsewhere. PMID:17165599

  16. Effect of the thigh-cuffs on the carotid artery diameter jugular vein section and facial skin edema: HDT study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumy, Jerome; Diridillou, Stephane; Herault, Stephane; Fomina, Galina; Alferova, Irina; Arbeille, Philippe

    2001-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate the distal arterial, venous and skin changes in a group using thigh cuffs during daytime and in a control group. Method: Cardiac, arterial, venous parameters were measured by echography and Doppler. Skin thickness was measured by high frequency echography. Results & discussion: Head down position induced plasma volume reduction, increased cerebral resistance, reduced lower limb resistance. The jugular vein increased whereas the femoral and popliteal veins decreased. All these changes were already observed in previous HDT. Common carotid diameter decreased, Front head skin thickness increased and Tibial skin thickness decreased. Eight hours with thigh cuffs increased the cardiac and carotid sizes which is in agreement with the plasma volume increase. Conversely they reduced the cerebral vascular resistance, jugular section and front head edema which may explain the sensation of comfort reported by the subjects. At the lower limb level the thigh cuffs restored the skin thickness to pre-HDT level but enlarged markedly the femoral and popliteal veins. HR, BP, CO, TPR did not change.

  17. Reduction of facial pigmentation of melasma by topical lignin peroxidase: A novel fast-acting skin-lightening agent

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, SHAO-MIN; SUN, NAN; LIU, HUI-XIAN; NIU, YUE-QING; WU, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lignin peroxidase (LIP) as a skin-lightening agent in patients with melasma. A self-controlled clinical study was performed in 31 women who had melasma on both sides of the face. This study involved 8 weeks of a full-face product treatment. The skin color was measured at days 0, 7, 28 and 56 using a chromameter on the forehead and cheeks. Standardized digital photographic images of each side of the face of all subjects were captured by a complexion analysis system. Clinical scores of the pigmentation were determined by two dermatologists. After using the LIP whitening lotion for 7 days, the luminance (L*) values of the melasma and the normal skin were significantly increased from baseline. The L* values continued to increase at days 28 and 56. The melasma area severity index (MASI) score was statistically decreased after 28 days of treatment. No treatment-related adverse events were observed. LIP whitening lotion was able to eliminate the skin pigmentation after 7 days of treatment, and provides a completely innovative approach to rapid skin lightening. The LIP whitening lotion exhibited good compatibility and was well tolerated. PMID:25574195

  18. Harlequin ichthyosis: ABCA12 mutations underlie defective lipid transport, reduced protease regulation and skin-barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Scott, Claire A; Rajpopat, Shefali; Di, Wei-Li

    2013-02-01

    Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a devastating autosomal recessive congenital skin disease. It has been vital to elucidate the biological importance of the protein ABCA12 in skin-barrier permeability, following the discovery that ABCA12 gene mutations can result in this rare disease. ATP-binding cassette transporter A12 (ABCA12) is a member of the subfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters and functions to transport lipid glucosylceramides (GlcCer) to the extracellular space through lamellar granules (LGs). GlcCer are hydrolysed into hydroxyceramides extracellularly and constitute a portion of the extracellular lamellar membrane, lipid envelope and lamellar granules. In HI skin, loss of function of ABCA12 due to null mutations results in impaired lipid lamellar membrane formation in the cornified layer, leading to defective permeability of the skin barrier. In addition, abnormal lamellar granule formation (distorted shape, reduced in number or absent) could further cause aberrant production of LG-associated desquamation enzymes, which are likely to contribute to the impaired skin barrier in HI. This article reviews current opinions on the patho-mechanisms of ABCA12 action in HI and potential therapeutic interventions based on targeted molecular therapy and gene therapy strategies. PMID:22864982

  19. Self-improvement of keratinocyte differentiation defects during skin maturation in ABCA12-deficient harlequin ichthyosis model mice.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Teruki; Akiyama, Masashi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junko; Sakai, Kaori; Miyamura, Yuki; Naoe, Ayano; Kitahara, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the keratinocyte lipid transporter ABCA12. The patients often die in the first 1 or 2 weeks of life, although HI survivors' phenotypes improve within several weeks after birth. In order to clarify the mechanisms of phenotypic recovery, we studied grafted skin and keratinocytes from Abca12-disrupted (Abca12(-/-)) mice showing abnormal lipid transport. Abca12(-/-) neonatal epidermis showed significantly reduced total ceramide amounts and aberrant ceramide composition. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of Abca12(-/-) neonatal epidermis revealed defective profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion and reduced protein expression of the differentiation-specific molecules, loricrin, kallikrein 5, and transglutaminase 1, although their mRNA expression was up-regulated. In contrast, Abca12(-/-) skin grafts kept in a dry environment exhibited dramatic improvements in all these abnormalities. Increased transepidermal water loss, a parameter representing barrier defect, was remarkably decreased in grafted Abca12(-/-) skin. Ten-passage sub-cultured Abca12(-/-) keratinocytes showed restoration of intact ceramide distribution, differentiation-specific protein expression and profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion, which were defective in primary-cultures. Using cDNA microarray analysis, lipid transporters including four ATP-binding cassette transporters were up-regulated after sub-culture of Abca12(-/-) keratinocytes compared with primary-culture. These results indicate that disrupted keratinocyte differentiation during the fetal development is involved in the pathomechanism of HI and, during maturation, Abca12(-/-) epidermal keratinocytes regain normal differentiation processes. This restoration may account for the skin phenotype improvement observed in HI survivors. PMID:20489143

  20. Self-Improvement of Keratinocyte Differentiation Defects During Skin Maturation in ABCA12-Deficient Harlequin Ichthyosis Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Teruki; Akiyama, Masashi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junko; Sakai, Kaori; Miyamura, Yuki; Naoe, Ayano; Kitahara, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the keratinocyte lipid transporter ABCA12. The patients often die in the first 1 or 2 weeks of life, although HI survivors’ phenotypes improve within several weeks after birth. In order to clarify the mechanisms of phenotypic recovery, we studied grafted skin and keratinocytes from Abca12-disrupted (Abca12?/?) mice showing abnormal lipid transport. Abca12?/? neonatal epidermis showed significantly reduced total ceramide amounts and aberrant ceramide composition. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of Abca12?/? neonatal epidermis revealed defective profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion and reduced protein expression of the differentiation-specific molecules, loricrin, kallikrein 5, and transglutaminase 1, although their mRNA expression was up-regulated. In contrast, Abca12?/? skin grafts kept in a dry environment exhibited dramatic improvements in all these abnormalities. Increased transepidermal water loss, a parameter representing barrier defect, was remarkably decreased in grafted Abca12?/? skin. Ten-passage sub-cultured Abca12?/? keratinocytes showed restoration of intact ceramide distribution, differentiation-specific protein expression and profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion, which were defective in primary-cultures. Using cDNA microarray analysis, lipid transporters including four ATP-binding cassette transporters were up-regulated after sub-culture of Abca12?/? keratinocytes compared with primary-culture. These results indicate that disrupted keratinocyte differentiation during the fetal development is involved in the pathomechanism of HI and, during maturation, Abca12?/? epidermal keratinocytes regain normal differentiation processes. This restoration may account for the skin phenotype improvement observed in HI survivors. PMID:20489143

  1. Changes in Women’s Facial Skin Color Over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System

    E-print Network

    Burriss, Robert P.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Lovell, P. George; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Stevens, Martin; Quigley, Rachael; Payne, Jenny; Saxton, Tamsin K.; Rowland, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    this leads to more oxygenated blood [47] and redder skin [48]. Progestins are routinely 61 prescribed as a treatment for acne vulgaris [49], and may therefore reduce redness. Although 62 these studies do not document within-participant effects of cyclic...

  2. Fabrication of quercetin and curcumin bionanovesicles for the prevention and rapid regeneration of full-thickness skin defects on mice.

    PubMed

    Castangia, Ines; Nácher, Amparo; Caddeo, Carla; Valenti, Donatella; Fadda, Anna Maria; Díez-Sales, Octavio; Ruiz-Saurí, Amparo; Manconi, Maria

    2014-03-01

    In the present work biocompatible quercetin and curcumin nanovesicles were developed as a novel approach to prevent and restore skin tissue defects on chronic cutaneous pathologies. Stable and suitable quercetin- and curcumin-loaded phospholipid vesicles, namely liposomes and penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs), were prepared. Vesicles were made from a highly biocompatible mixture of phospholipids and alternatively a natural polyphenol, quercetin or curcumin. Liposomes were obtained by adding water, while PEVs by adding polyethylene glycol 400 and Oramix®CG110 to the water phase. Transmission electron microscopy, cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering showed that vesicles were spherical, oligo- or multilamellar and small in size (112-220 nm). In vitro and in vivo tests underlined a good effectiveness of quercetin and curcumin nanovesicles in counteracting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced lesions and inflammation. Myeloperoxydase activity, used to gauge inflammation, was markedly inhibited by quercetin liposomes (59%) and curcumin liposomes and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PEVs (? 68%). Histology showed that PEG-PEVs provided an extensive re-epithelization of the TPA-damaged skin, with multiple layers of thick epidermis. In conclusion, nanoentrapped polyphenols prevented the formation of skin lesions abrogating the various biochemical processes that cause epithelial loss and skin damage. PMID:24239901

  3. A single center, pilot, double-blinded, randomized, comparative, prospective clinical study to evaluate improvements in the structure and function of facial skin with tazarotene 0.1% cream alone and in combination with GliSODin® Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Lawrence D; Crysler, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Background Superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduces the reactive oxygen species formation associated with oxidative stress. An imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants can lead to accelerated aging. GliSODin® Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula (GAAF) is an SOD-containing dietary nutricosmetic formulated with other nutraceuticals that promote improvements in the structure and function of the skin, including hydration, elasticity, structural integrity, and photoaging caused by oxidative stress. Tazarotene cream 0.1% (TAZ) is a United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drug indicated for use in the mitigation of facial fine wrinkling, facial mottled hyper- and hypopigmentation, and benign facial lentigines when taken in conjunction with a comprehensive skin care and sun avoidance program. Objective To determine if the antioxidant, anti-aging, hydrating and skin-rejuvenating properties of GAAF complement the retinoic actions of TAZ to improve the structure and function of facial skin. Method A 90-day comparative study of ten subjects with facial photodamage; daily topical application of TAZ was used in combination with three capsules of GAAF (780 mg each) or placebo orally, with food, per the randomization allocation. Results After 90 days of treatment, TAZ alone and in combination with GAAF improved fine wrinkles (?1.2 versus 2.0), mottled hyperpigmentation (?2.2 versus 2.8) and overall photodamage (?1.0 versus 1.8), as well as patient-reported response to treatment (?2.0 versus 1.6). At week 12, TAZ/GAAF combination treatment (Group A) versus TAZ treatment alone (Group C) was of significant clinical benefit, with respect to fine wrinkling (14.7%/41.7%), overall photodamage (15.6%/53.0%), skin moisture (19.1%/103.2%), skin elasticity (12.8%/87.7%), and response to treatment (8.8%/21.4%). Conclusion The study suggests GAAF in combination with TAZ is safe and provides significant clinical benefit with relative improvement in facial fine wrinkling, overall photodamage, skin moisture and elasticity. PMID:24872715

  4. A bioactive "self-fitting" shape memory polymer scaffold with potential to treat cranio-maxillo facial bone defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; George, Olivia J; Petersen, Keri M; Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea C; Hahn, Mariah S; Grunlan, Melissa A

    2014-11-01

    While tissue engineering is a promising alternative for treating critical-sized cranio-maxillofacial bone defects, improvements in scaffold design are needed. In particular, scaffolds that can precisely match the irregular boundaries of bone defects as well as exhibit an interconnected pore morphology and bioactivity would enhance tissue regeneration. In this study, a shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffold was developed exhibiting an open porous structure and the capacity to conformally "self-fit" into irregular defects. The SMP scaffold was prepared via photocrosslinking of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diacrylate using a SCPL method, which included a fused salt template. A bioactive polydopamine coating was applied to coat the pore walls. Following exposure to warm saline at T>T(trans) (T(trans)=T(m) of PCL), the scaffold became malleable and could be pressed into an irregular model defect. Cooling caused the scaffold to lock in its temporary shape within the defect. The polydopamine coating did not alter the physical properties of the scaffold. However, polydopamine-coated scaffolds exhibited superior bioactivity (i.e. formation of hydroxyapatite in vitro), osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic gene expression and extracellular matrix deposition. PMID:25063999

  5. Fat grafting in facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Marten, Timothy J; Elyassnia, Dino

    2015-04-01

    Patients with significant facial atrophy and age-related loss of facial fat generally achieve suboptimal improvement from both surface treatments of facial skin and surgical lifts. Restoring lost facial volume by fat grafting is a powerful technique that is now acknowledged by most plastic surgeons and other physicians engaged in treating the aging face as one of the most important advances in aesthetic surgery. Properly performed, the addition of fat to areas of the face that have atrophied because of age or disease can produce a significant and sustained improvement in appearance that is unobtainable by other means. PMID:25827566

  6. The Science and Theory behind Facial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pessa, Joel E.; Hubbard, Bradley; Rohrich, Rod J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The etiology of age-related facial changes has many layers. Multiple theories have been presented over the past 50–100 years with an evolution of understanding regarding facial changes related to skin, soft tissue, muscle, and bone. This special topic will provide an overview of the current literature and evidence and theories of facial changes of the skeleton, soft tissues, and skin over time. PMID:25289202

  7. Accuracies of facial soft tissue depth means for estimating ground truth skin surfaces in forensic craniofacial identification.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Carl N

    2015-07-01

    Facial soft tissue thickness means have long been used as a proxy to estimate the soft tissue envelope, over the skull, in craniofacial identification. However, estimation errors of these statistics are not well understood, making casework selection of the best performing estimation models impossible and overarching method accuracies controversial. To redress this situation, residuals between predicted and ground truth values were calculated in two experiments: (1) for 27 suites of means drawn from 10 recently published studies, all examining the same 10 landmarks (N???3051), and tested against six independent raw datasets of contemporary living adults (N?=?797); and (2) pairwise tests of the above six, and five other, raw datasets (N?=?1063). In total, 380 out-of-sample tests of 416 arithmetic means were conducted across 11 independent samples. Experiment 1 produced an overarching mean absolute percentage error (MAE) of 29 % and a standard error of the estimate (S est) of 2.7 mm. Experiment 2 yielded MAE of 32 % and S est of 2.8 mm. In any instance, MAE was always ?20 % of the ground truth value. The overarching 95 % limits of the error, for contemporary samples, was large (11.4 mm). CT-derived means from South Korean males and Black South African females routinely performed well across the test samples and produced the smallest errors of any tests (but did so for Black American male reference samples). Sample-specific statistics thereby performed poorly despite discipline esteem. These results-and the practice of publishing means without prior model validation-demand major reforms in the field. PMID:25394746

  8. [The application of multichannel electrostimulation and nivalin electrophoresis for the rehabilitative treatment of the patient following plastic surgery in the facial region].

    PubMed

    Lazarenko, N N; Gerasimenko, M Iu

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time the combined treatment of the patients who underwent plastic surgery for the correction of cosmetic defects in the form of grade II and III senile atrophy of the skin in conjunction with complicated neuropathies of the facial nerve. The essence of the proposed combined treatment consists in using lymphatic drainage massage, medicinal electrophoresis of a nivalin solution, multichannel electrostimulation, and microcurrent therapy with bipolar pulsed currents. The method made it possible to significantly improve the properties of the skin in the facial region, neuro-muscular conductivity, general microcirculation and cerebral circulation in the treated patients. PMID:22165146

  9. Facial bradykinesia.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Matteo; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Marsili, Luca; Defazio, Giovanni; Thompson, Philip D; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the main clinical and pathophysiological features of facial bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in atypical parkinsonism. Clinical observation suggests that reduced spontaneous and emotional facial expressions are features of facial bradykinesia in PD and atypical parkinsonism. In atypical parkinsonism, facial bradykinesia is complicated by additional dystonic features. Experimental studies evaluating spontaneous and emotional facial movements demonstrate that PD is characterised by a reduction in spontaneous blinking and emotional facial expression. In PD, neurophysiological studies show that voluntary orofacial movements are smaller in amplitude and slower in velocity. In contrast, movements of the upper face (eg, voluntary blinking) are normal in terms of velocity and amplitude but impaired in terms of switching between the closing and opening phases. In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), voluntary blinking is not only characterised by a severely impaired switching between the closing and opening phases of voluntary blinking, but is also slow in comparison with PD. In conclusion, in PD, facial bradykinesia reflects abnormalities of spontaneous, emotional and voluntary facial movements. In PSP, spontaneous and voluntary facial movements are abnormal but experimental studies on emotional facial movements are lacking. Data on facial bradykinesia in other atypical parkinsonism diseases, including multiple system atrophy and corticobasal degeneration, are limited. In PD, facial bradykinesia is primarily mediated by basal ganglia dysfunction whereas in PSP, facial bradykinesia is a consequence of a widespread degeneration involving the basal ganglia, cortical and brainstem structures. PMID:23236012

  10. The insular cortex: relationship to skin conductance responses to facial expression of emotion in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Banks, Sarah J; Bellerose, Jenny; Douglas, Danielle; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    The insula plays an important role both in emotion processing and in the generation of epileptic seizures. In the current study we examined thickness of insular cortices and bilateral skin conductance responses (SCR) in healthy subjects in addition to a small number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. SCR measures arousal and is used to assess non-conscious responses to emotional stimuli. We used two emotion tasks, one explicitly about emotion and the other implicit. The explicit task required judgments about emotions being expressed in photographs of faces, while the implicit one required judgments about the age of the people in the photographs. Patients and healthy differed in labeling neutral faces, but not other emotions. They also differed in their SCR to emotions, though the profile depended on which hand the recordings were from. Finally, we found relationships between the thickness of the insula and SCR to each task: in the healthy group the thickness of the left insula was related to SCR to the emotion-labeling task; in the patient group it was between the thickness of the right insula and SCR in the age-labeling task. These patterns were evident only for the right hand recordings, thus underscoring the importance of bilateral recordings. PMID:24170157

  11. Analysis of the Effects of Residual Strains and Defects on Skin/Stiffener Debonding using Decohesion Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.

    2003-01-01

    Delamination is one of the predominant forms of failure in laminated composites especially when there is no reinforcement in the thickness direction. To develop composite structures that are more damage tolerant, it is necessary to understand how delamination develops and how it can affect the residual performance. A number of factors such as residual thermal strains, matrix curing shrinkage, and manufacturing defects affect how damage will grow in a composite structure. It is important to develop analysis methods that are computationally efficient that can account for all such factors. The objective of the current work is to apply a newly developed decohesion element to investigate the debond strength of skin/stiffener composite specimens. The process of initiation of delaminations and the propagation of delamination fronts is investigated. The numerical predictions are compared with published experimental results.

  12. In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology. PMID:23212157

  13. Localization of facial region in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

    2011-06-01

    We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

  14. Facial Transplantation Surgery Introduction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea.

  15. Skin Care.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amelia; Hessler, Jill L

    2015-08-01

    Aging skin is among the most common patient concerns in a facial plastic surgery practice. Ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage expedites the pace of intrinsic aging, resulting in many of the visible signs of aging, such as rough skin texture, pigmentation irregularities, fine and deep wrinkling, and inelasticity. Primary prevention of UV and environmental damage with proper skin care and the use of sunscreen are critical. There is great interest in topically applied products to reverse or delay the visible signs of photoaging. We discuss the most common topically applied agents for photoaging, reviewing their mechanisms and supporting evidence. PMID:26208767

  16. Motion-artifact-robust, polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on rapid polarization switching with electro-optic Pockells cell and its application to in vivo visualization of collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Ogura, Yuki; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Hirao, Tetsuji; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this article, we constructed a motion-artifact-robust, PR-SHG microscope based on rapid polarization switching at every pixel with an electro-optic Pockells cell (PC) in synchronization with step-wise raster scanning of the focus spot and alternate data acquisition of a vertical-polarization-resolved SHG signal and a horizontal-polarization-resolved one. The constructed PC-based PR-SHG microscope enabled us to visualize orientation mapping of dermal collagen fiber in human facial skin in vivo without the influence of motion artifacts. Furthermore, it implied the location and/or age dependence of the collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin. The robustness to motion artifacts in the collagen orientation measurement will expand the application scope of SHG microscopy in dermatology and collagen-related fields. PMID:24761292

  17. Find a Facial Plastic & Reconstructive Surgeon

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is a Facial Plastic Surgeon Facelift Surgery Wrinkle Treatment Nose Surgery Eyelid Surgery Hair Replacement Skin Resurfacing Laser Surgery Scar Revisions Forehead Lift Chin Surgery Reconstructive and Face Transplants Ear Surgery Informative Videos Chat Room On- ...

  18. Full-Thickness Skin Grafting with De-Epithelization of the Wound Margin for Finger Defects with Bone or Tendon Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Hee; Kang, Sang Yoon; Yang, Won Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs) are generally considered unreliable for coverage of full-thickness finger defects with bone or tendon exposure, and there are few clinical reports of its use in this context. However, animal studies have shown that an FTSG can survive over an avascular area ranging up to 12 mm in diameter. In our experience, the width of the exposed bones or tendons in full-thickness finger defects is <7 mm. Therefore, we covered the bone- or tendon-exposed defects of 16 fingers of 10 patients with FTSGs. Methods The surgical objectives were healthy granulation tissue formation in the wound bed, marginal de-epithelization of the normal skin surrounding the defect, preservation of the subdermal plexus of the central graft, and partial excision of the dermis along the graft margin. The donor site was the mastoid for small defects and the groin for large defects. Results Most of the grafts (15 of 16 fingers) survived without significant surgical complications and achieved satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. Minor complications included partial graft loss in one patient, a minimal extension deformity in two patients, a depression deformity in one patient, and mild hyperpigmentation in four patients. Conclusions We observed excellent graft survival with this method with no additional surgical injury of the normal finger, satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes, and no need for secondary debulking procedures. Potential disadvantages include an insufficient volume of soft tissue and graft hyperpigmentation. Therefore, FTSGs may be an option for treatment of full-thickness finger defects with bone or tendon exposure. PMID:26015890

  19. Dynamic Model of Facial Cooling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikuisis, Peter; Osczevski, Randall J.

    2002-12-01

    Recent modifications to windchill forecasting have motivated the development of a rate-of-tissue-cooling model for the purpose of predicting facial cooling times. The model assumes a hollow cylindrical geometry with a fixed internal boundary temperature and adherence to the dimensions and tissue thermal properties of the cheek. Convective and radiative heat exchanges at the skin surface are also taken into account. The explicit finite-difference solution of the thermal conduction problem was applied to predict the transient temperature profile in the cheek model, composed of 25 concentric annular compartments with equally spaced nodes. Model predictions compare favorably to reported incidents of facial frostbite and to several laboratory studies on facial cooling. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the effect of varying the values of tissue thermal resistance and cheek dimensions on the predicted facial cooling rate.

  20. Dynamic Model of Facial Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Tikuisis; Randall J. Osczevski

    2002-01-01

    Recent modifications to windchill forecasting have motivated the development of a rate-of-tissue-cooling model for the purpose of predicting facial cooling times. The model assumes a hollow cylindrical geometry with a fixed internal boundary temperature and adherence to the dimensions and tissue thermal properties of the cheek. Convective and radiative heat exchanges at the skin surface are also taken into account.

  1. Facial tics

    MedlinePLUS

    Tic - facial; Mimic spasm ... Tics may involve repeated, uncontrolled spasm-like muscle movements, such as: Eye blinking Grimacing Mouth twitching Nose wrinkling Squinting Repeated throat clearing or grunting may also be ...

  2. Facial paralysis

    MedlinePLUS

    Paralysis of the face. ... from the brain to the muscles of the face Damage to the area of the brain that sends signals to the muscles of the face In people who are otherwise healthy, facial paralysis ...

