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1

Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders  

PubMed Central

The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice.

Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

2005-01-01

2

Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging  

PubMed Central

Background Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the cheeks in this stage of the aging process. Methods Skin viscoelasticity was compared on both cheeks in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with indoor occupational activities somewhat limiting the influence of chronic sun exposure. Eighty-four healthy women comprising 36 premenopausal women and 48 early post-menopausal women off hormone replacement therapy were enrolled in two groups. The tensile characteristics of both cheeks were tested and compared in each group. A computerized suction device equipped with a 2 mm diameter hollow probe was used to derive viscoelasticity parameters during a five-cycle procedure of 2 seconds each. Skin unfolding, intrinsic distensibility, biological elasticity, and creep extension were measured. Results Both biological elasticity and creep extension were asymmetric on the cheeks of the post-menopausal women. In contrast, these differences were more discrete in the premenopausal women. Conclusion Facial skin viscoelasticity appeared to be asymmetric following menopause. The possibility of asymmetry should be taken into account in future studies of the effects of hormone replacement therapy and any antiaging procedure on the face in menopausal women.

Pierard, Gerald E; Hermanns-Le, Trinh; Gaspard, Ulysse; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine

2014-01-01

3

A Facial-Skin Condition Classification System in Wavelet Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a facial-skin condition evaluation system based on cosmetician's suggestions to let the users realize their facial-skin conditions. Two kinds of features are extracted from the captured skin image. Four parameters of sub-band information of the gray part of a color skin image in wavelet domain are used as the first kind of features. The contrast, inverse difference

Jiann-der Lee; Yu-chi Chen; Li-Chang Liu; Chung-Hsien Huang

2007-01-01

4

Combining skin texture and facial structure for face identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current face identification systems are not robust enough to accurately identify the same individual in different images with changes in head pose, facial expression, occlusion, length of hair, illumination, aging, etc. This is especially a problem for facial images that are captured using low resolution video cameras or webcams. This paper introduces a new technique for facial identification in low resolution images that combines facial structure with skin texture to accommodate changes in lighting and head pose. Experiments using this new technique show that combining facial structure features with skin texture features results in a facial identification system for low resolution images that is more robust to pose and illumination conditions than either technique used alone.

Manoni, R. E.; Canosa, R. L.

2012-02-01

5

Coexistence of scutum defect and facial canal dehiscence.  

PubMed

In this study, we have discussed the facial canal dehiscence rates in patients with scutum defect, who had undergone surgery with the diagnosis of chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma. The operation records of 154 patients who had undergone tympanomastoidectomy with the diagnosis of chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma were retrospectively analyzed. Scutum defect was investigated by inspection under direct high magnification following tympanomeatal flap elevation during the operation. Facial canal dehiscence was evaluated by inspection and through palpation by blunt picking after the pathological tissues had been removed. The rate of scutum defect was determined as 29.22% (45 out of 154 patients), and the rate of facial canal dehiscence was determined as 22.07% (34 out of 154 patients). While facial canal dehiscence was encountered in 55.55% of the patients with scutum defect, this rate was determined as 8.25% in patients without scutum defect. While the tympanic segment was the most commonly affected segment of the facial canal, isolated mastoid segment involvement was encountered in only 1 (2.94%) patient. The presence of scutum defect is a significant finding for the prediction of the extent of the disease and facial canal dehiscence. Thus, the surgeon should pay more attention to avoid facial nerve injury during the operation in the patient in whom a scutum defect is detected. PMID:23553244

Genc, Selahattin; Genc, Meliha Gulden; Arslan, Ilker Burak; Selcuk, Adin

2014-04-01

6

Parameter Estimation for Dynamic Volume Spline Based Facial Skin Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are various methods proposed for soft tissue modeling such as spring-mass models, finite element based models and spline based models. Each model type has its own problems. In this study, we propose a dynamic volume spline based facial skin model which is both realistic and computationally efficient. Some of the very important problems of realistic soft tissue modeling are

Murat Durmaz; Gerhard Wilhelm Weber

7

Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Consolo, U.; Seidenari, S.

2011-01-01

8

Coverage of skin defects without skin grafts using adipose-derived stem cells.  

PubMed

A satisfying result is difficult to achieve in the repair of a full-thickness skin defect in the facial area, including the subunits of the nose. A full-thickness skin graft, nasolabial flap, or forehead flap as a major treatment still is used despite its relative potential for secondary contracture, unmatched skin color, hypertrophic scars, and donor-site morbidity. Another option, with good wound-healing power and soft tissue regeneration without skin grafts would be helpful for initiating treatment. Adult stem cells are a useful material in tissue engineering. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), an abundant population of pluripotent cells found in the stroma of adipose tissues, have been shown to differentiate in vitro into various cell lineages. As a robust source of bioactive growth factors, ADSCs contribute to recovery from ischemic damage, and they can promote the wound-healing process as well as soft tissue regeneration. The authors have experienced several cases of facial skin defect repair using ADSCs without skin grafts. In these cases, they observed rapid coverage of the wound with the patient's own regenerated tissue. During the treatment period, ADSC treatment showed an excellent wound-healing process in terms of quantity and quality. PMID:23877753

Jo, Dong In; Yang, Hyun Jin; Kim, Soon Heum; Kim, Cheol Keun; Park, Hyung Jun; Choi, Hyun Gon; Shin, Dong Hyeok; Uhm, Ki Il

2013-10-01

9

Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects  

PubMed Central

Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology.

Federspil, Philipp A.

2012-01-01

10

Mohs micrographic surgery for facial skin cancer.  

PubMed

Although it is well established that conventional treatment modalities generally result in high cure rates for non-melanoma skin cancer, it has been demonstrated over recent decades that the highest overall cure rates are achieved using Mohs micrographic surgery. The key to Mohs surgery is the excision and control of complete peripheral and deep resection margins in one plane, allowing orientation, mapping and re-excision of microscopic tumour extension. These extensions can be followed without sacrificing inappropriate amounts of normal tissue, yielding high cure rates and maximum preservation of tissue. These qualities make Mohs surgery an important and reliable treatment for skin cancer of the face, in particular when it concerns large, aggressive or recurrent carcinoma in cosmetic and functionally important areas. In an 8-year study period, 369 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and 56 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the face were treated in our department using Mohs surgery. With a follow-up ranging from 3 months to 99 months (mean 33 months), none of the BCCs recurred and only one (2%) of the SCCs recurred a few months postoperatively. These favourable cure rates using the modality of Mohs surgery are the reason for highlighting this technique in the current review. PMID:11559334

Vuyk, H D; Lohuis, P J

2001-08-01

11

Facial Skin Segmentation Using Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, analyzing human facial image has gained an ever-increasing importance due to its various applications. Image segmentation is required as a very important and fundamental operation for significant analysis and interpretation of images. Among the segmentation methods, image thresholding technique is one of the most well-known methods due to its simplicity, robustness, and high precision. Thresholding based on optimization of the objective function is among the best methods. Numerous methods exist for the optimization process and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) is among the most efficient and novel ones. Using this method, optimal threshold is extracted and then segmentation of facial skin is performed. In the proposed method, first, the color facial image is converted from RGB color space to Improved Hue-Luminance-Saturation (IHLS) color space, because IHLS has a great mapping of the skin color. To perform thresholding, the entropy-based method is applied. In order to find the optimum threshold, BFO is used. In order to analyze the proposed algorithm, color images of the database of Sahand University of Technology of Tabriz, Iran were used. Then, using Otsu and Kapur methods, thresholding was performed. In order to have a better understanding from the proposed algorithm; genetic algorithm (GA) is also used for finding the optimum threshold. The proposed method shows the better results than other thresholding methods. These results include misclassification error accuracy (88%), non-uniformity accuracy (89%), and the accuracy of region's area error (89%).

Bakhshali, Mohamad Amin; Shamsi, Mousa

2012-01-01

12

Fetal Facial Defects: Associated Malformations and Chromosomal Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an 8-year period, facial defects were observed in 146 (7%) of the 2,086 fetuses that underwent karyotyping in our unit because of fetal malformations and\\/or growth retardation. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 37 of 56 (66%) fetuses with micrognathia, in 10 of 13 (77%) with macroglossia, in 31 of 64 (48 %) with cleft lip and palate, in 5

K. H. Nicolaides; D. R. Salvesen; R. J. M. Snijders; C. M. Gosden

1993-01-01

13

Reconstruction of intraoral defects using facial artery musculomucosal flap.  

PubMed

The facial artery musculomucosal flap, technically a combination of the nasolabial flap and the buccal mucosal flap, has been a reliable, versatile flap, either superiorly or inferiorly based for reconstruction of a wide variety of postcancer excision intraoral mucosal defects including defects of the palate, alveolus, lips and floor of mouth. We have used it 17 times in 16 patients with no failures and one flap with terminal necrosis. Almost all flaps developed venous congestion which settled on its own by conservative management. PMID:16099439

Joshi, A; Rajendraprasad, J S; Shetty, K

2005-12-01

14

See-and-treat surgery for facial skin cancer.  

PubMed

See-and-treat surgery has been described as an efficient means of streamlining specialist diagnosis and treatment, and is commonly employed in gynaecology to reduce the delay between cytological screening and definitive treatment of cervical neoplasia. Relatively young patients with predominantly benign skin lesions have been treated in see-and-treat clinics but only in the context of referrals from primary care. The author describes the treatment of tertiary referrals for facial skin malignancies under local anaesthesia at these clinics, and analyses their acceptability to patients. A total of 100 consecutive patients were included. Data on age, coexisting conditions, diagnosis, site and size of lesion, operation, and outcomes including complications and completeness of excision, were collected. A questionnaire seeking patients' opinions was also used. Ninety patients were treated and 98 lesions were removed, 94% of which were malignant. The complete excision rate was 95%. There were no complications, and 98% of patients were satisfied with the service. See-and-treat surgery is an effective, safe, and acceptable means of providing surgical management of facial skin malignancies. PMID:24927655

McKechnie, Alasdair J

2014-09-01

15

Automatically elicited fear: Conditioned skin conductance responses to masked facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined automatic elicitation of conditioned skin conductance responses (SCRs), when a backward masking procedure prevented the subject's conscious awareness of the conditioned stimuli (CSs). The CSs were pictures of emotional facial expressions. A differential conditioning procedure was used. One facial expression (e.g. an angry face) was aversively conditioned by a shock unconditioned stimulus, whereas another facial expression (e.g.

Francisco Esteves; Ulf Dimberg; Arne öhman

1994-01-01

16

Towards Realistic Facial Modeling and Re-Rendering of Human Skin Aging Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial aging simulation and animation are aspiring goals and challenging tasks because the growth and ag- ing processes are greatly influence the facial shape and its structure. The face structure, the size of the bones, and the skin texture change, the skin fattens or sags, wrin- kles appear and even muscular activities change in terms of intensity. This paper proposes

Hussein Karam Hussein

2002-01-01

17

A newborn with grouped facial skin lesions and subsequent seizures  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital grouped skin lesions are alarming signs of a variety of threatening diagnoses of quite different origin. The present case report shows an impressive clinical pattern of a neonate and illustrates the difficulty in differential diagnosis of mixed connective tissue disease and neonatal lupus erythematosus in newborns. This reported case is to our knowledge the first description of an unrecognized mixed connective tissue disease in the mother with an unusual clinical manifestation in the newborn, comprising skin lesions, neurological damage and non-typical antibody constellation. Case presentation We report on a Caucasian female neonate from a perinatally asymptomatic mother, who presented with grouped facial pustular-like skin lesions, followed by focal clonic seizures caused by multiple ischemic brain lesions. Herpes simplex virus infection was excluded and both the mother and her infant had the antibody pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus and neonatal lupus erythematosus, respectively. However, clinical signs in the mother showed overlapping features of mixed connective tissue disease. Conclusion This case report emphasizes congenital Lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease as important differential diagnoses of grouped skin lesions in addition to Herpes simplex virus-infection. The coexistence of different criteria for mixed connective tissue disease makes it difficult to allocate precisely maternal and congenital infantile disease.

2014-01-01

18

[A neonate with a skin defect].  

PubMed

A male neonate was born with a defect of the skin and subcutaneous tissue on the back. The pregnancy started as a gemelli pregnancy but in the 12th week 1 fetus deceased. The diagnosis of truncal aplasia cutis was made. PMID:23057102

Hajdarbegovic, Enes; Thio, Hok Bing

2012-01-01

19

Bilateral tunneled supraclavicular island flaps for simultaneous reconstruction of massive facial defect and intraoral lining.  

PubMed

Reconstructive procedures in the head and neck region use a wide range of flaps for defect closure. The methods range from local, mostly myocutaneous flaps and skin grafts to free microsurgical flaps. To ensure a satisfactory functional and aesthetic result, good texture and color of the flap are always essential. Moreover, the donor-site defect needs to be reduced, with no resulting functional or aesthetic impairment. The supraclavicular island flap has been used successfully for difficult facial reconstruction cases, providing acceptable results without using microsurgical techniques. As a complementary study to the publication by Heitland and Pallua (Plast Reconstr Surg 2005;115:1591), we report our preliminary clinical experience with bilateral tunneled supraclavicular island flaps for simultaneous reconstruction of massive facial defect and intraoral lining in massively progressed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip with severe intraoral extension. This thin flap is easy and quick to harvest, has a reliable pedicle, and has minimal donor-site morbidity. It is now the authors' flap of choice for many common head and neck reconstructive problems. PMID:21119443

Hormozi, Abdoljalil Kalantar; Shafii, Mohammad Reza

2010-11-01

20

A Facial-Skin Condition Classification System Using Texture and Fuzzy C-Means Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a facial-skin condition classification system based on cosmeticians' suggestions to let the users realize their facial-skin conditions. Two kinds of features are extracted from the captured skin image. The contrast, inverse difference moment, deviation information in the gray-value histogram, and the entropy of the co-occurrence matrix information are calculated as the firs kind of features. Four parameters

Jiann-der Lee; Yu-chi Chen; Li-chang Liu; Chung-hsien Huang

2007-01-01

21

Correlation map analysis between appearances of Japanese facial images and amount of melanin and hemoglobin components in the skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin color reproduction becomes increasingly important with the recent progress in various imaging systems. In this paper, based on subjective experiments, correlation maps are analyzed between appearance of Japanese facial images and amount of melanin and hemoglobin components in the facial skin. Facial color images were taken by digital still camera. The spatial distributions of melanin and hemoglobin components in the facial color image were separated by independent component analysis of skin colors. The separated components were synthesized to simulate the various facial color images by changing the quantities of the two separated pigments. The synthesized images were evaluated subjectively by comparing with the original facial images. From the analysis of correlation map, we could find the visual or psychological terms that are well related to melanin components influence the appearance of facial color image.

Tsumura, Norimichi; Uetsuki, Keiji; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Miyake, Yoichi

2001-06-01

22

Hydroquinone-free Skin Brightener System for the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Facial Hyperpigmentation.  

PubMed

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a multimodal skin-brightening regimen in subjects with facial hyperpigmentation. Design: Open-label, single-center clinical study with clinical assessments at baseline, Week 4, Week 8, and Week 12. Treatment: Subjects were instructed to apply the skin-brightening complex onto their facial skin, twice daily, for 12 weeks. Subjects also applied a nonprescription retinol product, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Participants: Twenty-one subjects, aged 41 to 65 years, with Fitzpatrick skin types II to IV and moderate-to-severe facial hyperpigmentation completed the study. Measurements: Overall hyperpigmentation and tolerability (objective and subjective) assessments were conducted at all visits. In addition, global improvement in hyperpigmentation was assessed at all follow-up visits. A self-assessment questionnaire was completed by subjects at Week 12. Results: At baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12, subjects were assessed for overall hyperpigmentation and global improvement. Standardized digital photographs were also taken of the subjects' facial skin at all visits. Subjects completed a self-assessment questionnaire at Week 12. Statistically significant reductions in mean Overall Hyperpigmentation scores and significant improvements in mean Global Improvement scores compared to baseline were observed at all follow-up visits (all p<0.001). These clinical observations were supported by standardized digital photography. In addition, the skin-brightening regimen was highly rated by subjects on all of the questionnaire parameters. Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that the multimodality skin-brightening regimen may provide a comprehensive and optimal treatment option to help reduce facial hyperpigmentation. PMID:24847406

Herndon, James H; Makino, Elizabeth T; Stephens, Thomas J; Mehta, Rahul C

2014-05-01

23

Hydroquinone-free Skin Brightener System for the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Facial Hyperpigmentation  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a multimodal skin-brightening regimen in subjects with facial hyperpigmentation. Design: Open-label, single-center clinical study with clinical assessments at baseline, Week 4, Week 8, and Week 12. Treatment: Subjects were instructed to apply the skin-brightening complex onto their facial skin, twice daily, for 12 weeks. Subjects also applied a nonprescription retinol product, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Participants: Twenty-one subjects, aged 41 to 65 years, with Fitzpatrick skin types II to IV and moderate-to-severe facial hyperpigmentation completed the study. Measurements: Overall hyperpigmentation and tolerability (objective and subjective) assessments were conducted at all visits. In addition, global improvement in hyperpigmentation was assessed at all follow-up visits. A self-assessment questionnaire was completed by subjects at Week 12. Results: At baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12, subjects were assessed for overall hyperpigmentation and global improvement. Standardized digital photographs were also taken of the subjects’ facial skin at all visits. Subjects completed a self-assessment questionnaire at Week 12. Statistically significant reductions in mean Overall Hyperpigmentation scores and significant improvements in mean Global Improvement scores compared to baseline were observed at all follow-up visits (all p<0.001). These clinical observations were supported by standardized digital photography. In addition, the skin-brightening regimen was highly rated by subjects on all of the questionnaire parameters. Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that the multimodality skin-brightening regimen may provide a comprehensive and optimal treatment option to help reduce facial hyperpigmentation.

Herndon JR., James H.; Stephens, Thomas J.; Mehta, Rahul C.

2014-01-01

24

Facial skin blood flow responses to irritant stimuli in the oral cavity.  

PubMed

To investigate whether capsaicin and menthol stimuli elicit characteristic responses in facial skin blood flow (SkBF), we observed the facial SkBF response to low and high concentrations of capsaicin and menthol stimuli of 1-ml solution applied to the oral cavity for 20s in 17 healthy subjects. High concentration of capsaicin significantly increased the SkBF in all of the facial areas monitored. High concentration of menthol stimulus significantly decreased SkBF in the nose and increased that in the eyelid, and upper and lower lips. These results demonstrated that capsaicin and menthol stimuli in the oral cavity elicit characteristic responses in facial SkBF. PMID:23265982

Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

2013-03-01

25

Regional difference in sebum production by androgen susceptibility in human facial skin.  

PubMed

Androgens are important hormones that influence sebum production from the sebaceous glands. Human facial skin can be categorized as T- and U-zones, which are areas with high and low levels of sebum secretion, respectively. This study was performed to investigate whether there are topographical differences in androgen receptor (AR) expression related to regional variations in facial sebum secretion. The results of in vivo analysis indicated a statistically significant increase in AR expression in the sebaceous gland T-zones compared with the U-zones. In vitro experiments using human primary sebocytes also yielded similar results, with higher levels of AR protein and mRNA expression in T-zones. The results of this study suggested that differences in androgen susceptibility may be an important factor influencing regional differences in sebum production in human facial skin. PMID:24289322

Seo, Young Joon; Li, Zheng Jun; Choi, Dae Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung Cheol; Kim, Hyeong Rae; Lee, Young; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Young Ho; Shi, Ge; Lee, Jeung Hoon; Im, Myung

2014-01-01

26

In vivo barrier challenge and long-term recovery in human facial skin.  

PubMed

Recently, we developed a biophysical approach to characterize in vivo facial cheek skin as a function of stratum corneum (SC) depth, barrier function and during a 24-h recovery period. The current study extends this work and characterizes the human facial cheek after barrier challenge and, for the first time, facial SC barrier recovery over a 4-week period. Changes in the corneocyte size over the 4-week recovery period, and correlations with changes in Trans-Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL) were monitored. This approach allows complete characterization of SC barrier function after a full biological regeneration of the SC barrier following tape stripping. The structural and compositional changes in facial cheek were investigated using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infra Red (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, tape stripping, TEWL measurements and image analysis combined with optical microscopy to characterize the SC depth profile during the tape stripping stress and over 4-week recovery period. TEWL increased significantly from baseline after sequential tape stripping. Corneocyte size decreased with successive tape stripping. An inverse direct correlation was determined between TEWL and corneocyte surface area. After 4 weeks, the corneocyte size and TEWL for the facial cheek recovered 100% from the tape stripping procedure. The in vivo ATR-FTIR data demonstrated that lipid and sebum components on the surface of the facial cheek SC recovered within 24 h post tape stripping, whereas protein (Amide II) and water components recovered after 1 week. PMID:23278506

Gorcea, Mihaela; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E; Moore, David J

2013-06-01

27

Reconstruction of complex oro-facial defects using the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap.  

PubMed

Oro-facial defects require reconstruction that provides suitable colour match and texture. Moreover inner and outer cheek lining and bulk are key considerations. In cases of severe oro-facial infections concomitant mandibular abnormality, for example trismus, can mandate the need for tissue to obturate mandibular defects. We assessed the use of the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap (MSA) in non-oncological patients with such defects. Twenty two consecutive patients were included in this case series. All patients were survivors of Cancrum Oris (NOMA). Demographic details, nutritional status and co-morbidities were recorded. Defects were classified according to the tissues destroyed; cheek, mandible, oral cavity, lip(s), nose and eye(s). Simultaneous procedures carried out were recorded. The surgical anatomy of the MSA is described. All patients had composite defects of the cheek and oral cavity plus another local anatomical structure. Adjunct procedures such as trismus release were carried out in 18/22 patients. Four patients required a return to theatre. There was no trismus recurrence observed. No flap losses were incurred. The MSA is a robust flap with minimal incidence of major complications. The MSA negates the need for microsurgical tissue transfer. Furthermore the MSA provides adequate bulk to obturate these defects. Future applications of the MSA may include complex oro-facial oncological defects. PMID:24209385

Saleh, D B; Fourie, L; Mizen, K D

2014-07-01

28

Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol®) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin  

PubMed Central

Background French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. Methods One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. Results A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Conclusion Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.

Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

2012-01-01

29

Clinical evaluation of a dioic acid-based formulation on facial skin in an Indian population.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 1,18-octadecen-9-dioic acid (dioic acid) and a Rumex occidentalis extract complex for their skin-lightening action in an Indian population. Prior to the clinical study, the efficacy of dioic as an inhibitor of melanogenesis was confirmed on dark-pigmented human melanocytes. As part of a 12-week vehicle-controlled clinical study, the skin-lightening effect of a test product containing 1% dioic acid, 2% of a Rumex occidentalis extract and sunscreens (SPF 15) was assessed on the facial skin of 71 Indian female volunteers. Change in skin colour was monitored by (A) Chroma Meter® measurement (L*, a*, b*) and Individual Typology Angle (ITA?) calculation and (B) Visual grading of standardized photographs by a dermatologist. Colorimetric measurements on volunteers' cheeks showed a significant increase of L* and ITA? compared to baseline after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of test product application. For both L* and ITA? measurements, changes were significantly different than the SPF 15-containing vehicle at weeks 4 and 12. These results were confirmed by the dermatological visual grading. The overall skin-lightening action of the test product was beyond the one observed with the SPF 15 vehicle. These findings show that a dioic acid and Rumex occidentalis complex deliver a significant skin-lightening effect on facial skin in an Indian population. PMID:22994950

Merinville, E; Byrne, A J; Visdal-Johnsen, L; Bouvry, G; Gillbro, J M; Rawlings, A V; Laloeuf, A

2012-12-01

30

Genetics Home Reference: Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... affected individuals have been identified. What are the genetic changes related to microphthalmia with linear skin defects ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

31

Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.  

PubMed

The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary. PMID:24314373

Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalç?n

2014-01-01

32

Random fractional ultrapulsed CO2 resurfacing of photodamaged facial skin: long-term evaluation.  

PubMed

Although numerous papers have recently been published on ablative fractional resurfacing, there is a lack of information in literature on very long-term results. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy, adverse side effects, and long-term results of a random fractional ultrapulsed CO2 laser on a large population with photodamaged facial skin. Three hundred twelve patients with facial photodamaged skin were enrolled and underwent a single full-face treatment. Six aspects of photodamaged skin were recorded using a 5 point scale at 3, 6, and 24 months after the treatment. The results were compared with a non-parametric statistical test, the Wilcoxon's exact test. Three hundred one patients completed the study. All analyzed features showed a significant statistical improvement 3 months after the procedure. Three months later all features, except for pigmentations, once again showed a significant statistical improvement. Results after 24 months were similar to those assessed 18 months before. No long-term or other serious complications were observed. From the significant number of patients analyzed, long-term results demonstrate not only how fractional ultrapulsed CO2 resurfacing can achieve good results on photodamaged facial skin but also how these results can be considered stable 2 years after the procedure. PMID:22622960

Tretti Clementoni, Matteo; Galimberti, Michela; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Catenacci, Maximilian; Lavagno, Rosalia; Bencini, Pier Luca

2013-02-01

33

Reconstruction of nasal alar defects with freestyle facial artery perforator flaps.  

PubMed

In 2009, we have described the use of freestyle facial artery perforator flaps for one-stage nose reconstruction. Since then, several articles have reported the use of facial artery perforator flaps for nose reconstruction. The purpose of this article is to provide an update of the published technique after 10 years of experience. Since 2004, 21 patients have been treated with a freestyle facial artery perforator flap for one-stage reconstruction of the nasal ala. The flaps were 16 propellers, 4 V-Y, and 1 island transposition. A single venous congestion leading to a minor flap tip necrosis and a wound dehiscence was observed. All other flaps healed uneventfully. The V-Y design and multiple subunit reconstruction gave suboptimal results. It was concluded that indications for freestyle facial artery perforator flaps are total nasal alar subunit reconstruction or reconstruction of lateral alar defects when perforator anatomy allows. In these cases, freestyle facial artery perforator flaps are the first choice technique at our institution because they allow excellent results in one-stage operation. One-stage nasal ala reconstruction with freestyle facial artery perforator flaps. PMID:24918707

D'Arpa, Salvatore; Pirrello, Roberto; Toia, Francesca; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

2014-06-01

34

3D-Ultrasonography for evaluation of facial muscles in patients with chronic facial palsy or defective healing: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background While standardized methods are established to examine the pathway from motorcortex to the peripheral nerve in patients with facial palsy, a reliable method to evaluate the facial muscles in patients with long-term palsy for therapy planning is lacking. Methods A 3D ultrasonographic (US) acquisition system driven by a motorized linear mover combined with conventional US probe was used to acquire 3D data sets of several facial muscles on both sides of the face in a healthy subject and seven patients with different types of unilateral degenerative facial nerve lesions. Results The US results were correlated to the duration of palsy and the electromyography results. Consistent 3D US based volumetry through bilateral comparison was feasible for parts of the frontalis muscle, orbicularis oculi muscle, depressor anguli oris muscle, depressor labii inferioris muscle, and mentalis muscle. With the exception of the frontal muscle, the facial muscles volumes were much smaller on the palsy side (minimum: 3% for the depressor labii inferior muscle) than on the healthy side in patients with severe facial nerve lesion. In contrast, the frontal muscles did not show a side difference. In the two patients with defective healing after spontaneous regeneration a decrease in muscle volume was not seen. Synkinesis and hyperkinesis was even more correlated to muscle hypertrophy on the palsy compared with the healthy side. Conclusion 3D ultrasonography seems to be a promising tool for regional and quantitative evaluation of facial muscles in patients with facial palsy receiving a facial reconstructive surgery or conservative treatment.

2014-01-01

35

[Skin barrier defects in atopic dermatitis: new treatments?].  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder and the most frequent skin disease in children. Skin barrier defects play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. 50% of patients suffering from AD present mutations in the filaggrin gene, coding for a key protein of the upper layer of the skin. However these mutations alone are not sufficient for disease development, suggesting that environmental factors are also of great importance in the genesis of AD. In particular skin infections frequently provoke clinical exacerbations in patients suffering from AD. New insights into skin barrier dysfunctions have facilitated the development of drugs targeting the sustainable restitution of the skin's physiologic function. These agents could modify the pharmacological approach of AD treatments in the future. PMID:22279864

Eigenmann, P A; Hauser, C; Brüggen, M-C

2011-12-14

36

Treatment of Facial Skin Laxity by a New Monopolar Radiofrequency Device  

PubMed Central

Background: Acquired facial skin laxity seems to be a result of the combination of intrinsic and extrinsic processes. For treatment of facial ageing, non-invasive procedures have become popular. Aim: We wanted to investigate the effect of a new 2.2-MHz radiofrequency (RF) device on acquired facial skin laxity. Setting: Outpatient clinic associated with an academic teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: We performed an open trial with the RF-ReFacing™ device (Meyer-Haake Medical Innovations, Wehrheim/ Germany) in the monopolar mode with a power of 8-12 W, two passes per session and repetition three times after 2 weeks without treatment. Results: A total of 20 Caucasian female patients were included (age range, 34-73 years). The procedure was performed without any analgesia. We did not see any adverse effect. The procedure was scored as most convenient or convenient by all patients. Improvement in skin laxity and fine wrinkles was seen after the second treatment in 19 of the 20 patients and after the third treatment in 100% of the patients. On a scale from 0 to 3, improvement in the lower lid, Crow’s feet and jowl line was scored 2.6±0.7 by the patients; improvement in the overall appearance of the face was scored 2.3±0.5. Blinded assessment of the photographs rated the improvement as good or better in 15 of the 20 patients, moderate in 3 patients, no change in 1 patient. Conclusions: RF-ReFacing™ treatment was effective in improvement in skin laxity. Patients’ satisfaction was high. Although RF-ReFacing™ treatment cannot substitute surgical procedure, it might prolong the time to the first surgical facial lift. The number of patients treated was small, and no quantitative measurements or histopathology was performed. Hence further studies with greater number of patients are necessary.

Wollina, Uwe

2011-01-01

37

Comparison of two endotracheal tube securement techniques on unplanned extubation, oral mucosa, and facial skin integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 2 standard methods (ie, twill tape versus adhesive tape) of securement on unplanned extubation, oral mucosa, and facial skin integrity of the orally intubated patient.DESIGN: A prospective, quasi-experimental design was used for the pilot study.SETTING: The setting for the pilot study included critical care units of 3 community hospitals and 1 veterans' hospital in

Susan Barnason; Jaine Graham; M. Candice Wild; Lynette Bunde Jensen; Doris Rasmussen; Paula Schulz; Sandi Woods; Brenda Carder

1998-01-01

38

Warty skin changes, chronic scrotal lymphoedema, and facial dysmorphism  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man whose main complaints were wart-like skin changes and scrotal lymphoedema. Furthermore, our patient showed signs of a common hereditary disease: lymphoedema, short stature, webbed neck, low frontal and posterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures, pale blue iris, broad nose, flat philtrum, and prominent nasolabial folds. His ears were low set and retroverted with a thick helix. However, no diagnosis was made for 49 years. The interdisciplinary dialogue of various specialists to make the final diagnosis is presented and discussed.

Felcht, Moritz; Dikow, Nicola; Goebeler, Matthias; Stroebel, Philipp; Booken, Nina; Vossmerbaumer, Urs; Merx, Kirsten; Henzler, Thomas; Marx, Alexander; Moog, Ute; Goerdt, Sergij; Klemke, Claus-Detlev

2010-01-01

39

[Modifications to the skin profile following facial osteotomy].  

PubMed

Soft tissue changes resulting of maxillary and/or mandibular osteotomies need to be evaluated with a great accuracy for a better prediction of the post-operative profile. As the aesthetic result seems to be most important for our patients, it is necessary to study the relations between the displacements of characteristic cutaneous points and hard structures below, osseous or dental. Then, a retrospective statistical computerized study was performed on 45 patients who underwent facial osteotomies at least three months before. The vertical and horizontal positions of 14 osseous or dental landmarks and 16 cutaneous points were recorded. Corresponding displacements were calculated for each of these, but only six cutaneous and 9 osseous displacements were selectionned for this study. A first correlation research was made, with determination of the lineary regression equations, when it was possible. Then a multivariate study was performed for each cutaneous point, with determination of multiple regression equations. Comparison between the two methods of prediction shows a S.D. over 2 mm for the simple regression versus a S.D. of about 1 mm for the multiple regression. On the other hand, it seems that it is possible to predict the horizontal displacements with the first method without important error. But the vertical displacements cannot be evaluated with good prediction, and particulary the stomion movements. It will be necessary to consider other parameters to obtain better correlation coefficient. But it is obvious that one can join together different groups of patients for a soft tissue changes study with the same results than after separation of those. In fact, the soft tissue reactions are the same although the surgical procedures are different. PMID:3460160

Boutault, F; Fabie, M; Combelles, R; Secail, J R; Guittard, F; Cadenat, H

1986-01-01

40

Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.

Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

2012-01-01

41

Modified technique to fabricate a hollow light-weight facial prosthesis for lateral midfacial defect: a clinical report  

PubMed Central

Large oro-facial defects result from cancer treatment consequences in serious functional as well as cosmetic deformities. Acceptable cosmetic results usually can be obtained with a facial prosthesis. However, retention of a large facial prosthesis can be challenging because of its size and weight. This article describes prosthetic rehabilitation of a 57-year-old man having a right lateral mid-facial defect with intraoral-extraoral combination prosthesis. A modified technique to fabricate a hollow substructure in heat-polymerizing polymethyl-methacrylate to support silicone facial prosthesis was illustrated. The resultant facial prosthesis was structurally durable and light in weight facilitating the retention with magnets satisfactorily. This technique is advantageous as there is no need to fabricate the whole prosthesis again in case of damage of the silicone layer because the outer silicone layer can be removed and re-packed on the substructure if the gypsum-mold is preserved.

2010-01-01

42

Regional differences in facial skin blood flow responses to the cold pressor and static handgrip tests.  

PubMed

We have previously reported the unique regional responses of facial skin blood flow (SkBF) to oral application of the basic tastes without simultaneous systemic circulatory changes. In the present study, we determined whether a systemic circulatory challenge due to sympathetic activation induces regional differences in facial SkBF by observing the responses in facial SkBF and blood pressure to a 2-min cold pressor test (CPT) and static handgrip exercise (HG) by right hand in 20 healthy subjects. The CPT significantly increased SkBF in the forehead, eyelid, cheek, upper lip and lower lip by 6 ± 2 to 8 ± 2 % (mean ± SEM) as compared to resting baseline, with a significant simultaneous increase (13 ± 2 %) in mean arterial pressure (MAP), whereas it significantly decreased the SkBF in the nose by 5 ± 2 %. The HG significantly increased SkBF in the forehead, cheek and lower lip by 6 ± 3 to 10 ± 3 %, with a significant simultaneous increase in MAP (13 ± 2 %), while it induced no significant change in the other regions. Increases in SkBF were greater in the right than left cheek during CPT. These results demonstrate that a systemic circulatory challenge via sympathetic activation elicits regional differences in the facial SkBF response. PMID:23064980

Kashima, Hideaki; Ikemura, Tsukasa; Hayashi, Naoyuki

2013-04-01

43

TBX1 Is Responsible for Cardiovascular Defects in Velo-Cardio-Facial\\/DiGeorge Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS)\\/DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a human disorder characterized by a number of phenotypic features including cardiovascular defects. Most VCFS\\/DGS patients are hemizygous for a 1.5–3.0 Mb region of 22q11. To investigate the etiology of this disorder, we used a cre-loxP strategy to generate mice that are hemizygous for a 1.5 Mb deletion corresponding to that on 22q11. These

Sandra Merscher; Birgit Funke; Jonathan A. Epstein; Joerg Heyer; Anne Puech; Min Min Lu; Ramnik J. Xavier; Marie B. Demay; Robert G. Russell; Stephen Factor; Kazuhito Tokooya; Bruno St. Jore; Melissa Lopez; Raj K. Pandita; Marie Lia; Danaise Carrion; Hui Xu; Hubert Schorle; James B. Kobler; Peter Scambler; Anthony Wynshaw-Boris; Arthur I. Skoultchi; Bernice E. Morrow; Raju Kucherlapati

2001-01-01

44

Reconstruction of Various Perinasal Defects Using Facial Artery Perforator-Based Nasolabial Island Flaps  

PubMed Central

Background Classical flaps for perinasal defect reconstruction, such as forehead or nasolabial flaps, have some disadvantages involving limitations of the arc of rotation and two stages of surgery. However, a perforator-based flap is more versatile and allows freedom in flap design. We introduced our experience with reconstruction using a facial artery perforator-based propeller flap on the perinasal area. We describe the surgical differences between different defect subtypes. Methods Between December 2005 and August 2013, 10 patients underwent perinasal reconstruction in which a facial artery perforator-based flap was used. We divided the perinasal defects into types A and B, according to location. The operative results, including flap size, arc of rotation, complications, and characteristics of the perforator were evaluated by retrospective chart review and photographic evaluation. Results Eight patients were male and 2 patients were female. Their mean age was 61 years (range, 35-75 years). The size of the flap ranged from 1 cm×1.5 cm to 3 cm×6 cm. Eight patients healed uneventfully, but 2 patients presented with mild flap congestion. However, these 2 patients healed by conservative management without any additional surgery. All of the flaps survived completely with aesthetically pleasing results. Conclusions The facial artery perforator-based flap allowed for versatile customized flaps, and the donor site scar was concealed using the natural nasolabial fold.

Yoon, Tae Ho; Yun, In Sik; Rha, Dong Kyun

2013-01-01

45

Usefulness of V-Y Advancement Flap for Defects after Skin Tumor Excision  

PubMed Central

Background After skin tumor excision on the face, extremities, or trunk, the choice of treatment for a skin defect is highly variable. Many surgeons prefer to use a local flap rather than a skin graft or free flap for small- or moderately-sized circular defects. We have used unilateral or bilateral V-Y advancement flaps, especially on the face. Here we evaluated the functional and aesthetic results of this technique. Methods All of the patients were pathologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), or malignant melanoma or premalignant lesion (Bowen's disease). Thirty-two patients underwent V-Y advancement flap repair (11 unilateral and 21 bilateral) from January 2007 to June 2011. We analyzed the patients' age and satisfaction, and location and size of defect. The patients were followed up for 6 months or more. Results There were 22 women and 10 men. The ages ranged from 47 to 93 years with a mean age of 66 years. The causes were SCC in 15 cases, BCC in 13 cases, malignant melanoma in 1 case, Bowen's disease in 2 cases, and another cause in 1 case. The tumor locations were the face in 28 patients, and the scalp, upper limb, and flank each in one patient. All of the flaps survived and the aesthetic results were good. Postoperative recovery was usually rapid, and no complication or tumor recurrence was observed. Conclusions The V-Y advancement flap is often used not only for facial circular defects but also for defects of the trunk and extremities. Its advantages are less scarring and superior aesthetic results as compared with other local flap methods, because of less scarification of adjacent tissue and because it is an easy surgical technique.

