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1

Automatic Facial Skin Defect Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin analysis is one of the most important procedures before medical cosmetology. Most conventional skin analysis systems are semi-automatic. They often require human intervention. In this study, an automatic facial skin defect detection approach is proposed. The system first detects human face in the facial image. Based on the detected face, facial features are extracted to locate regions of interest.

Chuan-Yu Chang; Shang-Cheng Li; Pau-Choo Chung; Jui-Yi Kuo; Yung-Chin Tu

2010-01-01

2

Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders  

PubMed Central

The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:22073066

Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

2005-01-01

3

Image Analysis Of Facial Skin Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image processing algorithms and photographic techniques have been developed to allow objective, reproducible quantification of facial skin wrinkles, age spots, pores, and other visible skin features. The methods have been used to determine the effects of environmen-tal solar exposure on facial skin aging.

Gartstein, Vladimir; Shaya, Steven A.

1986-06-01

4

Ultrastructure of elastosis in facial rhytidectomy skin  

SciTech Connect

Skin from 19 facial rhytidectomies performed in patients with chronic solar damage was compared with postauricular skin from patients of similar age. Light microscopy demonstrated large areas of amorphous material that stained PAS positive in all 19 face-lift specimens, while none of the controls had such material. Electron microscopy of the ''elastotic'' material revealed large amorphous masses of granular material, with loss of the microfilament component of normal elastin. Current theories suggest that the elastotic material in solar-damaged skin is a product of radiation-damaged fibroblasts, rather than being either collagen or degenerated elastin. Such knowledge may help the plastic surgeons encourage rhytidectomy patients to protect themselves from solar radiation.

Rudolph, R.; Woodward, M.

1981-03-01

5

Lightweight acrylic resin facial prosthesis for maxillofacial defects: a fabrication and retention method.  

PubMed

Extraoral maxillofacial rehabilitation for compromised or lost facial anatomy resulting from the surgical eradication of malignancy, trauma, or congenital anomalies is commonly accomplished with a silicone prosthesis. However, with increasing size and weight, a silicone prosthesis can lose retention. This report presents 2 patient treatments to introduce a fabrication and retention method for a lightweight acrylic resin facial prosthesis. The prosthesis was fabricated by bonding an acrylic resin facial shell to a computer-edited facial image printed with iron-on transfers. The completed prosthesis was attached to the skin with medical-grade double-sided adhesive tape, which maintained a tight marginal seal even when in contact with saliva and water. The strong prosthetic retention of the lightweight prosthesis enabled orofacial and speech rehabilitation, which makes it a promising alternative to the conventional silicone prosthesis, especially for the restoration of extensive maxillofacial defects. PMID:24079569

Nomura, Takayoshi; Sato, Junichi; Matsuura, Masaro; Kawaguchi, Koji; Sekiguchi, Rei; Horie, Akihisa; Seto, Kanichi

2013-10-01

6

Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.  

PubMed

Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P < 0.05), with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores (R = 0.43, P < 0.05) and with sebum output levels (R = 0.41, P < 0.01). The sebum output levels correlated with total pore area (R = 0.32, P < 0.05). Our study found that serum levels of IGF-1 are correlated with facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. PMID:20646082

Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

2011-04-01

7

Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin.  

PubMed

Histologic studies have become increasingly important in recognizing morphologic differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged skin. Earlier histologic studies have attempted to evaluate these changes by examining anatomical sites which are not comparable, such as face and buttocks. As part of a multicenter study, we have quantitatively examined a panel of 16 histologic features in baseline facial skin biopsies from 158 women with moderate to severe photodamage. When compared to the postauricular area (photo protected), biopsies of the crow's feet area (photo exposed) had a twofold increase in melanocytes and a statistically significant increase in melanocytic atypia (p < .0001) and epidermal melanin (p < .0001). Other epidermal changes included reduced epidermal thickness (p < .01), more compact stratum corneum (p < .0001) and increased granular layer thickness (p < .0001) in the crow's feet skin. There was increased solar elastosis (p < .0001), dermal elastic tissue (p < .0001), melanophages (p < .0001), perivascular inflammation (p < .05) and perifollicular fibrosis (p < .01) but no change in the number of mast cells or dermal mucin in the photo exposed skin. Our data document quantitative differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged facial skin and provides the groundwork for future studies to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for photoaged skin. PMID:7560349

Bhawan, J; Andersen, W; Lee, J; Labadie, R; Solares, G

1995-04-01

8

Facial detection and location based on skin color and eye characteristic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper comes true a system of facial detection and location. Firstly, it realizes the facial detection of candidate region used skin color for the given image, and considers the influence of similar skin. Secondly, it realizes the location for eye region used the gray characteristic of eye and correction of central measurement, and makes further selection for facial candidate

WANG Ju-hui

2008-01-01

9

Visible skin condition and perception of human facial appearance.  

PubMed

Evolutionary psychology suggests that certain human beauty standards have evolved to provide reliable cues of fertility and health. Hence, preferences for some physical characteristics of the face and body are thought to reflect adaptations for the promotion of mate choice. Studies that have investigated facial attractiveness have concentrated mainly on features such as symmetry, averageness and sex-typical traits, which are developed under the influence of sex steroids. Few studies, however, have addressed the effect of human skin condition on perception of facial appearance in this context, and possible implications for sexual selection. There is now accumulating evidence that skin pigmentation and skin surface topography cues, particularly in women, have a significant influence on attractiveness judgements, as they seem primarily to signal aspects of age and health. This article (i) reviews briefly some of the main determinants of visible skin condition, (ii) presents recent evidence on its signalling value in face perception and (iii) suggests areas for future research with reference to an evolutionary psychology framework. PMID:19889046

Samson, N; Fink, B; Matts, P J

2010-06-01

10

Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

2008-02-01

11

Facial skin segmentation using bacterial foraging optimization algorithm.  

PubMed

Nowadays, analyzing human facial image has gained an ever-increasing importance due to its various applications. Image segmentation is required as a very important and fundamental operation for significant analysis and interpretation of images. Among the segmentation methods, image thresholding technique is one of the most well-known methods due to its simplicity, robustness, and high precision. Thresholding based on optimization of the objective function is among the best methods. Numerous methods exist for the optimization process and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) is among the most efficient and novel ones. Using this method, optimal threshold is extracted and then segmentation of facial skin is performed. In the proposed method, first, the color facial image is converted from RGB color space to Improved Hue-Luminance-Saturation (IHLS) color space, because IHLS has a great mapping of the skin color. To perform thresholding, the entropy-based method is applied. In order to find the optimum threshold, BFO is used. In order to analyze the proposed algorithm, color images of the database of Sahand University of Technology of Tabriz, Iran were used. Then, using Otsu and Kapur methods, thresholding was performed. In order to have a better understanding from the proposed algorithm; genetic algorithm (GA) is also used for finding the optimum threshold. The proposed method shows the better results than other thresholding methods. These results include misclassification error accuracy (88%), non-uniformity accuracy (89%), and the accuracy of region's area error (89%). PMID:23724370

Bakhshali, Mohamad Amin; Shamsi, Mousa

2012-10-01

12

Skin and Bones: The Contribution of Skin Tone and Facial Structure to Racial Prototypicality Ratings  

PubMed Central

Previous research reveals that a more ‘African’ appearance has significant social consequences, yielding more negative first impressions and harsher criminal sentencing of Black or White individuals. This study is the first to systematically assess the relative contribution of skin tone and facial metrics to White, Black, and Korean perceivers’ ratings of the racial prototypicality of faces from the same three groups. Our results revealed that the relative contribution of metrics and skin tone depended on both perceiver race and face race. White perceivers’ racial prototypicality ratings were less responsive to variations in skin tone than were Black or Korean perceivers’ ratings. White perceivers ratings’ also were more responsive to facial metrics than to skin tone, while the reverse was true for Black perceivers. Additionally, across all perceiver groups, skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics on racial prototypicality ratings of White faces, with the reverse for Korean faces. For Black faces, the relative impact varied with perceiver race: skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics for Black and Korean perceivers, with the reverse for White perceivers. These results have significant implications for predicting who will experience racial prototypicality biases and from whom. PMID:22815966

Strom, Michael A.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Shunan; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Lee, Hoon Koo

2012-01-01

13

Towards Realistic Facial Modeling and Re-Rendering of Human Skin Aging Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial aging simulation and animation are aspiring goals and challenging tasks because the growth and ag- ing processes are greatly influence the facial shape and its structure. The face structure, the size of the bones, and the skin texture change, the skin fattens or sags, wrin- kles appear and even muscular activities change in terms of intensity. This paper proposes

Hussein Karam Hussein

2002-01-01

14

What's in a Face? The Role of Skin Tone, Facial Physiognomy, and Color Presentation Mode of Facial Primes in Affective Priming Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants (N?=?106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this

Elena V. Stepanova; Michael J Strube

2012-01-01

15

What's in a Face? The Role of Skin Tone, Facial Physiognomy, and Color Presentation Mode of Facial Primes in Affective Priming Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants (N?=?106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this

Elena V. Stepanova; Michael J. Strube

2011-01-01

16

Dermatoscopic aspects of the Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects (MLS) Syndrome*  

PubMed Central

The association of microphthalmia and linear skin defects was named microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) or MIDAS syndrome (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea), an X-chromosomal disorder manifesting mainly in females. We examined a female newborn with facial linear skin defects following the Blaschko lines. Computer tomography and ophthalmological examination confirmed bilateral microphthalmia. An interstitial microdeletion at Xp22.2, encompassing the entire HCCS gene, was identified. Dermatoscopic examination showed erythematous linear areas with telangectasias and absence of sebaceous glands, which appear as brilliant white dots. Vellus hairs were also absent in the red areas. Dermatoscopy could help to establish the diagnosis of MLS/MIDAS syndrome by confirming the aplastic nature of the lesions. PMID:24626674

de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Rossi, Gabriela; de Abreu, Luciana Boff; Bergamaschi, Cristina; da Silva, Alessandra Banaszeski; Kutsche, Kerstin

2014-01-01

17

Dermatoscopic aspects of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome.  

PubMed

The association of microphthalmia and linear skin defects was named microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) or MIDAS syndrome (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea), an X-chromosomal disorder manifesting mainly in females. We examined a female newborn with facial linear skin defects following the Blaschko lines. Computer tomography and ophthalmological examination confirmed bilateral microphthalmia. An interstitial microdeletion at Xp22.2, encompassing the entire HCCS gene, was identified. Dermatoscopic examination showed erythematous linear areas with telangectasias and absence of sebaceous glands, which appear as brilliant white dots. Vellus hairs were also absent in the red areas. Dermatoscopy could help to establish the diagnosis of MLS/MIDAS syndrome by confirming the aplastic nature of the lesions. PMID:24626674

Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Rossi, Gabriela; Abreu, Luciana Boff de; Bergamaschi, Cristina; Silva, Alessandra Banaszeski da; Kutsche, Kerstin

2014-01-01

18

Simulating the three-dimensional deformation of in vivo facial skin.  

PubMed

Characterising the mechanical properties of human facial skin is a challenging but important endeavour with applications in biomedicine, surgery simulation, forensics, and animation. Many existing computer models of the face are not based on in vivo facial skin deformation data but rather on experiments using in vitro facial skin or other soft tissues. The facial skin of five volunteers was subjected to a rich set of deformations using a micro-robotic device. The force-displacement response was recorded for each deformation. All volunteers' facial skin exhibited a non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic force-displacement response. We propose a finite element model that simulated the experimental deformations with error-of-fits ranging from 11% to 23%. The skin was represented by an Ogden strain energy function and a quasi-linear viscoelastic law. From non-linear optimisation procedures, we determined material parameters and in vivo pre-stresses for the central cheek area of five volunteers and five other facial points on one volunteer. Pre-stresses ranged from 15.9kPa to 89.4kPa. PMID:23566769

Flynn, Cormac; Taberner, Andrew J; Nielsen, Poul M F; Fels, Sidney

2013-12-01

19

Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins  

PubMed Central

Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA® Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. PMID:24910280

Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

2014-01-01

20

Hydroquinone-free Skin Brightener System for the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Facial Hyperpigmentation  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a multimodal skin-brightening regimen in subjects with facial hyperpigmentation. Design: Open-label, single-center clinical study with clinical assessments at baseline, Week 4, Week 8, and Week 12. Treatment: Subjects were instructed to apply the skin-brightening complex onto their facial skin, twice daily, for 12 weeks. Subjects also applied a nonprescription retinol product, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Participants: Twenty-one subjects, aged 41 to 65 years, with Fitzpatrick skin types II to IV and moderate-to-severe facial hyperpigmentation completed the study. Measurements: Overall hyperpigmentation and tolerability (objective and subjective) assessments were conducted at all visits. In addition, global improvement in hyperpigmentation was assessed at all follow-up visits. A self-assessment questionnaire was completed by subjects at Week 12. Results: At baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12, subjects were assessed for overall hyperpigmentation and global improvement. Standardized digital photographs were also taken of the subjects’ facial skin at all visits. Subjects completed a self-assessment questionnaire at Week 12. Statistically significant reductions in mean Overall Hyperpigmentation scores and significant improvements in mean Global Improvement scores compared to baseline were observed at all follow-up visits (all p<0.001). These clinical observations were supported by standardized digital photography. In addition, the skin-brightening regimen was highly rated by subjects on all of the questionnaire parameters. Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that the multimodality skin-brightening regimen may provide a comprehensive and optimal treatment option to help reduce facial hyperpigmentation. PMID:24847406

Herndon JR., James H.; Stephens, Thomas J.; Mehta, Rahul C.

2014-01-01

21

An alternative method for facial resurfacing: supraclavicular skin prefabrication by perforator fascia flap.  

PubMed

Prefabrication of supraclavicular skin provides a useful source for flaps congruent with the face skin. Among various vascular sources that have been used for this purpose, anterolateral thigh fascia seems to represent a greater value because of having a long and strong vascular pedicle and negligible donor-site morbidity. In this regard, we present a technical report on using the lateral circumflex femoral artery perforator flap harvest technique in preparing an anterolateral thigh fascia flap for the prefabrication of the supraclavicular skin. The technique proved successful in resurfacing the facial skin of a young female patient with a giant congenital melanocytic hairy nevus on the left side of her face. PMID:24448542

Hocao?lu, Emre

2014-03-01

22

The effect of a daily facial cleanser for normal to oily skin on the skin barrier of subjects with acne.  

PubMed

Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that affects many people every year, especially the teenaged population. People with acne find the condition especially difficult to manage because of the disease's chronicity and variability in response to treatment. Acne is the result of pores clogged with shed skin cells combined with sebum in the hair follicle. Successful treatment of acne is important because acne has the potential to result in lasting physical and emotional scarring. For many years, physicians have agreed that although cleansing is not effective on its own, effective cleansing is an important part of any acne treatment regimen. However, patients have not been satisfied with the types of cleansers available. In addition to containing dyes and perfumes that can irritate and exacerbate acne, these cleansers often are too harsh and can result in excessive drying of the skin, which leads to overcompensation by the oil glands and ultimately to more oil on the surface of the skin. This study examined the use of a daily facial cleanser formulated for normal to oily skin in subjects with mild facial acne. The cleanser was studied for 2 weeks in the absence of additional treatments to eliminate the confounding effects of various treatments. Subjects were monitored for skin barrier function through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry, sebum level, and lesion counts. The results of the study indicate that the facial cleanser is gentle and does not damage the skin barrier or result in sebum overcompensation; additionally, the cleanser is effective at deep-pore cleansing, which may help to manage some acne-associated symptoms. PMID:16910029

Draelos, Zoe D

2006-07-01

23

Reconstruction of complex oro-facial defects using the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap.  

PubMed

Oro-facial defects require reconstruction that provides suitable colour match and texture. Moreover inner and outer cheek lining and bulk are key considerations. In cases of severe oro-facial infections concomitant mandibular abnormality, for example trismus, can mandate the need for tissue to obturate mandibular defects. We assessed the use of the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap (MSA) in non-oncological patients with such defects. Twenty two consecutive patients were included in this case series. All patients were survivors of Cancrum Oris (NOMA). Demographic details, nutritional status and co-morbidities were recorded. Defects were classified according to the tissues destroyed; cheek, mandible, oral cavity, lip(s), nose and eye(s). Simultaneous procedures carried out were recorded. The surgical anatomy of the MSA is described. All patients had composite defects of the cheek and oral cavity plus another local anatomical structure. Adjunct procedures such as trismus release were carried out in 18/22 patients. Four patients required a return to theatre. There was no trismus recurrence observed. No flap losses were incurred. The MSA is a robust flap with minimal incidence of major complications. The MSA negates the need for microsurgical tissue transfer. Furthermore the MSA provides adequate bulk to obturate these defects. Future applications of the MSA may include complex oro-facial oncological defects. PMID:24209385

Saleh, D B; Fourie, L; Mizen, K D

2014-07-01

24

Detection of Fight or Flight Reaction on Facial Skin Thermogram using Spatio-Temporal Spectrum Differential Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been known that human being exhibits the Fight or Flight Reaction(FFR) when they feel anxiety, strain and threat. This paper describes experiments that were conducted to arouse the fight or flight reaction. Facial skin thermograms in which the temperature fluctuation in specific regions was identified were measured, and the characteristics of the temperature fluctuations in the relevant regions were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that, for nine of the ten subjects, the FFR was confirmed in the form of reacted areas indicating acute increases in skin temperature, primarily in facial expression muscles such as the procerus muscle and cheek muscles. Additionally, the spatio-temporal spectrum differential analysis method for facial skin thermograms was proposed, and as a result of detecting spatio-temporal skin temperature fluctuations in the facial skin thermograms accompanying manifestation of the FFR, a detection rate of 76.5% was obtained. Thus, the effectiveness of the proposed technique was confirmed.

Nozawa, Akio; Tomono, Satoshi; Mizuno, Tota; Ide, Hideto

25

Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.  

PubMed

The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary. PMID:24314373

Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalç?n

2014-01-01

26

Comparison of two endotracheal tube securement techniques on unplanned extubation, oral mucosa, and facial skin integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 2 standard methods (ie, twill tape versus adhesive tape) of securement on unplanned extubation, oral mucosa, and facial skin integrity of the orally intubated patient.DESIGN: A prospective, quasi-experimental design was used for the pilot study.SETTING: The setting for the pilot study included critical care units of 3 community hospitals and 1 veterans' hospital in

Susan Barnason; Jaine Graham; M. Candice Wild; Lynette Bunde Jensen; Doris Rasmussen; Paula Schulz; Sandi Woods; Brenda Carder

1998-01-01

27

Warty skin changes, chronic scrotal lymphoedema, and facial dysmorphism  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man whose main complaints were wart-like skin changes and scrotal lymphoedema. Furthermore, our patient showed signs of a common hereditary disease: lymphoedema, short stature, webbed neck, low frontal and posterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures, pale blue iris, broad nose, flat philtrum, and prominent nasolabial folds. His ears were low set and retroverted with a thick helix. However, no diagnosis was made for 49 years. The interdisciplinary dialogue of various specialists to make the final diagnosis is presented and discussed. PMID:22750922

Felcht, Moritz; Dikow, Nicola; Goebeler, Matthias; Stroebel, Philipp; Booken, Nina; Voßmerbäumer, Urs; Merx, Kirsten; Henzler, Thomas; Marx, Alexander; Moog, Ute; Goerdt, Sergij; Klemke, Claus-Detlev

2010-01-01

28

Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694

Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

2012-01-01

29

Modified technique to fabricate a hollow light-weight facial prosthesis for lateral midfacial defect: a clinical report  

PubMed Central

Large oro-facial defects result from cancer treatment consequences in serious functional as well as cosmetic deformities. Acceptable cosmetic results usually can be obtained with a facial prosthesis. However, retention of a large facial prosthesis can be challenging because of its size and weight. This article describes prosthetic rehabilitation of a 57-year-old man having a right lateral mid-facial defect with intraoral-extraoral combination prosthesis. A modified technique to fabricate a hollow substructure in heat-polymerizing polymethyl-methacrylate to support silicone facial prosthesis was illustrated. The resultant facial prosthesis was structurally durable and light in weight facilitating the retention with magnets satisfactorily. This technique is advantageous as there is no need to fabricate the whole prosthesis again in case of damage of the silicone layer because the outer silicone layer can be removed and re-packed on the substructure if the gypsum-mold is preserved. PMID:21165271

2010-01-01

30

The Use of Matriderm and Autologous Skin Graft in the Treatment of Full Thickness Skin Defects  

PubMed Central

Background For patients with full thickness skin defects, autologous Split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) are generally regarded as the mainstay of treatment. However, skin grafts have some limitations, including undesirable outcomes resulting from scars, poor elasticity, and limitations in joint movement due to contractures. In this study, we present outcomes of Matriderm grafts used for various skin tissue defects whether it improves on these drawbacks. Methods From January 2010 to March 2012, a retrospective review of patients who had undergone autologous STSG with Matriderm was performed. We assessed graft survival to evaluate the effectiveness of Matriderm. We also evaluated skin quality using a Cutometer, Corneometer, Tewameter, or Mexameter, approximately 12 months after surgery. Results A total of 31 patients underwent STSG with Matriderm during the study period. The success rate of skin grafting was 96.7%. The elasticity value of the portion on which Matriderm was applied was 0.765 (range, 0.635-0.800), the value of the trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) was 10.0 (range, 8.15-11.00) g/hr/m2, and the humidification value was 24.0 (range, 15.5-30.0). The levels of erythema and melanin were 352.0 arbitrary unit (AU) (range, 299.25-402.75 AU) and 211.0 AU (range, 158.25-297.00 AU), respectively. When comparing the values of elasticity and TEWL of the skin treated with Matriderm to the values of the surrounding skin, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that a dermal substitute (Matriderm) with STSG was adopted stably and with minimal complications. Furthermore, comparing Matriderm grafted skin to normal skin using Cutometer, Matriderm proved valuable in restoring skin elasticity and the skin barrier. PMID:25075353

Min, Jang Hwan; Yun, In Sik; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk

2014-01-01

31

Reconstructing a complex central facial defect with a multiple-folding radial forearm flap.  

PubMed

The central face is the dominant feature of humans. A complex central facial defect can severely affect a person's appearance and function and can pose significant challenges for reconstructive surgeons. The aims and principles of central facial reconstruction are to achieve adequate function and esthetics. This report describes the case of a 45-year-old man who was bitten in the central face by a wild boar. A free radial forearm flap was designed as a multiple-folding flap that was divided into several portions. The folded portions of the flap were used to reconstruct the nasal mucosa, oral mucosa, and upper lip defects and provided the lining for an eventual staged nasal reconstruction. The patient achieved good functional recovery and had a good esthetic outcome. PMID:24491846

Zhou, Wei; He, Mingwu; Liao, Youqiao; Yao, Zhongjun

2014-04-01

32

Reconstruction of Various Perinasal Defects Using Facial Artery Perforator-Based Nasolabial Island Flaps  

PubMed Central

Background Classical flaps for perinasal defect reconstruction, such as forehead or nasolabial flaps, have some disadvantages involving limitations of the arc of rotation and two stages of surgery. However, a perforator-based flap is more versatile and allows freedom in flap design. We introduced our experience with reconstruction using a facial artery perforator-based propeller flap on the perinasal area. We describe the surgical differences between different defect subtypes. Methods Between December 2005 and August 2013, 10 patients underwent perinasal reconstruction in which a facial artery perforator-based flap was used. We divided the perinasal defects into types A and B, according to location. The operative results, including flap size, arc of rotation, complications, and characteristics of the perforator were evaluated by retrospective chart review and photographic evaluation. Results Eight patients were male and 2 patients were female. Their mean age was 61 years (range, 35-75 years). The size of the flap ranged from 1 cm×1.5 cm to 3 cm×6 cm. Eight patients healed uneventfully, but 2 patients presented with mild flap congestion. However, these 2 patients healed by conservative management without any additional surgery. All of the flaps survived completely with aesthetically pleasing results. Conclusions The facial artery perforator-based flap allowed for versatile customized flaps, and the donor site scar was concealed using the natural nasolabial fold. PMID:24286050

Yoon, Tae Ho; Yun, In Sik; Rha, Dong Kyun

2013-01-01

33

Enhanced Efficacy of a Facial Hydrating Serum in Subjects with Normal or Self-Perceived Dry Skin  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a facial hydrating serum when added to a moisturizer regimen compared to a moisturizer regimen alone. Design: Evaluator-blinded, single-center, clinical study with investigator assessments at Baseline and Week 2. Treatment: After washing with a facial cleanser in the morning and evening, subjects either applied the hydrating serum to their face followed by application of the moisturizer or applied only a moisturizer. Participants: Thirty-two women, aged 25 to 55 years with Fitzpatrick skin types I to V and normal or self-perceived dry skin completed the study. Seventeen subjects (Group 1) aged 25 to 51 years were randomly assigned to receive the facial hydrating serum in addition to a moisturizer regimen, whereas 15 subjects (Group 2) aged 34 to 55 years, were randomized to receive the moisturizer regimen alone. Measurements: Visual grading of the condition of the facial skin with regard to dryness, tactile roughness and softness, rating of irritation (subjective and objective), and digital photography. A self-assessment questionnaire was also employed to assess patient satisfaction. Results: Clinical assessments by the investigator showed statistically significant improvements (P<0.02) in facial skin parameters (reduction in dryness and increased skin softness) after two weeks of combined use of the hydrating serum and moisturizer compared to the group who used moisturizer alone. No adverse events were reported during the course of the study. Conclusion: The results from a two-week clinical study demonstrate that this facial hydrating serum was well tolerated and effective in improving facial dry skin parameters beyond that obtained with a moisturizer alone. PMID:21386958

Werschler, W. Philip; Trookman, Nathan S.; Rizer, Ronald L.; Mehta, Rahul

2011-01-01

34

Combined topical application of lotus and green tea improves facial skin surface parameters.  