  3. Amniotic membrane covering for facial nerve repair?

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Murat; Tuncel, Arzu; Sheidaei, Shahrouz; ?enol, Mehmet Güney; Karabulut, Murat Hakan; Deveci, Ildem; Karaman, Nihan

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic membranes have been widely used in ophthalmology and skin injury repair because of their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured therapeutic efficacy and determined if amniotic membranes could be used for facial nerve repair. The facial nerves of eight rats were dissected and end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Amniotic membranes were covered on the anastomosis sites in four rats. Electromyography results showed that, at the end of the 3rd and 8th weeks after amniotic membrane covering, the latency values of the facial nerves covered by amniotic membranes were significantly shortened and the amplitude values were significantly increased. Compared with simple facial nerve anastomosis, after histopathological examination, facial nerve anastomosed with amniotic membrane showed better continuity, milder inflammatory reactions, and more satisfactory nerve conduction. These findings suggest that amniotic membrane covering has great potential in facial nerve repair. PMID:25206390

  4. Aesthetically and functionally satisfying reconstruction of an Achilles tendon and overlying skin defect in a 15 year old girl: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wurzer, Paul; Eberl, Robert; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Parvizi, Daryousch; Rappl, Thomas; Spendel, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    Achilles tendon and overlying soft tissue reconstruction presents an interdisciplinary challenge. In the literature many possible procedures are described, but each reconstruction in this region has its specific demands. Single stage reconstruction is normally pursued, but it is not always the best procedure for the patient, either aesthetically or functionally. We present a case of a 15 year old girl who suffered a soft tissue defect of 10cm×6cm in size at the area of the Achilles tendon due to a contact burn by an exhaust pipe during a motorcycle accident. For this case, reconstruction of the soft tissue defect using a free temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF) and a full-thickness skin autograft was the best means to provide a satisfying result for both the patient and the surgeon. PMID:25000817

  5. Management of facial hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bernal, A; Muñoz-Pérez, M A; Camacho, F

    2000-01-01

    Facial and neck pigmentations are the most cosmetically important. They are common in middle-aged women, and are related to endogenous (hormones) and exogenous factors (such as use of cosmetics and perfumes, and exposure to sun radiation). Melasma (chloasma) is the most common cause of facial pigmentation, but there are many other forms such as Riehl's melanosis, poikiloderma of Civatte, erythrose peribuccale pigmentaire of Brocq, erythromelanosis follicularis of the face and neck, linea fusca, and cosmetic hyperpigmentations. Treatment of melasma and other facial pigmentations has always been challenging and discouraging. It is important to avoid exposure to the sun or to ultraviolet lamps, and to use broad-spectrum sunscreens. Several hypopigmenting agents have been used with differing results. Topical hydroquinone 2 to 4% alone or in combination with tretinoin 0.05 to 0.1% is an established treatment. Topical azelaic acid 15 to 20% can be as efficacious as hydroquinone, but is less of an irritant. Tretinoin is especially useful in treating hyperpigmentation of photoaged skin. Kojic acid, alone or in combination with glycolic acid or hydroquinone, has shown good results, due to its inhibitory action on tyrosinase. Chemical peels are useful to treat melasma: trichloroacetic acid, Jessner's solution, Unna's paste, alpha-hydroxy acid preparations, kojic acid, and salicyclic acid, alone or in various combinations have shown good results. In contrast, laser therapies have not produced completely satisfactory results, because they can induce hyperpigmentation and recurrences can occur. New laser approaches could be successful at clearing facial hyperpigmentation in the future. PMID:11702317

  6. Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchovi?ová, So?a; Zahradníková, Barbora; Schreiber, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

  7. Extensive visual loss with topical facial steroids.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, R K; Potamitis, T; Chong, N H; Guarro, M; Shah, P; Kheterpal, S

    1993-01-01

    Steroid creams applied topically to the skin are routinely used in the treatment of many dermatoses. Their use on the face in severe atopic eczema is relatively common. We report a series of three patients who whilst using topical facial steroids developed advanced glaucoma. A further two cases of ocular hypertension secondary to topical facial steroids are also described. This is the first series of cases to be reported demonstrating the potentially blinding complications of topical facial steroids. Recommendations are made with regard to screening such patients for glaucoma. PMID:8287990

  8. Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

  9. Experience With Esthetic Reconstruction of Complex Facial Soft Tissue Trauma: Application of the Pulsed Dye Laser

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. Patients and Methods: We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. Results: In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Conclusions: Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results. PMID:25337516

  10. Clinical case-study describing the use of skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the auricular concha to cover large defects of the nose

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The composite graft from the conchal cartilage is a graft that is often used, especially in surgery on the nose, due to its capacity to resolve problems of cover and tissue deficit, arising from the removal of neoplasms or as the result of trauma, burns or following over-aggressive rhinoplasty. We have started to use skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the ear to cover large areas of the nose with very satisfying results as well as we describe in the reported clinical case. Methods The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum, which had previously been removed, using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. After this, the skin edges of the fistula were turned to recreate the inner lining of the nose and form a vascular base of wide area to accept the composite graft. The case concerns a female 74-year old patient who had undergone several oncological surgery for a relapsing basal cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the nose. The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. Results The perichondrial cutaneous graft has shown in this surgical case very favorable peculiarities that make it usable even in facial plastic surgery. Conclusions We believe that the positive experience that we achieved in the use of composite grafts for the reconstruction of large areas of the nose could be interesting for others surgeons. PMID:22429738

  11. Marker optimization for facial motion acquisition and deformation.

    PubMed

    Le, Binh H; Zhu, Mingyang; Deng, Zhigang

    2013-11-01

    A long-standing problem in marker-based facial motion capture is what are the optimal facial mocap marker layouts. Despite its wide range of potential applications, this problem has not yet been systematically explored to date. This paper describes an approach to compute optimized marker layouts for facial motion acquisition as optimization of characteristic control points from a set of high-resolution, ground-truth facial mesh sequences. Specifically, the thin-shell linear deformation model is imposed onto the example pose reconstruction process via optional hard constraints such as symmetry and multiresolution constraints. Through our experiments and comparisons, we validate the effectiveness, robustness, and accuracy of our approach. Besides guiding minimal yet effective placement of facial mocap markers, we also describe and demonstrate its two selected applications: marker-based facial mesh skinning and multiresolution facial performance capture. PMID:24029906

  12. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. B. Rosen; P. G. Walfish

    1989-01-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There

  13. Assessment of Facial Muscle Exercise Using Oral Cavity Rehabilitative Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ibrahim; N. Arifin; N. M. Zarmani; Z. Abdul Rahim

    This paper describes the assessment of facial muscle exercise using an oral cavity rehabilitative device. The physiological parameters investigated are labial closure strength (LCS), tongue strength (TS), right (ER) and left (EL) facial skin elasticity. A total of thirteen females aged forty years old and above with the mean age of 44.5 years old were recruited in the study. Subjects

  14. Young Children's Ability to Match Facial Features Typical of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacoste, Ronald J.

    This study examined (1) the ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to racially classify Negro and Caucasian facial features in the absence of skin color as a racial cue; and (2) the relative value attached to the facial features of Negro and Caucasian races. Subjects were 21 middle income, Caucasian children from a privately owned nursery school in…

  15. [Skin and eyes].

    PubMed

    Kohl, E; Hillenkamp, J; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2010-03-01

    Numerous diseases affect both skin and eyes due to similar ontogenetic origin. The eye is the second most common site of melanoma after the skin. The eyelids are predisposed for development of toxic and allergic dermatitis as the skin in this region is four times thinner than the other facial skin. The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis. Atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with atopic eczema. Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity. Side effects of dermatologic treatments with glucocorticoids, antimalarials, psoralens, retinoids, or tetracyclines may involve the eye. PMID:20309669

  16. [Skin and eyes].

    PubMed

    Kohl, E; Hillenkamp, J; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2009-01-01

    Numerous diseases affect both skin and eyes due to similar ontogenetic origin. The eye is the second most common site of melanoma after the skin. The eyelids are predisposed for development of toxic and allergic dermatitis as the skin in this region is four times thinner than the other facial skin. The differential diagnosis must include atopic and seborrhoeic eyelid dermatitis. Atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis are associated with atopic eczema. Various immunobullous disorders involve the conjunctiva with varying severity. Side effects of dermatologic treatments with glucocorticoids, antimalarials, psoralens, retinoids, or tetracyclines may involve the eye. PMID:19130027

  17. Facilitating facial retinization through barrier improvement.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith D; Berge, Cynthia A

    2006-10-01

    The utility of topical tretinoin as a treatment for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin is limited by irritation that occurs during the early phases of facial retinization. The observed side effects are consistent with stratum corneum barrier compromise. This paired double-blinded study was conducted to determine if preconditioning the skin with a barrier-enhancing cosmetic facial moisturizer before beginning tretinoin therapy and continuing moisturizer application during therapy would mitigate these side effects. Women with facial photodamage were recruited and randomly assigned to apply one cosmetic moisturizer to one side of the face and the other cosmetic moisturizer to the other side of the face twice daily for 10 weeks. One moisturizer contained a mixture of vitamins (niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate) to enhance stratum corneum barrier function, and the other moisturizer contained similar moisturizing ingredients but no vitamins. Daily full-face treatment with tretinoin cream 0.025% commenced 2 weeks into the study. Subjects' facial skin condition was monitored via investigator assessments, instrumental measurements, and subject self-assessments. The results show that improving stratum corneum barrier function before beginning topical tretinoin therapy and continuing use of a barrier-enhancing cosmetic moisturizer during therapy facilitates the early phase of facial retinization and augments the treatment response. PMID:17121065

  18. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  19. Hyaluronic acid skin fillers: Adverse reactions and skin testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. Lowe; C. Anne Maxwell; Philippa Lowe; Michael G. Duick; Kishor Shah

    2001-01-01

    Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been proposed as alternatives to other temporary skin fillers, such as bovine collagen, for treating facial skin lines and for providing lip augmentation. Several types of commercial HA fillers are now available in many countries. They include Restylane, which is produced by microbiologic engineering techniques, and Hylaform, which is HA extract derived from rooster

  20. Physical model of facial tissue and muscle articulation derived from computer tomography data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Waters

    1992-01-01

    A facial tissue model, articulated by synthetic muscles, provides a tool for observing, analyzing, and predicting soft tissue mobility on the face. A geometric model of facial tissue extracted from CT data improves the skin tissue simulation by using accurate skin tissue depths. This paper suggests that the ability to control the model resolution, muscle placement and activity requires an

  1. [Blepharoplasty in aesthetic facial surgery].

    PubMed

    Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Schouten, H J; Vissink, A

    2014-01-01

    Blepharoplasty is the most commonly performed procedure in aesthetic facial surgery. The upper eyelid is part of the same aesthetic subunit as the eyebrow and the lower eyelid is part of the same aesthetic subunit as the cheek. In upper eyelid blepharoplasty the excess skin and possibly also a portion of the sphincter is removed. A low-hanging eyebrow is preferably corrected by lifting the brow instead of over excising the redundant eyelid skin. Blepharoplasty of the lower eyelid is generally carried out by a very limited excision of the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle in order to prevent lower lid retraction (ectropion). Rejuvenation in the lower lid region is also achieved by fat resection or redistribution, by means of which the double convex contour deformity is reduced. Blepharoplasty is generally performed under local anaesthesia and complications are rare. Patient satisfaction is generally high. PMID:25174189

  2. Improvement of photoaged facial skin in middle-aged Japanese females by topical retinol (vitamin A alcohol): a vehicle-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Katsuko; Suetake, Takaki; Kumasaka, Naka; Tagami, Hachiro

    2009-01-01

    Topical tretinoin formulation is still unavailable in Japan. Because topical retinol, which is less potent but may cause less irritation, is available here, we have performed a randomized, blinded, vehicle-controlled study on the face using a once-nightly regimen for the treatment of mild photoaging in middle-aged Japanese females. First, a 26-week study was conducted in 57 subjects with a 0.075% retinol cream and its vehicle on each half side of the face. Three of the 57 subjects withdrew from the study due to irritation, although this rate was much smaller than that noted in our previous study with topical tretinoin. After 26 weeks, the rates of photoaging improvement were significantly higher on the retinol side: 27 out of 54 (50%) versus 13 (24%) for the fine wrinkling and 15 out of 54 (28%) versus 1 (2%) for deep wrinkling. A similar trial with a 0.04% retinol cream for 13 weeks revealed less prominent improvements in fine wrinkling but minimal irritation. From these data, we think that retinol creams, especially 0.04% cream, are suitable for daily use in the general population because of the low irritancy, even for those with sensitive skin. PMID:20078381

  3. Autosomal-recessive SASH1 variants associated with a new genodermatosis with pigmentation defects, palmoplantar keratoderma and skin carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Courcet, Jean-Benoît; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Duplomb, Laurence; Tajir, Mariam; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Thevenon, Julien; Gigot, Nadège; Marle, Nathalie; Aral, Bernard; Duffourd, Yannis; Sarasin, Alain; Naim, Valeria; Courcet-Degrolard, Emilie; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Martin, Laurent; Abrid, Jamal Eddin; Thauvin, Christel; Sefiani, Abdelaziz; Vabres, Pierre; Faivre, Laurence

    2015-07-01

    SASH1 (SAM and SH3 domain-containing protein 1) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in the tumorigenesis of a spectrum of solid cancers. Heterozygous SASH1 variants are known to cause autosomal-dominant dyschromatosis. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous Moroccan family with two affected siblings presenting an unclassified phenotype associating an abnormal pigmentation pattern (hypo- and hyperpigmented macules of the trunk and face and areas of reticular hypo- and hyperpigmentation of the extremities), alopecia, palmoplantar keratoderma, ungueal dystrophy and recurrent spinocellular carcinoma. We identified a homozygous variant in SASH1 (c.1849G>A; p.Glu617Lys) in both affected individuals. Wound-healing assay showed that the patient's fibroblasts were better able than control fibroblasts to migrate. Following the identification of SASH1 heterozygous variants in dyschromatosis, we used reverse phenotyping to show that autosomal-recessive variants of this gene could be responsible for an overlapping but more complex phenotype that affected skin appendages. SASH1 should be added to the list of genes responsible for autosomal-dominant and -recessive genodermatosis, with no phenotype in heterozygous patients in the recessive form, and to the list of genes responsible for a predisposition to skin cancer. PMID:25315659

  4. Secondary syphilis with framboesiform facial lesions: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, M H; Hubbard, H C; Dave, V K; Haye, K R

    1981-01-01

    A 15-year-old schoolgirl presented with a generalised progressive skin rash of six months' duration, which had been previously diagnosed as psoriasis. The facial skin lesions were particularly prominent and nodular in form. Serological tests confirmed the diagnosis of secondary syphilis, which responded to treatment. Images PMID:7214118

  5. Mutations in NDUFB11, encoding a complex I component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, cause microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Rahden, Vanessa A; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Alawi, Malik; Brand, Kristina; Fellmann, Florence; Horn, Denise; Zeviani, Massimo; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is an X-linked male-lethal disorder also known as MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea). Additional clinical features include neurological and cardiac abnormalities. MLS syndrome is genetically heterogeneous given that heterozygous mutations in HCCS or COX7B have been identified in MLS-affected females. Both genes encode proteins involved in the structure and function of complexes III and IV, which form the terminal segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). However, not all individuals with MLS syndrome carry a mutation in either HCCS or COX7B. The majority of MLS-affected females have severe skewing of X chromosome inactivation, suggesting that mutations in HCCS, COX7B, and other as-yet-unidentified X-linked gene(s) cause selective loss of cells in which the mutated X chromosome is active. By applying whole-exome sequencing and filtering for X-chromosomal variants, we identified a de novo nonsense mutation in NDUFB11 (Xp11.23) in one female individual and a heterozygous 1-bp deletion in a second individual, her asymptomatic mother, and an affected aborted fetus of the subject's mother. NDUFB11 encodes one of 30 poorly characterized supernumerary subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, known as complex I (cI), the first and largest enzyme of the MRC. By shRNA-mediated NDUFB11 knockdown in HeLa cells, we demonstrate that NDUFB11 is essential for cI assembly and activity as well as cell growth and survival. These results demonstrate that X-linked genetic defects leading to the complete inactivation of complex I, III, or IV underlie MLS syndrome. Our data reveal an unexpected role of cI dysfunction in a developmental phenotype, further underscoring the existence of a group of mitochondrial diseases associated with neurocutaneous manifestations. PMID:25772934

  6. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the upper and lower jaws and the orbits surrounding the eyes, and facial lacerations. Click here to find out ... of the upper and lower jaws and the orbits surrounding the eyes, and facial lacerations. Click here to find out ...

  7. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, speech, breathing and your ... facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For example, nerve diseases like trigeminal neuralgia or ...

  8. Considerations in non-Caucasian facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jonathan M; Nolen, David

    2014-08-01

    Aging of the face is inevitable and undeniable. This process includes a loss of skeletal support, soft tissue volume depletion, and a decrease in skin elasticity. The contribution of these 3 factors varies between individuals with noticeable hereditary influence. Characteristic ethnic features have been described in the literature, but as societies have changed, many of these ethnic variations have blended together. Facial cosmetic procedures must to be tailored to address these variations in anatomy, and consideration must be given to enhancing the facial skeleton, adequately lifting the soft tissues, and planning careful incisions to be closed under no tension. PMID:25049130

  9. Classifying Facial Actions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianluca Donato; Marian Stewart Bartlett; Joseph C. Hager; Paul Ekman; Terrence J. Sejnowski

    1999-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) (23) is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images.

  10. Facial Expression Decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongcheng Wang; Narendra Ahuja

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for facial expression decomposition - Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition (HOSVD), a natural generalization of matrix SVD. We learn the expression subspace and person subspace from a corpus of images showing seven basic facial expressions, rather than resort to expert-coded facial expression parameters as in (3). We propose a simulta- neous face and

  11. Surgical-Allogeneic Facial Reconstruction: Facial Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Bannwart, Lisiane Cristina; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Pereira, Leonardo Viana; Filho, Aljomar José Vechiato

    2014-01-01

    Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA), which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mutilated patients, resulted in greater clinical results. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a literature review on the relevance and effectiveness of facial transplants in mutilated subjects. It was observed that the facial transplants recovered both the aesthetics and function of these patients and consequently improved their quality of life. PMID:25628706

  12. Facial Rejuvenation and Other Clinical Applications of Intense Pulsed Light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bjerring; Kaare Christiansen

    \\u000a Nonablative optical rejuvenation of facial skin targeting ectatic vessels, mottled pigmentation, and fine wrinkling can be\\u000a safely performed with intense pulsed light (IPL) systems, which produce broad band visible and near infrared light. IPL systems\\u000a use several optical filtering techniques, matching the emitted light spectrum to principal light absorption wavelengths of\\u000a the major skin chromophores: hemoglobin and melanin. Besides skin

  13. Facial image synthesis by hierarchical wire frame model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Yasuichi; Nagashima, Yoshio; Ohya, Jun; Kishino, Fumio

    1992-11-01

    We have studied a generation of realistic computer graphics facial action synchronized with actual facial actions. This paper describes a method of extracting facial feature points and reproducing facial actions for a virtual space teleconferencing system that achieves a realistic virtual presence. First, we need the individual facial wire frame model. We use a 3D digitizer or both the front and side images of the face. Second, we trace the feature points, the points around both the eyes and the mouth. For this purpose, we watch the eye regions and mouth region. If they move, the intensity of the image changes and we are able to find the eyes and the mouth. From facial action images, we cannot extract the deformation of the facial skin. Only from the front view of the face, tracing the eye regions and mouth region, can the movement of these regions in 2D space be extracted. We are proposing a new hierarchical wire frame model that can represent facial actions including wrinkles. The lower layer of the wire frame moves according to movement of the feature points. The upper layer slides over the lower layer and is deformed based on the movement of the lower layer. By applying this method to a telecommunication system, we confirm very realistic facial action in virtual space.

  14. Facial recognition system using efficient methods for facial scale variations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takatsugu HIRAYAMA; Yoshio IWAI; Masahiko YACHIDA

    2003-01-01

    Facial recognition technology is effective in human computer communication. Robustness for facial recognition is necessary because face views change in many ways due to position, expression, and light. We propose a facial recognition system robust for facial scale variations, which is mainly composed of our flexible feature matching and rapid parallel estimation of facial position and scale.

  15. Rhinosporidiosis Presenting as a Facial Swelling: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, Annasamy; Gnanaselvi, U Punitha; Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Raghuram, P H; Bharanidharan, R; Rajkumar, K

    2015-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi is a fungal infection, which affects chiefly the mucus membranes of the nose, oropharynx, and nasopharynx, as well as the larynx, skin, eyes, and genital mucosa. Soil and water act as a reservoir for the organism. Here, we present a case of Rhinosporidiosis, which clinically manifested as a facial swelling indicating that fungal infections should also be considered as one of the differential diagnoses whenever facial swellings are encountered. PMID:25859110

  16. The Ugly Face: Deformity Not Defectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Munro, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    There are several congenital facial deformities of such severity that the victims look grotesque. Many of these patients have been labelled mentally defective without justification. Their appearance has caused them to grow up severely handicapped socially and psychologically. It is becoming technically possible to utilize major facial and cranial osteotomies to reposition and correct these hideous deformities. PMID:20468869

  17. The ugly face: deformity not defectiveness.

    PubMed

    Munro, I R

    1973-01-01

    There are several congenital facial deformities of such severity that the victims look grotesque. Many of these patients have been labelled mentally defective without justification. Their appearance has caused them to grow up severely handicapped socially and psychologically. It is becoming technically possible to utilize major facial and cranial osteotomies to reposition and correct these hideous deformities. PMID:20468869

  18. Facial Expression Recognition Using 3D Facial Feature Distances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamit Soyel; Hasan Demirel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for facial expression analysis and recognition. The proposed approach relies on\\u000a the distance vectors retrieved from 3D distribution of facial feature points to classify universal facial expressions. Neural\\u000a network architecture is employed as a classifier to recognize the facial expressions from a distance vector obtained from\\u000a 3D facial feature locations. Facial expressions

  19. Progressive facial hemiatrophy after epileptic seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamami Yano; Yukio Sawaishi; Miyuki Toyono; Iwao Takaku; Goro Takada

    2000-01-01

    Intractable complex partial seizures developed in a 3-year-old female with normal intracranial findings on computed tomography. Frontal paramedian band-like depression of the skin gradually developed thereafter, and progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry–Romberg syndrome) was diagnosed. Computed tomography scanning at 5 years of age revealed multiple parenchymal calcifications and low-density areas in the white matter of the frontoparietal lobes. Epileptic seizures, one

  20. Facial burns - our experience.

    PubMed

    Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh; Martinaj, M

    2013-01-01

    Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems - resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

  1. Intracranial facial nerve reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yammine, F G; Dufour, J J; Mohr, G

    1999-06-01

    Surgery for tumours of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) or the internal auditory canal (IAC) is sometimes complicated by the severing of the seventh nerve. Many procedures are available for facial reanimation. Among these, primary intracranial VII-VII reanastomosis is considered as the method of choice. This series reviews all the cases of primary intracranial facial nerve reconstruction that we have performed either directly or with the use of a nerve graft interposition. Functional results are analyzed according to the House-Brackmann grading scale. The advantages and benefits of this technique are discussed as compared with other methods of facial reanimation, namely, the hypoglossal-facial anastomosis. PMID:10410348

  2. Muscle-driven modeling of wrinkles for 3D facial expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Facial expression animation considering wrinkle formation is an aspiring goal and a challenging task. This paper presents a new geometric wrinkle model that is defined according to facial muscle anatomy for efficient simulation of dynamic wrinkles within expressions. Our method is applied to an anatomy-based face model with a multi-layer structure of skin, muscles, and skull. The location and orientation

  3. Skin grafting of the naso-orbital region as a single aesthetic unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cengiz Acikel; Fatih Peker; Ersin Ulkur

    2001-01-01

    With improved acute care, a higher percentage of more severely injured facial burn patients are surviving their burns. When the full face needs resurfacing, total facial resurfacing should ideally be done with a single sheet of full-thickness skin. Unfortunately, this type of single sheet total facial resurfacing is rarely possible or practical in the case of acute extensive burns. The

  4. Defective expression of HLA class I and CD1a molecules in boy with Marfan-like phenotype and deep skin ulcers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Plebani; Virginia Monafo; Roberto Cattaneo; Graziella Carella; Duilio Brugnoni; Fabio Facchetti; Simonetta Battocchio; Antonella Meini; Luigi D. Notarangelo; Marzia Duse; Alberto G. Ugazio

    1996-01-01

    We report the case of a boy with low expression of HLA class I molecules on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which is associated with immunodeficiency. The patient, who had a Marfan-like phenotype, had chronic deep skin ulcers and sinobronchiectasis. Immunohistologic examination of the ulcerated skin showed a dense perivascular infiltrate composed of normal mature lymphocytes and macrophages. All cells in

  5. Facial Expression Space Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika S. Chuang; Hrishikesh Deshpande; Christoph Bregler

    2002-01-01

    Animation of facial speech and expressions has experienced increased attention recently. Most current research focuses on techniques for capturing, synthesizing, and retargeting facial expressions. Little attention has been paid to the problem of controlling and modifying the expression itself. We present techniques that separate video data into expressive features and underlying content. This allows, for example, a sequence originally recorded

  6. Gesture Driven Facial Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junyong Noh; Douglas Fidaleo; Ulrich Neumann

    2002-01-01

    Gesture driven facial animation (GDFA) overcomes limitations in conventional performance driven facial animation (PDFA) by providing a high level gesture layer as an interface between the sensing and animation mechanisms. GDFA maintains the same spirit of PDFA in that sensing and analysis provide automatic animation control. A distinguishing factor, however, is the high level abstraction of the information flow between

  7. Physical model of facial tissue and muscle articulation derived from computer tomography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Keith

    1992-09-01

    A facial tissue model, articulated by synthetic muscles, provides a tool for observing, analyzing, and predicting soft tissue mobility on the face. A geometric model of facial tissue extracted from CT data improves the skin tissue simulation by using accurate skin tissue depths. This paper suggests that the ability to control the model resolution, muscle placement and activity requires an integrated modeling and animation system.

  8. Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness I. S. Penton, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9JU, UK Facial symmetry has been proposed as a marker relationships between facial symmetry and attractiveness. It was recently proposed that symmetry

  9. Cleansing, moisturizing, and sun-protection regimens for normal skin, self-perceived sensitive skin, and dermatologist-assessed sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stacy S; Subramanyan, Kumar; Liu, Daphne; Bryk, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Acquiring or maintaining healthy skin requires a multifunctional approach: mild cleansing, moisturizing, and sun protection. The clinical benefits of a daily, healthy facial skin-care regimen comprising a mild cleanser and moisturizer were evaluated on normal skin, self-perceived sensitive skin, and dermatologist-assessed sensitive skin for a period of up to 4 weeks. Subjects with normal, healthy skin were photographed with a calibrated, high-resolution digital camera, and the average improvement in overall health was calculated using image morphing and facial averaging techniques, following a 2-week period of product application. In a second study that included subjects with self-assessed sensitive facial skin, changes in skin hydration, skin dryness, and skin sensitivity (determined by means of a lactic acid sting test and subject self-assessment) were monitored during a 3-week regimen of mild cleansing and moisturizing with products designed for sensitive skin. The third study involved dermatologist-assessed highly sensitive skin patients (mostly rosacea with an atopic background in some cases). These patients underwent a 4-week skin-care regimen involving mild cleansing and moisturizing. In all three studies, significant improvements in skin health/quality were observed by means of expert assessments, instrumental evaluations, and subjective self-assessment. PMID:14728701

  10. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  11. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  12. Skin Barrier Disruption: A Requirement for Allergen Sensitization?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna De Benedetto; Akiharu Kubo; Lisa A Beck

    2012-01-01

    For at least half a century, noninvasive techniques have been available to quantify skin barrier function, and these have shown that a number of human skin conditions and disorders are associated with defects in skin permeability. In the past decade, several genes responsible for skin barrier defects observed in both monogenetic and complex polygenic disorders have been elucidated and functionally

  13. Goltz syndrome: a newborn with ectrodactyly and skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shatanik; Patra, Chaitali; Das, Amit; Roy, Sutirtha

    2015-01-01

    Goltz syndrome or Focal Dermal Hypoplasia is a rare multisystem disorder, involving all the three germ cell layers. The disease is thought to be inherited in X-linked dominant fashion with heterogeneous mutations of the PORCN gene at Xp11.23 locus. Majority of the cases are sporadic, mainly due to postzygotic somatic mutations. The clinical spectrum includes characteristic cutaneous manifestations, multiple skeletal anomalies, and involvement of the eyes, hair, nails, kidneys, and so on. Considerable variability is noted in the clinical expression of the disease probably due to genomic mosaicism. Around 300 cases of Goltz syndrome have been reported in the literature. Here, we report such a case with characteristic skin lesions, multiple bony defects, distinctive facial features, coloboma of iris, and bilateral hydronephrosis. The diagnosis was evident immediately after birth due to the characteristic clinical picture of the baby. PMID:25814752

  14. Repairing facial injury with refining plastic surgery techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Donghong; Li, Jiang; Wang, Kehua; Guo, Xiaoping; Lang, Yuhong; Peng, Lijun; Wang, Qin; Li, Yamin

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the refining plastic surgery techniques for repairing facial surface injury. For this purpose, 82 patients with facial surface injury were recruited in the study. All wounds were repaired by refining plastic surgery techniques. The wounds were processed by fine wound excision and plastic surgery repair technique. The deep tissue fracture and dislocation were sutured and reduced using 8-0 absorbable suture and the skin wounds were sutured using 8-0 cosmetic suture. The facial injuries showed good rates of healing with fine debridement and fine recovering. The minimum scarring was observed and good cosmetic effect was achieved. We conclude that refining plastic surgery techniques including fine debridement and fine recovering are ideal for the reconstruction of facial injuries. PMID:22610701

  15. PCA facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  16. Facial Performative in a Conversational System Catherine Pelachaud

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    . This is why facial and bodily animation is becoming relevant in the construc- tion of believable synthetic systems that simulate synthetic agents with talking faces, we focus on the structure of a communicative 1997; Cole et al. 1998). The simulation of muscle contraction (Platt 1985; Waters 1987) and skin

  17. Autologous fat grafting in facial volumetric restoration.

    PubMed

    Pasquale, Piombino; Gaetano, Marenzi; Giovanni, Dell'Aversana Orabona; Luigi, Califano; Gilberto, Sammartino

    2015-05-01

    The authors reported their surgical experience about structural fat grafting in the management of facial volumetric deficit. The purpose of this study was to assess the real indications, cosmetic results, complications, and global patient satisfaction of the Coleman technique in redefining facial contours in congenital and postoperative deformities. A retrospective analysis of 32 patients grafted according to Coleman's technique was performed, and the long-term outcomes and patient satisfaction were evaluated. The mean postoperative clinical follow-up was 14 months. The morphological changes were analyzed by comparing the photographic presurgical facial contour and the postoperative correction of soft tissue defects. All consecutive cases reported showed a progressive fat resorption for 3 months after surgery and its stable integration only after this period. Best results were performed in the treatment of genetically determined syndromes, such as the Franceschetti and Romberg syndromes. The authors suggest this surgical technique also for the treatment of unaesthetic cutaneous abscess cavity after incision and drainage. Unsatisfactory outcomes were obtained in the treatment of the posttraumatic facial scar, which needed more surgical procedures. PMID:25974786

  18. Facial Plastic Surgery Today

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History Meet the President Leadership Committees Code of Ethics Position Statements Unique AAFPRS Training Past Presidents 50th ... plastic surgeons heed the call, Faces of Honor COPYRIGHT 2015 | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FACIAL PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE ...