Kwon, Ki Hyun; Lee, Dong Gwan; Koo, Su Han; Jo, Myoung Soo; Shin, Heakyeong

2012-01-01

46

Efficacy and Safety of 10,600-nm Carbon Dioxide Fractional Laser on Facial Skin with Previous Volume Injections  

PubMed Central

Background: Fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers are a new treatment modality for skin resurfacing. The cosmetic rejuvenation market abounds with various injectable devices (poly-L-lactic acid, polymethyl-methacrylate, collagens, hyaluronic acids, silicone). The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of 10,600-nm CO2 fractional laser on facial skin with previous volume injections. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study including 14 patients treated with fractional CO2 laser and who have had previous facial volume restoration. The indication for the laser therapy, the age of the patients, previous facial volume restoration, and side effects were all recorded from their medical files. Objective assessments were made through clinical physician global assessment records and improvement scores records. Patients’ satisfaction rates were also recorded. Results: Review of medical records of the 14 patients show that five patients had polylactic acid injection prior to the laser session. Eight patients had hyaluronic acid injection prior to the laser session. Two patients had fat injection, two had silicone injection and one patient had facial thread lift. Side effects included pain during the laser treatment, post-treatment scaling, post-treatment erythema, hyperpigmentation which spontaneously resolved within a month. Concerning the previous facial volume restoration, no granulomatous reactions were noted, no facial shape deformation and no asymmetry were encountered whatever the facial volume product was. Conclusion: CO2 fractional laser treatments do not seem to affect facial skin which had previous facial volume restoration with polylactic acid for more than 6 years, hyaluronic acid for more than 0.5 year, silicone for more than 6 years, or fat for more than 1.4 year. Prospective larger studies focusing on many other variables (skin phototype, injected device type) are required to achieve better conclusions.

Helou, Josiane; Maatouk, Ismael; Moutran, Roy; Obeid, Grace; Stephan, Farid

2013-01-01

47

[Reconstruction of severe facial defects due to noma].  

PubMed

Noma is an ulcerative-necrotizing gingivo-stomatitis eventually leading to severe destruction of the midface, including lips and cheek, maxilla/mandible, nose and rarely the orbit. The defects are usually unilateral. Children from economically underdeveloped countries are predominantly affected. Medically untreated the disease has a high mortality rate, which can be dramatically lowered by adequate antibiotic therapy started in time. Predisposing factors include malnourishment, immunosuppression, and poor oral hygiene. Forty-eight noma patients were surgically treated in Sokoto, Nigeria during October 1997 by an Interplast Germany team sponsored by AWD Stiftung Kinderhilfe. Interdisciplinary surgical strategies and results, e.g. ankylosis release, local flap coverage and 12 pedicled musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi island flaps, as well as a noma classification (NOMAC), are presented. PMID:9864639

Erdmann, D; Schierle, H; Sauerbier, M; Germann, G; Lemperle, G

1998-11-01

48

Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction  

PubMed Central

Background Cellulose masks obtained from natural sources such as bacteria are of interest as cosmetic devices for the treatment of dry skin because they not only improve hydration of the skin, but have low toxicity and are biodegradable. The aims of this study were to determine the in vivo effects of a cellulose mask obtained from Acetobacter xylinum on skin characteristics and to evaluate user satisfaction with the product. Methods Thirty healthy Thai volunteers aged 21–40 years participated in the study. The volunteers were randomly separated into a control group and an experimental group. For the control group, volunteers were assigned to apply moist towels to the face for 25 minutes. For the experimental group, the volunteers were assigned to apply the masks, ie, translucent patches which could be fitted onto the face for the same period. The following week, the groups were changed over to the alternative treatment. Skin moisture, sebum, elasticity, texture, dullness, and desquamation levels were assessed using a system used for routine skin counseling before applying the trial product and five minutes after its removal. Degree of satisfaction with use of the cellulose mask was investigated using a five-point rating scale. Results The cellulose mask increased moisture levels in the skin significantly more than moist towels (P < 0.05) after a single application. No obvious effects on other skin characteristics were found. The cellulose mask product rated around 4/5 on the satisfaction rating scale. Conclusions A single application of the trial cellulose mask enhanced moisture uptake by facial skin. Users also reported being satisfied with the trial product.

Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Chusuit, Toon; Raknam, Panithi; Boonme, Prapaporn

2011-01-01

49

The Use of Matriderm and Autologous Skin Graft in the Treatment of Full Thickness Skin Defects  

PubMed Central

Background For patients with full thickness skin defects, autologous Split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) are generally regarded as the mainstay of treatment. However, skin grafts have some limitations, including undesirable outcomes resulting from scars, poor elasticity, and limitations in joint movement due to contractures. In this study, we present outcomes of Matriderm grafts used for various skin tissue defects whether it improves on these drawbacks. Methods From January 2010 to March 2012, a retrospective review of patients who had undergone autologous STSG with Matriderm was performed. We assessed graft survival to evaluate the effectiveness of Matriderm. We also evaluated skin quality using a Cutometer, Corneometer, Tewameter, or Mexameter, approximately 12 months after surgery. Results A total of 31 patients underwent STSG with Matriderm during the study period. The success rate of skin grafting was 96.7%. The elasticity value of the portion on which Matriderm was applied was 0.765 (range, 0.635-0.800), the value of the trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) was 10.0 (range, 8.15-11.00) g/hr/m2, and the humidification value was 24.0 (range, 15.5-30.0). The levels of erythema and melanin were 352.0 arbitrary unit (AU) (range, 299.25-402.75 AU) and 211.0 AU (range, 158.25-297.00 AU), respectively. When comparing the values of elasticity and TEWL of the skin treated with Matriderm to the values of the surrounding skin, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that a dermal substitute (Matriderm) with STSG was adopted stably and with minimal complications. Furthermore, comparing Matriderm grafted skin to normal skin using Cutometer, Matriderm proved valuable in restoring skin elasticity and the skin barrier.

Min, Jang Hwan; Yun, In Sik; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk

2014-01-01

50

Altered thermal sensitivity in facial skin in chronic whiplash-associated disorders  

PubMed Central

There is a close functional relationship between the jaw and neck regions and it has been suggested that trigeminal sensory impairment can follow whiplash injury. Inclusion of manageable routines for valid assessment of the facial sensory capacity is thus needed for comprehensive evaluations of patients exposed to such trauma. The present study investigated facial thermal thresholds in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) with both a qualitative method and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Ten women with pain and dysfunction following a whiplash injury were compared to 10 healthy age-matched women. Thermal detection thresholds were assessed by qualitative chair-side testing and by QST according to the method-of-limits. Seven test sites in the facial skin (overlying each trigeminal branch bilaterally, and the midpoint of the chin) were examined. The detection warm and cold thresholds were defined as the mean values of 10 individual thresholds. For the WAD patients, the qualitative assessment demonstrated both reduced and increased sensitivity compared to the healthy, whereas QST systematically showed significantly higher detection thresholds (i.e., decreased sensitivity) for both cold and warm stimuli. For the individuals who were assessed as having increased sensitivity in the qualitative assessment, the QST displayed either normal or higher thresholds, i.e., decreased sensitivity. The results suggest that QST is more sensitive for detecting thermal sensory disturbances in the face than a qualitative method. The impaired thermal sensitivity among the patients corroborates the notion of altered thermal detection capacity induced by WAD-related pain.

Haggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Lampa, Ewa; Nordh, Erik

2013-01-01

51

Patient satisfaction following Bio-Alcamid injection for facial contour defects.  

PubMed

Bio-Alcamid, a polyalkylimide gel, can be injected into subcutaneous tissue as an endoprosthesis for correcting contour deformities and soft tissue defects. We have reviewed its facial uses and longer-term outcomes over a 7-year period, including a patient satisfaction survey. 69 patients were included in the study, 89.9% undergoing treatment secondary to HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy. 55.0% of patients responded to questionnaires: 52.5% experienced severe pain associated with injections, and 50.0% experienced at least one complication (migration, hardening, irregularity). 94.4% stated an improvement in their cheek volume, 77.8% would undergo the procedure again, and 86.1% would recommend the treatment to a friend. Despite the relatively high patient satisfaction, we no longer recommend this treatment to our patients for cosmetic indications, due to significant long-term complication rates. PMID:22749703

George, D A; Erel, E; Waters, R

2012-12-01

52

A new facial artery free-style perforator flap and conchal cartilage graft for one-step reconstruction of the alar defects.  

PubMed

The nose is the most commonly affected area by basal and squamous skin carcinomas of the head and neck area (D'Arpa et al. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009, 62:36-42). The nasolabial flap is a very well known local flap that provides excellent color and texture matches. However, its major drawback is that it requires a 2-stage procedure to restore an adequate nasal cheek groove (Karsidag et al. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:1887-1889). In the perforator flaps, there are numerous studies that describe flaps whose vascular supply depend on perforators from the fascial artery.We planned to harvest a perforator flap around the medial cheek area, which included one cutaneous perforator from the facial artery. Free-style facial artery perforator flaps and auricular conchal cartilage framework were performed in 9 patients who have alar defect due to malignancies.From September 2010 to December 2011, the free-style facial perforator artery flap was performed in 9 patients at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department of the Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey. The whole flap was used to reconstruct the whole alar unit, which includes cartilaginous tissues.Our aim is to define a one-stage reconstruction technique with a perforator-based flap. Our flap is supplied by a perforating branch of the facial artery. We develop this method because of its reliable vascularization, that is, the possibility of performing one-stage technique with sensation preservation.In conclusion, we strongly recommend one-stage reconstruction in any kind of alar region defect with this versatile facial perforator flap. PMID:24220404

Duzgun, Serdar; Unlu, Erkin; Bali, Yagmur

2013-11-01

53

The facial integument of centrosaurine ceratopsids: morphological and histological correlates of novel skin structures.  

PubMed

The horned dinosaur Pachyhinosaurus possesses rugose bony bosses across the skull roof in lieu of the projecting bony horn cores seen in most ceratopsians. This elaboration of typical ceratopsian ornaments provides an opportunity to test hypotheses of ceratopsian facial skin morphology and function. We analyze bone morphology and histology associated with several classes of skin features in extant amniotes using a classification tree analysis. We isolate key osteological and histological correlates for unpreserved skin structures, including both a pattern of pitting and resorption characteristic of muskox (Ovibos) frontal horn boss, and a pattern of metaplastic ossification characteristic of rhinoceros nasal horn boss. We also describe correlates for other skin features, such as epidermal scales and horn sheaths. Dermatocranial elements from centrosaurine ceratopsians are then examined for the same osteological and histological correlates. From this comparison we propose that the rugose bosses that replace horn cores in many centrosaurine dinosaurs, most notably Achelousaurus and Pachyrhinosaurus, were covered by a thick pad of cornified skin derived from the caudodorsal side of the primitive horn sheath comparable to the horny boss of extant muskoxen (Ovibos). We examine extant taxa with skin morphologies similar to Pachyrhinosaurus for consistent adaptive relationships between structure and behavior. We determine that high-energy headbutting is consistently associated with the acquisition of thick cornified pads, seen in muskoxen as well as helmeted hornbills [Buceros (=Rhinoplax) vigil] and African buffalo (Syncerus). The association of the bony ornaments of Pachyrhinosaurus with risky agonistic behaviors casts doubt on the role of species recognition as a primary selection pressure driving the diversity of all ceratopsian horns. We conclude that social selection (a broad form of intraspecific competition) is a more appropriate explanation for the diversity of centrosaurine ceratopsian ornaments in the Late Cretaceous. PMID:19711467

Hieronymus, Tobin L; Witmer, Lawrence M; Tanke, Darren H; Currie, Philip J

2009-09-01

54

Evaluation of Soft Tissue Defects' Reconstruction Using Flaps or Skin Grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Removal of damaged tissue and organs followed by replacement with appropri- ate substitutes was a long- lasting tendency since the ancient times. Skin defects of any aetiology, can be replaced either with skin grafts or flaps. Skin graft or skin transplant is a skin patch completely detached out of a donor site, having no blood vessels to nourish, neither

Elizabeta Mirchevska; Igor Peev; Margarita Peneva; Boro Dzonov; Marija Marchevska; Vladimir Mirchevski

55

Facial and Periorbital Cellulitis due to Skin Peeling with Jet Stream by an Unauthorized Person  

PubMed Central

Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a “beauty parlor” session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role.

Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya

2014-01-01

56

Facial and Periorbital Cellulitis due to Skin Peeling with Jet Stream by an Unauthorized Person.  

PubMed

Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a "beauty parlor" session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role. PMID:24822131

Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya

2014-01-01

57

Thermographic imaging of facial skin--gender differences and temperature changes over time in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess changes in facial skin temperature over time, to identify sources of variation related to skin temperature and to evaluate interobserver reproducibility in measurements of the thermograms. Methods 62 volunteers (32 females, 30 males, mean age 23.4, range 19.5–29.5 years) underwent thermography of the face (left and right side lateral images) on four occasions with approximately 2 months between each session. Three observers recorded the images and marked regions of interest (ROIs) in each image using dedicated software. Smoking, exercise habits and use of oral contraceptives were recorded. Results A significant difference between sessions (?1 °C, p < 0.001) and between observers (?0.11 °C, p < 0.001) was identified. The difference between sides was not significant (?0.07 °C, p = 0.7). None of the interactions between side, session and observer were significant. Smoking, exercise habits and oral contraceptive intake were not significant impact factors when included as covariates in the analysis (p > 0.1). ROI temperature was significantly higher in males than in females (0.7 °C, p < 0.001). A mixed model analysis of variance showed that observer had little impact on the expected standard deviation, whereas session and subject had a greater impact. Conclusions Face temperature is symmetrical and varies over time. The non-significant difference between sides is highly reproducible, even between observers.

Christensen, J; Vaeth, M; Wenzel, A

2012-01-01

58

Characterization of lipases from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from human facial sebaceous skin.  

PubMed

Two staphylococcal lipases were obtained from Staphylococcus epidermidis S2 and Staphylococcus aureus S11 isolated from sebaceous areas on the skin of the human face. The molecular mass of both enzymes was estimated to be 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE. S2 lipase displayed its highest activity in the hydrolysis of olive oil at 32 degrees C and pH 8, whereas S11 lipase showed optimal activity at 31 degrees C and pH 8.5. The S2 lipase showed the property of cold-adaptation, with activation energy of 6.52 kcal/mol. In contrast, S11 lipase's activation energy, at 21 kcal/mol, was more characteristic of mesophilic lipases. S2 lipase was stable up to 45° C and within the pH range from 5 to 9, whereas S11 lipase was stable up to 50 degrees C and from pH 6 to 10. Both enzymes had high activity against tributyrin, waste soybean oil, and fish oil. Sequence analysis of the S2 lipase gene showed an open reading frame of 2,067 bp encoding a signal peptide (35 aa), a pro-peptide (267 aa), and a mature enzyme (386 aa); the S11 lipase gene, at 2,076 bp, also encoded a signal peptide (37 aa), pro-peptide (255 aa), and mature enzyme (399 aa). The two enzymes maintained amino acid sequence identity of 98-99% with other similar staphylococcal lipases. Their microbial origins and biochemical properties may make these staphylococcal lipases isolated from facial sebaceous skin suitable for use as catalysts in the cosmetic, medicinal, food, or detergent industries. PMID:22297223

Xie, Winny; Khosasih, Vivia; Suwanto, Antonius; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

2012-01-01

59

Spontaneous Skin Ulceration and Defective T Cell Function in CD18 Null Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A null mutation was prepared in the mouse for CD18, the b 2 subunit of leukocyte integrins. Homozygous CD18 null mice develop chronic dermatitis with extensive facial and subman- dibular erosions. The phenotype includes elevated neutrophil counts, increased immunoglobu- lin levels, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and abundant plasma cells in skin, lymph nodes, gut, and kidney. Very few neutrophils were found

Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek; Huifang Lu; Keith Norman; Nicole van Nood; Flor Munoz; Stephan Grabbe; Mark McArthur; Isabel Lorenzo; Sheldon Kaplan; Klaus Ley; C. Wayne Smith; Charles A. Montgomery; Susan Rich; Arthur L. Beaudet

60

Treatment of facial skin using combinations of CO2, Q-switched alexandrite, and/or flashlamp-pumped dye and/or erbium lasers in the same treatment session  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin aging caused from chronological and photodamage processes results in many alterations in skin appearance. In many circumstances, patients who pursue CO2 laser resurfacing for facial rejuvenation are also concerned with other photoaging alternations that are beyond the efficacy of the CO2 laser. We demonstrated an approach to aged facial skin by using combined treatments of appropriate lasers.

Fitzpatrick, Richard E.; Manuskiatti, Woraphong; Goldman, Mitchel P.

1998-07-01

61

3D imaging acquisition, modeling, and prototyping for facial defects reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach that combines optical three-dimensional imaging, reverse engineering (RE) and rapid prototyping (RP) for mold production in the prosthetic reconstruction of facial prostheses is presented. A commercial laser-stripe digitizer is used to perform the multiview acquisition of the patient's face; the point clouds are aligned and merged in order to obtain a polygonal model, which is then edited to sculpture the virtual prothesis. Two physical models of both the deformed face and the 'repaired' face are obtained: they differ only in the defect zone. Depending on the material used for the actual prosthesis, the two prototypes can be used either to directly cast the final prosthesis or to fabricate the positive wax pattern. Two case studies are presented, referring to prostetic reconstructions of an eye and of a nose. The results demonstrate the advantages over conventional techniques as well as the improvements with respect to known automated manufacturing techniques in the mold construction. The proposed method results into decreased patient's disconfort, reduced dependence on the anaplasthologist skill, increased repeatability and efficiency of the whole process.

Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Cavagnini, Gianluca; Gastaldi, Giorgio

2009-01-01

62

Management of Defects on Lower Extremities with the Use of Matriderm and Skin Graft  

PubMed Central

Background The reconstruction of large skin and soft tissue defects on the lower extremities is challenging. The skin graft is a simple and frequently used method for covering a skin defect. However, poor skin quality and architecture are well-known problems that lead to scar contracture. The collagen-elastin matrix, Matriderm, has been used to improve the quality of skin grafts; however, no statistical and objective review of the results has been reported. Methods Thirty-four patients (23 male and 11 female) who previously received a skin graft and simultaneous application of Matriderm between January 2010 and June 2012 were included in this study. The quality of the skin graft was evaluated using Cutometer, occasionally accompanied by pathologic findings. Results All 34 patients showed good skin quality compared to a traditional skin graft and were satisfied with their results. The statistical data for the measurement of the mechanical properties of the skin were similar to those for normal skin. In addition, there was no change in the engraftment rate. Conclusions The biggest problem of a traditional skin graft is scar contracture. However, the dermal matrix presents an improvement in skin quality with elastin and collagen. Therefore, a skin graft along with a simultaneous application of Matriderm is safe and effective and leads to a significantly better outcome from the perspective of skin elasticity.

Choi, Jun-Young; Kim, Seong-Hun; Oh, Gwang-Jin; Lee, Nae-Ho; Yang, Kyung-Moo

2014-01-01

63

"Home of Younger Skin" (HOYS) program: Defining the change in apparent skin age after facial treatment with botulinum toxin and dermal fillers  

PubMed Central

Background Objective and subjective scales estimating improvement in both clinical studies and clinical practice are becoming more mainstream. However, the use of a system to analyze improvement in aging with a multiplicity of treatments would be useful. The purpose of this study was to use a recently developed educative and patient self-assessment program (“Home of Younger Skin”, HOYS) for assessment of the effect of facial treatment with neurotoxins and filling agents in terms of decreasing apparent age. Methods Four patients underwent facial treatments with neurotoxins and dermal fillers by an experienced blinded physician and were assessed twice utilizing an age analysis program (HOYS), once before and then 6 weeks after completion of treatment. Results The four patients showed an average reduction in apparent facial age of 7.5 years. The individual “regions” differed in their reductions. The upper face showed a decline of 13.5 years, the periorbital region 9.25 years, the mid face 4.5 years, and the lower face 12.25 years. Conclusion Use of this previously validated self-assessment program may prove to be a useful measure of patient-reported improvement with treatment.

Goodman, Greg J; Roberts, Stefania

2012-01-01

64

An allogeneic cultured dermal substitute suitable for treating intractable skin ulcers and large skin defects prior to autologous skin grafting: three case reports.  

PubMed

Intractable skin ulcers that arise as secondary lesions from disease and full-thickness skin defects that result from skin tumor excision often need autologous skin grafting to close the wound. We developed an allogeneic cultured dermal substitute (CDS) to shorten the time needed to prepare a wound bed suitable for autologous skin grafting. The CDS was prepared by plating normal human fibroblasts on a spongy matrix consisting of hyaluronic acid and atelo-collagen. The allogeneic CDS was then placed on the rinsed wound surface. This procedure was repeated twice a week for up to five weeks, until the wounds were closed by autologous skin grafting. In all three cases, after CDS treatment for two to five weeks, the wound conditions became suitable for skin grafting; these conditions had not been improved by conventional topical treatments, including topical basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Healthy granulation tissue developed rapidly, concomitant with wound size reduction. The present results indicate that CDS is an excellent biological wound dressing for improving wound conditions so that they are suitable for subsequent autologous skin grafting as well as for shortening the treatment duration for skin ulcers and full-thickness skin defects. PMID:16361714

Hasegawa, Toshio; Suga, Yasushi; Mizoguchi, Masayuki; Muramatsu, Shigenori; Mizuno, Yuki; Ogawa, Hideoki; Kubo, Kentaro; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

2005-09-01

65

Functional sensory function recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip skin defects  

PubMed Central

The fingertip skin defect is a common hand injury often accompanied by tendon or bone exposure, and is normally treated with flaps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional sensory recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip cutaneous deficiency. A total of 23 patients, aged between 18 and 50 years (mean age, 31 years) with fingertip cutaneous deficiency (30 digits) were treated with random-pattern abdominal skin flaps. The post-debridement defect area measured from 0.7×1.2 to 2.5×3 cm. The flap pedicle was divided three weeks after surgery, which marked the onset of the second stage. A second surgery was performed on 2 patients after 3 months and on another set of 2 patients after 6 months to create a thinner flap. Tissue was dissected during surgery for a histological examination. All the flaps survived and the post-operative follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the appearance of their fingers and the flaps. All flaps demonstrated satisfactory flexibility and texture and sensory recovery was achieved. Only 4 patients were subjected to a second surgery to make the flap thinner. The flaps for the 3-month tissue section had several low-density, free nerve endings, whereas those of the 6-month section had more intensive free nerve endings, nerve tracts, tactile cells and lamellar corpuscles. Random-pattern abdominal skin flap therefore repairs fingertip skin defects achieving sensory recovery.

YU, YA-DONG; ZHANG, YING-ZE; BI, WEI-DONG; WU, TAO

2013-01-01

66

Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age perception is a better biomarker of skin aging than chronological age. However, the optical cues that determine the perception of human skin age are difficult to assess given the complex interactions between light and the multi layered structure of the skin. The aim of the present study is to clarify the independent contribution of both diffuse and specular reflection components to the skin age perception. First, according to our results, subjects were able to estimate the age of skin only by using the diffuse reflection component. Moreover, we showed that inclusion of the specular reflection component added on average 5 years to their age estimation. Second, by artificially manipulating the specular component, we concluded that the luminance distribution affects the perceived age of the skin.

Arce-Lopera, Carlos; Igarashi, Takanori; Nakao, Keisuke; Okajima, Katsunori

2012-05-01

67

Resurfacing glabrous skin defects in the hand: the thenar base donor site.  

PubMed

Defects of the glabrous skin surfaces of the palm and fingers result from numerous causes including larger fingertip injuries, unhealed burns, and after surgery for diverse pathologies. The qualities of glabrous skin are specifically tailored to the functional requirements of high-shear strength and robustness. Despite these unique properties, graft reconstruction of defects in the glabrous regions of the hand is frequently achieved with skin from nonglabrous donor sites such as the medial forearm. Nonglabrous skin has a poor color and texture match for such applications and is frequently associated with tender and unsightly donor scars. We describe our experiences of harvesting full-thickness grafts from the glabrous skin centered over the proximal flexion crease at the level of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb. We have utilized this site to harvest skin grafts of up to 2 cm in width for the resurfacing of small-sized to medium-sized defects on the palmar surfaces of the hands and fingers in 28 patients under both traumatic and elective circumstances. The skin has an excellent type-match to the defect and is quick and easy to harvest due to its adjacent location to the defect. The donor scar matures quickly, and as it lies along the thumb base crease, it runs along one of the least used contact surfaces, thereby limiting the potential discomfort associated with FTSG harvest sites from other areas. Patient satisfaction with the procedure has been high, and it represents a useful alternative to traditional nonglabrous skin graft donor sites for small-sized to medium-sized defects. PMID:24637743

Milner, Chris S; Thirkannad, Sunil M

2014-06-01

68

CASE REPORT Reconstruction and Characterization of Composite Mandibular Defects Requiring Double Skin Paddle Fibular Free Flaps.  

PubMed

Objective: Fibular free flaps are the preferred method for reconstruction of composite lateral mandibular defects. This reconstructive technique is limited by the skin paddle's inability to freely rotate when attempting to fill 2 poorly aligned defects. Reconstructive surgeons have been exploring multiple methods of creating 2 independent skin paddles based on the same peroneal blood supply. We present a variation of these techniques. Method: Our patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma presented with a left retromolar recurrence and osteoradionecrosis of the mandible with a draining anterior sinus tract. The combination of these defects warranted further composite resection with fibular free flap reconstruction. Results: A subperiosteal dissection was performed to create 2 separate septocutaneous skin paddles based on the same peroneal blood supply. This dissection and discard of proximal fibula provided the rotational freedom needed for the 2 skin islands to fill both a lateral oral defect and anterior cutaneous defect. Conclusion: Although similar reconstructive methods have been reported in the literature, the characterization of defects benefiting from these techniques is scarce and unclear. We describe clear and concise characteristics of these defects, which should be meaningful to the reconstructive surgeon when considering operative technique. PMID:23653822

Badeau, Austin M; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B

2013-01-01

69

CASE REPORT Reconstruction and Characterization of Composite Mandibular Defects Requiring Double Skin Paddle Fibular Free Flaps  

PubMed Central

Objective: Fibular free flaps are the preferred method for reconstruction of composite lateral mandibular defects. This reconstructive technique is limited by the skin paddle's inability to freely rotate when attempting to fill 2 poorly aligned defects. Reconstructive surgeons have been exploring multiple methods of creating 2 independent skin paddles based on the same peroneal blood supply. We present a variation of these techniques. Method: Our patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma presented with a left retromolar recurrence and osteoradionecrosis of the mandible with a draining anterior sinus tract. The combination of these defects warranted further composite resection with fibular free flap reconstruction. Results: A subperiosteal dissection was performed to create 2 separate septocutaneous skin paddles based on the same peroneal blood supply. This dissection and discard of proximal fibula provided the rotational freedom needed for the 2 skin islands to fill both a lateral oral defect and anterior cutaneous defect. Conclusion: Although similar reconstructive methods have been reported in the literature, the characterization of defects benefiting from these techniques is scarce and unclear. We describe clear and concise characteristics of these defects, which should be meaningful to the reconstructive surgeon when considering operative technique.

Badeau, Austin M.; Deleyiannis, Frederic W.-B.

2013-01-01

70

FEM modeling and histological analyses on thermal damage induced in facial skin resurfacing procedure with different CO2 laser pulse duration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser light is nowadays routinely used in the aesthetic treatments of facial skin, such as in laser rejuvenation, scar removal etc. The induced thermal damage may be varied by setting different laser parameters, in order to obtain a particular aesthetic result. In this work, it is proposed a theoretical study on the induced thermal damage in the deep tissue, by considering different laser pulse duration. The study is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM): a bidimensional model of the facial skin is depicted in axial symmetry, considering the different skin structures and their different optical and thermal parameters; the conversion of laser light into thermal energy is modeled by the bio-heat equation. The light source is a CO2 laser, with different pulse durations. The model enabled to study the thermal damage induced into the skin, by calculating the Arrhenius integral. The post-processing results enabled to study in space and time the temperature dynamics induced in the facial skin, to study the eventual cumulative effects of subsequent laser pulses and to optimize the procedure for applications in dermatological surgery. The calculated data where then validated in an experimental measurement session, performed in a sheep animal model. Histological analyses were performed on the treated tissues, evidencing the spatial distribution and the entity of the thermal damage in the collageneous tissue. Modeling and experimental results were in good agreement, and they were used to design a new optimized laser based skin resurfacing procedure.

Rossi, Francesca; Zingoni, Tiziano; di Cicco, Emiliano; Manetti, Leonardo; Pini, Roberto; Fortuna, Damiano

2011-06-01

71

[Facial ageing and cosmetic facial surgery].  

PubMed

The aim of cosmetic facial surgery is to enhance facial beauty by reducing the effects of ageing or by beautifying certain aspects of the face. The face can be subdivided anatomically into the skin, the fat compartments, the ligaments (the links between the skin and the underlying facial skeleton), the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and the masticatory and mimic musculature. As a result of the influence of gravity and ageing, changes which progress according to a fixed pattern take place at all levels of the soft tissue of the face. The supporting facial skeleton also reduces in volume in a characteristic manner. A thorough knowledge of the facial anatomy and the ageing process is essential for safe, effective and predicable facial rejuvenating surgery. The dentist generally has a long-lasting relationship with his patients and therefore may play an important role in advising patients with respect to the (im)possibilities of cosmetic facial surgery. PMID:24684134

Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Jaspers, G W C; Vissink, A

2014-03-01

72

Facial resurfacing with split-thickness skin grafts in xeroderma pigmentosum variant.  

PubMed

Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) is a rare systemic disease which is transmitted through an incomplete sex-linked recessive gene. As a result of this, exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of the sun causes malignant skin lesions. One of the most effective treatment options for the malignant lesions is full-face resurfacing with skin grafts. These grafts should be harvested from areas that have not been affected by UV exposure or have at least been minimally affected. The authors present a patient with XP whose face was resurfaced by split-thickness skin grafts taken from the buttocks. PMID:20728371

Tayeb, Talel; Laure, Boris; Sury, Florent; Lorette, Gérard; Goga, Dominique

2011-10-01

73

Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of:\\u000a1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection),\\u000a2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial components or describing the texture of the skin in a facial area;

Maja Pantic; S. Li; A. Jain

2009-01-01

74

Evaluation of pain associated with facial injections using CoolSkin® in rhytidectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the use of the CoolSkin® (Elbio, Seoul, Korea) skin-cooling device to reduce injection pain during rhytidectomy. Method Nineteen patients underwent rhytidectomy using the CoolSkin at ?4°C on the first side lateral injection. The second side was then started without the cooling. Patients were offered cooling if they desired it on the second side. Surveys were administered 24 hours after the procedure, comparing pain (scale 0–5) and investigating treatment preferences. Patient healing was tracked for 6 weeks. Results Mean pain score for the untreated side was 4.63 versus 2.37 for the CoolSkin-treated side (P < 0.001). All patients asked for the second side to be cooled, and 89% were in favor of the chilling procedure when surveyed 24 hours afterwards. Sixty eight percent of patients stated that this device reduced fear of future injections. No flap loss or healing sequelae were noted from device use. Conclusion The CoolSkin device is an effective tool to reduce injection pain laterally during rhytidectomy.

Taghizadeh, Farhan; Ellison, Timothy; Traylor-Knowles, Mimi

2011-01-01

75

Face cooling with mist water increases cerebral blood flow during exercise: effect of changes in facial skin blood flow  

PubMed Central

Facial cooling (FC) increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and during exercise; however, the mechanism of this response remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that FC causes facial vasoconstriction that diverts skin blood flow (SkBFface) toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean) at rest and to a greater extent during exercise. Nine healthy young subjects (20 ± 2 years) underwent 3 min of FC by fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cold water (~4°C) at rest and during steady-state exercise [heart rate (HR) of 120 bpm]. We focused on the difference between the averaged data acquired from 1 min immediately before FC and last 1 min of FC. SkBFface, MCA Vmean, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were higher during exercise than at rest. As hypothesized, FC decreased SkBFface at rest (?32 ± 4%) and to a greater extent during exercise (?64 ± 10%, P = 0.012). Although MCA Vmean was increased by FC (Rest, +1.4 ± 0.5 cm/s; Exercise, +1.4 ± 0.6 cm/s), the amount of the FC-evoked changes in MCA Vmean at rest and during exercise differed among subjects. In addition, changes in MCA Vmean with FC did not correlate with concomitant changes in SkBFface (r = 0.095, P = 0.709). MAP was also increased by FC (Rest, +6.2 ± 1.4 mmHg; Exercise, +4.2 ± 1.2 mmHg). These findings suggest that the FC-induced increase in CBF during exercise could not be explained only by change in SkBFface.

Miyazawa, Taiki; Horiuchi, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Subudhi, Andrew W.; Sugawara, Jun; Ogoh, Shigehiko

2012-01-01

76

Race, Rather than Skin Pigmentation, Predicts Facial Hair Growth in Women  

PubMed Central

Background: The Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score is the currently accepted standard for assessing excess hair growth that may indicate hyperandrogenicity. The score was originally based on 60 Caucasian women, and recent studies suggest that it may need modification to be used in other populations. Objectives: To investigate ethnic, racial, and pigmentary variations in hair growth of the upper lip in diverse multinational populations. Results: Variations in hair growth of the upper lip were significantly related to self-reported ethnicity and race. In a logistic regression with racial groups and skin lightness, all racial groupings (African American, Hispanic, Asian Indian, and East Asian) were predictive of hair growth (all p<0.0001), but skin lightness was not (all p>0.05). Conclusion: The observed differences in constitutive hair growth illustrate the need to develop an ethnically stratified visual scoring method to more accurately characterize the severity of excess hair growth.

Javorsky, Emilia; Perkins, Alexis C.; Hillebrand, Greg; Miyamoto, Kukizo

2014-01-01

77

Race, rather than skin pigmentation, predicts facial hair growth in women.  

PubMed

Background: The Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score is the currently accepted standard for assessing excess hair growth that may indicate hyperandrogenicity. The score was originally based on 60 Caucasian women, and recent studies suggest that it may need modification to be used in other populations. Objectives: To investigate ethnic, racial, and pigmentary variations in hair growth of the upper lip in diverse multinational populations. Results: Variations in hair growth of the upper lip were significantly related to self-reported ethnicity and race. In a logistic regression with racial groups and skin lightness, all racial groupings (African American, Hispanic, Asian Indian, and East Asian) were predictive of hair growth (all p<0.0001), but skin lightness was not (all p>0.05). Conclusion: The observed differences in constitutive hair growth illustrate the need to develop an ethnically stratified visual scoring method to more accurately characterize the severity of excess hair growth. PMID:24847405

Javorsky, Emilia; Perkins, Alexis C; Hillebrand, Greg; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Boer Kimball, Alexa

2014-05-01

78

The utility of soft tissue fillers in clinical dermatology: treatment of fine wrinkles and skin defects.  

PubMed

This review discusses treatment strategies for wrinkles and skin defects through an in-depth overview of current soft tissue fillers utilized within the fields of dermatology and plastic surgery. From the review, it is evident that the utilization of different materials for various skin abnormalities is extremely wide in scope. Many clinicians have adopted their own preferences based on not only the knowledge provided by their experience but also the respective profiles of each individual filler, including their efficacy, practicality and safety. With the ongoing emergence of commercially available products designed for soft tissue augmentation, the market will continue to present new and improved treatment options. Although the search for the perfect or most ideal filler is far from over, this review demonstrates that there are a number of commercially available products that are more than acceptable to both patients and clinicians in the treatment of wrinkles and other skin defects. PMID:17605691

Sadick, Neil; Sorhaindo, Lian

2007-07-01

79

Reconstruction of full-thickness defects with bovine-derived collagen/elastin matrix: a series of challenging cases and the first reported post-burn facial reconstruction.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of full-thickness defects may benefit from integration of dermal substitutes, which serve as a foundation for split-thickness skin grafts, thus enhancing short and long-term results. We present a series of 7 patients who were treated between 2010 and 2012 for complicated full-thickness defects by the second-generation collagen/elastin matrix Matriderm® covered by a split-thickness skin graft. The defects resulted from malignancy resection, trauma, and post-burn scar reconstruction. Overall graft take was excellent and no complications were noted regarding the dermal substitute. Graft quality was close to normal skin in terms of elasticity, pliability, texture, and color. Good contour and cushioning of defects in weight bearing areas was also achieved. Matriderm was found to be a useful adjunct to full-thickness defect reconstruction, especially in difficult areas where the desired result is a scar of the highest quality possible. PMID:22777231

Haik, Josef; Weissman, Oren; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Farber, Nimrod; Harats, Moti; Rozenblatt, Shira M; Kamolz, Lars Peter; Winkler, Eyal; Zilinsky, Isaac

2012-07-01

80

Perforator flap: A novel method for providing skin cover to lower limb defects  

PubMed Central

Background Soft tissue defects in the lower limb pose a formidable challenge due to lack of reliable local flap options. Due to thin non-expendable soft tissues and predisposition to massive edema formation, even small defects become problematic. Perforator flaps represent the latest trends in soft tissue coverage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of perforator flaps as coverage of soft tissue defects in lower limbs. Material and methods A series of patients with soft tissue defects of various etiologies in the lower limb were treated using perforator flap at a tertiary care service hospital. Six were free flaps and fourteen pedicled flaps. Doppler ultrasound was used to identify recipient and donor vessels pre-operatively. Results Only one flap was lost due to venous congestion. In another case of carcinoma penis there was delayed healing due to persistent lymphorrhoea as a result of post-operative status following lymph node dissection and radiotherapy. Fifteen donor sites required split skin grafting, as they could not be closed directly. Conclusion Perforator flaps are a reliable option for closure of soft tissue defects of lower limb irrespective of size, location and depth. There is minimal donor site morbidity. It has the advantage of rapid dissection, flap elevation and reliable skin territory. As no special equipment is required it can be replicated in smaller centers also.