PubMed

No study has yet determined the anti-wrinkle efficacy of green tea plus lotus in Asian subjects using skin image analysis technique. In this study, the efficacy of two cosmetic active formulations intended for the treatment of facial wrinkles (green tea and lotus extract) has been evaluated in healthy subjects using a non-invasive device, the Visioscan(®) VC, and software for surface evaluation of living skin (SELS). Thirty-three healthy Asian subjects, all men, were enrolled after consent in a placebo-controlled comparative study with a split face design. One group applied multiple emulsions with green tea. The second group applied multiple emulsions with lotus extract, while a third group applied a multiple emulsion with a combination of both extracts. In all three groups, active formulations were applied to one side of the face and the placebo to the other side, once daily over the 60-day treatment course. Non-invasive measurements were performed at baseline and on days 30 and 60. Interesting and significant improvements were observed for the treatment effects on skin roughness (SEr), scaliness (SEsc), smoothness (SEsm), and wrinkling (SEw). For example, a 49.99% improvement in skin smoothness (SEsm) from baseline value and -23.22% and perfection in facial wrinkles (SEw) substantiated that combined treatment is superior over single treatments. Green tea and lotus combined in multiple emulsions brought a superior synergistic anti-aging effect. We conclude that diverse anti-oxidant constituents in both plants have a potential influence on skin surface parameters, thus indicating these plants as the future of new anti-aging products. PMID:23267660

Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

2013-04-01

35

3D-Ultrasonography for evaluation of facial muscles in patients with chronic facial palsy or defective healing: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background While standardized methods are established to examine the pathway from motorcortex to the peripheral nerve in patients with facial palsy, a reliable method to evaluate the facial muscles in patients with long-term palsy for therapy planning is lacking. Methods A 3D ultrasonographic (US) acquisition system driven by a motorized linear mover combined with conventional US probe was used to acquire 3D data sets of several facial muscles on both sides of the face in a healthy subject and seven patients with different types of unilateral degenerative facial nerve lesions. Results The US results were correlated to the duration of palsy and the electromyography results. Consistent 3D US based volumetry through bilateral comparison was feasible for parts of the frontalis muscle, orbicularis oculi muscle, depressor anguli oris muscle, depressor labii inferioris muscle, and mentalis muscle. With the exception of the frontal muscle, the facial muscles volumes were much smaller on the palsy side (minimum: 3% for the depressor labii inferior muscle) than on the healthy side in patients with severe facial nerve lesion. In contrast, the frontal muscles did not show a side difference. In the two patients with defective healing after spontaneous regeneration a decrease in muscle volume was not seen. Synkinesis and hyperkinesis was even more correlated to muscle hypertrophy on the palsy compared with the healthy side. Conclusion 3D ultrasonography seems to be a promising tool for regional and quantitative evaluation of facial muscles in patients with facial palsy receiving a facial reconstructive surgery or conservative treatment. PMID:24782657

2014-01-01

36

Central nervous system and facial defects associated with maternal hyperthermia at four to 14 weeks' gestation.  

PubMed

An analysis of 28 dysmorphic offspring with a retrospectively ascertained history of maternal hyperthermia during the first trimester of pregnancy showed a similarity in their pattern of CNS dysfunction and facial dysmorphogenesis. All survivors had mental deficiency and most of them demonstrated altered muscle tone, including hypotonia with increased deep tendon reflexes. Those exposed at four to seven weeks' gestation showed an increased prevalence of facial dysmorphogenesis. The duration of the high fever was usually one or more days, an unusual occurrence during the first trimester of pregnancy. The nature of these defects in relation to the relative timing of hyperthermia exposure is similar to that previously noted in animal studies. The morphogenetic implications of these findings are explored and the need for larger, controlled studies is suggested. PMID:7232042

Pleet, H; Graham, J M; Smith, D W

1981-06-01

37

Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels  

SciTech Connect

The appearance of defects such as 'hollows' and 'shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of a panel may become unacceptable. Considerable time is then dedicated to minimizing their occurrence through tool modifications. This paper will investigate the use of the wavelet transform as a tool to analyze physically measured panels. The transform has two key aspects. The first is its ability to distinguish small scale local defects from large scale styling curvature. The second is its ability to characterize the shape of a defect in terms of its wavelength and a 'correlation value'. The two features of the transform enable it to be used as a tool for locating and predicting the severity of defects. The paper will describe the transform and illustrate its application on test cases.

Hazra, S.; Williams, D.; Roy, R. [University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Aylmore, R.; Allen, M.; Hollingdale, D. [Land Rover, Banbury Rd, Gaydon, Warwick, CV35 0RR (United Kingdom)

2011-05-04

38

Advances in treating skin defects of the hand: skin substitutes and negative-pressure wound therapy.  

PubMed

Surgeons and scientists have been developing alternative methods of hand reconstruction that may play an adjunctive role to, or completely supplant, more traditional reconstructive modalities. This article provides an overview of these emerging techniques, with an emphasis on skin substitutes and negative-pressure wound therapy as they apply to the treatment of soft tissue defects of the hand. The indications, contraindications, and relative advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed in detail. PMID:23101602

Watt, Andrew J; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Huang, Jerry I

2012-11-01

39

Propeller flaps in the closure of free fibula flap donor site skin defects.  

PubMed

The free fibula is a versatile and commonly used free flap in microvascular reconstruction. It allows for reconstruction of both bone and soft tissue defects. In head and neck reconstruction, the skin paddle harvested along with the flap allows for the reconstruction of skin or oral mucosal defects. After skin paddle harvest, the donor site can be closed primarily or with skin grafts. Grafting the donor area is the common method used. However, this could lead to delayed healing because of the poor graft over the area of peroneal tendons. Propeller flaps have been extensively reported for closure of leg skin defects. We report a series of 10 patients in whom we used a local propeller flap for the closure of the fibula flap skin donor site. The donor defects could be satisfactorily closed without the need of a skin graft in 9 patients. This method is simple, reliable, and suitable for closing small to medium defects. PMID:23364675

Sharma, Mohit; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Sampathirao, Chandrasekhararao Leelamohan; Mathew, Jimmy; Chavre, Sachin; Iyer, Subramania

2013-07-01

40

Detection of Fight or Flight Reaction on Facial Skin Thermogram using Spatio-Temporal Spectrum Differential Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been known that human being exhibits the Fight or Flight Reaction(FFR) when they feel anxiety, strain and threat. This paper describes experiments that were conducted to arouse the fight or flight reaction. Facial skin thermograms in which the temperature fluctuation in specific regions was identified were measured, and the characteristics of the temperature fluctuations in the relevant regions

Akio Nozawa; Satoshi Tomono; Tota Mizuno; Hideto Ide

2006-01-01

41

Evaluation of the Driver's Mental Workload by Conversational Form based on Facial Skin Thermal Image Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lots of traffic accidents are related in physiological and psychological state of the driver. Therefore, physiological and/or psychological measurement of a driver is important for prevention of a traffic accident. The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the amount of mental workloads by Facial Skin Thermal image (FST), which is thermal image of the human face. A measurement of physiological and psychological state of the driver who is under mentally workloaded during driving task was conducted. The evaluation method for physiological index, which were FST, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), based on the correlations among those indexes was considered. A result of present experiment, an efficiency of FST in evaluation of a mental working load of a driver was shown.

Nozawa, Akio; Mizawa, Hiroki; Mizuno, Tota; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ide, Hideto

42

Thermographic imaging of facial skin—gender differences and temperature changes over time in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess changes in facial skin temperature over time, to identify sources of variation related to skin temperature and to evaluate interobserver reproducibility in measurements of the thermograms. Methods 62 volunteers (32 females, 30 males, mean age 23.4, range 19.5–29.5 years) underwent thermography of the face (left and right side lateral images) on four occasions with approximately 2 months between each session. Three observers recorded the images and marked regions of interest (ROIs) in each image using dedicated software. Smoking, exercise habits and use of oral contraceptives were recorded. Results A significant difference between sessions (?1 °C, p < 0.001) and between observers (?0.11 °C, p < 0.001) was identified. The difference between sides was not significant (?0.07 °C, p = 0.7). None of the interactions between side, session and observer were significant. Smoking, exercise habits and oral contraceptive intake were not significant impact factors when included as covariates in the analysis (p > 0.1). ROI temperature was significantly higher in males than in females (0.7 °C, p < 0.001). A mixed model analysis of variance showed that observer had little impact on the expected standard deviation, whereas session and subject had a greater impact. Conclusions Face temperature is symmetrical and varies over time. The non-significant difference between sides is highly reproducible, even between observers. PMID:22554986

Christensen, J; Vaeth, M; Wenzel, A

2012-01-01

43

Role of Mitochondria in Photoaging of Human Skin: The Defective Powerhouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact pathogenesis of photoaging of the skin is not yet known. Earlier, a number of molecular pathways explaining one or more characteristics of photoaged skin have been described, but a unifying mechanistic concept is still missing. Here we propose the “Defective Powerhouse Model of Premature Skin Aging”, which reconciles most of the earlier conducted research as one concept. In

Jean Krutmann; Peter Schroeder

2009-01-01

44

Effects of curvature and view angle on quantitative imaging of erythema and melanin content in facial port wine stain skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cutaneous vascular laser surgery, hemoglobin and melanin are important skin chromophores that influence treatment of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. A potential problem in quantitative chromorphore evaluaton is the error in image analysis associated with a number of factors, including nonuniform illumination and skin curvature. In this study, we used a mannequin head model to investigate how the accuracy of image analysis is influenced by view angle and facial curvature. Our results indicate that view angle and facial curvature affect the accuracy of the recorded color information. From this analysis, we propose that optimal view angles can be determined on an individual patient basis to analyze features on different regions of the face.

Jung, Byungjo; Choi, Bernard; Shin, Yongjin; Durkin, Anthony J.; Nelson, J. S.

2004-07-01

45

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Skin Care Protocols for Facial Resurfacing: Lessons Learned from the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation's Skin Products Assessment Research Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Skin Products Assessment Research (SPAR) Committee was created by the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation (PSEF) in 2006. SPAR study aims were to (1) develop an infrastructure for PSEF-conducted, industry sponsored research in facial aesthetic surgery and (2) test the research process by comparing outcomes of the Obagi Nu-Derm System (ONDS) versus conventional therapy as treatment adjuncts for facial resurfacing procedures. Methods The SPAR study was designed as a multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). The study was conducted in women with Fitzpatrick type I-IV skin, moderate to severe facial photo damage, and peri-ocular and/or peri-oral fine wrinkles. Patients underwent chemical peel or laser facial resurfacing and were randomized to ONDS or a standard care regimen. The study endpoints were time to re-epithelization, erythema, and pigmentation changes. Results Fifty-six women were enrolled and 82% were followed beyond re-epithelization. There were no significant differences in mean time to re-epithelialization between ONDS and control groups. The ONDS group had a significantly higher median erythema score on day of surgery (after 4 weeks of product use) which did not persist after surgery. Test-retest photo evaluations demonstrated that both inter- and intra-rater reliability were adequate for primary study outcomes. Conclusions In a clinical RCT, we demonstrated no significant difference in time to re-epithelization between patients who used the ONDS or a standard care regimen as an adjunct to facial resurfacing procedures. The SPAR research team has also provided a discussion of future challenges for PSEF sponsored clinical research for readers of this article. PMID:21364435

Pannucci, Christopher J.; Reavey, Patrick L.; Kaweski, Susan; Hamill, Jennifer B.; Hume, Keith M.; Wilkins, Edwin G.; Pusic, Andrea L.

2011-01-01

46

Treatment of facial angiofibromas of tuberous sclerosis by shave excision and dermabrasion in a dark-skinned patient.  

PubMed

Tuberous sclerosis is an inherited disease expressed clinically by the triad of mental retardation, seizures, and tuberous lesions. Facial angiofibromas, a common manifestation of tuberous sclerosis, can cause considerable cosmetic disfigurement, emotional distress, obstruction of vision, and hemorrhage. Treatment by shave excision, as the first step to remove the larger nodules, followed by dermabrasion, to smooth and sculpt the final surface, has been recommended as the most effective form of therapy. However, this method of treatment raises the question of risk for development of hypopigmentation in susceptible patients. The authors present their treatment of angiofibromas with shave excision and dermabrasion in a dark-skinned patient. PMID:11293529

Fischer, K; Blain, B; Zhang, F; Richards, L; Lineaweaver, W C

2001-03-01

47

Defective channels lead to an impaired skin barrier.  

PubMed

Channels are integral membrane proteins that form a pore, allowing the passive movement of ions or molecules across a membrane (along a gradient), either between compartments within a cell, between intracellular and extracellular environments or between adjacent cells. The ability of cells to communicate with one another and with their environment is a crucial part of the normal physiology of a tissue that allows it to carry out its function. Cell communication is particularly important during keratinocyte differentiation and formation of the skin barrier. Keratinocytes in the skin epidermis undergo a programme of apoptosis-driven terminal differentiation, whereby proliferating keratinocytes in the basal (deepest) layer of the epidermis stop proliferating, exit the basal layer and move up through the spinous and granular layers of the epidermis to form the stratum corneum, the external barrier. Genes encoding different families of channel proteins have been found to harbour mutations linked to a variety of rare inherited monogenic skin diseases. In this Commentary, we discuss how human genetic findings in aquaporin (AQP) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels reveal different mechanisms by which these channel proteins function to ensure the proper formation and maintenance of the skin barrier. PMID:25179597

Blaydon, Diana C; Kelsell, David P

2014-10-15

48

Signals of Personality and Health: The Contributions of Facial Shape, Skin Texture, and Viewing Angle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To what extent does information in a person's face predict their likely behavior? There is increasing evidence for association between relatively neutral, static facial appearance and personality traits. By using composite images rendered from three dimensional (3D) scans of women scoring high and low on health and personality dimensions, we aimed…

Jones, Alex L.; Kramer, Robin S. S.; Ward, Robert

2012-01-01

49

Development of ichthyosiform skin compensates for defective permeability barrier function in mice lacking transglutaminase 1  

PubMed Central

Transglutaminase 1 (TGase 1) is one of the genes implicated in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. Skin from TGase 1–/– mice, which die as neonates, lacks the normal insoluble cornified envelope and has impaired barrier function. Characterization of in situ dye permeability and transepidermal water loss revealed defects in the development of the skin permeability barrier in TGase 1–/– mice. In the stratum corneum of the skin, tongue, and forestomach, intercellular lipid lamellae were disorganized, and the corneocyte lipid envelope and cornified envelope were lacking. Neonatal TGase 1–/– mouse skin was taut and erythrodermic, but transplanted TGase 1–/– mouse skin resembled that seen in severe ichthyosis, with epidermal hyperplasia and marked hyperkeratosis. Abnormalities in those barrier structures remained, but transepidermal water loss was improved to control levels in the ichthyosiform skin. From these results, we conclude that TGase 1 is essential to the assembly and organization of the barrier structures in stratified squamous epithelia. We suggest that the ichthyosiform skin phenotype in TGase 1 deficiency develops the massive hyperkeratosis as a physical compensation for the defective cutaneous permeability barrier required for survival in a terrestrial environment. PMID:11805136

Kuramoto, Nobuo; Takizawa, Toshihiro; Takizawa, Takami; Matsuki, Masato; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Robinson, John M.; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

2002-01-01

50

Effects of fragrance administration on stress-induced prefrontal cortex activity and sebum secretion in the facial skin.  

PubMed

Although fragrances have long been known to influence stress-induced psychosomatic disorders, the neurophysiological mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of fragrance on the relation between the level of sebum secretion in the facial skin and the stress-induced prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity, which regulates the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Employing near infrared spectroscopy, we measured hemoglobin concentration changes in the bilateral PFC during a mental arithmetic task in normal adults (n=31), and evaluated asymmetry of the PFC activity in terms of the laterality index (i.e., [(right-left)/(right+left)]) of oxyhemoglobin concentration changes (LI-oxyHb). We measured the level of sebum secretion in the facial skin before the task performance. There was a significant positive correlation between the LI-oxyHb and the level of sebum secretion (r=+0.44, p=0.01). We selected the subjects who exhibited high levels of sebum secretion and right-dominant PFC activity for the study on the fragrance effect (n=12). Administration of fragrance for four weeks significantly reduced the level of sebum (p=0.02) in the fragrance group (n=6). In addition, the LI-oxyHb decreased significantly from 0.11+/-0.07 to -0.10+/-0.18 (p=0.01), indicating that the dominant side of the stress-induced PFC activity changed from the right to left side. In contrast, neither LI-oxyHb nor the levels of sebum secretion changed significantly in the control group (n=6). These results suggest that administration of fragrance reduced the level of sebum secretion by modulating the stress-induced PFC activity. The PFC may be involved in the neurophysiological mechanism of fragrance effects on systemic response to mental stress. PMID:18191897

Tanida, Masahiro; Katsuyama, Masako; Sakatani, Kaoru

2008-02-20

51

Temporal fascial flap: a versatile free flap for coverage of complex skin defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of temporal fascial flap (TFF) as a microsurgical option permits the covering of skin defects which expose bones, nerves and vessels; it also provides a gliding surface which facilitates tendon excursion. Other advantages of the TFF are a reasonably constant surgical anatomy, minimal donor-site morbidity, and a thin and pliable surface which results in good cosmetic contour. In

M. Stella; A. Clemente; D. Bollero; D. Risso; L. Arturi

2005-01-01

52

Face cooling with mist water increases cerebral blood flow during exercise: effect of changes in facial skin blood flow  

PubMed Central

Facial cooling (FC) increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and during exercise; however, the mechanism of this response remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that FC causes facial vasoconstriction that diverts skin blood flow (SkBFface) toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean) at rest and to a greater extent during exercise. Nine healthy young subjects (20 ± 2 years) underwent 3 min of FC by fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cold water (~4°C) at rest and during steady-state exercise [heart rate (HR) of 120 bpm]. We focused on the difference between the averaged data acquired from 1 min immediately before FC and last 1 min of FC. SkBFface, MCA Vmean, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were higher during exercise than at rest. As hypothesized, FC decreased SkBFface at rest (?32 ± 4%) and to a greater extent during exercise (?64 ± 10%, P = 0.012). Although MCA Vmean was increased by FC (Rest, +1.4 ± 0.5 cm/s; Exercise, +1.4 ± 0.6 cm/s), the amount of the FC-evoked changes in MCA Vmean at rest and during exercise differed among subjects. In addition, changes in MCA Vmean with FC did not correlate with concomitant changes in SkBFface (r = 0.095, P = 0.709). MAP was also increased by FC (Rest, +6.2 ± 1.4 mmHg; Exercise, +4.2 ± 1.2 mmHg). These findings suggest that the FC-induced increase in CBF during exercise could not be explained only by change in SkBFface. PMID:22934059

Miyazawa, Taiki; Horiuchi, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Subudhi, Andrew W.; Sugawara, Jun; Ogoh, Shigehiko

2012-01-01

53

Perforator flap: A novel method for providing skin cover to lower limb defects  

PubMed Central

Background Soft tissue defects in the lower limb pose a formidable challenge due to lack of reliable local flap options. Due to thin non-expendable soft tissues and predisposition to massive edema formation, even small defects become problematic. Perforator flaps represent the latest trends in soft tissue coverage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of perforator flaps as coverage of soft tissue defects in lower limbs. Material and methods A series of patients with soft tissue defects of various etiologies in the lower limb were treated using perforator flap at a tertiary care service hospital. Six were free flaps and fourteen pedicled flaps. Doppler ultrasound was used to identify recipient and donor vessels pre-operatively. Results Only one flap was lost due to venous congestion. In another case of carcinoma penis there was delayed healing due to persistent lymphorrhoea as a result of post-operative status following lymph node dissection and radiotherapy. Fifteen donor sites required split skin grafting, as they could not be closed directly. Conclusion Perforator flaps are a reliable option for closure of soft tissue defects of lower limb irrespective of size, location and depth. There is minimal donor site morbidity. It has the advantage of rapid dissection, flap elevation and reliable skin territory. As no special equipment is required it can be replicated in smaller centers also. PMID:24532899

Mukherjee, M.K.; Alam Parwaz, M.; Chakravarty, B.; Langer, V.

2012-01-01

54

Upper eyelid defect by dog bite reconstructed by an ipsilateral advanced tarsoconjunctival flap with skin graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for reconstruction of a traumatic upper-eyelid marginal defect utilizing a local tarsoconjunctival advancement\\u000a flap with a skin graft is presented. A 22-year-old woman was bitten by a dog, resulting in a full-thickness loss of approximately\\u000a the central half of her left upper eyelid. Debridement was performed under topical anaesthesia followed by one-stage upper\\u000a eyelid reconstruction. The residual tarsal

Sameh Saad; Yasuhiro Takahashi; Lucy A. Goold; Hirohiko Kakizaki

55

The use of split-thickness dermal grafts to resurface full thickness skin defects.  

PubMed

Coverage of large burns may be difficult when skin graft donor sites are limited. This study explored the use of the split-thickness dermal graft (STDG), as an alternative to the standard split-thickness skin graft (STSG). STSGs and STDGs were compared experimentally by their ability to resurface full thickness skin defects in a pig model. Both types of grafts were harvested from the backs of six pigs and placed on full thickness wounds. From the same donor site a 0.012in. thick STSG and another two 0.012in. thick STDGs were harvested. Thus the deep surface of grafts measured 0.012, 0.024 and 0.036in. from the skin surface, respectively. All grafts were placed on 6cmx6cm full thickness wounds. The donor areas healed at 1 week. Epithelialization of the STDGs, was assessed by computerized planimetry, and was 100% at 4 weeks. Graft biopsies revealed that STSGs were significant thinner than STDGs at 1 week (P=0.0422, 0.0135), 2 weeks (P=0.0240) and 4 weeks (P=0.0516, 0.0425). We conclude that STDGs my provide definitive coverage of full thickness skin deficits in a pig wound model. PMID:12464473

Rubis, Brent A; Danikas, Dimitrios; Neumeister, Michael; Williams, W Geoff; Suchy, Hans; Milner, Stephen M

2002-12-01

56

Identification of COL4A5 defects in Alport's syndrome by immunohistochemistry of skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of COL4A5 defects in Alport's syndrome by immunohistochemistry of skin.BackgroundThe COL4A3-COL4A4-COL4A5 network in the glomerular basement membrane is affected in the inherited renal disorder Alport's syndrome (AS). Approximately 85% of the AS patients are expected to carry a mutation in the X-chromosomal COL4A5 gene and 15% in the autosomal COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes. The COL4A5 chain is also present

Leo A. H. Monnens; Cornelis H. Schroder; Henny H. Lemmink; Martijn H. Breuning; Erika D. J. Timmer; Hubert J. M. Smeets

1999-01-01

57

Hyaluronic acid scaffold for skin defects in congenital syndactyly release surgery: a novel technique based on the regenerative model.  

PubMed

Syndactyly release may require skin grafting to fill the skin defects, which might lead to complications or poor cosmetic outcomes. A simple graftless technique for syndactyly release with a hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffold used to cover the bare areas is described. Between 2008 and 2011, release of 26 webs in 23 patients was performed. All skin defects were covered with Hyalomatrix(®) PA. One patient was excluded due to early post-operative infection that required HA scaffold removal before its integration. Web creep, secondary deformities, scar quality, and patient and parental satisfaction were assessed. Mean follow-up of the group of 22 patients was 24 months. There were no secondary deformities and minimal degree of web creep. All patients had close to normal pigmentation and good pliability at the sites of scaffold application. The results confirm the use of a HA scaffold as a promising alternative to skin grafting in syndactyly release surgery. PMID:24664163

Landi, A; Garagnani, L; Leti Acciaro, A; Lando, M; Ozben, H; Gagliano, M C

2014-11-01

58

Female infant with oncocytic cardiomyopathy and microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS): A clue to the pathogenesis of oncocytic cardiomyopathy?  

SciTech Connect

A infant girl had red stellate skin lesions on the cheeks and neck, and mildly short palpebral fissures. Her skin abnormality was typical of microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS), a newly recognized syndrome consisting of congenital linear skin defects and ocular abnormalities in females monosomic for Xp22. She died suddenly and unexpectedly at age 4 months; the cause of death was ascribed to oncocytic cardiomyopathy. Oncocytic cardiomyopathy occurs only in young children, who present with refractory arrhythmias leading to cardiac arrest. The coexistence of two rare conditions, one of which is mapped to the X chromosome, and an excess of affected females with oncocytic cardiomyopathy is also X-linked, with Xp22 being a candidate region. Overlapping manifestations in the two conditions (ocular abnormalities in cases of oncocytic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias in MLS) offer additional support for this hypothesis. 43 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Bird, L.M.; Krous, H.F.; Eichenfield, L.F.; Swalwell, C.I.; Jones, M.C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

1994-11-01

59

Implant-supported fixed restoration of post-traumatic mandibular defect accompanied with skin grafting: A clinical report  

PubMed Central

Traumatic defects are mostly accompanied by hard and soft tissue loss. This report describes the surgical and prosthetic treatment of a patient with post-traumatic mandibular defect. A split-thickness skin graft was performed prior to implant placement and prefabricated acrylic stent was placed to hold the graft in place. The esthetic and functional demands of the patient were fulfilled by implant-supported screw-retained fixed prosthesis using CAD-CAM technology. PMID:23508120

Noh, Kwantae; Choi, Woo-Jin

2013-01-01

60

Facial and hand allotransplantation.  