  19. Estimation of dental occlusion defects among twins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AGNIESZKA SZULGAN-M?DRZAK; BOHDAN GWORYS

    Occlusion defects are dependent on genetic factors strongly determination facial part of cranium structure and environmental factors. The assessment of these factors might contribute to the correction of therapeutic and prophylactic orthodontic proceedings . The aim of research is to estimate human occlusion defect among pairs of twins of the same gender and pairs of different gender. The research was

  20. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  1. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  2. Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

  3. Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Boosted Discriminatory

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Boosted Discriminatory Classifiers Stephen Moore approach to facial expression recognition in video sequences. Low cost contour features are introduced information to build boosted classifiers for frontal facial expression recognition in video sequences. Facial

  4. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2009-08-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:18539550

  5. Facial dynamics and emotional expressions in facial aging treatments.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar

    2015-03-01

    Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed. PMID:25620090

  6. Modeling facial expression space for recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuwen Wu; Hong Liu; Hongbin Zha

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of modeling facial expression space for facial expression recognition by fuzzy integral. In traditional expression recognition methods using shape features, there are problems in describing both the uncertainty in facial expression classification and the relationship between facial features and facial expressions. Using facial expression space model, those problems can be solved easily. Firstly,

  7. Hemifacial microsomia in cat-eye syndrome: 22q11.1-q11.21 as candidate loci for facial symmetry.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

    2013-08-01

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES), (OMIM 115470) also known as chromosome 22 partial tetrasomy or inverted duplicated 22q11, was first reported by Haab [1879] based on the primary features of eye coloboma and anal atresia. However, >60% of the patients lack these primary features. Here, we present a 9-month-old female who at birth was noted to have multiple defects, including facial asymmetry with asymmetric retrognathia, bilateral mandibular hypoplasia, branchial cleft sinus, right-sided muscular torticollis, esotropia, and an atretic right ear canal with low-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss, bilateral preauricular ear tag/pits, and two skin tags on her left cheek. There were no signs of any colobomas or anal atresia. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) was suspected clinically. Chromosome studies and FISH identified an extra marker originated from 22q11 consistent with CES, and this was confirmed by aCGH. This report expands the phenotypic variability of CES and includes partial tetrasomy of 22q11.1-q11.21 in the differential diagnosis of HFM. In addition, our case as well as the previous association of 22q11.2 deletions and duplications with facial asymmetry and features of HFM, supports the hypothesis that this chromosome region harbors genes important in the regulation of body plan symmetry, and in particular facial harmony. PMID:23794175

  8. TRPA1 contributes to capsaicin-induced facial cold hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kuniya; Shinoda, Masamichi; Furukawa, Akihiko; Kita, Kozue; Noma, Noboru; Iwata, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    Orofacial cold hyperalgesia is known to cause severe persistent pain in the face following trigeminal nerve injury or inflammation, and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankylin 1 (TRPA1) are thought to be involved in cold hyperalgesia. However, how these two receptors are involved in cold hyperalgesia is not fully understood. To clarify the mechanisms underlying facial cold hyperalgesia, nocifensive behaviors to cold stimulation, the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, and TG neuronal excitability to cold stimulation following facial capsaicin injection were examined in rats. The head-withdrawal reflex threshold (HWRT) to cold stimulation of the lateral facial skin was significantly decreased following facial capsaicin injection. This reduction of HWRT was significantly recovered following local injection of TRPV1 antagonist as well as TRPA1 antagonist. Approximately 30% of TG neurons innervating the lateral facial skin expressed both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and about 64% of TRPA1-positive neurons also expressed TRPV1. The TG neuronal excitability to noxious cold stimulation was significantly increased following facial capsaicin injection and this increase was recovered by pretreatment with TRPA1 antagonist. These findings suggest that TRPA1 sensitization via TRPV1 signaling in TG neurons is involved in cold hyperalgesia following facial skin capsaicin injection. PMID:25371244

  9. Expression-invariant Facial Identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pohsiang Tsai; Tich Phuoc Tran; Longbing Cao

    2009-01-01

    Facial identification has been recognized as most simple and non-intrusive technology that can be applied in many places. However, there are still many unsolved facial identification problems due to different intra-personal variations. In particular, when images of the databases appear at different facial expressions, most currently available facial recognition approaches encounter the expression-invariant problem in which neutral faces are difficult

  10. [The clefts as inborn defects].

    PubMed

    Kuklík, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    The article refers usual facial clefts, which are not rare anomalies. Relation to other forms of so-called midline defects (limb clefts) is indicated. Syndromic and unusual clefts are rarer than isolated non-syndromic clefts. Clinical features, including minimal symptomatology, etiopathogenesis and population frequency are discussed. From the diagnostic point of view specific, prenatal, postnatal and differential diagnostic approaches are recognized. Preventive aspects, therapy and management of the disease (for cleft lip and palate defects, median cleft palate, broad spectrum of neural tube defects including anencephaly, limb clefts etc.) are important. We estimated the empiric risk of the recurrence and suggest methods for preconceptional preventive care. PMID:24041020

  11. A Facial Repertoire for Avatars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsófia Ruttkay; Jeroen Hendrix; Alban Lelièvre; Han Noot

    Facial expressions are becoming more and more important in today's computer systems with humanoid user interfaces. Avatars have become popular, however their facial communication is usually limited. This is partly due to the fact that many questions, especially on the dynamics of expressions, are still open. Moreover, the few commercial facial animation tools have limited facilities, and are not aimed

  12. Perceptually guided expressive facial animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Deng; Xiaohan Ma

    2008-01-01

    Most of current facial animation approaches largely focus on the accuracy or efficiency of their algorithms, or how to optimally utilize pre-collected facial motion data. However, human perception, the ultimate measuring stick of the visual fidelity of synthetic facial animations, was not effectively exploited in these approaches. In this paper, we present a novel perceptually guided computational framework for expressive

  13. Rosacea-like facial rash related to metformin administration in a young woman

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the skin represents a common site of adverse drug reactions, few data are reported at this time regarding the development of skin rash during the treatment with antidiabetic drugs. Case presentation We report a 29-year old woman that developed a facial skin rash during the treatment with metformin. Clinical and laboratory findings excluded the presence of systemic diseases, but several diagnosis and many drugs were administered without clinical improvement. The self-dismission of metformin induced an improvement of symptoms, while the re-challenge documented an impairments of skin rash. The Naranjo probability scale suggested a probable association between metformin and skin rash and metformin was definitively dismissed. Conclusion We report for the first time a non vasculitis facial skin manifestation related to metformin in a young woman. However, this case may emphasizes the need to consider the ADRs as a differential diagnosis in order to reduce medical errors and the related medical costs. PMID:24507578

  14. Facial features in perceived intensity of schematic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hisa; Unuma, Hideyuki

    2010-02-01

    Facial expressions may be perceived continuously or categorically, i.e., perception of facial expressions may be explained by feature-based models or holistic models. A linear additive model is proposed, with weightings for facial features to reflect configural spatial relationships or distances of features from each other. Predictions from the model regarding the perception of affect intensities (e.g., of anger and sadness) were tested using schematic faces, with three facial features, eyebrows, eyes, and mouth as predictors. Model predictions, based on multiple regression analyses, corresponded well with rating judgments of anger and sadness in three experiments. The results suggest not only the limit of feature-configural models of facial expression perception but the feature-selective configuration of facial features and continuous perception of facial expressions. Findings also indicate that the salience or weight of each feature varies with the emotion perceived by observers. PMID:20391879

  15. Corpus callosum agenesis, multiple cysts, skin defects, and subtle ocular abnormalities with a de novo mutation [45,XX,der(5), t(5;;14) (pter;q11.2)].

    PubMed

    Zannolli, R; Mostardini, R; Pucci, L; Sorrentino, L; Biagioli, M; Perotti, R; Guarna, M; Hadjistilianou, T; Zerega, G; Pierluigi, M; Franco, B; D'Ambrosio, A; Morgese, G

    2001-07-22

    We report on a 2-year-old girl with a de novo mutation [45,XX,der(5),t(5;14) (pter;q11.2)] with corpus callosum agenesis, multiple cysts (cerebral and cardiac), subtle eye abnormalities, and at least two different skin defects, strongly indicating neuroectodermal involvement, as a neuromuscular choristoma (hamartoma) and an eccrine hamartoma. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with different single-locus probes showed that chromosome 5 has a very small deletion, confined to a region composed of repetitive sequences. By contrast, the long (q) arm of chromosome 14 seems to be much more involved in the rearrangement, with partial monosomy spanning from the centromere to the D14S72 and D14S261 loci. The extent of the deleted region of chromosome 14 is approximately 16 cM. To our knowledge, this is the smallest reported deletion involving the chromosome 14q11.2 region to be associated with a developmental disorder resulting in variable eye, skin, and brain anomalies. We suggest that a new syndrome, mimicking in some ways the MLS phenotype, is caused by a deletion in the chromosome 14q11.2 region. PMID:11471169

  16. Complex reconstruction of facial deformity and function after severe gunshot injury: one case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijian; Duan, Jianmin; Wang, Qiao; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we described clinical outcomes of a multi-stage surgery integrating multiple techniques in restoration of facial morphology and function of a 17-year-old boy with severe gunshot injuries. This multi-stage surgery was applied in treatment of one rare case of gunshot-caused complicated facial deformities involving most parts of the face (labrum, left nose wing, nasal columella, nasal septum, maxillary alveolar process, hard palate, soft palate, bilateral maxillary bones, left zygoma, suborbital bone defects) and clinical efficacy upon restoring facial form and function were retrospectively evaluated. The patient was diagnosed with massive facial defects and deformities caused by gunshot, which led to feeding difficulty, severe articulation disorders and serious facial disfigurement. To reconstruct facial form and restore functions of mastication and articulation, multiple examinations and surgical procedures including mirror imaging, rapid prototyping technique, porous titanium implants, microscopic surgical technique, dental implants, osteomyocutaneous flap, muscular flap, shifting and repairing of adjacent tissue flaps and free bone graft reconstruction were undertaken. Postoperatively, reconstruction of severe facial disfigurement and restoring basic functions including articulation and feeding for the first time and relatively sound clinical outcomes have been obtained, which may add clinical evidence to the treatment of similar cases of severe facial deformities. PMID:25785151

  17. Complex reconstruction of facial deformity and function after severe gunshot injury: one case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weijian; Duan, Jianmin; Wang, Qiao; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we described clinical outcomes of a multi-stage surgery integrating multiple techniques in restoration of facial morphology and function of a 17-year-old boy with severe gunshot injuries. This multi-stage surgery was applied in treatment of one rare case of gunshot-caused complicated facial deformities involving most parts of the face (labrum, left nose wing, nasal columella, nasal septum, maxillary alveolar process, hard palate, soft palate, bilateral maxillary bones, left zygoma, suborbital bone defects) and clinical efficacy upon restoring facial form and function were retrospectively evaluated. The patient was diagnosed with massive facial defects and deformities caused by gunshot, which led to feeding difficulty, severe articulation disorders and serious facial disfigurement. To reconstruct facial form and restore functions of mastication and articulation, multiple examinations and surgical procedures including mirror imaging, rapid prototyping technique, porous titanium implants, microscopic surgical technique, dental implants, osteomyocutaneous flap, muscular flap, shifting and repairing of adjacent tissue flaps and free bone graft reconstruction were undertaken. Postoperatively, reconstruction of severe facial disfigurement and restoring basic functions including articulation and feeding for the first time and relatively sound clinical outcomes have been obtained, which may add clinical evidence to the treatment of similar cases of severe facial deformities. PMID:25785151

  18. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skin Cancer: What is Skin Cancer? In This Topic What is Skin Cancer? Causes and Risk Factors ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Life After Cancer Other Cancer Topics The information ...

  19. Skin graft

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing ... surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  20. Facial recognition — An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Pampus; Frank Weber

    1998-01-01

    Research on automatic facial recognition has been ongoing for more than 20 years, and there is a large variety of solutions being proposed. The big advantage is the user-friendly way of identification by a video camera. Recently, some of the projects have resulted in commercially available products which are in use in banking and high-security applications.

  1. Digital facial engraving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Ostromoukhov

    1999-01-01

    This contribution introduces the basic techniques for digital facial engraving, which imitates traditional copperplate engraving. Inspired by traditional techniques, we first establish a set of basic rules thanks to which separate engraving layers are built on the top of the original photo. Separate layers are merged according to sim- ple merging rules and according to range shift\\/scale masks spe- cially

  2. Rejuvenating Effects of Facial Hydrofilling using Restylane Vital

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bong Moo; Choi, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background Morphological changes that accompany aging, such as wrinkles and skin laxity, are particularly prominent on facial skin. Recently, facial rejuvenation using the hydrofilling effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler has been employed for improvement of skin texture. In this study, we studied rejuvenating effects of stabilized HA (Restylane Vital) through direct intradermal injections. Methods A total of 30 female patients underwent a series of procedures on face, including three sessions at intervals of four weeks. A total of 2 mL of Restylane Vital was injected along the whole face using an automatic injector. Improvement of skin surface roughness, elasticity, brightness, moisture, and fine wrinkles was evaluated. Patient satisfaction was evaluated, and pictures of patients were taken at each visit and 6 months after last treatment session. Scoring for each patient was performed by three doctors according in five subjects. Moisture, oil and elasticity were measured before the procedure and before the last treatment in 10 patients. Results The majority of patients (77%) were satisfied with the therapeutic outcomes. Approximately 66% of patients responded that the effects of this procedure persisted for longer than four months, and the majority of patients (77%) wanted to undergo this procedure again and would recommend this procedure to acquaintances. Regarding doctors' evaluation, scores for improvement of skin surface roughness, elasticity, and brightness were significantly higher than those for improvement of moisture and fine wrinkle. Conclusions Intradermal injection of HA can have a rejuvenating effect on dry and tired facial skin, especially in improvement of skin surface roughness. PMID:26015882

  3. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. (Univ. of Toronto School of Medicine, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

  4. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease that causes scaling and swelling. Most psoriasis causes patches of thick, red skin with silvery ...

  5. Simulating Wrinkles in Facial Expressions on an Anatomy-Based Face

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Zhang; Terence Sim; Chew Lim Tan

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents a muscle-driven wrinkle model for simulating dynamic wrinkles that appear during facial expressions, which\\u000a is geometric in nature. Wrinkles are generated on an anatomy-based face model that incorporates a structure of skin, muscles\\u000a and skull for physically-based animation. Corresponding to two types of facial muscles, a geometric model is developed to\\u000a govern how the wrinkle amplitude evolves

  6. Microvascular reconstruction of nasal defects.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Marcelo B; Chalian, Ara A

    2011-02-01

    Microvascular reconstruction of nasal defects is a complex procedure and must consider 3 nasal components: skin, osteocartilaginous framework, and intranasal lining. These layers can be reconstructed with various flaps and grafts. The commonly used flaps are the first dorsal metacarpal flap, dorsalis pedis flap, auricular helical rim flap, and radial forearm and prelaminated flaps. These flaps can be composed of skin and cartilage or skin and bone. The decision is based on the patient's needs taking into consideration the extent of the defect and presence or absence of nasal septum and columella. PMID:21112517

  7. Fully Automatic Upper Facial Action Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashish Kapoor; Rosalind W. Picard

    2003-01-01

    Abstract This paper provides a new fully automatic framework to analyze facial action units, the fundamental building blocks of facial expression enumerated in Paul Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System (FACS). The action units examined in this paper include upper facial muscle movements such as inner eyebrow raise, eye widening, and so forth, which combine to form facial expressions. Although prior

  8. Cross-facial nerve grafting for facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Grace Lee; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic facial reanimation is the gold standard treatment for a paralyzed face. Over the last century, multiple nerves have been utilized for grafting to the facial nerve in an attempt to produce improved movement. However, in recent years, the use of cross facial nerve grafting with a second stage gracilis free flap has gained popularity due to the ability to generate a spontaneous smile and facial movement. Preoperative history taking and careful examination, as well as pre-surgical planning, are imperative to whether cross facial nerve grafting with a second stage gracilis free flap is appropriate for the patient. A sural nerve graft is ideal given the accessibility of the nerve, the length, as well as the reliability and ease of the nerve harvest. The nerve can be harvested using a small incision, which leaves the patient with minimal post operative morbidity. In this chapter, we highlight the pearls and pitfalls of cross facial nerve grafting. PMID:25958898

  9. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  10. Skin lumps

    MedlinePLUS

    Lipomas, which are fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and groin Cyst , a closed sac in or under the skin that is lined with skin tissue and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths ...

  11. Automatic Facial Feature Extraction and Facial Expression Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Séverine Dubuisson; Franck Davoine; Jean-Pierre Cocquerez

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic algorithm for facial expression recognition. We first propose a method for automatic\\u000a facial feature extraction, based on the analysis of outputs of local Gabor filters. Such analysis is done using a spatial\\u000a adaptive triangulation of the magnitude of the filtered images. Then, we propose a classification procedure for facial expression\\u000a recognition, considering the

  12. Facial clefts and facial dysplasia: revisiting the classification.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2014-01-01

    Most craniofacial malformations are identified by their appearance. The majority of the classification systems are mainly clinical or anatomical, not related to the different levels of development of the malformation, and underlying pathology is usually not taken into consideration. In 1976, Tessier first emphasized the relationship between soft tissues and the underlying bone stating that "a fissure of the soft tissue corresponds, as a general rule, with a cleft of the bony structure". He introduced a cleft numbering system around the orbit from 0 to 14 depending on its relationship to the zero line (ie, the vertical midline cleft of the face). The classification, easy to understand, became widely accepted because the recording of the malformations was simple and communication between observers facilitated. It represented a great breakthrough in identifying craniofacial malformations, named clefts by him. In the present paper, the embryological-based classification of craniofacial malformations, proposed in 1983 and in 1990 by us, has been revisited. Its aim was to clarify some unanswered questions regarding apparently atypical or bizarre anomalies and to establish as much as possible the moment when this event occurred. In our opinion, this classification system may well integrate the one proposed by Tessier and tries at the same time to find a correlation between clinical observation and morphogenesis.Terminology is important. The overused term cleft should be reserved to true clefts only, developed from disturbances in the union of the embryonic facial processes, between the lateronasal and maxillary process (or oro-naso-ocular cleft); between the medionasal and maxillary process (or cleft of the lip); between the maxillary processes (or cleft of the palate); and between the maxillary and mandibular process (or macrostomia).For the other types of defects, derived from alteration of bone production centers, the word dysplasia should be used instead. Facial dysplasias have been ranged in a helix form and named after the site of the developmental arrest. Thus, an internasal, nasal, nasomaxillary, maxillary and malar dysplasia, depending on the involved area, have been identified.The classification may provide a useful guide in better understanding the morphogenesis of rare craniofacial malformations. PMID:24406554

  13. Sequential antibiotic therapy for acne promotes the carriage of resistant staphylococci on the skin of contacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne W. Miller; E. Anne Eady; Richard W. Lacey; Jonathan H. Cove; Derrick N. Joanes; William J. Cunliffe

    The selection of a predominantly resistant staphylococcal skin flora in acne patients during antibiotic treatment has been extensively documented. This study sought to determine whether antibiotic therapy for acne had any effect on skin carriage of resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) by close contacts of treated patients. Bacterial samples were obtained using a scrub wash technique from facial skin of 41

  14. Skin Detail Analysis for Face Recognition Jean-Sebastien Pierrard, Thomas Vetter

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Thomas

    Skin Detail Analysis for Face Recognition Jean-S´ebastien Pierrard, Thomas Vetter University prominent irregularities in facial skin, in par- ticular nevi (moles, birthmarks). Their characteristic con to their discriminative potential, using two complementary methods. One is a novel skin segmentation scheme based on gray

  15. Determining the Mechanical Properties of Rat Skin with Digital Image Speckle Correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Guan; Sarah Smilow; Miriam Rafailovich; Jonathan Sokolov

    2004-01-01

    Background: Accurate measurement of the mechanical properties of skin has numerous implications in surgical repair, dermal disorders and the diagnosis and treatment of trauma to the skin. Investigation of facial wrinkle formation, as well as research in the areas of skin aging and cosmetic product assessment can also benefit from alternative methodologies for the measurement of mechanical properties. Objective: A

  16. Skin tone of targets, lineup type, and confidence levels in cross-racial identification

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Jessica Lynne

    2013-02-22

    The current experiment investigated facial recognition memory for own and other-race faces. Two variations (light-skin and dark-skin) were presented for the Black targets. The purpose of this experiment was to observe the effect of skin variations...

  17. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  18. Laser skin treatment in non-Caucasian patients.

    PubMed

    Richter, Amy Li; Barrera, Jose; Markus, Ramsey F; Brissett, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    The demand for facial rejuvenation and cosmetic procedures is rising among all ethnicities and skin types. The authors present a review of lasers and how to select a laser based on skin type and the treatment goals of laser resurfacing: skin laxity, dyschromia, hair removal, keloid, and hypertrophic scarring. In addition, they discuss preprocedural and postprocedural considerations, potential complications, and their management to maximize patient outcomes and minimize risk. PMID:25049127

  19. Down syndrome detection from facial photographs using machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Sze, Raymond; Zand, Dina; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George

    2013-02-01

    Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition; one in every 691 babies in United States is born with it. Patients with Down syndrome have an increased risk for heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems and the early detection of the syndrome is fundamental for managing the disease. Clinically, facial appearance is an important indicator in diagnosing Down syndrome and it paves the way for computer-aided diagnosis based on facial image analysis. In this study, we propose a novel method to detect Down syndrome using photography for computer-assisted image-based facial dysmorphology. Geometric features based on facial anatomical landmarks, local texture features based on the Contourlet transform and local binary pattern are investigated to represent facial characteristics. Then a support vector machine classifier is used to discriminate normal and abnormal cases; accuracy, precision and recall are used to evaluate the method. The comparison among the geometric, local texture and combined features was performed using the leave-one-out validation. Our method achieved 97.92% accuracy with high precision and recall for the combined features; the detection results were higher than using only geometric or texture features. The promising results indicate that our method has the potential for automated assessment for Down syndrome from simple, noninvasive imaging data.