Mukherjee, M.K.; Alam Parwaz, M.; Chakravarty, B.; Langer, V.

2012-01-01

81

Glycerol replacement corrects defective skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier function in aquaporin-3-deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice deficient in the epidermal water\\/glycerol transporter aquaporin-3 (AQP3) have reduced stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin elasticity, and impaired barrier recovery after SC removal. SC glycerol content is reduced 3-fold in AQP3 null mice, whereas SC structure, protein\\/lipid composition, and ion\\/osmolyte content are not changed. We show here that glycerol replacement corrects each of the defects in AQP3 null

Mariko Hara; A. S. Verkman

2003-01-01

82

Integra artificial skin in the management of severe tissue defects, including bone exposure, in injured children.  

PubMed

A dermal substitute, Integra (Integra Neurosciences Implants SA, Sophia Antipolis, France) artificial skin, was used for wound management on three children with lower limb injuries in our institutions. In one case this biosynthetic material was applied directly to a bony surface (patella). This technique allows an early wound coverage and provides a satisfactory preparation for autograft. It can be a useful adjunct in the treatment of severe tissue defects in child limb injuries. PMID:16093952

Violas, Philippe; Abid, Abdelazis; Darodes, Philippe; Galinier, Philippe; de Gauzy, Jérome Sales; Cahuzac, Jean-Philippe

2005-09-01

83

Promoted dermis healing from full-thickness skin defect by porous silk fibroin scaffolds (PSFSs).  

PubMed

Studies on skin substitutes and dermal scaffolds have been extensively carried out in the past several decades and some commercial products derived from collagen and polymers have been in marketing. Yet little research on silk fibroin based dermal scaffolds and products has been reported so far. In the present study, therefore, porous silk fibroin scaffolds (PSFSs) have been prepared by freeze drying method. The effects of PSFSs on skin recovery from full thickness defect have been examined by histological evaluation with respect to neovascularization, dermal regeneration and infiltration of inflammatory cells. In addition, tissue compatibility between PSFSs and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges (as control) has been semiquantitatively compared by scoring method. The results showed that at day 18 after implantation, new tissues formed in PSFSs whose structure was almost equal to normal skin structure where proportional distribution of functional blood vessels could be found. Furthermore, infiltration of inflammatory cells in PSFSs disappeared within 7 days. By contrast, a variety of interstices, fibrous encapsulization and moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells could be found in PVA sponges at day 18 after implantation. In summary, PSFSs has significantly promoted the skin recovery from full thickness defect, showing fibroin's outstanding tissue compatibility. PMID:21084741

Guan, Guoping; Bai, Lun; Zuo, Baoqi; Li, Mingzhong; Wu, Zhengyu; Li, Yonglin; Wang, Lu

2010-01-01

84

Clinical spectrum of females with HCCS mutation: from no clinical signs to a neonatal lethal form of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Segmental Xp22.2 monosomy or a heterozygous HCCS mutation is associated with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) or MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea) syndrome, an X-linked disorder with male lethality. HCCS encodes the holocytochrome c-type synthase involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and programmed cell death. Methods We characterized the X-chromosomal abnormality encompassing HCCS or an intragenic mutation in this gene in six new female patients with an MLS phenotype by cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR. The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern was determined and clinical data of the patients were reviewed. Results Two terminal Xp deletions of ?11.2 Mb, two submicroscopic copy number losses, one of ~850 kb and one of ?3 Mb, all covering HCCS, 1 nonsense, and one mosaic 2-bp deletion in HCCS are reported. All females had a completely (>98:2) or slightly skewed (82:18) XCI pattern. The most consistent clinical features were microphthalmia/anophthalmia and sclerocornea/corneal opacity in all patients and congenital linear skin defects in 4/6. Additional manifestations included various ocular anomalies, cardiac defects, brain imaging abnormalities, microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, and facial dysmorphism. However, no obvious clinical sign was observed in three female carriers who were relatives of one patient. Conclusion Our findings showed a wide phenotypic spectrum ranging from asymptomatic females with an HCCS mutation to patients with a neonatal lethal MLS form. Somatic mosaicism and the different ability of embryonic cells to cope with an OXPHOS defect and/or enhanced cell death upon HCCS deficiency likely underlie the great variability in phenotypes.

2014-01-01

85

Efficient design of a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap to repair large skin defects of the upper back.  

PubMed

Closing large skin defects of the upper back is a challenging problem. We have developed an efficient design for a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap for reconstruction in this region. The longitudinal axis of the skin island was designed to be perpendicular to the line of least skin tension at the recipient site so that primary closure of the flap donor site changed the shape of the recipient site to one that was easier to close. We used this method for four patients with skin cancers or soft-tissue sarcomas of the upper back in 2011 and 2012. The size of skin defects after wide excision ranged from 11 × 10 to 25 × 20 cm(2) , and all skin defects could be covered by the flaps and all wounds of donor site could be closed without skin grafts. No wound complications occurred in any patient. Functional and aesthetic outcomes were satisfactory in all patients. This flap design is effective for reconstructing large skin defects of the upper back. PMID:23836621

Miyamoto, Shimpei; Kayano, Shuji; Umezawa, Hiroki; Fujiki, Masahide; Nakao, Junichi; Sakuraba, Minoru

2014-01-01

86

Overview of facial aging.  

PubMed

Facial aging is a multidimensional, multifactorial process. The aging face has traditionally been treated by each specialty in a different manner. However, by understanding the process from the perspective of different specialties, each physician may better treat the spectrum of facial aging. Whether or not the facial plastic surgeon injects products to restore volume, uses lasers to resurface the epidermis and dermis, incorporates cosmeceuticals to enhance and maintain improvements in the skin integrity and appearance, or relaxes muscles with botulinum toxins, he or she can best advise patients and address facial aging by having a functional understanding of these various modalities. With this knowledge, the facial plastic surgeon can parse the component of facial aging that enables him or her to correct each with the appropriate treatment. PMID:20024868

Beer, Kenneth; Beer, Jacob

2009-12-01

87

A pilot study on the use of a plasma skin regeneration device (Portrait® PSR 3 ) in full facial rejuvenation procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new modality, the Portrait plasma skin regeneration (PSR3) system, allows precise and rapid treatment of photo-damaged skin, with controlled thermal injury and modification. Radio\\u000a frequency (RF) energy converts nitrogen gas into plasma within the handpiece. Rapid heating of the skin occurs as the plasma\\u000a rapidly gives up energy to the skin. This energy transfer is not chromophore dependent. The

Suzanne Kilmer; Natalie Semchyshyn; Geeta Shah; Richard Fitzpatrick

2007-01-01

88

Improvement of facial skin characteristics using copper oxide containing pillowcases: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Copper plays a key role in several processes of skin formation and regeneration. Copper has been shown to be absorbed through intact skin. We hypothesized that sleeping on fabrics containing copper-impregnated fibres would have a positive cosmetic effect on the skin. The aim of this study was to confirm our hypothesis. A 4-week, double blind, parallel, randomized study was

G. Borkow; J. Gabbay; A. Lyakhovitsky; M. Huszar

2009-01-01

89

Reduced inflammatory threshold indicates skin barrier defect in transglutaminase 3 knockout mice.  

PubMed

Recently, a transglutaminase 3 knockout (TGM3/KO) mouse was generated that showed impaired hair development, but no gross defects in the epidermal barrier, although increased fragility of isolated corneocytes was demonstrated. Here we investigated the functionality of skin barrier in vivo by percutaneous sensitization to FITC in TGM3/KO (n=64) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (n=36). Cutaneous inflammation was evaluated by mouse ear swelling test (MEST), histology, serum IgE levels, and by flow cytometry from draining lymph nodes. Inflammation-induced significant MEST difference (P<0.0001) was detected between KO and WT mice and was supported also by histopathology. A significant increase of CD4+ CD25+-activated T cells (P<0.01) and elevated serum IgE levels (P<0.05) in KO mice indicated more the development of FITC sensitization than an irritative reaction. Propionibacter acnes-induced intracutaneous inflammation showed no difference (P=0.2254) between the reactivity of WT and KO immune system. As in vivo tracer, FITC penetration from skin surface followed by two-photon microscopy demonstrated a more invasive percutaneous penetration in KO mice. The clinically uninvolved skin in TGM3/KO mice showed impaired barrier function and higher susceptibility to FITC sensitization indicating that TGM3 has a significant contribution to the functionally intact cutaneous barrier. PMID:23884312

Bognar, Peter; Nemeth, Ilona; Mayer, Balazs; Haluszka, Dora; Wikonkal, Norbert; Ostorhazi, Eszter; John, Susan; Paulsson, Mats; Smyth, Neil; Pasztoi, Maria; Buzas, Edit I; Szipocs, Robert; Kolonics, Attila; Temesvari, Erzsebet; Karpati, Sarolta

2014-01-01

90

Reduction of conspicuous facial pores by topical fullerene: possible role in the suppression of PGE2 production in the skin  

PubMed Central

Background Conspicuous facial pores are therapeutic targets for cosmeceuticals. Here we examine the effect of topical fullerene on conspicuous facial pores using a new image analyser called the VISIA® system. Ten healthy Japanese females participated in this study, and they received applications of 1% fullerene lotion to the face twice a day for 8 weeks. Findings Fullerene lotion significantly decreased conspicuous pores by 17.6% (p?facial pores after an 8-week treatment possibly through the suppression of PGE2 production in the epidermis.

2014-01-01

91

Effect of resveratrol on cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with oxidative phosphorylation defects.  

PubMed

Few therapeutic options are available to patients with oxidative phosphorylation disorders. Administering pharmacological agents that are able to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis have been put forward as a possible treatment, yet the approach remains in need of thorough testing. We investigated the effect of resveratrol in an in vitro setting. Mitochondrial enzymatic activities were tested in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients harboring a nuclear defect in either complex II or complex IV (n?=?11), and in fibroblasts from healthy controls (n?=?11). In the latter, preincubation with resveratrol resulted in a significant increase of citrate synthase, complex II and complex IV enzyme activity. In patients with complex II or complex IV deficiency, however, activity of the deficient complex could not be substantially augmented, and response was dependent upon the residual activity. We conclude that resveratrol is not capable of normalizing oxidative phosphorylation activities in deficient cell lines. PMID:23620374

De Paepe, Boel; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Smet, Joél; Vanlander, Arnaud; Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy; Van Hove, Johan Lk; Deschepper, Ellen; Briones, Paz; Van Coster, Rudy

2014-02-01

92

Epidermal barrier defects link atopic dermatitis with altered skin cancer susceptibility.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis can result from loss of structural proteins in the outermost epidermal layers, leading to a defective epidermal barrier. To test whether this influences tumour formation, we chemically induced tumours in EPI-/- mice, which lack three barrier proteins-Envoplakin, Periplakin, and Involucrin. EPI-/- mice were highly resistant to developing benign tumours when treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The DMBA response was normal, but EPI-/- skin exhibited an exaggerated atopic response to TPA, characterised by abnormal epidermal differentiation, a complex immune infiltrate and elevated serum thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). The exacerbated TPA response could be normalised by blocking TSLP or the immunoreceptor NKG2D but not CD4+ T cells. We conclude that atopy is protective against skin cancer in our experimental model and that the mechanism involves keratinocytes communicating with cells of the immune system via signalling elements that normally protect against environmental assaults.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01888.001. PMID:24843010

Cipolat, Sara; Hoste, Esther; Natsuga, Ken; Quist, Sven R; Watt, Fiona M

2014-01-01

93

Epidermal barrier defects link atopic dermatitis with altered skin cancer susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Atopic dermatitis can result from loss of structural proteins in the outermost epidermal layers, leading to a defective epidermal barrier. To test whether this influences tumour formation, we chemically induced tumours in EPI?/? mice, which lack three barrier proteins—Envoplakin, Periplakin, and Involucrin. EPI?/? mice were highly resistant to developing benign tumours when treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The DMBA response was normal, but EPI?/? skin exhibited an exaggerated atopic response to TPA, characterised by abnormal epidermal differentiation, a complex immune infiltrate and elevated serum thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). The exacerbated TPA response could be normalised by blocking TSLP or the immunoreceptor NKG2D but not CD4+ T cells. We conclude that atopy is protective against skin cancer in our experimental model and that the mechanism involves keratinocytes communicating with cells of the immune system via signalling elements that normally protect against environmental assaults. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01888.001

Cipolat, Sara; Hoste, Esther; Natsuga, Ken; Quist, Sven R; Watt, Fiona M

2014-01-01

94

Analysis of Facial Deformities in Korean Leprosy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The clinical features of various facial deformities in Korean leprosy patients were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Methods One hundred ninety six patients with leprosy were examined for various facial deformities using a nasal speculum, endoscope, and digital camera. The frequency and severity of external nasal deformities and septal perforations were evaluated according to the type of leprosy. Eye deformities, ear deformities, and facial palsy were also assessed. Results Seventy-one patients (36.2%) displayed external nasal deformities: 28 minimal contractures, three cartilage contractures, two bony-cartilage contractures, and 38 skin defects. The external nasal deformity and severe form deformity in lepromatous types were more frequent compared to other types (P<0.05 for each variable). Twenty-three patients (9%) displayed septal perforations, among whom 11 had cartilaginous perforations and 12 had bony-cartilaginous perforations. The frequency of septal and bony-cartilaginous perforations did not differ significantly between the types of leprosy (P>0.05 for each variable). Sixty-one patients (31.1%) had eye deformities and 19 patients (9.7%) had facial nerve palsy, common in the borderline type. No cases of ear deformities were observed. Conclusion Korean patients had characteristic deformities according to the type of leprosy. They were different from those seen in the prior analyses of Caucasian populations.

Kim, Ji Heui; Lee, Ok Joo

2013-01-01

95

Effect of the thigh-cuffs on the carotid artery diameter jugular vein section and facial skin edema: HDT study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: To evaluate the distal arterial, venous and skin changes in a group using thigh cuffs during daytime and in a control group. Method: Cardiac, arterial, venous parameters were measured by echography and Doppler. Skin thickness was measured by high frequency echography. Results & discussion: Head down position induced plasma volume reduction, increased cerebral resistance, reduced lower limb resistance. The jugular vein increased whereas the femoral and popliteal veins decreased. All these changes were already observed in previous HDT. Common carotid diameter decreased, Front head skin thickness increased and Tibial skin thickness decreased. Eight hours with thigh cuffs increased the cardiac and carotid sizes which is in agreement with the plasma volume increase. Conversely they reduced the cerebral vascular resistance, jugular section and front head edema which may explain the sensation of comfort reported by the subjects. At the lower limb level the thigh cuffs restored the skin thickness to pre-HDT level but enlarged markedly the femoral and popliteal veins. HR, BP, CO, TPR did not change.

Roumy, Jerome; Diridillou, Stephane; Herault, Stephane; Fomina, Galina; Alferova, Irina; Arbeille, Philippe

2001-08-01

96

A specific defect in glycosylation of epidermal cell membranes. Definition in skin from patients with epidermolysis bullosa simplex.  

PubMed

Why blister formation occurs within the epidermis in epidermolysis bullosa (EB) simplex is not known. One possibility is that there are diminished amounts, absence, or biochemical alterations of one or more structural components of epidermal cell membranes, thereby leading to increased skin fragility. In order to test this hypothesis, biopsy specimens were obtained from clinically normal-appearing skin of patients with simplex, junctional, and dystrophic forms of EB and normal adult volunteers. Immunofluorescence studies were performed on each specimen using eight fluorescein-labeled affinity-purified lectins shown to bind uniformly to epidermal cell membranes of normal human adult skin and neonatal foreskin. To examine the epidermal cytoskeleton, each tissue specimen was also examined using two antikeratin monoclonal antibodies. Irregular and focally granular epidermal membrane staining was noted in each EB simplex specimen examined with the lectin-peanut agglutinin. In contrast, uniformly crisp membrane staining was seen in each specimen from patients with junctional or dystrophic EB and from normal volunteers. This epidermal cell membrane glycosylation defect appears to have the restricted carbohydrate specificity of peanut agglutinin since staining of EB simplex skin with each of the remaining seven lectins was indistinguishable from that seen in skin from patients with the other forms of EB and normal adult skin. Furthermore, the epidermis in EB simplex skin appears to be selectively abnormal since the same tissue specimens demonstrated normal keratin cytoskeleton staining. PMID:2412497

Fine, J D; Griffith, R D

1985-10-01

97

The use of absorbable interceed(®) pouch with double-layer skin closure for partial defect of breast.  

PubMed

Generally, a partial breast defect can be covered with surrounding breast tissue. However, when the tumor is located in the upper central and inner quadrant, simple closure with breast tissue is insufficient because rotation of breast tissue is difficult in this location. We introduce a surgical technique using an absorbable Interceed(®) pouch with double-layer skin closure for a remnant defect. A total of 43 patients with breast cancer underwent conventional breast-conserving surgery, following which an Interceed(®) pouch with double-layer skin closure was applied for a remnant defect of the breast. Patients assessed their own cosmetic outcomes based on a four-point scoring system. The mean age of the patients and their mean body mass index were 51.2 years and 23.1 kg/m(2) , respectively. Cosmetic outcomes were self-reported to be excellent in 13 cases (30.2%), good in 26 cases (60.5%), fair in three cases (7.0%), and poor in one case (2.3%). Postoperative complications occurred in two cases (4.6%). In conclusion, a use of an absorbable Interceed(®) pouch with double-layer skin closure is a simple, feasible, ancillary surgical technique to correct an upper central and inner quadrant breast defect without significant complications. PMID:24890770

Lee, Jeeyeon; Bae, Youngtae

2014-07-01

98

Epidermal stem cells cultured on collagen-modified chitin membrane induce in situ tissue regeneration of full-thickness skin defects in mice.  

PubMed

A Large scale of full-thickness skin defects is lack of auto-grafts and which requires the engineered skin substitutes for repair and regeneration. One major obstacle in skin tissue engineering is to expand epidermal stem cells (ESCs) and develop functional substitutes. The other one is the scaffold of the ESCs. Here, we applied type I collagen-modified chitin membrane to form collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM), which has been proved to have a great biocompatibility and degraded totally when it was subcutaneously transplanted into rat skin. ESCs were cultured, and the resulting biofilm was used to cover full-thickness skin defects in nude mice. The transplantation of ESCs- collagen- chitn biomimetic membrane (ESCs-C-CBM) has achieved in situ skin regeneration. In nude mice, compared to controls with collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM) only, the ESCs-C-CBM group had significantly more dermatoglyphs on the skin wound 10 w after surgery, and the new skin was relatively thick, red and elastic. In vivo experiments showed obvious hair follicle cell proliferation in the full-thickness skin defect. Stem cell markers examination showed active ESCs in repair and regeneration of skin. The results indicate that the collagen-modified chitin membrane carry with ESCs has successfully regenerated the whole skin with all the skin appendages and function. PMID:24516553

Shen, Yan; Dai, Libing; Li, Xiaojian; Liang, Rong; Guan, Guangxiong; Zhang, Zhi; Cao, Wenjuan; Liu, Zhihe; Mei, Shirley; Liang, Weiguo; Qin, Shennan; Xu, Jiake; Chen, Honghui

2014-01-01

99

One-stage Reconstruction of Soft Tissue Defects with the Sandwich Technique: Collagen-elastin Dermal Template and Skin Grafts  

PubMed Central

Background: A full-thickness soft tissue defect closure often needs complex procedures. The use of dermal templates can be helpful in improving the outcome. Objective: The objective was to evaluate a sandwich technique combining the dermal collagen–elastin matrix with skin grafts in a one-stage procedure. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients with 27 wounds were enrolled in this prospective single-centre observational study. The mean age was 74.8 ± 17.2 years. Included were full-thickness defects with exposed bone, cartilage and/ or tendons. The dermal collagen–elastin matrix was applied onto the wound bed accomplished by skin transplants, i.e. ‘sandwich’ transplantation. In six wounds, the transplants were treated with intermittent negative pressure therapy. Results: The size of defects was ?875 cm2. The use of the dermal template resulted in a complete and stable granulation in 100% of wounds. Seventeen defects showed a complete closure and 19 achieved a complete granulation with an incomplete closure. There was a marked pain relief. No adverse events were noted due to the dermal template usage. Conclusions: Sandwich transplantation with the collagen–elastin matrix is a useful tool when dealing with full-thickness soft tissue defects with exposed bone, cartilage or tendons.

Wollina, Uwe

2011-01-01

100

Extended lower trapezius myocutaneous flap to cover a deep lateral neck defect on irradiated skin: a new application.  

PubMed

Defects of the skin and underlying soft tissue of the neck are uncommon, and the surgeon's main objective is to achieve reliable long-term coverage of the exposed vital organs with well-vascularised tissue harvested from a distant donor site. We present a patient whose extended irradiation site together with the previous unsuccessful attempt to cover it with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, needed an extended lower trapezius myocutaneous flap, which seemed to be the only way in which to close the large and deep cervical defect. PMID:23190024

Mohos, Gabor; Vass, Gabor; Kemeny, Lajos; Jori, Jozsef; Ivan, Laszlo

2013-02-01

101

One-stage reconstruction of an infected skin and Achilles tendon defect with a composite distally planned lateral arm flap.  

PubMed

In this paper, the treatment of a complicated Achilles tendon defect with a composite lateral arm flap with distal design of the skin paddle has been presented. The extended portion of the flap was sufficient to restore adequate contour to the posterior aspect of the ankle, and reinervation showed good protective sensation at 1 year. In terms of resurfacing, the use of the reinervated lateral arm flap with a distal design of the skin paddle seems advantageous. The weakening of the reconstructed Achilles tendon, although without clinical incidence and impairment of elbow extensors at this stage, may indicate that a better substitute than the triceps tendon has to be found. Nevertheless, we would best reconstruct such an Achilles tendon defect by the same technique because of the well vascularized autologous tissue it provides, limiting the risk of infection. PMID:9774020

Berthe, J V; Toussaint, D; Coessens, B C

1998-10-01

102

Emotion recognition with consideration of facial expression and physiological signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emotion recognition system with consideration of facial expression and physiological signals is proposed in this paper. A specific designed mood induction experiment is performed to collect facial expressing images and physiological signals of subjects. We detected 14 feature points and extracted 12 facial features from facial expression images. Meanwhile, we measure the skin conductivity, finger temperature and heart rate

Chuan-Yu Chang; Jeng-Shiun Tsai; Chi-Jane Wang; Pau-Choo Chung

2009-01-01

103

Management of full-thickness skin defects in the hand and wrist region: first long-term experiences with the dermal matrix Matriderm.  

PubMed

The gold standard for the coverage of full-thickness skin defects is autologous skin grafts. However, poor skin quality and scar contracture are well-known problems in functional, highly strained regions. The use of dermal substitutes is an appropriate way to minimise scar contraction and, thereby, to optimise the quality of the reconstructed skin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the collagen-elastin matrix, Matriderm, for the single-step reconstruction of joint-associated defects of the upper extremity. Seventeen patients with full-thickness skin defects of the upper extremity were treated with the dermal substitute, Matriderm, and unmeshed skin graft in the functional critical region of the distal upper extremity in a single-step procedure. The take rate of the matrix-and-skin graft was 96%. Long-term follow-up revealed an overall Vancouver scar scale of 1.7. No limitation concerning hand function was observed; DASH-score analysis revealed excellent hand function in patients with burn injury and patients with a defect due to the harvest of a radial forearm flap achieved satisfying hand function. This matrix represents a viable alternative to other types of defect coverage and should therefore be considered in the treatment of skin injuries, especially in very delicate regions such as the joint regions. The possibility of performing a one-stage procedure is supposed to be a major advantage in comparison to a two-stage procedure. PMID:19042169

Haslik, W; Kamolz, L-P; Manna, F; Hladik, M; Rath, T; Frey, M

2010-02-01

104

A single center, pilot, double-blinded, randomized, comparative, prospective clinical study to evaluate improvements in the structure and function of facial skin with tazarotene 0.1% cream alone and in combination with GliSODin® Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula  

PubMed Central

Background Superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduces the reactive oxygen species formation associated with oxidative stress. An imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants can lead to accelerated aging. GliSODin® Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula (GAAF) is an SOD-containing dietary nutricosmetic formulated with other nutraceuticals that promote improvements in the structure and function of the skin, including hydration, elasticity, structural integrity, and photoaging caused by oxidative stress. Tazarotene cream 0.1% (TAZ) is a United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drug indicated for use in the mitigation of facial fine wrinkling, facial mottled hyper- and hypopigmentation, and benign facial lentigines when taken in conjunction with a comprehensive skin care and sun avoidance program. Objective To determine if the antioxidant, anti-aging, hydrating and skin-rejuvenating properties of GAAF complement the retinoic actions of TAZ to improve the structure and function of facial skin. Method A 90-day comparative study of ten subjects with facial photodamage; daily topical application of TAZ was used in combination with three capsules of GAAF (780 mg each) or placebo orally, with food, per the randomization allocation. Results After 90 days of treatment, TAZ alone and in combination with GAAF improved fine wrinkles (?1.2 versus 2.0), mottled hyperpigmentation (?2.2 versus 2.8) and overall photodamage (?1.0 versus 1.8), as well as patient-reported response to treatment (?2.0 versus 1.6). At week 12, TAZ/GAAF combination treatment (Group A) versus TAZ treatment alone (Group C) was of significant clinical benefit, with respect to fine wrinkling (14.7%/41.7%), overall photodamage (15.6%/53.0%), skin moisture (19.1%/103.2%), skin elasticity (12.8%/87.7%), and response to treatment (8.8%/21.4%). Conclusion The study suggests GAAF in combination with TAZ is safe and provides significant clinical benefit with relative improvement in facial fine wrinkling, overall photodamage, skin moisture and elasticity.

Goldberg, Lawrence D; Crysler, Corina

2014-01-01

105

Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig  

SciTech Connect

Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 0.4 LD50 HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding undecontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or HD-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodard, C.L.

1993-05-13

106

Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig  

SciTech Connect

Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 20 mg/kg (approximately 0.4 LD%) HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with nothing or one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding non-decontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing of HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or ND-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodward, C.L.

1994-12-31

107

11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase blockade prevents age-induced skin structure and function defects  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoid (GC) excess adversely affects skin integrity, inducing thinning and impaired wound healing. Aged skin, particularly that which has been photo-exposed, shares a similar phenotype. Previously, we demonstrated age-induced expression of the GC-activating enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) in cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Here, we determined 11?-HSD1 levels in human skin biopsies from young and older volunteers and examined the aged 11?-HSD1 KO mouse skin phenotype. 11?-HSD1 activity was elevated in aged human and mouse skin and in PE compared with donor-matched photo-protected human biopsies. Age-induced dermal atrophy with deranged collagen structural organization was prevented in 11?-HSD1 KO mice, which also exhibited increased collagen density. We found that treatment of HDFs with physiological concentrations of cortisol inhibited rate-limiting steps in collagen biosynthesis and processing. Furthermore, topical 11?-HSD1 inhibitor treatment accelerated healing of full-thickness mouse dorsal wounds, with improved healing also observed in aged 11?-HSD1 KO mice. These findings suggest that elevated 11?-HSD1 activity in aging skin leads to increased local GC generation, which may account for adverse changes occurring in the elderly, and 11?-HSD1 inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of age-associated impairments in dermal integrity and wound healing.

Tiganescu, Ana; Tahrani, Abd A.; Morgan, Stuart A.; Otranto, Marcela; Desmouliere, Alexis; Abrahams, Lianne; Hassan-Smith, Zaki; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H.; Cooper, Mark S.; Amrein, Kurt; Lavery, Gareth G.; Stewart, Paul M.

2013-01-01

108

Facial fractures.  

PubMed Central

Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a

Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.

1994-01-01

109

Negative-pressure wound therapy induces endothelial progenitor cell mobilization in diabetic patients with foot infection or skin defects  

PubMed Central

Non healing chronic wounds are difficult to treat in patients with diabetes and can result in severe medical problems for these patients and for society. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been adopted to treat intractable chronic wounds and has been reported to be effective. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of this treatment have not been elucidated. To assess the vasculogenic effect of NPWT, we evaluated the systemic mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) during NPWT. Twenty-two of 29 consecutive patients who presented at the clinic of Seoul National Universty Hospital between December 2009 and November 2010 who underwent NPWT for diabetic foot infections or skin ulcers were included in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken before NPWT (pre-NPWT) and 7–14 days after the initiation of NPWT (during-NPWT). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis showed that the number of cells in EPC-enriched fractions increased after NPWT, and the numbers of EPC colony forming units (CFUs) significantly increased during NPWT. We believe that NPWT is useful for treating patients with diabetic foot infections and skin ulcers, especially when these conditions are accompanied by peripheral arterial insufficiency. The systemic mobilization of EPCs during NPWT may be a mechanism for healing intractable wounds in diabetic patients with foot infections or skin defects via the formation of increased granulation tissue with numerous small blood vessels.

Seo, Sang Gyo; Yeo, Ji Hyun; Kim, JI Hye; Kim, Ji-Beom; Cho, Tae-Joon; Lee, Dong Yeon

2013-01-01

110

Localization of facial region in digital images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

2011-04-01

111

Bovine Dermal Matrix as Coverage of Facial Nerve Grafts  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Soft tissue defects over functional structures represent a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Often complex, reconstructive procedures are required. Occasionally, elderly or sick patients do not qualify for these extensive procedures. Case. We present the case of a 91-year-old lady with large hemifacial defect with exposed bone and nerves after tumor resection. We first performed radical resection including the fascia of the temporalis muscle and the frontal branch of the facial nerve. Due to the moribund elderly patient with a potentially high perioperative risk, we decided against flap reconstruction but to use bovine collagen/elastin matrix and split thickness skin graft. Results. No postoperative complications occurred and STSG and matrix healed uneventfully. Discussion. In selected cases, where complex reconstruction is not appropriate, this procedure can be a safe, easy, and fast alternative for covering soft tissue defects even on wound grounds containing nerve grafts.

Kappos, E. A.; Engels, P. E.; Wettstein, R.; Schaefer, D. J.; Kalbermatten, D. F.

2014-01-01

112

In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

113

In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser.  

PubMed

In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology. PMID:23212157

Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

114

Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation for the treatment of postoperative hand infection with a skin defect in diabetes mellitus: A case report  

PubMed Central

Among stem cells, autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal for transplantation by virtue of limited rejection reactions and marked proliferative ability. This study presents a novel method by which MSCs were harvested from the bone marrow of a patient who presented with severe post-traumatic infection and a non-healing skin defect in the hand, secondary to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM). An autologous MSC suspension was injected into the persistent skin defect after stabilizing the blood glucose level and appropriate infection control. During the course of a regular 18-month postoperative follow-up, the patient exhibited immediate recovery with no transplant-associated complications, as well as no evidence of tumorigenicity. Thus, transplantation of autologous MSCs may play a role in the clinical application of stem cells, particularly for treatment of skin defects following surgery in cases of DM and for those caused by various other traumas.

LIU, YIHONG; LIU, YUCHEN; WANG, PUJIE; TIAN, HAOMING; AI, JIANZHONG; LIU, YANGBO; ZHOU, YI; LIU, ZHONGWEN; GUO, WENJUN; YANG, SHENKE

2014-01-01

115

Motion-artifact-robust, polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on rapid polarization switching with electro-optic Pockells cell and its application to in vivo visualization of collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin  

PubMed Central

Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this article, we constructed a motion-artifact-robust, PR-SHG microscope based on rapid polarization switching at every pixel with an electro-optic Pockells cell (PC) in synchronization with step-wise raster scanning of the focus spot and alternate data acquisition of a vertical-polarization-resolved SHG signal and a horizontal-polarization-resolved one. The constructed PC-based PR-SHG microscope enabled us to visualize orientation mapping of dermal collagen fiber in human facial skin in vivo without the influence of motion artifacts. Furthermore, it implied the location and/or age dependence of the collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin. The robustness to motion artifacts in the collagen orientation measurement will expand the application scope of SHG microscopy in dermatology and collagen-related fields.

Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Ogura, Yuki; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Hirao, Tetsuji; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

2014-01-01

116

The healing effect of unrestricted somatic stem cells loaded in collagen-modified nanofibrous PHBV scaffold on full-thickness skin defects.  

PubMed

Abstract Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) loaded in nanofibrous PHBV scaffold can be used for skin regeneration when grafted into full-thickness skin defects of rats. Nanofibrous PHBV scaffolds were designed using electrospinning method and then, modified with the immobilized collagen via the plasma method. Afterward, the scaffolds were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, physical and mechanical assays. In this study; nanofibrous PHBV scaffolds loaded with and without USSCs were grafted into the skin defects. The wounds were subsequently investigated at 21 days after grafting. Results of mechanical and physical analyses showed good resilience and compliance to movement as a skin graft. In animal models; all study groups excluding the control group exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen on post-operative Day 21. Histological and immunostaining examinations of healed wounds from all groups, especially the groups treated with stem cells, showed a thin epidermis plus recovered skin appendages in the dermal layer. Thus, the graft of collagen-coated nanofibrous PHBV scaffold loaded with USSC showed better results during the healing process of skin defects in rat model. PMID:23909504

Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Biazar, Esmaeil; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Rahmati Roodsari, Mohammad; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Rad, Hadi; Sahebalzamani, Ali; Rakhshan, Azadeh; Afsordeh, Kobra

2014-06-01

117

Defective TPA signalling compromises HaCat cells as a human in vitro skin carcinogenesis model.  

PubMed

HaCat cells, a human keratinocyte line, are commonly utilised as an in vitro cell model for toxicity testing and the discernment of processes of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. Here, as part of an ongoing program of carcinogenesis research, we tested the genomic transcriptional response of two keratinocyte cell lines HaCat (human) and Pam212 (mouse) to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), one of the most studied skin carcinoma promoting agents, and compared this with the response in primary keratinocytes. Differences in the genomic response profile indicated an insufficiency in the MEK/ERK pathway signalling in HaCat but not Pam212 cells compared to primary keratinocytes. TPA can also activate NFkappaB and so we tested whether this was also deficient in the HaCat cells using TNFalpha which signals directly to NFkappaB. By this method NFkappaB was found to be equally active in both HaCat and Pam212 cells. Analysis of ERK phosphorylation showed that while TPA mediated ERK phosphorylation occurred in both cell lines it was more robust and difficult to inhibit in Pam212 cells suggesting that there may be an insufficiency in this step in HaCat cells leading to a reduced response. Overall these data indicate that caution should be employed when using HaCat cells as an in vitro skin model for biochemical research or toxicological evaluation. PMID:19945525

Ridd, Katie; Dhir, Sonia; Smith, Andrew G; Gant, Timothy W

2010-04-01

118

Facial tics  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010;33:641-655. Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ... Malhotra R. Review and update of involuntary facial movement disorders presenting in the ophthalmological setting. Surv Ophthalmol. 2011; ...

119

Effects of human amniotic membrane grafts combined with marrow mesenchymal stem cells on healing of full-thickness skin defects in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the wound-healing effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with human amniotic membrane\\u000a (HAM) when grafted into full-thickness skin defects of rabbits. Five defects in each of four groups were respectively treated\\u000a with HAM loaded with autologous MSCs (group A), HAM loaded with allologous MSCs (group B), HAM with injected autologous MSCs\\u000a (group C), and HAM

Sung Soo Kim; Chang Keun Song; Sung Keun Shon; Kyu Yeol Lee; Chul Hong Kim; Myung Jin Lee; Lih Wang

2009-01-01

120

Fibroepithelial papillomatosis ("skin tags") in Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome.  

PubMed

Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome in children involving a defective insulin receptor gene. Several phenotypic features are common to this syndrome, including severe hyperinsulinemia, growth retardation, acanthosis nigricans, dental dysplasia, hirsutism, coarse facial features, and pineal hyperplasia. The authors evaluated and treated a patient with Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome who presented with additional notable syndromic sequelae including extensive fibroepithelial papillomatosis ("skin tags"), not previously described to this extent. PMID:18405695

Kirby, Emily J; Beals, Daniel A

2008-04-01

121

Aesthetic reconstruction of a superficial defect of the upper lip using a hairy preauricular free flap.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the upper lip requires symmetrical reconstruction of hairy male skin according to the aesthetic principle. A moderate defect of the upper lip had nonhairy skin on the upper one-third and hairy skin on the lower two-thirds in a Korean man. A hairy preauricular free flap is useful for correcting superficial-thickness skin defects of the upper lip, when local and regional flaps are not applicable. This flap was harvested from hairy posterior sideburn skin of the preauricular area including a vascular pedicle of superficial temporal artery and vein. The superficial temporal artery and vein were anastomosed with the facial artery and vein in the nasolabial fold area. The trapdoor marginal scar of this free flap required marginal scar revision and debulking twice during the postoperative course. A moderate partial-thickness defect of the upper lip in the male patient can be aesthetically restored using this free flap. PMID:24657983

Oh, Suk Joon

2014-05-01

122

Aesthetic Reconstruction of a Superficial Defect of the Upper Lip Using a Hairy Preauricular Free Flap  

PubMed Central

Abstract Reconstruction of the upper lip requires symmetrical reconstruction of hairy male skin according to the aesthetic principle. A moderate defect of the upper lip had nonhairy skin on the upper one-third and hairy skin on the lower two-thirds in a Korean man. A hairy preauricular free flap is useful for correcting superficial-thickness skin defects of the upper lip, when local and regional flaps are not applicable. This flap was harvested from hairy posterior sideburn skin of the preauricular area including a vascular pedicle of superficial temporal artery and vein. The superficial temporal artery and vein were anastomosed with the facial artery and vein in the nasolabial fold area. The trapdoor marginal scar of this free flap required marginal scar revision and debulking twice during the postoperative course. A moderate partial-thickness defect of the upper lip in the male patient can be aesthetically restored using this free flap.

Oh, Suk Joon

2014-01-01

123

Defective mitochondrial fusion, altered respiratory function, and distorted cristae structure in skin fibroblasts with heterozygous OPA1 mutations.  