PubMed

Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is a novel therapeutic option for treatment of patients suffering from limb loss or severe facial disfigurement. To date, 72 hand and 19 facial transplantations have been performed worldwide. VCA in hand and facial transplantation is a complex procedure requiring a multidisciplinary team approach and extensive surgical planning. Despite good functional outcome, courses after hand and facial transplantation have been complicated by skin rejection. Long-term immunosuppression remains a necessity in VCA for allograft survival. To widen the scope of these quality-of-life-improving procedures, minimization of immunosuppression to limit risks and side effects is needed. PMID:24478387

Pomahac, Bohdan; Gobble, Ryan M; Schneeberger, Stefan

2014-03-01

61

Epidermal barrier defects link atopic dermatitis with altered skin cancer susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Atopic dermatitis can result from loss of structural proteins in the outermost epidermal layers, leading to a defective epidermal barrier. To test whether this influences tumour formation, we chemically induced tumours in EPI?/? mice, which lack three barrier proteins—Envoplakin, Periplakin, and Involucrin. EPI?/? mice were highly resistant to developing benign tumours when treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The DMBA response was normal, but EPI?/? skin exhibited an exaggerated atopic response to TPA, characterised by abnormal epidermal differentiation, a complex immune infiltrate and elevated serum thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). The exacerbated TPA response could be normalised by blocking TSLP or the immunoreceptor NKG2D but not CD4+ T cells. We conclude that atopy is protective against skin cancer in our experimental model and that the mechanism involves keratinocytes communicating with cells of the immune system via signalling elements that normally protect against environmental assaults. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01888.001 PMID:24843010

Cipolat, Sara; Hoste, Esther; Natsuga, Ken; Quist, Sven R; Watt, Fiona M

2014-01-01

62

Epidermal barrier defects link atopic dermatitis with altered skin cancer susceptibility.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis can result from loss of structural proteins in the outermost epidermal layers, leading to a defective epidermal barrier. To test whether this influences tumour formation, we chemically induced tumours in EPI-/- mice, which lack three barrier proteins-Envoplakin, Periplakin, and Involucrin. EPI-/- mice were highly resistant to developing benign tumours when treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The DMBA response was normal, but EPI-/- skin exhibited an exaggerated atopic response to TPA, characterised by abnormal epidermal differentiation, a complex immune infiltrate and elevated serum thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). The exacerbated TPA response could be normalised by blocking TSLP or the immunoreceptor NKG2D but not CD4+ T cells. We conclude that atopy is protective against skin cancer in our experimental model and that the mechanism involves keratinocytes communicating with cells of the immune system via signalling elements that normally protect against environmental assaults.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01888.001. PMID:24843010

Cipolat, Sara; Hoste, Esther; Natsuga, Ken; Quist, Sven R; Watt, Fiona M

2014-01-01

63

Preparation of a silk fibroin spongy wound dressing and its therapeutic efficiency in skin defects.  

PubMed

A novel silk fibroin spongy wound dressing (SFSD) incorporated with nano-Ag particles was prepared by coagulating with 1.25-5.0% (v/v) poly(ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) (PGDE). The mechanical properties, moisture permeability and hygroscopicity of SFSD, and the nano-Ag release behavior from SFSD were evaluated. The results showed that the soft SFSD had satisfying tensile strength and flexibility, as well as excellent moisture permeability and absorption capability of wound exudates. The moisture permeability was 101 g/m(2) per h and the water absorption capacity of SFSD was 595.2% and 251.9% of its own weight in dry and wet states, respectively. The nano-Ag in the SFSD was released continuously at a relatively stable rate in PBS resulting in a remarkable antibacterial property. A rabbit model was used to dynamically observe the healing process of full-thickness skin defects. Full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsal side of rabbits, which were covered with SFSD and porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) for comparison. The mean healing time of the wounds covered with SFSD was 17.7 ± 2.4 days, significantly shorter than that with PADM. The histological analysis showed that the epidermal cell layer formed with SFSD was very similar to normal skin, suggesting that SFSD may provide a good component for the development of new wound dressings. PMID:21176393

Min, Sijia; Gao, Xin; Han, Chunmao; Chen, Yu; Yang, Mingying; Zhu, Liangjun; Zhang, Haiping; Liu, Lin; Yao, Juming

2012-01-01

64

The lateral thoracic fasciocutaneous island flap for treatment of recurrent hidradenitis axillaris suppurativa and other axillary skin defects.  

PubMed

A series of eight axillary skin defect reconstructions in seven patients using the lateral thoracic island fasciocutaneous flap is presented. The defects originated from wide excision of recurrent hidradenitis axillaris suppurativa and in one case from radical melanoma resection with axillary lymph node clearance. The technique used to cover the resulting large defects is advancement or transposition of an island flap from the lateral thoracic wall, pedicled on two or three nourishing vessels arising from the lateral thoracic or thoracodorsal vessels. No flap complications occurred and the results with respect to donor site morbidity, functional and aesthetic outcome were very satisfactory. PMID:11090324

Schwabegger, A H; Herczeg, E; Piza, H

2000-12-01

65

Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

The authors evaluated the interaction of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)/sub 2/D (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D). They analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. The following four patterns of interaction with (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 were observed with cells cultured from affected patients. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)/sup 2/D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.

Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

1983-02-01

66

Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated the interaction of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)/sub 2/D (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D). We analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer containing 300 mM KCl and 10 mM sodium molybdate. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.

Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

1983-02-01

67

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization  

SciTech Connect

The microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome (MIM309801) is a severe developmental disorder observed in XX individuals with distal Xp segmental monosomy. The phenotype of this syndrome overlaps with that of both Aicardi (MIM 305050) and Goltz (MIM 305600) syndromes, two X-linked dominant, male-lethal disorders. Here the authors report the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of 3 patients with this syndrome. Two of these patients are females with a terminal Xpter-p22.2 deletion. One of these 2 patients had an aborted fetus with anencephaly and the same chromosome abnormality. The third patient is an XX male with Xp/Yp exchange spanning the SRY gene which results in distal Xp monosomy. The extensive clinical variability observed in these patients and the results of the molecular analysis suggest that X-inactivation plays an important role in determining the phenotype of the MLS syndrome. The authors propose that the MLS, Aicardi, and Goltz syndromes are due to the involvement of the same gene(s), and that different patterns of X-inactivation are responsible for the phenotypic differences observed in these 3 disorders. However, they cannot rule out that each component of the MLS phenotype is caused by deletion of a different gene (a contiguous gene syndrome). 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Lindsay, E.A.; Grillo, A.; Ferrero, G.B.; Baldini, A.; Ballabio, A.; Zoghbi, H.Y.; Roth, E.J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Magenis, E.; Grompe, M. [Oregon Health Science Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Hulten, M. [East Birmingham Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-01-15

68

The "open book" flap: a heterodigital cross-finger skin flap and adipofascial flap for coverage of a circumferential soft tissue defect of a digit.  

PubMed

A case of circumferential digital skin loss with exposed tendons from the proximal phalanx to the distal interphalangeal joint is presented. This was treated with a two-layer heterodigital cross-finger ("open book") flap from the adjacent digit, utilising a skin-only cross-finger flap to cover the palmar defect and an adipofascial flap to cover the dorsal defect. PMID:19129359

Tadiparthi, S; Akali, A; Felberg, L

2009-02-01

69

The Pathology of full-thickness cadaver skin transplant for large abdominal defects: a proposed grading system for skin allograft acute rejection.  

PubMed

Closure of large abdominal defects after extensive abdominal surgery is a major technical surgical problem. Failure to close the abdomen leaves the patient at risk for grave complications. Full-thickness abdominal wall skin transplantation appears to solve this problem. This is the first time that detailed histopathologic features of skin abdominal wall transplantation from cadaver donors are described. Five adults and four children underwent 10 transplants because of large abdominal wall defects. Twenty-two posttransplantation skin specimens were evaluated during a mean follow-up of 23.5 weeks, and the findings were compared with the clinical appearance of the skin. Rejection was manifested as a maculopapular rash. The histologic features were categorized as perivascular infiltrates, epidermal changes, and stromal changes. A grading system is proposed based on the number of cases encountered: No rejection, grade 0 (n = 9): No perivascular infiltrates. Indeterminate for rejection, grade 1 (n = 2): Up to 10% of vessels show infiltrates of small lymphocytes. No eosinophils, large lymphocytes, spongiosis, epidermal, or stromal inflammation are seen. Mild rejection, grade 2 (n = 5): 11% to 50% of vessels are infiltrated by small lymphocytes. Eosinophils and mild spongiosis may or may not be present. No epidermal infiltrates, stromal infiltrates, or large lymphocytes are seen. Moderate rejection, grade 3 (n = 4): Greater than 50% of vessels show lymphocytic infiltrates that may be accompanied by epidermal and stromal inflammation. Spongiosis is absent or mild. Endothelial plumping, eosinophils, and large lymphocytes may be seen. Severe rejection, grade 4 (n = 2): Greater than 50% of vessels show infiltrates, but different from moderate rejection, there is dyskeratosis and the epidermis shows heavier lymphocytic infiltrates and moderate to severe spongiosis. The stroma shows infiltrates extending into the base of the epidermis. Endothelial plumping, eosinophils, and large lymphocytes are present. The mean number of weeks after transplantation for the development of clearcut rejection (grades 2-4) was 8.36. Among the 9 nonrejection cases, 4 specimens from 3 patients had thrombosis of the vessels feeding the graft. A grading system serves to better assess skin allograft rejection. PMID:15105657

Bejarano, Pablo A; Levi, David; Nassiri, Mehdi; Vincek, Vladimir; Garcia, Monica; Weppler, Deborah; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Kato, Tamoaki; Tzakis, Andreas

2004-05-01

70

A bioactive "self-fitting" shape memory polymer scaffold with potential to treat cranio-maxillo facial bone defects.  

PubMed

While tissue engineering is a promising alternative for treating critical-sized cranio-maxillofacial bone defects, improvements in scaffold design are needed. In particular, scaffolds that can precisely match the irregular boundaries of bone defects as well as exhibit an interconnected pore morphology and bioactivity would enhance tissue regeneration. In this study, a shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffold was developed exhibiting an open porous structure and the capacity to conformally "self-fit" into irregular defects. The SMP scaffold was prepared via photocrosslinking of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diacrylate using a SCPL method, which included a fused salt template. A bioactive polydopamine coating was applied to coat the pore walls. Following exposure to warm saline at T>Ttrans (Ttrans=Tm of PCL), the scaffold became malleable and could be pressed into an irregular model defect. Cooling caused the scaffold to lock in its temporary shape within the defect. The polydopamine coating did not alter the physical properties of the scaffold. However, polydopamine-coated scaffolds exhibited superior bioactivity (i.e. formation of hydroxyapatite in vitro), osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic gene expression and extracellular matrix deposition. PMID:25063999

Zhang, Dawei; George, Olivia J; Petersen, Keri M; Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea C; Hahn, Mariah S; Grunlan, Melissa A

2014-11-01

71

Management of massive soft tissue defects: The use of INTEGRA® artificial skin after necrotizing soft tissue infection of the chest  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing soft tissue infection, such as necrotizing fasciitis, is a group of highly lethal infections especially when the chest is involved due to increased risk of pulmonary complications. Because aggressive radical debridement of all poorly perfused tissue is required, patients frequently suffer from massive skin defects, which often requires autograft skin grafting or myocutaneous flaps. However, options are limited in patients with limited autograft donor availability, or questionable underlying wound bed viability, such as in scleroderma. Here, we report the case of a 49 year old female with scleroderma who suffered from a necrotizing soft tissue infection of the chest extending to her right upper arm, underwent multiple radical debridements, and reconstruction of the consequent massive chest wall defect with INTEGRA® bilaminar dermal regeneration template. This approach required a thinner skin graft without flaps, allowed for the inherently diseased donor site to heal adequately, and avoided major infections and wound complications. This report highlights an important management option for this challenging disease. PMID:22754676

Rashid, Omar M.; Nagahashi, Masayuki

2012-01-01

72

Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae utilizing tissue expanders with embodiment injection site: case report.  

PubMed

Although highly specialized burn centers have significantly reduced mortality rates following extensive total body surface area burns, survivors are often left with grotesque facial disfigurement. Hypertrophic scars and tissue defects are the most common cause of functional and aesthetic problems in the head and neck region. Plastic surgeons use full-thickness or split-thickness skin grafts, pedicled flaps, free flaps, transplantation of bone or cartilage and tissue expansion. The authors present a case of a patient who suffered from third-degree flame burns to the face. Prior skin grafting procedures left him with severe scar deformity of the face. The patient was treated utilizing multiple tissue expansion. Facial animation has retained and facial integrity has been aesthetically restored and, with the use of make-up, it is near normal in social settings at conversational distances. The tissue expansion technique is advantageous in facial reconstruction because it makes it possible to resurface even wider defects with neighboring skin, similar in colour and texture, and superior to skin obtained elsewhere. PMID:17165599

Foustanos, A; Zavrides, H

2006-01-01

73

Effectiveness of modified phenol peel (Exoderm) on facial wrinkles, acne scars and other skin problems of Asian patients.  

PubMed

Deep depth peeling using phenol is one of the most effective chemical peeling methods. However, it has been rarely used on Asian people because of side-effects, especially hypopigmentation. In order to reduce side-effects, a number of modified phenol peeling formulas were developed. Exoderm, a modified phenol peel, has shown reduced side-effects such as arrhythmia, long-lasting erythema, hypopigmentation, hypertrophic scar and keloid. In the present study, our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of Exoderm on wrinkles, acne scars, and melasma and its safety for Asian patients. Forty-six patients were treated with Exoderm. Twenty-eight patients (61%) were treated for wrinkles and 11 patients (24%) for acne scars. Clinical improvement and side-effects were evaluated and the degree of improvement was graded into four stages. The overall average improvement scores were 3.39 and 3.30 out of 4.00 as evaluated by the doctor and patient, respectively. Forty-one patients (89%) showed 51% or more improvement. All patients with wrinkles improved 51% or more and their average improvement score was 3.64 out of 4.00. Seven of 11 patients (64%) with acne scars improved 51% or more and their average improvement score was 2.73 out of 4.00. The most frequent side-effect was postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (74%). Prolonged erythema, keloid and milia were observed temporarily, however, hypopigmentation persisted for 6 months in the follow-up period. All side-effects were tolerable and reversible except for one complication of hypopigmentation. We conclude that Exoderm is very effective for treating the facial wrinkles and acne scars of Asian patients. PMID:17204096

Park, Jeong-Hoon; Choi, Yun-Duck; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Yang-Che; Park, Sung-Wook

2007-01-01

74

11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase blockade prevents age-induced skin structure and function defects  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoid (GC) excess adversely affects skin integrity, inducing thinning and impaired wound healing. Aged skin, particularly that which has been photo-exposed, shares a similar phenotype. Previously, we demonstrated age-induced expression of the GC-activating enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) in cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Here, we determined 11?-HSD1 levels in human skin biopsies from young and older volunteers and examined the aged 11?-HSD1 KO mouse skin phenotype. 11?-HSD1 activity was elevated in aged human and mouse skin and in PE compared with donor-matched photo-protected human biopsies. Age-induced dermal atrophy with deranged collagen structural organization was prevented in 11?-HSD1 KO mice, which also exhibited increased collagen density. We found that treatment of HDFs with physiological concentrations of cortisol inhibited rate-limiting steps in collagen biosynthesis and processing. Furthermore, topical 11?-HSD1 inhibitor treatment accelerated healing of full-thickness mouse dorsal wounds, with improved healing also observed in aged 11?-HSD1 KO mice. These findings suggest that elevated 11?-HSD1 activity in aging skin leads to increased local GC generation, which may account for adverse changes occurring in the elderly, and 11?-HSD1 inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of age-associated impairments in dermal integrity and wound healing. PMID:23722901

Tiganescu, Ana; Tahrani, Abd A.; Morgan, Stuart A.; Otranto, Marcela; Desmouliere, Alexis; Abrahams, Lianne; Hassan-Smith, Zaki; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H.; Cooper, Mark S.; Amrein, Kurt; Lavery, Gareth G.; Stewart, Paul M.

2013-01-01

75

The Science and Theory behind Facial Aging  

PubMed Central

Summary: The etiology of age-related facial changes has many layers. Multiple theories have been presented over the past 50–100 years with an evolution of understanding regarding facial changes related to skin, soft tissue, muscle, and bone. This special topic will provide an overview of the current literature and evidence and theories of facial changes of the skeleton, soft tissues, and skin over time.

Pessa, Joel E.; Hubbard, Bradley; Rohrich, Rod J.

2013-01-01

76

Facial Prostheses  

MedlinePLUS

... office visits to complete. Once you and your maxillofacial prosthodontist determine that a facial prosthesis is the ... around the effected facial area. You and your maxillofacial prosthodontist will determine which method of retention is ...

77

Defects in skin ?? T cell function contribute to delayed wound repair in rapamycin-treated mice1  

PubMed Central

Disruptions in the normal program of tissue repair can result in poor wound healing, which perturbs the integrity of barrier tissues such as the skin. Such defects in wound repair occur in transplant recipients treated with the immunosuppressant drug rapamycin (sirolimus). Intraepithelial lymphocytes, such as ??T cells in the skin, mediate tissue repair through the production of cytokines and growth factors. The capacity of skin-resident T cells to function during rapamycin treatment was analyzed in a mouse model of wound repair. Rapamycin treatment renders skin ?? T cells unable to proliferate, migrate and produce normal levels of growth factors. The observed impairment of skin ?? T cell function is directly related to the inhibitory action of rapamycin on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Skin ?? T cells treated with rapamycin are refractory to IL-2 stimulation and attempt to survive in the absence of cytokine and growth factor signaling by undergoing autophagy. Normal wound closure can be restored in rapamycin-treated mice by addition of the skin ?? T cell-produced factor, insulin-like growth factor-1. These studies not only reveal that mTOR is a master regulator of ?? T cell function but also provide a novel mechanism for the increased susceptibility to nonhealing wounds that occurs during rapamycin administration. This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript. This version of the manuscript has not yet been copyedited or subjected to editorial proofreading by The JI; hence, it may differ from the final version published in The JI (online and in print). AAI (The JI) is not liable for errors or omissions in this author-produced version of the manuscript or in any version derived from it by the U.S. National Institutes of Health or any other third party. The final, citable version of record can be found at www.jimmunol.org. PMID:18768852

Mills, Robyn E.; Taylor, Kristen R.; Podshivalova, Katie; McKay, Dianne B.; Jameson, Julie M.

2008-01-01

78

Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation for the treatment of postoperative hand infection with a skin defect in diabetes mellitus: A case report  

PubMed Central

Among stem cells, autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal for transplantation by virtue of limited rejection reactions and marked proliferative ability. This study presents a novel method by which MSCs were harvested from the bone marrow of a patient who presented with severe post-traumatic infection and a non-healing skin defect in the hand, secondary to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM). An autologous MSC suspension was injected into the persistent skin defect after stabilizing the blood glucose level and appropriate infection control. During the course of a regular 18-month postoperative follow-up, the patient exhibited immediate recovery with no transplant-associated complications, as well as no evidence of tumorigenicity. Thus, transplantation of autologous MSCs may play a role in the clinical application of stem cells, particularly for treatment of skin defects following surgery in cases of DM and for those caused by various other traumas. PMID:24932248

LIU, YIHONG; LIU, YUCHEN; WANG, PUJIE; TIAN, HAOMING; AI, JIANZHONG; LIU, YANGBO; ZHOU, YI; LIU, ZHONGWEN; GUO, WENJUN; YANG, SHENKE

2014-01-01

79

[The application of multichannel electrostimulation and nivalin electrophoresis for the rehabilitative treatment of the patient following plastic surgery in the facial region].  

PubMed

This paper describes for the first time the combined treatment of the patients who underwent plastic surgery for the correction of cosmetic defects in the form of grade II and III senile atrophy of the skin in conjunction with complicated neuropathies of the facial nerve. The essence of the proposed combined treatment consists in using lymphatic drainage massage, medicinal electrophoresis of a nivalin solution, multichannel electrostimulation, and microcurrent therapy with bipolar pulsed currents. The method made it possible to significantly improve the properties of the skin in the facial region, neuro-muscular conductivity, general microcirculation and cerebral circulation in the treated patients. PMID:22165146

Lazarenko, N N; Gerasimenko, M Iu

2011-01-01

80

Composite Skin Grafts for Basal Cell Carcinoma Defects of the Nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cutaneous cancer of the nose and is characterized by its local spreading and exceptionally rare tendency to metastasize. Since a significant advantage has been seen in surgery compared to other treatments, surgical excision ensuring the highest chance of cure is frequently employed. Excision defects of the nose may be covered with either local

Raffi Gurunluoglu; Maziar Shafighi; Alexander Gardetto; Hildegunde Piza-Katzer

2003-01-01

81

Effects of human amniotic membrane grafts combined with marrow mesenchymal stem cells on healing of full-thickness skin defects in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the wound-healing effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with human amniotic membrane\\u000a (HAM) when grafted into full-thickness skin defects of rabbits. Five defects in each of four groups were respectively treated\\u000a with HAM loaded with autologous MSCs (group A), HAM loaded with allologous MSCs (group B), HAM with injected autologous MSCs\\u000a (group C), and HAM

Sung Soo Kim; Chang Keun Song; Sung Keun Shon; Kyu Yeol Lee; Chul Hong Kim; Myung Jin Lee; Lih Wang

2009-01-01

82

Analysis of the Effects of Residual Strains and Defects on Skin/Stiffener Debonding using Decohesion Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delamination is one of the predominant forms of failure in laminated composites especially when there is no reinforcement in the thickness direction. To develop composite structures that are more damage tolerant, it is necessary to understand how delamination develops and how it can affect the residual performance. A number of factors such as residual thermal strains, matrix curing shrinkage, and manufacturing defects affect how damage will grow in a composite structure. It is important to develop analysis methods that are computationally efficient that can account for all such factors. The objective of the current work is to apply a newly developed decohesion element to investigate the debond strength of skin/stiffener composite specimens. The process of initiation of delaminations and the propagation of delamination fronts is investigated. The numerical predictions are compared with published experimental results.

Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.

2003-01-01

83

In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

84

A propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery for reconstruction of a skin defect in the cervical region: a case report.  

PubMed

A propeller flap is useful for coverage of an adjacent skin defect without dissection back to source vessels and harvesting muscle tissues. The thoracoacromial artery is one of the vascular pedicles of the flaps for reconstruction in the cervical region. Use of a propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery has not previously been reported for reconstruction in the cervical region. We report a case in which a propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery was used for skin coverage after tumour resection in the cervical region together with an anatomical investigation. The propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery was harvested in the supine position, requiring no change in position after tumour resection. The skin defect was successfully reconstructed using the propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery with linear closure of the donor site. The propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery offers an alternative for reconstruction in the cervical region. PMID:23021787

Okada, Mitsuhiro; Ikeda, Mikinori; Uemura, Takuya; Takada, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroaki

2013-05-01

85

Facial fractures.  

PubMed Central

Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a PMID:8199509

Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.

1994-01-01

86

Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism  

PubMed Central

Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with the latter produce some melanin. We hypothesized that increasing plasma tyrosine concentrations using nitisinone, an FDA-approved inhibitor of tyrosine degradation, could stabilize tyrosinase and improve pigmentation in individuals with OCA1. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mice homozygous for either the Tyrc-2J null allele or the Tyrc-h allele, which model OCA-1A and OCA-1B, respectively. Only nitisinone-treated Tyrc-h/c-h mice manifested increased pigmentation in their fur and irides and had more pigmented melanosomes. High levels of tyrosine improved the stability and enzymatic function of the Tyrc-h protein and also increased overall melanin levels in melanocytes from a human with OCA-1B. These results suggest that the use of nitisinone in OCA-1B patients could improve their pigmentation and potentially ameliorate vision loss. PMID:21968110

Onojafe, Ighovie F.; Adams, David R.; Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Dolinska, Monika B.; Alur, Ramakrishna P.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Gahl, William A.; Brooks, Brian P.

2011-01-01

87

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS): Characterization of the critical region and isolation of candidate genes  

SciTech Connect

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked male-lethal disorder characterized by abnormalities in the development of the eye, skin, and brain. We defined the MLS critical region through analysis of hybrid cell lines retaining various deletion breakpoints in Xp22, including cell lines from 17 female patients showing features of MLS. Using a combination of YAC cloning and long-range restriction analysis, the MLS candidate region was estimated to be 450-550 kb. A minimally overlapping cosmid contig comprised of 20 cosmid clones was subsequently developed in this region. These cosmids are currently being used to isolate expressed sequences using cross-species conservation studies and exon-trapping. An evolutionarily conserved sequence isolated from a cosmid within the critical region has been used to isolate several overlapping cDNAs from a human embryonic library. Northern analysis using these cDNA clones identified a 5.2 kb transcript in all tissues examined. Sequence analysis revealed a 777 base pair open reading frame encoding a putative 258 amino acid protein. Using the exon-trapping method, fifty-four putative exons have been isolated from fourteen cosmids within the critical region. The expression patterns of the genes containing these exons are being analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using reverse-transcribed mRNA from several human tissues and primers corresponding to the exon sequences. Using this approach in combination with exon connection, we determined the four of the trapped exons belong to the same cDNA transcript, which is expressed in adult retina, lymphoblast, skeletal muscle, and fetal brain. To date, we have isolated and sequenced 1 kilobase of this gene, all of which appears to be open reading frame. Both of the genes isolated from the critical region are being analyzed as possible candidates for MLS.