  20. Decoding Emotions from Facial Animations Shazia Afzal

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Peter

    Decoding Emotions from Facial Animations Shazia Afzal Computer Laboratory University of Cambridge of Cambridge Keywords: Facial expression analysis, animation 1 Introduction Facial feature point tracking conducted an experiment that compared human raters judgements of emotional expressions between actual video

  1. Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

  2. Facial gunshot wound debridement: debridement of facial soft tissue gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Shvyrkov, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Over the period 1981-1985 the author treated 1486 patients with facial gunshot wounds sustained in combat in Afghanistan. In the last quarter of 20th century, more powerful and destructive weapons such as M-16 rifles, AK-47 and Kalashnikov submachine guns, became available and a new approach to gunshot wound debridement is required. Modern surgeons have little experience in treatment of such wounds because of rare contact with similar pathology. This article is intended to explore modern wound debridement. The management of 502 isolated soft tissue injuries is presented. Existing principles recommend the sparing of damaged tissues. The author's experience was that tissue sparing lead to a high rate of complications (47.6%). Radical primary surgical debridement (RPSD) of wounds was then adopted with radical excision of necrotic non-viable wound margins containing infection to the point of active capillary bleeding and immediate primary wound closure. After radical debridement wound infection and breakdown decreased by a factor of 10. Plastic operations with local and remote soft tissue were made on 14, 7% of the wounded. Only 0.7% patients required discharge from the army due to facial muscle paralysis and/or facial skin impregnation with particles of gunpowder from mine explosions. Gunshot face wound; modern debridement. PMID:22998924

  3. Conservative treatment of a large facial midroot perforation.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Stephane; Bronnec, François

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To report on the endodontic and periodontal management of a root and alveolar process perforation in a maxillary front tooth. Summary. Perforation during access cavity preparation is an infrequent complication during endodontic therapy, leading to potential periodontal tissue breakdown. The case described the two-stage management of a massive facial root perforation requiring a connective tissue graft to correct a mucosal fenestration persisting after orthograde repair of the root defect with MTA. PMID:25838948

  4. Conservative Treatment of a Large Facial Midroot Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Bronnec, François

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To report on the endodontic and periodontal management of a root and alveolar process perforation in a maxillary front tooth. Summary. Perforation during access cavity preparation is an infrequent complication during endodontic therapy, leading to potential periodontal tissue breakdown. The case described the two-stage management of a massive facial root perforation requiring a connective tissue graft to correct a mucosal fenestration persisting after orthograde repair of the root defect with MTA. PMID:25838948

  5. Evaluation of mild skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Wortzman, M S

    1991-01-01

    Each person makes the decision of how best to care for his or her own skin. Among the prime concerns, especially for facial skin, is the type of dirt, debris, or make-up to be removed. In most cases, all products do an adequate job in the removal of dirt; if not, the washing techniques can be modified to accomplish the task at hand. What cannot be controlled are the adverse side effects inherent in the use of that product. These adverse properties include damages to the barrier function of the skin; increased susceptibility to environmental sources of irritation and sensitization; frank irritation responses, such as erythema and edema; and reduction of the cosmetic qualities of the skin, such as degree of moisture and smoothness. Part of the problem is that most of these changes are subtle, occurring slowly over time. Often, the association of these problems with the use of a particular facial cleansing regimen is overlooked. The typical woman uses as many as 10 to 15 facial cosmetic and cleansing products each day, making the identification of a problem even more difficult. It is important to identify the risks associated with individual products and with product categories in general. Although the identification of a safe group of products to use for facial cleansing is desirable, the results of this investigation indicate that there are no simple answers. It has been assumed that because moisturizing cream formulations are routinely safe and mild in general use, a cleansing product in the same general form would share these attributes. We can see from the results in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 that cleansing creams are not uniformly superior to cleansing bars in the key attributes that are used to evaluate mildness. In each evaluation there were individual cleansing creams that demonstrated statistically weaker performance than did cleansing bars in general. As a group, cleansing creams did well in the cosmetic categories of dryness and texture but surprisingly poorly in such indicators of clinical safety as erythema and TEWL. Further evaluation of the components of the facial-washing regimens proposed by the manufacturers of many of the cleansing-cream products involved the direct comparison of a cleansing cream against that same product used with an alcohol-based toning product. In all cases, the addition of alcohol-based products to the cleaning protocol reduced the cosmetic and clinical safety of the regimen (see Table 2 and Figures 3, 5, 7, and 9).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2022096

  6. Seborrheic Area Erythema as a Common Skin Manifestation in Japanese Patients with Dermatomyositis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Okiyama; H. Kohsaka; N. Ueda; T. Satoh; I. Katayama; K. Nishioka; H. Yokozeki

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although dermatomyositis (DM)-associated facial erythema was noted in the nasolabial folds of Japanese patients, DM-associated facial erythema other than heliotrope rash has drawn little attention in previous studies. Objectives: To characterize phenotypical features and frequencies of erythema, especially those in the seborrheic area of the head, in DM patients. Methods: A retrospective study on skin manifestations in 33 DM

  7. Facial Expression Recognition and Intensity EstimationFacial Expression Recognition and Intensity Estimation Peng Yang Qingshan Liu Dimitris Metaxas

    E-print Network

    Facial Expression Recognition and Intensity EstimationFacial Expression Recognition and IntensityComputer Science Department, Rutgers University Facial Expression RecognitionFacial Expression Recognition RecognitionFacial Expression Recognition Expression Intensity EstimationExpression Intensity Estimation

  8. Skin Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  9. Skin Size

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

  10. Skin flicks

    E-print Network

    Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-

    1993-01-01

    The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

  11. Skin Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose Marie Faber; Erin L. Colvin

    \\u000a The skin has been established as one of the largest organs of the human body as the skin provides a multitude of protective\\u000a functions. Because the skin is easily accessible, assessing the integumentary system can provide a wealth of information.\\u000a Illness and internal organ dysfunction are apparent by assessing the appearance of the skin. Critically ill children with\\u000a cardiac disease

  12. Sketching Facial Expressions Gabriele Nataneli

    E-print Network

    Faloutsos, Petros

    expressions can be created more expeditely. Moreover, technologies that rely on recognition are generallySketching Facial Expressions Gabriele Nataneli University of California Los Angeles Petros Faloutsos University of California Los Angeles Figure 1: Sketches and the corresponding 2D and 3D facial

  13. Facial affect perception in alcoholics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa Frigerio; D. Michael Burt; Barbara Montagne; Lindsey K Murray; David I Perrett

    2002-01-01

    Satisfactory interpersonal interaction involves understanding others’ facial expressions. Alcoholic individuals often have severe interpersonal difficulties that may relate to poor and distorted perception of facial expressions. The importance of attention direction has been highlighted by the finding, in recent primate studies, of neurons responsible for the detection of attention direction. Studies on humans suggest that expression perception is modulated by

  14. Categorizing identity from facial motion.

    PubMed

    Girges, Christine; Spencer, Janine; O'Brien, Justin

    2015-09-01

    Advances in marker-less motion capture technology now allow the accurate replication of facial motion and deformation in computer-generated imagery (CGI). A forced-choice discrimination paradigm using such CGI facial animations showed that human observers can categorize identity solely from facial motion cues. Animations were generated from motion captures acquired during natural speech, thus eliciting both rigid (head rotations and translations) and nonrigid (expressional changes) motion. To limit interferences from individual differences in facial form, all animations shared the same appearance. Observers were required to discriminate between different videos of facial motion and between the facial motions of different people. Performance was compared to the control condition of orientation-inverted facial motion. The results show that observers are able to make accurate discriminations of identity in the absence of all cues except facial motion. A clear inversion effect in both tasks provided consistency with previous studies, supporting the configural view of human face perception. The accuracy of this motion capture technology thus allowed stimuli to be generated that closely resembled real moving faces. Future studies may wish to implement such methodology when studying human face perception. PMID:25687732

  15. Cross-evaluation of facial hyper-pigmentation using fluorescence and polarization color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunji; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Dongyoun; Choi, Eung-Ho; Jung, Byungjo

    2012-02-01

    Optical imaging modalities have been utilized as important tools to evaluate skin lesions. Accurate analysis of hyper-pigmentation is important in the evaluation of sun damage, inflammation, and other skin disorders. In this study, both cross-polarization and fluorescent color images were obtained at identical facial skin region and hyper-pigmentation regions were extracted by applying a series of image processing. Cross-polarization image provides subsurface skin information without specular reflection and fluorescence image emphasizes pigmentation in epidermal region. The results were quantitatively evaluated and compared to investigate the difference between two imaging modalities in the evaluation of hyper-pigmentation regions.

  16. [An unusual lateral cervico-facial fistula].

    PubMed

    Skevas, A; Bliouras, K; Papadopoulos, N; Tsoulias, T

    1989-08-01

    Lateral cervical sinuses of fistula are usually derivatives of the branchial clefts and pouches and have a more or less typical course in the neck. We present a patient with an extremely long sinus extending from the left supraclavicular area, via the cheek up to the left infraorbital rim. We could not find a similar report in literature. The diagnostic evaluation as well as the successful surgical removal of the malformation through a skin incision in the neck and a second incision in the sulcus gingivobucalis are described. On the basis of a brief review in the embryology of the congenital anomalies of the neck and face some considerations about the possible origin of the cervico-facial sinuses are discussed. PMID:2789577

  17. Real Time Facial Expression Recognition with Adaboost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yubo Wang; Haizhou Ai; Bo Wu; Chang Huang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for facial expression recognition. The facial expression is extracted from human faces by an expression classifier that is learned from boosting Haar feature based Look-Up- Table type weak classifiers. The expression recognition system consists of three modules, face detection, facial feature landmark extraction and facial expression recognition. The implemented system can automatically

  18. Facial Attractiveness: Beauty and the Machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yael Eisenthal; Gideon Dror; Eytan Ruppin

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we explore the notion of facial attractiveness through the appli- cation of machine learning techniques. We construct a machine that learns from facial images and their respective attractiveness ratings to produce human-like evaluation of facial attractiveness. Our work is based on the un- derlying theory that there are objective regularities in facial attractiveness to be analyzed and

  19. Facial transplants in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Jacox, Laura A; Dickinson, Amanda J; Sive, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial birth defects occur in 1 out of every 700 live births, but etiology is rarely known due to limited understanding of craniofacial development. To identify where signaling pathways and tissues act during patterning of the developing face, a 'face transplant' technique has been developed in embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis. A region of presumptive facial tissue (the "Extreme Anterior Domain" (EAD)) is removed from a donor embryo at tailbud stage, and transplanted to a host embryo of the same stage, from which the equivalent region has been removed. This can be used to generate a chimeric face where the host or donor tissue has a loss or gain of function in a gene, and/or includes a lineage label. After healing, the outcome of development is monitored, and indicates roles of the signaling pathway within the donor or surrounding host tissues. Xenopus is a valuable model for face development, as the facial region is large and readily accessible for micromanipulation. Many embryos can be assayed, over a short time period since development occurs rapidly. Findings in the frog are relevant to human development, since craniofacial processes appear conserved between Xenopus and mammals. PMID:24748020

  20. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    PubMed

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  1. Differential Expression of Wound Fibrotic Factors between Facial and Trunk Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Masakazu; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Kaminishi-Tanikawa, Akiko; Niikura, Mamoru; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    Clinically, wounds on the face tend to heal with less scarring than those on the trunk, but the causes of this difference have not been clarified. Fibroblasts obtained from different parts of the body are known to show different properties. To investigate whether the characteristic properties of facial and trunk wound healing are caused by differences in local fibroblasts, we comparatively analyzed the functional properties of superficial and deep dermal fibroblasts obtained from the facial and trunk skin of seven individuals, with an emphasis on tendency for fibrosis. Proliferation kinetics and mRNA and protein expression of 11 fibrosis-associated factors were investigated. The proliferation kinetics of facial and trunk fibroblasts were identical, but the expression and production levels of profibrotic factors, such as extracellular matrix, transforming growth factor-?1, and connective tissue growth factor mRNA, were lower in facial fibroblasts when compared with trunk fibro-blasts, while the expression of antifibrotic factors, such as collagenase, basic fibroblast growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor, showed no clear trends. The differences in functional properties of facial and trunk dermal fibroblasts were consistent with the clinical tendencies of healing of facial and trunk wounds. Thus, the differences between facial and trunk scarring are at least partly related to the intrinsic nature of the local dermal fibroblasts. PMID:22260504

  2. Facial nerve neuromas: radiologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Latack, J T; Gabrielsen, T O; Knake, J E; Kemink, J L; Graham, M D; Gebarski, S S; Yang, P J

    1983-12-01

    Eight patients who had facial nerve neuromas were examined, and the radiographic findings are reported. Thin section tomography, high resolution computed tomography, posterior fossa computed tomography, and cerebellopontine angle cisternography using Pantopaque (iophendylate) demonstrated bone erosions and soft tissue masses conforming to the course of the facial nerve. The lesions generally exhibited either a proximal or a distal pattern of nerve involvement. Radiologic imaging frequently permits a correct preoperative diagnosis and accurate definition of the extent of facial nerve neuromas, assessments that are important for proper patient management. PMID:6606188

  3. Simple Technique for Facial Dimple

    PubMed Central

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subjects seeking aesthetic surgery for facial dimples are increasing in number. Literature on dimple creation surgery are sparse. Various techniques have been used with their own merits and disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Facial dimples were created in 23 cases. All the subjects were females. Five cases were bilateral and the rest were unilateral. Results: Minor complications such as swelling and hematoma were observed in four cases. Infection occurred in two cases. Most of the subjects were satisfied with the results. Conclusions: Suturing technique is safe, reliable and an easily reproducible way to create facial dimple. Level of Evidence: IV: Case series.

  4. Detection and inpainting of facial wrinkles using texture orientation fields and Markov random field modeling.

    PubMed

    Batool, Nazre; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-09-01

    Facial retouching is widely used in media and entertainment industry. Professional software usually require a minimum level of user expertise to achieve the desirable results. In this paper, we present an algorithm to detect facial wrinkles/imperfection. We believe that any such algorithm would be amenable to facial retouching applications. The detection of wrinkles/imperfections can allow these skin features to be processed differently than the surrounding skin without much user interaction. For detection, Gabor filter responses along with texture orientation field are used as image features. A bimodal Gaussian mixture model (GMM) represents distributions of Gabor features of normal skin versus skin imperfections. Then, a Markov random field model is used to incorporate the spatial relationships among neighboring pixels for their GMM distributions and texture orientations. An expectation-maximization algorithm then classifies skin versus skin wrinkles/imperfections. Once detected automatically, wrinkles/imperfections are removed completely instead of being blended or blurred. We propose an exemplar-based constrained texture synthesis algorithm to inpaint irregularly shaped gaps left by the removal of detected wrinkles/imperfections. We present results conducted on images downloaded from the Internet to show the efficacy of our algorithms. PMID:24968171

  5. HEAD MOTION MONITORING BASED ON FOVEAL APPROACH AND LOCAL FACIAL LANDMARK DETECTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Anishenko; D. Shaposhnikov; L. Podladchikova; R. Comley; K. Sukholentsev; X. W. Gao

    Algorithms and procedures to monitor human head motions based on three vision models (CIECAM'97, RETINA, and BMV) and detection of local facial landmarks are presented. They are evaluated on video image sequences monitoring the head positions of subjects (n=5) with different skin colours. The range of illumination conditions for high performance of the developed algorithms has been determined (more than

  6. Dynamics of autonomic nervous system responses and facial expressions to odors.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; de Wijk, René A

    2014-01-01

    Why we like or dislike certain products may be better captured by physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) than by conscious or classical sensory tests. Responses to pleasant and unpleasant food odors presented in varying concentrations were assessed continuously using facial expressions and responses of the ANS. Results of 26 young and healthy female participants showed that the unpleasant fish odor triggered higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, lower skin temperature, fewer neutral facial expressions and more disgusted and angry expressions (p < 0.05). Neutral facial expressions differentiated between odors within 100 ms, after the start of the odor presentation followed by expressions of disgust (180 ms), anger (500 ms), surprised (580 ms), sadness (820 ms), scared (1020 ms), and happy (1780 ms) (all p-values < 0.05). Heart rate differentiated between odors after 400 ms, whereas skin conductance responses differentiated between odors after 3920 ms. At shorter intervals (between 520 and 1000 ms and between 2690 and 3880 ms) skin temperature for fish was higher than that for orange, but became considerable lower after 5440 ms. This temporal unfolding of emotions in reactions to odors, as seen in facial expressions and physiological measurements supports sequential appraisal theories. PMID:24592246

  7. Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

    2011-01-01

    Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

  8. Skin Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Paronychia A to Z: Pilonidal Cyst Molluscum Contagiosum Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Abscess Cellulitis Paronychia Impetigo Pityriasis Rosea Ringworm ...

  9. Automated interactive facial caricature generation

    E-print Network

    Logan, Ryan C

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop a concept to automatically generate facial caricatures based on anthropometric measurements. Based on this concept, a system was created to automate caricature generation with minimal user input...

  10. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  11. Autonomic responses to lateralized cold pressor and facial cooling tasks.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Jared J; Friedman, Bruce H

    2015-03-01

    Asymmetry in central nervous system (CNS) control of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, a widely debated topic, was investigated via lateralized presentation of two ANS challenges: cold pressor, which elicits primarily sympathetic activation, and facial cooling, a predominantly vagal task. Seventy-three university students (37 female) engaged in these tasks while cardiovascular and electrodermal measures were acquired. Compared to right-side cold pressor, left cold pressor elicited generally larger cardiac, blood pressure, and skin conductance responses, but did not evoke asymmetric changes in heart rate variability. Facial cooling elicited significant increases in vagally mediated heart rate variability, but they were also not lateralized. These findings are consistent with reports of right hemisphere dominance in sympathetic regulation, but indicate that CNS vagal control is relatively symmetric. These results are framed in terms of polyvagal theory and neurovisceral integration two influential models of CNS-ANS integration in the service of adaptive environmental engagement. PMID:25250478

  12. Wells’ Syndrome Mimicking Facial Cellulitis: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Cormerais, Maxence; Poizeau, Florence; Darrieux, Laure; Tisseau, Laurent; Safa, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Wells’ syndrome (WS), or eosinophilic cellulitis, is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology that typically presents with pruritic cellulitis-like plaques on the extremities. Therefore, WS is often misdiagnosed as bacterial cellulitis due to its similarity in presentation. Here, we report two cases of WS that masqueraded as bacterial facial cellulitis. Under treatment with oral prednisone and/or a combination therapy with levocetirizine and hydroxyzine, both patients showed a dramatic improvement of the skin lesions. These cases highlight the need for clinicians to consider WS in the differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient with facial cellulitis that does not respond to an initial antimicrobial regimen. In addition, our cases suggest that combination therapy with levocetirizine and hydroxyzine may be successfully used as corticosteroid-sparing treatment or to prevent relapse after the discontinuation of corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26120307

  13. Facial Analysis and Synthesis Scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilse Ravyse; Hichem Sahli

    2006-01-01

    We developed an algorithmic scheme to extract the semantical description of the face and the face motion from an image sequence,\\u000a and to re-play this action in a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual world. The presented Facial Analysis and Synthesis Scheme combines new methods for detection and tracking of the face and facial features, for estimating the 3D face movements and\\u000a the

  14. Birth defects and supplemental vitamins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin A. Fishman

    2000-01-01

    Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Women of childbearing age who are capable of becoming pregnant should ingest 0.4 mg of folic acid per day to reduce the incidence\\u000a of neural tube defects (anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele). This may also reduce the incidence of conotruncal heart\\u000a defects, limb defects, renal anomalies, pyloric stenosis, and possibly oral-facial clefts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Women who are at

  15. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

  16. Dry Skin

    MedlinePLUS

    ... warm baths or showers. They do not remove skin oils as completely as hot water. • Use gentle bars ( ... some cooking oils such as safflower oil, Canola® oil and Crisco®). • “Drag” moisture into your skin by using products that contain chemicals such as ...

  17. After sun reversal of DNA damage: enhancing skin repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel B. Yarosh; Matthew T. Canning; Danielle Teicher; David A. Brown

    2005-01-01

    UV-induced DNA damage has been directly linked to skin cancer, and DNA repair is an important protection against this neoplasm. This is illustrated by the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum wherein a serious defect in DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers dramatically increases the rate of skin cancer. In other instances in which skin cancer rates are elevated, deficits in DNA

  18. Hedgehog signaling in the neural crest cells regulates the patterning and growth of facial primordia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juhee Jeong; Junhao Mao; Toyoaki Tenzen; Andreas H. Kottmann; Andrew P. McMahon

    2004-01-01

    Facial abnormalities in human SHH mutants have implicated the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in craniofacial development, but early defects in mouse Shh mutants have precluded the experimental analysis of this phenotype. Here, we removed Hh-responsiveness specifically in neural crest cells (NCCs), the multipotent cell type that gives rise to much of the skeleton and connective tissue of the head. In these

  19. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  20. 7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2740 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2740 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2740 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2740 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2740 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

  15. Excisional biopsy of skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Becker, Daniel G; Long, William B; Masterson, Thomas M

    2004-01-01

    The most frequently encountered neoplasm in the US is skin cancer. More than 600,000 new cases of malignant skin tumors are diagnosed in the US each year. One standard method of treatment of skin tumors is excisional biopsy. There are seven technical considerations involved in the excisional biopsy of skin tumors: (1) aseptic technique, (2) examination and demarcation of skin lesion, (3) skin biomechanical properties, (4) anesthesia, (5) excisional biopsy, (6) wound closure, and (7) postoperative care. The physician must use aseptic techniques and wear a cap, mask, and powder-free gloves. Hair is a source of wound contamination, and removal of hair prevents it from becoming entangled in suture and the wound during closure. Because surgical electric clippers cut hair close to the skin surface without nicking the skin, we now use only electric clippers to remove hair. The physician's visualization of the wound can be enhanced by magnification (2.5x) loupes. The physician's plan for excisional biopsy is dictated by the suspected pathology of the skin lesion. The ultimate appearance and function of a scar after closure of excisional biopsy can be predicted by the static and dynamic skin tensions on the surrounding skin. Infiltration anesthesia is preferred over regional nerve block because it does not interfere with the muscle movement that causes dynamic tensions, which elongate the configuration of the defect. Most skin lesions are amenable to a circular excision. In these instances, it is worthwhile to use circular-shaped excisions. The reusable metal trephines have been replaced by disposable trephines that have ribbed plastic handles attached to 316 stainless steel circular cutting blades. Wound closure is accomplished in the same direction as the long axis of the elliptical defect by first approximating the midportion of the defect with a 4-0 synthetic CAPROSYN* monofila-ment absorbable suture attached to the swage of the laser-drilled, compound-curved reverse cutting edge needle. Additional interrupted dermal (subcuticular) sutures are placed in each wound quadrant to approximate further the divided edges of the dermis. Compound-curved reverse cutting edge needles have been specifically designed for dermal closure. Reinforced Steri-Strips are then applied transversly across the incision to facilitate further skin edge approximation. Rigorous follow-up examination is essential for any patient with a history of a skin cancer to detect recurrence and prevent further actinic damage. The use of wide diameter trephine biopsy instruments are still not widely used by physicians because most physicians do not have the technical skills to approximate the defect with dermal sutures. Consequently, this need for a rapid dermal skin closure technique that can be used by a primary care physician must be devised before the trephine excisional biopsy technique is widely used by the primary care physician. This goal can be achieved by developing a disposable stapler for subcuticular closure of the skin. PMID:15301664

  16. A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Spontaneous Facial Action Modeling

    E-print Network

    recognition is limited to posed expressions and often in frontal view. A spontaneous facial expression knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, facial action recognition is accomplished facial expressions. Index Terms--Facial action unit recognition, face pose estimation, facial action

  17. Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Beat. Copyright 2004 ACM 1-58113-940-3/04/0010 ...$5.00. 1. INTRODUCTION Automatic facial expression recognition, Switzerland gatica@idiap.ch ABSTRACT For supervised training of automatic facial expression recog- nition

  18. Shape Analysis of Local Facial Patches for 3D Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Shape Analysis of Local Facial Patches for 3D Facial Expression Recognition Ahmed Maaleja. Abstract In this paper we address the problem of 3D facial expression recognition. We propose a local identity-independent12 facial expression recognition based on a local shape analysis. Unlike the13 identity

  19. Automatic facial expression recognition using facial animation parameters and multistream HMMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petar S. Aleksic; Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

    2006-01-01

    The performance of an automatic facial expression recognition system can be significantly improved by modeling the reliability of different streams of facial expression information uti- lizing multistream hidden Markov models (HMMs). In this paper, we present an automatic multistream HMM facial expression recognition system and analyze its performance. The proposed system utilizes facial animation parameters (FAPs), supported by the MPEG-4

  20. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  1. Compound facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  2. Dynamic Approach for Face Recognition using Digital Image Skin Correlation

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Klaus

    for face recognition. Most of the current techniques perform a structural analysis of facial features from developments in enabling technologies. Most of the existing methods for face recognition are based on stillDynamic Approach for Face Recognition using Digital Image Skin Correlation Satprem Pamudurthy1 , E

  3. Facial coloration tracks changes in women's estradiol.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benedict C; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Wincenciak, Joanna; Kandrik, Michal; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Red facial coloration is an important social cue in many primate species, including humans. In such species, the vasodilatory effects of estradiol may cause red facial coloration to change systematically during females' ovarian cycle. Although increased red facial coloration during estrus has been observed in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), evidence linking primate facial color changes directly to changes in measured estradiol is lacking. Addressing this issue, we used a longitudinal design to demonstrate that red facial coloration tracks within-subject changes in women's estradiol, but not within-subject changes in women's progesterone or estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. Moreover, the relationship between estradiol and facial redness was observed in two independent samples of women (N=50 and N=65). Our results suggest that changes in facial coloration may provide cues of women's fertility and present the first evidence for a direct link between estradiol and female facial redness in a primate species. PMID:25796069

  4. Neurologic Aspects of Chronic Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Maciewicz, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Chronic facial pain can result from neuropathic changes associated with deafferentation. The pattern of deep afferent convergence on trigeminal cells may also relate to the pathophysiology of chronic facial pain disorders. PMID:2085191

  5. Skin turgor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health care workers to assess fluid loss or dehydration . Fluid loss can occur from common conditions, such ... Decreased skin turgor is a late sign in dehydration. It occurs with moderate to severe dehydration. Fluid ...

  6. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caifeng Shan; Ralph Braspenning

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person’s internal\\u000a emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial\\u000a expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in\\u000a animals and humans, who argued that

  7. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  8. Skin Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roderick Hay; Sandra E. Bendeck; Suephy Chen; Roberto Estrada; Anne Haddix; Tonya McLeod; Antoine Mahé

    In assigning health priorities, skin diseases are sometimes thought of, in planning terms, as small-time players in the global league of illness compared with diseases that cause signif- icant mortality, such as HIV\\/AIDS, community-acquired pneu- monias, and tuberculosis. However, skin problems are generally among the most common diseases seen in primary care settings in tropical areas, and in some regions

  9. Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome: a three generational family with markedly variable phenotype including neonatal lethality.

    PubMed

    Titheradge, Hannah L; Patel, Chirag; Ragge, Nicola K

    2015-01-01

    Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition with variable expressivity, caused by mutations in the TFAP2A gene. We report a three generational family with four affected individuals. The consultand has typical features of BOFS including infra-auricular skin nodules, coloboma, lacrimal duct atresia, cleft lip, conductive hearing loss and typical facial appearance. She also exhibited a rare feature of preaxial polydactyly. Her brother had a lethal phenotype with multiorgan failure. We also report a novel variant in TFAP2A gene. This family highlights the variable severity of BOFS and, therefore, the importance of informed genetic counselling in families with BOFS. PMID:25325185

  10. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  11. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer prevention is ... keep cancer from starting. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening is looking ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  13. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-na; Fang, Hong; Zhu, Wei-fang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing factors. Methods: Eight hundred and forty-eight Hangzhou residents received the survey between March 2004 and September 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the accelerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types II, III and IV were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type II seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types III and IV. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China. PMID:19198024

  14. Dimensionality reduction for computer facial animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flora S. Tsai

    This paper describes the usage of dimensionality reduction techniques for computer facial animation. Techniques such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Expectation–Maximization (EM) algorithm for PCA, Multidimensional Scaling (MDS), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) are compared for the purpose of facial animation of different emotions. The experimental results on our facial animation data demonstrate the usefulness of dimensionality reduction techniques for

  15. Expression-invariant Facial Identification Pohsiang Tsai

    E-print Network

    Cao, Longbing

    @it.uts.edu.au Abstract--Facial identification has been recognized as most simple and non-intrusive technology that can expressions, most currently available facial recognition approaches encounter the expression-invariant problem Facial recognition has received substantial attention in the biometrics. Although a great deal of effort

  16. Facial Gesture Interfaces for Expression and Communication*

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Michael J.

    systems which allow expression from those which aim at recognition. Most of the work in facial action expression and assistive technology for motor impaired users. Keywords: facial expression; human-interaction. While there is a considerable body of prior research on automatic facial expression recognition and lip

  17. Automated Facial Expression Recognition System Andrew Ryan

    E-print Network

    Automated Facial Expression Recognition System Andrew Ryan Naval Criminal Investigative Services behaviors. The Automated Facial Expression Recognition System (AFERS) automates the manual practice of FACS, leveraging the research and technology behind the CMU/PITT Automated Facial Image Analysis System (AFA

  18. Multilinear Image Analysis for Facial Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Alex O. Vasilescu; Demetri Terzopoulos

    2002-01-01

    Natural images are the composite consequence of multiple factors related to scene structure, illumination, and imag- ing. For facial images, the factors include different facial geometries, expressions, head poses, and lighting condi- tions. We apply multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher- order tensors, to obtain a parsimonious representation of facial image ensembles which separates these factors. Our representation, called TensorFaces,

  19. Learning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Learning Facial Expressions: From Alignment to Recognition Daniel Gill1,2 and Yaniv Ninio2 1 kernel SVMs. We demonstrate the merits of this approach on multi-class facial expres- sions recognition will help to prevent many accidents from happening. Facial expression recognition systems, among others, may

  20. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND THEIR COUNSELLING IMPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oyelayo Oyebode

    This paper examines the various ways in which the face can be used in expressing the mood of a person at any particular time. It draws examples of facial expressions, especially the use of the eye, from the Yoruba culture. Counselling implications of facial expressions are examined more so as facial expressions are a means of non- verbal communication.