PubMed

Deleterious consequences of heterozygous OPA1 mutations responsible for autosomal dominant optic atrophy remain a matter of debate. Primary skin fibroblasts derived from patients have shown diverse mitochondrial alterations that were however difficult to resolve in a unifying scheme. To address the potential use of these cells as disease model, we undertook parallel and quantitative analyses of the diverse reported alterations in four fibroblast lines harboring different OPA1 mutations, nonsense or missense, in the guanosine triphosphatase or the C-terminal coiled-coil domains. We tackled several factors potentially underlying discordant reports and showed that fibroblasts with heterozygous OPA1 mutations present with several mitochondrial alterations. These included defective mitochondrial fusion during pharmacological challenge with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, significant mitochondrial elongation with decreased OPA1 and DRP1 proteins, and abnormal mitochondrial fragmentation during glycolysis shortage or exogenous oxidative stress. Respiratory complex IV activity and subunits steady-state were decreased without alteration of the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid size, amount or transcription. Physical link between OPA1 protein and oxidative phosphorylation was shown by reciprocal immunoprecipitation. Altered cristae structure coexisted with normal response to pro-apoptotic stimuli and expression of Bax or Bcl2 proteins. Skin fibroblasts with heterozygous OPA1 mutations thus share significant mitochondrial remodeling, and may therefore be useful for analyzing disease pathophysiology. Identifying whether the observed alterations are also present in ganglion retinal cells, and which of them underlies their degeneration process remains however an essential goal for therapeutic strategy. PMID:22800932

Agier, Virginie; Oliviero, Patricia; Lainé, Jeanne; L'Hermitte-Stead, Caroline; Girard, Samantha; Fillaut, Sandrine; Jardel, Claude; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Bulteau, Anne Laure; Lombès, Anne

2012-10-01

124

Dynamic Model of Facial Cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent modifications to windchill forecasting have motivated the development of a rate-of-tissue-cooling model for the purpose of predicting facial cooling times. The model assumes a hollow cylindrical geometry with a fixed internal boundary temperature and adherence to the dimensions and tissue thermal properties of the cheek. Convective and radiative heat exchanges at the skin surface are also taken into account.

Peter Tikuisis; Randall J. Osczevski

2002-01-01

125

Facial subdermal vascular network flap: anatomic study and clinical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the numerous flaps for facial reconstruction that have been described, the search for the ideal flap with good color matching and minimal donor-site morbidity continues. In the past 3 years we have repaired 13 facial defects with success using the lateral genicervical flap - a type of facial subdermal vascular network flap (SVNF) - with a pedicle located on

S.-H. Xiong; X.-D. Cheng; D.-C. Xu; N. Li; L. Yan; T.-L. Zhao; L. Yu; H. Liao; F. Suwa; A. Takemura; I. Toda; H. Ike; Y.-R. Fang

2002-01-01

126

A propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery for reconstruction of a skin defect in the cervical region: a case report.  

PubMed

A propeller flap is useful for coverage of an adjacent skin defect without dissection back to source vessels and harvesting muscle tissues. The thoracoacromial artery is one of the vascular pedicles of the flaps for reconstruction in the cervical region. Use of a propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery has not previously been reported for reconstruction in the cervical region. We report a case in which a propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery was used for skin coverage after tumour resection in the cervical region together with an anatomical investigation. The propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery was harvested in the supine position, requiring no change in position after tumour resection. The skin defect was successfully reconstructed using the propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery with linear closure of the donor site. The propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery offers an alternative for reconstruction in the cervical region. PMID:23021787

Okada, Mitsuhiro; Ikeda, Mikinori; Uemura, Takuya; Takada, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroaki

2013-05-01

127

The absence of a microbiota enhances TSLP expression in mice with defective skin barrier but does not affect the severity of their allergic inflammation  

PubMed Central

Evidence is accumulating to suggest that our indigenous microbial communities (microbiota) may play a role in modulating allergic and immune disorders of the skin (Gallo and Nakatsuji, 2011; Macia et al., 2012). To examine the link between the microbiota and atopic dermatitis, we examined a mouse model of defective cutaneous barrier function with an atopic dermatitis-like disease due to loss of Notch signaling. Comparisons of conventionally-raised (CONV-R) and germ-free (GF) mice revealed a similar degree of allergic skin inflammation, systemic atopy, and airway hypersensitivity. GF mutant animals expressed significantly higher levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a major proinflammatory cytokine released by skin with defective barrier function, resulting in a more severe B-lymphoproliferative disorder that persisted into adulthood. These findings suggest a role for the microbiota in ameliorating stress signals released by keratinocytes in response to perturbation in cutaneous barrier function.

Yockey, Laura J.; Demehri, Shadmehr; Turkoz, Mustafa; Turkoz, Ahu; Ahern, Philip P.; Jassim, Omar; Manivasagam, Sindhu; Kearney, John; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Kopan, Raphael

2013-01-01

128

Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism  

PubMed Central

Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with the latter produce some melanin. We hypothesized that increasing plasma tyrosine concentrations using nitisinone, an FDA-approved inhibitor of tyrosine degradation, could stabilize tyrosinase and improve pigmentation in individuals with OCA1. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mice homozygous for either the Tyrc-2J null allele or the Tyrc-h allele, which model OCA-1A and OCA-1B, respectively. Only nitisinone-treated Tyrc-h/c-h mice manifested increased pigmentation in their fur and irides and had more pigmented melanosomes. High levels of tyrosine improved the stability and enzymatic function of the Tyrc-h protein and also increased overall melanin levels in melanocytes from a human with OCA-1B. These results suggest that the use of nitisinone in OCA-1B patients could improve their pigmentation and potentially ameliorate vision loss.

Onojafe, Ighovie F.; Adams, David R.; Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Dolinska, Monika B.; Alur, Ramakrishna P.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Gahl, William A.; Brooks, Brian P.

2011-01-01

129

Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism.  

PubMed

Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with the latter produce some melanin. We hypothesized that increasing plasma tyrosine concentrations using nitisinone, an FDA-approved inhibitor of tyrosine degradation, could stabilize tyrosinase and improve pigmentation in individuals with OCA1. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mice homozygous for either the Tyrc-2J null allele or the Tyrc-h allele, which model OCA-1A and OCA-1B, respectively. Only nitisinone-treated Tyrc-h/c-h mice manifested increased pigmentation in their fur and irides and had more pigmented melanosomes. High levels of tyrosine improved the stability and enzymatic function of the Tyrc-h protein and also increased overall melanin levels in melanocytes from a human with OCA-1B. These results suggest that the use of nitisinone in OCA-1B patients could improve their pigmentation and potentially ameliorate vision loss. PMID:21968110

Onojafe, Ighovie F; Adams, David R; Simeonov, Dimitre R; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M; Sergeev, Yuri V; Dolinska, Monika B; Alur, Ramakrishna P; Brilliant, Murray H; Gahl, William A; Brooks, Brian P

2011-10-01

130

Assessment of reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) chitosan hydrogels as dressings in a mouse skin wound defect model.  

PubMed

Wound dressings of chitosan are biocompatible, biodegradable, antibacterial and hemostatic biomaterials. However, applications for chitosan are limited due to its poor mechanical properties. Here, we conducted an in vivo mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-chitosan (RPC) hydrogels. RPC hydrogels were formed by cross-linking chitosan with PEGs of different molecular weights at various PEG to chitosan ratios in our previous paper. These dressings can keep the wound moist, had good gas exchange capacity, and was capable of absorbing or removing the wound exudate. We examined the ability of these RPC hydrogels and neat chitosan to heal small cuts and full-thickness skin defects on the backs of male Balb/c mice. Histological examination revealed that chitosan suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation, while PEG enhanced epithelial migration. The RPC hydrogels promoted wound healing in the small cuts and full layer wounds. The optimal RPC hydrogel had a swelling ratio of 100% and a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of about 2000 g/m(2)/day. In addition, they possess good mechanical property and appropriate degradation rates. Thus, the optimal RPC hydrogel formulation functioned effectively as a wound dressing and promoted wound healing. PMID:23623072

Chen, Szu-Hsien; Tsao, Ching-Ting; Chang, Chih-Hao; Lai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ming-Fung; Chuang, Ching-Nan; Chou, Hung-Chia; Wang, Chih-Kuang; Hsieh, Kuo-Haung

2013-07-01

131

Reconstruction of a large nasal defect.  

PubMed

A 77-year-old man was referred for treatment of a biopsy-proven multirecurrence basal cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the nose. The lesion was removed and the resulting surgical defect involved the full thickness of the nasal skin leaving intact the underlying perichondrium and cartilages of the whole nasal dorsum including both sidewalls (Figure 1). The authors performed a reconstruction of a surgical defect greater than two-thirds of the nose using a single-staged bilateral Burow's wedge flap and a full-thickness skin graft from the glabella. All scars were camouflaged in the natural facial boundaries and the surgical reconstruction was performed in a single stage. The final nasal contour, symmetry and function were still good when the patient was seen 1 year after surgery. PMID:23210844

Goulão, João

2014-10-01

132

The many facets of facial interactions in mammals.  

PubMed

Facial interactions are prominent behaviors in primates. Primate facial signaling, which includes the expression of emotions, mimicking of facial movements, and gaze interactions, is visually dominated. Correspondingly, in primate brains an elaborate network of face processing areas exists within visual cortex. But other mammals also communicate through facial interactions using additional sensory modalities. In rodents, multisensory facial interactions are involved in aggressive behaviors and social transmission of food preferences. The eusocial naked mole-rat, whose face is dominated by prominent incisors, uses facial aggression to enforce reproductive suppression. In burrow-living mammals like the naked mole-rat in particular, and in rodents in general, somatosensory face representations in cortex are enlarged. Diversity of sensory domains mediating facial communication might belie underlying common mechanisms. As a case in point, neurogenetics has revealed strongly heritable traits in face processing and identified gene defects that disrupt facial interactions both in humans and rodents. PMID:22209040

Brecht, Michael; Freiwald, Winrich A

2012-04-01

133

Topical management of facial burns.  

PubMed

The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed. PMID:18538480

Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

2008-11-01

134

Results of fractional ablative facial skin resurfacing with the erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser 1 week and 2 months after one single treatment in 30 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser has recently been used in the fractional resurfacing of photo-aged skin.\\u000a Our study evaluated the results after one single session of fractional resurfacing with Er:YAG. Thirty women participated\\u000a in the study, with an average age of 46 years, skin types from II to IV, and wrinkle grades I to III. The 2,940 nm Er:YAG\\u000a system used (Pixel, Alma

Mario A. Trelles; Serge Mordon; Mariano Velez; Fernando Urdiales; Jean Luc Levy

2009-01-01

135

Human deciduous teeth dental pulp cells with basic fibroblast growth factor enhance wound healing of skin defect.  

PubMed

In this research, we examined the effect on wound healing applying basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) that is approved for clinical use to enhance wound healing and human deciduous teeth dental pulp cells (hDPCs) in clinics, but that have been attracting attention as a novel stem cell source in recent years. Human deciduous teeth were harvested from healthy volunteers, and hDPCs were isolated. We used a nude mouse full-thickness skin defect model and evaluated wound healing by macroscopic view and histologic and histomorphometric analysis. The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: phosphate-buffered saline-treated group (control group), b-FGF-treated group (b-FGF group), hDPC-treated group (hDPC group), and hDPC and b-FGF-treated group (hDPC/b-FGF group). Basic fibroblast growth factor and hDPC groups accelerated wound healing compared with the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in wound healing observed between the hDPC and b-FGF groups. The hDPC/b-FGF group demonstrated accelerated wound healing compared with other groups. At day 14, PKH26-positive cells were surrounded by human type I collagen in hDPC and hDPC/b-FGF groups in immunohistologic evaluation. Significantly increased collagen fibril areas in wound tissues were observed in b-FGF, hDPC, and hDPC/b-FGF groups as compared with the control group at days 7 and 14. Our results showed that the hDPC/b-FGF group significantly promotes wound healing compared with other groups. This study implies that deciduous teeth that are currently considered as medical spare parts might offer a unique stem cell resource for potential of new cell therapies for wound healing in combination with b-FGF. PMID:21403563

Nishino, Yudai; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Yamada, Yoichi; Okabe, Kazuto; Kamei, Yuzuru; Ueda, Minoru

2011-03-01

136

Supraclavicular flap: reconstructive strategy for massive facial arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are uncommon errors of vascular morphogenesis. Hemodynamically, they are high-flow lesions. Approximately 50% of AVMs are located in the craniofacial region. The successful treatment of vascular anomalies depends on the profound knowledge of the biologic behavior of vascular lesions and their correct classification. Vascular malformations that persist lifelong require treatment in most cases, especially when clinical symptoms occur. On the basis of individual parameters such as the diameter, location, or growth behavior, different therapeutic options such as cryotherapy, corticosteroids, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, surgical intervention, and/or embolization can be performed successfully. Subtotal excision or proximal ligation of the feeding vessel frequently results in rapid progression of the AVMs. Hence, the correct treatment consists of highly selective embolization (superselective) followed by complete resection 24 to 48 hours later. Reconstructive procedures in the head and neck region use a wide range of flaps for defect closure. The methods range from local, mostly fasciocutaneous flaps and skin grafts, to free microsurgical flaps. To ensure a satisfactory functional and aesthetic result, good texture and color of the flap are always essential. Moreover, the donor-site defect needs to be reduced, with no resulting functional or aesthetic impairment. The supraclavicular flap has been used successfully for difficult facial reconstruction cases, providing acceptable results without using microsurgical techniques. We treated 2 patients with facial AVM by this method. Both of the lesions were located within the cheek and lip. There were no procedure-related complications, and the cosmetic results were excellent. PMID:21558921

Hormozi, Abdoljalil Kalantar; Shafii, Mohammad Reza

2011-05-01

137

A grayscale skin and facial detection mechanism for use in conjunction with security system technology via graphical block methodologies on field programmable gate arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented in this paper is the design of a skin filter which unlike many systems already developed for use, this system will not use RGB or HSI colour but an 8-bit greyscale instead. This is done in order to make the system more convenient to employ on an FPGA, to increase the speed to better enable real-time imaging and to

Andrew J. Tickle; Jeremy S. Smith; Q. Henry Wu

2008-01-01

138

Effects of human amniotic membrane grafts combined with marrow mesenchymal stem cells on healing of full-thickness skin defects in rabbits.  

PubMed

We have investigated the wound-healing effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with human amniotic membrane (HAM) when grafted into full-thickness skin defects of rabbits. Five defects in each of four groups were respectively treated with HAM loaded with autologous MSCs (group A), HAM loaded with allologous MSCs (group B), HAM with injected autologous MSCs (group C), and HAM with injected allologous MSCs (group D). The size of the wounds was calculated for each group at 7, 12, and 15 days after grafting. The wounds were subsequently harvested at 25 days after grafting. Sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were used to determine the quality of wound healing, as based on the characteristics and amount of granulated tissue in the epidermal and dermal layers. Groups A and B showed the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen on post-operative days 7, 12, and 15. Although a slight trend toward improved wound healing was seen in group A compared with group B, no statistically significant difference was found at any time point between the two groups. Histological examination of healed wounds from groups A and B showed a thin epidermis with mature differentiation and collagen bundle deposition plus recovered skin appendages in the dermal layer. In contrast, groups C and D showed thickened epidermis with immature epithelial cells and increased fibroblast proliferation with only partially recovered skin appendages in the dermal layer. Thus, the graft of HAM loaded with MSCs played an effective role during the healing of skin defects in rabbits, with no significant difference being observed in wound healing between autologous and allologous MSC transplantation. PMID:19238445

Kim, Sung Soo; Song, Chang Keun; Shon, Sung Keun; Lee, Kyu Yeol; Kim, Chul Hong; Lee, Myung Jin; Wang, Lih

2009-04-01

139

Variables affecting clinical response to treatment of facial port-wine stains by flash lamp-pumped pulsed dye laser: the importance of looking beyond the skin.  

PubMed

The response of port-wine stains (PWS) to conventional laser treatment in adults is difficult to predict. To assess the influence of local or systemic hemodynamic variables on the clearance of PWS by using flash lamp-pumped pulsed (FLPP) dye laser. All consecutive patients ages 18 years or older undergoing laser treatment for a facial PWS were eligible. Laser sessions were scheduled every 8 weeks. All patients were evaluated based on a standard scale with four evaluation categories, from no or minimal improvement to total or almost total clearance. Clearance was achieved by 50.1 % (95 % confidence interval 35.6-64.7) of patients after a maximum of 15 treatment sessions. In multivariate analysis, increased age, a newly described Type III capillaroscopic pattern, and presence of lesions in dermatome V2 were all associated with a reduced clinical response to treatment. In a model restricted to demographic pattern and patient characteristics, arterial hypertension was also associated with a lower clinical response. A strong association was found between arterial hypertension and the Type III capillaroscopic pattern. Age, arterial hypertension, capillaroscopic pattern, and body location should be considered when planning laser treatment of PWS. PMID:24487956

Bencini, Pier Luca; Cazzaniga, Simone; Galimberti, Michela Gianna; Zane, Cristina; Naldi, Luigi

2014-07-01

140

Marker optimization for facial motion acquisition and deformation.  

PubMed

A long-standing problem in marker-based facial motion capture is what are the optimal facial mocap marker layouts. Despite its wide range of potential applications, this problem has not yet been systematically explored to date. This paper describes an approach to compute optimized marker layouts for facial motion acquisition as optimization of characteristic control points from a set of high-resolution, ground-truth facial mesh sequences. Specifically, the thin-shell linear deformation model is imposed onto the example pose reconstruction process via optional hard constraints such as symmetry and multiresolution constraints. Through our experiments and comparisons, we validate the effectiveness, robustness, and accuracy of our approach. Besides guiding minimal yet effective placement of facial mocap markers, we also describe and demonstrate its two selected applications: marker-based facial mesh skinning and multiresolution facial performance capture. PMID:24029906

Le, Binh H; Zhu, Mingyang; Deng, Zhigang

2013-11-01

141

Marker Optimization for Facial Motion Acquisition and Deformation.  

PubMed

A long-standing problem in marker-based facial motion capture is what are the optimal facial mocap marker layouts. Despite its wide range of potential applications, this problem has not yet been systematically explored to date. This paper describes an approach to compute optimized marker layouts for facial motion acquisition as optimization of characteristic control points from a set of high-resolution, ground-truth facial mesh sequences. Specifically, the thin-shell linear deformation model is imposed onto the example pose reconstruction process via optional hard constraints such as symmetry and multi-resolution constraints. Through our experiments and comparisons, we validate the effectiveness, robustness, and accuracy of our approach. Besides guiding minimal yet effective placement of facial mocap markers, we also describe and demonstrate its two selected applications: marker-based facial mesh skinning and multi-resolution facial performance capture. PMID:23713002

Le, Binh H; Zhu, Mingyang; Deng, Zhigang

2013-05-16

142

Facial features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

143

Reevaluation of the non-lesional dry skin in atopic dermatitis by acute barrier disruption: an abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis with defective processing to generate ceramide.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis is characterized by disruption of the cutaneous barrier due to reduced ceramide levels even in non-lesional dry skin. Following further acute barrier disruption by repeated tape strippings, we re-characterized the non-lesional dry skin of subjects with atopic dermatitis, which shows significantly reduced levels of barrier function and ceramide but not of beta-glucocerebrosidase activity. For the first time, we report an abnormal trans-epidermal water loss homeostasis in which delayed recovery kinetics of trans-epidermal water loss occurred on the first day during the 4 days after acute barrier disruption compared with healthy control skin. Interestingly, whereas the higher ceramide level in the stratum corneum of healthy control skin was further significantly up-regulated at 4 days post-tape stripping, the lower ceramide level in the stratum corneum of subjects with atopic dermatitis was not significantly changed. In a parallel study, whereas beta-glucocerebrosidase activity at 4 days post-tape stripping was significantly up-regulated in healthy control skin compared with before tape stripping, the level of that activity remained substantially unchanged in atopic dermatitis. These findings indicate that subjects with atopic dermatitis have a defect in sphingolipid-metabolic processing that generates ceramide in the interface between the stratum corneum and the epidermis. The results also support the notion that the continued disruption of barrier function in atopic dermatitis non-lesional skin is associated with the impaired homeostasis of a ceramide-generating process, which underscores an atopy-specific inflammation-triggered ceramide deficiency that is distinct from other types of dermatitis. PMID:24271939

Sugiura, Ayumi; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Atsuko; Imokawa, Genji

2014-07-01

144

Reconstruction After Complex Facial Trauma: Achieving Optimal Outcome Through Multiple Contemporary Surgeries.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Major facial trauma injuries often require complex repair. Traditionally, the reconstruction of such injuries has primarily utilized only free tissue transfer. However, the advent of newer, contemporary procedures may lead to potential reconstructive improvement through the use of complementary procedures after free flap reconstruction. METHODS: An 18-year-old male patient suffered a major left facial degloving injury resulting in soft-tissue defect with exposed zygoma, and parietal bone. Multiple operations were undertaken in a staged manner for reconstruction. A state-of-the-art free anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap and Medpor implant reconstruction of the midface were initially performed, followed by flap debulking, lateral canthopexy, midface lift with redo canthopexy, scalp tissue expansion for hairline reconstruction, and epidermal skin grafting for optimal skin color matching. RESULTS: Over a follow-up period of 2 years, a good and impressive reconstructive result was achieved through the use of multiple contemporary reconstructive procedures following an excellent free ALT flap reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple staged reconstructions are essential in producing an optimal outcome in this complex facial injury that would likely not have been produced through a 1-stage traditional free flap reconstruction. Utilizing multiple, sequential contemporary surgeries may substantially improve outcome through the enhancement and refinement of results based on possibly the best initial soft-tissue reconstruction. PMID:23486138

Jaiswal, Rohit; Pu, Lee L Q

2013-03-11

145

Facial nerve reconstruction using a vascularized lateral femoral cutaneous nerve graft based on the superficial circumflex iliac artery system: an application of the inferolateral extension of the groin flap.  

PubMed

The use of an inferolateral extension technique of a groin flap has previously been reported. This technique involves harvesting an extended portion from the anterolateral thigh, including the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) and its accompanying vessels, attached to a groin flap via communications between the LFCN-accompanying vessels and the superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA) system. In this study, we used this technique involving a vascularized LFCN combined with a groin flap to reconstruct a facial nerve defect. The patient was a 58-year-old man with a salivary duct carcinoma in the left parotid gland. Tumor ablation resulted in a defect of the skin and soft tissue including all branches of the facial nerve. A free groin flap was harvested based on the SCIA system, composed of the LFCN and a small monitoring flap, which were nourished by the LFCN-accompanying vessels and by communication with the SCIA system. The LFCN was transplanted into the gaps in the facial nerve branches as a cable graft, and the skin flap was used to cover and fill the soft tissue defect. The postoperative course was uneventful and satisfactory facial animation was obtained. This represents a possible technique for nerve reconstruction using a vascularized nerve graft. PMID:20697990

Kashiwa, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Nasu, Wakako; Kuroda, Takashi; Higuchi, Hirofumi

2010-11-01

146

Bilateral facial synkinesis in leprosy  

PubMed Central

Leprosy is an important cause of cranial nerve palsy in endemic areas where it may be seen in upto 17.6% patients. The authors herein describe a rare case of bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis with video documentation and modified blink reflex. A 35-year-old gentleman presented with numbness involving right half of his face for 8 months and abnormal stretching sensations over both sides of his nose for one and a half months. Sensory and motor involvement of the right trigeminal nerve was detected along with bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis involving orbicularis oculi and nasalis. R1 and R2 responses consistent with mis-reinnervation were recorded on the left-side using orbicularis oculi and nasalis muscles. Skin biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli and sural nerve biopsy, the presence of granulomas. After 3 months of follow-up on WHO multi-drug therapy, an improvement in facial sensations was observed but without any change in facial synkinetic movements.

Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Goel, Madhu Mati; Jain, Amita; Gupta, Arvind; Lalla, Rakesh; Singh, Gyan Prakash

2012-01-01

147

Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications. PMID:25076447

Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

2014-08-01

148

Clinical case-study describing the use of skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the auricular concha to cover large defects of the nose  

PubMed Central

Background The composite graft from the conchal cartilage is a graft that is often used, especially in surgery on the nose, due to its capacity to resolve problems of cover and tissue deficit, arising from the removal of neoplasms or as the result of trauma, burns or following over-aggressive rhinoplasty. We have started to use skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the ear to cover large areas of the nose with very satisfying results as well as we describe in the reported clinical case. Methods The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum, which had previously been removed, using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. After this, the skin edges of the fistula were turned to recreate the inner lining of the nose and form a vascular base of wide area to accept the composite graft. The case concerns a female 74-year old patient who had undergone several oncological surgery for a relapsing basal cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the nose. The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. Results The perichondrial cutaneous graft has shown in this surgical case very favorable peculiarities that make it usable even in facial plastic surgery. Conclusions We believe that the positive experience that we achieved in the use of composite grafts for the reconstruction of large areas of the nose could be interesting for others surgeons.

2012-01-01

149

Defective conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol in cultured skin fibroblasts from Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome homozygotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is a common birth defect syndrome characterized biochemically by low plasma cholesterol levels and high concentrations of the cho- lesterol precursor 7dehydrocholesterol. The present study was undertaken to prove that the enzyme defect is at the step in which 7dehydrocholesterol is converted into cholesterol and to establish a new biochemical method for the diagnosis of this disease.

Akira Honda; G. S. Tint; Gerald Salen; Ashok K. Batta; Thomas S. Chen; Sarah Shefer

150

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

151

Facial Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

152

Cataracts, radiculomegaly, septal heart defects and hearing loss in two unrelated adult females with normal intelligence and similar facial appearance: confirmation of a syndrome?  

PubMed

Two unrelated, adult females with normal intelligence are described. They show a similar clinical picture with a long and narrow face, congenital cataract, microphthalmia, microcornea, a high nasal bridge, a short nose, a broad nasal tip, a long philtrum, bilateral hearing loss, persistent primary teeth, oligodontia, variable root length including dental radiculomegaly, heart defects and cutaneous syndactyly of the 2nd-3rd toes. Abnormalities present in only one of the two patients were a cleft palate and a transverse vaginal septum, respectively. There are numerous similarities between our two patients and the family described by Wilkie et al. ((1993): Clin Dysmorphol 2: 114-119) and all may be examples of the same entity. PMID:8723559

Aalfs, C M; Oosterwijk, J C; van Schooneveld, M J; Begeman, C J; Wabeke, K B; Hennekam, R C

1996-04-01

153

Facial expression accompanying pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of facial expression accompanying pain is of both practical and theoretical importance. It has been suggested that nonverbal behavior may provide accurate information on pain states to supplement self-report and that perhaps facial expressions could even serve as accurate measures of pain in the absence of verbal report. Recent studies of specific facial expressions accompanying pain have benefited

Linda LeResche; Samuel F. Dworkin

1984-01-01

154

Reconstruction of oral mucosal defects using the nasolabial flap: clinical experience with 22 patients  

PubMed Central

Background Various surgical options are available for reconstruction of intraoral soft tissue defects. For smaller defects of the oral mucosa in different anatomic locations of the oral cavity the nasolabial flap is a very useful and simple alternative to other pedicled flaps and free flaps. Methods The results of reconstruction of oral mucosal defects or facial skin defects using 29 nasolabial flaps in 22 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results The patient group consisted of 16 patients (70%) with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, 2 patients (10%) with cystic lesions of the maxilla, 3 patients (15%) with osteonecrosis of the jaw, and 1 patient with an oral metastasis of a lung carcinoma. Healing was uneventful in 93%, partial or complete flap loss was observed in 7%. Conclusions The nasolabial flap is a valuable alternative for reconstruction of smaller defects of the oral cavity in particular in older and medically compromised patients.

2011-01-01

155

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM), facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD), genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

2010-01-01

156

Silhouette sutures for treatment of facial aging: facial rejuvenation, remodeling, and facial tissue support.  

PubMed

During facial aging, a series of physical and biochemical changes leading to tissue hypotrophy, sagging, and wrinkles takes place not only at the level of the skin but also in the fatty tissue, muscle, and other structures. One of these changes is the decrease in volume and elasticity of the tissue because of alteration of collagen fiber formation. The intermittent use of silhouette sutures (partially reabsorbable) is aimed at preventing and treating the tissue sagginess and reinforcing the soft tissue of the face. PMID:18922301

Isse, Nicanor

2008-10-01

157

Hyaluronic acid skin fillers: Adverse reactions and skin testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have been proposed as alternatives to other temporary skin fillers, such as bovine collagen, for treating facial skin lines and for providing lip augmentation. Several types of commercial HA fillers are now available in many countries. They include Restylane, which is produced by microbiologic engineering techniques, and Hylaform, which is HA extract derived from rooster

Nicholas J. Lowe; C. Anne Maxwell; Philippa Lowe; Michael G. Duick; Kishor Shah

2001-01-01

158

Reconstruction of complex defects of the parotid region using a lateral thoracic wall donor site.  

PubMed

Radical treatment of parotid neoplasms may lead to complex parotid defects that present functional and aesthetic reconstructive challenges. We report our experience using the lateral thoracic wall as a single donor site. Between 2003 and 2009, four patients with malignant tumours in the parotid gland underwent radical parotidectomy and simultaneous reconstruction using a perforator latissimus dorsi cutaneous free flap (de-epithelialized and entire skin paddle in two cases each). A thoracodorsal nerve graft was used in all cases to replace the intraglandular branches of the facial nerve. Costal grafts were used for mandibular reconstruction in two patients. All patients underwent postoperative physiotherapy. No donor-site complication occurred and all treatments achieved good aesthetic results. All patients recovered nearly complete symmetry at rest and partial facial mimetic function. The lateral thoracic wall is a good donor site for the reconstruction of complex parotid defects. PMID:23245945

Biglioli, Federico; Pedrazzoli, Marco; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Colletti, Giacomo; Colombo, Valeria; Frigerio, Alice; Autelitano, Luca

2013-04-01

159

Aesthetic improvements of skin grafts in nasal tip reconstruction.  

PubMed

Defect closure on the nasal tip subunit still remains challenging. Full-thickness skin transplantation still is used despite its poor outcome in terms of the nasal tip contour caused by lack of dermal tissue. To avoid subsidence deformities associated with nasal tip reconstruction with skin transplants, this study analyzed methods using combined epidermal and dermal replacement. For 30 consecutive patients with a nasal tip defect, a retrospective comparison was made between conventional full-thickness skin transplantation, retroauricular perichondrodermal composite grafts, and skin transplantation supplemented with the collagen-elastin matrix, Matriderm, used as a dermal substitute (n = 10 per study group).The postoperative results were evaluated in a randomized and blind manner by external facial surgeons using the Manchester Scar Scale. The findings showed a marked improvement in nasal tip contour with combined epidermal/dermal replacement without any deterioration in other graft qualities, justifying the additional effort involved in this procedure. Two patients developed fistulae after Matriderm-aided skin transplantation. Therefore, the authors do not consider this a suitable method for nasal tip reconstruction. PMID:21184067

Riml, Stefan; Wallner, Heinz; Larcher, Lorenz; Amann, Ulrich; Kompatscher, Peter

2011-08-01

160

Application of Skeletal Buttress Analogy in Composite Facial Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Reconstructive algorithms for composite craniofacial defects have focused on soft tissue flaps with or without bone grafts. However, volumetric loss over time limits long-term preservation of facial contour. Application of craniofacial skeletal buttress principles to high-energy trauma or oncologic defects with composite vascularized bone flaps restores the soft tissue as well as the buttresses and ultimately preserves facial contour. We conducted a retrospective review of 34 patients with craniofacial defects treated by a single surgeon with composite bone flaps at R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center and Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2001 to 2007. Data collected included age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of defect, type of reconstructive procedures, and outcome. Thirty-four patients with composite tissue loss, primarily males (n?=?24) with an average age of 37.4 years, underwent reconstruction with vascularized bone flaps (28 fibula flaps and 6 iliac crest flaps). There were 4 cranial defects, 8 periorbital defects, 18 maxillary defects, and 4 maxillary and periorbital defects. Flap survival rate was 94.1% with an average follow-up time of 20.5 months. Restoration of facial height, width, and projection is achieved through replacement of skeletal buttresses and is essential for facial harmony. Since 2001, our unit has undergone a paradigm shift with regard to treatment of composite oncologic and traumatic defects, advocating vascularized bone flaps to achieve predictable long-term outcomes.

Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Rodriguez, Eduardo D.

2009-01-01

161

Wound healing effect of silk fibroin/alginate-blended sponge in full thickness skin defect of rat.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin (SF) and alginate (AA) have been proved to be invaluable natural materials in the field of biomedical engineering. This study was designed to compare the wound healing effect of SF, AA and SF/AA-blended sponge (SF/AA) with clinically used Nu Gauze(TM) (CONT) in a rat full thickness wound model. Two circular skin wounds on the back of rat were covered with either of CONT, SF, AA or SF/AA. On the postoperative days of 3, 7, 10 and 14, residual wound area was calculated, and skin wound tissues were biopsied to measure the area of regenerated epithelium and collagen deposition as well as the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells. Half healing time (HT(50)) of SF/AA was dramatically reduced as compared with that of SF, AA or CONT. Furthermore, SF/AA significantly increased the size of re-epithelialization and the number of PCNA positive cells, whereas the effect of SF/AA on collagen deposition was not significantly different as compared with that of SF or AA. These results demonstrate that the wound healing effect of SF/AA is the best among other treatments including SF and AA, and this synergic effect is mediated by re-epithelialization via rapid proliferation of epithelial cell. PMID:16691353

Roh, Dae-Hyun; Kang, Seuk-Yun; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Kwon, Young-Bae; Young Kweon, Hae; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Park, Young-Hwan; Baek, Rong-Min; Heo, Chan-Yeong; Choe, Joon; Lee, Jang-Hern

2006-06-01

162

Facial cutaneous metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Facial cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma is a rare and late clinical finding that is associated with disseminated disease and a poor prognosis. Skin metastases predominantly originate from primary tumours of the lung and melanoma. Skin metastases from colon tumours occur in only 4-6.5% of cases of metastatic colorectal cancer. They are most often located on the abdominal skin. We present an unusual case in which a primary colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasised to the face. This cutaneous lesion occurred 4 years after diagnosis of the primary tumour. This case highlights the importance of prompt investigation of new or evolving skin lesions in patients with a history of malignancy. Early detection and initiation of treatment may prevent development of widespread skin metastases and extend life expectancy. PMID:24177455

Hashimi, Yasmin; Dholakia, Shamik

2013-01-01

163

Skin fibroblasts from pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration patients show altered cellular oxidative status and have defective iron-handling properties.  

PubMed

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a neurodegenerative disease belonging to the group of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation disorders. It is characterized by progressive impairments in movement, speech and cognition. The disease is inherited in a recessive manner due to mutations in the Pantothenate Kinase-2 (PANK2) gene that encodes a mitochondrial protein involved in Coenzyme A synthesis. To investigate the link between a PANK2 gene defect and iron accumulation, we analyzed primary skin fibroblasts from three PKAN patients and three unaffected subjects. The oxidative status of the cells and their ability to respond to iron were analyzed in both basal and iron supplementation conditions. In basal conditions, PKAN fibroblasts show an increase in carbonylated proteins and altered expression of antioxidant enzymes with respect to the controls. After iron supplementation, the PKAN fibroblasts had a defective response to the additional iron. Under these conditions, ferritins were up-regulated and Transferrin Receptor 1 (TfR1) was down-regulated to a minor extent in patients compared with the controls. Analysis of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) reveals that, with respect to the controls, PKAN fibroblasts have a reduced amount of membrane-associated mRNA-bound IRP1, which responds imperfectly to iron. This accounts for the defective expression of ferritin and TfR1 in patients' cells. The inaccurate quantity of these proteins produced a higher bioactive labile iron pool and consequently increased iron-dependent reactive oxygen species formation. Our results suggest that Pank2 deficiency promotes an increased oxidative status that is further enhanced by the addition of iron, potentially causing damage in cells. PMID:22692681

Campanella, Alessandro; Privitera, Daniela; Guaraldo, Michela; Rovelli, Elisabetta; Barzaghi, Chiara; Garavaglia, Barbara; Santambrogio, Paolo; Cozzi, Anna; Levi, Sonia

2012-09-15

164

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery.

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

165

Contemporary facial reanimation.  

PubMed

The facial nerve is the most commonly paralyzed nerve in the human body. Facial paralysis affects aesthetic appearance, and it has a profound effect on function and quality of life. Management of patients with facial paralysis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, and physical therapists. Regardless of etiology, patients with facial paralysis should be evaluated systematically, with initial efforts focused upon establishing proper diagnosis. Management should proceed with attention to facial zones, including the brow and periocular region, the midface and oral commissure, the lower lip and chin, and the neck. To effectively compare contemporary facial reanimation strategies, it is essential to employ objective intake assessment methods, and standard reassessment schemas during the entire management period. PMID:24810125

Bhama, Prabhat K; Hadlock, Tessa A

2014-04-01

166

Image-based control of skin translucency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a method for skin translucency control of facial images. Controlling the skin translucency is one of the important tasks in the reproduction of posters, TV commercials, movies, and so on. As the first step of processing, we extracted the component maps of melanin, hemoglobin and shading from skin color images by the method of Tsumura et al.

Norimichi Tsumura; Ryoko Usuba; Koichi Takase; Toshiya Nakaguchi; Nobutoshi Ojima; Nobutoshi Komeda; Yoichi Miyake

2008-01-01

167

Facial Moulage Impressions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shows how models of the face make excellent preoperative and postoperative records for the surgeon, otolaryngologist, and prosthodontist. Demonstrates the technique for the construction of a facial moulage.

1994-01-01

168

Significance of electromyography to predict and evaluate facial function outcome after acute peripheral facial palsy.  