Schaefer, L.; Wapenaar, M.C.; Grillo, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

88

Skin Photorejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term ‘photorejuvenation’ describes the simultaneous improvement of various epidermal changes related to aging. Sun exposure\\u000a and smoking are the main factors that induce premature skin aging. Rhytides are due to a decrease in facial skin elasticity\\u000a causing accentuation of lines and wrinkles. There are three main mechanisms of non-ablative technology involved in skin rejuvenation:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Heating that leads to

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman

89

Facial paralysis  

MedlinePLUS

... headaches, seizures, or hearing loss. In newborns, facial paralysis may be caused by trauma during birth. Other causes include: Infection of the brain or surrounding tissues Lyme disease Sarcoidosis Tumor that ...

90

Imaging of the facial nerve.  

PubMed

The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve. PMID:20456888

Veillona, F; Ramos-Taboada, L; Abu-Eid, M; Charpiot, A; Riehm, S

2010-05-01

91

Facial Cosmetic Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving ...

92

Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Photos Find a Surgeon For Physicians For Facial Plastic Surgery Assistants About the OFPSA OFPSA Officers Become a ... fully heal and achieve maximum improved appearance. Facial plastic surgery makes it possible to correct facial flaws that ...

93

Research and events leading to facial transplantation.  

PubMed

Facial transplantation has long captured the interest and imagination of scientists, the media, and the lay public. Facial transplantation could provide an excellent alternative to current treatments for facial disfigurement caused by burns, trauma, cancer extirpation, or congenital birth defects. This article discusses the major technical, immunologic, psychosocial and ethical hurdles that have been overcome to bring facial transplantation from an idea to a clinical reality by providing the reader with a chronologic overview of the research and events that have led this exciting new treatment into the clinical arena. PMID:17418674

Barker, John H; Stamos, Niki; Furr, Allen; McGuire, Sean; Cunningham, Michael; Wiggins, Osborne; Brown, Charles S; Gander, Brian; Maldonado, Claudio; Banis, Joseph C

2007-04-01

94

Effects of a Facial Cream Containing the Minor Alkaloid Anatabine on Improving the Appearance of the Skin in Mild to Moderate Rosacea: An Open-Label Case Series Study  

PubMed Central

Background Current medical and scientific research indicates that rosacea, a chronic and often debilitating skin condition that primarily affects the central face, may be caused by an overactive or excessive inflammatory immune response. Regardless of etiology, the accompanying redness and inflammation is unsightly and difficult for the patient. Anatabine is an alkaloid from the plant family Solanaceae that has been shown in several preclinical studies to modulate proinflammatory signaling pathways. Objective A cream containing anatabine was developed and evaluated in an open-label case series study for safety and effects on the appearance of the skin in 10 patients with mild to moderate rosacea. Methods Patients applied the cream to the face twice daily for a period of 30 days. Patients and the study physician completed safety and efficacy assessments at study end. Results Results showed that 50% of the patients self-reported improvement in the appearance of their skin, and the physician noted improvement in 70% of the patients. Photographs taken before and after 30 days of cream use provide visual evidence of the improvement in several patients. There were no complications or adverse events reported by any of the patients in the study, indicating that the anatabine cream was safe and very well tolerated. Conclusion The results of this open-label case series show that a facial cream containing anatabine can improve the appearance of the skin in patients with mild to moderate rosacea and suggest that a double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial in a larger number of subjects is warranted. PMID:24348385

Lanier, Ryan K.; Cohen, Amy E.; Weinkle, Susan H.

2013-01-01

95

Advanced Sclerosis of The Chest Wall Skin Secondary to Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: A Case With Severe Restrictive Lung Defect.  

PubMed

Pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). Herein, we describe a patient with severe restrictive lung defect secondary to cGvHD. A 21-year-old male patient was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with pneumonia and respiratory distress. He had a history of aHSCT for chronic myelogeneous leukemia at the age of 17 years. Six months after undergoing aHSCT, he had developed cGvHD involving skin, mouth, eye, lung, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. At the time of PICU admission he had respiratory distress and required ventilation support. Thorax high-resolution computed tomography was consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans. Although bronchiolitis obliterans is an obstructive lung defect, a restrictive pattern became prominent in the clinical course because of the sclerotic chest wall skin. The activity of cGvHD kept increasing despite the therapy and we lost the patient because of severe respiratory distress and massive hemoptysis secondary to bronchiectasis. In conclusion, pulmonary cGvHD can present with restrictive changes related with the advanced sclerosis of the chest wall skin. Performing a fasciotomy or a scar revision for the rigid chest wall in selected patients may improve the patients ventilation. PMID:24577553

Odek, Ca?lar; Kendirli, Tanil; Ileri, Talia; Yaman, Ayhan; Fatih Çakmakli, Hasan; Ince, Elif; Ince, Erdal; Ertem, Mehmet

2014-10-01

96

Familial cases of a submicroscopic Xp22.2 deletion: genotype-phenotype correlation in microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS or MIDAS, OMIM #309801) is a rare X-linked male-lethal disorder characterized by microphthalmia or other ocular anomalies and skin lesions limited to the face and neck. However, inter- and intrafamilial variability is high. Here we report a familial case of MLS. Methods A mother and daughter with MLS underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, and extensive imaging, including anterior segment pictures, corneal topography and keratometry, autofluorescence, infrared reflectance and red free images, as well as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The mother also underwent full-field flash electroretinography. In addition, high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis was performed in both as well as in the maternal grandparents of the proband. Results Microphthalmia and retinal abnormalities were noted in the proband and the mother, whereas only the mother presented with scars of the typical neonatal linear skin defects. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed a 185–220 kb deletion on chromosome band Xp22.2 including the entire HCCS gene. Conclusions The identification of a deletion including HCCS led to the diagnosis of MLS in these patients. Retinal abnormalities can be part of the ocular manifestations of MLS. PMID:23401659

Vergult, Sarah; Leroy, Bart; Claerhout, Ilse

2013-01-01

97

Reconstruction of Traumatic Defect of the Lower Third of the Leg Using a Combined Therapy: Negative Pressure Wound Therapy, Acellular Dermal Matrix, and Skin Graft  

PubMed Central

The reconstruction of lower third of the leg is one of the most challenging problems for plastic and reconstructive surgeons and current approaches are still disappointing. We show an easy option to obtain a coverage of traumatic pretibial defects with good aesthetic and functional results: the association of negative pressure wound therapy, acellular dermal matrix, and skin graft. The choice of this combined therapy avoids other surgical procedures such as local perforator flaps and free flaps that require more operating time, special equipment, and adequate training. PMID:25177509

Brongo, Sergio; Campitiello, Nicola; Rubino, Corrado

2014-01-01

98

Extensive visual loss with topical facial steroids.  

PubMed

Steroid creams applied topically to the skin are routinely used in the treatment of many dermatoses. Their use on the face in severe atopic eczema is relatively common. We report a series of three patients who whilst using topical facial steroids developed advanced glaucoma. A further two cases of ocular hypertension secondary to topical facial steroids are also described. This is the first series of cases to be reported demonstrating the potentially blinding complications of topical facial steroids. Recommendations are made with regard to screening such patients for glaucoma. PMID:8287990

Aggarwal, R K; Potamitis, T; Chong, N H; Guarro, M; Shah, P; Kheterpal, S

1993-01-01

99

Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects (MLS) associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a patient with Familial 12.9Mb Terminal Xp deletion  

PubMed Central

Background Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant male-lethal developmental disorder characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and linear skin defects of the face and neck. Additional features affecting the eyes, heart, brain or genitourinary system can occur, corroborating the intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability. The majority of patients display monosomy of the Xp22.2 region, where the holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS) gene is located. Case presentation We describe a 15-year-old-female affected by MLS syndrome and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD has not previously been reported as a component of MLS. Our patient shows a large deletion of 12.9 Mb, involving Xp22.32-p22.2, which encompasses both the HCCS gene and autism X-linked genes. Conclusion Thus, patients with a large deletion at Xp22 might display MLS with ASD, due to the deletion of contiguous genes, although the highly variable phenotype of these patients could be influenced by several genetic mechanisms, including different tissue-specific X-inactivation and somatic mosaicism. PMID:25182979

2014-01-01

100

Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

2009-02-01

101

Facial Prostheses  

MedlinePLUS

... function. The prosthesis is made of medical grade silicone rubber and is custom made to suit the ... wax form, the wax is melted away, and silicone rubber of various skin colors are painted and ...

102

Outcomes of skin graft reconstructions with the use of Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC®) dressing for irradiated extremity sarcoma defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Flaps are currently the predominant method of reconstruction for irradiated wounds. The usefulness of split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) in this setting remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of STSGs in conjunction with VAC therapy used in the treatment of irradiated extremity wounds. METHODS: The records of 17 preoperatively radiated patients with extremity sarcomas

Alex Senchenkov; Paul M Petty; James Knoetgen; Steven L Moran; Craig H Johnson; Ricky P Clay

2007-01-01

103

Experience With Esthetic Reconstruction of Complex Facial Soft Tissue Trauma: Application of the Pulsed Dye Laser  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. Patients and Methods: We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. Results: In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Conclusions: Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results. PMID:25337516

Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

2014-01-01

104

Facial features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

Allan, Mrs.

2008-09-21

105

[Blepharoplasty in aesthetic facial surgery].  

PubMed

Blepharoplasty is the most commonly performed procedure in aesthetic facial surgery. The upper eyelid is part of the same aesthetic subunit as the eyebrow and the lower eyelid is part of the same aesthetic subunit as the cheek. In upper eyelid blepharoplasty the excess skin and possibly also a portion of the sphincter is removed. A low-hanging eyebrow is preferably corrected by lifting the brow instead of over excising the redundant eyelid skin. Blepharoplasty of the lower eyelid is generally carried out by a very limited excision of the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle in order to prevent lower lid retraction (ectropion). Rejuvenation in the lower lid region is also achieved by fat resection or redistribution, by means of which the double convex contour deformity is reduced. Blepharoplasty is generally performed under local anaesthesia and complications are rare. Patient satisfaction is generally high. PMID:25174189

Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Schouten, H J; Vissink, A

2014-01-01

106

Facial Plastic Surgery Today  

MedlinePLUS

... is a really good idea Third Quarter 2011 Cosmetic surgery to ease bullying? Second Quarter 2011 Facial Plastic ... 2014 | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FACIAL PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY (AAFPRS) | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED | SITEMAP | CONTACT | PRIVACY Follow us on

107

Considerations in non-Caucasian facial rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Aging of the face is inevitable and undeniable. This process includes a loss of skeletal support, soft tissue volume depletion, and a decrease in skin elasticity. The contribution of these 3 factors varies between individuals with noticeable hereditary influence. Characteristic ethnic features have been described in the literature, but as societies have changed, many of these ethnic variations have blended together. Facial cosmetic procedures must to be tailored to address these variations in anatomy, and consideration must be given to enhancing the facial skeleton, adequately lifting the soft tissues, and planning careful incisions to be closed under no tension. PMID:25049130

Sykes, Jonathan M; Nolen, David

2014-08-01

108

Mother and daughter with a terminal Xp deletion: Implication of chromosomal mosaicism and X-inactivation in the high clinical variability of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS or MIDAS) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant inherited disorder with male lethality, associated with segmental aneuploidy of the Xp22.2 region in most of the cases. However, we recently described heterozygous sequence alterations in a single gene, HCCS, in females with MLS. Beside the classical MLS phenotype, occasional features such as sclerocornea, agenesis

Isabella Wimplinger; Anita Rauch; Ulrike Orth; Ulrich Schwarzer; Udo Trautmann; Kerstin Kutsche

2007-01-01

109

Defective glycosylation of decorin and biglycan, altered collagen structure, and abnormal phenotype of the skin fibroblasts of an Ehlers–Danlos syndrome patient carrying the novel Arg270Cys substitution in galactosyltransferase I (?4GalT7)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders affecting skin and joint function. Molecular defects in extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen (type I, III, and V) and tenascin X are associated with different forms of EDS. Compound heterozygous mutations in the B4GALT7 gene, resulting in aberrant glycosylation of the dermatan sulfate proteoglycan decorin, had been described

Daniela G. Seidler; Muhammad Faiyaz-Ul-Haque; Uwe Hansen; George W. Yip; Syed H. E. Zaidi; Ahmad S. Teebi; Ludwig Kiesel; Martin Götte

2006-01-01

110

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

111

Facial shaping: beyond lines and folds with fillers.  

PubMed

Facial attractiveness is the most important determinant of physical attractiveness, and an important factor in social and interpersonal interactions. The field of facial rejuvenation using minimally invasive procedures has expanded exponentially over the last decade. Historically, aging and the resulting changes were primarily attributed to changes in the skin and the underlying musculoskeletal system. However, more recent understanding of the changes associated with facial aging has shifted the focus to changes in the distribution of subcutaneous fat. With the introduction of seemingly endless varieties of fillers over the last decade, restoration of volume loss by subcutaneous fat, and to some extent bone, has never been easier. Here, the authors review the basic principles that govern facial beauty, facial anatomy, the aging process, and the wide variety of fillers available on the market today that enable a dermatologic surgeon to revitalize the face. PMID:20715395

Patel, Utpal; Fitzgerald, Rebecca

2010-08-01

112

Authentic Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that for the computer to be able to interact with humans, it needs to have the communication skills of humans. One of these skills is the ability to understand the emotional state of the person. The most expressive way humans dis- play emotions is through facial expressions. In most facial expression systems and databases, the emotion data

Nicu Sebe; Michael S. Lew; Ira Cohen; Yafei Sun; Theo Gevers; Thomas S. Huang

2004-01-01

113

Perception of facial attractiveness from static and dynamic stimuli.  

PubMed

Although people we meet in real life are usually seen in motion, research on facial attractiveness has predominantly been conducted on static facial images. This raises a question about ecological validity of results obtained in such studies. Recently, several studies endeavoured to determine the concordance between attractiveness of faces seen on photos and video clips, but their results are markedly divergent, frequently indicating no concordance. In the present study, the association between attractiveness of facial images and clips was tested on a larger sample than has previously been reported (106 females, 102 males), and features under the face owner's control (scalp and facial hair, makeup, mouth expression) were controlled for. Two types of facial images were used: photographs and frames extracted from films. Correlation coefficients between attractiveness of static and dynamic faces were high (about 0.7), did not depend on facial sex or image type (photograph/frame), and did not diminish when the covariates were controlled for. Furthermore, the importance of facial averageness, femininity/ masculinity, symmetry, fattiness, skin health, and mouth expression for attractiveness proved similar for static and dynamic stimuli. This leads to the optimistic conclusion that results of studies relying on attractiveness assessments of static facial images are ecologically valid. PMID:23700955

Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

114

Median facial cleft in amniotic band syndrome.  

PubMed

Amniotic band syndrome manifests at birth with a variety of malformations ranging from constriction ring to defects incompatible to life, in various parts of the body. Although some theories have been proposed for the development of this syndrome, the exact cause remains unknown. The median facial cleft is an extremely rare manifestation of amniotic band syndrome with a relative paucity of reports available in the literature. Here, we report one such case. PMID:21731335

Das, Debabrata; Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Konar, Arpita

2011-04-01

115

The cranially based contralateral nasolabial flap for reconstruction of paranasal and periorbital surgical defects.  

PubMed

The importance of the paranasal and periorbital regions on the aesthetics of the face presents a variety of reconstructive challenges for surgical and traumatic defects of those regions. We used the cranially based nasolabial flap in patients with full-thickness soft-tissue defects of the paranasal and periorbital regions harvested from the contralateral side of the present defect. We present our experience in 25 patients of geriatric population (13 females and 12 males with a mean age of 76) with complex soft-tissue defects in the paranasal and periorbital regions whose defects were reconstructed with contralateral nasolabial skin flaps. Sizes of the defects changed between 2 × 3 cm and 6 × 7 cm. The flap sizes varied from a width of 2 to 5 cm (average 3 cm) and a length of 7 to 11 cm (average 8 cm). Primary closure of the donor sites of the flaps was possible in 24 of the patients in this series. Twenty-one flaps of this series (84%) healed without any necrosis and completely survived. The contralateral nasolabial flap is a very convenient, safe and reliable flap that can be used in medium to large paranasal and periorbital defects. Optimal aesthetic results for a variety of central facial defects could be obtained with this flap, especially when the ipsilateral nasolabial flap cannot be used due to various reasons. PMID:24529694

Kerem, Hakan; Bali, Ulas; Sönmez, Erhan; Manavba??, Yurdakul Ilker; Yoleri, Levent

2014-05-01

116

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

PubMed Central

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

117

Chapter 11. Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions are the facial changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. Facial expression analysis has been an active research topic for behavioral scientists since the work of Darwin in 1872 [18, 22, 25, 71]. Suwa et al. [76] presented an early attempt to automatically analyze facial expressions by tracking the motion of 20

Ying-Li Tian; Takeo Kanade; Jeffrey F. Cohn

118

Realistic modeling for facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major unsolved problem in computer graphics is the construc- tion and animation of realistic human facial models. Traditionally, facial models have been built painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by ad hoc parametrically controlled facial mesh defor- mations or kinematic approximation of muscle actions. Fortunately, animators are now able to digitize facial geometries through the use of scanning range

Yuencheng Lee; Demetri Terzopoulos; Keith Walters

1995-01-01

119

Mortality and facial dyskinesia.  

PubMed

In 1965 a psychiatric in-patient population was surveyed for the prevalence of facial dyskinesia. The present investigation reports on their survival time. Among male and female patients with functional disorders (mostly schizophrenia) there was a strong association between moderate or severe facial dyskinesia and shortened survival, but no clinical factors were found to explain this. Mild facial dyskinesia in functional disorders was not associated with reduced life expectancy and may be attributable to the general effects of ageing rather than to a specific pathological process. Among patients with primary organic brain syndromes, dyskinesia was not associated with reduced life expectancy. PMID:3719224

McClelland, H A; Dutta, D; Metcalfe, A; Kerr, T A

1986-03-01

120

PCA facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

2013-12-01

121

Skin grafting of the naso-orbital region as a single aesthetic unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

With improved acute care, a higher percentage of more severely injured facial burn patients are surviving their burns. When the full face needs resurfacing, total facial resurfacing should ideally be done with a single sheet of full-thickness skin. Unfortunately, this type of single sheet total facial resurfacing is rarely possible or practical in the case of acute extensive burns. The

Cengiz Acikel; Fatih Peker; Ersin Ulkur

2001-01-01

122

Facial Sports Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... if the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones ... pressure does not cause nose damage or infection. Fractures Some otolaryngologist-head and neck specialists set fractured ...

123

Treatment of Facial Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... be sure to ask that an oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is called for consultation. With their ... injury that might otherwise go unnoticed. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are experts in treating and repairing facial ...

124

Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.  

PubMed

The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities. PMID:23529088

Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

2013-07-01

125

Emotion and Facial Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Facial expression is usually synthesized or predicted on the basis of a given emotion. The prototypical expressions for basic\\u000a emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger, and fear) as postulated by discrete emotion psychologists are rather\\u000a consistently produced and interpreted among different cultures, and can be used as icons to represent a basic emotion. However,\\u000a these facial expressions are actually rarely

Thomas Wehrle; Susanne Kaiser

1999-01-01

126

Nonsurgical facial rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Facial rejuvenation has evolved from purely surgical to the use of nonsurgical techniques such as lasers and injectable fillers and toxins. This has occurred as a product of consumer demand for less down time and risk, as well as a new scientific knowledge of facial aging. A review of patient consultation evaluation and use of injectable products will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:25076454

Monheit, Gary D

2014-08-01

127

Portable hyperspectral imager for assessment of skin disorders: preliminary measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygenation of the facial skin was evaluated in rosacea using a hyperspectral camera. A portable imaging system utilizing crossed-polarization optics for illumination and recording is described. Relative oxygen saturation was determined from rosacea features and compared with normal skin. Saturation maps and light absorption spectra showed a significant increase in the oxygen saturation of the blood in rosacea-affected skin.

Beach, James M.; Lanoue, Mark A.; Brabham, Kori; Khoobehi, Bahram

2005-04-01

128

Facial reconstruction - anatomical art or artistic anatomy?  

PubMed Central

Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury. PMID:20447245

Wilkinson, Caroline

2010-01-01

129

Injectable fillers for facial rejuvenation: a review.  

PubMed

Health care practices are moving toward a more preventative focus. In addition to leading healthier lives and seeking help to eradicate disease, patients are enlisting the help of plastic surgeons to reduce the visible signs of aging. Traditionally, facial rejuvenation focused on skin tightening through resection and resurfacing. In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on minimally invasive cosmetic improvement. Today, plastic surgeons combat the effects of aging with a variety of non-incisional methods such as soft-tissue augmentation with facial fillers. A multitude of soft-tissue fillers exist, each with their own chemical constituents, indications, and effectiveness. It is imperative that plastic surgeons understand these agents when treating patients with cosmetic complaints. PMID:18951862

Buck, Donald W; Alam, Murad; Kim, John Y S

2009-01-01

130

Aging and facial changes--documenting clinical signs, part 1: clinical changes of the aging face.  

PubMed

The process of aging induces the transformation of the face with changes that are usually classified as either chronological or photo induced and that affect the shape, the texture, and the color of the face. Facial shape is mainly transformed by the evolution of bones and soft tissues (muscles, fat, and skin) in addition to noticeable effects of gravity. Skin texture is mainly determined by wrinkles, which arise from atrophy of the skin layers, elastosis, and facial expressions. Skin color is related to the distribution of skin chromophores and the structure of the dermis, which affects light scattering. All facial changes are dependant on sex, ethnicity, and lifestyle. They affect self-perception and social interactions and can sometimes be slowed down or reversed using appropriate clinical procedures (e.g., dermatological, surgical, and cosmetic interventions). PMID:23163070

Nkengne, Alex; Bertin, Christiane

2012-01-01

131

Aging and facial changes--documenting clinical signs, part 1: clinical changes of the aging face.  

PubMed

The process of aging induces the transformation of the face with changes that are usually classified as either chronological or photo-induced and that affect the shape, the texture, and the color of the face. Facial shape is mainly transformed by the evolution of bones and soft tissues (muscles, fat, and skin) in addition to noticeable effects of gravity. Skin texture is mainly determined by wrinkles, which arise from atrophy of the skin layers, elastosis, and facial expressions. Skin color is related to the distribution of skin chromophores and the structure of the dermis, which affects light scattering. All facial changes are dependant on sex, ethnicity, and lifestyle. They affect self-perception and social interactions and can sometimes be slowed down or reversed using appropriate clinical procedures (eg, dermatological, surgical, cosmetic interventions). PMID:24340467

Nkengne, Alex; Bertin, Christiane

2013-01-01

132

Relationship of Treatment Delay with Surgical Defect Size from Keratinocyte Carcinoma (Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin)  

PubMed Central

Larger keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) lesions are associated with higher morbidity. This study examined the association of potentially modifiable characteristics, including treatment delay, with KC defect size after Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). A stratified random sample of patients treated for KC with MMS were selected for telephone interview. Two hundred and nineteen interviews were completed (refusal rate 24%). Regression models were used to examine the predictors to defect size and delay. Anatomic site, age, histology, and gender predicted defect size (R2 =0.39) and were used as control variables. Self-reported delay between initial physician examination and MMS predicted defect size (p =0.0004), with greater than 1 y delay being associated with a doubling of defect size (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–3.1). Delays of this duration were associated with initial examination by a primary provider (unadjusted OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.7–8.8), misdiagnosis (unadjusted OR 6.8; 95% CI 2.5–18.7), being treated without biopsy (unadjusted OR 23.3; 95% CI 6.5–83.7), and multiple surgical removals (unadjusted OR 6.2; 95% CI 2.5–15.5). All but provider specialty were independent predictors of delay. Attention to processes of care delivery for KC may have a greater impact on morbidity than efforts are earlier detection by the public. PMID:15675948

Eide, Melody J.; Weinstock, Martin A.; Dufresne, Raymond G.; Neelagaru, Suleka; Risica, Patricia; Burkholder, Gary J.; Upegui, David; Phillips, Katharine A.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

2006-01-01

133

Sagging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ...

134

Reconstruction of facial deformities in leprosy patients.  

PubMed

Almost all the parts of the face may be involved in deformities caused by leprosy. Reconstructive surgery can be undertaken after the disease is arrested by medical treatment. Reconstruction of nose can be done by augmentation with autogenous bone graft, retronasal inlay graft, etc. Loss of eyebrows can be reconstructed with hair bearing skin with hair follicles. Sagging face can be corrected by nasolabial face-lift with correction of glabellar folds. Blepharoplasty is done for correction of some conditions. The temporal muscle sling is a dynamic procedure to reconstruct facial nerve palsy. PMID:15871355

Banerjee, Samir

2004-12-01

135

The identification of a new role for LEKTI in the skin: The use of protein 'bait' arrays to detect defective trafficking of dermcidin in the skin of patients with Netherton syndrome.  

PubMed

Lympho-Epithelial Kazal-Type-related Inhibitor (LEKTI) has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor of various kallikreins and is thought to play a role in the regulation of skin desquamation. In order to identify and investigate the potential of LEKTI to interact with other proteins, a method was developed using immobilised proteins onto arrays and nanoUPLC/MALDI-TOF MS. Using various domains of LEKTI, we demonstrated that these domains bound a number of kallikreins (5, 13 and 14) to varied extents on the array surface. Inhibitory assays confirmed that binding on the protein array surface corresponded directly to levels of inhibition. The method was then tested using skin epidermal extracts. All forms of rLEKTI with the exception of rLEKTI 12-15, demonstrated the binding of several potential candidate proteins. Surprisingly, the major binding partners of LEKTI were found to be the antimicrobial peptide dermcidin and the serine protease cathepsin G and no kallikreins. Using confocal microscopy and Netherton syndrome skin sections, we confirmed the co-localisation of LEKTI with dermcidin and demonstrated altered trafficking of dermcidin in these patients. This potential new role for LEKTI as a multifunctional protein in the protection and transport of proteins in the epidermis and its role in disease are discussed. PMID:22588119

Bennett, Kate; Heywood, Wendy; Di, Wei-Li; Harper, John; Clayman, Gary L; Jayakumar, Arumugam; Callard, Robin; Mills, Kevin

2012-07-16

136

Chapter III Facial Expression Analysis,  

E-print Network

for analysis of facial information, modeling of internal emotional states, and methods for graphical synthesis. However, certain areas of face-based HCI, such as facial expression recognition and robotic facial display. Casacuberta (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Synthetic Emotions and Sociable Robotics: New Applications

Lyons, Michael J.