  1. Facial Action Transfer with Personalized Bilinear Regression

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Abhinav

    facial model, that can produce photo-realistic person-specific facial actions (e.g., synthesize wrinkles of FAT to face de-identification. Key words: Facial action transfer, Bilinear regression 1 Introduction of subjects in video (i.e., face de- identification) [1, 2], online image and video collections [3

  2. Transplantation and Fate of Tissue Engineered Skins Comprising Human Epidermal Stem Cells and Acellular Amniotic Membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dewu Liu; Jianping Chen; Yuangui Mao

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineered skins have the potential to overcome the limitations of present large area of skin replacements. To achieve this, we investigated the effect and fate of tissue engineered skins comprising human epidermal stem cells and acellular amniotic membrane after their transplantation to full-thickness skin defect wound, so as to lay a foundation for clinic application. The human epidermal stem

  3. A Hyperelastic Finite-Element Model of Human Skin for Interactive Real-Time Surgical Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudy J. Lapeer; Paul D. Gasson; Vasudev Karri

    2011-01-01

    A finite-element (FE) model of human skin is pro- posed for future use in an interactive real-time surgical simulation to teach surgeons procedures, such as facial reconstruction using skin-flap repair. For this procedure, skin is cut into flaps that are stretched to cover openings in the face. Thus, the model must recre- ate the visual, haptic, and force feedback expected

  4. Frontal-view face detection and facial feature extraction using color, shape and symmetry based cost functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Saber; A. Murat Tekalp

    1998-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for detecting human faces and facial features, such as thelocation of the eyes, nose, and mouth. First, a supervised pixel-based color classifier isemployed to mark all pixels that are within a prespecified distance of "skin color," which iscomputed from a training set of skin patches. This color-classification map is then smoothedby Gibbs random field model-based filters

  5. Affect bursts: dynamic patterns of facial expression.

    PubMed

    Krumhuber, Eva G; Scherer, Klaus R

    2011-08-01

    Affect bursts consist of spontaneous and short emotional expressions in which facial, vocal, and gestural components are highly synchronized. Although the vocal characteristics have been examined in several recent studies, the facial modality remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the facial correlates of affect bursts that expressed five different emotions: anger, fear, sadness, joy, and relief. Detailed analysis of 59 facial actions with the Facial Action Coding System revealed a reasonable degree of emotion differentiation for individual action units (AUs). However, less convergence was shown for specific AU combinations for a limited number of prototypes. Moreover, expression of facial actions peaked in a cumulative-sequential fashion with significant differences in their sequential appearance between emotions. When testing for the classification of facial expressions within a dimensional approach, facial actions differed significantly as a function of the valence and arousal level of the five emotions, thereby allowing further distinction between joy and relief. The findings cast doubt on the existence of fixed patterns of facial responses for each emotion, resulting in unique facial prototypes. Rather, the results suggest that each emotion can be portrayed by several different expressions that share multiple facial actions. PMID:21707163

  6. Facial paralysis for the plastic surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Kosins, Aaron M; Hurvitz, Keith A; Evans, Gregory RD; Wirth, Garrett A

    2007-01-01

    Facial paralysis presents a significant and challenging reconstructive problem for plastic surgeons. An aesthetically pleasing and acceptable outcome requires not only good surgical skills and techniques, but also knowledge of facial nerve anatomy and an understanding of the causes of facial paralysis. The loss of the ability to move the face has both social and functional consequences for the patient. At the Facial Palsy Clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, 22,954 patients were surveyed, and over 50% were found to have a considerable degree of psychological distress and social withdrawal as a consequence of their facial paralysis. Functionally, patients present with unilateral or bilateral loss of voluntary and nonvoluntary facial muscle movements. Signs and symptoms can include an asymmetric smile, synkinesis, epiphora or dry eye, abnormal blink, problems with speech articulation, drooling, hyperacusis, change in taste and facial pain. With respect to facial paralysis, surgeons tend to focus on the surgical, or ‘hands-on’, aspect. However, it is believed that an understanding of the disease process is equally (if not more) important to a successful surgical outcome. The purpose of the present review is to describe the anatomy and diagnostic patterns of the facial nerve, and the epidemiology and common causes of facial paralysis, including clinical features and diagnosis. Treatment options for paralysis are vast, and may include nerve decompression, facial reanimation surgery and botulinum toxin injection, but these are beyond the scope of the present paper. PMID:19554190

  7. Facial paralysis for the plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Kosins, Aaron M; Hurvitz, Keith A; Evans, Gregory Rd; Wirth, Garrett A

    2007-01-01

    Facial paralysis presents a significant and challenging reconstructive problem for plastic surgeons. An aesthetically pleasing and acceptable outcome requires not only good surgical skills and techniques, but also knowledge of facial nerve anatomy and an understanding of the causes of facial paralysis.The loss of the ability to move the face has both social and functional consequences for the patient. At the Facial Palsy Clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, 22,954 patients were surveyed, and over 50% were found to have a considerable degree of psychological distress and social withdrawal as a consequence of their facial paralysis. Functionally, patients present with unilateral or bilateral loss of voluntary and nonvoluntary facial muscle movements. Signs and symptoms can include an asymmetric smile, synkinesis, epiphora or dry eye, abnormal blink, problems with speech articulation, drooling, hyperacusis, change in taste and facial pain.With respect to facial paralysis, surgeons tend to focus on the surgical, or 'hands-on', aspect. However, it is believed that an understanding of the disease process is equally (if not more) important to a successful surgical outcome. The purpose of the present review is to describe the anatomy and diagnostic patterns of the facial nerve, and the epidemiology and common causes of facial paralysis, including clinical features and diagnosis. Treatment options for paralysis are vast, and may include nerve decompression, facial reanimation surgery and botulinum toxin injection, but these are beyond the scope of the present paper. PMID:19554190

  8. facial reduction and extended duals

    E-print Network

    2013-02-13

    we state a simple facial reduction algorithm and prove its correctness; and ... where A : X ? Y is a linear map between finite dimensional Euclidean spaces X ..... Proof of (1) This statement is straightforward from the form of x and the expression.

  9. Facial recognition at the CIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Gragg

    1997-01-01

    Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an

  10. Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences University. The procedure is done under anesthesia administered by an anesthesiologist. After surgery, you

  11. Cosmetic Eyelid and Facial Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy J. Ben Simon; John D. McCann

    2008-01-01

    The goal of cosmetic surgery is to reverse anatomical changes that occur in the face with aging. It is a rapidly growing subdiscipline of ophthalmic plastic surgery and includes forehead, eyelid, mid-face, lower face, and neck surgery, most performed by ophthalmic plastic surgeons. The current article reviews updates in cosmetic eyelid and facial surgery, including minimally invasive techniques such as

  12. Eyelid surgery in facial palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Leatherbarrow; J R O Collin

    1991-01-01

    Paralysis of the orbicularis oculi muscle is by far the most serious consequence of loss of function of the facial nerve. The severity of the resultant ocular problems is related to the degree and duration of this paralysis. The primary goal of the ophthalmologist in managing the patient with orbicularis oculi paralysis is to protect the cornea. The alleviation of

  13. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  14. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin; Mends, Francine; Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish; Roehm, Pamela C.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers. PMID:23766904

  15. Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2014-02-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

  16. Genetic Factors That Increase Male Facial Masculinity Decrease Facial Attractiveness of Female Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

  17. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  18. Bilateral cleft lip and palate: A morphometric analysis of facial skeletal form using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, John M; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) is caused by a lack of merging of maxillary and nasal facial prominences during development and morphogenesis. BCLP is associated with congenital defects of the oronasal facial region that can impair ingestion, mastication, speech, and dentofacial development. Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, 7- to 18-year old individuals born with BCLP (n?=?15) and age- and sex-matched controls (n?=?15) were retrospectively assessed. Coordinate values of three-dimensional facial skeletal anatomical landmarks (n?=?32) were measured from each CBCT image. Data were evaluated using principal coordinates analysis (PCOORD) and Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA). PCOORD axes 1-3 explain approximately 45% of the morphological variation between samples, and specific patterns of morphological differences were associated with each axis. Approximately, 30% of facial skeletal measures significantly differ by confidence interval testing (??=?0.10) between samples. While significant form differences occur across the facial skeleton, strong patterns of differences are localized to the lateral and superioinferior aspects of the nasal aperture. In conclusion, the BCLP deformity significantly alters facial skeletal morphology of the midface and oronasal regions of the face, but morphological differences were also found in the upper facial skeleton and to a lesser extent, the lower facial skeleton. This pattern of strong differences in the oronasal region of the facial skeleton combined with differences across the rest of the facial complex underscores the idea that bones of the craniofacial skeleton are integrated. Clin. Anat. 28:584-592, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25752824

  19. Skin to skin care:heat balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Karlsson

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed

  20. The efficacy of glycolic acid for treating wrinkles: analysis using newly developed facial imaging systems equipped with fluorescent illumination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Funasaka; Hirofumi Sato; Akiko Usuki; Akiko Ohashi; Hisami Kotoya; Kukizo Miyamoto; Greg G. Hillebrand; Masamitsu Ichihashi

    2001-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of photodamaged skin, such as coarse and fine wrinkling, can not be quantitatively evaluated from ordinary photographic records. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of glycolic acid (GA) peeling on facial wrinkling, using computer assisted image analysis. This was accomplished with reproducible imaging techniques, which allowed precise repositioning of the subject's face in

  1. The Wrinkle Generation Method for Facial Reconstruction Based on Extraction of Partition Wrinkle Line Features and Fractal Interpolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Yi-bo; Xiao Hong; Zhang Sen-yue

    2007-01-01

    Because of the high putrescibility of the body, in general condition, only part or fragmentary bones can be found when the victim body was discovered. Therefore, the first step of criminal investigation is to reconstruct the facial features in order to find the victim. Because wrinkle is the most remarkable and intuitionistic feature in the human skin, the wrinkle generation

  2. [Treatment by fat tissue transfer for radiation injury in childhood facial cancer].

    PubMed

    Faghahati, S; Delaporte, T; Toussoun, G; Gleizal, A; Morel, F; Delay, E

    2010-06-01

    The radiation treatment of malignant facial tumors in children may induce major functional and cosmetic sequelae, mainly due to uneven growth of the bones and soft tissues, resulting in facial asymmetry and hemihypotrophy at adult age. Although fat transfer has proven effective for facial cosmetic treatment, few studies have demonstrated the benefit of the technique in heavily irradiated tissues. The techniques generally used for the treatment of facial asymmetry or hypotrophy are ill-adapted to irradiated patients. Indeed, procedures such as skin detachment, osteotomy and vascular suture are risky because of radiation-induced damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential benefits of fat transfer for the correction of sequelae of facial irradiation. Four patients (two males and two females) aged 27, 25, 16 and 13 years underwent fat grafting for the correction of facial asymmetry or hypotrophy induced by cancer radiation treatment during childhood (radiation dose of more than 50Gy). One to three grafting sessions were required, depending on the cases. After a median follow-up of 3.9 years, cosmetic results were considered satisfactory by both the patient and the surgeon in all four cases. Fat transfer remarkably improved the cosmetic appearance of the patients, without deleterious consequences for the vitality of tissues. In addition, a restoration of skin trophicity was observed, thus confirming the benefit of grafting adipocytes into the irradiated integument. In conclusion, fat grafting appears to be a simple and easily reusable technique which makes it possible to obtain the best morphological and cosmetic results in irradiated patients, whereas avoiding complex and potentially hazardous procedures. PMID:19679386

  3. A possible cranio-oro-facial phenotype in Cockayne syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cockayne Syndrome CS (Type A – CSA; or CS Type I OMIM #216400) (Type B – CSB; or CS Type II OMIM #133540) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disease caused by defects in DNA repair characterized by progressive cachectic dwarfism, progressive intellectual disability with cerebral leukodystrophy, microcephaly, progressive pigmentary retinopathy, sensorineural deafness photosensitivity and possibly orofacial and dental anomalies. Methods We studied the cranio-oro-facial status of a group of 17 CS patients from 15 families participating in the National Hospital Program for Clinical Research (PHRC) 2005 « Clinical and molecular study of Cockayne syndrome ». All patients were examined by two investigators using the Diagnosing Dental Defects Database (D[4]/phenodent) record form. Results Various oro-facial and dental anomalies were found: retrognathia; micrognathia; high- arched narrow palate; tooth crowding; hypodontia (missing permanent lateral incisor, second premolars or molars), screwdriver shaped incisors, microdontia, radiculomegaly, and enamel hypoplasia. Eruption was usually normal. Dental caries was associated with enamel defects, a high sugar/carbohydrate soft food diet, poor oral hygiene and dry mouth. Cephalometric analysis revealed mid-face hypoplasia, a small retroposed mandible and hypo-development of the skull. Conclusion CS patients may have associated oro-dental features, some of which may be more frequent in CS children – some of them being described for the first time in this paper (agenesis of second permanent molars and radiculomegaly). The high susceptibility to rampant caries is related to a combination of factors as well as enamel developmental defects. Specific attention to these anomalies may contribute to diagnosis and help plan management. PMID:23311583

  4. Bioartificial skin.

    PubMed

    Machens, H G; Berger, A C; Mailaender, P

    2000-01-01

    The loss of skin has been one of the oldest, yet most frequent and costly problems in our health care system. To restore functional and esthetic integrity in patients with unstable or hypertrophic scars, in burn patients and after skin loss for hereditary, traumatic or oncological reasons, an armamentarium of reconstructive surgical procedures including autogenous, allogenous and xenogenous tissue transfer as well as implantation of alloplastic materials has been favored. For several decades there has been increasing interest focused on 'tissue engineering' of dermal, epidermal and full thickness skin substitutes by both biological and synthetic matrices. At our institution (Hannover Medical School), a collagen/glycosaminoglycan dermal regeneration matrix has been used for immediate dermal coverage after escharectomy in burn injuries as well as for dermal replacement in chronically unstable scars. This article gives an overview on the current state of the art in bioartificial skin as well as our personal experience with the collagen/glycosaminoglycan matrix for dermal replacement in different clinical situations. PMID:10971033

  5. Skin Deep

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-13

    In this activity, learners explore how to protect their skin while applying pesticides to plants. Learners conduct a series of simulation experiments and discover that some clothing fabrics provide only minimal protection from the dangers of pesticides. Learners work in groups during this activity and use a data table to record their observations.

  6. Neurodevelopmental defects resulting from ATRX overexpression in transgenic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Berube; Magdalena Jagla; Cecelia Smeenk; Yves De Repentigny; Rashmi Kothary; David J. Picketts

    2002-01-01

    Several X-linked mental retardation syndromes are caused by mutations in the ATRX gene. Common clinical features associated with ATRX mutations include severe mental retardation, characteristic facial anomalies and variable degrees of urogenital defects and ?-thalassemia. Although the ATRX protein is a member of the SWI\\/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins, little is known about the biochemical activity of the ATRX

  7. Facial asymmetry: etiology, evaluation, and management.

    PubMed

    Cheong, You-Wei; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2011-01-01

    Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significant facial asymmetry causes both functional as well as esthetic problems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, the underlying cause should be investigated. The etiology includes congenital disorders, acquired diseases, and traumatic and developmental deformities. The causes of many cases of developmental facial asymmetry are indistinct. Assessment of facial asymmetry consists of a patient history, physical examination, and medical imaging. Medical imaging is helpful for objective diagnosis and measurement of the asymmetry, as well as for treatment planning. Components of soft tissue, dental and skeletal differences contributing to facial asymmetry are evaluated. Frequently dental malocclusion, canting of the occlusal level and midline shift are found. Management of facial asymmetry first aims at correcting the underlying disorder. Orthognathic surgery is performed for the treatment of facial asymmetry combined with dental occlusal problems. A symmetrical facial midline, harmonious facial profile and dental occlusion are obtained from treatment. Additional surgical procedures may be required to increase or reduce the volume of skeletal and soft tissue components on both sides to achieve better symmetry. PMID:21880188

  8. Facial model estimation from stereo\\/mono image sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung J. Kuo; Tsang-gang Lin; Ruey-song Huang; Souheil F. Odeh

    2003-01-01

    Facial model coding is an integral part in MPEG-4 related applications. The generation of the facial model usually requires stereoscopic view of the face in the pre-processing stage. Although facial model can be successfully estimated from two stereo facial images, the occlusion effect and imprecise location of the feature point prohibit obtaining an accurate facial model. In this paper, several

  9. Facial Asymmetry Quantification for Expression Invariant Human Identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanxi Liu; R. L. Weaver; Karen L. Schmidt; Jeffrey F. Cohn

    2002-01-01

    We investigate facial asymmetry as a biometric under expression variation. For the first time, we have defined two types of quantified facial asymmetry measures that are easily com- putable from facial images and videos. Our findings show that the asymmetry measures of au- tomatically selected facial regions capture individual differences that are relatively stable to facial expression variations. More importantly,

  10. Realistic 3D facial animation in virtual space teleconferencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lhassan MOUBARAKI; Jun OHYA; Fumio KISHINO

    1995-01-01

    Our work on color texture synthesis, real-time animation of facial wrinkles and 3D shape deformation enhances realism with minimal computational expense and gives a total control of the wrinkling process during facial expressions within the virtual space teleconferencing system. Facial wrinkles are synthesized on a scanned facial texture using the bump mapping technique by detecting wrinkles in a real facial

  11. Targeted gene transfer into rat facial muscles by nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Akihiro; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Satoh, Yasushi; Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Obara, Minoru; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) for gene transfer into rat facial muscles. LISWs are generated by irradiating a black natural rubber disk placed on the target tissue with nanosecond pulsed laser light from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, which is widely used in head and neck surgery and proven to be safe. After injection of plasmid deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) coding for Lac Z into rat facial muscles, pulsed laser is used to irradiate the laser target on the skin surface without incision or exposure of muscles. Lac Z expression is detected by X-gal staining of excised rat facial skin and muscles. Strong Lac Z expression is observed seven days after gene transfer, and sustained for up to 14 days. Gene transfer is achieved in facial muscles several millimeters deep from the surface. Gene expression is localized to the tissue exposed to LISWs. No tissue damage from LISWs is observed. LISW is a promising nonviral target gene transfer method because of its high spatial controllability, easy applicability, and minimal invasiveness. Gene transfer using LISW to produce therapeutic proteins such as growth factors could be used to treat nerve injury and paralysis.

  12. Modified Free Latissimus Dorsi Musculocutaneous Flap in the Reconstruction of Extensive Postoncologic Defects in the Head and Neck Region

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guiquan; Li, Chunhua; Chen, Jin; Cai, Yongcong; Li, Ling; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oncological resection of advanced carcinoma in the head and neck region results in vast defects. The free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap (FLDMF) is one of the most commonly used flaps for the repair of complex head and neck defects. We tried to modify FLDMF to multiple segments or combine it with acellular dermis to fit through-and-through defects in the oral-facial region during the last decade. A retrospective review of patients with FLDMF reconstruction between 2004 and 2012 was undertaken. Demographics, histology, surgical management, disease control and overall survival, complications, radiotherapy, aesthetic outcome, as well as economic results were analyzed. The majority of the patients (66.7%) had recurrent tumors, and the rest of the patients had primary tumor with stage IV. Fourteen patients (38.9%) had a history of prior radiation therapy, whereas 27.8% of the patients had postoperative radiation therapy. The areas of the defects vary from 52 cm2 to 180 cm2 (mean, 86.4 cm2). The flap failed in 1 of the 37 patients. The complications at the recipient site include hematoma (n = 6, 16.7%), venous insufficiency (n = 4, 11.1%), infection (n = 3, 8.3), and partial flap necrosis (n = 2, 5.5%). The donor-site complications include delayed healing, necrosis of skin graft, and limited shoulder function. The 5-year overall survival rate was 39.1%, and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 22.1%. In conclusion, the FLDMF could be modified to fit vast defects where voluminous tissue is needed to be transferred in the head and neck region. PMID:25723665

  13. Facial expression at retrieval affects recognition of facial identity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenfeng; Liu, Chang Hong; Li, Huiyun; Tong, Ke; Ren, Naixin; Fu, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the time of memory retrieval in a standard old/new recognition task. The results showed a clear effect of facial expression, where happy test faces were identified more successfully than angry test faces. This effect is unlikely due to greater image similarity between the neural training face and the happy test face, because image analysis showed that the happy test faces are in fact less similar to the neutral training faces relative to the angry test faces. In the second experiment, we investigated whether this emotional effect is affected by the expression at the time of learning. We employed angry or happy faces as learning stimuli, and angry, happy, and neutral faces as test stimuli. The results showed that the emotional effect at retrieval is robust across different encoding conditions with happy or angry expressions. These findings indicate that emotional expressions do not only affect the stages of encoding and consolidation, but also the retrieval process in identity recognition.

  14. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...

  15. Skin Tag (Acrochordon)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Skin Tag (Acrochordon) Information for adults A A A Skin tags are common benign (non-cancerous) skin polyps. Overview A skin tag (acrochordon) is a common, possibly inherited condition that ...

  16. Skin Complications of IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... depends on the location and severity of fistulas. SKIN TAGS Skin tags are fairly common in people with Crohn’s disease. ... into small flaps. Fecal matter may attach to skin tags, irritating the skin. Practicing good hygiene will help ...

  17. Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    to help you remove it. Acne Most teenagers get a skin disease called acne (AK- nee). The blackheads everyone gets them at some point. Acne isn't usually serious, but severe cases can cause scars that will last for years. Acne is caused by bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes, often shortened to P. acnes

  18. The McCollough Facial Rejuvenation System: a condition-specific classification algorithm.

    PubMed

    McCollough, E Gaylon

    2011-02-01

    The search for the holy grail in facial rejuvenation is an ongoing quest. Perhaps the reason the "ideal" face-lift has yet to be discovered is a result of three factors. First, the term FACE-LIFT has never been adequately defined. Second, fads and trends play a role in how the operation is taught and performed. Third, surgeons searching for the prototypic technique have not had a way to index the physical signs of facial aging. After 37 years of practicing facial plastic surgery and performing more than 5000 face-lifts, the author determined that replacing chaos with order is long overdue. To achieve this goal, he developed a classification system that is designed to match each potential patient's problems with the most appropriate facial rejuvenation treatment plan and a "language" by which facial rejuvenation surgeons can communicate. Five progressive stages of aging have been identified and matched with recommended courses of face-lifting, blepharoplasty, volume augmentation, and skin resurfacing techniques. Ancillary procedures have also been included when indicated. It is the author's hope that a new classification system will bring order to mounting confusion within the aesthetic surgery professions as well as within the public sector. PMID:21246462

  19. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

  20. Individual Facial Coloration in Male Eulemur fulvus rufus : A Condition-dependent Ornament?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dagmar Clough; Michael Heistermann; Peter M. Kappeler

    2009-01-01

    Researchers studying individual variation in conspicuous skin coloration in primates have suggested that color indicates male\\u000a quality. Although primate fur color can also be flamboyant, the potential condition dependence and thus signaling function\\u000a of fur remains poorly studied. We studied sources of variation in sexually dichromatic facial hair coloration in red-fronted\\u000a lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus). We collected data on 13

  1. Cancer and Referred Facial Pain.

    PubMed

    Romero-Reyes, Marcela; Teruel, Antonia; Ye, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Orofacial pain may be a symptom of diverse types of cancers as a result of local or distant tumor effects. The pain can be presented with the same characteristics as any other orofacial pain disorder, and this should be recognized by the clinician. Orofacial pain also can arise as a consequence of cancer therapy. In the present article, we review the mechanisms of cancer-associated facial pain, its clinical presentation, and cancer therapy associated with orofacial pain. PMID:26088459

  2. Facial Composite Production Using EFITV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka M. Lech; Robert A. Johnston

    2010-01-01

    EFIT-V is a relatively new facial composite system, which has recently been introduced into a large number of UK police forces. The police procedure of working with EFIT-V directly claims that a witness should not be left alone and that he\\/she should work with a help of a police officer. However, some individuals may benefit from having a person to

  3. The Science Inside Skin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS; )

    2009-01-01

    The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

  4. Tribometrology of Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norm Gitis; Raja Sivamani

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of both skin health and skin care products is suggested based on skin tribological properties. Simultaneous multi-sensor measurements of both coefficient of friction and contact electrical impedance allow for fast and quantitative evaluation of skin conditions such as dryness and moisturization, and early diagnosis of skin diseases or of the deterioration in skin functions at a stage

  5. Facial action recognition for facial expression analysis from static face images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Pantic; Léon J. M. Rothkrantz

    2004-01-01

    Automatic recognition of facial gestures (i.e., facial muscle activity) is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in the research field of machine vision. In this paper, we present an automated system that we developed to recognize facial gestures in static, frontal- and\\/or profile-view color face images. A multide- tector approach to facial feature localization is utilized to spatially sample

  6. Machine learning methods for fully automatic recognition of facial expressions and facial actions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Stewart Bartlett; Gwen Littlewort; Claudia Lainscsek; Ian R. Fasel; Javier R. Movellan

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic comparison of machine learning methods applied to the problem of fully automatic recog- nition of facial expressions. We explored recognition of facial ac- tions from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), as well as recognition of full facial expressions. Each video-frame is first scanned in real-time to detect approximately upright-frontal faces. The faces found are scaled

  7. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition using Facial Animation Parameters and MultiStream HMMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petar S. Aleksic; Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

    The performance of an automatic facial expression recognition system can be significantly improved by modeling the reliability of different streams of facial expression information utilizing multi-stream hidden Markov models (HMMs). In this paper, we present an automatic multi-stream HMM facial expression recognition system and analyze its performance. The proposed system utilizes facial animation parameters (FAPs), supported by the MPEG-4 standard,

  8. How is facial expression coded?

    PubMed

    Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Facial expression is theorized to be visually represented in a multidimensional expression space, relative to a norm. This norm-based coding is typically argued to be implemented by a two-pool opponent coding system. However, the evidence supporting the opponent coding of expression cannot rule out the presence of a third channel tuned to the center of each coded dimension. Here we used a paradigm not previously applied to facial expression to determine whether a central-channel model is necessary to explain expression coding. Participants identified expressions taken from a fear/antifear trajectory, first at baseline and then in two adaptation conditions. In one condition, participants adapted to the expression at the center of the trajectory. In the other condition, participants adapted to alternating images from the two ends of the trajectory. The range of expressions that participants perceived as lying at the center of the trajectory narrowed in both conditions, a pattern that is not predicted by the central-channel model but can be explained by the opponent-coding model. Adaptation to the center of the trajectory also increased identification of both fear and antifear, which may indicate a functional benefit for adaptive coding of facial expression. PMID:25556250

  9. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options. PMID:12469966

  10. Cultural perspectives in facial allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Pearlie W W; Patel, Ashish S; Taub, Peter J; Lampert, Joshua A; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

    2012-01-01

    Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

  11. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION FROM VIDEO SEQUENCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira Cohen; Nicu Sebe; Ashutosh Garg; Michael S. Lew; Thomas S. Huang

    2003-01-01

    Recognizing human facial expression and emotion by computer is an interesting and challenging problem. In this paper we propose a method for recognizing emotions through facial expressions dis- played in video sequences. We introduce a Tree-Augmented-Naive Bayes (TAN) classifier that learns the dependencies between the facial features and we provide an algorithm for finding the best TAN structure. Our person-dependent

  12. 3D Facial Performance Capture From A Single RGBD Camera 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yen-Lin

    2013-05-28

    Realistic facial animation remains one of the most challenging problems in computer graphics, where facial performance capture of real people has been a key component. The current state-of-the-art technologies used to capture facial performances...