PubMed

The prognostic value of electromyography (EMG) and its significance to estimate facial function outcome after acute facial palsy is still unclear. We retrospectively analysed the EMG reports of 494 patients with acute facial palsy treated from 1995 to 2005 in a tertiary referral centre. Initial and final facial functions were assessed by the House-Brackmann (HB) scale. Serial EMG results were classified into neurapraxia, axonotmesis/neurotmesis, mixed lesion, complete recovery, defective healing, or not classifiable. Initial HB was II-IV in 321 patients and V-VI in 173 cases. The aetiology was idiopathic palsy in 294, iatrogenic lesion in 86, traumatic in 52, Herpes zoster in 37, and of various origin in 25 patients. EMG revealed neurapraxia in 300 patients, axonotmesis/neurotmesis in 95 patients, and mixed lesion in 23 cases. EMG was not meaningful in 76 patients. The follow-up time ranged from 0.3-264 months. Final EMG revealed a full recovery in 160 patients, whereas 219 patients showed signs of defective healing. In 155 patients, EMG was not significant to classify the final outcome. The predictive EMG value for poor outcome was 77-86% and for recovery 53%. The mean EMG recovery time was 2.3 months. Mean time for defective healing was 4.3 months. Final HB was normal (HB I) in 323 patients, HB II-IV in 115 patients, and V-VI in 46 patients. We conclude that EMG has a high predictive value for unfavourable outcome after acute facial palsy. EMG is more sensible to detect signs of defective healing than clinical evaluation of facial function. PMID:17611766

Grosheva, Maria; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

2007-12-01

169

Facial expression recognition with facial parts based sparse representation classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions play important role in human communication. The understanding of facial expression is a basic requirement in the development of next generation human computer interaction systems. Researches show that the intrinsic facial features always hide in low dimensional facial subspaces. This paper presents facial parts based facial expression recognition system with sparse representation classifier. Sparse representation classifier exploits sparse representation to select face features and classify facial expressions. The sparse solution is obtained by solving l1 -norm minimization problem with constraint of linear combination equation. Experimental results show that sparse representation is efficient for facial expression recognition and sparse representation classifier obtain much higher recognition accuracies than other compared methods.

Zhi, Ruicong; Ruan, Qiuqi

2009-10-01

170

Outcomes of skin graft reconstructions with the use of Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC®) dressing for irradiated extremity sarcoma defects  

PubMed Central

Background Flaps are currently the predominant method of reconstruction for irradiated wounds. The usefulness of split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) in this setting remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of STSGs in conjunction with VAC therapy used in the treatment of irradiated extremity wounds. Methods The records of 17 preoperatively radiated patients with extremity sarcomas reconstructed with STSGs in conjunction with VAC® therapy were reviewed regarding details of radiation treatment, wound closure, and outcomes. Results STSGs healed without complications (>95% of the graft take) in 12 (71%). Minor loss (6% – 20% surface) was noted in 3 patients (17.6%) and complete loss in 2 (11.7%). Two patients (11.7%) required flap reconstructions and 12 (88%) healed without further operative procedures. Conclusion Although flap coverage is an established treatment for radiated wounds, STSG in conjunction with liberal utilization of VAC therapy is an alternative for selected patients where acceptable soft tissue bed is preserved. Healing of the preoperatively radiated wounds can be achieved in the vast majority of such patients with minimal need for additional reconstructive operations.

Senchenkov, Alex; Petty, Paul M; Knoetgen, James; Moran, Steven L; Johnson, Craig H; Clay, Ricky P

2007-01-01

171

Facial Gesture Identification Using Lip Contours  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a robust technique to determine happy\\/sad\\/neutral facial gestures of humans by processing an image containing human face. It aims to do away with the cumbersome process of training the computer with images and thereby significantly reducing the processing time. In this technique human face is identified using skin color identification on various spaces like HSV and YCbCr.

Jagdish Lal Raheja; Radhey Shyam; Jatin Gupta; Umesh Kumar; P Bhanu Prasad

2010-01-01

172

Holistic facial expression classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

2005-06-01

173

Focal facial dermal dysplasia, type IV, is caused by mutations in CYP26C1  

PubMed Central

Focal facial dermal dysplasia (FFDD) Type IV is a rare syndrome characterized by facial lesions resembling aplasia cutis in a preauricular distribution along the line of fusion of the maxillary and mandibular prominences. To identify the causative gene(s), exome sequencing was performed in a family with two affected siblings. Assuming autosomal recessive inheritance, two novel sequence variants were identified in both siblings in CYP26C1—a duplication of seven base pairs, which was maternally inherited, c.844_851dupCCATGCA, predicting p.Glu284fsX128 and a missense mutation, c.1433G>A, predicting p.Arg478His, that was paternally inherited. The duplication predicted a frameshift mutation that led to a premature stop codon and premature chain termination, whereas the missense mutation was not functional based on its in vitro expression in mammalian cells. The FFDD skin lesions arise along the sites of fusion of the maxillary and mandibular prominences early in facial development, and Cyp26c1 was expressed exactly along the fusion line for these facial prominences in the first branchial arch in mice. Sequencing of four additional, unrelated Type IV FFDD patients and eight Type II or III TWIST2-negative FFDD patients revealed that three of the Type IV patients were homozygous for the duplication, whereas none of the Type II or III patients had CYP26C1 mutations. The seven base pairs duplication was present in 0.3% of healthy controls and 0.3% of patients with other birth defects. These findings suggest that the phenotypic manifestations of FFDD Type IV can be non-penetrant or underascertained. Thus, FFDD Type IV results from the loss of function mutations in CYP26C1.

Slavotinek, Anne M.; Mehrotra, Pavni; Nazarenko, Irina; Tang, Paul Ling-Fung; Lao, Richard; Cameron, Don; Li, Ben; Chu, Catherine; Chou, Chris; Marqueling, Ann L.; Yahyavi, Mani; Cordoro, Kelly; Frieden, Ilona; Glaser, Tom; Prescott, Trine; Morren, Marie-Anne; Devriendt, Koen; Kwok, Pui-yan; Petkovich, Martin; Desnick, Robert J.

2013-01-01

174

Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2007-01-01

175

Efficacy of a poly glycolic acid (PGA)/collagen composite nanofibre scaffold on cell migration and neovascularisation in vivo skin defect model.  

PubMed

Application of tissue engineering currently provides promising therapeutic options in the fields of plastic surgery and wound management. The ability of scaffold material for cell proliferation and differentiation is the key for tissue engineering. This study has developed a novel nanofibre composed of poly glycolic acid (PGA) and collagen, both of which have their own respective beneficial properties. This study aimed to estimate the in vivo efficiency of the PGA/collagen nanofibre on granulation histology and its ability to induce neovascularisation. The electrospinning technique produced the PGA/collagen nanofiber with a diameter of 500 nm and weight mixing ratio of 40%. The skin defects on the mouse model were covered with PGA/collagen or a commercially available collagen matrix (n = 9). The PGA/collagen group histologically showed significantly higher cell density and a fine microstructure with greater number of migrating cells as compared to collagen matrix. Then, both materials were applied to the microcirculatory angiogenesis model. The PGA/collagen group (n = 8) revealed significantly higher functional capillary density on days 5 and 7 after application. The findings substantiated the fact that our material had a superior ability regarding cellular migration and induction of neovascularisation compared with the elementary collagen matrix product. This better result might be attributed to the nano-size effect of fine structure and the incorporation of PGA, which has been associated with enhanced angiogenesis. PMID:23596989

Sekiya, Naomi; Ichioka, Shigeru; Terada, Dohiko; Tsuchiya, Sunao; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi

2013-12-01

176

Facial image processing for facial analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a methodology for improved image processing for human facial analysis and tries to integrate results from the visible images with the corresponding thermal images. First, an enhanced face detection algorithm in color images is described. The performance of Haar Classifiers is known as a fast real-time face detection algorithm. However, it generates false detection. The suggested solution

Moi Hoon Yap; Hassan Ugail; Reyer Zwiggelaar; Bashar Rajoub

2010-01-01

177

Realistic modeling for facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major unsolved problem in computer graphics is the construc- tion and animation of realistic human facial models. Traditionally, facial models have been built painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by ad hoc parametrically controlled facial mesh defor- mations or kinematic approximation of muscle actions. Fortunately, animators are now able to digitize facial geometries through the use of scanning range

Yuencheng Lee; Demetri Terzopoulos; Keith Walters

1995-01-01

178

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

PubMed Central

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners.

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

179

A family with hereditary congenital facial paresis and a brief review of the literature.  

PubMed

Hereditary congenital facial paresis is a rare syndrome of isolated facial nerve palsy causing facial asymmetry and ptosis. Most described cases follow an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. It differs from Moebius syndrome, which is usually sporadic and associated with the involvement of other cranial nerves, commonly the abducens nerve in addition to orofacial and limb malformations and defects of the musculoskeletal system. We present three patients from the same family with features of congenital hereditary facial paresis. Facial asymmetry and facial weakness were the most remarkable findings. High-resolution imaging showed both facial nerves to be present but symmetrically and markedly hypoplastic with no other structural abnormality in the brainstem. This syndrome has been previously mapped to chromosome 3q21-22 but no gene has been identified as yet. PMID:20577083

Alrashdi, Ismail S; Rich, Philip; Patton, Michael A

2010-10-01

180

Application of Silver Sulfadiazine Cream With Early Surgical Intervention in Patients Suffering From Combined Burn-Blast Injury Facial Tattoos  

PubMed Central

Severe combined burn-blast injury is a great challenge to surgical teams due to its high mortality. It also results in unsightly traumatic tattoos. The aims of these case reports were to clarify the clinical characteristic of the dynamite explosion burn-blast facial injuries and discuss appropriate management of these patients. We report two patients suffering from facial burn-blast injury following dynamite explosion in which after primary stabilization, silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to the wounds and 12 hours later the wounds were cleaned under general anesthesia with vigorous saline solution irrigation and brushing. The foreign particles were meticulously removed from wounds and simultaneous repairing of defects was done with nylon 6-0 sutures. We conclude application of silver sulfadiazine cream on facial burn-blast injury tattoos several hours before surgical removal of particles is highly efficacious in facilitating particle removal and attaining a good result following surgical intervention, and primary repair. Treatment of combined burn-blast tattoos is different from other types of tattoos not associated with burns. Debridement and removal of foreign particles under general anesthesia from skin immediately and primary reconstruction of wounds is essential. We recommend application of the topical agent silver sulfadiazine to wounds about 12 hours before surgical intervention.

Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

2012-01-01

181

Skin graft (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... stretch it into a larger patch. If the defect involves a great loss of tissue, a full thickness graft, a flap of skin with underlying muscle and blood vessels, may be required. Taking the graft from the ...

182

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

PubMed

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities. PMID:23529088

Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

2013-07-01

183

Association between facial cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and meningitis.  

PubMed Central

The skin is frequently a site of extrapulmonary dissemination in patients with coccidioidomycosis. Clinical experience in an endemic area suggests an association between facial cutaneous coccidioidomycosis and meningitis. Awareness of this association is important because coccidioidal meningitis is the most ominous site of spread in coccidioidomycosis. In this study, we assess whether cutaneous dissemination involving the face is associated with meningitis to a greater degree than that limited to the body. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 201 patients from 1987 to 1996 with disseminated coccidioidomycosis and found 30 patients with cutaneous involvement. Their mean age was 29.5 +/- 11.6 years; 20 patients were male; 14 were African American, 12 were Hispanic, 3 were white, and 1 was Asian. Nineteen patients had facial involvement, and 11 had isolated body involvement. Meningitis developed in 11 patients, 10 with facial involvement and 1 with only body involvement. Patients with facial lesions were more likely to have meningitis (odds ratio, 11.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 529, P = .023). The identification of a subgroup of patients at significant risk of developing meningitis may allow earlier detection and perhaps improved management of patients with meningeal disease.

Arsura, E L; Kilgore, W B; Caldwell, J W; Freeman, J C; Einstein, H E; Johnson, R H

1998-01-01

184

FRONTAL FACIAL EXPRESSION SYNTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

When inputting image sequence that is from the frontal- view neutral face to the side-view facial expression, our research wants to separate the rigid head motion and non-rigid facial expression and removes the head motion by incremental perspective motion model with three sub-regions. As to three sub-regions of the warping result, our research could overcome the edge problem of the

Chih-Wei Fang; Te-Hsun Wang; Tzung-Heng Lai; Sung-Hsien Hsieh; Chun-Hao Chang; Jing-Ye Lin; Jenn-Jier James Lien

185

Emotion and Facial Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Facial expression is usually synthesized or predicted on the basis of a given emotion. The prototypical expressions for basic\\u000a emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger, and fear) as postulated by discrete emotion psychologists are rather\\u000a consistently produced and interpreted among different cultures, and can be used as icons to represent a basic emotion. However,\\u000a these facial expressions are actually rarely

Thomas Wehrle; Susanne Kaiser

1999-01-01

186

The emerging role of laser resurfacing in combination with traditional aesthetic facial plastic surgery.  

PubMed

Traditional aesthetic plastic surgery procedures (facelift, browlift, blepharoplasty, etc.) can make dramatic improvement in the facial appearance by removing excess skin and fat and tightening and repositioning the soft tissues of the face, but make no improvement in the quality of the skin. Laser resurfacing is the safest, most predictable method for improving facial wrinkles and actinic damage. This paper discusses the combination of these techniques in pursuit of optimal rejuvenation of the face. PMID:9502836

Roberts, T L

1998-01-01

187

Robot assisted physiotherapy to support rehabilitation of facial paralysis.  

PubMed

We have been developing the Robot Mask with shape memory alloy based actuators that follows an approach of manipulating the skin through a minimally obtrusive wires, transparent strips and tapes based pulling mechanism to enhance the expressiveness of the face. For achieving natural looking facial expressions by taking the advantage of specific characteristics of the skin, the Robot Mask follows a human anatomy based criteria in selecting these manipulation points and directions. In this paper, we describe a case study of using the Robot Mask to assist physiotherapy of a hemifacial paralyzed patient. The significant differences in shape and size of the human head between different individuals demands proper customizations of the Robot Mask. This paper briefly describes the adjusting and customizing stages employed from the design level to the implementation level of the Robot Mask. We will also introduce a depth image sensor data based analysis, which can remotely evaluate dynamic characteristics of facial expressions in a continuous manner. We then investigate the effectiveness of the Robot Mask by analyzing the range sensor data. From the case study, we found that the Robot Mask could automate the physiotherapy tasks of rehabilitation of facial paralysis. We also verify that, while providing quick responses, the Robot Mask can reduce the asymmetry of a smiling face and manipulate the facial skin to formations similar to natural facial expressions. PMID:24122562

Jayatilake, Dushyantha; Isezaki, Takashi; Teramoto, Yohei; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenji

2014-05-01

188

[Objective assessment of facial paralysis using local binary pattern in infrared thermography].  

PubMed

Facial paralysis is a frequently-occurring disease, which causes the loss of the voluntary muscles on one side of the face due to the damages the facial nerve and results in an inability to close the eye and leads to dropping of the angle of the mouth. There have been few objective methods to quantitatively diagnose it and assess this disease for clinically treating the patients so far. The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Facial paralysis usually causes an alteration of the temperature distribution of body with the disease. This paper presents the use of the histogram distance of bilateral local binary pattern (LBP) in the facial infrared thermography to measure the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution for objective assessing the severity of facial paralysis. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results showed that the mean sensitivity and specificity of this method are 0.86 and 0.89 respectively. The correlation coefficient between the asymmetry degree of facial temperature distribution and the severity of facial paralysis is an average of 0.657. Therefore, the histogram distance of local binary pattern in the facial infrared thermography is an efficient clinical indicator with respect to the diagnosis and assessment of facial paralysis. PMID:23488134

Liu, Xulong; Hong, Wenxue; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Zhenying

2013-02-01

189

Skin Pigment  

MedlinePLUS

... Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers ... the body or small patches. When exposed to sunlight, melanocytes produce increased amounts of melanin, causing the ...

190

Facial region watermarking robust against rotation, scaling and translation attacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a watermarking system for images containing a single frontal facial region that is robust against rotation, scaling and translation attacks. The system presented can automatically detect the facial region within the host image, using an algorithm that does not rely on skin color information and is therefore insensitive to the variations of apparent skin color of the subject. The system then normalizes the rotation, scale and translation of the facial region. Therefore, the system is able to re-synchronize the watermark in the event of a rotation, scaling and translation attack. The experiments showed that the proposed system performed well under such attack. The system also showed good performance against common signal processing attacks such as filtering and JPEG compression.

Setyawan, Iwan; Timotius, Ivanna K.

2013-03-01

191

Can aesthetic facial reconstruction be judged in black and white?  

PubMed

Aesthetic considerations of the face need to be evaluated in real-life full color. Staged contouring and insetting of a transferred free flap is sometimes required. This consists of debulking, thinning, and reshaping the flap. If the facial area is involved, however, color mismatch of a free flap represents an aesthetic challenge for the reconstructive surgeon, and often is missed with black and white photos. This article reports on a patient in whom a first dorsal metatarsal cutaneous free flap was used to reconstruct a full-thickness defect in the lateral orbit including upper and lower eyelids and outer canthus. The flap resulted in an unacceptable aesthetic outcome consisting of a bulky, hypopigmented deformity. Revisional surgery consisted of debulking the free flap and resurfacing it with a full-thickness skin graft taken from the postauricular area. This resulted in a pleasant, thin, and better color match reconstruction. The advantages of the first web space of foot free flap to the eyelid are well described. The authors are of the opinion that the flap does not match the color of the eyelid region, and therefore suggest that if used, prefabrication or a second procedure is needed. Evaluation of the postoperative results needs to be in color because black and white can mask the final aesthetic result. PMID:15870959

Silfen, Ram; Ritz, Morris; Morgan, David; Southwick, Graeme

2005-01-01

192

Acetic acid vapor levels associated with facial prosthetics  

SciTech Connect

The use of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A in the fabrication of facial prostheses may cause health hazards to the patient and the operator because of acetic acid emissions. Caution must be exercised to remove acetic acid vapors from the air and unliberated acetic acid from material applied directly to the skin.

McElroy, T.H.; Guerra, O.N.; Lee, S.A.

1985-01-01

193

Facial actinomycosis mimicking a desmoid tumour: Case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actinomycosis is a chronic, suppurative, granulomatous, fibrosing infection that usually occurs in the cervicofacial region. Actinomyces israelii is the most common organism, with sporadic cases being caused by A. odontolyticus. Even though actinomyces are part of the normal oral flora, infections are rare; rarer still is actinomycotic infection of the facial skin. We describe a case of actinomycosis of the

Ravi Pant; Terry L. Marshall; Richard F. Crosher

2008-01-01

194

Computed tomography of facial fractures.  

PubMed

Facial skeletal fractures are common, potentially serious, and frequently associated with other life-threatening conditions, such as traumatic brain injuries. Facial fractures can be simple or complex and sometimes involve serious complications. Computed tomography has revolutionized the rapid and precise assessment of craniofacial and neck fractures in patients with severe facial trauma. This article introduces readers to the epidemiology, skeletal anatomy and biomechanics, complications, and diagnostic imaging of facial fractures. In addition, this article describes efforts to develop and validate a quantitative scoring system for facial fracture severity and reviews treatment strategies for facial skeletal fractures. PMID:24806070

Furlow, Bryant

2014-01-01

195

Facial Sweet's syndrome mimicking rosacea fulminans.  

PubMed

A 36-year-old man presented with a non-pruritic, erythematous facial rash with peri-oral and peri-orbital sparing. The initial clinicopathological diagnosis was rosacea fulminans, which was treated with 25 mg oral prednisolone and cephalexin. The patient re-presented 1 week later with exacerbation of his rash in addition to constitutional symptoms of fever and malaise. A further skin biopsy was taken and the marked neutrophilic infiltrate in the absence of vasculitis made the diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis). High-dose prednisolone (50 mg daily), topical hydrocortisone cream and ichthammol in zinc ointment were commenced with rapid clinical improvement. This case highlights the importance of considering Sweet's syndrome as a differential diagnosis when presented with a facial eruption. PMID:17222305

Anavekar, Namrata S; Williams, Richard; Chong, Alvin H

2007-02-01

196

Studies on gelatin-based sponges. Part III: A comparative study of cross-linked gelatin\\/alginate, gelatin\\/hyaluronate and chitosan\\/hyaluronate sponges and their application as a wound dressing in full-thickness skin defect of rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel cross-linked sponges composed of gelatin\\/alginate and gelatin\\/hyaluronate and chitosan\\/hyaluronate (GH, GA and CH, respectively) were prepared and compared. Six different sponges with or without silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) were applied on the full-thickness dorsal skin defect of Wistar rat. The histology and epidermal wound healing rates of the skin defects were investigated by light microscopy and computerized morphometry 5 and

Y. S. Choi; S. B. Lee; S. R. Hong; Y. M. Lee; K. W. Song; M. H. Park

2001-01-01

197

Reconstructing the extended nasal tip defect.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of large facial defects requires surgical skill, an understanding of engineering principles, an artistic eye, and patience to design the most elegant solution for each patient. Extended nasal tip defects, which may involve additional facial subunits, require even more thoughtful analysis and planning. Reconstructive surgeons need to be aware of the pros and cons of various options for flaps, the use of a delay stage, and sequencing and scheduling of staged operations to achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:24037937

Mobley, Steven

2013-10-01

198

Fast neutron treatment as an alternative to radical surgery for malignant tumours of the facial area.  

PubMed Central

Thirty one patients with very advanced tumours of the maxillary sinus were treated with fast neutrons. Tumour regressed completely in 29 (94%) and subsequently recurred in four (14%). No surgical excision of bone, skin, or nerve was required, and an artificial eye was well tolerated in cases where the eye received the tumour dose and had to be removed. Complications occurred in 10 patients, two of whom had already received radical x ray treatment. The overall duration of neutron treatment was four weeks, and admission to hospital was usually unnecessary. These results compared well with those obtained with surgery. Surgery with curative intent for even moderately advanced tumours of the facial region, particularly the paranasal sinuses, results in deformity, which is often severe and always irreversible. Even so, the cure rate is only about 35%. The high rates of tumour control and the avoidance of severe cosmetic and functional defects after fast neutron treatment make it an alternative to radical surgery in the management of malignant tumours of the facial area. Images FIG 1 FIG 2

Catterall, M; Blake, P R; Rampling, R P

1984-01-01

199

The cranially based contralateral nasolabial flap for reconstruction of paranasal and periorbital surgical defects.  

PubMed

The importance of the paranasal and periorbital regions on the aesthetics of the face presents a variety of reconstructive challenges for surgical and traumatic defects of those regions. We used the cranially based nasolabial flap in patients with full-thickness soft-tissue defects of the paranasal and periorbital regions harvested from the contralateral side of the present defect. We present our experience in 25 patients of geriatric population (13 females and 12 males with a mean age of 76) with complex soft-tissue defects in the paranasal and periorbital regions whose defects were reconstructed with contralateral nasolabial skin flaps. Sizes of the defects changed between 2 × 3 cm and 6 × 7 cm. The flap sizes varied from a width of 2 to 5 cm (average 3 cm) and a length of 7 to 11 cm (average 8 cm). Primary closure of the donor sites of the flaps was possible in 24 of the patients in this series. Twenty-one flaps of this series (84%) healed without any necrosis and completely survived. The contralateral nasolabial flap is a very convenient, safe and reliable flap that can be used in medium to large paranasal and periorbital defects. Optimal aesthetic results for a variety of central facial defects could be obtained with this flap, especially when the ipsilateral nasolabial flap cannot be used due to various reasons. PMID:24529694

Kerem, Hakan; Bali, Ulas; Sönmez, Erhan; Manavba??, Yurdakul Ilker; Yoleri, Levent

2014-05-01

200

Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

201

Personalized facial expression recognition in indoor environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression recognition is one of the most popular topics in emotion analysis. Most facial expression recognition systems are implemented using general expression models. Since facial expressions may be expressed differently by different people, inaccurate results are unavoidable. The proposed facial expression recognition system recognizes facial expressions using the facial features of an individual user. A radial basis function neural

Chuan-Yu Chang; Yan-Chiang Huang

2010-01-01

202

Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies provide conclusive evidence that there is a pancultural element in facial expressions of emotion. This element must be the particular associations between movements of specific facial muscles and emotions, since the results obtained in the judgeme...

P. Ekman

1971-01-01

203

Acneiform facial eruptions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management.

Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

2005-01-01

204

Facial reanimation after facial nerve injury using hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis: the gruppo otologico experience.  

PubMed

To evaluate the results of facial nerve reanimation after facial nerve injury by means of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis. Retrospective case review. Private neuro-otologic and cranial base quaternary referral center. Sixty patients underwent hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis for facial nerve reanimation between April 1987 and December 2010. Only forty patients completed a minimal follow up of 24 months at the time of evaluation and were included in the study population. Facial nerve paralysis was present for a mean duration of 11.3 months (range 2-42 months) and all the patients had a HB grade VI prior their surgery. Final facial nerve motor function. The most common cause of facial paralysis was vestibular Schwannoma surgery. All the patients achieved a postoperative HB grade III or IV after a mean follow-up time of 20 months. The facial movements were detected after a period that ranged from ranged from 5 to 9 months. Only 4 patients suffered from difficulties during eating and drinking and three of them had associated lower cranial nerve deficit. Despite the various techniques in facial reanimation following total facial nerve paralysis, the end to end of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis remains one of the best treatments in cases of viable distal facial stump and nonatrophic musculature. PMID:24427588

Tanbouzi Husseini, Sami; Kumar, David Victor; De Donato, Giuseppe; Almutair, Tamama; Sanna, Mario

2013-12-01

205

Advanta facial implants.  

PubMed

Advanta facial implants represent a new method of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) technology and appear to be different from previous ePTFE products. The implants appear to work well when used for lip augmentation. The author has 18 months' experience with this implant. Placement of these implants is simple and predictable. The complication rate is low and the implants are serviceable. The procedure is reversible without extensive damage to normal tissue. The Advanta facial implant appears to be a useful option in the armamentarium of the cosmetic oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:18088762

Niamtu, Joseph

2005-02-01

206

Research on An Inspection Method for De-bond Defects in Aluminum Skin-Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure with Guided Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase the ultrasonic inspection speed of skin honeycomb core sandwich structure, the application of guided waves in this field was resea rched on. The characteristics of guided waves was stated, the propagation of guided waves in the skin ho neycomb core sandwich structure was analyzed. Guided wave mode was selected in term of signal amplitude relative change

Fangcheng HE; Zhenggan ZHOU; Zhanying FENG

207

Defective expression of HLA class I and CD1a molecules in boy with Marfan-like phenotype and deep skin ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a boy with low expression of HLA class I molecules on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which is associated with immunodeficiency. The patient, who had a Marfan-like phenotype, had chronic deep skin ulcers and sinobronchiectasis. Immunohistologic examination of the ulcerated skin showed a dense perivascular infiltrate composed of normal mature lymphocytes and macrophages. All cells in

Alessandro Plebani; Virginia Monafo; Roberto Cattaneo; Graziella Carella; Duilio Brugnoni; Fabio Facchetti; Simonetta Battocchio; Antonella Meini; Luigi D. Notarangelo; Marzia Duse; Alberto G. Ugazio

1996-01-01

208

Perceptually guided expressive facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of current facial animation approaches largely focus on the accuracy or efficiency of their algorithms, or how to optimally utilize pre-collected facial motion data. However, human perception, the ultimate measuring stick of the visual fidelity of synthetic facial animations, was not effectively exploited in these approaches. In this paper, we present a novel perceptually guided computational framework for expressive

Zhigang Deng; Xiaohan Ma

2008-01-01

209

Molecular Basis of Tobacco Smoke-Induced Premature Skin Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is now widely recognized that tobacco smoke has negative effects on the skin, the molecular mechanisms underlying its skin-aging effects remain uncertain. Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoking is a strong independent predictor of facial wrinkle formation and other aspects of premature skin aging. Recent in vivo studies in humans and mice provided the first direct evidence that

Akimichi Morita; Kan Torii; Akira Maeda; Yuji Yamaguchi

2009-01-01

210

Portable hyperspectral imager for assessment of skin disorders: preliminary measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygenation of the facial skin was evaluated in rosacea using a hyperspectral camera. A portable imaging system utilizing crossed-polarization optics for illumination and recording is described. Relative oxygen saturation was determined from rosacea features and compared with normal skin. Saturation maps and light absorption spectra showed a significant increase in the oxygen saturation of the blood in rosacea-affected skin.

Beach, James M.; Lanoue, Mark A.; Brabham, Kori; Khoobehi, Bahram

2005-04-01

211

Lasers for Facial Rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser and laser-like assisted facial rejuvenation has become very popular during the last decade. Although a myriad of techniques are available, such approaches can be divided into four basic approaches. There are those that (i) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and provide a significant thermal effect (CO2 lasers); (ii) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and minimal thermal effects

David J. Goldberg

2003-01-01

212

Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.  

PubMed

The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences. PMID:23469703

Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

2012-01-01

213

A nonlinear filter system for beautifying facial images with contrast enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear image processing system for beautifying human facial images is proposed using contrast enhancement which effects highlighting and shading. Authors proposed before a nonlinear digital filter bank system, which removes undesirable skin components, such as wrinkles and spots, to make the skin look smoothed and beautified. Also, edge enhancement is utilized in this system to make the features of

Shuji Ohchi; Shinichiro Sumi; Kaoru Arakawa

2010-01-01

214

Nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the New Star Model 130 neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system for nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides (e.g., periorbital wrinkles). Facial rhytides are treated with 1.32 micrometer wavelength laser light delivered through a fiberoptic handpiece into a 5 mm diameter spot using three 300 microsecond duration pulses at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency and pulse radiant exposures extending up to 12 J/cm2. Dynamic cooling is used to cool the epidermis selectively prior to laser treatment; animal histology experiments confirm that dynamic cooling combined with nonablative laser heating protects the epidermis and selectively injures the dermis. In the human clinical study, immediately post-treatment, treated sites exhibit mild erythema and, in a few cases, edema or small blisters. There are no long-term complications such as marked dyspigmentation and persistent erythema that are commonly observed following ablative laser skin resurfacing. Preliminary results indicate that the severity of facial rhytides has been reduced, but long-term follow-up examinations are needed to quantify the reduction. The mechanism of action of this nonablative laser treatment modality may involve dermal wound healing that leads to long- term synthesis of new collagen and extracellular matrix material.

Lask, Gary P.; Lee, Patrick K.; Seyfzadeh, Manouchehr; Nelson, John S.; Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Dave, Digant; Geronemus, Roy G.; Bernstein, Leonard J.; Mittelman, Harry; Ridener, Laurie A.; Coulson, Walter F.; Sand, Bruce; Baumgarder, Jon; Hennings, David R.; Menefee, Richard F.; Berry, Michael

1997-05-01

215

Laser skin resurfacing.  

PubMed

There has always been interest in looking younger, but recently there seems to have been an explosion of public interest in facial rejuvenation. Physicians have been treating photodamaged skin for many years by removing the epidermis and a variable thickness of dermis with dermabrasion or chemical peels, with the expectation that reepithialization and collagen remodeling will result in a more youthful appearance. With the recent development of short-pulsed high-peak power and rapidly scanned carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers, the ability to remove photodamaged skin in a precise and reproducible manner while leaving behind a narrow zone of thermal damage has been achieved. This development has generated tremendous interest in laser skin resurfacing as a technique to reverse photoaging. PMID:8948536

Dover, J S; Hruza, G J

1996-09-01

216

Hemifacial microsomia in cat-eye syndrome: 22q11.1-q11.21 as candidate loci for facial symmetry.  

PubMed

Cat-Eye syndrome (CES), (OMIM 115470) also known as chromosome 22 partial tetrasomy or inverted duplicated 22q11, was first reported by Haab [1879] based on the primary features of eye coloboma and anal atresia. However, >60% of the patients lack these primary features. Here, we present a 9-month-old female who at birth was noted to have multiple defects, including facial asymmetry with asymmetric retrognathia, bilateral mandibular hypoplasia, branchial cleft sinus, right-sided muscular torticollis, esotropia, and an atretic right ear canal with low-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss, bilateral preauricular ear tag/pits, and two skin tags on her left cheek. There were no signs of any colobomas or anal atresia. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) was suspected clinically. Chromosome studies and FISH identified an extra marker originated from 22q11 consistent with CES, and this was confirmed by aCGH. This report expands the phenotypic variability of CES and includes partial tetrasomy of 22q11.1-q11.21 in the differential diagnosis of HFM. In addition, our case as well as the previous association of 22q11.2 deletions and duplications with facial asymmetry and features of HFM, supports the hypothesis that this chromosome region harbors genes important in the regulation of body plan symmetry, and in particular facial harmony. PMID:23794175

Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

2013-08-01

217

Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

2014-01-01

218

Facial Cosmetic Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Liposuction Forehead/Brow Lift Lip Enhancement Nasal Reconstruction Skin Treatments Botox ® Injections Chemical Peel Dermabrasion Laser Treatment Injectable Fillers (Restylane ® , Collagen, etc.) The information provided here is ...

219

Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*  

PubMed Central

Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (?5 mites/cm2) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation.

Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

2011-01-01

220

[Facial osteotomies without fixation].  

PubMed

The authors first review the problems associated with inter-maxillary blockage and of classical methods of immobilisation used in all types of facial osteotomy. Their experience of osteosynthesis in traumatology has led them to use whenever possible osteosynthesis alone with screw fixed microplates. The other methods are used only as secondary assistance in the case of necessity. Osteosynthesis without blockage prevents recurrence and does not compromise the result as far as satisfactory dental articulation is concerned. PMID:266266

Champy, M; Wilk, A; Lodde, J P; Grasset, D

1977-01-01

221

Human facial beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that human faces judged to be attractive by people possess two features—averageness and symmetry—that promoted\\u000a adaptive mate selection in human evolutionary history by way of production of offspring with parasite resistance. Facial composites\\u000a made by combining individual faces are judged to be attractive, and more attractive than the majority of individual faces.\\u000a The composites possess both symmetry

Randy Thorrthill; Steven W. Gangestad

1993-01-01

222

Anesthetic considerations in a parturient with oral-facial-digital syndrome and repaired tetralogy of Fallot with left ventricular dysfunction.  

PubMed

Oral-Facial-Digital syndrome or Mohr syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by malformations of face, oral cavity, laryngeal structures, trachea, and digits, muscular-skeletal abnormalities, and congenital cardiac defects. In this case report, we describe the anesthetic management of a parturient with Oral-Facial-Digital syndrome type II and repaired tetralogy of Fallot with left ventricular dysfunction. PMID:24631061

McKinnie, J E; Abdullah, A N; Ramanathan, J

2014-05-01

223

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Skin cancer It is possible to find skin cancer early. ... see a dermatologist. Learn more. Common types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) This is the most ...

224

Cytokines and the Skin Barrier  

PubMed Central

The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

Hanel, Kai H.; Cornelissen, Christian; Luscher, Bernhard; Baron, Jens Malte

2013-01-01

225

Cytokines and the skin barrier.  

PubMed

The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:23531535

Hänel, Kai H; Cornelissen, Christian; Lüscher, Bernhard; Baron, Jens Malte

2013-01-01

226

[Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].  

PubMed

This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain. PMID:24748087

Koyama, Shinichi

2014-04-01

227

Three new patients with congenital unilateral facial nerve palsy due to chromosome 22q11 deletion.  

PubMed

We report three unrelated patients with congenital facial nerve palsy and chromosome 22q11 deletion, a condition hitherto poorly recognized. In the first case, facial palsy was associated with aortic coarctation, ductus arteriosus, and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. In the second case, facial palsy was associated with ostium secundum atrial septal defect, obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction, double ureteropelvic-calicial system, and distal metaphyseal widening of the forearm and leg bones. In both cases, facial palsy was the presenting feature. In the third case, an ostium secundum atrial septal defect was also present, but involvement of cranial nerves III, VI, and VIII, in addition to hypoplastic structures of cerebellar and cerebral peduncles, were the predominant features. There were no inherited deletions within chromosome band 22q11 and the de novo deletions detected in each case belonged to the paternally derived chromosome 22. Association of facial nerve palsy and congenital heart disease versus cardiofacial syndrome are different only on clinical grounds, so both conditions can be genetically identical and form part of the spectrum of defects associated with chromosome 22q11 deletions. We recommend investigation for chromosome 22q11 deletions in patients with complete nerve facial palsy. PMID:11417615

Puñal, J E; Siebert, M F; Angueira, F B; Lorenzo, A V; Castro-Gago, M

2001-06-01

228

Limbic and prefrontal responses to facial emotion expressions in depersonalization.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder, characterized by emotional detachment, has been associated with increased prefrontal cortical and decreased autonomic activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related fMRI with simultaneous measurements of skin conductance levels occurred in nine depersonalization disorder patients and 12 normal controls to neutral, mild and intense happy and sad facial expressions. Patients, but not controls, showed decreases in subcortical limbic activity to increasingly intense happy and sad facial expressions, respectively. For both happy and sad expressions, negative correlations between skin conductance measures in bilateral dorsal prefrontal cortices occurred only in depersonalization disorder patients. Abnormal decreases in limbic activity to increasingly intense emotional expressions, and increases in dorsal prefrontal cortical activity to emotionally arousing stimuli may underlie the emotional detachment of depersonalization disorder. PMID:17496806

Lemche, Erwin; Surguladze, Simon A; Giampietro, Vincent P; Anilkumar, Ananthapadmanabha; Brammer, Michael J; Sierra, Mauricio; Chitnis, Xavier; Williams, Steven C R; Gasston, David; Joraschky, Peter; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L

2007-03-26

229

[Differential therapeutic indications for the useof Xenoderm and SYSper-derm in burns and other skin defects. Commentary on the work of J. Maserova: a comparative study of several synthetic skin substitutes].  

PubMed

The experimental studies by Moserová yield an objective judgement of different biological and synthetic wound dressings and underline the importance of evaporation in the progression of dermal necrosis in the postburn period. Basing on the results of these findings and own experimental and clinical results recommandations are given concerning the use of Xenoderm and SYSpur-derm, both temporary skin substitutes of the GDR-production. The different indications for the application of the two materials are described. PMID:7304001

Kiene, S

1981-01-01

230

Easy facial analysis using the facial golden mask.  