137

A Facial Repertoire for Avatars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions are becoming more and more important in today's computer systems with humanoid user interfaces. Avatars have become popular, however their facial communication is usually limited. This is partly due to the fact that many questions, especially on the dynamics of expressions, are still open. Moreover, the few commercial facial animation tools have limited facilities, and are not aimed

Zsófia Ruttkay; Jeroen Hendrix; Alban Lelièvre; Han Noot

138

Cues of Fatigue: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Facial Appearance  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Measurements: Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. Results: The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life. Citation: Sundelin T; Lekander M; Kecklund G; Van Someren EJW; Olsson A; Axelsson J. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1355-1360. PMID:23997369

Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Goran; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

2013-01-01

139

Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution.  

PubMed

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe

2005-01-01

140

Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution  

PubMed Central

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe

2005-01-01

141

Assessing pain by facial expression: Facial expression as nexus  

PubMed Central

The experience of pain is often represented by changes in facial expression. Evidence of pain that is available from facial expression has been the subject of considerable scientific investigation. The present paper reviews the history of pain assessment via facial expression in the context of a model of pain expression as a nexus connecting internal experience with social influence. Evidence about the structure of facial expressions of pain across the lifespan is reviewed. Applications of facial assessment in the study of adult and pediatric pain are also reviewed, focusing on how such techniques facilitate the discovery and articulation of novel phenomena. Emerging applications of facial assessment in clinical settings are also described. Alternative techniques that have the potential to overcome barriers to the application of facial assessment arising out of its resource-intensiveness are described and evaluated, including recent work on computer-based automatic assessment. PMID:19262917

Prkachin, Kenneth M

2009-01-01

142

Effect of Mixed Transplantation of Autologous and Allogeneic Microskin Grafts on Wound Healing in a Rat Model of Acute Skin Defect  

PubMed Central

The treatment of extensive thermal injuries with insufficient autologous skin remains a great challenge to burn surgeons. In this study, we investigated the influence of the ratio of autologous and allogeneic tissue in mixed microskin grafts on wound healing in order to develop an effective method for using limited donor skin to cover a large open wound. Four different mixtures were tested: autologous microskin at an area expansion ratio of 10?1 with allogeneic microskin at an area expansion ratio of 10?1 or 10?3 and autologous microskin at an expansion ratio of 20?1 with allogeneic microskin at an expansion ratio of 20?3 or 20?6. Wound healing, wound contraction, and integrin ?1 expression were measured. Mixed microskin grafting facilitated wound healing substantially. The mixture of autologous microskin at an expansion ratio of 10?1 with the same amount of allogeneic microskin achieved the most satisfactory wound healing among the 4 tested mixtures. Histological examination revealed the presence of obviously thickened epidermis and ectopic integrin ?1 expression. Keratinocytes expressing integrin ?1 were scattered in the suprabasal layer. Higher levels of integrin ?1 expression were associated with faster wound healing, implying that ectopic expression of integrin ?1 in keratinocytes may play a pivotal role in wound healing. In conclusion, this study proves that this new skin grafting technique may improve wound healing. PMID:24465646

Lin, Heng; Yang, Yanni; Wang, Yong; Wang, Lihua; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Jing; Peng, Daizhi

2014-01-01

143

Authentic facial expression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing trend toward emotional intelligence in human-computer interaction paradigms. In order to react appropriately to a human, the computer would need to have some perception of the emotional state of the human. We assert that the most informative channel for machine perception of emotions is through facial expressions in video. One current difficulty in evaluating automatic emotion

Nicu Sebe; Michael S. Lew; Yafei Sun; Ira Cohen; Theo Gevers; Thomas S. Huang

2007-01-01

144

Evolutionary facial feature selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing number of acquired physiological and behavioral biometric samples, biometric data sets are experiencing tremendous growth. As database sizes increase, exhaustive identification searches by matching with entire biometric feature sets become computationally unmanageable. An evolutionary facial feature selector chooses a set of features from prior contextual or meta face features that reduces the search space. This paper discusses

Aaron K. Baughman

2008-01-01

145

Facial diplegia: a clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical entity and presents as a diagnostic challenge. Unlike its unilateral counterpart facial diplegia is seldom secondary to Bell's palsy. Occurring at a frequency of 0.3% to 2% of all facial palsies it often indicates ominous medical conditions. Guillian-Barre syndrome needs to be considered as a differential in all given cases of facial diplegia where timely treatment would be rewarding. Here a case of bilateral facial palsy due to Guillian-Barre syndrome with atypical presentation is reported. PMID:24761505

Chakrabarti, Debaprasad; Roy, Mukut; Bhattacharyya, Amrit K

2013-06-01

146

TRPA1 contributes to capsaicin-induced facial cold hyperalgesia in rats.  

PubMed

Orofacial cold hyperalgesia is known to cause severe persistent pain in the face following trigeminal nerve injury or inflammation, and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankylin 1 (TRPA1) are thought to be involved in cold hyperalgesia. However, how these two receptors are involved in cold hyperalgesia is not fully understood. To clarify the mechanisms underlying facial cold hyperalgesia, nocifensive behaviors to cold stimulation, the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, and TG neuronal excitability to cold stimulation following facial capsaicin injection were examined in rats. The head-withdrawal reflex threshold (HWRT) to cold stimulation of the lateral facial skin was significantly decreased following facial capsaicin injection. This reduction of HWRT was significantly recovered following local injection of TRPV1 antagonist as well as TRPA1 antagonist. Approximately 30% of TG neurons innervating the lateral facial skin expressed both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and about 64% of TRPA1-positive neurons also expressed TRPV1. The TG neuronal excitability to noxious cold stimulation was significantly increased following facial capsaicin injection and this increase was recovered by pretreatment with TRPA1 antagonist. These findings suggest that TRPA1 sensitization via TRPV1 signaling in TG neurons is involved in cold hyperalgesia following facial skin capsaicin injection. PMID:25371244

Honda, Kuniya; Shinoda, Masamichi; Furukawa, Akihiko; Kita, Kozue; Noma, Noboru; Iwata, Koichi

2014-12-01

147

Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.  

PubMed

The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences. PMID:23469703

Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

2012-01-01

148

Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.  

PubMed

Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

2014-01-01

149

Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects  

PubMed Central

Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

2014-01-01

150

Facial animation reconstruction from FAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In MPEG-4, two sets of parameters are defined: Facial Definition Parameters (FDPs) and Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs). The FDPs are used to customize the proprietary face model of the decoder to a particular face or to download a face model along with the information about how to animate it. And the FAPs are based on the study of minimal facial actions and are closely related to muscle actions, they represent a complete set of basic facial actions, and therefore allow the representation of most facial expressions. In this paper, we propose a simple key-point displacement-controlling muscle model, which describes how the adjacent facial tissue moves with the key points to reconstruct facial animation using FAPs.

Yu, Lu; Zhang, Jingyu

2000-04-01

151

Skin optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin

M. J. C. Van Gemert; S. L. Jacques; H. J. C. M. Sterenborg; W. M. Star

1989-01-01

152

Development of an in vitro Skin Permeation Model Simulating Atopic Dermatitis Skin for the Evaluation of Dermatological Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atopic dermatitis (AD) skin has a defective barrier function as indicated by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In order to test potential new formulations for AD, it was our aim to develop a skin permeation model simulating AD skin by inducing barrier impairment to otherwise healthy skin simulating the barrier properties of AD skin as evaluated by TEWL measurements. Pig

L. Simonsen; A. Fullerton

2007-01-01

153

Rosacea-like facial rash related to metformin administration in a young woman  

PubMed Central

Background Since the skin represents a common site of adverse drug reactions, few data are reported at this time regarding the development of skin rash during the treatment with antidiabetic drugs. Case presentation We report a 29-year old woman that developed a facial skin rash during the treatment with metformin. Clinical and laboratory findings excluded the presence of systemic diseases, but several diagnosis and many drugs were administered without clinical improvement. The self-dismission of metformin induced an improvement of symptoms, while the re-challenge documented an impairments of skin rash. The Naranjo probability scale suggested a probable association between metformin and skin rash and metformin was definitively dismissed. Conclusion We report for the first time a non vasculitis facial skin manifestation related to metformin in a young woman. However, this case may emphasizes the need to consider the ADRs as a differential diagnosis in order to reduce medical errors and the related medical costs. PMID:24507578

2014-01-01

154

Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*  

PubMed Central

Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to analyze the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex infestation, and to identify the risk factors of Demodex infestation. The results showed that total detection rate of Demodex was 43.0%. Patients aged above 30 years had higher odds of Demodex infestation than those under 30 years. Compared to patients with neutral skin, patients with mixed, oily, or dry skin were more likely to be infested with Demodex (odds ratios (ORs) were 2.5, 2.4, and 1.6, respectively). Moreover, Demodex infestation was found to be statistically associated with rosacea (OR=8.1), steroid-induced dermatitis (OR=2.7), seborrheic dermatitis (OR=2.2), and primary irritation dermatitis (OR=2.1). In particular, ORs calculated from the severe infestation (?5 mites/cm2) rate were significantly higher than those of the total rate. Therefore, we concluded that Demodex is associated with rosacea, steroid-induced dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and primary irritation dermatitis. The rate of severe infestation is found to be more correlated with various dermatosis than the total infestation rate. The risk factors of Demodex infestation, age, and skin types were identified. Our study also suggested that good hygiene practice might reduce the chances of demodicosis and Demodex infestation. PMID:22135150

Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; Xiao, Sheng-xiang

2011-01-01

155

Relation between facial morphology, personality and the functions of facial make-up in women.  

PubMed

Our external appearance plays a key role in everyday life's social interactions. Hence, taking care of our appearance allows us to adjust and protect ourselves, as well as communicate emotional disposition (i.e. sympathy or aversion) and social information (i.e. values, status). However, some discrete body parts or characteristics appear to be more salient than others in contributing to global body image. For example, authors showed that facial attractiveness is one of the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness and represent one of the primary factors influencing global self-esteem. Make-up is therefore ought to play a major influence in these parameters. Moreover, in a previous study whose subject was to explain the reasons that motivate women to make-up, we showed a high implication of specific psychological traits in correlation with two make-up functions (i.e. psycho-behavioural profiles 'Seduction' and 'Camouflage'; group S and group C, respectively). The purpose of this study was to assess the possible relation between our two psycho-behavioural profiles and some morphological parameters know to be involved in facial attraction (i.e. facial asymmetry and skin visual quality). First of all, our study revealed for women from the group C a greater asymmetry of the lower face (i.e. mouth area) that could be related to a possible larger amount of negative emotional experiences. Concerning make-up behaviour, women from the group S more extensively manipulated their relative facial attractiveness, by using a large range of colours, but also through a significantly longer make-up process used to adjust their visual asymmetry and therefore increase their potential of attractiveness. On the overall, our results suggest that make-up is used differentially, according to stable psychological profiles of women, to manipulate specific visual/morphological facial features involved in attractiveness. PMID:21284661

Korichi, R; Pelle-de-Queral, D; Gazano, G; Aubert, A

2011-08-01

156

Skin Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

157

Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

2014-01-01

158

Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)  

SciTech Connect

Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. (Univ. of Toronto School of Medicine, Ontario (Canada))

1989-12-01

159

Giant facial lymphangioma.  

PubMed

Lymphatic malformation (LM) is a benign cystic entity resulting from aberrant lymphatic drainage. Often evident at birth, most LMs have declared themselves by 2 years of age. They can be concerning when they occur near vital structures such as the airway or orbit. The natural history varies considerable from spontaneous gradual regression to long-term growth and debilitation. Depending on the location, structures involved, and clinical course of the LM, therapeutic options include observation, intralesional sclerosis, laser therapy, and surgical excision. The literature provides guidelines for treatment options that must be carefully applied to the facial region. We present a newborn infant who presented to our institution with giant facial lymphangioma who underwent a combination of sclerosis, laser ablation, and surgery with reconstruction. PMID:21772195

Sanger, Claire; Wong, Lindsey; Wood, Jeyhan; David, Lisa R; Argenta, Louis C

2011-07-01

160

Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment. PMID:25141118

Gabana-Silveira, Jesus Claudio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Braga, Arnaldo Feitosa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

2014-01-01

161

Subcranial facial bipartition osteotomy with glabellar reverse V-shaped and temporal approaches instead of the bicoronal approach.  

PubMed

Patients with Apert syndrome show hypertelorism and midfacial hypoplasia, and their features are significantly improved through facial bipartition surgery. In addition, because patients with Apert syndrome demonstrate cranial deformity as well as other deformities, they require multiple surgical interventions throughout their development. We present herein a girl with Apert syndrome for whom subcranial facial bipartition was performed. We could not use the coronal approach because she had a terribly cicatricial scalp and wide calvarial defects caused by previous cranial surgeries carried out at another institution. Therefore, we used the glabellar reverse V-shaped approach and temporal approaches in place of the standard approach. She enjoyed a complication-free intraoperative and postoperative course, and left the hospital on postoperative day 10. Her midfacial segment was repositioned 6 mm anteriorly and 12 mm inferiorly on the cephalometric measurement. Her interpupillary distance was altered from 83 mm preoperatively to 76 mm postoperatively. The reverse V-shaped glabellar approach permits more relaxation of the nasal skin and nasal augmentation that is more reliable, although an inconspicuous scar remains in the prominent area. The temporal approach is also useful, enabling easy zygomatic arch osteotomy and secure pterygo-maxillary separation for pterygo-maxillary separation through an oral approach, allowing chiseling toward the skull base. PMID:16432423

Sarukawa, Shunji; Sugawara, Yasushi; Park, Susam

2006-01-01

162

Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations.  

PubMed

Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

2014-01-01

163

[Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].  

PubMed

This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain. PMID:24748087

Koyama, Shinichi

2014-04-01

164

Granuloma faciale: a rare disease from a dermoscopy perspective*  

PubMed Central

The granuloma faciale is a rare and benign skin disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic leukocitoclastic vasculitis. It is characterized by skin lesions predominantly facial whose course is chronic and slowly progressive. The diagnosis is based on clinical features, histopathology and, more recently, in dermoscopy. We describe the case of a male patient, 40 years old, with a sarcoid lesion on the malar site, whose histopathological examination revealed a mixed inflammatory infiltrate with presence of Grenz zone. Dermoscopy revealed a pink background with white striations. The definitive diagnosis is made by histopathologic evaluation, and dermatoscopy can be helpful. It is known to be resistant to therapy, oral medications, intralesional and surgical procedures are options. PMID:24346891

Teixeira, Danilo Augusto; Estrozi, Bruna; Ianhez, Mayra

2013-01-01

165

Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated,

Ian D. Stephen; Vinet Coetzee; Miriam Law Smith; David I. Perrett; Rebecca Sear

2009-01-01

166

The use of bipaddled submental flap for reconstructing composite buccal defect.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of full-thickness buccal defect is challenging as two linings need to be addressed. Either two different flaps or double-paddle for one free flaps are necessary for this defect. The prolonged operation might not be tolerated by patients because of advanced age or medical comorbidity. A 77-year-old gentleman, with significant medical comorbidity, presented with a 4.0 × 4.5 cm ulcerative mass due to squamous cell carcinoma arising from the left buccal mucosa. The tumor extended to the left cheek skin. There was no palpable neck node. CT scan did not show any bony erosion or suspicious neck node. Full-thickness resection of the tumour was undertaken. For the full-thickness buccal defect, a bi-paddled pedicled submental flap after de-epithelialization of the flap skin was used for both the cutaneous and mucosal resurfacing. The flap survived completely and patient recovered smoothly. The surgery is simple and operation time is much shorter than free flap reconstruction. This modified utilization of submental flap simplifies the closure of complicated oro-facial wound. PMID:24644402

Chow, Tam-Lin; Choi, Chi-Yee; Ho, Lai-In; Fung, Siu-Chung

2014-03-01

167

Successful reconstruction of a large helical rim defect using retroauricular artery perforator-based island flap.  

PubMed

The retroauricular flap has many applications, providing coverage for various portions of the face as a pedicled flap or a free flap. The retroauricular skin, having similar attributes to the facial skin, is an ideal donor site for facial reconstruction. Also, the donor site can be primarily closed without morbidity, which is also an advantage. In this article, a large helical defect resulting from a traumatic amputation was reconstructed using the contralateral conchal cartilage graft and a retroauricular perforator-based island flap. Using the "perforator pedicled propeller flap" concept, no meticulous dissection around the perforator was done, and the flap was elevated only until sufficient rotation arc was achieved. There was some degree of venous congestion on the flap for 3 days postoperatively, but the flap survived completely. By using the conchal cartilage from the contralateral side, the final contour of the ear was maintained aesthetically. The flap had some bulkiness on the posterior side of the auricle where it was transposed, but it was inconspicuous on frontal or lateral view because the conchoscaphal angle had not changed. The patient was satisfied with the aesthetic results. The retroauricular flap is useful for resurfacing any portion of the ear, and by using the propeller flap method, significant reduction in operative time can be achieved without compromising the final results. PMID:21403543

Youn, Seungki; Kim, Youn Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Ng, Siew-Weng

2011-03-01

168

Facial Reconstruction by Biosurgery: Cell Transplantation Versus Cell Homing  

PubMed Central

The face distinguishes one human being from another. When the face is disfigured because of trauma, tumor removal, congenital anomalies, or chronic diseases, the patient has a strong desire for functional and esthetic restoration. Current practice of facial reconstruction using autologous grafts, synthetic fillers, and prostheses is frequently below the surgeon's and patient's expectations. Facial reconstruction is yet to take advantage of recent advances in seemingly unrelated fields of stem cell biology, chemical engineering, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. “Biosurgery,” a new concept that we propose, will incorporate novel principles and strategies of bioactive cues, biopolymers, and/or cells to restore facial defects. Small facial defects can likely be reconstructed by cell homing and without cell transplantation. A critical advantage of cell homing is that agilely recruited endogenous cells have the potential to harness the host's innate capacity for regeneration, thus accelerating the rate of regulatory and commercialization processes for product development. Large facial defects, however, may not be restorable without cell delivery per our understanding at this time. New breakthrough in biosurgery will likely originate from integrated strategies of cell biology, cytokine biology, chemical engineering, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. Regardless of cell homing or cell delivery approaches, biosurgery not only will minimize surgical trauma and repetitive procedures, but also produce long-lasting results. At the same time, caution must be exercised against the development of products that lack scientific basis or dogmatic combination of cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules. Together, scientifically derived biosurgery will undoubtedly develop into new technologies that offer increasingly natural reconstruction and/or augmentation of the face. PMID:19891541

Stosich, Michael S.; Moioli, Eduardo K.; Lee, Chang Hun; Fu, Susan Y.; Bastian, Barbara; Eisig, Sidney B.; Zemnick, Candice; Ascherman, Jeffrey; Wu, June; Rohde, Christine; Ahn, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

169

Down syndrome detection from facial photographs using machine learning techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition; one in every 691 babies in United States is born with it. Patients with Down syndrome have an increased risk for heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems and the early detection of the syndrome is fundamental for managing the disease. Clinically, facial appearance is an important indicator in diagnosing Down syndrome and it paves the way for computer-aided diagnosis based on facial image analysis. In this study, we propose a novel method to detect Down syndrome using photography for computer-assisted image-based facial dysmorphology. Geometric features based on facial anatomical landmarks, local texture features based on the Contourlet transform and local binary pattern are investigated to represent facial characteristics. Then a support vector machine classifier is used to discriminate normal and abnormal cases; accuracy, precision and recall are used to evaluate the method. The comparison among the geometric, local texture and combined features was performed using the leave-one-out validation. Our method achieved 97.92% accuracy with high precision and recall for the combined features; the detection results were higher than using only geometric or texture features. The promising results indicate that our method has the potential for automated assessment for Down syndrome from simple, noninvasive imaging data.

Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Sze, Raymond; Zand, Dina; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George

2013-02-01

170

Metabolism of [1-(14)C] and [2-(14)C] leucine in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with isovaleric acidemia. Characterization of metabolic defects.  

PubMed Central

Leucine metabolism in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with isovaleric acidemia was compared with that in normal fibroblasts and in cells from patients with maple syrup urine disease using [1-(14)C] and [2-(14)C] leucine as substrates. Inhibitory effects of methylenecyclopropylacetic acid on leucine metabolism in normal cells were also investigated. Production of 14CO2 from [2-(14)C] leucine was very reduced (96-99%) in both types of mutant cells. Radioactive isovaleric acid accumulated in assay media with isovaleric acidemia cells but not in those with maple syrup urine disease cells. Unexpectedly, 14CO2 production from [1-(14)C] leucine was partially depressed (80%) in isovaleric acidemia cells whereas in maple syrup urine disease cells it was strongly depressed (99%) as expected. These two mutant cells were clearly distinguished by detection of 14C-isovaleric acid accumulation after incubation with [2-(14)C] leucine. A pattern of inhibition of leucine oxidation similar to that seen in isovaleric acidemia cells was induced in normal cells by the addition of 0.7 mM methylenecyclopropylacetic acid to the assay medium. The partial inhibition of [1-(14)C] leucine oxidation seen in isovaleric acidemia cells and also in normal cells in the presence of the inhibitor appears to be, at least in part, due to an accumulation of isovalerate in the cells. Isovaleric acid (5-10) mM) inhibited [1-(14)C] leucine oxidation 32-68% when added to the assay medium with normal cells. Addition of flavin adenine dinucleoside to culture medium or assay medium or both did not restore oxidation of either leucine substrate in isovaleric acidemia cells. PMID:932204

Tanaka, K; Mandell, R; Shih, V E

1976-01-01

171

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

172

Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery  

E-print Network

/Head & Neck Surgery Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 7. If eyelid surgery is performed there mayPostoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences

Chapman, Michael S.

173

[Emotional impact of facial palsy].  

PubMed

Facial palsy is not only a movement disorder but leads also to an emotional and communicative disorder in chronic stage but also in some patients already during the acute phase of the disease. The present review describes the current knowledge of the neurobiological and psychological fundamentals on the relation of facial movement and its emotional context. So far there is not much knowledge on the impact of a facial palsy on the interaction between facial movement, emotional processing and communicative skills of the patient. The emotional contagion seems to be reduced in patients with facial palsy. The ability to express emotions seems also to be reduced. Moreover, the patients feel to be perceived negatively. In fact, most of the expressions of patients with facial palsy are allocated with a negative affect even when the patients are smiling. Patients with facial palsy react with negative stress, anxiety and depression. The patients avoid social contacts. In turn, this reinforces the communicative disorder. The otorhinolaryngologist can use the Facial Disability Index as a simple questionnaire to detect such dysfunctions. Diagnostics that are necessary to develop a therapy program are presented in this review. Standardized therapy concepts that are not only treat the movement disorder but also the emotional context is missing so far. Finally, the review will give an outlook on potential therapy strategies. PMID:23065673

Dobel, C; Miltner, W H R; Witte, O W; Volk, G F; Guntinas-Lichius, O

2013-01-01

174

Skin tone of targets, lineup type, and confidence levels in cross-racial identification  

E-print Network

The current experiment investigated facial recognition memory for own and other-race faces. Two variations (light-skin and dark-skin) were presented for the Black targets. The purpose of this experiment was to observe the effect of skin variations...

Williamson, Jessica Lynne

2013-02-22

175

Matrix Metalloproteinases of Epithelial Origin in Facial Sebum of Patients with Acne and their Regulation by Isotretinoin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acne vulgaris is a skin disorder of the sebaceous follicles, involving hyperkeratinization and perifollicular inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have a predominant role in inflammatory matrix remodeling and hyperproliferative skin disorders. We investigated the expression of MMP and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) in facial sebum specimens from acne patients, before and after treatment with isotretinoin. Gelatin zymography and Western-blot analysis

Eleni Papakonstantinou; Alexios J. Aletras; Evelyn Glass; Panagiotis Tsogas; Alexander Dionyssopoulos; James Adjaye; Sabine Fimmel; Panagiotis Gouvousis; Ralf Herwig; Hans Lehrach; Christos C. Zouboulis; George Karakiulakis

2005-01-01

176

Laser skin treatment in non-Caucasian patients.  

PubMed

The demand for facial rejuvenation and cosmetic procedures is rising among all ethnicities and skin types. The authors present a review of lasers and how to select a laser based on skin type and the treatment goals of laser resurfacing: skin laxity, dyschromia, hair removal, keloid, and hypertrophic scarring. In addition, they discuss preprocedural and postprocedural considerations, potential complications, and their management to maximize patient outcomes and minimize risk. PMID:25049127

Richter, Amy Li; Barrera, Jose; Markus, Ramsey F; Brissett, Anthony

2014-08-01

177

Skin Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

Muller, Eric

1998-01-01

178

Skin Aging  

MedlinePLUS

... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

179

Skin flicks  

E-print Network

The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-

1993-01-01

180

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... difficult. Learn more. Rare types of skin cancer Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) This skin cancer is rare. It ... cell carcinoma (BCC) Melanoma Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) Sebaceous carcinoma Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) Related ...

181

Skin Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

182

[Facial asymmetries and their skeletal component].  