  13. Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Gong, Shaogang

    Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition Caifeng Shan for facial expression recognition by boosting Local Binary Patterns (LBP) based classifiers. Low-cost LBP a classifier of improved classification per- formance. 1 Introduction Automatic facial expression recognition

  14. Brief Communications Superior Facial Expression, But Not Identity Recognition, in

    E-print Network

    Duchaine, Bradley C.

    Brief Communications Superior Facial Expression, But Not Identity Recognition, in Mirror expressionontothesamesensorimotorrepresentationsthatareactiveduringtheexperienceoftheperceivedemotion.Toinvestigatethis view, the present study examines facial expression and identity recognition-touch synesthetes outperformed nonsynesthetic partic- ipants on measures of facial expression recognition

  15. Facial Expression Recognition Using a Dynamic Model and Motion Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irfan A. Essa; Alex Pentland

    1995-01-01

    Previous efforts at facial expression recognition have been based on the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), a representation developed in order to allow human psychol- ogists to code expression from static facial \\

  16. Recognition of Facial Attributes using Adaptive Sparse Representations

    E-print Network

    Bowyer, Kevin W.

    Recognition of Facial Attributes using Adaptive Sparse Representations of Random Patches Domingo recognition of facial attributes by proposing a new general approach called Adap- tive Sparse Representation representation, soft biometrics, gender recognition, race recognition, facial expression recognition. 1

  17. Movement Differences in Facial Expression 1 Running Head: MOVEMENT DIFFERENCES IN FACIAL EXPRESSION

    E-print Network

    Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    for understanding the biological basis underlying facial communication. Spontaneous smiles of enjoyment have been to differences in the typical context and purpose of the facial signal. Key words: emotion expression, nonverbal communication, voluntary movement. #12;Movement Differences in Facial Expression 3 Movement differences between

  18. The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathrin Kaulard; Douglas W. Cunningham; Heinrich H. Bülthoff; Christian Wallraven

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused

  19. The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

  20. Stereophotogrammetry-based Facial Depth Measurements: A Novel Method for Quantifying Facial Projection

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas S.N.; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Orthognathic surgery leads to alteration of the spatial relationship of the mandible and maxilla resulting changes in the degree of facial projection. Traditional 2-D cephalometry and photographic techniques do not provide data on facial depth. Though stereophotogrammetry can be used as a non-invasive method for evaluating facial depth, the unavailability of ethnicity-specific norms hinder its routine use in clinical practice. The objectives of this study were to 1. Generate an analytic scheme suitable for evaluating facial depth using stereophotogrammetry, and 2. Create normative data for the facial depth measurements for young Hong Kong Chinese adults. Methods Stereophotographic images from 41 male and 45 female ethnic Chinese young adults without facial deformities were analyzed. Facial depth measurements were performed based on standard anthropometric landmarks, with the aid of 3dMDVultus software. Results All facial depth measurements were found in absolute terms to be significantly higher in males. In contrast, the upper face, maxillary and sublabial depth indices were significantly higher in females, whereas no significant gender differences emerged for lower facial and maxillomandibular indices. Conclusions A novel method of using stereophotographic images for quantifying facial depth was evaluated. Normative facial depth measurements for young Hong Kong Chinese adults were established. This gender-specific database can be used as a reference in the diagnosis, treatment planning, or evaluation of outcomes after surgical correction of facial deformities. PMID:23423724

  1. Demodicosis among university medical students in Malaysia and the effects of facial cleanser and moisturizer usage.

    PubMed

    Isa, Noor Hayati Mohd; Loong, Loh Wai; Fang, Gee Hui; Mohamad, Abdul Malek; Razali, Nurasilah; Rani, Nur Izzati; Manap, Siti Nor Azreen Abd; Abdullah, Syamsa Rizal

    2011-11-01

    Demodicosis is an infestation of the skin with Demodex, an ectoparasite commonly found on the face. A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the presence of the ectoparasite and the outcome of facial cleanser and moisturizer usage on its infestation. Universal sampling was performed among 390 medical students, age 20-25 years old in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The biodata of the participants and information on the use of facial cleanser and moisturizer were obtained through questionnaire. Skin samples were obtained using both skin scraping and cellophane tape method and were subsequently examined directly by microscopy. The results show an overall prevalence of 17.2%. Males (21.5%) were affected more often than females (12.8%) (p = 0.022). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of the ectoparasite among different ethnic groups, age-groups and the presence of existing facial problems among the subjects. A lower infestation rate (11.45%) was found to be associated with the use of a moisturizer (p = 0.033). Both species of ectoparasites that infest man, Demodexfolliculorum and D. brevis, were detected in this study either as single or mixed infestations. PMID:22299405

  2. Facial Nerve Monitoring under Neuromuscular Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Hester, T. Oma; Hasan, Akbar; McDonnell, Francis; Valentino, Joseph; Jones, Raleigh

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of facial nerve electromyography at various levels of neuromuscular blockade are unclear. Partial blockade is well known to facilitate anesthetic safety and management. However, the use of neuromuscular blockage in many skull base procedures is avoided to allow intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. We studied the influence of various levels of neuromuscular blockade on facial nerve stimulation in the New Zealand white rabbit. The facial nerve was exposed in the middle ear of six rabbits. Using electromyographic-type facial nerve monitor, we recorded the facial electromyography signals in these rabbits at increasing levels of vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. All animals demonstrated reliable facial electromyography response at all levels of partial neuromuscular blockade (P < .02). Five of the six animals could be monitored throughout complete blockade. These results clearly demonstrate that rabbit facial electromyography monitoring is possible under neuromuscular blockade. The effect of neuromuscular blockers on facial electromyography monitoring deserves further study, as partial blockade would greatly facilitate the management of anesthesia in otologic, neurotologic, and skull base surgery. PMID:17171179

  3. Facial, Cervical, and Mediastinal Emphysema of the Clarinet Player: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kesgin, Selcan; Tezcan, Erkan; Köyba??, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervicofacial emphysema may arise due to the leakage of air from a defect in the aerodigestive tract to the fascial layers of neck and face. Rarely, it may be caused by insufflation of air through the Stensen’s duct. Case Report: We present a case with diffuse facial, cervical and mediastinal emphysema due to playing a wind instrument immediately after a facial trauma. There was no mucosal defect or laceration noticed by examination which could explain the origin of the emphysema. Despite the widespread cervicofacial emphysema with mediastinal involvement, the patient significantly improved within 48 hours without any intervention. Conclusion: Even though cervicofacial emphysema ameliorates spontaneously, increased care must be taken, especially when there is pneumomediastinum and/or pneumothorax. PMID:25667794

  4. Genetics of Congenital Heart Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. C. Joziasse; J. W. Roos-Hesselink

    \\u000a The first reference in history to the presence of congenital heart defects comes from a Babylonian tablet which dates back\\u000a to around 4,000 BC. The description mentions: “When a woman gives birth to an infant that has the heart open and has no skin,\\u000a the country will suffer from calamities”, which might refer to ectopia cordis.1 Leonardo da Vinci then

  5. Facial Action Unit Recognition by Exploiting Their Dynamic and Semantic Relationships

    E-print Network

    Facial Action Unit Recognition by Exploiting Their Dynamic and Semantic Relationships Yan Tong measurements yields significant improvement of AU recognition, especially for spontaneous facial expressions. Index Terms--Facial action unit recognition, facial expression analysis, Facial Action Coding System

  6. Skin findings in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Beth A; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; Danback, Joshua R; Pober, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the skin and vascular elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%), and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity), and E (Young's modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  7. Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

  8. Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research

    PubMed Central

    SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989

  9. [Measurements of skin elasticity in patients with lipedema of the Moncorps "rusticanus" type].

    PubMed

    Jagtman, B A; Kuiper, J P; Brakkee, A J

    1984-01-01

    Patients with lipoedema of the typus rusticanus Moncorps show a skin elasticity deficit of the skin of the calf. This is partly due to the derma oedema in the skin of these patients and seems partly to be due to an intrinsic connective tissue defect in the skin of such patients. The auteurs put forward the hypothesis that also present calf muscle pump dysfunction in these patients is the result of a connective tissue defect of the fascia of the muscular compartment, as an expression of a more generalized connective tissue defect. PMID:6494267

  10. Multilevel Performance-driven Stylised Facial Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabian Di Fiore; Frank Van Reeth

    In this paper, our objective is to assist a graphical artist throughout the creation of stylised facial animations that exhibit characters with a hand- drawn look and resemble real life without mim- icking it. To this end, we present a hybrid ap- proach combining benefits from performance- driven facial animation and user-controlled 2D modelling and animation techniques. Once we capture

  11. Subtle facial expression recognition using motion magnification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungsoo Park; Daijin Kim

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for subtle facial expression recognition that uses motion magnifica- tion to transform subtle expressions into corresponding exaggerated ones. Motion magnification consists of four steps: First, active appearance model (AAM) fitting extracts 70 facial feature points in the face image sequence. Second, the face image sequence is aligned using the three feature points (two eyes

  12. Infrared facial recognition using modified blood perfusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiqian Wu; Zhenghui Gu; Kia Ai Chia; Sim Heng Ong

    2007-01-01

    An infrared (IR) facial image represents a measurement of thermal distribution of a face which is independent of illumination. However, it has been found that facial thermograms vary with ambient temperature, physiological as well as psychological conditions, which result in severe decline in recognition rate. In this paper, we present a modified blood perfusion model which is much simpler than

  13. Say cheese! Privacy and facial recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Buckley; Matt Hunter

    The popular social networking site, Facebook, recently launched a facial recognition tool to help users tag photographs they uploaded to Facebook. This generated significant controversy, arising as much as anything, from the company’s failure to adequately inform users of this new service and to explain how the technology works.The incident illustrates the sensitivity of facial recognition technology and the potential

  14. Facial Expression Recognition Using a Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L. Lisetti; David E. Rumelhart

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the development of a neural network for fa- cial expression recognition. It aims at recognizing and interpreting facial expressions in terms of signaled emo- tions and level of expressiveness. We use the backprop- agation algorithm to train the system to differentiate between facial expressions. We show how the network generalizes to new faces and we analyze the results.

  15. Facial Recognition Using Simulated Prosthetic Pixelized Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Thompson; G. David Barnett; Mark S. Humayun

    2003-01-01

    RESULTS. Discrimination speed and performance were influ- enced by all stimulus parameters. The subjects achieved highly significant facial recognition accuracy for all high-contrast tests except for grids with 70% random dot dropout and two gray levels. In low-contrast tests, significant facial recognition accu- racy was achieved for all but the most adverse grid parameters: total grid area less than 17%

  16. Facial expression recognition and its degree estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi KIMURA; Masahiko YACHIDA

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is not only to recognize a facial expression which is associated with human emotion but also to estimate its degree. Our method is based on the idea that facial expression recognition can be achieved by extracting a variation from an expressionless face considering the face area as a whole pattern. For the purpose of extracting

  17. A Web Survey for Facial Expressions Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Sorci; Gianluca Antonini; Jean-Philippe Thiran; Michel Bierlaire

    In the recent years, researchers have investigated several methods of facial ex- pression analysis. Their interest has been to apply their algorithms to sets o f images labelled by a restrained number of experts. In order to deal with the generaliz- ability of the proposed methods, databases of numerous facial expressions images have been collected. Less attention has been given

  18. Ophthalmic involvement in cranio-facial trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shantha Amrith; Seang Mei Saw; Thiam Chye Lim; Timothy Kam Yiu Lee

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: This is a retrospective descriptive case study which will look into the spectrum of ophthalmic involvement in cases with orbital and eye injuries after cranio-facial trauma and to analyse the visual and motility outcome. Material: One hundred and four cases with ophthalmic involvement after cranio-facial trauma that were referred to and seen in the eye department of a tertiary

  19. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wataru Sato; Shota Uono; Naomi Matsuura; Motomi Toichi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. METHODS: We tested 24 male adolescent\\/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control

  20. Individuals with Autism can Categorize Facial Expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Homer; M. D. Rutherford

    2008-01-01

    The ability of high-functioning individuals with autism to perceive facial expressions categorically was studied using eight facial expression continua created via morphing software. Participants completed a delayed matching task and an identification task. Like undergraduate male participants (N = 12), performance on the identification task for participants with autism (N = 15) was predicted by performance on the delayed matching

  1. Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

  2. Transferring Facial Expressions to Different Face Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Costa Teixeira Orvalho; Ernesto Zacur; Antonio Susin

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a facial deformation system that helps the character setup process and gives artists the possibility to manipulate models as if they were using a puppet. The method uses a set of labels that define specific facial features and deforms the rig anthropometrically. We find the correspondence of the main attributes of a generic rig, transfer them to different

  3. Performance Driven Facial Animation using Blendshape Interpolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Chuang; Chris Bregler

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method of creating facial animation using a combination of motion capture data and blendshape interpolation. An animator can design a character as usual, but use motion capture data to drive facial animation, rather than animate by hand. The method is effective even when the motion capture actor and the target model have quite different shapes. The

  4. [Results and special aspects of secondary microsurgical bone transfer in the area of the facial skull].

    PubMed

    Reinert, S; Lentrodt, J

    1994-01-01

    Results and significance of secondary reconstruction of mandibular and maxillary defects. The results of 14 patients with 12 mandibular and 2 maxillary defects following tumour surgery with irradiation and/or chemotherapy, osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis or trauma, which were reconstructed secondarily, are presented. 12 flaps survived, 1 flap showed a partial and 1 flap a complete necrosis due to venous thrombosis. The major differences of secondary reconstruction of bone defects in the facial skeleton in comparison to primary reconstruction are the scar formation in the defect region and above all the reduced number and quality of recipient vessels in the neck area. The design of the flap should be exactly determined preoperatively. Of great importance is the examination of the recipient vessels in the neck area. Non-invasive methods are preferred. PMID:8088638

  5. [Tissue engineered skin and regenerative wound repair].

    PubMed

    Han, Chun-mao; Wang, Xin-gang

    2013-04-01

    Various skin defects resulting from mechanical injury, burns, chronic ulcers, and resection of tumor etc. are very common in clinic. The traditional treatment measure, such as grafting of autologous split-thickness skin remains the gold standard. However, its limitations are obvious, such as shortage of donor sites, creation of new injury, and scar formation. To realize regenerative or scarless repair of tissue defects has always been the dream of human being. The advent of tissue engineered skin (TES) provides an ideal access to tissue regeneration. After decades of development, several kinds of TES products have been developed and used in clinic, with promising effects. However, a large number of basic scientific problems regarding TES, as well as difficulties in translation of basic research to bedside should be taken into serious consideration. This article presents a comprehensive overview of strategies of construction of TES, the role of TES in regenerative wound repair, and its opportunities and challenges. PMID:23985197

  6. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  7. Collagen scaffolds combined with collagen-binding ciliary neurotrophic factor facilitate facial nerve repair in mini-pigs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Meng, Danqing; Cao, Jiani; Xiao, Zhifeng; Cui, Yi; Fan, Jingya; Cui, Xiaolong; Chen, Bing; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jinling; Pan, Juli; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-05-01

    The preclinical studies using animal models play a very important role in the evaluation of facial nerve regeneration. Good models need to recapitulate the distance and time for axons to regenerate in humans. Compared with the most used rodent animals, the structure of facial nerve in mini-pigs shares more similarities with humans in microanatomy. To evaluate the feasibility of repairing facial nerve defects by collagen scaffolds combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), 10-mm-long gaps were made in the buccal branch of mini-pigs' facial nerve. Three months after surgery, electrophysiological assessment and histological examination were performed to evaluate facial nerve regeneration. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscope observation showed that collagen scaffolds with collagen binding (CBD)-CNTF could promote better axon regeneration, Schwann cell migration, and remyelination at the site of implant device than using scaffolds alone. Electrophysiological assessment also showed higher recovery rate in the CNTF group. In summary, combination of collagen scaffolds and CBD-CNTF showed promising effects on facial nerve regeneration in mini-pig models. PMID:25098760

  8. SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2010-05-26

    Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

  9. Skin manifestations in acromegaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Ben-Shlomo; Shlomo Melmed

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous changes in acromegaly result from excess GH and IGF-1 action on skin cells and adnexae. Skin puffiness due to dermal glycosaminoglycan accumulation and edema are most prominent in the face, hands and feet. Oily skin with large pores, hypertrichosis, and excessive sweating are common features. Pigmented skin tags, acanthosis nigricans, and psoriasis are also encountered. Alteration in skin capillaries

  10. Lymphedema Fat Graft: An Ideal Filler for Facial Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Nicoli, Fabio; Chilgar, Ram M.; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Lazzeri, Davide; Sze Wei, Matthew Yeo; Ciudad, Pedro; Nicoli, Marzia; Lim, Seong Yoon; Chen, Pei-Yu; Constantinides, Joannis

    2014-01-01

    Lymphedema is a chronic disorder characterized by lymph stasis in the subcutaneous tissue. Lymphatic fluid contains several components including hyaluronic acid and has many important properties. Over the past few years, significant research has been performed to identify an ideal tissue to implant as a filler. Because of its unique composition, fat harvested from the lymphedema tissue is an interesting topic for investigation and has significant potential for application as a filler, particularly in facial rejuvenation. Over a 36-month period, we treated and assessed 8 patients with lymphedematous limbs who concurrently underwent facial rejuvenation with lymphedema fat (LF). We conducted a pre- and post-operative satisfaction questionnaire survey and a histological assessment of the harvested LF fat. The overall mean general appearance score at an average of 6 months after the procedure was 7.2±0.5, demonstrating great improvement. Patients reported significant improvement in their skin texture with a reading of 8.5±0.7 and an improvement in their self-esteem. This study demonstrates that LF as an ideal autologous injectable filler is clinically applicable and easily available in patients with lymphedema. We recommend the further study and clinical use of this tissue as it exhibits important properties and qualities for future applications and research. PMID:25276654

  11. Congenital Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Allen S.; And Others

    There are two general categories (not necessarily mutually exclusive) of congenital defects: (1) abnormalities that have an hereditary basis, such as single and multiple genes, or chromosomal abberration; and (2) abnormalities that are caused by nonhereditary factors, such as malnutrition, maternal disease, radiation, infections, drugs, or…

  12. Impaired Biomechanical Properties of Diabetic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Dustin M.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Lind, Robert; Beason, David P.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic skin is known to have deficient wound healing properties, but little is known of its intrinsic biomechanical properties. We hypothesize that diabetic skin possesses inferior biomechanical properties at baseline, rendering it more prone to injury. Skin from diabetic and nondiabetic mice and humans underwent biomechanical testing. Real-time PCR was performed for genes integral to collagen synthesis and degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9, and TIMP-1 protein levels were assessed by ELISA and zymography. Collagen I and III content was assessed using Western blot analysis. At baseline, both murine and human diabetic skin was biomechanically inferior compared to nondiabetic skin, with decreased maximum stress and decreased modulus (P < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in collagen synthesis were significantly up-regulated, and genes involved in collagen degradation were significantly down-regulated in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.01). In addition, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 protein ratios were significantly lower in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.05). Collagen I levels and I:III ratios were lower in diabetic skin (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the predisposition of diabetics to wounds may be the result of impaired tissue integrity at baseline, and are due, in part, to a defect in the regulation of collagen protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21514435

  13. Averaging facial expression over time

    PubMed Central

    Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time. PMID:20053064

  14. Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2006-01-01

    Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facial dysmorphism and hypogonadism. Para-infectious rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication reported in an increasing number of patients. During general anaesthesia, patients with CCFDN require careful monitoring as they have an elevated risk of complications. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. Diagnosis is clinical and is supported by electrophysiological and brain imaging studies. The major differential diagnosis is Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. The definitive diagnosis is molecular, based on homozygosity for the CTDP1 mutation. CTDP1 maps to 18qter and encodes a protein phosphatase whose only known substrate is the phosphorylated serine residues of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, indicating that CCFDN affects basic cellular processes of gene expression and developmental regulation. Families benefit from genetic counselling and predictive testing. Management includes surgical treatment of the cataracts, and rehabilitation and corrective orthopaedic surgery for the peripheral neuropathy. Thus, the most disabling manifestations, though not curable, are manageable, and allow an acceptable quality of life and everyday living. Current data indicate that patients survive well into adulthood. PMID:16939648

  15. Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.

    PubMed

    Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

  16. Facial Orientation and Facial Shape in Extant Great Apes: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Covariation

    PubMed Central

    Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

  17. Change in facial nerve innervation following hypoglossal-facial anastomosis. An animal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y S; Yanagihara, N; Murakami, S

    1994-11-01

    Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis was carried out in 20 adult guinea pigs. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was applied to the buccal branch of the facial nerve at intervals of 2, 4 and 6 months after the anastomosis operation. HRP labeled neurons and the number of regenerated axons in the buccal branch were counted to determine postoperative nerve regeneration. The number of surviving neurons in the facial and hypoglossal nuclei was also counted to determine postoperative change of these nuclei. Following anastomosis, 97% of the hypoglossal neurons remained surviving, while the facial neurons underwent pronounced degeneration of 65% survival ratio at 2 months and 37% at 6 months after the anastomosis operation. In 80% of the animals, a new nerve bundle regenerated from the proximal stump of the facial nerve to the anastomotic trunk. A linear increase of HRP-labeled neurons in the facial and hypoglossal nuclei paralleled the increase of the axons in the buccal branch. The HRP-labeled neurons in the facial nucleus were demonstrated to have direct connection with the newly formed bundle and the facial mimetic muscles were dually innervated by both the hypoglossal and facial nerves. Although the present study design might not fully represent the clinical situation, possible advantages of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis are discussed from the view of nerve regeneration. PMID:7879622

  18. ANS Responses and Facial Expressions Differentiate between the Taste of Commercial Breakfast Drinks

    PubMed Central

    de Wijk, René A.; He, Wei; Mensink, Manon G. J.; Verhoeven, Rob H. G.; de Graaf, Cees

    2014-01-01

    The high failure rate of new market introductions, despite initial successful testing with traditional sensory and consumer tests, necessitates the development of other tests. This study explored the ability of selected physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to distinguish between repeated exposures to foods from a single category (breakfast drinks) and with similar liking ratings. In this within-subject study 19 healthy young adults sipped from five breakfast drinks, each presented five times, while ANS responses (heart rate, skin conductance response and skin temperature), facial expressions, liking, and intensities were recorded. The results showed that liking was associated with increased heart rate and skin temperature, and more neutral facial expressions. Intensity was associated with reduced heart rate and skin temperature, more neutral expressions and more negative expressions of sadness, anger and surprise. Strongest associations with liking were found after 1 second of tasting, whereas strongest associations with intensity were found after 2 seconds of tasting. Future studies should verify the contribution of the additional information to the prediction of market success. PMID:24714107

  19. ANS responses and facial expressions differentiate between the taste of commercial breakfast drinks.

    PubMed

    de Wijk, René A; He, Wei; Mensink, Manon G J; Verhoeven, Rob H G; de Graaf, Cees

    2014-01-01

    The high failure rate of new market introductions, despite initial successful testing with traditional sensory and consumer tests, necessitates the development of other tests. This study explored the ability of selected physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to distinguish between repeated exposures to foods from a single category (breakfast drinks) and with similar liking ratings. In this within-subject study 19 healthy young adults sipped from five breakfast drinks, each presented five times, while ANS responses (heart rate, skin conductance response and skin temperature), facial expressions, liking, and intensities were recorded. The results showed that liking was associated with increased heart rate and skin temperature, and more neutral facial expressions. Intensity was associated with reduced heart rate and skin temperature, more neutral expressions and more negative expressions of sadness, anger and surprise. Strongest associations with liking were found after 1 second of tasting, whereas strongest associations with intensity were found after 2 seconds of tasting. Future studies should verify the contribution of the additional information to the prediction of market success. PMID:24714107

  20. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  1. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you are worried about wrinkles. Age Spots And Skin Tags Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, ... sunscreen or sunblock may prevent more sun damage. Skin tags are small, usually flesh-colored growths of skin ...

  2. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you are worried about wrinkles. Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called " ... Also, a sunscreen may prevent more sun damage. Skin tags are small, usually flesh-colored growths of skin ...

  3. Dry Skin Relief

    MedlinePLUS

    ... public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Avoiding allergic reaction from acne products Bug bites ... treat sunburn Proper wound care: Minimize a scar Skin care on a budget Skin care products Sun protection ...

  4. Facial Expression Recognition Based on Fusion of Multiple Gabor Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weifeng Liu; Zengfu Wang

    2006-01-01

    In order to accomplish subject-independent facial expression recognition task, a multiple Gabor features based facial expression recognition method is presented in this paper. Different channels of Gabor filters have different contributions on the facial expression recognition and reasonable combination of these features can improve the performance of a facial expression recognition system. NN based data fusion method is designed for

  5. Data-Free Prior Model for Facial Action Unit Recognition

    E-print Network

    Data-Free Prior Model for Facial Action Unit Recognition Yongqiang Li, Jixu Chen, Yongping Zhao, and Qiang Ji Abstract--Facial action recognition is concerned with recognizing the local facial motions from units recognition, Bayesian networks, knowledge-driven model Ç 1 INTRODUCTION FACIAL behavior analysis

  6. Facial Expression Recognition in Dynamic Sequences: an Integrated Approach

    E-print Network

    Rosin, Paul

    Facial Expression Recognition in Dynamic Sequences: an Integrated Approach Hui Fang, Neil Mac for the task of expression recognition. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed for automatic facial, Oxford University Abstract Automatic facial expression analysis aims to analyse human facial expressions

  7. Subtly Different Facial Expression Recognition and Expression Intensity Estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Jenn-jier Lien; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn; Ching-chung Li

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a computer vision system, including both facial feature extraction and recognition, that automatically discriminates among subtly different facial expressions. Expression classification is based on Facial Action Coding System (FACS) action units (AUs), and discrimination is performed using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Three methods are developed to extract facial expression information for automatic recognition. The first method is

  8. A specific neural substrate for perceiving facial expressions of disgust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Phillips; A. W. Young; C. Senior; M. Brammer; C. Andrew; A. J. Calder; E. T. Bullmore; D. I. Perrett; D. Rowland; S. C. R. Williams; J. A. Gray; A. S. David

    1997-01-01

    Recognition of facial expressions is critical to our appreciation of the social and physical environment, with separate emotions having distinct facial expressions. Perception of fearful facial expressions has been extensively studied, appearing to depend upon the amygdala. Disgust - literally `bad taste' - is another important emotion, with a distinct evolutionary history, and is conveyed by a characteristic facial expression.