PubMed

For over 2000 years, many artists and scientists have tried to understand or quantify the form of the perfect, ideal, or most beautiful face both in art and in vivo (life). A mathematical relationship has been consistently and repeatedly reported to be present in beautiful things. This particular relationship is the golden ratio. It is a mathematical ratio of 1.618:1 that seems to appear recurrently in beautiful things in nature as well as in other things that are seen as beautiful. Dr. Marquardt made the facial golden mask that contains and includes all of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometric golden elements formed from the golden ratio. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the golden facial mask. In 40 cases, the authors applied the facial golden mask to preoperative and postoperative photographs and scored each photograph on a 1 to 5 scale from the perspective of their personal aesthetic views. The score was lower when the facial deformity was severe, whereas it was higher when the face was attractive. Compared with the average scores of facial mask applied photographs and nonapplied photographs using a nonparametric test, statistical significance was not reached (P > 0.05). This implies that the facial golden mask may be used as an analytical tool. The facial golden mask is easy to apply, inexpensive, and relatively objective. Therefore, the authors introduce it as a useful facial analysis. PMID:17538332

Kim, Yong-Ha

2007-05-01

231

Identification of a New Human Catenin Gene Family Member ( ARVCF) from the Region Deleted in Velo–Cardio–Facial Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velo–cardio–facial syndrome (VCFS) and DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) are characterized by a wide spectrum of phenotypes, including conotruncal heart defects, cleft palate, and facial dysmorphology. Hemizygosity for a portion of chromosome 22q11 has been detected in 80–85% of VCFS\\/DGS patients. Both syndromes are thought to be the result of a developmental field defect. Using two independent gene isolation procedures, we isolated

Howard Sirotkin; Hilary O'Donnell; Ruchira DasGupta; Stephanie Halford; Bruno St. Jore; Anne Puech; Satish Parimoo; Bernice Morrow; Arthur Skoultchi; Sherman M. Weissman; Peter Scambler; Raju Kucherlapati

1997-01-01

232

[Case report: Free combined osteo-tendo-cutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle for coverage of skin, tendon and bone defect on the back of the foot].  

PubMed

For the first time we present the case of a microsurgical reconstruction with an osteo-tendo-cutaneous free flap harvested from the medial femoral condyle for the coverage of a bone-tendon-soft tissue defect of the foot. PMID:23037805

Paier, S; Bürger, H K; Rab, M

2012-12-01

233

Mental retardation, congenital heart defect, cleft palate, short stature, and facial anomalies: A new X-linked multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome: Clinical description and molecular studies  

SciTech Connect

We report on two brothers and their two maternal uncles with severe mental retardation, congenital heart defect, cleft or highly arched palate, short stature and craniofacial anomalies consisting of microcephaly, abnormal ears, bulbous nose, broad nasal bridge, malar hypoplasia, and micro-gnathia. Three of the four patients died at an early age. The mother of the two brothers had an atrial septal defect. She is assumed to be manifesting carrier of a mutant gene, which is expressed in her two sons and two brothers. By multipoint linkage analysis it is found that the most likely location of the responsible gene is the pericentromeric region Xp21.3-q21.3 with DMD and DXS3 as flanking markers. Maximum information is obtained with marker DXS453 (Z = 1.20 at {theta} = 0.0). 24 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Hamel, B.C.J.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Ropers, H.H. [University Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schoonbrood-Lenssen, A.M.J. [Institute for the Mentally Retarded, Echt (Netherlands)

1994-07-15

234

Facial Reconstruction by Biosurgery: Cell Transplantation Versus Cell Homing  

PubMed Central

The face distinguishes one human being from another. When the face is disfigured because of trauma, tumor removal, congenital anomalies, or chronic diseases, the patient has a strong desire for functional and esthetic restoration. Current practice of facial reconstruction using autologous grafts, synthetic fillers, and prostheses is frequently below the surgeon's and patient's expectations. Facial reconstruction is yet to take advantage of recent advances in seemingly unrelated fields of stem cell biology, chemical engineering, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. “Biosurgery,” a new concept that we propose, will incorporate novel principles and strategies of bioactive cues, biopolymers, and/or cells to restore facial defects. Small facial defects can likely be reconstructed by cell homing and without cell transplantation. A critical advantage of cell homing is that agilely recruited endogenous cells have the potential to harness the host's innate capacity for regeneration, thus accelerating the rate of regulatory and commercialization processes for product development. Large facial defects, however, may not be restorable without cell delivery per our understanding at this time. New breakthrough in biosurgery will likely originate from integrated strategies of cell biology, cytokine biology, chemical engineering, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. Regardless of cell homing or cell delivery approaches, biosurgery not only will minimize surgical trauma and repetitive procedures, but also produce long-lasting results. At the same time, caution must be exercised against the development of products that lack scientific basis or dogmatic combination of cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules. Together, scientifically derived biosurgery will undoubtedly develop into new technologies that offer increasingly natural reconstruction and/or augmentation of the face.

Stosich, Michael S.; Moioli, Eduardo K.; Lee, Chang Hun; Fu, Susan Y.; Bastian, Barbara; Eisig, Sidney B.; Zemnick, Candice; Ascherman, Jeffrey; Wu, June; Rohde, Christine; Ahn, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

235

Facial gunshot wound debridement: debridement of facial soft tissue gunshot wounds.  

PubMed

Over the period 1981-1985 the author treated 1486 patients with facial gunshot wounds sustained in combat in Afghanistan. In the last quarter of 20th century, more powerful and destructive weapons such as M-16 rifles, AK-47 and Kalashnikov submachine guns, became available and a new approach to gunshot wound debridement is required. Modern surgeons have little experience in treatment of such wounds because of rare contact with similar pathology. This article is intended to explore modern wound debridement. The management of 502 isolated soft tissue injuries is presented. Existing principles recommend the sparing of damaged tissues. The author's experience was that tissue sparing lead to a high rate of complications (47.6%). Radical primary surgical debridement (RPSD) of wounds was then adopted with radical excision of necrotic non-viable wound margins containing infection to the point of active capillary bleeding and immediate primary wound closure. After radical debridement wound infection and breakdown decreased by a factor of 10. Plastic operations with local and remote soft tissue were made on 14, 7% of the wounded. Only 0.7% patients required discharge from the army due to facial muscle paralysis and/or facial skin impregnation with particles of gunpowder from mine explosions. Gunshot face wound; modern debridement. PMID:22998924

Shvyrkov, Michael B

2013-01-01

236

Computer-assisted facial reproduction.  

PubMed

Electronic imaging equipment originally developed to illustrate aging of missing persons has been utilized in facial reproduction from skeletal remains. The technique produces rapid, economical, and realistic facial images in a manner that eliminates the need for photography and maximizes interaction and communication between the artist and the anthropologist. PMID:1545196

Ubelaker, D H; O'Donnell, G

1992-01-01

237

Management of Chronic Facial Pain  

PubMed Central

Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies.

Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.

2009-01-01

238

[The clefts as inborn defects].  

PubMed

The article refers usual facial clefts, which are not rare anomalies. Relation to other forms of so-called midline defects (limb clefts) is indicated. Syndromic and unusual clefts are rarer than isolated non-syndromic clefts. Clinical features, including minimal symptomatology, etiopathogenesis and population frequency are discussed. From the diagnostic point of view specific, prenatal, postnatal and differential diagnostic approaches are recognized. Preventive aspects, therapy and management of the disease (for cleft lip and palate defects, median cleft palate, broad spectrum of neural tube defects including anencephaly, limb clefts etc.) are important. We estimated the empiric risk of the recurrence and suggest methods for preconceptional preventive care. PMID:24041020

Kuklík, Miloslav

2013-01-01

239

Topical delivery system for antiaging and skin whitening agents  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to certain hydroxyaryl alkanols, alkyl amines, alkyl amino acids, alkyl amino esters, and alkyl amino alkanols ("Hydroxyaryl compounds") of formula (I). A method of topical application of said hydroxyaryl compounds is also disclosed. The treatment of certain enzyme dysfunctions that cause skin or hair condition such as darkened skin including age spots, dark circles around the eyes, and discoloration of skin from stretch marks; skin conditions related to acne including excess facial oil and facial pore size; premature hair aging including hair loss and graying; inflammation including intra-cellular and extra-cellular inflammation; skin aging including wrinkles and fine lines; loss of collagen including thinning skin and loss of skin pliability; malfunction of tyrosinase group of enzymes; and malfunction of matrix metalloprotease group of enzymes with said hydroxyaryl compounds is also disclosed: ##STR00001##

2010-08-17

240

Bilateral radial agenesis with absent thumbs, complex heart defect, short stature, and facial dysmorphism in a patient with pure distal microduplication of 5q35.2-5q35.3  

PubMed Central

Background A partial duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 5 (5q35--?>?qter) is known to be associated with a distinct phenotype referred to as Hunter-McAlpine syndrome. Clinical spectrum of this disorder mainly consists of mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, skeletal anomalies, and craniofacial dysmorphism featuring flat facies, micrognathia, large, low-set dysplastic ears, hypertelorism, almond-shaped, down-slanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, small nose, long philtrum, small mouth, and thin upper lip. Less frequent remarkable findings include craniosynostosis, heart defect, hypoplastic phalanges, preaxial polydactyly, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernia. In most patients with a partial duplication of 5q the aberration occurred due to an inherited unbalanced translocation, therefore the phenotype was not reflective of pure trisomy 5q. Case presentation We report on a 9.5-year-old boy with some feature of Hunter-McAlpine syndrome including short stature, complex heart defect (dextrocardia, dextroversion, PFO), bilateral cryptorchidism, hypothyroidism, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Additionally, bilateral radial agenesis with complete absence of Ist digital rays, ulnar hypoplasia with bowing, choroidal and retinal coloboma, abnormal biliary vesicle were identified, which have never been noted in 5q trisomy patients. Karyotype analysis, sequencing and MLPA for TBX5 and SALL4 genes were unremarkable. Array comparative genomic hybridization detected a duplication on 5q35.2-5q35.3, resulting from a de novo chromosomal rearrangement. Our proband carried the smallest of all previously reported pure distal 5q trisomies encompassing terminal 5.4-5.6 Mb and presented with the most severe limb malformation attributed to the increased number of distal 5q copies. Conclusions We postulate that a terminal distal trisomy of 5q35.2-5q35.3, which maps 1.1 Mb telomeric to the MSX2 gene is causative for both radial agenesis and complex heart defect in our proband. A potential candidate gene causative for limb malformation in our proband could be FGFR4, which maps relatively in the closest position to the chromosomal breakage site (about 1.3 Mb) from all known 5q duplications. Since the limb malformation as well as the underlying genetic defect are distinct from other 5q trisomy patient we propose that a position effect resulting in altered long-range regulation of the FGFR4 (alternatively MSX2) may be responsible for the limb malformation in our proband.

2013-01-01

241

Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?  

PubMed Central

Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

2012-01-01

242

Facial Action Unit Detection using Probabilistic Actively Learned Support Vector Machines on Tracked Facial Point Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system that could enable fast and robust facial expression recognition would have many applications in behavioral science, medicine, security and human-machine interaction. While working toward that goal, we do not attempt to recognize prototypic facial expressions of emotions but analyze subtle changes in facial behavior by recognizing facial muscle action units (AUs, i.e., atomic facial signals) instead. By detecting

M. F. Valstar; I. Patras; M. Pantic

2005-01-01

243

Measuring facial expressions by computer image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions provide an important behavioral measure for the study of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The Facial Action Coding System ~Ekman & Friesen, 1978! is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. We applied computer image analysis to the problem of automatically detecting facial actions in sequences of images. Three approaches were compared:

MARIAN STEWART BARTLETT; JOSEPH C. HAGER; PAUL EKMAN; TERRENCE J. SEJNOWSKI

1999-01-01

244

Support Vector Clustering of Facial Expression Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression recognition is an active research area that finds a potential application in human emotion analysis. This work presents an efficient approach of facial expression features clustering based on Support Vector Clustering (SVC). Common approaches to facial expression features clustering are designed considering two main parts: (1) features extraction, and (2) features clustering. In the process of facial expression

Shu-ren Zhou; Xi-ming Liang; Can Zhu

2008-01-01

245

Real Time Facial Expression Recognition with Adaboost  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel method for facial expression recognition. The facial expression is extracted from human faces by an expression classifier that is learned from boosting Haar feature based Look-Up- Table type weak classifiers. The expression recognition system consists of three modules, face detection, facial feature landmark extraction and facial expression recognition. The implemented system can automatically

Yubo Wang; Haizhou Ai; Bo Wu; Chang Huang

2004-01-01

246

Diagnosis and management of facial pigmented macules.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of pigmented macules on the mottled chronic sun-damaged skin of the face is challenging and includes lentigo maligna (LM), pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, solar lentigo, and lichen-planus-like keratosis. Although dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of the unaided eye, the accurate diagnosis and management of pigmented facial macules remains one of the most challenging scenarios in daily practice. This is related to the fact that pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, lichen-planus-like keratosis, and LM may reveal overlapping criteria, making their differential diagnosis clinically difficult. For this reason, practical rules have been introduced, which should help to minimize the risk for inappropriate diagnosis and management of LM. PMID:24314382

Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Moscarella, Elvira; Longo, Caterina; Simonetti, Vito; Zalaudek, Iris

2014-01-01

247

Rendering of human skin during physical exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers have shown interest in the realistic rendering of a human face since it is crucial to the success of many applications in computer graphics, games and animation. However, it is difficult to represent the realistic appearance of a facial skin since it has complex physical properties and its appearance tends to vary as the situation changes. For example,

Myoung Kook Seo; Hyuk Jin Kwon; Bilal Ahmed; Young Yi Lee; Jae Doug Yoo; In Yeop Jang; Seung Joo Lee; Min ki Park; Kwan H. Lee

2012-01-01

248

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

PubMed

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

2011-01-01

249

[Endoscopic subperiosteal facial rejuvenation].  

PubMed

It is just recently that video endoscopic techniques began to be applied to facial rejuvenation in China. Since July 1995, the authors have performed 15 operations of subperiosteal rejuvenation under the video endoscope, combined with liposuction of the sub-mandible region and the nasolabial fold. The operation uses small incisions, produces satisfactory results with less edema, less numbness and without alopecia. The indications, instrumentation, surgical technique and results and presented and discussed. According to our clinical experience, the best candidates for this operation are those aged from 40 to 55. For the patients about sixty years old, a mini multiplane facelift should be carried out in the cheek and neck region following the subperiosteal facelift. The more elderly patients are not candidates for this operation. We emphasize that the dissected scalp flap should be uplifted to the maximum and anchored on the cranial bone to ensure a satisfactory result. PMID:10452040

Song, Y; Xie, Y

1997-09-01

250

Fractures of Facial Bones  

PubMed Central

A detailed review was made of 1025 consecutive patients with “face-bone” fractures admitted to four Montreal hospitals over the five-year period 1958-1962, inclusive. In addition a survey was carried out of the other general hospitals in Greater Montreal in order to obtain admission figures for facial-bone fractures and for total hospital cases. In the study group the common causes of face-bone fractures were found to be fights, traffic accidents, falls, and athletic pursuits. Very few of these injuries occurred in industrial settings. A distinctly vulnerable group is made up of males between ages 16 and 35 years. In order of frequency of occurrence these injuries involve the nose, lower jaw, cheekbone, upper jaw, and zygomatic arch. The experience throughout metropolitan Montreal indicated that more persons with face-bone fractures require hospital treatment each year, but the increase is approximately parallel to the upward trend of total hospital admissions.

Gerrie, John W.; Hakstian, Robert W.

1964-01-01

251

Skin Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... redness, swelling, burning, and itching. Allergies, irritants, your genetic makeup, and certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, ...

252

Definitive magnetic nasal prosthesis for partial nasal defect.  

PubMed

Maxillofacial trauma refers to any injury to the face or jaw caused by physical force, trauma, the presence of foreign objects, animal or human bites, and burns. Facial defects can be devastating in their impact on physical structure and function of the affected individual, leading to potential compromises in quality of life. Restoration of facial defects, especially nasal defects, is a difficult challenge for both the surgeon and the prosthodontist. Here is a case report of partial nasal defect caused by trauma, rehabilitated with a magnetic nasal prosthesis made with silicone elastomers using mechanical and anatomical retentive aids. PMID:22124061

Nagaraj, E; Shetty, Manoj; Krishna, Prasad D

2011-01-01

253

A complex TFAP2A allele is associated with branchio-oculo-facial syndrome and inner ear malformation in a deaf child.  

PubMed

We present a 4-year-old girl with congenital profound sensorineural deafness associated with inner ear malformation (incomplete partition type II, enlarged vestibule, and enlarged vestibular aqueduct). The proposita also had pseudocleft lips, skin defects, auricle abnormalities, and unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney, leading to the diagnosis of branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome. Mutation analysis of the TFAP2A gene showed a de novo deletion of 18 and insertion of 6 nucleotides, resulting in deletion of amino acids LPGARR and insertion of RI between amino acids 276 and 281. Altered amino acids are located within the basic DNA binding and dimerization domains of TFAP2A. Previously reported amino acid substitutions in TFAP2A involved only DNA binding domain in four patients with BOF syndrome who were not reported to have profound sensorineural deafness. Our report implies that the localization of mutations in TFAP2A might be responsible with the phenotypic findings in BOF syndrome. PMID:19206157

Tekin, Mustafa; Sirmaci, Asli; Yüksel-Konuk, Berrin; Fitoz, Suat; Sennaro?lu, Levent

2009-03-01

254

Reconstruction of a complex midface defect from excision of a squamous cell carcinoma, according to regional aesthetic units.  

PubMed

Extensive squamous cell carcinoma involving the skin of the upper lip, nasal ala, and cheek is relatively rare. Although numerous reconstruction techniques for the midface including lip, nose, and cheek have been described in the literature, reconstruction of large defects in this area continues to be challenging, as it is difficult to obtain satisfactory results with single-stage surgery. This case report concerns a 53-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma extending from the upper lip to the alar base and the cheek. It describes a step-by-step surgery undertaken according to defined regional aesthetic units of the face using several reconstruction methods, including a microvascular free flap, forehead flap, and conchal cartilage graft, rather than multistage reconstruction surgeries after first immediate reconstruction. Satisfactory functional and aesthetic results were achieved despite the extensive facial defects. PMID:24113351

Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Saijo, Hideto; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi

2014-02-01

255

Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease that causes scaling and swelling. Most psoriasis causes patches of thick, red skin with silvery ...

256

Cross-evaluation of facial hyper-pigmentation using fluorescence and polarization color images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging modalities have been utilized as important tools to evaluate skin lesions. Accurate analysis of hyper-pigmentation is important in the evaluation of sun damage, inflammation, and other skin disorders. In this study, both cross-polarization and fluorescent color images were obtained at identical facial skin region and hyper-pigmentation regions were extracted by applying a series of image processing. Cross-polarization image provides subsurface skin information without specular reflection and fluorescence image emphasizes pigmentation in epidermal region. The results were quantitatively evaluated and compared to investigate the difference between two imaging modalities in the evaluation of hyper-pigmentation regions.

Kim, Eunji; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Dongyoun; Choi, Eung-Ho; Jung, Byungjo

2012-02-01

257

Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects  

PubMed Central

Defects requiring reconstruction in the mandible are commonly encountered and may result from resection of benign or malignant lesions, trauma, or osteoradionecrosis. Mandibular defects can be classified according to location and extent, as well as involvement of mucosa, skin, and tongue. Vascularized bone flaps, in general, provide the best functional and aesthetic outcome, with the fibula flap remaining the gold standard for mandible reconstruction. In this review, we discuss classification and approach to reconstruction of mandibular defects. We also elaborate upon four commonly used free osteocutaneous flaps, inclusive of fibula, iliac crest, scapula, and radial forearm. Finally, we discuss indications and use of osseointegrated implants as well as recent advances in mandibular reconstruction.

Chim, Harvey; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir; Chen, Hung-Chi

2010-01-01

258

Facial Activation Control Effect (FACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was the rst in line of a series of ex- periments investigating the possibilities of using voluntarily produced physiological signals in computer-assisted therapy. The current aim was to nd out whether computer-guided voluntary facial activations have an eect on autonomous nervous system activity. Twenty-seven partic- ipants performed a series of voluntary facial muscle activations, while wireless electrocardiography

Toni Vanhala; Veikko Surakka

2007-01-01

259

Sequential antibiotic therapy for acne promotes the carriage of resistant staphylococci on the skin of contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of a predominantly resistant staphylococcal skin flora in acne patients during antibiotic treatment has been extensively documented. This study sought to determine whether antibiotic therapy for acne had any effect on skin carriage of resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) by close contacts of treated patients. Bacterial samples were obtained using a scrub wash technique from facial skin of 41

Yvonne W. Miller; E. Anne Eady; Richard W. Lacey; Jonathan H. Cove; Derrick N. Joanes; William J. Cunliffe

260

Hemangioma of the Facial Nerve  

PubMed Central

Hemangioma of the facial nerve may occur more frequently than previously recognized. This benign vascular tumor most often arises in the area of the geniculate ganglion, although the reason for this site of predilection is not known. Using silicon injection and cross-sectional vessel counts, we recently demonstrated the presence of a geniculate capillary plexus (GCP) in the cat. The present study was designed to identify a similar GCP in man, if present, and to relate if to the site of predilection of hemangioma of the facial nerve. Twenty-five human facial nerves were studied in horizontally sectioned temporal bones. A clinical case of hemangioma arising at the geniculate ganglion is presented. The human geniculate ganglion has a very rich capillary plexus in contrast to the poor intrinsic vasculature of the adjacent labyrinthine segment and nioderate vasculature of the tympanic segment of the facial nerve. We hypothesize that the GCP is the origin of most hemangiomas of facial nerve. The anatomic distinctness of the geniculate gangion and GCP from the facial nerve may allow removal of these tumors with preservation of motor function in certain cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Balkany, Thomas; Fradis, Milo; Jafek, Bruce W.; Rucker, Nolan C.

1991-01-01

261

Skin tightening.  

PubMed

Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. PMID:21865807

Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

2011-01-01

262

Deficiency of the Cytoskeletal Protein SPECC1L Leads to Oblique Facial Clefting  

PubMed Central

Genetic mutations responsible for oblique facial clefts (ObFC), a unique class of facial malformations, are largely unknown. We show that loss-of-function mutations in SPECC1L are pathogenic for this human developmental disorder and that SPECC1L is a critical organizer of vertebrate facial morphogenesis. During murine embryogenesis, Specc1l is expressed in cell populations of the developing facial primordial, which proliferate and fuse to form the face. In zebrafish, knockdown of a SPECC1L homolog produces a faceless phenotype with loss of jaw and facial structures, and knockdown in Drosophila phenocopies mutants in the integrin signaling pathway that exhibit cell-migration and -adhesion defects. Furthermore, in mammalian cells, SPECC1L colocalizes with both tubulin and actin, and its deficiency results in defective actin-cytoskeleton reorganization, as well as abnormal cell adhesion and migration. Collectively, these data demonstrate that SPECC1L functions in actin-cytoskeleton reorganization and is required for proper facial morphogenesis.

Saadi, Irfan; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S.; Goessling, Wolfram; Cavallesco, Resy; Turbe-Doan, Annick; Petrin, Aline L.; Harris, James; Siddiqui, Ursela; Grix, Arthur W.; Hove, Hanne D.; Leboulch, Philippe; Glover, Thomas W.; Morton, Cynthia C.; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Erickson, Robert P.; Maas, Richard L.

2011-01-01

263

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome in a mosaic female infant with monosomy for the Xp22 region: molecular analysis of the Xp22 breakpoint and the X-inactivation pattern.  

PubMed

This paper describes a female infant with microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) and monosomy for the Xp22 region. Her clinical features included right microphthalmia and sclerocornea, left corneal opacity, linear red rash and scar-like skin lesion on the nose and cheeks, and absence of the corpus callosum. Cytogenetic studies revealed a 45,X[18]/46,X,r(X)(p22q21) [24]/46,X,del(X)(p22)[58] karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the ring X chromosome was positive for DXZ1 and XIST and negative for the Xp and Xq telomeric regions, whereas the deleted X chromosome was positive for DXZI, XIST, and the Xq telomeric region and negative for the Xp telomeric region. Microsatellite analysis for 19 loci at the X-differential region of Xp22 disclosed monosomy for Xp22 involving the critical region for the MLS gene, with the breakpoint between DXS1053 and DXS418. X-inactivation analysis for the methylation status of the PGK gene indicated the presence of inactive normal X chromosomes. The Xp22 deletion of our patient is the largest in MLS patients with molecularly defined Xp22 monosomy. Nevertheless, the result of X-inactivation analysis implies that the normal X chromosomes in the 46,X,del(X)(p22) cell lineage were more or less subject to X-inactivation, because normal X chromosomes in the 45,X and 46,X,r(X)(p22q21) cell lineages are unlikely to undergo X-inactivation. This supports the notion that functional absence of the MLS gene caused by inactivation of the normal X chromosome plays a pivotal role in the development of MLS in patients with Xp22 monosomy. PMID:9737776

Ogata, T; Wakui, K; Muroya, K; Ohashi, H; Matsuo, N; Brown, D M; Ishii, T; Fukushima, Y

1998-07-01

264

Depth-dependent ordering, two-length-scale phenomena, and crossover behavior in a crystal featuring a skin layer with defects  

SciTech Connect

Structural defects in a crystal are responsible for the ''two-length-scale'' behavior in which a sharp central peak is superimposed over a broad peak in critical diffuse x-ray scattering. We have previously measured the scaling behavior of the central peak by scattering from a near-surface region of a V{sub 2}H crystal, which has a first-order transition in the bulk. As the temperature is lowered toward the critical temperature, a crossover in critical behavior is seen, with the temperature range nearest to the critical point being characterized by mean-field exponents. Near the transition, a small two-phase coexistence region is observed. The values of transition and crossover temperatures decay with depth. An explanation of these experimental results is here proposed by means of a theory in which edge dislocations in the near-surface region occur in walls oriented in the two directions normal to the surface. The strain caused by the dislocation lines causes the ordering in the crystal to occur as growth of roughly cylindrically shaped regions. After the regions have reached a certain size, the crossover in the critical behavior occurs, and mean-field behavior prevails. At a still lower temperature, the rest of the material between the cylindrical regions orders via a weak first-order transition.

Del Genio, Charo I. [University of Houston, Houston; Bassler, Kevin E. [University of Houston, Houston; Korzhenevskii, Alexander L. [Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering, St. Petersburg; Barabash, Rozaliya [ORNL; Trenkler, PhD Johann [Lithography Optics Division, Carl Zeiss Germany; Reiter, George [University of Houston, Houston; Moss, Simon [University of Houston, Houston

2010-01-01

265

Non-surgical treatment modalities of facial photodamage: practical knowledge for the oral and maxillofacial professional  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing interest in cosmetic procedures, oral and maxillofacial surgeons are being asked not only to improve oral health and aesthetics but to extend their expertise to provide advice on improving the overall appearance of the face. For the discerning patient, improving overall facial skin appearance is becoming an integral part of the process of surgical cosmetic procedures. Here,

F. Hegedus; R. Diecidue; D. Taub; J. Nyirady

2006-01-01

266

Dubowitz syndrome: atopic dermatitis, low birth weight dwarfism and facial dysmorphism.  

PubMed

The association of low birth weight dwarfism, distinct facial dysmorphism and eczematous skin lesions has been described repeatedly since the first description by Dubowitz in 1965. The way of inheritance seems to be in some cases autosomal recessive. Because of the rarity of this entity, another case is reported showing an additional preauricular fistula. PMID:2358105

Vieluf, D; Korting, H C; Braun-Falco, O; Walther, J U

1990-01-01

267

Real time notch based face detection, tracking and facial feature localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper deals with the real time implementation of face detection, tracking and facial feature localization in video sequence that is invariant to scale, translation, and (plusmn45) rotation transformation. The proposed system contains two parts, visual guidance and face\\/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase detects the skin region using the cue present in monocular video (motion and color). Fusion

Usman Qayyum; Muhammad Younus Javed

2006-01-01

268

Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).  

PubMed

Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients. PMID:24053080

Basi?-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanovi?; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

2013-06-01

269

Cultured skin loaded with tetracycline HCl and chloramphenicol as dermal delivery system: Mathematical evaluation of the cultured skin containing antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermal patches consisting of cultured human skin with antibiotics, which have a protective effect on wound skin as well as a preventative effect on second infection of the skin, were prepared and mathematically analyzed as a new drug delivery system (DDS) that can be applied to serious skin defects such as severe burns. In the present study, a three-dimensional cultured

Nobuko Hada; Tetsuya Hasegawa; Hidekazu Takahashi; Takuya Ishibashi; Kenji Sugibayashi

2005-01-01

270

Dry Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... for dealing with dry skin: • Take short, warm baths or showers. They do not remove skin oils ... and are not necessarily bad; in fact, most bath bars are detergents and not soaps. Often, detergents ...

271

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

272

Skin Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

273

Facial Recognition Vendor Test, 2000. Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biggest change in the facial recognition community since the completion of the FERET program has been the introduction of facial recognition products to the commercial market. Open market competitiveness has driven numerous technological advances in a...

D. M. Blackburn M. Bone P. J. Phillips

2001-01-01

274

The contribution of different cues of facial movement to the emotional facial expression adaptation aftereffect.  

PubMed

Probing emotional facial expression recognition with the adaptation paradigm is one way to investigate the processes underlying emotional face recognition. Previous research suggests that these processes are tuned to dynamic facial information (facial movement). Here we examined the tuning of processes involved in the recognition of emotional facial expressions to different sources of facial movement information. Specifically we investigated the effect of the availability of rigid head movement and intrinsic facial movements (e.g., movement of facial features) on the size of the emotional facial expression adaptation effect. Using a three-dimensional (3D) morphable model that allowed the manipulation of the availability of each of the two factors (intrinsic facial movement, head movement) individually, we examined emotional facial expression adaptation with happy and disgusted faces. Our results show that intrinsic facial movement is necessary for the emergence of an emotional facial expression adaptation effect with dynamic adaptors. The presence of rigid head motion modulates the emotional facial expression adaptation effect only in the presence of intrinsic facial motion. In a second experiment we show these adaptation effects are difficult to explain by merely the perceived intensity and clarity (uniqueness) of the adaptor expressions. Together these results suggest that processes encoding facial expressions are differently tuned to different sources of facial movements. PMID:23335323

de la Rosa, Stephan; Giese, Martin; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Curio, Cristóbal

2013-01-01

275

A method for quantifying facial muscle movements in the smile during facial expression training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to propose an evaluation method capable of quantifying facial expressions during facial expression training that is intended to achieve a more expressive face. The specific aim was to investigate methods of estimating facial muscle movements from facial images and display our estimation results in an understandable way, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness

Ai Takami; Kyoko Ito; Shogo Nishida

2008-01-01

276

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: a review of 120 patients.  

PubMed

A series of earlier reports has described the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a syndrome of multiple anomalies including cleft palate, heart malformations, facial characteristics, and learning disabilities. The patients reported previously were primarily ascertained from a craniofacial program at a large tertiary medical center. Recent reports, including a companion paper in this issue, suggest that this common syndrome of clefting is also a common syndrome of congenital heart defect (CHD) which is expressed as familial examples of DiGeorge sequence. Appreciation of more severely affected cases of VCFS and the detection of mild expressions have led to a broadening of the phenotypic spectrum of the syndrome. The purpose of this report is to describe the full spectrum of VCFS, including several new manifestations and to compare the VCFS phenotype with published cases of "familial DiGeorge sequence" which are now thought to represent examples of VCFS. PMID:8434617

Goldberg, R; Motzkin, B; Marion, R; Scambler, P J; Shprintzen, R J

1993-02-01

277

The psychiatric assessment of the patient requesting facial surgery.  

PubMed

Recent years have witnessed an increasing demand for cosmetic or reconstructive facial surgery. This paper addresses the pre-operative psychiatric assessment of the patient requesting facial surgery. Most patients adjust well to surgery and appreciate and accept the outcome. The psychiatrist who helps to screen difficult cases needs specific skills and must understand the body image issues involved. The psychiatrist needs to evaluate the patient's motivations, expectations and understanding of the risks and implications of surgery. Potential problem patients are described, including the minimal defect patient, the patient with secondary gain from the deformity, the older patient, the patient in crisis, the polysurgical patient, the paranoid patient, the schizophrenic patient, and the male patient. Guidelines for evaluating the patient need to be applied flexibly. The psychiatrist must communicate with the surgeon to appreciate clearly the concerns the surgeon has about each patient. PMID:2673200

Schweitzer, I

1989-06-01

278

[Columella defects: yet a challenge!].  

PubMed

The repair of nasal defects is thought to be the most ancient of facial reconstructive procedures, dating back to at least 3000 BC in India. In spite of the development of nasal reconstruction concepts, leading to remarkable esthetic and functional improvements, columella reconstruction is yet a contemporary challenge. Columella defects may result from trauma, infections, carcinoma resection, syphilis, bilateral cleft lip, etc. Maintaining symmetry, contour and function are essential for a successful columella reconstruction. Multiple factors help to determine the optimal repair method, including the size of the defect, its depth and location, and the strength of the underlying nasal framework. This article presents a range of techniques and discusses the application of these methods to specific columella defects. A chronological review of columellar reconstruction procedures used for this partial rhinoplasty is exposed. PMID:18938019

Bouguila, J; Zairi, I; Yacoub, K; Ben Neji, N; d'Hauthuille, C; Khonsari, H; Mokhtar, M; Adouani, A

2008-12-01

279

[Therapy for atypical facial pain].  

PubMed

Atypical facial pain is a pain in the head, neck and the face, without organic causes. It is treated at departments of physical medicine, such as dental, oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, cerebral surgery, or head and neck surgery. In primary care, it is considered to be a medically unexplained symptom (MUS), or a somatoform disorder, such as somatization caused by a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) by psychiatrists. Usually, patients consult departments of physical medicine complaining of physical pain. Therefore physicians in these departments should examine the patients from the holistic perspective, and identify organic diseases. As atypical facial pain becomes chronic, other complications, including psychiatric complaints other than physical pain, such as depression may develop. Moreover, physical, psychological, and social factors affect the symptoms by interacting with one another. Therefore, in examining atypical facial pain, doctors specializing in dental, oral and maxillofacial medicine are required to provide psychosomatic treatment that is based on integrated knowledge. PMID:19768920

Ishida, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko

2009-09-01

280

Realistic 3D Human Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction and animation of realistic human facial models is an important research field in computer graphics. How to simulate the motions of human faces on 3D facial models in real-time to generate realistic facial expressions is still a challenge. In this paper, a technique to simulate the human facial animation realistically in real-time is presented. First of all, the 3D

ZHANG Qing-Shan; CHEN Guo-Liang

2003-01-01

281

Modeling of Layered Fuzzy Facial Expression Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposed a layered fuzzy model of facial expression generation, in which the layers of physiological model at low\\u000a level, emotional model at middle level and social rules at high level determine the fuzzy facial expression generation. In\\u000a the layered fuzzy facial expression generation system, facial expressions of 26 emotions can be fuzzily generated, as well\\u000a as social expressions

Yu-li Xue; Xia Mao; Zheng Li; Wei-he Diao

2007-01-01

282

Do Facial Expressions Develop before Birth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFetal facial development is essential not only for postnatal bonding between parents and child, but also theoretically for the study of the origins of affect. However, how such movements become coordinated is poorly understood. 4-D ultrasound visualisation allows an objective coding of fetal facial movements.Methodology\\/FindingsBased on research using facial muscle movements to code recognisable facial expressions in adults and adapted

Nadja Reissland; Brian Francis; James Mason; Karen Lincoln

2011-01-01

283

Facial mimicry is not necessary to recognize emotion: Facial expression recognition by people with Moebius syndrome.  

PubMed

According to the reverse simulation model of embodied simulation theory, we recognize others' emotions by subtly mimicking their expressions, which allows us to feel the corresponding emotion through facial feedback. Previous studies examining whether facial mimicry is necessary for facial expression recognition were limited by potentially distracting manipulations intended to artificially restrict facial mimicry or very small samples of people with facial paralysis. We addressed these limitations by collecting the largest sample to date of people with Moebius syndrome, a condition characterized by congenital bilateral facial paralysis. In this Internet-based study, 37 adults with Moebius syndrome and 37 matched control participants completed a facial expression recognition task. People with Moebius syndrome did not differ from the control group or normative data in emotion recognition accuracy, and accuracy was not related to extent of ability to produce facial expressions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that reverse simulation with facial mimicry is necessary for facial expression recognition. PMID:19882440

Rives Bogart, Kathleen; Matsumoto, David

2010-01-01

284

Color stability of facial prostheses.  

PubMed

The limited service of facial prostheses is the result of degradation of the elastomer and color instability. Deterioration may be caused by many factors, which include environmental exposure and changes in humidity. This investigation assessed the efficacy of an additive, intrinsic, broad-spectrum ultraviolet light absorber on the color stability of a pigmented facial elastomer. Samples were weathered artificially and outdoors at exposure levels of radiant energy of 150 to 450 kJ/m2. The samples changed color slightly but perceptibly. Artificial aging caused a greater change than outdoor aging. The ultraviolet light absorber UV-5411 did not protect the samples from color changes. PMID:8778386

Lemon, J C; Chambers, M S; Jacobsen, M L; Powers, J M

1995-12-01

285

Advancement Perforator Cheek Flap for Aesthetic One-Stage Reconstruction of Postoncological Extended Split-Thickness Defects of the Nasal Sidewall  

PubMed Central

Aesthetic reconstruction of soft tissue nasal sidewall loss has an important influence on the appearance of the nose. The unique character of this subunit and the complex relationships with a number of different facial or nasal subunits make the excision of large tumors difficult to manage. Numerous techniques are described in the literature, but a primary reconstruction with a final good result is not often possible. The authors develop an advancement cheek flap for an aesthetic one-stage reconstruction of postoncological extended nasal sidewall defects. Between January 2009 and July 2012, 16 patients (mean age, 63.3?yr) underwent excision of skin tumors of nasal sidewall and immediate reconstruction with an advancement cheek flap nourished by perforators from the transverse facial branch of the superficial temporal artery. The tumors were excised with 0.4–0.6?cm lateral margins and defects size ranged from 2.6 × 2.6?cm to 3.5 × 5?cm. Oncological radicality was obtained in all cases. The aesthetic results were excellent in all patients. No scar revision was needed. The authors' advancement cheek flap can be considered the first choice for reconstruction of split-thickness defect of nasal sidewall larger than 2.5?cm because it reestablishes in one stage the nasal contour detail.