PubMed

The diagnosis and treatment of facial asymmetries is one of the most difficult challenges in orthognathic surgery. In some cases, the involvement of soft tissue defects or, in other cases, an associated basi-cranial asymmetry can complicate the management. The influence of various components of the cephalic end in the development of the face requires a thorough clinical and radiographic examination including the overall posture of the patient. The causes are multiple: congenital, constitutional, acquired with an important esthetic, functional, and psychological and social impact. The classification of these asymmetries can only be incomplete and purely didactic because of the multiplicity of clinical forms. Two elements are mandatory for the diagnosis and surgical treatment: first, the anterior clinical and radiological "craniofacial cross" established from the midline or midplane of the face; second, the clinical and radiological orientation of the maxillary and mandibular occlusal transverse and sagittal planes. The surgical techniques are the same as in conventional orthognathic surgery except for those used for the correction of the vertical posterior dimension of the face: condylectomy, lengthening osteotomy of the mandibular ramus, costochondral graft, and free flap. The contribution of 3D vision of the facial skeleton and its possibilities of measurement have improved the assessment of skeletal structure displacement during surgery. However, traditional radiographic examinations are still useful for pre and postoperative comparison and also to assess results. Computer simulation and computer-assisted surgery should allow achieving better and more stable results because of their reliability and easy access. PMID:25087115

Mercier, J-M; Perrin, J-P; Longis, J; Arzul, L; Corre, P

2014-09-01

183

A new observation of acro-cardio-facial syndrome substantiates interindividual clinical variability.  

PubMed

We report on a baby presenting with ectrodactyly, heart defects, and mild facial dysmorphisms, an association recognized as acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS). Based on the first three observations, the acronym CCGE, cleft palate, cardiac defect, genital anomalies, and ectrodactyly had been proposed to embrace the most consistent features of this syndrome. A subsequent report and the present patient point to an obvious interindividual and intrafamilial variability of this autosomal recessive disorder in which ectrodactyly was the sole characteristic shared by all affected individuals. PMID:15937946

Mingarelli, Rita; Zuccarello, Daniela; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Dallapiccola, Bruno

2005-07-01

184

The Sensitive Skin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

2012-01-01

185

Porous high-density polyethylene in facial reconstruction and revision rhinoplasty: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Initial methods which used human tissues as reconstruction materials caused different problems including rejection, limited shapes and infection. In 1970s, PHDPE (Medpor®) was introduced by its exclusive advantageous including no donor site morbidity, easily shaped and the minimal foreign body reaction. Hereby, we report our experience of using Medpor® in facial reconstruction especially in frontal reconstruction and orbital rim with a large sample size. Methods This study was a prospective cohort study. Surgical techniques included using Medpor® in reconstruction of lamina papiracea (LP) (15 patients), frontal bone (15 patients), orbital rim (18 patients) and open rhinoplasty (8 patients). All interventions on LP were performed by endoscopic procedures. All frontal operations were carried out by bicoronal incision. In orbital defects, we used subciliary incision. Results From all 56 patients, 1 case had primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of maxillary sinus. In that case, reconstruction of inferior orbital rim was not successful and extrusion was occurred after radiotherapy. In rhinoplasty and other experiences no extrusion or infection were detected within the next 1 to 3?years of follow up. There were not any palpable and visible irregularities under the skin in our experiences. Conclusions In this study the patients did not experience any complications during the follow up periods and the satisfaction was remarkable. Gathering these data gives rise to future review studies which can provide more organized evidences for replacing classic reconstructive methods by the presented material. PMID:22642753

2012-01-01

186

Pediatric facial injuries: It's management  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial injuries in children always present a challenge in respect of their diagnosis and management. Since these children are of a growing age every care should be taken so that later the overall growth pattern of the facial skeleton in these children is not jeopardized. Purpose: To access the most feasible method for the management of facial injuries in children without hampering the facial growth. Materials and Methods: Sixty child patients with facial trauma were selected randomly for this study. On the basis of examination and investigations a suitable management approach involving rest and observation, open or closed reduction and immobilization, trans-osseous (TO) wiring, mini bone plate fixation, splinting and replantation, elevation and fixation of zygoma, etc. were carried out. Results and Conclusion: In our study fall was the predominant cause for most of the facial injuries in children. There was a 1.09% incidence of facial injuries in children up to 16 years of age amongst the total patients. The age-wise distribution of the fracture amongst groups (I, II and III) was found to be 26.67%, 51.67% and 21.67% respectively. Male to female patient ratio was 3:1. The majority of the cases of facial injuries were seen in Group II patients (6-11 years) i.e. 51.67%. The mandibular fracture was found to be the most common fracture (0.60%) followed by dentoalveolar (0.27%), mandibular + midface (0.07) and midface (0.02%) fractures. Most of the mandibular fractures were found in the parasymphysis region. Simple fracture seems to be commonest in the mandible. Most of the mandibular and midface fractures in children were amenable to conservative therapies except a few which required surgical intervention. PMID:22639504

Singh, Geeta; Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U. S.; Hariram; Malkunje, Laxman R.; Singh, Nimisha

2011-01-01

187

Resurfacing severe facial burn scars: an algorithm based on three different types of prefabricated expanded flaps.  

PubMed

Background?In the reconstruction of facial burn scars, large, thin, color-matching flaps are desirable due to aesthetic and functional demands. There have been many reports using prefabricated flaps to resurface facial skin lesions. However, an algorithm to select the most suitable treatment option for the individual patient is lacking. Methods?An algorithm for facial resurfacing based on three types of prefabricated flaps from the cervical, periclavicular, and lateral thoracic area was setup, and 15 were patients treated accordingly. Results?All 15 prefabricated flaps survived. Minor necrosis at the distal flap edge developed in three cases. After a follow-up of at least 6 months, all patients showed satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes. Conclusion?By individual selection of the most suitable option among these three types of prefabricated flaps, satisfactory resurfacing can be achieved for most facial burn scars. PMID:25025508

Xie, Feng; Zhu, Hainan; Gu, Bin; Zan, Tao; Liu, Kai; Li, Qingfeng

2014-11-01

188

Peripheral facial palsy in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

2014-11-01

189

Advancement Perforator Cheek Flap for Aesthetic One-Stage Reconstruction of Postoncological Extended Split-Thickness Defects of the Nasal Sidewall  

PubMed Central

Aesthetic reconstruction of soft tissue nasal sidewall loss has an important influence on the appearance of the nose. The unique character of this subunit and the complex relationships with a number of different facial or nasal subunits make the excision of large tumors difficult to manage. Numerous techniques are described in the literature, but a primary reconstruction with a final good result is not often possible. The authors develop an advancement cheek flap for an aesthetic one-stage reconstruction of postoncological extended nasal sidewall defects. Between January 2009 and July 2012, 16 patients (mean age, 63.3?yr) underwent excision of skin tumors of nasal sidewall and immediate reconstruction with an advancement cheek flap nourished by perforators from the transverse facial branch of the superficial temporal artery. The tumors were excised with 0.4–0.6?cm lateral margins and defects size ranged from 2.6 × 2.6?cm to 3.5 × 5?cm. Oncological radicality was obtained in all cases. The aesthetic results were excellent in all patients. No scar revision was needed. The authors' advancement cheek flap can be considered the first choice for reconstruction of split-thickness defect of nasal sidewall larger than 2.5?cm because it reestablishes in one stage the nasal contour detail. PMID:24288460

Milia, Arianna; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Cordova, Adriana

2013-01-01

190

Detection and inpainting of facial wrinkles using texture orientation fields and Markov random field modeling.  

PubMed

Facial retouching is widely used in media and entertainment industry. Professional software usually require a minimum level of user expertise to achieve the desirable results. In this paper, we present an algorithm to detect facial wrinkles/imperfection. We believe that any such algorithm would be amenable to facial retouching applications. The detection of wrinkles/imperfections can allow these skin features to be processed differently than the surrounding skin without much user interaction. For detection, Gabor filter responses along with texture orientation field are used as image features. A bimodal Gaussian mixture model (GMM) represents distributions of Gabor features of normal skin versus skin imperfections. Then, a Markov random field model is used to incorporate the spatial relationships among neighboring pixels for their GMM distributions and texture orientations. An expectation-maximization algorithm then classifies skin versus skin wrinkles/imperfections. Once detected automatically, wrinkles/imperfections are removed completely instead of being blended or blurred. We propose an exemplar-based constrained texture synthesis algorithm to inpaint irregularly shaped gaps left by the removal of detected wrinkles/imperfections. We present results conducted on images downloaded from the Internet to show the efficacy of our algorithms. PMID:24968171

Batool, Nazre; Chellappa, Rama

2014-09-01

191

Non-surgical treatment modalities of facial photodamage: practical knowledge for the oral and maxillofacial professional  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing interest in cosmetic procedures, oral and maxillofacial surgeons are being asked not only to improve oral health and aesthetics but to extend their expertise to provide advice on improving the overall appearance of the face. For the discerning patient, improving overall facial skin appearance is becoming an integral part of the process of surgical cosmetic procedures. Here,

F. Hegedus; R. Diecidue; D. Taub; J. Nyirady

2006-01-01

192

Medical facial surface scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical, non-contact three-dimensional range surface digitizers are employed in the 360-degree examination of object surfaces, especially the heads and faces of individuals. The resultant 3- D surface data is suitable for computer graphics display and manipulation, for numerically controlled object replications, or for further processing such as surface measurement extraction. We employed a scanner with a basic active sensor element consisting of a synchronized pattern projector employing flashtubes that illuminate a surface, with a CID camera to detect, digitize, and transmit the sequence of 24 images (per camera) to a digital image processor for surface triangulation, calibration, and fusion into a single surface description of the headform. A major feature of this unit is its use of multiple (typically 6) stationary active sensor elements, with efficient calibration algorithms that achieve nearly seamless superposition of overlapping surface segments seen by individual cameras. The result is accurate and complete coverage of complex contoured surfaces. Application of this system to digitization of the human head in the planning and evaluation of facial plastic surgery is presented.

Vannier, Michael W.; Bhatia, Gulab H.; Commean, Paul K.; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Brunsden, Barry S.

1992-05-01

193

Skin optics.  

PubMed

Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking. PMID:2606488

van Gemert, M J; Jacques, S L; Sterenborg, H J; Star, W M

1989-12-01

194

Facial neuroma masquerading as acoustic neuroma.  

PubMed

Facial nerve neuromas are rare benign tumors that may be initially misdiagnosed as acoustic neuromas when situated near the auditory apparatus. We describe a patient with a large cystic tumor with associated trigeminal, facial, audiovestibular, and brainstem dysfunction, which was suspicious for acoustic neuroma on preoperative neuroimaging. Intraoperative investigation revealed a facial nerve neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle and internal acoustic canal. Gross total resection of the tumor via retrosigmoid craniotomy was curative. Transection of the facial nerve necessitated facial reanimation 4 months later via hypoglossal-facial cross-anastomosis. Clinicians should recognize the natural history, diagnostic approach, and management of this unusual and mimetic lesion. PMID:24775608

Sayegh, Eli T; Kaur, Gurvinder; Ivan, Michael E; Bloch, Orin; Cheung, Steven W; Parsa, Andrew T

2014-10-01

195

Cutaneous mastocytosis as a rare differential diagnosis for unilateral chronic facial pain and erythema: a case report.  

PubMed

Cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) has been associated with urticaria, itching, and pain of the affected regions. Although the occurrence of CM in the facial skin is rare, it may be a cause of chronic facial pain, and pain characteristics may mistakenly be interpreted as trigeminal nerve pathology. However, the dermatological appearance of the different variants of cutaneous mastocytosis is distinct and should be considered as an uncommon differential diagnosis in an orofacial pain diagnostic algorithm. This article presents a case of telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans, a rare type of cutaneous mastocytosis, as the underlying cause of chronic facial pain, erythema, and swelling. PMID:24171187

Troeltzsch, Matthias; Berndt, Ronald; Woodlock, Timothy; Messlinger, Karl; Troeltzsch, Markus

2013-01-01

196

Compound facial expressions of emotion  

PubMed Central

Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

2014-01-01

197

Skin Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a biopsy, a doctor or surgeon takes a sample of a lump, a sore, ... exactly what it is. Doctors may order skin biopsies to help diagnose or monitor possible health problems ...

198

Skin Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Biopsy, Skin A A A Using a small tool similar to an apple corer, a punch biopsy can be used to remove a small area ... for review and diagnosis. Procedure Overview A skin biopsy, where a physician removes a small sample of ...

199

Skin Substitutes  

PubMed Central

In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

2014-01-01

200

Genetic Modifiers of the Physical Malformations in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome/DiGeorge Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid, and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that "Tbx1", a…

Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

2008-01-01

201

Facial Firework Injury: A Case Series  

E-print Network

infection of traumatic injuries. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clinocular, oral, and facial function. 7-9 Firework injury isoral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury,

Tadisina, Kashyap Komarraju; Abcarian, Arianne; Omi, Ellen

2014-01-01

202

Automated Facial Expression Recognition System Andrew Ryan  

E-print Network

Automated Facial Expression Recognition System Andrew Ryan Naval Criminal Investigative Services to develop "non-intrusive" technologies for rapidly assessing the credibility of statements by individuals investigative resources will advance operational excellence and improve investigative capabilities. Facial

203

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Karen L. Schmidt  

E-print Network

1 Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

204

Facial mimicry is not necessary to recognize emotion: Facial expression recognition by people with Moebius syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the reverse simulation model of embodied simulation theory, we recognize others' emotions by subtly mimicking their expressions, which allows us to feel the corresponding emotion through facial feedback. Previous studies examining whether facial mimicry is necessary for facial expression recognition were limited by potentially distracting manipulations intended to artificially restrict facial mimicry or very small samples of people

Kathleen Rives Bogart; David Matsumoto

2010-01-01

205

Birth Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... birth defects. Babies with birth defects may need surgery or other medical treatments. Today, doctors can diagnose many birth defects in the womb. This enables them to treat or even correct some problems before the baby is born. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

206

Cytokine Modulation of AD Filaggrin Skin Expression  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by a defective skin barrier function. Recent studies have reported mutations of the skin barrier gene encoding filaggrin in a subset of patients with AD. Objective We investigated whether reduced filaggrin expression was found in AD patients who were not carriers of known filaggrin mutations and if filaggrin expression was modulated by the atopic inflammatory response. Methods Filaggrin expression was measured in skin biopsies and cultured keratinocytes using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations were screened in a total of 69 subjects. Results As compared with normal skin, filaggrin expression was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in acute AD skin, with further reduction seen in acute lesions from three European American AD subjects who were heterozygous for the 2282del4 mutation. This was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. AD skin is characterized by the over-expression of IL-4 and IL-13. Keratinocytes differentiated in the presence of IL-4 and IL-13 exhibited significantly reduced filaggrin gene expression (0.04±0.01 ng filaggrin/ng GAPDH, p<0.05) compared to media alone (0.16±0.03). Conclusion Patients with AD have an acquired defect in filaggrin expression which can be modulated by the atopic inflammatory response. Clinical Implications The atopic immune response contributes to the skin barrier defect in AD; therefore neutralization of IL-4 and IL-13 could improve skin barrier integrity. PMID:17512043

Howell, Michael D.; Kim, Byung Eui; Gao, Peisong; Grant, Audrey V.; Boguniewicz, Mark; DeBenedetto, Anna; Schneider, Lynda; Beck, Lisa A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Leung, Donald Y.M.

2009-01-01

207

Realistic 3D Human Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction and animation of realistic human facial models is an important research field in computer graphics. How to simulate the motions of human faces on 3D facial models in real-time to generate realistic facial expressions is still a challenge. In this paper, a technique to simulate the human facial animation realistically in real-time is presented. First of all, the 3D

ZHANG Qing-Shan; CHEN Guo-Liang

2003-01-01

208

DaFEx: Database of Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a DaFEx (Database of Facial Expressions) is a database created with the purpose of providing a benchmark for the evaluation\\u000a of the facial expressivity of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). DaFEx consists of 1008 short videos containing emotional\\u000a facial expressions of the 6 Ekman’s emotions plus the neutral expression. The facial expressions were recorded by 8 italian\\u000a professional actors (4 male and

Alberto Battocchi; Fabio Pianesi; Dina Goren-bar

2005-01-01

209

Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin  

E-print Network

, blood vessels near the surface of the skin, called capillaries (CAP-uh-ler-ees), enlarge to let the warm blood cool down. Your skin will also produce sweat from sweat glands when you get too warm. The sweat injure it (like using sharp tools, working in the yard, or playing a sport). Cuts, bumps, and scrapes

Baker, Chris I.

210

What's new in objective assessment and treatment of facial hyperpigmentation?  

PubMed

Facial hyperpigmentation is common and challenging to treat in darker-skinned populations. A Medline literature search of articles published up to October 2013 reporting the objective assessment of and/or treatment for melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, lichen planus pigmentosus, and erythema dyschromicum perstans was reviewed. Objective assessment was only reported for melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Furthermore, randomized controlled trial evidence was only reported for melasma. Although progress has been made, there is a need to develop more objective outcome measures and effective treatments for hyperpigmentation. PMID:24679999

Molinar, Vanessa E; Taylor, Susan C; Pandya, Amit G

2014-04-01

211

Altering First Impressions After Facial Plastic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background First impressions are greatly influenced by facial appearance. Clinical data from psychiatric medicine overwhelming indicate that attractive individuals receive better judgment, treatment and behavior [1,2,10]. This study aimed to determine whether cosmetic alteration of facial features projects a better first impression. Methods Random reviewers were asked independently to grade standardized preoperative and postoperative photographs of patients who underwent facial

Steven Dayan; Kirk Clark; Allan A. Ho

2004-01-01

212

Facial Expression Recognition: A Fully Integrated Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. Humans detect and interpret faces and facial expressions in a scene with little or no effort. Still, development of an automated system that accomplishes this task is rather difficult. There are several related problems: detection of an image segment as a face, facial features extraction and tracking, extraction of

R. Volenti; Nicu Sebe; Theo Gevers

2007-01-01

213

Facial soft tissue thickness in Japanese children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on mean soft tissue thickness measurements. Numerous studies of facial tissue thickness in adults have been published on a range of subjects from different ancestral backgrounds. Data on facial thickness in children derive primarily from Caucasoid, African-American, and Hispanic subjects. There are limited data from the few studies of Japanese children

Hajime Utsuno; Toru Kageyama; Keiichi Uchida; Mineo Yoshino; Hiroo Miyazawa; Katsuhiro Inoue

2010-01-01

214

Temporal muscle flap in reconstruction of maxillo-facial tissues  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study Presents our experience in reconstruction of postsurgical defects with use of temporal muscle flap. Material and methods In the years 1996–2010 we treated 10 patients with malignant neoplasms of maxillo-facial region. Following tumor removal the fascia-muscle flaps of temporal muscle were used for reconstruction. Temporal muscle flaps were applied in 5 cases for reconstructing the defect of eye socket tissue after extensive resections and in the other 5 patients was used for reconstructing the defect of palate following maxillary resections. Results All the flaps of temporal muscle that were used for reconstructing eye sockets incorporated with no local reaction. In one case of flap applied into the oral cavity for tightly separate from nasal, partial necrosis of flap's edge and oro-nasal fistula occurred. Conclusions Fascia-muscular flap of temporal muscle is a simple, easy and effective method of tissue reconstruction in maxillo-facial region following extensive oncologic procedures. PMID:23788888

Krzymanski, Grzegorz; Dabrowski, Jaroslaw; Przybysz, Jan; Domanski, Wojciech; Biernacka, Barbara

2012-01-01

215

Mature Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press ... Teenage skin Tropical travel Vitamin D Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts ...

216

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

217

Hyperelastic skin  

MedlinePLUS

Hyperelastic skin is most often seen in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

218

Skin lumps  

MedlinePLUS

... and roll easily under the fingers (such as lipomas). A lump or swelling that appears suddenly (over ... Lipomas, which are fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and ...

219

Sun & Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students discuss what they already know about the impact sun exposure has on their skin and what they typically do to protect themselves, if anything. Using a number of online resources, they then learn how to care for their skin, about the damaging effects of sunburns and tanning, and how sunscreens provide protection from the sun's harmful UV rays.

Science Netlinks;

2005-03-10

220

Facial recognition at the CIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an

Susan Gragg

1997-01-01

221

Facial Expressions, Emotions, and Sign Languages  

PubMed Central

Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as “surprise” to complex and culture specific concepts such as “carelessly.” The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by referring to three dimensions on which facial expressions vary: semantic, compositional, and iconic. PMID:23482994

Elliott, Eeva A.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2013-01-01

222

Disseminated pneumocephalus secondary to an unusual facial trauma.  

PubMed

Pneumocephalus can be secondary to a postintrathecal procedure, sinus fracture, basilar skull fracture, congenital skull defect, neoplasm, gas producing organism, barotrauma, neurosurgery, paranasal sinus surgery, mask or nasal continuous positive-airway pressure. Unusual facial traumas can also be rare causes of pneumocephalus. Here, we present such a case in whom an air compressor tip injury to both eyes led to the disseminated pneumocephalus. We report this rare case with the computed tomography findings and try to explain the possible mechanism of the pnemocephalus. PMID:12039023

Yildiz, Altan; Duce, Meltem Nass; Ozer, Caner; Apaydin, F Demir; E?ilmez, Hulusi; Kara, Engin

2002-04-01

223

[Recent progress in facial esthetic surgery (excluding endoscopic technics)].  

PubMed

Recent advances offer a new approach to cosmetic surgery of the frontal, cervico-facial and orbito-palpebral areas. Conservative frontal lifting procedures displace the entire frontal muscle (without section or resection) over the underlying bone and periosteal planes by raising the galea and the antagonist muscles. This repositioning reduces or eliminate wrinkles by preventing hyperfunction of the frontal muscle. The risk of sensorial or motor nerve lesions is reduced and the forehead and eyelids have a natural appearance. Unlike extensive lifting of the cervico facial areas, physiological conservative cervico-facial lifting maintains the cutanéomusculo-aponeurotic unity which associates the skin with the superficial musculo-aponeurotic system. The procedure limits detachment in the parotido-masseter region. Early results on the lower cheeks and platysmal cords are significant. The absence of cutaneous detachment preserves the natural appearance of the palpebral complex and the orbital fat allowing improved function and a pleasant aspect of the eyelids. This surgery should be widened beyond the orbito-palpebral area and be used in the frontal, jugal and, in certain cases, the endonasal areas. PMID:9697233

Gola, R

1998-07-01

224

Palatability of tastes is associated with facial circulatory responses.  

PubMed

To examine whether various types of taste stimuli in the oral cavity elicit unique changes in facial skin blood flow (SkBF) according to the palatability perceived by an individual, the facial SkBF was observed by laser speckle flowgraphy in 15 healthy subjects (11 males and 4 females) before and during the ingestion of bitter tea, chilli sauce, coffee, orange juice, soup, and a water control. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and SkBF in the index finger were recorded continuously. Subjects reported their subjective palatability and taste intensity scores after each stimulus. The vascular conductance indexes (CIs) in the face and finger were calculated as ratios of SkBF to MAP. CI in the eyelid increased significantly in response to chilli sauce, orange juice, and soup, whereas CIs in the forehead, nose, and cheek decreased in response to bitter tea. There was a significant correlation between the palatability scores and CI values in the eyelid when changes induced by chilli sauce were excluded. These results suggest that the facial circulatory response reflects the degree of palatability of a foodstuff. PMID:24391145

Kashima, Hideaki; Hamada, Yuka; Hayashi, Naoyuki

2014-03-01

225

Simultaneous Cutaneous Flap Elevation and Skin Resurfacing in the Rabbit Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite several studies that indicate the potential harmful effects of combined procedures, simultaneous rhytidectomy and skin resurfacing have been used with increasing frequency as surgeons seek efficient ways to treat facial aging. Objective: In this study we examined the effects of combined cutaneous flap elevation and skin resurfacing in the rabbit model. Methods: Rabbits were divided into 1 control

David Adcock; Steve Paulsen; Timothy Katzen; Larry Harper; Lillian B. Nanney; R. Bruce Shack

1999-01-01

226

Facial paralysis for the plastic surgeon  

PubMed Central

Facial paralysis presents a significant and challenging reconstructive problem for plastic surgeons. An aesthetically pleasing and acceptable outcome requires not only good surgical skills and techniques, but also knowledge of facial nerve anatomy and an understanding of the causes of facial paralysis. The loss of the ability to move the face has both social and functional consequences for the patient. At the Facial Palsy Clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, 22,954 patients were surveyed, and over 50% were found to have a considerable degree of psychological distress and social withdrawal as a consequence of their facial paralysis. Functionally, patients present with unilateral or bilateral loss of voluntary and nonvoluntary facial muscle movements. Signs and symptoms can include an asymmetric smile, synkinesis, epiphora or dry eye, abnormal blink, problems with speech articulation, drooling, hyperacusis, change in taste and facial pain. With respect to facial paralysis, surgeons tend to focus on the surgical, or ‘hands-on’, aspect. However, it is believed that an understanding of the disease process is equally (if not more) important to a successful surgical outcome. The purpose of the present review is to describe the anatomy and diagnostic patterns of the facial nerve, and the epidemiology and common causes of facial paralysis, including clinical features and diagnosis. Treatment options for paralysis are vast, and may include nerve decompression, facial reanimation surgery and botulinum toxin injection, but these are beyond the scope of the present paper. PMID:19554190

Kosins, Aaron M; Hurvitz, Keith A; Evans, Gregory RD; Wirth, Garrett A

2007-01-01

227

Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

228

Genetic Factors That Increase Male Facial Masculinity Decrease Facial Attractiveness of Female Relatives  

PubMed Central

For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

2014-01-01

229

Papulopustular rosacea, skin immunity and Demodex: pityriasis folliculorum as a missing link.  