  9. Prevalence of cervical spine injuries in patients with facial trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Hackl; Karin Hausberger; Romed Sailer; Hanno Ulmer; Robert Gassner

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Injuries to the spine may accompany facial trauma. By using a large computerized database the goal of this case control study was to assess the association between facial and cervical spine injuries among patients sustaining facial trauma. Study Design: During a period of 4 years (1995 to 1998) 3083 patients, 10 years or older, with facial injuries were admitted

  10. Automatic recognition of facial expressions in image sequences: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Patil; Vineet Sahula; A. S. Mandal

    2010-01-01

    For human beings, facial expression is one of the most powerful and natural way to communicate their emotions and intensions. A human being can detect facial expressions without effort, but for a machine it is very difficult. Automatic facial expression recognition is an interesting and challenging problem. Automatic facial expression recognition systems can be mainly used for human computer interaction

  11. Automatic Recognition of Facial Actions in Spontaneous Expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Stewart Bartlett; Gwen C. Littlewort; Mark G. Frank; Claudia Lainscsek; Ian R. Fasel; Javier R. Movellan

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous facial expressions differ from posed expressions in both which muscles are moved, and in the dy- namics of the movement. Advances in the field of automatic facial expression measurement will require development and assessment on spontaneous behavior. Here we present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous facial expressions. We employ a user indepen- dent

  12. The Voluntary Control of Facial Action Units in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Gosselin; Mélanie Perron; Martin Beaupré

    2010-01-01

    We investigated adults’ voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young

  13. Evaluation of facial beauty using anthropometric proportions.

    PubMed

    Milutinovic, Jovana; Zelic, Ksenija; Nedeljkovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

  14. Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions

    PubMed Central

    Milutinovic, Jovana

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

  15. The identification of unfolding facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration. PMID:23025158

  16. Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

  17. Psychologic consequences of facial dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Orion, Edith; Wolf, Ronni

    2014-01-01

    The attractiveness of the human body has always been an important issue in the fields of sociology, psychology, and psychiatry and also in the field of dermatology. In psychodermatology, one often discovers how all these fields intermingle to produce elaborate situations and extreme human difficulties. Perfect skin is widely adored in literature, poetry, and biblical texts, as well as in advertisements, movies, and television. Because in most societies the face is the body part that is visible, imperfections of the skin are also visible; therefore, its flawed appearance bears the potential to become a source of misery to some. PMID:25441470

  18. Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes

    DOEpatents

    Pinnau, Ingo (Austin, TX); Koros, William J. (Austin, TX)

    1990-01-01

    Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

  19. Facial preferences in early adolescent girls: pubertal maturity predicts preferences maturity.

    PubMed

    Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

    2013-09-01

    Despite numerous studies on perception of facial attractiveness in adults, preferences in adolescents remain poorly recognized. The aim of present study was to explore facial preferences in girls at early adolescence (11-14 years old) and compare them with preferences of women. All females evaluated the same 30 male faces, which were also assessed by independent judges for several perceived features. Regardless of age, girls assessed attractiveness much the same as women, and the strengths of their preferences for specific facial features were similar to those of women. Except for the youngest girls, pubertal maturity (measured as the time elapsed since the menarche and breast development) correlated positively with the similarity of the girls' attractiveness evaluations to those of adult women and with strength of preference for cues to good biological quality (skin healthiness and sexy appearance). This remained true even after controlling for age and psychosexual development, suggesting thus that sex hormones are involved in development of facial preferences in pubescent girls. PMID:24308210

  20. Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779413

  1. Clinical experience with a TriPollar radiofrequency system for facial and body aesthetic treatments.

    PubMed

    Levenberg, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Non-invasive aesthetic treatments aiming at circumference reduction and facial wrinkle improvement are becoming increasingly popular. TriPollar treatments for the purpose of body contouring and skin tightening procedures have recently gained interest. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Apollo device for non invasive treatment of localized excess fat and facial tightening. 37 female patients were treated for wrinkles, laxity and circumference reduction on different facial and body areas. Facial results were objectively analyzed with the Primos 3D imaging system. Body results were evaluated using photographs and circumferential measurements. Five volunteer patients underwent blood tests to assess changes in liver function and lipid profile following treatment. Significant reductions in body circumferences were measured. The average circumference reduction in main body areas (abdomen, buttocks, thighs), was 3.6 +/- 2.4 cm with a maximum reduction of up to 10.5 cm in the abdomen. An improvement of perioral and periorbital wrinkles was achieved and analyzed. No significant changes were found in any of the liver function and lipid profile indicators. Findings confirm safety and efficacy of the new treatment modality for localized fat reduction and for body and face contouring. PMID:20627852

  2. Extratemporal facial nerve grafting and radiotherapy. [Effects of parotid gland radiotherapy on success of subsequent facial nerve grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pillsbury

    1979-01-01

    Nineteen patients with extratemporal facial nerve grafting procedures and 13 patients with facial hypoglossal anastomosis were followed up with serial photographs for at least one year. The photographic analysis of the results demonstrates that radiotherapy had a detrimental influence on the return of facial movements after extratemporal facial nerve grafting.

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 22, NO. 7, JULY 2013 2559 Simultaneous Facial Feature Tracking and Facial

    E-print Network

    Tracking and Facial Expression Recognition Yongqiang Li, Shangfei Wang, Member, IEEE, Yongping Zhao, and Qiang Ji, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images--Bayesian network, expression recognition, facial action unit recognition, facial feature tracking, simultaneous

  4. Impaired Overt Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshimura, Sayaka; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Previous electromyographic studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibited atypical patterns of facial muscle activity in response to facial expression stimuli. However, whether such activity is expressed in visible facial mimicry remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we videotaped facial responses in…

  5. Skin academy: hair, skin, hormones and menopause - current status/knowledge on the management of hair disorders in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Atkin, Stephen; Gieler, Uwe; Grimalt, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is defined by 12 months of amenorrhea after the final menstrual period. The reduction in ovarian hormones and increased androgen levels can manifest as hair and skin disorders. Although hirsutism, unwanted facial hair, alopecia, skin atrophy and slackness of facial skin are common issues encountered by post-menopausal women, these problems receive very little attention relative to other menopausal symptoms. The visibility of these disorders has been shown to cause significant anxiety and may impact on patients' self-esteem and quality of life, particularly given the strong association of hair and skin with a woman's femininity and beauty, which is demonstrated by extensive marketing by the cosmetic industry targeting this population and the large expenditure on these products by menopausal women. The proportion of the female population who are in the post-menopausal age group is rising. Therefore, the prevalence of these dermatological symptoms is likely to increase. Current therapies aim to rectify underlying hormonal imbalances and improve cosmetic appearance. However, there is little evidence to support treatment for these disorders specifically in post-menopausal women. This review discusses the assessment and treatment of both the physiological and psychological aspects of hair and skin disorders pertinent to the growing post-menopausal population. PMID:22503791

  6. The use of Botulinum toxin-A injection for facial wrinkles: a histological and immunohistochemical evaluation.

    PubMed

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; Attia, Sameh K; El-Sawy, Ashraf E; Moftah, Noha H; Nasif, Ghada A; Medhat, Walid; Marwan, Belkais

    2015-06-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX)-A has been used for years in the reduction of facial wrinkles; however, histological and immunohistochemical changes after its use were not previously investigated. To evaluate histological and immunohistochemical changes after BTX-A injection for facial wrinkles, sixteen volunteers, with wrinkles on the upper third of the face, were subjected to single injection of BTX-A. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from peri-orbital wrinkle site (crow's feet area) before and after 3 months of BTX-A injection. Using histological and immunohistochemical evaluation coupled with computerized morphometric analysis, measurement of epidermal thickness, wrinkle depth and width as well as quantitative evaluation of collagen types I and III and elastin was performed for skin biopsies. After BTX-A injections, there were significant increase in wrinkle width and granular layer thickness (P < 0.001), while the other histometrical measures as well as the immunohistochemical expression of collagen types I and III and elastin showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). However, collagen fibers showed better organization and orientation after BTX-A injection. The histological changes observed after BTX-A injection for facial wrinkles may help in better understanding of its mechanism of action. PMID:25916463

  7. Preliminary performance assessment of computer automated facial approximations using computed tomography scans of living individuals.

    PubMed

    Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H; Monson, Keith L

    2013-12-10

    ReFace (Reality Enhancement Facial Approximation by Computational Estimation) is a computer-automated facial approximation application jointly developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and GE Global Research. The application derives a statistically based approximation of a face from a unidentified skull using a dataset of ~400 human head computer tomography (CT) scans of living adult American individuals from four ancestry groups: African, Asian, European and Hispanic (self-identified). To date only one unpublished subjective recognition study has been conducted using ReFace approximations. It indicated that approximations produced by ReFace were recognized above chance rates (10%). This preliminary study assesses: (i) the recognizability of five ReFace approximations; (ii) the recognizability of CT-derived skin surface replicas of the same individuals whose skulls were used to create the ReFace approximations; and (iii) the relationship between recognition performance and resemblance ratings of target individuals. All five skin surface replicas were recognized at rates statistically significant above chance (22-50%). Four of five ReFace approximations were recognized above chance (5-18%), although with statistical significance only at the higher rate. Such results suggest reconsideration of the usefulness of the type of output format utilized in this study, particularly in regard to facial approximations employed as a means of identifying unknown individuals. PMID:24314512

  8. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The face is a vital component of one’s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families. PMID:21217982

  9. Characterization of ocular motor deficits in congenital facial weakness: Moebius and related syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Bryn D.; Frempong, Tamiesha; Gaspar, Harald; Naidich, Thomas P.; Jabs, Ethylin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Congenital facial weakness is present in a heterogeneous group of conditions. Among them is Moebius syndrome, which has been defined as a disorder with congenital, non-progressive facial weakness and limited abduction of one or both eyes. It is typically attributed to agenesis of the abducens and facial cranial nerves. This paper details ocular motor findings of 40 subjects (23 months to 64 years; 24 females, 16 males) with congenital facial weakness: 38 presented at a Moebius Syndrome Conference and two were clinic patients. A new classification scheme of patterns based on ocular motor phenotype is presented. Of 40 subjects, 37 had bilateral and three had unilateral facial weakness. The most common ocular motor pattern (Pattern 1, n = 17, 43%) was bilateral horizontal gaze palsy with intact vertical range. Pattern 2 (n = 10, 26%) was bilateral horizontal gaze palsy with variable vertical limitations. Pattern 3, which was rare, was isolated abduction deficits (n = 2, 5%). Others had full motility range and did not meet minimal criteria for the diagnosis of Moebius syndrome (Pattern 4, n = 10, 26%). One subject was too severely affected to characterize. Abnormal vertical smooth pursuit was present in 17 (57%) of 30 subjects: nine with Pattern 1, five with Pattern 2, and three with Pattern 4. Abnormal vertical saccades were present in 10 (34%) of 29 subjects. Vertical saccades appeared slow in nine: six with Pattern 1 and three with Pattern 2. Vertical saccades were absent in one subject with Pattern 2. Abnormal vertical optokinetic nystagmus was present in 19 (68%) of 28 subjects: 10 with Pattern 1, six with Pattern 2, one with Pattern 3, and two with Pattern 4. Reduced convergence was present in 19 (66%) of 29 subjects: nine with Pattern 1, six with Pattern 2, one with Pattern 3, and three with Pattern 4. The most common pattern of ocular motor deficit in Moebius syndrome is bilateral horizontal gaze palsy from pontine abducens nuclear defects, rather than abducens nerve involvement. Defects in the range or dynamic properties of vertical movements in subjects with congenital facial weakness may suggest involvement of ocular motor structures in the midbrain, including oculomotor nerves or nuclei, vertical supranuclear saccadic centres, and convergence neurons. Such deficits were found even in subjects with full vertical motility range. Classification of patterns of ocular motor deficits in congenital facial weakness may assist with further delineation of anatomic localization and identification of genetic deficits underlying these disorders. PMID:24561559

  10. Adhesion characterization and defect sizing of sandwich honeycomb composites.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Elhadji Barra; Maréchal, Pierre; Duflo, Hugues

    2015-09-01

    Defects may appear in composite structures during their life cycle. A 10MHz 128 elements phased array transducer was investigated to characterize join bonds and defects in sandwich honeycomb composite structures. An adequate focal law throughout the composite skin gives the ultrasonic dispersive properties of the composite skin and glue layer behind. The resulting B-scan cartographies allow characterizing locally the honeycomb adhesion. Experimental measurements are compared in good agreement with the Debye Series Method (DSM). In the processed C-scan image, flaws are detectable and measurable, localized both in the scanning plane and in the thickness of the composite skin. PMID:26138595

  11. Evaluating health-related quality of life in patients with facial acne: development of a self-administered questionnaire for clinical trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Girman; S. Hartmaier; D. Thiboutot; J. Johnson; B. Barber; C. DeMuro-Mercon; J. Waldstreicher

    1996-01-01

    Although psycholosocial aspects of skin diseases are well known, disease-specific questionnaires validated for use in clinical trials are not available to assess the impact of facial acne on health-related quality of life or to evaluate therapeutic change. Development of such an instrument was undertaken and included item generation, reduction and pilottesting phases. By interviewing acne subjects and dermatologists and literature

  12. Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

  13. Facial recognition at the CIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gragg, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an 'electronic mug book.' Using some simple collateral information about a suspect (height, age and sex) and a photograph, the system gives users the ability to identify an unknown person with a reasonable probability. The system matches information extracted from the photographs with similar information extracted from a database of photographs of existing suspects. The technology was subsequently transferred to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for use by the Border Patrol.

  14. Management of Velopharyngeal Defects: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Nitin Bhaskar; Shetty, Sanyuktha; E., Nagraj; D’Souza, Raina; Shetty, Omkar

    2014-01-01

    Success in Maxillofacial Prosthetics depends on full cognizance of the principles that underlie facial harmony, anchorage and retention, weight bearing and leverage, durability, tissue compatibility and tolerance. The maxillofacial prosthodontist normally provides appliances to restore aesthetics and function to the patients who cannot be restored to normal appearances or functions by means of plastic reconstructions. The velopharynx is a dynamic anatomic structure which is essential for normal breathing, eating, and speaking. The soft palate acts as a separator between oral and nasal cavities. Impairment of velopharyngeal function can be caused by insufficiency or incompetency. This article describes in brief about velopharyngeal defects and their management. PMID:24783161

  15. Patient experiences with oily skin: The qualitative development of content for two new patient reported outcome questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Robert; Atkinson, Mark J; Clark, Marci; Abetz, Linda; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Harness, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Thiboutot, Diane; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop the content for two new patient reported outcome (PRO) measures to: a) assess the severity of symptoms; and b) the impact of facial skin oiliness on emotional wellbeing using qualitative data from face to face, and internet focus groups in Germany and the US. Methods Using input from initial treatment satisfaction focus groups (n = 42), a review of relevant literature and expert clinicians (n = 3), a discussion guide was developed to guide qualitative inquiry using Internet focus groups (IFGs). IFGs were conducted with German (n = 26) and US (n = 28) sufferers of oily skin. Questionnaire items were generated using coded transcript data from the focus groups. Cognitive debriefing was conducted online with 42 participants and face to face with an additional five participants to assess the comprehension of the items. Results There were equal numbers of male and female participants; mean age was 35.4 (SD 9.3) years. On average, participants had had oily skin for 15.2 years, and 74% (n = 40) reported having mild-moderate acne. Participants reported using visual, tactile and sensory (feel without touching their face) methods to evaluate the severity of facial oiliness. Oily facial skin had both an emotional and social impact, and was associated with feelings of unattractiveness, self-consciousness, embarrassment, irritation and frustration. Items were generated for a measure of oily skin severity (Oily Skin Self-Assessment Scale) and a measure of the impact of oily skin on emotional well-being (Oily Skin Impact Scale). Cognitive debriefing resulted in minor changes to the draft items and confirmed their face and content validity. Conclusion The research provides insight into the experience of having oily skin and illustrates significant difficulties associated with the condition. Item content was developed for early versions of two PRO measures of the symptoms and emotional impact of oily facial skin. The psychometric validation of these measures reported elsewhere. PMID:18925946

  16. Facial Disfigurement and Sex-Role Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieka, Frank L.

    1974-01-01

    Facially disfigured persons were compared to nondisfigured persons in regard to self-perceived sex-role esteem. Results indicated disfigured persons felt less positive about their functioning in marital interaction than nondisfigured persons. (Author/EK)

  17. Drowsy Driver Detection Through Facial Movement Analysis

    E-print Network

    Çetin, Müjdat

    -assumptions about the relevant behavior, focusing on blink rate, eye closure, and yawning. Here we employ machine database of spontaneous expressions. These facial actions include blinking and yawn motions, as well

  18. Experimental model for bone regeneration in oral and cranio-maxillo-facial surgery.

    PubMed

    Mardas, Nikos; Dereka, Xanthippi; Donos, Nikolaos; Dard, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Bone and tooth loss, as a result of trauma, anatomical or congenital reasons, cancer, and periodontal disease, is a common therapeutic problem in the fields of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery and periodontics. The proposed techniques for the treatment of various bone defects encountered include bone grafts, bone substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, and distraction osteogenesis as well as their combinations. In addition, dental implants have been successfully utilized for the restoration of full or partial edentulism. The introduction and development of new therapeutic approaches and devices demand the use of appropriate animal models that present bone anatomy and healing comparable to human. Among other animal models, the pig is extensively documented in several biomedical areas and has been largely used in maxillo-facial surgery and implants dentistry-related research. Anatomical and physiological similarities with human in size, physiology, and bone biology contribute to a successful involvement of this animal to understand and treat various osseous lesions. However, improvements and standardization are requested with respect to consistency and discrimination abilities. The aim of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature related to swine models for the evaluation of cranio-maxillo-facial osseous defect healing, regeneration, and bone-implant interface. This review should assist researchers in the field to select the most appropriate model for each dedicated purpose and also contribute to stimulate an innovative thinking on the use of porcine models. PMID:23957784

  19. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  20. Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in remote locations. Remote users could perform real-time searches where network connectivity is not available. As images are enrolled at the remote locations, periodic database synchronization is necessary.

  1. 3D facial recognition: a quantitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trina Denise Russ; Mark William Koch; Charles Quentin Little

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional facial recognition has, traditionally, been an attractive biometric, however, the accuracy of 2D facial recognition (FR) is performance limited and insufficient when confronted with extensive numbers of people to screen and identify, and the numerous appearances that a 2D face can exhibit. In efforts to overcome many of the issues limiting 2D FR technology, researchers are beginning to focus

  2. Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a

  3. Cochlear implant and delayed facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shawn Thadathil; Vishwakarma, Rajesh; Ramani, Mukesh Kumar; Aurora, Rupa

    2009-12-01

    Delayed facial nerve palsy following cochlear implant surgery is less documented though it poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Apart from the functional, aesthetic and emotional concerns, it can raise important medico legal issues. The objectives of this study were: to report a case of delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery in a patient who had positive viral antibody markers pre operatively; and to review the literature on delayed onset facial paralysis following viral reactivation and its relation to cochlear implant surgery. An extensive literature review was done using internet and medical search engines and library facilities. Important articles on the topic were identified and summarised. Data on delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery were collected, constructed in a coherent way and details discussed. Postulated mechanisms of delayed facial palsy include neural oedema, vasospasm and viral reactivation. Of these, reactivation of previous herpes simplex virus infection has special significance, as many of these patients are positive for viral antibody markers. Manipulation of sensory branches of the facial nerve and chorda tympani can be a mechanism in such cases. Correlation of clinical presentation and pre operative positive viral antibody markers with positive polymerase chain reaction can be strongly suggestive of viral reactivation. It is concluded that patients with positive viral antibody markers are more susceptible to facial palsy from viral reactivation. Corticosteroids, antiviral agents and physiotherapy can be useful in producing a quicker and complete recovery. An experienced cochlear implant surgery team and pre operative radiological evaluations are mandatory to decrease the chances of direct facial nerve trauma. Proper irrigation lowers the risk of neural oedema. PMID:19194876

  4. Face\\/Off: live facial puppetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thibaut Weise; Hao Li; Luc J. Van Gool; Mark Pauly

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete integrated system for live facial puppetry that enables high-resolution real-time facial expression tracking with transfer to another person's face. The system utilizes a real-time structured light scanner that provides dense 3D data and texture. A generic template mesh, fitted to a rigid reconstruction of the actor's face, is tracked offline in a training stage through a

  5. Arguing the ethics of facial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Ashlin J; Alam, Daniel S; Gullane, Patrick J; Lengelé, Benoît G; Adamson, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    While 7 face transplants have been performed around the world, to date, there remains debate regarding the validity of this procedure. We submit that performing a facial transplant-in the appropriately selected patient-is technically defensible and ethically sound. By outlining the technical and ethical boundaries of the debate, responding to the key arguments against the procedure, and describing its motivations and potential benefits, we state our justification of facial transplantation. PMID:20083744

  6. Effects of diazepam on facial emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, Nick J.; Singh, Anita J.; Sustrik, Ryan A.; Ting, Patricia; Blair, R. James

    2003-01-01

    Objective There have been few studies of the pharmacologic modulation of facial emotion recognition. The present study aimed to replicate and extend the finding that recognition of facial anger was selectively impaired by diazepam. The hypothesis was that, in comparison with placebo, diazepam would impair the recognition of facial anger in healthy volunteers, but not the recognition of 5 other basic emotions: happiness, surprise, fear, sadness and disgust. Design A randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects comparison of diazepam with placebo. Setting A university psychopharmacology research unit. Participants Healthy male (n = 6) and female (n = 22) volunteers, aged 18–45 years. Procedures Subjects were tested on 2 tasks following the administration of diazepam, 15 mg, and placebo on separate occasions. In the first “multimorph” task, images of facial expressions were morphed to produce continua between the neutral and full expressions of 6 basic emotions. Accuracy and identification thresholds were assessed for stimuli in which the intensity of expression gradually increased. In the second “emotional hexagon” task, facial expressions were morphed between pairs of emotions. Single images were presented, and accuracy and speed of response were assessed. Results Diazepam produced broad impairments in response accuracy, recognition thresholds and response speed on the facial emotion tasks that were not limited to angry expressions. Conclusions The present study found that diazepam, 15 mg, impaired facial emotion recognition, but not selectively. In the emotional hexagon task, a reaction-time analysis suggested that the identification of facial anger might be differentially sensitive to variations in stimulus duration, complicating the interpretation of this paradigm. PMID:14631456

  7. Locating facial features for age classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young Ho; da Vitoria Lobo, Niels

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we outline computations for visual age classification from facial images. For now, input images can only be classified into one of three age-groups: babies, adults, and senior adults. The computations are based on cranio-facial development theory, and wrinkle analysis. In the implementation, first primary features of the face are found, followed by secondary feature analyses. Preliminary results with real data are presented.

  8. Continuous Retrograde Monitoring of the Facial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Colletti, Vittorio; Fiorino, Francesco G.

    1996-01-01

    Continuous electromyographical (EMG) monitoring of the facial nerve is widely used during acoustic tumor surgery. Mechanical stimulation of the facial nerve is capable of eliciting synchronous and asynchronous EMG responses alerting the surgeon to damaging maneuvers performed on the nerve. Mechanical stimulation, however, elicits EMG responses only when the nerve has been injured by the underlying pathology or previous surgical maneuvers, and the technique is sensitive to administration of muscular blockers. In addition, EMG is unable to furnish quantitative information about the damage. The present paper illustrates an alternative technique for intraoperative facial nerve monitoring, that is, the recording of facial nerve antidromic potentials (FNAPs). Eleven subjects operated on by acoustic neuroma surgery via a retrosigmoid approach (tumor sizes ranging from 12 to 28 mm) participated in the investigation. Bipolar electrical stimulation of the marginalis mandibulae was performed to elicit FNAPs. Stimulus intensity ranged from 2 to 6 mA with a delivery rate of 7/second. A silver-wire electrode positioned on the proximal portion of the acoustic-facial bundle was used to record action potentials. Changes in latency and amplitude of FNAPs were analyzed as a function of the main surgical steps. FNAP monitoring provided quantitative real-time information about damaging maneuvers performed on the nerve and allowed prediction of postoperative facial function. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:17170981

  9. Pediatric facial fractures: evolving patterns of treatment.

    PubMed

    Posnick, J C; Wells, M; Pron, G E

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the treatment of facial trauma between October 1986 and December 1990 at a major pediatric referral center. The mechanism of injury, location and pattern of facial fractures, pattern of facial injury, soft tissue injuries, and any associated injuries to other organ systems were recorded, and fracture management and perioperative complications reviewed. The study population consisted of 137 patients who sustained 318 facial fractures. Eighty-one patients (171 fractures) were seen in the acute stage, and 56 patients (147 fractures) were seen for reconstruction of a secondary deformity. Injuries in boys were more prevalent than in girls (63% versus 37%), and the 6- to 12-year cohort made up the largest group (42%). Most fractures resulted from traffic-related accidents (50%), falls (23%), or sports-related injuries (15%). Mandibular (34%) and orbital fractures (23%) predominated; fewer midfacial fractures (7%) were sustained than would be expected in a similar adult population. Three quarters of the patients with acute fractures required operative intervention. Closed reduction techniques with maxillomandibular fixation were frequently chosen for mandibular condyle fractures and open reduction techniques (35%) for other regions of the facial skeleton. When open reduction was indicated, plate-and-screw fixation was the preferred method of stabilization (65%). The long-term effects of the injuries and the treatment given on facial growth remain undetermined. Perioperative complication rates directly related to the surgery were low. PMID:8336220

  10. Classifying Chimpanzee Facial Expressions Using Muscle Action

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Lisa A.; Waller, Bridget M.; Vick, Sarah J.; Bard, Kim A.

    2010-01-01

    The Chimpanzee Facial Action Coding System (ChimpFACS) is an objective, standardized observational tool for measuring facial movement in chimpanzees based on the well-known human Facial Action Coding System (FACS; P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978). This tool enables direct structural comparisons of facial expressions between humans and chimpanzees in terms of their common underlying musculature. Here the authors provide data on the first application of the ChimpFACS to validate existing categories of chimpanzee facial expressions using discriminant functions analyses. The ChimpFACS validated most existing expression categories (6 of 9) and, where the predicted group memberships were poor, the authors discuss potential problems with ChimpFACS and/or existing categorizations. The authors also report the prototypical movement configurations associated with these 6 expression categories. For all expressions, unique combinations of muscle movements were identified, and these are illustrated as peak intensity prototypical expression configurations. Finally, the authors suggest a potential homology between these prototypical chimpanzee expressions and human expressions based on structural similarities. These results contribute to our understanding of the evolution of emotional communication by suggesting several structural homologies between the facial expressions of chimpanzees and humans and facilitating future research. PMID:17352572

  11. Facial morphogenesis of the earliest europeans.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Martinón-Torres, María; O'Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G

    2013-01-01

    The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900-800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor. PMID:23762314

  12. Management of facial necrotizing fasciitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Schurr; M. Burghartz; T. Miethke; M. Kesting; N. Hoang; R. Staudenmaier

    2009-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a progressive, life-threatening, bacterial infection of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue and the\\u000a underlying fascia, in most cases caused by ß-hemolytic group A streptococcus. Only early diagnosis and aggressive therapy\\u000a including broad spectrum antibiotics and surgical intervention can avoid systemic toxicity with a high mortality rate. This\\u000a uncommon disease generally occurs in the lower extremities and trunk,

  13. Clinical applications of CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of various pathologic skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giler, Shamai

    1997-12-01

    CO2 laser skin resurfacing devices are widely used in cosmetic surgery for the treatment of facial rhytides, acne scars and aging skin. This technique is also useful in the treatment of various benign and premalignant or multiple pathological skin conditions and disorders originating in the epidermal, dermal and skin appendages, vascular lesions, epidermal nevi, infected wounds and ulcers, and keloids. Various surgical techniques have been developed in our clinic using laser resurfacing in the treatment of more than 2,000 patients with various skin pathologic disorders. We describe our experience with the various techniques used. The precise depth control and ablation properties combined with the hemostatic and sterilizing effects of the CO2 laser beam, reduction of the possibility of bleeding, infection and damage to healthy tissues, make the CO2 laser resurfacing techniques the treatment of choice for cosmetic surgery and treatment of benign, premalignant and multiple pathologic skin conditions.