Milia, Arianna; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Cordova, Adriana

2013-01-01

286

INFERENCE MODEL OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND EMOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mentions an inference model of facial expressions and emotion from the viewpoint that non-verbal information as well as verbal information is useful in human computer interaction, and that especially, facial expressions are useful since they reflect human emotion well. First this paper considers the inference model of human emotion from only facial expressions. Next this paper considers the

Sachiko KITAZAKI; Takehisa ONISAWA

287

Factor analysis of essential facial features  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of an exploratory factor analysis to determine the minimum number of facial features required for recognition. In the introduction, we provide an overview of research we have done in the area of the evaluation of facial recognition systems. In the next section, we provide a description of the facial recognition process (including signal processing operations such

V. Ivancevic; A. K. Kaine; B. A. MCLindin; J. Sunde

2003-01-01

288

Genetic Modifiers of the Physical Malformations in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome/DiGeorge Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid, and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that "Tbx1", a…

Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

2008-01-01

289

Facial lichen striatus: successful treatment with tacrolimus ointment.  

PubMed

We report a 22-year-old Japanese woman with facial lichen striatus (LS). The distribution of the lesions corresponded to that of Blaschko's lines. Histology of the lesional skin showed an inflammatory cell infiltrate around hair follicles and eccrine glands. Treatment of the linear lesions with tacrolimus ointment once or twice daily resulted in a dramatical improvement in a short time. LS is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disease and tacrolimus ointment may be an effective alternative treatment for this disease especially when the lesions are located on the face. PMID:12653755

Fujimoto, N; Tajima, S; Ishibashi, A

2003-03-01

290

What's new in objective assessment and treatment of facial hyperpigmentation?  

PubMed

Facial hyperpigmentation is common and challenging to treat in darker-skinned populations. A Medline literature search of articles published up to October 2013 reporting the objective assessment of and/or treatment for melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, lichen planus pigmentosus, and erythema dyschromicum perstans was reviewed. Objective assessment was only reported for melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Furthermore, randomized controlled trial evidence was only reported for melasma. Although progress has been made, there is a need to develop more objective outcome measures and effective treatments for hyperpigmentation. PMID:24679999

Molinar, Vanessa E; Taylor, Susan C; Pandya, Amit G

2014-04-01

291

Photoletter to the editor: Dermoscopy of granuloma faciale.  

PubMed

Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare benign inflammatory dermatosis that usually develops as a solitary brownish-red plaque on the face. It clinically mimics and is often misinterpreted as, sarcoidosis, lupus erythematosus, lupus vulgaris, lymphoma or basal cell carcinoma.Dermoscopy, which is valuable for evaluation and differentiation between malignant and benign skin tumors, allows better visualization of dermal vascular structures and color variations. In this context, it might serve as an adjuvant diagnostic tool in the differentiation of inflammatory disorders, too. In the current manuscript, we present the dermoscopic features observed in a lesion of GF and discuss them in correlation with the underlying histopathological alterations. PMID:22826723

Lallas, Aimilios; Sidiropoulos, Theodoros; Lefaki, Ioanna; Tzellos, Thrasivoulos; Sotiriou, Elena; Apalla, Zoe

2012-06-30

292

Innervation of hairs in the facial skin of marsupial mammals.  

PubMed Central

The innervation of pelage, guard hairs and vibrissae hairs was studied in five species of marsupial mammals by means of electron microscopy for the first time. This study showed that members of different superfamilies in marsupial mammals displayed the same pattern of hair innervation. This also resembled the pattern seen in the placental mammals. All types of hairs had both longitudinal and transverse lanceolate nerve terminals. Pelage hairs did not have any Merkel cells. Guard hairs were very richly innervated and had free nerve endings, lanceolate nerve endings, many Merkel cells with their associated nerve endings and pilo-Ruffini nerve endings. Vibrissae hairs had free nerve endings, Merkel nerve endings and lamellated corpuscles, but pilo-Ruffini nerve endings were not seen in this investigation. Because of the profusion and variety of innervation in guard hairs of the marsupial mammals, these hairs may have a similar function to vibrissae hairs in placental mammals. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11

Loo, S K; Halata, Z

1991-01-01

293

Bond strength of double-sided adhesive tapes used for facial prostheses.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the tensile bond strengths of five silicone facial elastomers to human skin by use of five different double-sided adhesive tapes. Discs of silicone elastomers were fixed in circular metal holders and glued to the inner aspect of a forearm with the various adhesive tapes. The specimens were pulled off 20 seconds after fixation by means of a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Eight specimens of each silicone/tape combination were tested. Significant differences were observed among the various silicone/tape combinations. MDX4-4210 and Cosmesil facial elastomers had the strongest bond to skin with the majority of adhesive tapes, whereas Silskin II, Cosmesil HC2, and RS 330T-RTV were the weakest. After the bond failure, tapes remained adhered to the skin and not to the silicone specimens. PMID:8042138

Polyzois, G L

1994-01-01

294

Artificial skin.  

PubMed

Replacement of skin has been one of the most challenging aims for surgeons ever since the introduction of skin grafts in 1871. It took more than one century until the breakthrough of Rheinwald and Green in 1975 that opened new possibilities of skin replacement. The combination of cell culture and polymer chemistry finally led to the field of tissue engineering. Many researchers all over the world have been fascinated by the chance of creating a skin-like substitute ex vivo without any further harm to the patients, especially those with massive burns. Many different approaches to create new substitutes and further improvements in genetical and stem cell research led to today's skin equivalents. But still, the "gold standard" for wound coverage is the autologous split-thickness skin graft. Future research will aim at originating biologically and physiologically equal skin substitutes for the treatment of severe burns and chronic ulcers. PMID:18085209

Föhn, M; Bannasch, H

2007-01-01

295

Intermittent facial flushing and diarrhea.  

PubMed

A 67-year-old man presented with a history of vague abdominal discomfort on the right side, intermittent diarrhea, and episodes of facial flushing every 2 to 3 days. He reported no history of ingestion of alcohol or other precipitants of flushing. PMID:25014690

Mc Cormack, Orla; Reynolds, John V

2014-07-17

296

A Model of Facial Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

We wish to model the way in which faces move in video sequences. We represent facial behaviour as a sequence of short actions. Each action is a sample from a statisti- cal model representing the variability in the way it is per- formed. The ordering of actions is defined using a variable length Markov model. Action models and variable length

Franck Bettinger; Timothy F. Cootes

2004-01-01

297

Automated Facial Expression Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heightened concerns about the treatment of individuals during interviews and interrogations have stimulated efforts to develop ldquonon-intrusiverdquo technologies for rapidly assessing the credibility of statements by individuals in a variety of sensitive environments. Methods or processes that have the potential to precisely focus investigative resources will advance operational excellence and improve investigative capabilities. Facial expressions have the ability to communicate

Andrew Ryan; Jeffery F. Cohn; Simon Lucey; Jason Saragih; Patrick Lucey; Fernando De la Torre; Adam Rossi

2009-01-01

298

Facial recognition at the CIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an

Susan Gragg

1997-01-01

299

Kinect-based facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demo we present our system for performance-based character animation that enables any user to control the facial expressions of a digital avatar in realtime. Compared to existing technologies, our system is easy to deploy and does not require any face markers, intrusive lighting, or complex scanning hardware. Instead, the user is recorded in a natural environment using the

Thibaut Weise; Sofien Bouaziz; Hao Li; Mark Pauly

2011-01-01

300

Facial Pyoderma Gangrenosum in Senescence  

PubMed Central

Clinically, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is characterized by a rapidly progressive, painful cutaneous ulcer with an irregular, violaceous and undermined border. PG occurs most frequently on the lower extremities and the trunk of middle-aged individuals. The face is only very rarely affected. We present an 89- and a 90-year-old patient, who developed a facial ulcer consistent with PG.

Kratzsch, Dorothea; Ziemer, Mirjana; Milkova, Linda; Wagner, Justinus A.; Simon, Jan C.; Kendler, Michael

2013-01-01

301

Facial filler and neurotoxin complications.  

PubMed

Botulinum neuromodulators and injectable dermal fillers have become part of the armamentarium in the treatment of facial aging. Their successful use requires a fundamental knowledge of anatomy and physiology and a sound understanding of their risks and complications. Although neuromodulators and fillers continue to demonstrate a strong record of safety, several notable risks exist. PMID:22723229

Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

2012-06-01

302

The facial interpersonal perception inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop an interpersonal perception inventory which would demonstrate that various ratings of facial caricature drawings when made by a husband and wife can be used as a predictor of marital adjustment. The subjects in this study were 30 operationally defined adjusted and 30 non-adjusted couples. A series of three tests were administered to

Joseph J. Luciani

1979-01-01

303

The facial reflex of allergy.  

PubMed

The facial reflex, originally described by Franz Chvostek, is shown to be of value in allergy by assessing the relative irritability of muscle tissue (cardic, smooth, skeletal) and the effect of certain drugs frequently used by allergists upon them. PMID:222174

Breneman, J C

1979-06-01

304

Facial Expressions, Emotions, and Sign Languages  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as “surprise” to complex and culture specific concepts such as “carelessly.” The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by referring to three dimensions on which facial expressions vary: semantic, compositional, and iconic.

Elliott, Eeva A.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2013-01-01

305

[Neurological disease and facial recognition].  

PubMed

To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system. PMID:22764352

Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

2012-07-01

306

Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions  

PubMed Central

The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions.

Milutinovic, Jovana

2014-01-01

307

Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review  

PubMed Central

Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers.

Gupta, Sachin; Mends, Francine; Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish; Roehm, Pamela C.

2013-01-01

308

Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.  

PubMed

For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

2014-02-01

309

Reconstruction of Small Soft Tissue Nasal Defects  

PubMed Central

Nasal defect repair has been one of the more challenging areas of reconstructive surgery due to the lack of uniform nasal skin thickness and complex contours. Currently, algorithms for medium to large nasal soft tissue defects have been well defined by various authors. Small defects, arbitrarily defined as 1 cm or less, still present significant challenges. In this article, the authors examine the options available to repair small soft tissue nasal defects and the appropriate situations in which each method is best suited.

Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Weathers, William M.; Cheng, David; Thornton, James F.

2013-01-01

310

Disseminated pneumocephalus secondary to an unusual facial trauma.  

PubMed

Pneumocephalus can be secondary to a postintrathecal procedure, sinus fracture, basilar skull fracture, congenital skull defect, neoplasm, gas producing organism, barotrauma, neurosurgery, paranasal sinus surgery, mask or nasal continuous positive-airway pressure. Unusual facial traumas can also be rare causes of pneumocephalus. Here, we present such a case in whom an air compressor tip injury to both eyes led to the disseminated pneumocephalus. We report this rare case with the computed tomography findings and try to explain the possible mechanism of the pnemocephalus. PMID:12039023

Yildiz, Altan; Duce, Meltem Nass; Ozer, Caner; Apaydin, F Demir; E?ilmez, Hulusi; Kara, Engin

2002-04-01

311

Birth Defects  

MedlinePLUS

A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

312

Mycobacterium chelonae facial infections following injection of dermal filler.  

PubMed

A cluster of 3 facial Mycobacterium chelonae infections occurred after cosmetic dermal filler injections at a plastic surgery clinic. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that M chelonae isolated from the clinic tap water were identical to the patient wound isolates. Review of injection procedures identified application of nonsterile ice to the skin prior to injection as a possible source of M chelonae. Surveys of regional laboratories and a national plastic surgery listserv identified no other cases related to the injection of this brand of dermal filler. This is the first report of cutaneous M chelonae infections following the injection of dermal fillers. It adds to a growing body of literature on postinjection M chelonae infections and reinforces the importance of optimal skin disinfection steps prior to percutaneous procedures. Level of Evidence: 5. PMID:23335647

Rodriguez, Jan M; Xie, Yingda L; Winthrop, Kevin L; Schafer, Sean; Sehdev, Paul; Solomon, Joel; Jensen, Bette; Toney, Nadege C; Lewis, Paul F

2013-02-01

313

[Skin and plumage changes in domestic birds. I. Skin changes].  

PubMed

This study presents modifications of the common integument and specific integumental structures developed during the domestication process of different poultry species. These modifications include dewlaps, variations of the comb, ear lobes, and wattles, size and form variations of the beak, exuberances of the cere and orbital skin, spur defects, loss of the uropygial gland, and crop dilatations. Most skin modifications were genetically manifested by exhibition poultry, and perpetuated by deliberate selective breeding. Several of the skin modifications described severely impair the normal, species-typical way of life of the animals concerned. The range of negative influences exerted by some of the fancy breed characteristics includes physical disabilities as well as disorders in food intake, reproduction, and social behaviour. Additionally, genetic defects and pathogenic predispositions can be found. PMID:1796468

Bartels, T; Meyer, W; Neurand, K

1991-12-01

314

Facial subcutaneous emphysema after tonsillectomy  

PubMed Central

Background Tonsillectomy is a commonly performed and relatively safe surgical procedure. However, it can potentially be associated with several complications. We report a case of facial subcutaneous emphysema that occurred after elective tonsillectomy. Case Tonsillectomy was performed on a patient with a history of frequent tonsillitis. After surgery, the patient developed facial subcutaneous emphysema that resolved within a few days without any further complications. Conclusion Subcutaneous emphysema is a rare complication of tonsillectomy. Tonsil should be removed along the tonsilar capsule. If its removal causes a deeper than usual mucosal tear up to the level of the muscles, then air might potentially pass through the pharyngeal wall to the parapharyngeal, retropharyngeal and prevertebral spaces.

2014-01-01

315

Facial Expression Synthesis and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exist a number of applications that make use of automatic facial expression synthesis and analysis, especially for interaction or communication between human and computers. This paper proposes a novel approach for facial expression synthesis that can generate realistic expressions for a new person with natural expression details. This approach is based on local geometry preserving between the input face image and the target expression image. In order to generate expressions with arbitrary intensity and mixed expression types, this paper also develops an expression analysis scheme based on Supervised Locality Preserving Projections (SLPP) that aligns different subjects and different intensities on a generalized expression manifold. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Wang, Hao

316

Realistic 3D facial animation in virtual space teleconferencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our work on color texture synthesis, real-time animation of facial wrinkles and 3D shape deformation enhances realism with minimal computational expense and gives a total control of the wrinkling process during facial expressions within the virtual space teleconferencing system. Facial wrinkles are synthesized on a scanned facial texture using the bump mapping technique by detecting wrinkles in a real facial

Lhassan MOUBARAKI; Jun OHYA; Fumio KISHINO

1995-01-01

317

Facial model estimation from stereo\\/mono image sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial model coding is an integral part in MPEG-4 related applications. The generation of the facial model usually requires stereoscopic view of the face in the pre-processing stage. Although facial model can be successfully estimated from two stereo facial images, the occlusion effect and imprecise location of the feature point prohibit obtaining an accurate facial model. In this paper, several

Chung J. Kuo; Tsang-gang Lin; Ruey-song Huang; Souheil F. Odeh

2003-01-01

318

Motion history for facial action detection in video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enabling computer systems to recognize human facial expressions is a challenging research problem with many applications in behavioral science, medicine, security, and human-machine interaction. Instead of being another approach to automatic detection of prototypic facial expressions of emotion, this work attempts to analyze subtle changes in facial behavior by recognizing facial action units (AUs, i.e. atomic facial signals) that produce

Michel François Valstar; Maja Pantic; Ioannis Patras

2004-01-01

319

Techniques of facial nerve block.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure was measured and lid motility determined on a subjective score scale. Whereas the modified O'Brien and lid blocks nearly abolished the muscle activity recorded in the EMG (p < 0.003), the Atkinson and van Lint blocks did not significantly affect these variables. The O'Brien and lid blocks decreased the force of lid closure and lid movements far more effectively than the Atkinson and van Lint blocks (p < 0.0001). The topographic distribution of a mixture of metrizamide and lignocaine solutions was evaluated radiographically in eight additional patients, to assess potential causes for differences in the efficacy of the block techniques. The radiological results showed involvement of the region of the facial nerve trunk and its temporal and cervical divisions by the modified O'Brien block. The lid block, on the other hand, affected terminal branches of the facial nerve's temporal division. In this study, complete lid akinesia was achieved by both the modified O'Brien block and the lid block. However, because the modified O'Brien block involves the risk of neural injury to the facial nerve or its main divisions, the lid block is recommended as the most effective and safe method to achieve akinesia of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Images

Schimek, F; Fahle, M

1995-01-01

320

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is the most common contiguous gene deletion syndrome in humans, caused by a microdeletion from chromosome 22 at the q11.2 locus. Moreover, it is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes associated with congenital heart disease and is certainly the most common syndrome causing conotruncal heart anomalies. The population prevalence of this syndrome is probably increasing

Robert J. Shprintzen

2005-01-01

321

Helping anesthesiologists understand facial fractures.  

PubMed

Injuries to the oral and maxillofacial region are commonly encountered, and the appropriate management of patients with these injuries frequently requires the expertise of an anesthesiologist. Injuries to this region may involve any combination of soft tissue, bone, and teeth. Injuries to these structures often produce anesthesia-related challenges, which must be overcome to achieve optimal outcomes. This article addresses the common challenges faced by anesthesiologists specific to patients with facial fractures. PMID:24021626

Robertson, Chad G; Doucet, Jean Charles

2013-11-01

322

Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.

Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

323

Estimating muscle activation patterns using a surrogate model of facial biomechanics.  

PubMed

Analyzing the muscle activities that drive the expressive facial gestures can be a useful tool in assessing one's emotional state of mind. Since the skin motion is much easier to measure in comparison to the actual electrical excitation signal of facial muscles, a biomechanical model of the human face driven by these muscles can be a useful tool in relating the geometric information to the muscle activity. However, long computational time often hinders its practicality. The objective of this study was to replace the precise but computationally demanding biomechanical model by a much faster multivariate meta-model (surrogate model), such that a significant speedup (real-time interactive speed) can be achieved and data from the biomechanical model can be practically exploited. Using the proposed surrogate, muscle activation patterns of six key facial expressions were estimated in the iterative fit from the structured-light scanned geometric information. PMID:24111399

Wu, Tim; Martens, Harald; Hunter, Peter; Mithraratne, Kumar

2013-01-01

324

The microsponge delivery system reduces facial oiliness and shine during acne therapy.  

PubMed

Acne therapies that are able to show efficacious treatment of acne lesions as well as to address the issues of oiliness and shine control may be particularly appropriate for the treatment of patients with acne vulgaris that is accompanied by oily skin and facial shine. The microsphere delivery system (MDS), a novel delivery technology for topical therapy, can be customized to optimize product attributes, including oil absorption. Clinical trials have clearly established the efficacy and tolerability of such MDS formulations in the treatment of acne. In addition, studies have shown that the use of products formulated with an MDS provides a more significant reduction in facial shine than non-MDS acne therapy, as well as a reduction in facial sebum accumulation relative to control. Future clinical research should aim to further delineate the effect of individual topical acne treatment formulations on oiliness and shine. PMID:24196335

Kircik, Leon H

2013-11-01

325

Facial Resurfacing With Coblation Technology  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe our experience with coblation technology for facial resurfacing Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients treated with coblation at our institution Results Twenty-four patients (22 female) underwent a total of 29 coblation procedures for aging face (n = 21) or acne scarring (n = 3). The perioral region was the most frequently treated aesthetic subunit (n = 14), followed by the lower eyelid (n = 7). Five patients underwent full-face coblation. Three patients underwent a second coblation procedure for aging face while a single patient with severe acne scarring underwent 3 procedures. Repeat coblation was delayed at least 5 months (mean, 9 months). Seventeen coblation procedures (59%) were performed concurrently with procedures including, but not limited to, injection treatment, rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, or combined face/necklift; no adverse events occurred. Seven procedures, including a full-face coblation, were performed in the office under local anesthesia and oral sedation without any adverse events. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1 week to 24 months). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the results after their final coblation treatment. Conclusions Facial coblation is a safe and effective treatment modality for facial resurfacing.

Weber, Stephen M.; Downs, Brian W.; Ferraz, Mario B.J.; Wang, Tom D.; Cook, Ted A.

2008-01-01

326

The biology of facial fillers.  

PubMed

The biologic behavior of a facial filler determines its advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to look at the relevant biology as part of a logical basis for making treatment decisions. Historical perspectives and biologic characteristics such as local tissue reaction (including phagocytosis and granulomatous inflammation) cross-linking, particle concentration, immunogenicity, biofilm formation, gel hardness, and collagen neogenesis are considered. Bovine collagen is the most immunogenic facial filler. Porcine and bioengineered human collagen implants have very low immunogenicity, but allergic reactions and elevations of IgG are possible. Cross-linking and concentration affect the longevity of collagen and hyaluronic acid fillers. Gel hardness affects how a hyaluronic acid filler flows through the syringe and needle. Calcium hydroxylapatite, poly-L-lactic acid, and polymethylmethacrylate fillers have been shown to stimulate collagen neogenesis. It appears that any facial filler can form a granuloma. Bacterial biofilms may play a role in the activation of quiescent granulomas. Various authors interpret the definition and significance of a granuloma differently. PMID:19415574

Bentkover, Stuart H

2009-05-01

327

Reversal of skin aging with topical retinoids.  

PubMed

Topical skin care and its place in plastic surgery today are often overlooked by clinicians formulating a plan for facial rejuvenation. Not only is it important to consider topical skin care as part of comprehensive care, but clinicians should also be educated with the data available in today's literature. This review aims to familiarize the reader with the biological processes of skin aging and evidence-based clinical outcomes afforded by various topical therapies. Furthermore, this review will focus on solar damage, the value of retinoids, and how they can be used in conjunction with forms of treatment such as chemical peel, dermabrasion, and lasers. Finally, guidelines will be provided to help the physician administer appropriate skin care based on the data presented. PMID:24675201

Hubbard, Bradley A; Unger, Jacob G; Rohrich, Rod J

2014-04-01

328

The effectiveness of neuromuscular facial retraining combined with electromyography in facial paralysis rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe study goal was to present the effectiveness of neuromuscular facial retraining techniques used in combination with electromyography for improving facial function even in cases of longstanding paralysis.

Gaye W Cronin; Ronald Leif Steenerson

2003-01-01

329

Assessment Method of Facial Palsy by Amount of Feature Point Movements at Facial Expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present in medical field, the 40 point method and facial nerve grading system (House-Brackmann method) are generally used for assessment of facial palsy. However, those methods have limitation in the precise assessment, because of subjectivity in diagnosis. Purpose of this paper is to propose objective and quantitative assessment of facial palsy based on the amount of feature point movements on the face. Facial nerve symptoms generally appear in either of right and left side on the face. In facial expression of palsy subjects, the motion on the diseased side becomes smaller than that on the healthy side. We defined some indices of palsy severity from the observation of facial expression. Those indices showed the asymmetry of the facial motion quantitatively. We confirmed that our proposed method was valid for assessment of the facial palsy by comparison with the 40 point method.

Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nemoto, Junko; Ohta, Manami; Kunihiro, Takanobu

330

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

PubMed

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

2013-06-01

331

On the detection of low-resolution skin regions in surveillance images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study into the detection of skin re- gions in images where faces may be low-resolution. We focus on surveillance footage and no assumptions are made about fine facial features being visible. This type of data presents the further challenge of changes in appearance of skin regions due to changes in both lighting and reso- lution. We

Nils Janssen; Neil Robertson

2008-01-01

332

Epidermal Permeability Barrier (EPB) measurement in mammalian skin  

PubMed Central

A defective skin epidermal permeability barrier (EPB) is responsible for a high mortality rate in premature infants, and is an important risk factor in inflammatory skin diseases such as eczema. We report here fast and accurate methods for measurement of EPB in animal models or in human patients using simple techniques that monitor diffusion of dyes (X-Gal or Lucifer Yellow) through the upper epidermis and measure transepidermal water loss (TEWL) resulting from a defective skin barrier. Accurate diagnosis and early detection of EPB defects in human patients are critical for effective treatment of certain classes of inflammatory skin diseases.

Indra, Arup Kumar; Leid, Mark

2012-01-01

333

Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

334

Surgical Approaches to Facial Nerve Deficits  

PubMed Central

The facial nerve is one of the most commonly injured cranial nerves. Once injured, the effects on form, function, and psyche are profound. We review the anatomy of the facial nerve from the brain stem to its terminal branches. We also discuss the physical exam findings of facial nerve injury at various levels. Finally, we describe various reconstructive options for reanimating the face and restoring both form and function.

Birgfeld, Craig; Neligan, Peter

2011-01-01

335

Distraction Osteogenesis of the Facial Skeleton  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Distraction osteogenesis of the facial skeleton has provided both a powerful tool to those who are interested in studying\\u000a the biology of bone and has added a powerful technique to the armamentarium of surgeons who treat facial disfi gurement. The\\u000a application of bone distraction to the facial skeleton has been largely derived from prior work in the lower extremity, and

Robert J. Havlik

336

Novel skin brightener used as monotherapy for moderate melasma in skin of color.  

PubMed

Melasma is a chronic, relapsing disorder that can be disfiguring and can have adverse effects on quality of life. Recently, a unique hydroquinone-free topical product addressing multiple pathways involved in pigmentation was shown to have similar efficacy and equally well tolerated as 4% hydroquinone in females with facial hyperpigmentation. The goal herein was to further assess the efficacy and tolerability of this new multimodality product for the control of moderate melasma in skin of color. Six female subjects with Fitzpatrick skin types IV-V in good general health between the ages of 46 and 63 years with moderate epidermal facial melasma are presented herein. Subjects applied the skin brightener twice daily, morning and evening, and returned to the clinic at weeks 4, 8, and 12. By week 12, Investigator Overall Hyperpigmentation scores and MASI scores improved by an average of 22% and 38% from baseline, respectively. Additionally, 100% of subjects showed at least a 25% increase in Global Improvement at week 12. The skin brightener was well tolerated with no reports of erythema, edema, scaling, burning/stinging, or itching. Results from these case studies suggest that this multimodality skin brightener may provide an alternative treatment to hydroquinone for moderate melasma in skin of color. However additional clinical studies would be needed. PMID:24595584

Grimes, Pearl E

2014-03-01

337

A possible cranio-oro-facial phenotype in Cockayne syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Cockayne Syndrome CS (Type A – CSA; or CS Type I OMIM #216400) (Type B – CSB; or CS Type II OMIM #133540) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disease caused by defects in DNA repair characterized by progressive cachectic dwarfism, progressive intellectual disability with cerebral leukodystrophy, microcephaly, progressive pigmentary retinopathy, sensorineural deafness photosensitivity and possibly orofacial and dental anomalies. Methods We studied the cranio-oro-facial status of a group of 17 CS patients from 15 families participating in the National Hospital Program for Clinical Research (PHRC) 2005 « Clinical and molecular study of Cockayne syndrome ». All patients were examined by two investigators using the Diagnosing Dental Defects Database (D[4]/phenodent) record form. Results Various oro-facial and dental anomalies were found: retrognathia; micrognathia; high- arched narrow palate; tooth crowding; hypodontia (missing permanent lateral incisor, second premolars or molars), screwdriver shaped incisors, microdontia, radiculomegaly, and enamel hypoplasia. Eruption was usually normal. Dental caries was associated with enamel defects, a high sugar/carbohydrate soft food diet, poor oral hygiene and dry mouth. Cephalometric analysis revealed mid-face hypoplasia, a small retroposed mandible and hypo-development of the skull. Conclusion CS patients may have associated oro-dental features, some of which may be more frequent in CS children – some of them being described for the first time in this paper (agenesis of second permanent molars and radiculomegaly). The high susceptibility to rampant caries is related to a combination of factors as well as enamel developmental defects. Specific attention to these anomalies may contribute to diagnosis and help plan management.

2013-01-01

338

Facial Nerve Monitoring under Neuromuscular Blockade  

PubMed Central

The characteristics of facial nerve electromyography at various levels of neuromuscular blockade are unclear. Partial blockade is well known to facilitate anesthetic safety and management. However, the use of neuromuscular blockage in many skull base procedures is avoided to allow intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. We studied the influence of various levels of neuromuscular blockade on facial nerve stimulation in the New Zealand white rabbit. The facial nerve was exposed in the middle ear of six rabbits. Using electromyographic-type facial nerve monitor, we recorded the facial electromyography signals in these rabbits at increasing levels of vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. All animals demonstrated reliable facial electromyography response at all levels of partial neuromuscular blockade (P < .02). Five of the six animals could be monitored throughout complete blockade. These results clearly demonstrate that rabbit facial electromyography monitoring is possible under neuromuscular blockade. The effect of neuromuscular blockers on facial electromyography monitoring deserves further study, as partial blockade would greatly facilitate the management of anesthesia in otologic, neurotologic, and skull base surgery.

Hester, T. Oma; Hasan, Akbar; McDonnell, Francis; Valentino, Joseph; Jones, Raleigh

1995-01-01

339

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874...Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a...

2010-04-01

340

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874...Prosthetic Devices § 874.3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a...

2009-04-01

341

After sun reversal of DNA damage: enhancing skin repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV-induced DNA damage has been directly linked to skin cancer, and DNA repair is an important protection against this neoplasm. This is illustrated by the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum wherein a serious defect in DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers dramatically increases the rate of skin cancer. In other instances in which skin cancer rates are elevated, deficits in DNA

Daniel B. Yarosh; Matthew T. Canning; Danielle Teicher; David A. Brown

2005-01-01

342

Growth factor delivery from genetically modified skin grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Keratinocytes of the epidermis can be cultured in vitro and have been used as part of a skin substitute for the treatment of defects of the skin such as burns and ulcers. Cultured cells are often combined with various biomaterials to create a composite skin graft. Our goal is to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of these

J. R. Morgan

2001-01-01

343

Skin Tightening  

MedlinePLUS

... used for this non-invasive skin tightening include: Infrared laser Pulsed infrared light Radiofrequency Signs of Aging Treated Different devices ... References: Alexiades-Armenakas MR, Dover JS, Arndt KA. “Laser Therapy.” In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP et ...

344

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

345

Dry skin  

MedlinePLUS

... air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The ... as chemicals and solvents Sudden changes in body temperature or stress, which may cause you to sweat ...

346

Aging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins and Spider Veins Fact Sheet - This fact sheet provides information about varicose and spider veins, including the causes, prevention, potential dangers, and treatment. ...

347

Skin lumps  

MedlinePLUS

... the kind that feel soft and roll easily (lipomas). A lump or swelling that appears suddenly (over ... Lipomas, fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and groin Cyst , ...

348

Skin Examinations  

MedlinePLUS

... when performing a skin self-exam: Full-length mirror Handheld mirror Well-lit room that offers privacy Pen or ... Examine your body front and back in the mirror, then right and left sides with arms raised. ...

349

Sun & Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students discuss what they already know about the impact sun exposure has on their skin and what they typically do to protect themselves, if anything. Using a number of online resources, they then learn how to care for their skin, about the damaging effects of sunburns and tanning, and how sunscreens provide protection from the sun's harmful UV rays.

Science Netlinks;

2005-03-10

350

Skin dimples.  

PubMed

Skin dimples are a common occurrence in children. Besides being of cosmetic significance, they may give an important clue to an underlying genetic or metabolic problem. A simplified location-based algorithmic approach to diagnose the underlying cause of skin dimples is presented. Clinical significance of medically important dimples, especially sacral dimples, its association with occult spinal dysraphism, and a cost-effective diagnostic strategy for its imaging is discussed. PMID:24738724

Kumar, Ajay; Kanojia, Rajesh K; Saili, Arvind

2014-07-01

351

Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

2007-01-01

352

Manual stimulation of facial muscles improves functional recovery after hypoglossal–facial anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafting of the facial nerve in adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facial nerve in humans is often prone to injuries requiring surgical intervention. In the best case, nerve reconstruction is achieved by a facial–facial anastomosis (FFA), i.e. suture of the proximal and distal stumps of the severed facial nerve. Although a method of choice, FFA rarely leads to a satisfactory functional recovery. We have recently devised and validated, in an

Orlando Guntinas-Lichius; Gregor Hundeshagen; Thomas Paling; Michael Streppel; Maria Grosheva; Andrey Irintchev; Emmanouil Skouras; Athanasia Alvanou; Srebrina K. Angelova; Stefanie Kuerten; Nektarios Sinis; Sarah A. Dunlop; Doychin N. Angelov

2007-01-01

353

Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

2014-01-01

354

Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.  

PubMed

Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age. PMID:24269646

Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yi?it, B

2014-07-01

355

Individual Facial Coloration in Male Eulemur fulvus rufus : A Condition-dependent Ornament?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers studying individual variation in conspicuous skin coloration in primates have suggested that color indicates male\\u000a quality. Although primate fur color can also be flamboyant, the potential condition dependence and thus signaling function\\u000a of fur remains poorly studied. We studied sources of variation in sexually dichromatic facial hair coloration in red-fronted\\u000a lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus). We collected data on 13

Dagmar Clough; Michael Heistermann; Peter M. Kappeler

2009-01-01

356

Delayed Transcutaneous Extrusion of Embolic Coils After Embolization of Facial Artery Pseudoaneurysm  

PubMed Central

Summary External carotid artery (ECA) pseudoaneurysm is a known complication of treatment for head and neck cancer. We report a case of facial artery pseudoaneurysm arising after irradiation and salvage surgery for advanced tonsillar cancer, that was treated with endovascular embolization. The case was complicated by delayed transcutaneous extrusion of embolization coils through the skin of the anterior neck. We review the literature for related cases of coil extrusion in the head and neck, and discuss the implications for pseudoaneurysm surveillance.

Hetts, S.W.; Mong, S.; Sincic, R.; English, J.D.; Wilson, M.W.

2012-01-01

357

Skin care and incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

358

Skin color - patchy  

MedlinePLUS

Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...

359

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed.

SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

2007-01-01

360

Classification Algorithms Research on Facial Expression Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the reliability of facial expression recognition system, and reduce the chance of false positives caused by error, classification strategy is important in recognition process. In the process, the k-nearest neighbor algorithm is improved. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is excellent when it is applied to facial expression recognition system.

Ou, Jun

361

Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

2008-01-01

362

Shape analysis of female facial attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that female facial attractiveness is associated with exaggerated sex-specific facial traits and averageness. Here we applied geometric morphometrics, a method for multivariate statistical analysis of shape, to measure geometric averageness and geometric sexual dimorphism of natural female face profiles. Geometric averageness and geometric sexual dimorphism correlate with attractiveness ratings. However, principal component analysis extracted a shape

Dario Riccardo Valenzano; Andrea Mennucci; Giandonato Tartarelli; Alessandro Cellerino

2006-01-01

363

Pose invariant facial component-landmark detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial landmark detection has proved to be a very challenging task in biometrics due to the numerous sources of variation. In this work, we present an algorithm for robust detection of facial component-landmarks. Specifically, we address the variation due to extreme pose and illumination. To achieve robust detection for extreme poses, we use a set of independent pose and landmark

B. Efraty; M. Papadakis; A. Profitt; S. Shah; I. A. Kakadiaris

2011-01-01

364

Effects of Facial Hair in Oxygen Masks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to determine whether or not hazards are associated with facial hair on Naval aircrewmen using oxygen breathing equipment. The study showed that undesirable conditions do exist because of facial hair, but there is no evidence...

D. G. Naber

1972-01-01

365

The Ideal of Facial Beauty: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review article we examine the question as to which parameters of facial attraction are amenable to measurement and which tools are available to perform these measurements. The evaluation of facial images, artistic standards, cephalometry, and anthropometry are discussed. Furthermore, we consider how the attractiveness of a face is influenced by symmetry, averageness and distinguishing features such as dental

Mirjam Hönn; Gernot Göz

2007-01-01

366

An unusual cause of unilateral facial pain.  

PubMed

Cardiac pain that is referred to the face is a common symptom in patients with angina pectoris, but unilateral facial pain referred from a non-ischaemic cardiac source is rare. We report a case of unilateral facial pain that occurred in relation to a large pericardial effusion and which resolved on drainage of the effusion. PMID:10563079

Chukwuemeka, A O; John, L C

1999-06-01

367

Comprehensive Database for Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past decade, significant effort has occurred in developing methods of facial expression analysis. Because most investigators have used relatively limited data sets, the generalizability of these various methods remains unknown. We describe the problem space for facial expression analysis, which includes level of description, transitions among expression, eliciting conditions, reliability and validity of training and test data, individual

Takeo Kanade; Ying-li Tian; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2000-01-01

368

Automatic Recognition of Human Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new idea for detecting an unknown human face in input imagery and recognizing his\\/her facial expression represented in the deformation of the two dimensional net, called potential net. The method deals with the facial information, faceness and expressions, as an overall pattern of the net activated by edges in a single input image of face, rather

Katsuhiro Matsunot; Chil-woo Lee; Satoshi Kimura; Saburo Tsuji

1995-01-01

369

Facial basal cell carcinoma with successive metastases to the neck, thyroid gland and lung.  

PubMed

Basal cell carcinoma of the skin is the most common malignancy in the head and neck area. Regional and distant metastases rarely occur with this type of tumour. We report an uncommon case of a sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma of the facial skin in which metastases developed several years after the primary tumour. The metastases occurred in the soft tissue of the neck, the thyroid gland and the lung. This is the first case of BCC with triple metastases which were histologically confirmed. PMID:23849247

Thiele, Oliver C; Mertens, Christian; Bacon, Claire; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Zaoui, Karim; Mischkowski, Robert A

2014-07-01

370

Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

2014-06-01

371

Robust facial expression recognition via compressive sensing.  

PubMed

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks. PMID:22737035

Zhang, Shiqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Lei, Bicheng

2012-01-01

372

Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing  

PubMed Central

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

Zhang, Shiqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Lei, Bicheng

2012-01-01

373

[Jugular bulb diverticular and facial paralysis].  