PubMed

Papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is a common facial skin disease, characterized by erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. Its physiopathology is still being discussed, but recently several molecular features of its inflammatory process have been identified: an overproduction of Toll-Like receptors 2, of a serine protease, and of abnormal forms of cathelicidin. The two factors which stimulate the Toll-like receptors to induce cathelicidin expression are skin infection and cutaneous barrier disruption: these two conditions are, at least theoretically, fulfilled by Demodex, which is present in high density in PPR and creates epithelial breaches by eating cells. So, the major pathogenic mechanisms of Demodex and its role in PPR are reviewed here in the context of these recent discoveries. In this review, the inflammatory process of PPR appears to be a consequence of the proliferation of Demodex, and strongly supports the hypothesis that: (1) in the first stage a specific (innate or acquired) immune defect against Demodex allows the proliferation of the mite; (2) in the second stage, probably when some mites penetrate into the dermis, the immune system is suddenly stimulated and gives rise to an exaggerated immune response against the Demodex, resulting in the papules and the pustules of the rosacea. In this context, it would be very interesting to study the immune molecular features of this first stage, named "pityriasis folliculorum", where the Demodex proliferate profusely with no, or a low immune reaction from the host: this entity appears to be a missing link in the understanding of rosacea. PMID:22017468

Forton, F M N

2012-01-01

230

Reconstructions of eyelid defects  

PubMed Central

Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important. PMID:21713158

Subramanian, Nirmala

2011-01-01

231

Unmasking Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to Unmasking Skin, a feature article in the November 2000 issue of National Geographic Magazine, which offers an in-depth look at the body's largest organ. Visitors are invited to "go skin deep and beyond" with a photo gallery, a multimedia interview with the story's photographer, and related Web sites. The site also includes a portion of the feature article, a related Online Extra article, and a short piece about goosebumps. While not as comprehensive as the print article itself, this Web site provides an intriguing look at a part of the body that's often taken for granted.

2002-01-01

232

The microsponge delivery system reduces facial oiliness and shine during acne therapy.  

PubMed

Acne therapies that are able to show efficacious treatment of acne lesions as well as to address the issues of oiliness and shine control may be particularly appropriate for the treatment of patients with acne vulgaris that is accompanied by oily skin and facial shine. The microsphere delivery system (MDS), a novel delivery technology for topical therapy, can be customized to optimize product attributes, including oil absorption. Clinical trials have clearly established the efficacy and tolerability of such MDS formulations in the treatment of acne. In addition, studies have shown that the use of products formulated with an MDS provides a more significant reduction in facial shine than non-MDS acne therapy, as well as a reduction in facial sebum accumulation relative to control. Future clinical research should aim to further delineate the effect of individual topical acne treatment formulations on oiliness and shine. PMID:24196335

Kircik, Leon H

2013-11-01

233

Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.

Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

234

E4F1 is essential for epidermal stem cell maintenance and skin homeostasis Matthieu Lacroix1, 3, 4, 10, &  

E-print Network

1 E4F1 is essential for epidermal stem cell maintenance and skin homeostasis Matthieu Lacroix1, 3: Role of E4F1 in skin homeostasis Key words: E4F1, p53, knock-out, epidermal stem cells, skin inserm in the entire skin or in the basal compartment of the epidermis induces skin homeostasis defects, as evidenced

Boyer, Edmond

235

Visual processing of facial affect.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of the fusiform gyrus in identifying and processing facial emotional expression in humans, MEG data were collected while six healthy subjects judged whether photographs of faces displayed emotion (happiness or disgust) compared to neutral faces and equiluminant scrambled faces. For all six subjects, a magnetic source localizing to right fusiform gyrus was evident approximately 150 ms following presentation of face stimuli, but not following non-face stimuli. MEG source strength for this component was greatest for happy, intermediate for disgust, and lowest for neutral facial expressions, suggesting that activity in fusiform gyrus is sensitive to both face-specific stimuli and to the affective content of the face. These findings are considered in the context of a specialized neural face-dependent information system. PMID:14534432

Lewis, Stephen; Thoma, Robert J; Lanoue, Marianna D; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Edgar, Christopher; Huang, Minxiong; Weisend, Michael P; Irwin, Jessica; Paulson, Kim; Cañive, José M

2003-10-01

236

Correction of severe facial deformity.  

PubMed

A craniofacial team has been developed to corrdinate the treatment of patients with severe facial deformity and to minimize the surgical risks. Two hundred patients have been evaluated in the last 4 years and more than 100 treated by this team to correct orbital hypertelorism, oxycephaly and plagiocephaly with exophthalmos, features of Crouzon's disease and Apert's and Treacher Collins syndromes, hemifacial microsomia, and severe lower facial deformity and malocclusion. Surgical principles include extensive subperiosteal stripping of bone, osteotomy as necessary, and repositioning maintained by bone grafts. Postoperative evaluation is being maintained for 5 years or to maturity in younger children. Although many of the results are less than perfect, there has been sufficient improvement, especially psychologic and functional, to warrant continuation of the surgical program under closely controlled conditions. PMID:1156980

Munro, I R

1975-09-20

237

Automated interactive facial caricature generation  

E-print Network

. Subject: Aaron Otstott. 31 31 Subject: Cody Starr. 32 17 18 19 Subject: Kristian ten Wolde. Subject: John Patterson. . Subject: Margaret Lomas. . . 32 33 20 Successor of Caraccis (17th century). Ogcers and Soldiers. 35 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION..., "Synthesizing Continuous-tone Caricature, " Image and Vision. Computing, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 23-129, April 1991. [5] P. Benson, R. Campbell, T. Harris, M. Frank and M. Tovee, "Enhancing Images of Facial Expressions, " Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 61, no...

Logan, Ryan C

2012-06-07

238

[Facial Demodex infection among college students in Tangshan].  

PubMed

A survey indicated that the prevalence of Demodex infection among 512 college students in Tangshan was 36.3% (186/512), that of males and females was 39.3% (81/206) and 34.3% (105/306) respectively (P>0.05). The infection of Demodex folliculorum accounted for 82.3% (153/186), followed by D. brevis (7.5%, 14/186) and mixed infection (10.2%, 19/186). The prevalence was 47.0% (93/198) in subjects with oily skin, 26.6% (37/139) in those with dry skin, and 33.9% (56/165) in mixed-type skin (P<0.05). Subjects with facial diseases (62.0%, 75/121), such as rosacea and acne, were more likely to be infected with Demodex than those with healthy skin (27.6%, 80/290) (P<0.05). Prevalence in those lived in humid environment (67.9%, 95/140) was higher than those lived in the desiccating environment (24.5%, 91/372) (P<0.05). PMID:19852374

Cao, Yong-Sheng; You, Qin-Xiu; Wang, Lin; Lan, Hai-Bo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Xing-Hua; Yang, Huan; Xiong, Yan-Jie; Tian, Xi-Feng

2009-06-01

239

Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

Tan, Pearlie W.W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

2012-01-01

240

Aging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... dry skin — which is more common as you age — but they can't turn back time. Prescription creams, chemical peels, laser treatments, Botox, and other cosmetic procedures are being used to treat sun spots, wrinkles, and other signs of aging. But ...

241

Skin Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the notion of colorblind equality fit with the social and economic realities of black Americans? Challenging the increasingly popular argument that blacks should settle down, stop whining, and get jobs, Skin Trade insists that racism remains America's premier national story and its grossest national product. From Aunt Jemima Pancakes to ethnic Barbie dolls, corporate America peddles racial and

Ann duCille

1996-01-01

242

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

PubMed

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

2013-06-01

243

Facial Baroparesis Caused by Scuba Diving  

PubMed Central

Middle ear barotrauma is one of the common complications of SCUBA diving representing acute otalgia, hearing loss, and bleeding. But occurrence of facial palsy is rare. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old navy diver suffered middle ear barotrauma with transient facial palsy after SCUBA diving. He felt difficulty in equalizing the pressure in middle ear with Valsalva maneuver during diving, and suffered right facial palsy and aural fullness after diving. Clinical examination showed remarkable bulging of the right tympanic membrane and right facial palsy without other neurological findings. But facial palsy was disappeared immediately after myringotomy. We considered that the etiology of this case was neuropraxia of facial nerve in middle ear caused by over pressure of middle ear. PMID:22953110

Kamide, Daisuke; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Shiotani, Akihiro

2012-01-01

244

Image-based control of skin melanin texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a useful tool for controlling the skin melanin texture of facial photographs. Controlling the skin melanin texture is an important task in the reproduction of posters, TV commercials, movies, and so on. We used component maps of melanin, which were obtained by a previous method [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2169 (1999)] as the first processing step. We propose to control the melanin texture continuously and physiologically, based on the analysis of 123 skin textures in our database. The physiological validity for the change of the melanin texture is confirmed by comparing the synthesized image with an ultraviolet image, which can be used to predict the change of melanin texture due to aging. The control processes are implemented on programmable graphics hardware, and real-time processing is achieved for a facial videostream.

Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Takase, Koichi; Okaguchi, Saya; Hori, Kimihiko; Miyake, Yoichi

2006-09-01

245

Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health  

PubMed Central

Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

2009-01-01

246

Facial expression recognition from video sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing human facial expression and emotion by computer is an interesting and challenging problem. We propose a method for recognizing emotions through facial expressions displayed in video sequences. We introduce a tree-augmented naive-Bayes (TAN) classifier that learns the dependencies between facial features; we also provide an algorithm for finding the best TAN structure. Our person-dependent and person-independent experiments show that

Ira Cohen; Nicu Sebe; Ashutosh Garg; Michael S. Lew; Thomas S. Huang

2002-01-01

247

FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION FROM VIDEO SEQUENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing human facial expression and emotion by computer is an interesting and challenging problem. In this paper we propose a method for recognizing emotions through facial expressions dis- played in video sequences. We introduce a Tree-Augmented-Naive Bayes (TAN) classifier that learns the dependencies between the facial features and we provide an algorithm for finding the best TAN structure. Our person-dependent

Ira Cohen; Nicu Sebe; Ashutosh Garg; Michael S. Lew; Thomas S. Huang

2003-01-01

248

3-facial colouring of plane graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plane graph is l-facially k-colourable if its vertices can be coloured with\\u000ak colours such that any two distinct vertices on a facial segment of length at\\u000amost l are coloured differently. We prove that every plane graph is 3-facially\\u000a11-colourable. As a consequence, we derive that every 2-connected plane graph\\u000awith maximum face-size at most 7 is cyclically

Frédéric Havet; Jean-Sébastien Sereni; Riste Skrekovski

2006-01-01

249

Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND There is uncertainty over whether maternal smoking is associated with birth defects. We conducted the first ever comprehensive systematic review to establish which specific malformations are associated with smoking. METHODS Observational studies published 1959–2010 were identified (Medline), and included if they reported the odds ratio (OR) for having a non-chromosomal birth defect among women who smoked during pregnancy compared with non-smokers. ORs adjusted for potential confounders were extracted (e.g. maternal age and alcohol), otherwise unadjusted estimates were used. One hundred and seventy-two articles were used in the meta-analyses: a total of 173 687 malformed cases and 11 674 332 unaffected controls. RESULTS Significant positive associations with maternal smoking were found for: cardiovascular/heart defects [OR 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.17]; musculoskeletal defects (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05–1.27); limb reduction defects (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.15–1.39); missing/extra digits (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.99–1.41); clubfoot (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10–1.47); craniosynostosis (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03–1.73); facial defects (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.35); eye defects (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11–1.40); orofacial clefts (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36); gastrointestinal defects (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.18–1.36); gastroschisis (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.28–1.76); anal atresia (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06–1.36); hernia (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.23–1.59); and undescended testes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.25). There was a reduced risk for hypospadias (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95) and skin defects (OR 0.82, 0.75–0.89). For all defects combined the OR was 1.01 (0.96–1.07), due to including defects with a reduced risk and those with no association (including chromosomal defects). CONCLUSIONS Birth defects that are positively associated with maternal smoking should now be included in public health educational materials to encourage more women to quit before or during pregnancy. PMID:21747128

Hackshaw, Allan; Rodeck, Charles; Boniface, Sadie

2011-01-01

250

The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

2010-01-01

251

The 3D facial kernel: Application to facial surface spherical mapping and alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for the computation of a novel 3D facial attribute, namely,the face kernel. The first part of the paper exposes the theoretical background related to the kernel computation and demonstrates some properties of the surface kernel. The second part describes two applications of the kernel concept, namely, spherical facial surface mapping and facial surface alignment. This

Naoufel Werghi

2010-01-01

252

Cortico-striatal synaptic defects and OCD-like behaviors in SAPAP3 mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety-spectrum disorder characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive actions (compulsions). Dysfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry is implicated in OCD, though the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unknown. SAP90/PSD95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3) is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein at excitatory synapses that is highly expressed in the striatum. Here we show that mice with genetic deletion of SAPAP3 exhibit increased anxiety and compulsive grooming behavior leading to facial hair loss and skin lesions; both behaviors are alleviated by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Electrophysiological, structural, and biochemical studies of SAPAP3 mutant mice reveal defects in cortico-striatal synapses. Furthermore, lentiviral-mediated selective expression of SAPAP3 in the striatum rescues the synaptic and behavioral defects of SAPAP3 mutant mice. These findings demonstrate a critical role for SAPAP3 at cortico-striatal synapses and emphasize the importance of cortico-striatal circuitry in OCD-like behaviors. PMID:17713528

Welch, Jeffrey M.; Lu, Jing; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Trotta, Nicholas C.; Peca, Joao; Ding, Jin-Dong; Feliciano, Catia; Chen, Meng; Adams, J. Paige; Luo, Jianhong; Dudek, Serena M.; Weinberg, Richard J.; Calakos, Nicole; Wetsel, William C.; Feng, Guoping

2008-01-01

253

Genetics Home Reference: Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... neck, malformations of the eyes and ears, and distinctive facial features. "Branchio-" refers to the branchial arches, which are ... Problems with development of the face lead to distinctive facial features in people with branchio-oculo-facial syndrome. Many ...

254

21 CFR 874.3695 - Mandibular implant facial prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. 874.3695 Section 874.3695...3695 Mandibular implant facial prosthesis. (a) Identification. A mandibular implant facial prosthesis is a device that is...

2010-04-01

255

Reconstruction of a Columellar Defect With a Nasolabial Island Flap  

PubMed Central

Columellar skin defects may be caused by excision of cutaneous malignancy, trauma, or tissue necrosis associated with surgery. Although columellar skin necrosis rarely occurs following rhinoplasty, this condition might be more common when using an external approach than a closed approach. Columellar skin incision performed with exaggerated tip augmentation may cause columellar necrosis. The nasolabial island flap, used unilaterally to cover columellar skin defects, is used for a single-stage reconstruction procedure and is generally not associated with the need for secondary surgeries. This technique is well suited for repairing columellar skin defects. We experienced a patient with columellar skin necrosis occurring after rhinoplasty which was reconstructed using a unilateral single-stage nasolabial island flap. PMID:24917913

Kang, IL Gyu; Jung, Joo Hyun; Kim, Seon Tae

2014-01-01

256

Neuromodulators for Aging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ...

257

Children's Skin Care  

MedlinePLUS

... and facts Prevention and care Children's skin care Children's skin care Daily skin care for toddlers Use ... Protection Factor (SPF) of 30 or higher. If child is prone to skin irritation or allergic reactions, ...

258

Skin Allergy Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...

259

Allergy testing - skin  

MedlinePLUS

Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

260

Skin Anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The skin is composed of three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The thickness of the layers varies with different\\u000a anatomical regions. The epidermis is thickest on the palm and soles, and very thin on the eyelids, while the dermis is thickest\\u000a on the back. Keratinocytes are the main component of the epidermis. Melanocytes are the cells located in the

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman

261

Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

2007-01-01

262

Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

2014-01-01

263

The Science Inside Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS;)

2009-01-01

264

A finite element model of the face including an orthotropic skin model under in vivo tension.  

PubMed

Computer models of the human face have the potential to be used as powerful tools in surgery simulation and animation development applications. While existing models accurately represent various anatomical features of the face, the representation of the skin and soft tissues is very simplified. A computer model of the face is proposed in which the skin is represented by an orthotropic hyperelastic constitutive model. The in vivo tension inherent in skin is also represented in the model. The model was tested by simulating several facial expressions by activating appropriate orofacial and jaw muscles. Previous experiments calculated the change in orientation of the long axis of elliptical wounds on patients' faces for wide opening of the mouth and an open-mouth smile (both 30(o)). These results were compared with the average change of maximum principal stress direction in the skin calculated in the face model for wide opening of the mouth (18(o)) and an open-mouth smile (25(o)). The displacements of landmarks on the face for four facial expressions were compared with experimental measurements in the literature. The corner of the mouth in the model experienced the largest displacement for each facial expression (?11-14 mm). The simulated landmark displacements were within a standard deviation of the measured displacements. Increasing the skin stiffness and skin tension generally resulted in a reduction in landmark displacements upon facial expression. PMID:23919890

Flynn, Cormac; Stavness, Ian; Lloyd, John; Fels, Sidney

2015-05-01

265

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research  

PubMed Central

The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989

SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

2007-01-01

266

Facial allograft transplantation, personal identity and subjectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation is provided in this paper. The identity issues involved in organ transplantation in general, under both theoretical accounts of personal identity and subjective accounts provided by organ recipients, are examined. It is argued that the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation are similar to those involved in organ

J S Swindell

2007-01-01

267

An interactive facial expression generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to generate vivid facial expressions by computers has been an inter- esting and challenging problem for a long time. Some research adopts an anatomical approach by studying the relationships between the expressions and the underlying bones and muscles. On the other hand, MPEG4's SNHC (synthetic\\/natural hybrid coding) provides mechanisms which allow detailed descriptions of facial expressions and animations. Unlike

Chuan-kai Yang; Wei-ting Chiang

2008-01-01

268

Facial palsy: interpretation of neurologic findings.  

PubMed

A review of the otoneurologic findings in 500 patients with facial paralysis revealed their importance for diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the pathophysiology of Bell's palsy. Diagnosis. The presence of simultaneous bilateral palsy, facial paralysis associated with lateral rectus palsy, slowly progressive facial weakness with or without hyperkinesis, and facial paralysis that showed no recovery after six months excluded Bell's palsy from the diagnosis. Ipsilateral recurrent palsies were another indication to suspect an underlying cause, since a tumor of the facial nerve caused the paralysis in 30% of the patients with this finding. Signs such as intact forehead movement, alterations in facial sensation, and corneal hypesthesia--although often associated with lesions in the cerebral cortex, cerebellopontine angle, or internal auditory canal--were also found in patients with Bell's palsy. Prognosis. A spontaneous complete recovery following Bell's palsy occurs in about 70% of the patients; but in the presence of a dry eye or dysacousis, the prognosis for a complete recovery drops 10 and 25%, respectively. Pathophysiology. It is proposed that the wide range of neurologic findings associated with Bell's palsy is due to a viral polyneuropathy. This is a disorder that primarily involves sensory nerves, and the facial motor deficit results from involvement of the sensory fibers carried with the facial nerve within the fallopian canal. PMID:672368

May, M; Hardin, W B

1978-08-01

269

Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Boosted Discriminatory  

E-print Network

to effectively describe the salient features of the face. Temporalboost is used to build classifiers which allow. Such variation include ethnicity, age, facial hair, occlusion, pose and lighting. Many fields benefit from accurate facial expression recognition in- cluding behavioral science, security, communication

Bowden, Richard

270

Expressing Complex Mental States Through Facial Expressions  

E-print Network

animation models for complex emotions based on video clips of professional actors displaying these emotions selected a limited set of emotional facial expressions and defined them as basic emotions, which are universally recognized facial expressions. These basic emotions have been well studied since 1969 and employed

Sezgin, Metin

271

The Ideal of Facial Beauty: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review article we examine the question as to which parameters of facial attraction are amenable to measurement and which tools are available to perform these measurements. The evaluation of facial images, artistic standards, cephalometry, and anthropometry are discussed. Furthermore, we consider how the attractiveness of a face is influenced by symmetry, averageness and distinguishing features such as dental

Mirjam Hönn; Gernot Göz

2007-01-01

272

Comprehensive Database for Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past decade, significant effort has occurred in developing methods of facial expression analysis. Because most investigators have used relatively limited data sets, the generalizability of these various methods remains unknown. We describe the problem space for facial expression analysis, which includes level of description, transitions among expression, eliciting conditions, reliability and validity of training and test data, individual

Takeo Kanade; Ying-li Tian; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2000-01-01

273

Hierarchical Unsupervised Learning of Facial Expression Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of unsupervised classification of temporal sequences of facial expressions in video. This problem arises in the design of an adaptive visual agent, which must be capable of identifying appropriate classes of visual events without supervision to effectively complete its tasks. We present a multilevel dynamic Bayesian network that learns the high-level dynamics of facial expressions simultaneously

Jesse Hoey

2001-01-01

274

Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

2014-06-01

275

Defect branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss some general properties of "defect branes", i.e. branes of co-dimension two, in (toroidally compactified) IIA/IIB string theory. In particular, we give a full classification of the supersymmetric defect branes in dimensions 3?D?10 as well as their higher-dimensional string and M-theory origin as branes and a set of "generalized" Kaluza-Klein monopoles. We point out a relation between the generalized Kaluza-Klein monopole solutions and a particular type of mixed-symmetry tensors. These mixed-symmetry tensors can be defined at the linearized level as duals of the supergravity potentials that describe propagating degrees of freedom. It is noted that the number of supersymmetric defect branes is always twice the number of corresponding central charges in the supersymmetry algebra.

Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Ortín, Tomás; Riccioni, Fabio

2012-03-01

276

Maternal phenylketonuria pregnancy outcome: a preliminary report of facial dysmorphology and major malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion It is clear from the preliminary data that major malformations, i.e. intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly and cardiac defects, tend to decrease in frequency as the blood phenylalanine level drops, but not enough to suggest that phenylalanine levels of 600µmol\\/L are safe levels. The facial dysmorphic features may be used as a sensitive indicator that blood phenylalanine levels should be

B. Rouse; L. Lockhart; R. Matalon; C. Azen; R. Koch; W. Hanley; H. Levy; F. dela Cruz; E. Friedman

1990-01-01

277

Lymphedema Fat Graft: An Ideal Filler for Facial Rejuvenation  

PubMed Central

Lymphedema is a chronic disorder characterized by lymph stasis in the subcutaneous tissue. Lymphatic fluid contains several components including hyaluronic acid and has many important properties. Over the past few years, significant research has been performed to identify an ideal tissue to implant as a filler. Because of its unique composition, fat harvested from the lymphedema tissue is an interesting topic for investigation and has significant potential for application as a filler, particularly in facial rejuvenation. Over a 36-month period, we treated and assessed 8 patients with lymphedematous limbs who concurrently underwent facial rejuvenation with lymphedema fat (LF). We conducted a pre- and post-operative satisfaction questionnaire survey and a histological assessment of the harvested LF fat. The overall mean general appearance score at an average of 6 months after the procedure was 7.2±0.5, demonstrating great improvement. Patients reported significant improvement in their skin texture with a reading of 8.5±0.7 and an improvement in their self-esteem. This study demonstrates that LF as an ideal autologous injectable filler is clinically applicable and easily available in patients with lymphedema. We recommend the further study and clinical use of this tissue as it exhibits important properties and qualities for future applications and research.

Nicoli, Fabio; Chilgar, Ram M.; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Lazzeri, Davide; Sze Wei, Matthew Yeo; Ciudad, Pedro; Nicoli, Marzia; Lim, Seong Yoon; Chen, Pei-Yu; Constantinides, Joannis

2014-01-01

278

[Rosacea - dermocosmetic management: skin-care and corrective make-up].  

PubMed

Rosacea is a common disorder of facial skin. The main symptoms are facial flushing and redness, then persistent redness and pimple-like bumps. The use of gentle cleansing routine and products developed especially for rosacea minimizes skin irritation. Wearing sun protection and limitating sun exposure is highly recommended. Because of its chronic evolution, clinical symptoms such as red-faced effects can substantially impact the quality of life of patients. Corrective make-up can be used to conceal those symptoms, hence improving the quality of life of patients without aggrieving lesions. PMID:25151935

Deshayes, Ph

2014-09-01

279

Facial Orientation and Facial Shape in Extant Great Apes: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Covariation  

PubMed Central

The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232

Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stephane

2013-01-01

280

Assessing tooth color differences in digital facial portraits.  

PubMed

Although a large body of scientific literature shows that background color and luminance affect color perception, previous measurements of tooth color difference thresholds have not taken the effects of viewing context into account. The present study tested the hypothesis that differences in skin/gingival color influence individuals' judgments of tooth color differences. Perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were determined in 10 individuals using a signal detection paradigm. They evaluated 500 pseudo-random presentations of two facial portraits: an African-American and a Caucasian. These portraits varied trial-to-trial only in the direction (CIELAB +L*, +a*, or +b*) or magnitude of the color difference between a portrait's two central incisors. The individuals were significantly less sensitive to tooth color differences in the +L* direction in the Caucasian portrait than for any other combination of color direction or portrait type. Furthermore, comparable perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were generally not statistically significant from each other. PMID:20739690

Lindsey, D T; Wee, A G

2010-11-01

281

The identification of unfolding facial expressions.  

PubMed

We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration. PMID:23025158

Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

2012-01-01

282

Intact facial adaptation in autistic adults.  