  14. Transvenous approach to carotid-cavernous fistula via facial vein cut down.

    PubMed

    Thiex, Ruth; Gross, Bradley A; Gupta, Rishi; Wyers, Mark C; Frerichs, Kai U; Thomas, Ajith J

    2014-07-01

    Endovascular access to carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF) can be obtained through a transfemoral approach to the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) or superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). If the transfemoral approach cannot be utilized, direct surgical exposure of the SOV can provide access to the CCF. The authors present an alternate approach to a CCF in a 66-year-old woman in whom the IPS was thrombosed and the facial vein so tortuous at its origin that it could not be passed with a wire. The facial vein was exposed surgically at the angle of the mandible after percutaneous attempts failed. After localization of the anterior facial vein with ultrasound, a 1 cm skin incision was made over the margin of the mandible. The dissected vein was cannulated using a micropuncture technique and a 0.018 inch wire. A four French short access sheath was inserted and sutured to the vein. Subsequent venogram allowed navigation of an SL-10 microcatheter over a Synchro soft microwire (both Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) via the SOV into the cavernous sinus, and coil embolization was performed with angiographic cure of the fistula. No complications were encountered and the cosmetic result of the small incision of the mandibular region was excellent and less conspicuous than it would have been on the eyelid. This technical note illustrates that facial vein cut down is an attractive and safe alternate approach to endovascular management of CCF via a transvenous route in patients with a focally narrowed and tortuous IPS and common facial vein. PMID:24387933

  15. Corticosteroid transdermal delivery to target swelling, edema and inflammation following facial rejuvenation procedures

    PubMed Central

    Iannitti, T; Rottigni, V; Palmieri, B

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim The use of transdermal therapeutic systems has spread worldwide since they allow effective local drug delivery. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new betamethasone valerate medicated plaster (Betesil®) to manage facial swelling, edema, inflammation, ecchymosis, and hematoma, when applied immediately after a facial rejuvenation procedure. Materials and methods We applied the plaster to the skin of 20 healthy patients for 12 hours immediately after hyaluronic acid-based procedure performed with the aim of erasing facial wrinkles of perioral and nasolabial folds and improving chin and eye contour. A further 20 patients underwent the same cosmetic procedure, but they were treated with an aescin 10% cream (applied immediately after the procedure, in the evening, and the morning after) and served as control group. Results Betesil® application resulted in a significant improvement in swelling/edema/inflammation score, if compared with aescin 10% cream (P < 0.01). As for facial ecchymosis and hematoma around the needle injection track, only two patients in the active treatment group displayed minimal ecchymosis and hematoma. In the control group, two patients presented minimal ecchymosis and three slight hematoma. However, using the ecchymosis/hematoma score, no significant difference between Betesil® and aescin 10% cream groups was observed. Patients’ satisfaction was significantly higher among subjects receiving Betesil®, if compared to patients receiving aescin 10% cream (P < 0.01). Conclusion The present study supports the use of Betesil® plaster immediately after facial cosmetic procedures in order to safely control swelling, edema, and inflammation. PMID:24101860

  16. Soccer-related facial fractures: postoperative management with facial protective shields.

    PubMed

    Procacci, Pasquale; Ferrari, Francesca; Bettini, Giordana; Bissolotti, Guido; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Nocini, Pier Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Facial fractures are one of the most common orofacial injury sustained during participation in sporting events.The frequency of maxillofacial lesions varies according to the popularity that each sport has in a particular country. Soccer is the most popular sport in Italy, and it is responsible for a large number of facial traumas.Traumas and fractures in soccer mainly involve the zygomatic and nasal regions and are especially caused by direct contact that takes place mainly when the ball is played with the forehead. In particular, elbow-head and head-head impacts are the most frequent dangerous contacts.Soccer is not a violent sport, and the use of protective helmets is not allowed because it could be dangerous especially when players play the ball with the head. The use of protective facial shields are exclusively permitted to preserve players who underwent surgery for facial fractures.The use of a facial protection mask after a facial fracture treatment has already been reported. This article describes a clinical experience of management of 4 soccer-related facial fractures by means of fabrication of individual facial protective shields. PMID:19164981

  17. Robust Facial Expression Recognition Using a State-Based Model of Spatially-Localised Facial Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Bourel; Claude C. Chibelushi; Adrian A. Low

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes a new approach for the robust recognition of facial expressions from video sequences. The goal of the work presented, is to develop robust recognition techniques that will overcome some limitations of current techniques, such as their sensitivity to partial occlusion of the face, and noisy data. The paper investigates a representation of facial expressions which is based

  18. Exploring the Facial Expression Perception-Production Link Using Real-time

    E-print Network

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart

    ]. Recent advances in automated facial expression recognition technology open new possibilities for clinical on facial expres- sion production by leveraging automatic facial expression recognition technology from automated facial expression recognition. We hypothesized that produc- tion training using

  19. Clinical efficacy of facial masks containing yoghurt and Opuntia humifusa Raf. (F-YOP).

    PubMed

    Yeom, Gyoseon; Yun, Dae-Myoung; Kang, Yun-Won; Kwon, Ji-Sook; Kang, In-Oh; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2011-01-01

    Facial packs or masks are popular beauty treatments that are thought to improve skin quality. We formulated a yoghurt pack using natural ingredients (F-YOP), with consideration of skin affinity, safety, health, and beauty. Then, we performed an in vitro assessment of biological activity and in vivo assessments of moisture, TEWL, melanin content, and elasticity. Facial areas treated with F-YOP showed increased moisture compared to control regions: 89±6.26% (forehead), 140.72±10.19% (cheek), and 123.29±6.67% (chin). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values were decreased in the treated areas compared to control: 101.38±6.95% (forehead), 50.37±5.93% (cheek), and l57.81±10.88% (chin). Elasticity was decreased in the control region, whereas the treatment region did not change. The initial elasticity was maintained in the cheek. F-YOP exhibited activity on DPPH radical scavenging, SOD-like activity, and lipoxygenase activity. F-YOP treatment successfully improved the moisture, brightness, and elasticity of treated skin. PMID:22152494

  20. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  1. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    E-print Network

    Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  2. Combining appearance and geometric features for facial expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Honghai

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a method for facial expression recognition combining appearance and geometric facial features. The proposed framework consistently combines multiple facial representations at both global and local levels. First, covariance descriptors are computed to represent regional features combining various feature information with a low dimensionality. Then geometric features are detected to provide a general facial movement description of the facial expression. These appearance and geometric features are combined to form a vector representation of the facial expression. The proposed method is tested on the CK+ database and shows encouraging performance.

  3. The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Wallraven, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions. PMID:22438875

  4. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale.

    PubMed

    Kleiss, Ingrid J; Beurskens, Carien H G; Stalmeier, Peep F M; Ingels, Koen J A O; Marres, Henri A M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward-backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for facial palsy. Analyses for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness were performed. Ninety-three patients completed the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale, the Dutch Facial Disability Index, and the Dutch Short Form (36) Health Survey. Cronbach's ?, representing internal consistency, was 0.800. Test-retest reliability was shown by an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.737. Correlations with the House-Brackmann score, Sunnybrook score, Facial Disability Index physical function, and social/well-being function were -0.292, 0.570, 0.713, and 0.575, respectively. The SF-36 domains correlate best with the FaCE social function domain, with the strongest correlation between the both social function domains (r = 0.576). The FaCE score did statistically significantly increase in 35 patients receiving botulinum toxin type A (P = 0.042, Student t test). The domains 'facial comfort' and 'social function' improved statistically significantly as well (P = 0.022 and P = 0.046, respectively, Student t-test). The Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale shows good psychometric values and can be implemented in the management of Dutch-speaking patients with facial palsy in the Netherlands. Translation of the instrument into other languages may lead to widespread use, making evaluation and comparison possible among different providers. PMID:25628237

  5. The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions. PMID:22438875

  6. Slowing down presentation of facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and induces facial-vocal imitation in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a static control. Overall, children with autism showed lower performance in expression recognition and more induced facial-vocal imitation than controls. In the autistic group, facial expression recognition and induced facial-vocal imitation were significantly enhanced in slow conditions. Findings may give new perspectives for understanding and intervention for verbal and emotional perceptive and communicative impairments in autistic populations. PMID:17029018

  7. Natural ingredients for darker skin types: growing options for hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Andrew F; Blackcloud, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Dyschromia is one of the most common dermatological concerns in patients with darker skin.1 Disorders of hyperpigmentation, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, and miscellaneous causes of facial hyperpigmentation, are the most frequently treated dyschromias and can have a considerable psychosocial impact. Given the high prevalence of hyperpigmentation and the considerable demand for an even complexion, newer treatment options for hyperpigmentation are of growing interest among consumers, manufacturers, and dermatologists. Blinded, controlled studies demonstrating skin lightening effects in soy, niacinamide, n-acetylglucosamine, licorice extract, arbutin, vitamin c, kojic acid, emblica extract, lignin peroxidase, and glutathione have led to the development of a growing list of non-prescription skin care products that can be incorporated (mostly as adjuncts) in the management of hyperpigmentation. PMID:24002160

  8. Hydrophobically modified polymers can minimize skin irritation potential caused by surfactant-based cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to cleansers that contain surfactants can create polymer–surfactant complexes that are less irritating to the skin than commercially available mild cleansers. Our objective was to compare the tolerability and efficacy of a test foaming liquid facial cleanser containing HMPs with a commercial liquid nonfoaming facial cleanser in women with sensitive skin. Methods In this randomized, prospective, double-blind, comparative study, women (n = 20 per group) with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema, acne, or rosacea used a test gentle foaming liquid facial cleanser containing HMPs or a commercial gentle liquid nonfoaming facial cleanser daily for 3 weeks. Investigators assessed irritation and skin condition. Study subjects also assessed their skin properties and the performance of each cleanser. Results Clinicians as well as study subjects consistently rated the test cleanser as effective or slightly more effective at improving symptoms than the commercial cleanser, although no significant differences between groups were observed. At weeks 1 and 3, respectively, more users of the commercial cleanser reported irritation (20% and 10%) than users of the test cleanser (5% and 5%). In addition, subject self-assessments of skin condition and cleansing properties were slightly more improved with the test cleanser than with the commercial cleanser. Conclusions Both the test foaming cleanser containing HMPs and the commercial nonfoaming cleanser were effective and well accepted by most women in the study. Improvements were observed by both clinicians and subjects in the group using the test cleanser containing HMPs in all evaluated skin categories. PMID:24305430

  9. Facial coding is disrupted at equiluminance.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Samuel L; Arnold, Derek H

    2013-01-01

    Human face recognition is disrupted by the reversal of luminance contrast polarity (ie photo negatives--see Galper 1970 Psychonomic Science 19 207-208; Johnston et al 1992 Perception 21 365-375), while recognition of other objects is less impacted (Nederhouser et al 2007 Vision Research 47 2134-2142; Subramaniam and Biederman 1997 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 38 998). This suggests that correct patterns of luminance contrast are important for facial coding. Here we investigate this further by minimising luminance contrast. We contrast peoples' ability to categorise cars and faces when images vary in luminance and when images are altered to predominantly contain differences in colour (equiluminance). Eliminating luminance contrast had a greater adverse impact on facial classifications relative to car categorisations. This was true even though precautions were taken to equate visibility, and despite equal levels of performance when images contained luminance contrast. These results were not due to images containing markedly different spectra, as the effect persisted for facial images altered to match car images in this regard, and performance in both tasks dropped off proportionally with increasing levels of image blur. Finally, consistent with previous observations, we show that facial coding is not only adversely impacted at equiluminance but becomes even worse when the polarity of luminance contrast is reversed. Our data show that the correct pattern of luminance contrast is very important for facial coding. We suggest that this is related to the role of luminance contrast in signalling 3-D shape from shading. PMID:24303748

  10. Risk factors associated with facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Batista, Anne Margareth; Ferreira, Fernanda de Oliveira; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Ferreira, Meire Coelho

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of residence (urban or rural area) and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a < 0.05), univariate and multivariate Poisson distributions and the logistic regression analysis (p < 0.20). Maxillofacial trauma was recorded in 790 charts (70.5%), with 393 (35.1%) charts reporting facial fractures. Motorcycle accidents were found to be the main risk factor for mandibular fractures (PR = 1.576, CI = 1.402-1.772) and simultaneous fractures of more than one facial bone (OR = 4.625, CI = 1.888-11.329) as well as the only risk factor for maxillary bone fractures (OR = 11.032, CI = 5.294-22.989). Fractures of the zygomatic and nasal bones were mainly associated with accidents involving animals (PR = 1.206, CI = 1.104-1.317) and sports (OR = 8.710, CI = 4.006-18.936), respectively. The determinant for the majority of facial fractures was motorcycle accidents, followed by accidents involving animals and sports. PMID:22473346

  11. Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fatouros-Bergman, H.; Spang, J.; Merten, J.; Preisler, G.; Werbart, A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature. PMID:22966449

  12. Keystone flaps in coloured skin: Flap technology for the masses?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Satish P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Viscoelastic properties of skin in coloured ethnic groups are less favourable compared to Caucasians for executing Keystone flaps. Keystone flaps have so far been evaluated and reported only in Caucasians. The potential of Keystone flaps in a coloured ethnic group is yet unknown. Aim: This article reviews the experience to reconstruct skin defects presenting in a coloured ethnic group, by using Keystone flaps, with a review of existing literature. Design: Uncontrolled case series. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review involves 55 consecutive Keystone flaps used from 2009 to 2012, for skin defects in various locations. Patient demographic data, medical history, co-morbidity, surgical indication, defect features, complications, and clinical outcomes are evaluated and presented. Results: In this population group with Fitzpatrick type 4 and 5 skin, the average patient age was 35.73. Though 60% of flaps (33/55) in the series involved specific risk factors, only two flaps failed. Though seven flaps had complications, sound healing was achieved by suitable intervention giving a success rate of 96.36%. Skin grafts were needed in only four cases. Conclusions: Keystone flaps achieve primary wound healing for a wide spectrum of defects with an acceptable success rate in a coloured skin population with unfavorable biophysical properties. By avoiding conventional local flaps and at times even microsurgical flaps, good aesthetic outcome is achieved without additional skin grafts or extensive operative time. All advantages seen in previous studies were verified. These benefits can be most appreciated in coloured populations, with limited resources and higher proportion of younger patients and unfavorable defects. PMID:23960304

  13. Examine Your Skin

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ...

  14. Polymer photonic sensing skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, C.; Webb, D. J.; Van Hoe, B.; Van Steenberge, G.; Kalli, K.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Urbanczyk, W.; Sugden, K.; Peng, G.-D.

    2010-09-01

    A highly flexible sensing skin with embedded polymer optical fibre Bragg gratings is characterised The response to pressure and strain compare favourably to a similar skin instrumented with silica fibre Bragg grating sensors.

  15. Reconstruction of Defects After Fournier Gangrene: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Karian, Laurel S.; Lee, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of scrotal defects after Fournier gangrene is often achieved with skin grafts or flaps, but there is no general consensus on the best method of reconstruction or how to approach the exposed testicle. We systematically reviewed the literature addressing methods of reconstruction of Fournier defects after debridement. Methods: PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched from 1950 to 2013. Inclusion criteria were reconstruction for Fournier defects, patients 18 to 90 years old, and reconstructive complication rates reported as whole numbers or percentages. Exclusion criteria were studies focused on methods of debridement or other phases of care rather than reconstruction, studies with fewer than 5 male patients with Fournier defects, literature reviews, and articles not in English. Results: The initial search yielded 982 studies, which was refined to 16 studies with a total pool of 425 patients. There were 25 (5.9%) patients with defects that healed by secondary intention, 44 (10.4%) with delayed primary closure, 36 (8.5%) with implantation of the testicle in a medial thigh pocket, 6 (1.4%) with loose wound approximation, 96 (22.6%) with skin grafts, 68 (16.0%) with scrotal advancement flaps, 128 (30.1%) with flaps, and 22 (5.2%) with flaps or skin grafts in combination with tissue adhesives. Four outcomes were evaluated: number of patients, defect size, method of reconstruction, and wound-healing complications. Conclusions: Most reconstructive techniques provide reliable coverage and protection of testicular function with an acceptable cosmetic result. There is no conclusive evidence to support flap coverage of exposed testes rather than skin graft. A reconstructive algorithm is proposed. Skin grafting or flap reconstruction is recommended for defects larger than 50% of the scrotum or extending beyond the scrotum, whereas scrotal advancement flap reconstruction or healing by secondary intention is best for defects confined to less than 50% of the scrotum that cannot be closed primarily without tension. PMID:26171090

  16. The face is not an empty canvas: how facial expressions interact with facial appearance

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Ursula; Adams, Reginald B.; Kleck, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Faces are not simply blank canvases upon which facial expressions write their emotional messages. In fact, facial appearance and facial movement are both important social signalling systems in their own right. We here provide multiple lines of evidence for the notion that the social signals derived from facial appearance on the one hand and facial movement on the other interact in a complex manner, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes contradicting one another. Faces provide information on who a person is. Sex, age, ethnicity, personality and other characteristics that can define a person and the social group the person belongs to can all be derived from the face alone. The present article argues that faces interact with the perception of emotion expressions because this information informs a decoder's expectations regarding an expresser's probable emotional reactions. Facial appearance also interacts more directly with the interpretation of facial movement because some of the features that are used to derive personality or sex information are also features that closely resemble certain emotional expressions, thereby enhancing or diluting the perceived strength of particular expressions. PMID:19884144

  17. Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Hyun Hee; Cho, Soyun; Lee, Se-Rah; Shin, Mi-Hee; Chung, Jin Ho

    2014-07-01

    Photoaging accounts for most age-related changes in skin appearance. It has been suggested that both astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, and collagen hydrolysate can be used as antiaging modalities in photoaged skin. However, there is no clinical study using astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate. We investigated the effects of using a combination of dietary astaxanthin and collagen hydrolysate supplementation on moderately photoaged skin in humans. A total of 44 healthy subjects were recruited and treated with astaxanthin (2 mg/day) combined with collagen hydrolysate (3 g/day) or placebos, which were identical in appearance and taste to the active supplementation for 12 weeks. The elasticity and hydration properties of facial skin were evaluated using noninvasive objective devices. In addition, we also evaluated the expression of procollagen type I, fibrillin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -12, and ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in artificially UV-irradiated buttock skin before and after treatment. The supplement group showed significant improvements in skin elasticity and transepidermal water loss in photoaged facial skin after 12 weeks compared with the placebo group. In the supplement group, expression of procollagen type I mRNA increased and expression of MMP-1 and -12 mRNA decreased compared with those in the placebo group. In contrast, there was no significant difference in UV-induced DNA damage between groups. These results demonstrate that dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate can improve elasticity and barrier integrity in photoaged human facial skin, and such treatment is well tolerated. PMID:24955642

  18. A muscle model for animation three-dimensional facial expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Waters

    1987-01-01

    The development of a parameterized facial muscle process, that incorporates the use of a model to create realistic facial animation is described.Existing methods of facial parameterization have the inherent problem of hard-wiring performable actions. The development of a muscle process that is controllable by a limited number of parameters and is non-specific to facial topology allows a richer vocabulary and

  19. A 'Personalized' Facial Expression Recognition System using Case Based Reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zubair Shafiq; Assia Khanam

    2006-01-01

    Facial expression recognition has increasing importance in assisting human-computer interaction issues so that the system can customize to user needs and requirements. In this paper we present a `personalized' system for facial expression recognition from facial features. Personalization refers to custom-tailoring of the system for a specific user. The facial expression recognition module uses a case-based reasoning system for personalized

  20. Facial action recognition in face profile image sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Pantic; Ioannik Patras; L. Rothkruntz

    2002-01-01

    A robust way to discern facial gestures in images of faces, insensitive to scale, pose, and occlusion, is still the key research challenge in the automatic facial-expression analysis domain. A practical method recognized as the most promising one for addressing this problem is through a facial-gesture analysis of multiple views of the face. Yet, current systems for automatic facial-gesture analysis

  1. Machine analysis of facial behaviour: naturalistic and dynamic behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in these specific subproblem areas in particular, are discussed and recommendations for accomplishing a better facial expression measurement technology are outlined. PMID:19884145

  2. Building highly realistic facial modeling and animation: a survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos Ersotelos; Feng Dong

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive survey on the techniques for human facial modeling and animation. The survey is carried\\u000a out from two different perspectives: facial modeling, which concerns how to produce 3D face models, and facial animation,\\u000a which regards how to synthesize dynamic facial expressions. To generate an individual face model, we can either perform individualization\\u000a of a generic model

  3. Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Gidley, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Background?Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods?We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results?The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions?This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy. PMID:25083397

  4. Histological rearrangement in the facial nerve and central nuclei following immediate and delayed hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y S; Hsu, C J; Liu, T C; Yanagihara, N; Murakami, S

    2000-06-01

    The timing of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis is controversial. The present study was performed to clarify the influence of the timing of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis on histological changes in the facial nerve and central nuclei using guinea pigs. The facial nerve was transected first at the labyrinthine portion, and then transected again at the stylomastoid foramen. Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis was carried out immediately or 3 months later. Nerve regeneration and survival of the neurons in the facial and hypoglossal nuclei were evaluated by toluidine blue staining and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Immediate anastomosis resulted in better nerve regeneration of the facial nerve, but the numbers of surviving neurons in the facial and hypoglossal nuclei were almost the same in both the immediate and delayed anastomosis groups. PMID:10958411

  5. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or itchy, try a moisturizing cream or lotion. Enjoy being in the sun—but protect your skin Your skin produces vitamin D when it is exposed to sunshine. Vitamin D helps keep your bones and other body systems healthy. However, too much sun can damage your skin and increase your ...

  6. [Dermatology and skin color].

    PubMed

    Petit, Antoine

    2010-09-01

    Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for skin, hair and eye colours. Genetics and sun exposure are the two key factors that determine skin pigmentation. In dermatology, skin colours is significant, not only for semiology and diagnosis, but also for epidemiology and wounds healing. PMID:20963977

  7. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  8. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you, see your doctor. For More Information About Skin Care and Aging American Academy of Dermatology 1-866- ... Shingles Can We Prevent Aging? Also of Interest Skin Care and Aging - NIHSeniorHealth Skin Cancer - NIHSeniorHealth Sun Safety - ...

  9. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  10. Expert system for automatic analysis of facial expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Pantic; Léon J. M. Rothkrantz

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses our expert system called Integrated System for Facial Expression Recognition (ISFER), which performs recognition and emotional classification of human facial expression from a still full-face image. The system consists of two major parts. The first one is the ISFER Workbench, which forms a framework for hybrid facial feature detection. Multiple feature detection techniques are applied in parallel.

  11. Type A Behavior Pattern: Facial Behavior and Speech Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGARET A. CHESNEY; PAUL EKMAN; WALLACE V. FRIESEN; GEORGE W. BLACK; MICHAEL H. L. HECKER

    Early descriptions of the Type A coronary-prone pattern include both nonverbal and motoric signs. Facial behaviors during the Type A Structured Interview of 24 Type A and 24 Type B men were examined using the Facial Action Coding System. In addition, speech components and heart rate reactivity during the Structured Interviews were examined. Among the facial behaviors assessed, two significantly

  12. On Constructing Facial Similarity Maps California Institute of Technology

    E-print Network

    Perona, Pietro

    On Constructing Facial Similarity Maps Alex Holub California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA to facial recognition, judging similarity is a more subtle and difficult topic. Our challenges include: (A holub@caltech.edu Yun-hsueh Liu Pietro Perona Abstract Automatically determining facial similarity

  13. Active and Dynamic Information Fusion for Facial Expression Understanding

    E-print Network

    motion. Our approach to facial expression recognition lies in the proposed dynamic and probabilistic a number of technical challenges in developing facial expression recognition systems. Numerous techniques have been proposed for facial expression recognition within the past several years. However, much

  14. Automatic Analysis of Spontaneous Facial Behavior: A Final Project Report

    E-print Network

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart

    to the warped images, is a viable and promising technology for automatic facial action recognition. One exciting University, were challenged to develop prototype systems for automatic recognition of spontaneous facialAutomatic Analysis of Spontaneous Facial Behavior: A Final Project Report (UCSD MPLab TR 2001

  15. Facial Expression Recognition and Synthesis on Affective Emotions Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Chao; Feng Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    Facial expressions recognition and synthesis are important research fields to study how human beings reflect to environments in affective computing. With the rapid development of mathematical theory on multivariate statistics and multi-media technology especially image processing, facial expressions recognition researchers have achieved many useful results. Recently studies show that approaches to facial modeling and expressions recognition and synthesis analysis could

  16. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Thorat; S. K. Nayak; Jyoti P Dandale

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other

  17. 3D Face Analysis for Facial Expression Recognition Ahmed Maalej

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    3D Face Analysis for Facial Expression Recognition Ahmed Maalej LIFL, Universit´e de Lille 1, Italy. Abstract In this paper, we investigate the person-independent 3D facial expression recognition advances Facial expression analysis and recognition is an ac- tive and challenging research topic

  18. Task oriented facial behavior recognition with selective sensing

    E-print Network

    Task oriented facial behavior recognition with selective sensing Haisong Gu a , Yongmian Zhang, gaze, and furrow happenings. An automated system for facial behavior recognition is always desirable presents an efficient approach to real-world facial behavior recognition. With dynamic Bayesian network

  19. Learning Discriminative LBP-Histogram Bins for Facial Expression Recognition

    E-print Network

    Kim, Tae-Kyun

    Learning Discriminative LBP-Histogram Bins for Facial Expression Recognition Caifeng Shan) bins for the task of facial expression recognition. Our experiments illustrate that the selected LBPH recognition performance of 93.1% on the Cohn-Kanade database. 1 Introduction Machine analysis of facial

  20. VISUAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING COMPACT FACIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND VISEME INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    VISUAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING COMPACT FACIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND VISEME INFORMATION Angeliki and recognition. We use facial information obtained from multiple markers across the face. This information information is conveyed through the human face. In this study, we analyze detailed motion-captured facial