PubMed

The authors report a case where a woman presents a right jugular bulb procidence already known and responsible of a perception deafness. Secondarily, a right facial paralysis is appeared progressively and not regressive even with medical treatment. When the computed tomography as shown an intrapetrous diverticular, the facial paralysis treatment was surgical to decompress the facial nerve. The literature study shoes the rarity of this association facial paralysis and jugular bulb procidence (only two cases), more often responsible of deafness, tinnitus, and vertigo. The diagnosis is given by computed tomography. M.R.I. has not still be evaluated. Then the authors insist on the progressive character of the facial paralysis and on the necessity of a surgical treatment. PMID:10371865

Gal, M; Darrouzet, V; Pescio, P; Vincey, P; Bébéar, J P

1999-01-01

374

Mutual information-based facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

2013-12-01

375

Isolation of a new clathrin heavy chain gene with muscle-specific expression from the region commonly deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) are developmental disorders char- acterized by a spectrum of phenotypes including velo- pharyngeal insufficiency, conotruncal heart defects and facial dysmorphology among others. Eighty to eighty-five percent of VCFS\\/DGS patients are hemizy- gous for a portion of chromosome 22. It is likely that the genes encoded by this region play a role in the

Howard Sirotkin; Bernice Morrow; Ruchira DasGupta; Rosalie Goldberg; Sankhavaram R. Patanjali; Guangping Shi; Linda Cannizzaro; Robert Shprintzen; Sherman M. Weissman; Raju Kucherlapati

1996-01-01

376

Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health  

PubMed Central

Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice.

Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

2009-01-01

377

The zygomatic flap: a further possibility in reconstructing soft-tissue defects of the nose and upper lip.  

PubMed

Through the dissection and localization of the cutaneous zygomatic branch, as previously described by the authors, a vessel is available that plays an important role in reconstructive surgery. The performance of this anatomical study has enabled designing of the so-called zygomatic flap, which can be considered as a further possibility in the reconstruction of soft-tissue defects of the upper lip and nose. This new island axial pattern flap provides a reliable source of skin, with color match for facial resurfacing, and leaves a well-hidden donor site similar to that of the nasolabial flap. The flap must be carefully raised, and when properly designed, it can follow naturally existing contour lines, thus respecting and preserving the normal facial topography and leaving the patient with minimal surgical deformity. In this article, the authors report the clinical application of the zygomatic flap and the outcome of 10 cases. In a follow-up period from 1998 to the end of 2002, there was no flap loss, and in all cases, the aesthetic results were excellent and highly acceptable to the patients. The authors' experience with this new island axial pattern flap has been good, and they recommend this technique. PMID:14758207

Gardetto, Alexander; Erdinger, Kajetan; Papp, Christoph

2004-02-01

378

Facial orientation and facial shape in extant great apes: a geometric morphometric analysis of covariation.  

PubMed

The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane

2013-01-01

379

Reconstruction of large soft tissue defects of the lower torso with rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven large defects of the lower torso were closed with rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps: two large roin defects, three abdominal wall defects, and two open lateral pelvic wounds. Five of the flaps were inferiorly based and two superiorly based. The donor site was closed primarily unless a large skin paddle was taken, in which case the donor site was skin

A. J. Franzo; R. L. Nesmith

1990-01-01

380

Residual skin changes in patients who have recovered from variola minor  

PubMed Central

In order to assess the frequency of occurrence of facial pockmarks after recovery from variola minor, 175 subjects from 5 localities in Somalia were carefully examined a year after recovery from variola minor infections. Only 7% had facial pockmarks (the usual criteria for ”positive” classification in facial pockmark surveys). Thus, pockmark surveys cannot be considered useful for evaluating the past smallpox situation in areas where variola minor has been prevalent. A number of other subjects had discolorations of the skin on their faces or bodies, but these are of dubious value for survey purposes.

Jezek, Z.; Hardjotanojo, W.

1980-01-01

381

Residual skin changes in patients who have recovered from variola minor.  

PubMed

In order to assess the frequency of occurrence of facial pockmarks after recovery from variola minor, 175 subjects from 5 localities in Somalia were carefully examined a year after recovery from variola minor infections. Only 7% had facial pockmarks (the usual criteria for "positive" classification in facial pockmark surveys). Thus, pockmark surveys cannot be considered useful for evaluating the past smallpox situation in areas where variola minor has been prevalent. A number of other subjects had discolorations of the skin on their faces or bodies, but these are of dubious value for survey purposes. PMID:6966543

Jezek, Z; Hardjotanojo, W

1980-01-01

382

Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA  

PubMed Central

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers.

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

2014-01-01

383

Mucosal perforators from the facial artery.  

PubMed

The cutaneous perforators of the facial artery have been well described, but to our knowledge the oral mucosal perforators have not. We studied 10 facial arteries from 10 hemifaces in 5 cadavers. The arteries were injected with latex, and we studied all perforators that extended from the facial artery and headed directly to the oral mucosa. The diameter and length of the facial artery and its mucosal perforators were measured and compared. We found 52 oral mucosal perforators in the 10 facial arteries injected with latex. Their mean (SD) diameter was 0.5 (0.2) mm and the mean (SD) number/facial artery was 5.2 (1.1). Their mean (SD) length was 16.4 (5.3) mm. Most of those to the cheek were localised between the branching-off points of the inferior and superior labial arteries. The facial artery has perforators to the oral mucosa of the cheek, most of them between the points at which the labial arteries emerge. PMID:24703773

Coronel-Banda, Mauricio E; Serra-Renom, Jose M; Lorente, Marian; Larrea-Terán, Wendy P

2014-07-01

384

Modeling 3D facial shape from DNA.  

PubMed

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E; Pearson, Laurel N; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S; Absher, Devin M; Puts, David A; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K; Boster, James S; Shriver, Mark D

2014-03-01

385

The deep circumflex iliac artery perforator flap (DCIAP)--a reconstructive option for the large composite oro-mandibular cutaneous defect.  

PubMed

The deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap is often used for mandibular reconstruction but it is bulky and causes additional donor-site morbidity because of the inclusion of an "obligatory internal oblique muscle". Large composite segmental mandibular resections that consist of floor of mouth, subtotal tongue, and adjacent facial skin are a challenge in terms of reconstruction. They often require 2 free flaps or a free scapular flap and both have disadvantages. The deep circumflex iliac artery perforator (DCIAP) flap with a cutaneous component overcomes the disadvantages. We describe reconstructions with DCIAP flaps in 3 patients with large mandibular composite segmental defects. We report our experience of the flap and discuss some of the difficulties we encountered and the points we learned perioperatively. PMID:23891263

Bisase, Brian; Sloane, James; Coombes, Darryl M; Norris, Paul M

2013-12-01

386

Theoretical and applied evaluations of facial composite systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police often use facial composites during their investigations, yet research suggests that facial composites are generally not effective. The present research included two experiments on facial composites. The first experiment was designed to test the usefulness of the encoding specificity principle for determining when facial composites will be effective. Instructions were used to encourage holistic or featural cues at encoding.

Christine Edeburn Koehn

1995-01-01

387

Respirator Fit and Facial Dimensions of Two Minority Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seal of a respirator to a worker's face can be influenced by the worker's facial dimensions. Males and females of the same and different racial\\/ethnic backgrounds exhibit different facial dimension measurements. This research was conducted to ascertain the relationship between facial dimensions influenced by race\\/ethnicity and gender to respirator fit. Facial dimensions and respirator fit were measured on 186

William J. Brazile; Roy M. Buchan; Del R. Sandfort; Walter Melvin; Janet A. Johnson; Michael Charney

1998-01-01

388

Assessing Tooth Color Differences in Digital Facial Portraits  

PubMed Central

Although a large body of scientific literature shows that background color and luminance affect color perception, previous measurements of tooth color difference thresholds have not taken the effects of viewing context into account. The present study tested the hypothesis that differences in skin/gingival color influence individuals’ judgments of tooth color differences. Perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were determined in 10 individuals using a signal detection paradigm. They evaluated 500 pseudo-random presentations of two facial portraits: an African-American and a Caucasian. These portraits varied trial-to-trial only in the direction (CIELAB +L*, +a*, or +b*) or magnitude of the color difference between a portrait’s two central incisors. The individuals were significantly less sensitive to tooth color differences in the +L* direction in the Caucasian portrait than for any other combination of color direction or portrait type. Furthermore, comparable perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were generally not statistically significant from each other.

Lindsey, D.T.; Wee, A.G.

2010-01-01

389

Neurodevelopmental defects resulting from ATRX overexpression in transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several X-linked mental retardation syndromes are caused by mutations in the ATRX gene. Common clinical features associated with ATRX mutations include severe mental retardation, characteristic facial anomalies and variable degrees of urogenital defects and ?-thalassemia. Although the ATRX protein is a member of the SWI\\/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins, little is known about the biochemical activity of the ATRX

N. G. Berube; Magdalena Jagla; Cecelia Smeenk; Yves De Repentigny; Rashmi Kothary; David J. Picketts

2002-01-01

390

Your Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... about it. Back Continue Dermis = Lots of Blood Vessels Your dermis is also full of tiny blood vessels. These keep your skin cells healthy by bringing ... need and by taking away waste. These blood vessels are hard to see in kids, but you ...

391

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

PubMed Central

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges.

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

392

Rapid facial mimicry in geladas.  

PubMed

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

393

Facial recognition at the CIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an 'electronic mug book.' Using some simple collateral information about a suspect (height, age and sex) and a photograph, the system gives users the ability to identify an unknown person with a reasonable probability. The system matches information extracted from the photographs with similar information extracted from a database of photographs of existing suspects. The technology was subsequently transferred to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for use by the Border Patrol.

Gragg, Susan

1997-01-01

394

Intratemporal Hemangiomas Involving the Facial Nerve  

PubMed Central

Intratemporal vascular tumors involving the facial nerve are rare benign lesions. Because of their variable clinical features, they are often misdiagnosed preoperatively. This study presents a series of 21 patients with such lesions managed from 1977 to 1994. Facial nerve dysfunction was the most common complaint, present in 60% of the cases, followed by hearing loss, present in 40% of cases. High-resolution computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium, and a high index of clinical suspicion is required for preoperative diagnosis of these lesions. Early surgical resection of these tumors permits acceptable return of facial nerve function in many patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Bhatia, Sanjaya; Karmarkar, Sandeep; Calabrese, V.; Landolfi, Mauro; Taibah, Abdelkader; Russo, Alessandra; Mazzoni, Antonio; Sanna, Mario

1995-01-01

395

The history of facial palsy and spasm  

PubMed Central

Although Sir Charles Bell was the first to provide the anatomic basis for the condition that bears his name, in recent years researchers have shown that other European physicians provided earlier clinical descriptions of peripheral cranial nerve 7 palsy. In this article, we describe the history of facial distortion by Greek, Roman, and Persian physicians, culminating in Razi's detailed description in al-Hawi. Razi distinguished facial muscle spasm from paralysis, distinguished central from peripheral lesions, gave the earliest description of loss of forehead wrinkling, and gave the earliest known description of bilateral facial palsy. In doing so, he accurately described the clinical hallmarks of a condition that we recognize as Bell palsy.

Sajadi, Mohamad-Reza M.; Tabatabaie, Seyed Mahmoud

2011-01-01

396

An efficient method for facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an efficient method for human facial expression recognition is presented. Our method includes two major techniques: spatially maximum occurrence model (SMOM), which is used to describe the different facial expressions; and elastic shape-texture matching (ESTM), which is used to compute the similarity between two images. The combination of these two techniques, namely the SMOM-ESTM method, is used to classify the facial expressions. With our approach, the recognition rate based on the AR database is 94.5%.

Xie, Xudong; Lam, Kin-Man

2005-07-01

397

The Voluntary Facial Action Technique: A Method to Test the Facial Feedback Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, facial muscles do not only express emotions, they also have the ability to modulate\\u000a subjective experiences of emotions and to initiate emotions. This study examined the voluntary facial action technique, where\\u000a participants were instructed to react with the Zygomatic major muscle (smile) or the Corrugator supercilii muscle (frown) when exposed to different stimuli. The

Ulf Dimberg; Sven Söderkvist

2011-01-01

398

Performance-driven facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computer graphics technique rises to the challenge of rendering lifelike performers, more lifelike performance is required. The techniques used to animate robots, arthropods, and suits of armor, have been extended to flexible surfaces of fur and flesh. Physical models of muscle and skin have been devised. But more complex databases and sophisticated physical modeling do not directly address the

Lance Williams

1990-01-01

399

Facial Trait Code and Its Application to Face Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the Facial Trait Code (FTC) to encode human facial images. The proposed FTC is motivated by the discovery of the\\u000a basic types of local facial features, called facial trait bases, which can be extracted from a large number of faces. In addition, the fusion of these facial trait bases can accurately\\u000a capture the appearance of a face. Extraction

Ping-han Lee; Gee-sern Hsu; Tsuhan Chen; Yi-ping Hung

2008-01-01

400

Cheek augmentation with Bio-Alcamid in facial lipoatrophy in HIV seropositive patients.  

PubMed

Lipoatrophy of the face in HIV seropositives are not susceptible to satisfactory correction by using single cosmetic surgery. The limitation of the available filler products to augment and to correct the facial defects in facial lipoatrophy is mainly inherent in the amount of substance that can be implanted for the correction of lipoatrophy. Using Bio-Alcamid, which is an injectable, biocompatible, nontoxic, nonallergenic soft tissue filler designed to correct tissue deficits of various volume by intratissue administration, 9 nonrelated HIV seropositive patients with facial lipoatrophy (7 males and 2 females, age 43 +/- 6 years) underwent cheek augmentation. From 7 mL to 16 mL of substance was injected each on both cheeks per application up to a maximum total of 25 mL. with a mean amount of 12 mL +/- 4 mL. The median follow up time was 2 years. The results revealed that the corrections have remained essentially unchanged throughout the period of follow up. Bio-Alcamid maintained the form and blend with the surrounding tissues. The surgical outcome was evaluated according to the analysis of photographs obtained before and after surgery, the analysis of pre- and postoperative measurements, and patients' self-judgment. The level of satisfaction was significantly high: in 63% of the cases, the result was judged to be excellent and in 32%, good. Only in 5% of the cases the result was considered poor. The present study strongly suggests that Bio-Alcamid is suitable for the correction of remarkable defects of facial atrophy, otherwise treatable only by surgery with myofascial free flaps. In addition, it permits a simplification of facial reconstruction and rejuvenation. PMID:18650737

Hönig, Johannes

2008-07-01

401

Dermatoscopic features of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas  

PubMed Central

Background: The dermatoscopic features of facial lentigo maligna (LM), facial lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) and acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) have been well described. This is the first description of the dermatoscopic appearance of a clinical series of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas. Objective: To describe the dermatoscopic features of a series of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas in an Australian skin cancer practice. Method: Single observer retrospective analysis of dermatoscopic images of a one-year series of cutaneous non-facial, non-acral melanomas reported as having a lentiginous growth pattern detected in an open access primary care skin cancer clinic in Australia. Lesions were scored for presence of classical criteria for facial LM; modified pattern analysis (“Chaos and Clues”) criteria; and the presence of two novel criteria: a lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border, and large polygons. Results: 20 melanomas occurring in 14 female and 6 male patients were included. Average patient age was 64 years (range: 44–83). Lesion distribution was: trunk 35%; upper limb 40%; and lower limb 25%. The incidences of criteria identified were: asymmetry of color or pattern (100%); lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border (90%); asymmetrically pigmented follicular openings (APFO’s) (70%); grey blue structures (70%); large polygons (45%); eccentric structureless area (15%); bright white lines (5%). 20% of the lesions had only the novel criteria and/or APFO’s. Limitations: Single observer, single center retrospective study. Conclusions: Cutaneous non-facial non-acral melanomas with a lentiginous growth pattern may have none or very few traditional criteria for the diagnosis of melanoma. Criteria that are logically expected in lesions with a lentiginous growth pattern (lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border, APFO’s) and the novel criterion of large polygons may be useful in increasing sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of these lesions. Further study is required to establish the significance of these observations.

Keir, Jeff

2014-01-01

402

ANS responses and facial expressions differentiate between the taste of commercial breakfast drinks.  

PubMed

The high failure rate of new market introductions, despite initial successful testing with traditional sensory and consumer tests, necessitates the development of other tests. This study explored the ability of selected physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to distinguish between repeated exposures to foods from a single category (breakfast drinks) and with similar liking ratings. In this within-subject study 19 healthy young adults sipped from five breakfast drinks, each presented five times, while ANS responses (heart rate, skin conductance response and skin temperature), facial expressions, liking, and intensities were recorded. The results showed that liking was associated with increased heart rate and skin temperature, and more neutral facial expressions. Intensity was associated with reduced heart rate and skin temperature, more neutral expressions and more negative expressions of sadness, anger and surprise. Strongest associations with liking were found after 1 second of tasting, whereas strongest associations with intensity were found after 2 seconds of tasting. Future studies should verify the contribution of the additional information to the prediction of market success. PMID:24714107

de Wijk, René A; He, Wei; Mensink, Manon G J; Verhoeven, Rob H G; de Graaf, Cees

2014-01-01

403

Skin of Color  

MedlinePLUS

... a dermatologist. Skin cancer Anyone, regardless of skin color or ethnicity, can develop skin cancer, so it is important to practice sun safety. Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, can ...

404

Skin Allergy Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...

405

Neuromodulators for Aging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options ... of the overlying skin. Why choose neuromodulators for aging skin Non-invasive — does not require surgery. Can ...

406

Allergy testing - skin  

MedlinePLUS

Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

407

Skin Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only international organization devoted solely to ... Lamps Skin Cancer Prevention Guidelines The Skin Cancer Foundation’s Response to the EWG 2014 Sunscreen Report Study: ...

408

Bacterial Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals ... Lymphangitis Necrotizing Skin Infections Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Bacterial Skin Infections ...

409

Judgment of gender through facial parts.  

PubMed

Japanese male and female undergraduate students judged the gender of a variety of facial images. These images were combinations of the following facial parts: eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, and the face outline (cheek and chin). These parts were extracted from averaged facial images of Japanese males and females aged 18 and 19 years by means of the Facial Image Processing System. The results suggested that, in identifying gender, subjects performed identification on the basis of the eyebrows and the face outline, and both males and females were more likely to identify the faces as those of their own gender. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies, with particular attention paid to the matter of race differences. PMID:24601037

Yamaguchi, Masami K; Hirukawa, Tastu; Kanazawa, So

2013-01-01

410

Judgment of gender through facial parts.  

PubMed

Japanese male and female undergraduate students judged the gender of a variety of facial images. These images were combinations of the following facial parts: eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, and the face outline (cheek and chin). These parts were extracted from averaged facial images of Japanese males and females aged 18 and 19 years by means of the Facial Image Processing System. The results suggested that, in identifying gender, subjects performed identification on the basis of the eyebrows and the face outline, and both males and females were more likely to identify the faces as those of their own gender. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies, with particular attention paid to the matter of race differences. PMID:7567430

Yamaguchi, M K; Hirukawa, T; Kanazawa, S

1995-01-01

411

The neural response to facial attractiveness.  

PubMed

What are the neural correlates of attractiveness? Using functional MRI (fMRI), the authors addressed this question in the specific context of the apprehension of faces. When subjects judged facial beauty explicitly, neural activity in a widely distributed network involving the ventral occipital, anterior insular, dorsal posterior parietal, inferior dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices correlated parametrically with the degree of facial attractiveness. When subjects were not attending explicitly to attractiveness, but rather were judging facial identity, the ventral occipital region remained responsive to facial beauty. The authors propose that this region, which includes the fusiform face area (FFA), the lateral occipital cortex (LOC), and medially adjacent regions, is activated automatically by beauty and may serve as a neural trigger for pervasive effects of attractiveness in social interactions. PMID:19254086

Chatterjee, Anjan; Thomas, Amy; Smith, Sabrina E; Aguirre, Geoffrey K

2009-03-01

412

Laptop Computer: Based Facial Recognition System Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrollin...

R. A. Cain G. B. Singleton

2001-01-01

413

Biometrics: A Look at Facial Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 2002 General Assembly, Delegate H. Morgan Griffith sponsored legislation that would set legal parameters for public sector use of facial recognition technology in Virginia. The legislation, known as House Bill No. 454 (included as an Appendix),...

J. D. Woodward C. Horn J. Gatune A. Thomas

2003-01-01

414

3D Facial Pattern Analysis for Autism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to use recently developed 3D shape acquisition technologies and advanced computational techniques to define the autism face and determine whether there is a statistically significant facial phenotype. During this report period,...

Y. Duan

2010-01-01

415

3D Facial Pattern Analysis for Autism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to use recently developed 3D shape acquisition technologies and advanced computational techniques to define the autism face and determine whether there is a statistically significant facial phenotype. During this report period,...

Y. Duan

2009-01-01

416

Reconstruction of a Columellar Defect With a Nasolabial Island Flap  

PubMed Central

Columellar skin defects may be caused by excision of cutaneous malignancy, trauma, or tissue necrosis associated with surgery. Although columellar skin necrosis rarely occurs following rhinoplasty, this condition might be more common when using an external approach than a closed approach. Columellar skin incision performed with exaggerated tip augmentation may cause columellar necrosis. The nasolabial island flap, used unilaterally to cover columellar skin defects, is used for a single-stage reconstruction procedure and is generally not associated with the need for secondary surgeries. This technique is well suited for repairing columellar skin defects. We experienced a patient with columellar skin necrosis occurring after rhinoplasty which was reconstructed using a unilateral single-stage nasolabial island flap.

Kang, IL Gyu; Jung, Joo Hyun; Kim, Seon Tae

2014-01-01

417

PHACE without face? Infantile hemangiomas of the upper body region with minimal or absent facial hemangiomas and associated structural malformations.  

PubMed

Infantile hemangiomas can be associated with congenital anomalies such as PHACE syndrome with facial hemangiomas and genitourinary and spinal anomalies in the setting of lower body hemangiomas. We describe five infants in whom segmental hemangiomas involving the upper torso and extremities with absent or small facial hemangiomas were associated with structural anomalies similar to those reported with PHACE syndrome, including three with structural arterial anomalies of the subclavian arteries, three with aortic arch anomalies (right sided or narrowed arch), two with congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect; tetralogy of Fallot), one with a retinal scar, and one with a sternal defect (scar). Two of five had small facial hemangiomas of the lower lip, but none had large segmental hemangiomas of the face. Three of five would have met diagnostic criteria for PHACE but lacked a facial hemangioma of 5 cm in diameter or greater. Patients with segmental arm and thorax hemangiomas may have associated structural abnormalities with overlapping features of PHACE, suggesting that a similar syndrome can occur in this clinical setting. PMID:21453307

Nabatian, Adam S; Milgraum, Sandy S; Hess, Christopher P; Mancini, Anthony J; Krol, Alfons; Frieden, Ilona J

2011-01-01

418

Effects of diazepam on facial emotion recognition  

PubMed Central

Objective There have been few studies of the pharmacologic modulation of facial emotion recognition. The present study aimed to replicate and extend the finding that recognition of facial anger was selectively impaired by diazepam. The hypothesis was that, in comparison with placebo, diazepam would impair the recognition of facial anger in healthy volunteers, but not the recognition of 5 other basic emotions: happiness, surprise, fear, sadness and disgust. Design A randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects comparison of diazepam with placebo. Setting A university psychopharmacology research unit. Participants Healthy male (n = 6) and female (n = 22) volunteers, aged 18–45 years. Procedures Subjects were tested on 2 tasks following the administration of diazepam, 15 mg, and placebo on separate occasions. In the first “multimorph” task, images of facial expressions were morphed to produce continua between the neutral and full expressions of 6 basic emotions. Accuracy and identification thresholds were assessed for stimuli in which the intensity of expression gradually increased. In the second “emotional hexagon” task, facial expressions were morphed between pairs of emotions. Single images were presented, and accuracy and speed of response were assessed. Results Diazepam produced broad impairments in response accuracy, recognition thresholds and response speed on the facial emotion tasks that were not limited to angry expressions. Conclusions The present study found that diazepam, 15 mg, impaired facial emotion recognition, but not selectively. In the emotional hexagon task, a reaction-time analysis suggested that the identification of facial anger might be differentially sensitive to variations in stimulus duration, complicating the interpretation of this paradigm.

Coupland, Nick J.; Singh, Anita J.; Sustrik, Ryan A.; Ting, Patricia; Blair, R. James

2003-01-01

419

Petrous bone cholesteatoma and facial paralysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes a series of patients with a petrous temporal bone cholesteatoma paying particular attention to the complications and their management. Sixteen patients who underwent surgery in our department were reviewed. Topographically, the petrous bone cholesteatomas were grouped into five categories according to the classification proposed by Sanna et al. There were five massive labyrinthine; five infralabyrinthine; one apical; four supralabyrinthine; and one infralabyrinthine-apical. Clinically, the presenting symptom of these lesions were facial nerve paralysis (10 patients) and unilateral deafness (13 patients). Total removal of the cholesteatomas was achieved in all patients using different surgical approaches according to their site and extent. Recurrences were observed in two patients after 8 months and 24 months, respectively. The facial nerve was infiltrated and compressed by the cholesteatoma in eight patients. Seven were managed with cable grafts using sural nerve. One of these patients was treated using a facial-hypoglossal anastomosis because of the failure of the graft. In the remaining patient, a baby-sitter procedure was employed. In the other two patients, the preoperative facial paralysis was due to compression by the cholesteatoma, and its removal allowed partial recovery of facial function. The rationale of the surgical management of petrous bone cholesteatoma is its radical and total removal. Our present policy is to prefer approaches which result in a closed cavity obliterating the eustachian tube and closing the auditory canal as a blind sac. Facial nerve function is the main complication of these lesions, Facial nerve involvement requires rapid management because the duration of the paralysis is directly related to poor recovery of facial function. PMID:9669076

Magliulo, G; Terranova, G; Sepe, C; Cordeschi, S; Cristofar, P

1998-06-01

420

Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in remote locations. Remote users could perform real-time searches where network connectivity is not available. As images are enrolled at the remote locations, periodic database synchronization is necessary.

R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

2001-03-01

421

Computer Aided Photogrammetry for Facial Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to determine facial soft tissue differences among Malays in Peninsular Malaysia by applying geometric morphometric\\u000a method with digital photograph. The photo was captured using digital SLR camera and analyzed using MorphoStudio™ software. Fifteen homologous landmarks on each 20 frontal facial photo of male subject of Jawa and Rawa were defined and\\u000a J-links with Procustes means were computed.

Z. A. Rajion; A. Y. Yusdirman

422

The velo-cardio-facial (Shprintzen) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight patients (three sporadic, five from two families) with the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) or Shprintzen syndrome\\u000a are reported. Major clinical findings of this syndrome include a characteristic pattern of facial dysmorphisms, cleft palate,\\u000a cardio-vascular malformations, and (mostly mild-to-moderate) mental retardation or learning difficulties.\\u000a \\u000a The syndrome probably is caused by a dominant gene with very variable expression. From previous reports mostly

P. Meinecke; F. A. Beemer; A. Schinzel; T. Kushnick

1986-01-01

423

Dynamic reanimation for facial palsy: an overview.  

PubMed

Facial paralysis can have a profound effect on the patient from both an aesthetic and functional point of view. The symptoms depend on which branch of the nerve has been damaged and the severity of the injury. The purpose of this paper is to review currently available treatments for dynamic reanimation of a damaged facial nerve, and the goals are a symmetrical and coordinated smile. Careful selection of patients and use of the appropriate surgical technique can have excellent results. PMID:23385066

Coyle, Margaret; Godden, Andrew; Brennan, Peter A; Cascarini, Luke; Coombes, Darryl; Kerawala, Cyrus; McCaul, James; Godden, Daryl

2013-12-01

424

Fuzzy Classification of Facial Component Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel type-2 Fuzzy logic System to define the Shape of\\u000aa facial component with the crisp output. This work is the part of our main\\u000aresearch effort to design a system (called FASY) which offers a novel face\\u000aconstruction approach based on the textual description and also extracts and\\u000aanalyzes the facial components from a face

Santanu Halder; Debotosh Bhattacharjee; Mita Nasipuri; Dipak Kumar Basu; Mahantapas Kundu

2010-01-01

425

Blink detection robust to various facial poses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications based on eye-blink detection have increased, as a result of which it is essential for eye-blink detection to be robust and non-intrusive irrespective of the changes in the user's facial pose. However, most previous studies on camera-based blink detection have the disadvantage that their performances were affected by the facial pose. They also focused on blink detection using only

Won Oh Lee; Eui Chul Lee; Kang Ryoung Park

2010-01-01

426

Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation. PMID:22575677

Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren

2012-08-01

427

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

PubMed

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2013-05-01

428

Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability  

PubMed Central

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: 1) DS individuals (n=55); 2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n=55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n=55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence.

Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2013-01-01

429

Multipoint and multilevel injection technique of botulinum toxin A in facial aesthetics.  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin represents one of the most frequently requested cosmetic procedures. We treated 223 patients with facial wrinkles using a new technique of injection of botulinum toxin A (BTA) called multipoint and multilevel injection technique (MMIT). The aim of MMIT was to relax the muscle and not paralyze it. Patient satisfaction was evaluated by Facial Line Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (FTSQ). Treatment with botulinum toxin determined a good response in all patients. Facial rhytids were completely resolved in case of young skin and well reduced in case of aged skin, leaving a natural aspect both in static and dynamic wrinkles. Patient mean overall satisfaction evaluated with FTSQ was 6.4 ± 1.1. In our experience, the use of botulin toxin by MMIT consents a better calibration of action with a soft and natural result. This can be achieved by distributing the BTA dose through various injection points for each area ("multipoint injections"). Furthermore, injections can be performed at different levels ("multilevel injections"). The level of injections regulates the potency of effect on the muscle: if the level is deep (intramuscular), the effect will be strong while if it is medium or superficial (subcutaneous and intradermal), the effect will be soft. This consents a fine calibration of action on muscle activity with a personal aesthetic result. PMID:24910277

Iozzo, Ivano; Tengattini, Vera; Antonucci, Valentina A

2014-06-01

430

Ecthyma gangrenosum in a previously healthy pediatric patient and associated facial paralysis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Ecthyma gangrenosum is an infective lesion of the skin and mucosal membranes. It is most commonly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the most important risk factors are malignancy and neutropenia. However, it has rarely been reported in children who were previously healthy. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous has been described as the persistence of the fetal hyaloid vascular system. Acute otitis media with facial paralysis is an infrequent association. Case Report: We report the case of a 5-month-old boy hospitalized because of fever, otorrhea and necrosis on his body. He had peripheral facial paralysis on the same side as otorrhea. Leukocoria was determined in the right eye. He had many gangrenous ulcers on the extremities and body. Conclusions: We present a previously healthy pediatric patient diagnosed with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, ecthyma gangrenosum (by the septicemia of P. aeruginosa), and peripheric facial paralysis (a complication of acute otitis media), admitted to hospital.

Bucak, Ibrahim Hakan; Tumgor, Gokhan; Mengen, Eda; Temiz, Fatih; Turgut, Mehmet

2012-01-01

431

Facial dermatologic lesions in children.  

PubMed

This article briefly reviews some of the most common skin lesions in the head and neck of a child. Benign "lumps and bumps" are very common in children and it is prudent for the pediatric maxillofacial surgeon to be familiar with their presentation, workup (including radiographic studies), and definitive surgical management. Inflammatory and infectious lesions require prompt treatment to avoid more serious sequelae of progressive infection and scarring. PMID:22857720

Chou, Joli C; Horswell, Bruce B

2012-08-01

432

Management of facial necrotizing fasciitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing fasciitis is a progressive, life-threatening, bacterial infection of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue and the\\u000a underlying fascia, in most cases caused by ß-hemolytic group A streptococcus. Only early diagnosis and aggressive therapy\\u000a including broad spectrum antibiotics and surgical intervention can avoid systemic toxicity with a high mortality rate. This\\u000a uncommon disease generally occurs in the lower extremities and trunk,

Christian Schurr; M. Burghartz; T. Miethke; M. Kesting; N. Hoang; R. Staudenmaier

2009-01-01

433

Vegfd can compensate for loss of Vegfc in zebrafish facial lymphatic sprouting.  

PubMed

Lymphangiogenesis is a dynamic process that involves the sprouting of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) from veins to form lymphatic vessels. Vegfr3 signalling, through its ligand Vegfc and the extracellular protein Ccbe1, is essential for the sprouting of LECs to form the trunk lymphatic network. In this study we determined whether Vegfr3, Vegfc and Ccbe1 are also required for development of the facial and intestinal lymphatic networks in the zebrafish embryo. Whereas Vegfr3 and Ccbe1 are required for the development of all lymphatic vessels, Vegfc is dispensable for facial lymphatic sprouting but not for the complete development of the facial lymphatic network. We show that zebrafish vegfd is expressed in the head, genetically interacts with ccbe1 and can rescue the lymphatic defects observed following the loss of vegfc. Finally, whereas knockdown of vegfd has no phenotype, double knockdown of both vegfc and vegfd is required to prevent facial lymphatic sprouting, suggesting that Vegfc is not essential for all lymphatic sprouting and that Vegfd can compensate for loss of Vegfc during lymphatic development in the zebrafish head. PMID:24903752

Astin, Jonathan W; Haggerty, Michael J L; Okuda, Kazuhide S; Le Guen, Ludovic; Misa, June P; Tromp, Alisha; Hogan, Benjamin M; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

2014-07-01

434

Genetic skin diseases.  

PubMed

Recent advances in molecular genetics have led to major breakthroughs in the understanding of two heterogeneous groups of inherited skin diseases, epidermolysis bullosa and the ichthyoses. Mutations in keratins K5 or K14 are found in epidermolysis bullosa simplex. The gravis (Herlitz) variety of junctional epidermolysis bullosa is characterized by defects in the anchoring filament protein kalinin. Both dominant and recessive forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa appear to be due to mutations in the type VII collagen gene. Biochemical studies in patients with ichthyosis vulgaris reveal that the proteins profilaggrin and filaggrin are reduced or absent. Recessive X-linked ichthyosis is characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme steroid sulfatase. A type of lamellar ichthyosis may be explained on the basis of abnormal cornified cell envelope formation, and bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis) is caused by mutations in keratins K1 or K10. PMID:7951667

Francis, J S

1994-08-01

435

Facial reconstruction: utilization of computerized tomography to measure facial tissue thickness in a mixed racial population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of human faces on skeletal remains is dependant on the facial tissue thickness measurements most of which have been derived from cadaver material using the needle probe technique. Dehydration of soft tissue after death casts doubt on the efficacy of these measurements. No study exists in which the facial tissues of a mixed population group in South Africa have

V. M. Phillips; N. A. Smuts

1996-01-01

436

FaceXpress: An Integrated Software Suite for Facial Emotion Stimulus Manipulation and Facial Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterisation of facial expression through landmark-based analysis methods such as FACEM (Pilowsky & Katsikitis, 1994) has a variety of uses in psychiatric and psychological research. In these systems, important structural relationships are ex- tracted from images of facial expressions by the analysis of a pre-defined set of feature points. These relationship measures may then be used, for instance, to

Thomas Byrne; Frans Henskens; Pat Johnston; Mary Katsikitis

2003-01-01

437

Automated facial image analysis: detecting improvement in abnormal facial movement after treatment with botulinum toxin A.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of Automated Facial Image Analysis (AFA) to detect changes in facial motion after Botox injections in patients with facial nerve disorders accompanied by abnormal muscle activity. Eight subjects received Botox for oral to ocular synkinesis (n = 6), ocular to oral synkinesis (n = 1), and/or depressor anguli oris overactivity (n = 3). Subjects were video-recorded during 2 directed facial action tasks before and after Botox treatment. AFA measurement and Facial Grading System (FGS) scores were used to evaluate the effects of Botox. After Botox, AFA detected a decrease in abnormal movements of the eyelids in all patients with oral to ocular synkinesis, a decrease in oral commissure movement for the patients with ocular to oral synkinesis, and an increase in oral commissure movement in all patients with depressor overactivity. The FGS scores failed to demonstrate any change in facial movement for the case of ocular to oral synkinesis and for 2 cases of depressor overactivity. AFA enables recognition of subtle changes in facial movement that may not be adequately measured by observer based ratings of facial function. PMID:17197940

Rogers, Carolyn R; Schmidt, Karen L; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Wachtman, Galen S; Manders, Ernest K; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B

2007-01-01

438

Facial bite wounds: management update.  

PubMed

Bite wounds are frequently located on the face; injuries inflicted by dogs are most common, especially in children. Bacteriology of infected dog and cat bite wounds includes Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, and oral anaerobes. Infected human bites yield a similar spectrum of bacteria except for Pasteurellae and C. canimorsus; instead human bites are frequently complicated by Eikenella corrodens. Antibiotic therapy against these bacteria is indicated both for infected bite wounds and fresh wounds considered at risk for infection. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (and other combinations of extended-spectrum penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors) and moxifloxacin offer the best in vitro coverage of the pathogenic flora. Initial wound management consisting in irrigation and debridement is at least equally important with antibiotics for prevention of infection. The need for prophylaxis against systemic infectious complications, particularly tetanus, should also be evaluated. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice for most clinically uninfected facial bite wounds, whereas delayed closure should be reserved for certain high risk or already infected wounds. Avulsive injuries with significant tissue loss represent the most difficult cases for definitive management and are also those most likely to require hospitalization. PMID:16053863

Stefanopoulos, P K; Tarantzopoulou, A D

2005-07-01

439

[Temporal muscle flap in cranio-facial reconstructive surgery. Apropos of 32 cases].  

PubMed

The temporalis muscle flap is used in craniofacial reconstructive surgery to repair defects, to restore facial contours and to cover bone grafts. These possibilities of reconstruction are analysed in the light of 32 cases. After reviewing the anatomy and the surgical technique, this series is presented as a function of the various types of defect: cranio-orbital (9 cases), defects of the malar area (6 cases), maxillary defects (7 cases), mandibular defects (7 cases), malar and parotid soft tissues defects (2 cases), mastoid defects (1 case). This study indicates that the temporalis flap possesses several advantages: great vascular reliability, associated with simplicity of flap raising and an easily available tissue volume. The arc of rotation constitutes the limiting factor. Romberg's syndrome does not constitute an ideal indication of choice, as the muscle may be atrophied. Similarly, when the defect requires thin cover, it would be wiser to use a thinner flap, such as fascia temporalis superficialis. Donor site sequelae are negligible. Limitation of mouth opening (3 cases) and frontal paralysis (2 cases) are usually transient. The field of application of this flap can be extended by continuing the flap as far as the pericranium or calvarium, allowing complex reconstructions. PMID:7574388

Cothier-Savey, I; Jousset, C; Raulo, Y

1995-04-01

440