PubMed

Adaptation paradigms seek to bias subsequently viewed stimuli through prolonged exposure to an adapting stimulus, thereby giving rise to an aftereffect. Recent experiments have found that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show reduced facial aftereffects, prompting some researchers to speculate that all individuals with ASD exhibit deficient facial adaptation. However, caution is required when generalizing findings from samples of children with ASD to the wider ASD population. The reduced facial aftereffects seen in child samples may instead reflect delayed or atypical developmental trajectories, whereby individuals with ASD are slower to develop adaptive mechanisms. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to determine whether high-functioning adults with ASD also show diminished aftereffects for facial identity and expression. In Experiment 1, using a procedure that minimized the contribution of low-level retinotopic adaptation, we observed substantial aftereffects comparable to those seen in matched controls, for both facial identity and expression. A similar pattern of results was seen in Experiment 2 using a revised procedure that increased the contribution of retinotopic adaptation to the facial aftereffects observed. That adults with autism can show robust facial aftereffects raises the possibility that group differences are seen only at particular points during development, and may not be a lifelong feature of the condition. PMID:24757172

Cook, Richard; Brewer, Rebecca; Shah, Punit; Bird, Geoffrey

2014-08-01

283

Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA  

PubMed Central

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

2014-01-01

284

Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions  

PubMed Central

The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

Milutinovic, Jovana

2014-01-01

285

Organotypical engineering of differentiated composite-skin equivalents of human keratinocytes in a collagen-GAG matrix ( INTEGRA Artificial Skin ) in a perfusion culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The production of autologous composite skin equivalents for the treatment of full-thickness skin defects in burns is time consuming and costly because of laboratory procedures which have to be performed manually. In the present study keratinocytes were seeded into INTEGRA Artificial Skin and placed in a perfusion culture system in order to evaluate the possibility of producing composite grafts

Michael Kremer; Ekkehard Lang; Alfred Berger

2001-01-01

286

UBE2A deficiency syndrome: Mild to severe intellectual disability accompanied by seizures, absent speech, urogenital, and skin anomalies in male patients.  

PubMed

We describe three patients with a comparable deletion encompassing SLC25A43, SLC25A5, CXorf56, UBE2A, NKRF, and two non-coding RNA genes, U1 and LOC100303728. Moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), psychomotor retardation, severely impaired/absent speech, seizures, and urogenital anomalies were present in all three patients. Facial dysmorphisms include ocular hypertelorism, synophrys, and a depressed nasal bridge. These clinical features overlap with those described in two patients from a family with a similar deletion at Xq24 that also includes UBE2A, and in several patients of Brazilian and Polish families with point mutations in UBE2A. Notably, all five patients with an Xq24 deletion have ventricular septal defects that are not present in patients with a point mutation, which might be attributed to the deletion of SLC25A5. Taken together, the UBE2A deficiency syndrome in male patients with a mutation in or a deletion of UBE2A is characterized by ID, absent speech, seizures, urogenital anomalies, frequently including a small penis, and skin abnormalities, which include generalized hirsutism, low posterior hairline, myxedematous appearance, widely spaced nipples, and hair whorls. Facial dysmorphisms include a wide face, a depressed nasal bridge, a large mouth with downturned corners, thin vermilion, and a short, broad neck. PMID:21108393

de Leeuw, Nicole; Bulk, Saskia; Green, Andrew; Jaeckle-Santos, Lane; Baker, Linda A; Zinn, Andrew R; Kleefstra, Tjitske; van der Smagt, Jasper J; Vianne Morgante, Angela Maria; de Vries, Bert B A; van Bokhoven, Hans; de Brouwer, Arjan P M

2010-12-01

287

Categorical perception of affective and linguistic facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX discrimination and identification tasks on morphed affective and linguistic facial expression continua. The continua

Stephen McCullough; Karen Emmorey

2009-01-01

288

Facial soft tissue thickness in Japanese female children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial reconstruction techniques used in forensic anthropology are based on soft tissue thickness measurements. Many studies of facial tissue thickness in adults have been published that take racial background into account. However, the only data on facial thickness in children are derived from studies of American, British, and Hispanic children. The authors therefore measured facial tissue thickness in Japanese children,

Hajime Utsuno; Tooru Kageyama; Toshio Deguchi; Mineo Yoshino; Hiroo Miyazawa; Katsuhiro Inoue

2005-01-01

289

Facial Dysmorphism Across the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Classic facial characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) are shortened palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum, and thin upper vermillion. We aim to help pediatricians detect facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum, especially among nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE) individuals without classic facial characteristics. METHODS: Of 192 Cape Coloured children recruited, 69 were born to women who reported abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy. According to multifaceted criteria, the remainder were allocated clinically to the FAS (n = 22), partial FAS (n = 26) or nonsyndromal HE (n = 75) categories. We used dense surface modeling and signature analyses of 3-dimensional facial photographs to determine agreement between clinical categorization and classifications induced from face shape alone, to visualize facial differences, and to consider predictive links between face shape and neurobehavior. RESULTS: Face classification achieved significant agreement with clinical categories for discrimination of nonexposed from FAS alone (face: 0.97–1.00; profile: 0.92) or with the addition of partial FAS (face: 0.90; profile: 0.92). Visualizations of face signatures delineated dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum and in half of the nonsyndromal HE category face signature graphs detected facial characteristics consistent with prenatal alcohol exposure. This subgroup performed less well on IQ and learning tests than did nonsyndromal subjects without classic facial characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Heat maps and morphing visualizations of face signatures may help clinicians detect facial dysmorphism across the fetal alcohol spectrum. Face signature graphs show potential for identifying nonsyndromal heavily exposed children who lack the classic facial phenotype but have cognitive impairment. PMID:23439907

Suttie, Michael; Foroud, Tatiana; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Khaole, Nathaniel; Robinson, Luther K.; Riley, Edward P.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

2013-01-01

290

Guidelines and recommendations for assessment of somatosensory function in oro-facial pain conditions--a taskforce report.  

PubMed

The goals of an international taskforce on somatosensory testing established by the Special Interest Group of Oro-facial Pain (SIG-OFP) under the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) were to (i) review the literature concerning assessment of somatosensory function in the oro-facial region in terms of techniques and test performance, (ii) provide guidelines for comprehensive and screening examination procedures, and (iii) give recommendations for future development of somatosensory testing specifically in the oro-facial region. Numerous qualitative and quantitative psychophysical techniques have been proposed and used in the description of oro-facial somatosensory function. The selection of technique includes time considerations because the most reliable and accurate methods require multiple repetitions of stimuli. Multiple-stimulus modalities (mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical) have been applied to study oro-facial somatosensory function. A battery of different test stimuli is needed to obtain comprehensive information about the functional integrity of the various types of afferent nerve fibres. Based on the available literature, the German Neuropathic Pain Network test battery appears suitable for the study of somatosensory function within the oro-facial area as it is based on a wide variety of both qualitative and quantitative assessments of all cutaneous somatosensory modalities. Furthermore, these protocols have been thoroughly described and tested on multiple sites including the facial skin and intra-oral mucosa. Standardisation of both comprehensive and screening examination techniques is likely to improve the diagnostic accuracy and facilitate the understanding of neural mechanisms and somatosensory changes in different oro-facial pain conditions and may help to guide management. PMID:21241350

Svensson, P; Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; List, T; Eliav, E; Ettlin, D; Michelotti, A; Tsukiyama, Y; Matsuka, Y; Jääskeläinen, S K; Essick, G; Greenspan, J D; Drangsholt, M

2011-05-01

291

Rapid Facial Mimicry In Geladas  

PubMed Central

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM) is an automatic response, in which individuals mimic others' expressions. RFM, only demonstrated in humans and apes, is grounded in the automatic perception-action coupling of sensorimotor information occurring in the mirror neuron system. In humans, RFM seems to reflect the capacity of individuals to empathize with others. Here, we demonstrated that, during play, RFM is also present in a cercopithecoid species (Theropithecus gelada). Mother-infant play sessions were not only characterized by the highest levels of RFM, but also by the fastest responses. Our findings suggest that RFM in humans have homologous not only in apes, but also in cercopitecoids. Moreover, data point to similarities in the modality in which mother-infant synchronous behaviours are expressed among primates, suggesting a common evolutionary root in the basic elements of mother-infant affective exchanges. PMID:23538990

Mancini, Giada; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Palagi, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

292

SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2010-05-26

293

New "Golden" Ratios for Facial Beauty  

PubMed Central

In four experiments, we tested the existence of an ideal facial feature arrangement that could optimize the attractiveness of any face given its facial features. Participants made paired comparisons of attractiveness between faces with identical facial features but different eye-mouth distances and different interocular distances. We found that although different faces have varying attractiveness, individual attractiveness is optimized when the face’s vertical distance between the eyes and the mouth is approximately 36% of its length, and the horizontal distance between the eyes is approximately 46% of the face’s width. These “new” golden ratios match those of an average face. PMID:19896961

Pallett, Pamela M.; Link, Stephen; Lee, Kang

2009-01-01

294

Performance-driven facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computer graphics technique rises to the challenge of rendering lifelike performers, more lifelike performance is required. The techniques used to animate robots, arthropods, and suits of armor, have been extended to flexible surfaces of fur and flesh. Physical models of muscle and skin have been devised. But more complex databases and sophisticated physical modeling do not directly address the

Lance Williams

1990-01-01

295

Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust: male facial width and trustworthiness.  

PubMed

Decisions about whom to trust are biased by stable facial traits such as attractiveness, similarity to kin, and perceived trustworthiness. Research addressing the validity of facial trustworthiness or its basis in facial features is scarce, and the results have been inconsistent. We measured male trustworthiness operationally in trust games in which participants had options to collaborate for mutual financial gain or to exploit for greater personal gain. We also measured facial (bizygomatic) width (scaled for face height) because this is a sexually dimorphic, testosterone-linked trait predictive of male aggression. We found that men with greater facial width were more likely to exploit the trust of others and that other players were less likely to trust male counterparts with wide rather than narrow faces (independent of their attractiveness). Moreover, manipulating this facial-width ratio with computer graphics controlled attributions of trustworthiness, particularly for subordinate female evaluators. PMID:20424067

Stirrat, M; Perrett, D I

2010-03-01

296

NF-?B accumulation associated with COL1A1 transactivators defects during chronological aging represses type I collagen expression through a -112/-61-bp region of the COL1A1 promoter in human skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The aging process, especially of the skin, is governed by changes in the epidermal, dermo-epidermal, and dermal compartments. Type I collagen, which is the major component of dermis extracellular matrix (ECM), constitutes a prime target for intrinsic and extrinsic aging-related alterations. In addition, under the aging process, pro-inflammatory signals are involved and collagens are fragmented owing to enhanced matrix metalloproteinase activities, and fibroblasts are no longer able to properly synthesize collagen fibrils. Here, we demonstrated that low levels of type I collagen detected in aged skin fibroblasts are attributable to an inhibition of COL1A1 transcription. Indeed, on one hand, we observed decreased binding activities of specific proteins 1 and 3, CCAAT-binding factor, and human collagen-Krüppel box, which are well-known COL1A1 transactivators acting through the -112/-61-bp promoter sequence. On the other hand, the aging process was accompanied by elevated amounts and binding activities of NF-?B (p65 and p50 subunits), together with an increased number of senescent cells. The forced expression of NF-?B performed in young fibroblasts was able to establish an old-like phenotype by repressing COL1A1 expression through the short -112/-61-bp COL1A1 promoter and by elevating the senescent cell distribution. The concomitant decrease of transactivator functions and increase of transinhibitor activity is responsible for ECM dysfunction, leading to aging/senescence in dermal fibroblasts. PMID:22673730

Bigot, Nicolas; Beauchef, Gallic; Hervieu, Magalie; Oddos, Thierry; Demoor, Magali; Boumediene, Karim; Galéra, Philippe

2012-10-01

297

Healthy Skin Matters  

MedlinePLUS

... moisturizing cream or lotion. Enjoy being in the sun—but protect your skin Your skin produces vitamin ... and other body systems healthy. However, too much sun can damage your skin and increase your risk ...

298

Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779413

Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

2011-01-01

299

Facial preferences in early adolescent girls: pubertal maturity predicts preferences maturity.  

PubMed

Despite numerous studies on perception of facial attractiveness in adults, preferences in adolescents remain poorly recognized. The aim of present study was to explore facial preferences in girls at early adolescence (11-14 years old) and compare them with preferences of women. All females evaluated the same 30 male faces, which were also assessed by independent judges for several perceived features. Regardless of age, girls assessed attractiveness much the same as women, and the strengths of their preferences for specific facial features were similar to those of women. Except for the youngest girls, pubertal maturity (measured as the time elapsed since the menarche and breast development) correlated positively with the similarity of the girls' attractiveness evaluations to those of adult women and with strength of preference for cues to good biological quality (skin healthiness and sexy appearance). This remained true even after controlling for age and psychosexual development, suggesting thus that sex hormones are involved in development of facial preferences in pubescent girls. PMID:24308210

Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

2013-09-01

300

Double heterozygous mutations of MITF and PAX3 result in Waardenburg syndrome with increased penetrance in pigmentary defects.  

PubMed

Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary defects of the hair, skin, and iris. Heterozygous mutations of MITF and its transactivator gene PAX3 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) and type I (WS1), respectively. Most patients with MITF or PAX3 mutations, however, show variable penetrance of WS-associated phenotypes even within families segregating the same mutation, possibly mediated by genetic background or specific modifiers. In this study, we reported a rare Waardenburg syndrome simplex family in which a pair of WS parents gave birth to a child with double heterozygous mutations of MITF and PAX3. Compared to his parents who carried a single mutation in either MITF or PAX3, this child showed increased penetrance of pigmentary defects including white forelock, white eyebrows and eyelashes, and patchy facial depigmentation. This observation suggested that the expression level of MITF is closely correlated to the penetrance of WS, and variants in transcription regulator genes of MITF may modify the relevant clinical phenotypes. PMID:22320238

Yang, T; Li, X; Huang, Q; Li, L; Chai, Y; Sun, L; Wang, X; Zhu, Y; Wang, Z; Huang, Z; Li, Y; Wu, H

2013-01-01

301

Crowdsourced data collection of facial responses  

E-print Network

In the past, collecting data to train facial expression and affect recognition systems has been time consuming and often led to data that do not include spontaneous expressions. We present the first crowdsourced data ...

el Kaliouby, Rana

302

MHC-assortative facial preferences in humans  

PubMed Central

Individuals tend to choose mates who are sufficiently genetically dissimilar to avoid inbreeding. As facial attractiveness is a key factor in human mate preference, we investigated whether facial preferences were related to genetic dissimilarity. We asked female volunteers to rate the attractiveness of men from photographs and compared these results with individual genotypes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In contrast to previously reported preferences based on odour, we found a non-significant tendency for women to rate MHC-similar faces as more attractive, suggesting a preference for cues to a self-similar MHC in faces. Further analysis revealed that male faces received higher attractiveness scores when rated by women who were MHC-similar than by MHC-dissimilar women. Although unexpected, this MHC-similar facial preference is consistent with other studies documenting assortative preferences in humans, including for facial phenotype. PMID:17148217

Roberts, S. Craig; Little, Anthony C; Gosling, L. Morris; Jones, Benedict C; Perrett, David I; Carter, Vaughan; Petrie, Marion

2005-01-01

303

Facial reconstruction using 3-D computer graphics.  

PubMed

Facial reconstruction using 3-D computer graphics is being used in our institute as a routine procedure in forensic cases as well as for skulls of historical and archaeological interest. Skull and facial data from living subjects is acquired using an optical laser scanning system. For the production of the reconstructed image, we employ facial reconstruction software which is constructed using the TCL/Tk scripting language, the latter making use of the C3D system. The computer image may then be exported to enable the production of a solid model, employing, for example, stereolithography. The image can also be modified within an identikit system which allows the addition of facial features as appropriate. PMID:10722195

Vanezi, P; Vanezis, M; McCombe, G; Niblett, T

2000-02-14

304

Authentic Facial Expression Analysis , Michael S. Lew  

E-print Network

Authentic Facial Expression Analysis Nicu Sebe , Michael S. Lew ¡ , Ira Cohen ¢ , Yafei Sun £ , Theo Gevers , Thomas S. Huang ¤ ¥ Faculty of Science, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands ¦ nicu

Sebe, Nicu

305

Preliminary performance assessment of computer automated facial approximations using computed tomography scans of living individuals.  

PubMed

ReFace (Reality Enhancement Facial Approximation by Computational Estimation) is a computer-automated facial approximation application jointly developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and GE Global Research. The application derives a statistically based approximation of a face from a unidentified skull using a dataset of ~400 human head computer tomography (CT) scans of living adult American individuals from four ancestry groups: African, Asian, European and Hispanic (self-identified). To date only one unpublished subjective recognition study has been conducted using ReFace approximations. It indicated that approximations produced by ReFace were recognized above chance rates (10%). This preliminary study assesses: (i) the recognizability of five ReFace approximations; (ii) the recognizability of CT-derived skin surface replicas of the same individuals whose skulls were used to create the ReFace approximations; and (iii) the relationship between recognition performance and resemblance ratings of target individuals. All five skin surface replicas were recognized at rates statistically significant above chance (22-50%). Four of five ReFace approximations were recognized above chance (5-18%), although with statistical significance only at the higher rate. Such results suggest reconsideration of the usefulness of the type of output format utilized in this study, particularly in regard to facial approximations employed as a means of identifying unknown individuals. PMID:24314512

Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H; Monson, Keith L

2013-12-10

306

Acoustic neuroma surgery and delayed facial palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed onset of facial palsy is possibly an underestimated but distressing complication of acoustic neuroma surgery. The\\u000a incidence of this complication reported in the literature has varied from 11.7 to 41%.This study reviewed retrospectively\\u000a 60 primary acoustic neuroma surgeries performed by a single neurotologist. The deelayed onset of facial dysfunction was defined\\u000a according to the guidelines described by of Lalwani

G. Magliulo; C. Sepe; S. Varacalli; J. Crupi

1998-01-01

307

Impaired Biomechanical Properties of Diabetic Skin  

PubMed Central

Diabetic skin is known to have deficient wound healing properties, but little is known of its intrinsic biomechanical properties. We hypothesize that diabetic skin possesses inferior biomechanical properties at baseline, rendering it more prone to injury. Skin from diabetic and nondiabetic mice and humans underwent biomechanical testing. Real-time PCR was performed for genes integral to collagen synthesis and degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9, and TIMP-1 protein levels were assessed by ELISA and zymography. Collagen I and III content was assessed using Western blot analysis. At baseline, both murine and human diabetic skin was biomechanically inferior compared to nondiabetic skin, with decreased maximum stress and decreased modulus (P < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in collagen synthesis were significantly up-regulated, and genes involved in collagen degradation were significantly down-regulated in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.01). In addition, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 protein ratios were significantly lower in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.05). Collagen I levels and I:III ratios were lower in diabetic skin (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the predisposition of diabetics to wounds may be the result of impaired tissue integrity at baseline, and are due, in part, to a defect in the regulation of collagen protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21514435

Bermudez, Dustin M.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Lind, Robert; Beason, David P.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

2011-01-01

308

Artificial Skin in Robotics.  

E-print Network

??Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems.… (more)

Strohmayr, Michael

2012-01-01

309

Facial allograft transplantation, personal identity and subjectivity  

PubMed Central

An analysis of the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation is provided in this paper. The identity issues involved in organ transplantation in general, under both theoretical accounts of personal identity and subjective accounts provided by organ recipients, are examined. It is argued that the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation are similar to those involved in organ transplantation in general, but much stronger because the face is so closely linked with personal identity. Recipients of facial allograft transplantation have the potential to feel that their identity is a mix between their own and the donor's, and the donor's family is potentially likely to feel that their loved one “lives on”. It is also argued that facial allograft transplantation allows the recipients to regain an identity, because they can now be seen in the social world. Moreover, they may regain expressivity, allowing for them to be seen even more by others, and to regain an identity to an even greater extent. Informing both recipients and donors about the role that identity plays in facial allograft transplantation could enhance the consent process for facial allograft transplantation and donation. PMID:17664301

Swindell, J S

2007-01-01

310

Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability  

PubMed Central

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: 1) DS individuals (n=55); 2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n=55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n=55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2013-01-01

311

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

PubMed

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2013-05-01

312

Facial Morphogenesis of the Earliest Europeans  

PubMed Central

The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900–800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor. PMID:23762314

Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; de Castro, Jose Maria Bermudez; Martinon-Torres, Maria; O'Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L.; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G.

2013-01-01

313

Reinnervation of facial muscles with only a cross-facial nerve graft in a 25-year-old patient with congenital facial palsy.  

PubMed

The standard method for managing chronic facial palsy is the two-stage free-muscle flap. We report a case involving a 25-year-old patient who had facial palsy from her birth. Twelve months after the first stage of a cross-facial nerve graft, we found that the voluntary movements of her facial muscles had returned. Within the following 12 months, she gained complete recovery of her movements on the affected side, as confirmed by electromyography studies. This case demonstrates that neurotization of facial muscles in chronic facial palsy is possible. However, further studies are needed to define the trophic effects or trophic mediators that can restore function to atrophied facial muscles and to determine which patients might benefit from the cross-facial nerve graft procedure without the free-muscle graft procedure. PMID:25025423

Seyed-Forootan, Kamal; Karimi, Hamid; Hasani, Esmaiil

2014-07-01

314

Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes  

DOEpatents

Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

Pinnau, Ingo (Austin, TX); Koros, William J. (Austin, TX)

1990-01-01

315

Development of an in vitro skin permeation model simulating atopic dermatitis skin for the evaluation of dermatological products.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis (AD) skin has a defective barrier function as indicated by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In order to test potential new formulations for AD, it was our aim to develop a skin permeation model simulating AD skin by inducing barrier impairment to otherwise healthy skin simulating the barrier properties of AD skin as evaluated by TEWL measurements. Pig ear skin was mounted to Franz-type diffusion cells. Skin barrier impairment was induced by tape strippings. As the number of strips increased, higher TEWL values were obtained. By performing 25 tape strippings, the TEWL value within the range reported for involved skin of AD patients was reached. The in vitro skin permeation of fusidic acid and betamethasone-17-valerate was found to correlate with the number of tape strippings used to remove stratum corneum cell layers. A comparison of the permeability of fusidic acid and betamethasone-17-valerate from Fucicort cream to a new Fucicort Lipid formulation was studied with intact (0 strippings) and barrier-impaired skin simulating involved AD skin (25 strippings). As opposed to intact skin, no statistically significant difference through barrier-impaired skin was found for fusidic acid and betamethasone-17-valerate for the two formulations. This is in accordance with the clinical results of an international multicentre study and thus confirms the predictability of the model. PMID:17587887

Simonsen, L; Fullerton, A

2007-01-01

316

Management of Velopharyngeal Defects: A Review  

PubMed Central

Success in Maxillofacial Prosthetics depends on full cognizance of the principles that underlie facial harmony, anchorage and retention, weight bearing and leverage, durability, tissue compatibility and tolerance. The maxillofacial prosthodontist normally provides appliances to restore aesthetics and function to the patients who cannot be restored to normal appearances or functions by means of plastic reconstructions. The velopharynx is a dynamic anatomic structure which is essential for normal breathing, eating, and speaking. The soft palate acts as a separator between oral and nasal cavities. Impairment of velopharyngeal function can be caused by insufficiency or incompetency. This article describes in brief about velopharyngeal defects and their management. PMID:24783161

Shetty, Nitin Bhaskar; Shetty, Sanyuktha; E., Nagraj; D'Souza, Raina; Shetty, Omkar

2014-01-01

317

The prevalence of Demodex folliculorum on the scrotum and male perineal skin.  

PubMed

Demodex folliculorum (D. folliculorum) is a human ectoparasite that resides in the pilosebasceous skin unit. Common sites of predilection are the skin of cheeks, forehead, nose, nasolabial fold and eyelids. Genital D. folliculorum inoculation case reports are extremely rare and depend on investigation of skin lesions. There is no study of genital skin without lesions, and, as far as we know, there is no literature on D. folliculorum prevalence in male genital skin. We examined D. folliculorum prevalence on the healthy scrotum and male perineum. One hundred males were examined for D. folliculorum on facial and genital skin. Samples were taken from cheek, forehead, scrotum and perineum by standard skin surface biopsy (SSSB) or hair epilation. The mean age was 53.5+/-13.0 (24-70) years. Eight percent of males had D. folliculorum on their facial skin. Mean Demodex density (Dd) of men with D. folliculorum positivity was 5.1+/- 2.9/ cm (2)(2-9/cm(2)). Diagnostic results of both sampling methods were similar. No D. folliculorum was demonstrated on genital skin. PMID:19367543

U?ra?, Murat; Miman, Ozlem; Karincaoglu, Yelda; Atambay, Metin

2009-01-01

318

Facial Pain Followed by Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Case Report with Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection. The treatment included extraction of the associated tooth followed by endodontic treatment of the neighboring tooth which resulted in recovery of facial nerve plasy. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making any diagnosis. It is essential to rule out other causes of facial paralysis before making the definitive diagnosis, which implies the intervention. The authors hereby, report a case of 32-year-old male patient who developed unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection with a good prognosis after appropriate treatment. PMID:25302280

GV, Sowmya; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

319

Recordings from the facial nucleus in the rat: signs of abnormal facial muscle response  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of results of electrophysiological studies in patients undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) operations to relieve hemifacial spasm (HFS), we have postulated that the abnormal muscle response characteristically found in patients with HFS is the result of irritation of the facial nerve by the blood vessel that is compressing the facial nerve near its exit from the brainstem in

A. R. Møller; C. N. Sen

1990-01-01

320

Running head: IMPORTANCE OF FACIAL DYNAMICS Deciphering the Enigmatic Face: The Importance of Facial Dynamics  

E-print Network

displays of intense emotions. As a result of this limited focus on exaggerated static facial expressions focused on static displays of intense expressions. Consequently, researchers may have underestimated while others are subtle and fleeting. Despite the great diversity of facial expression displays

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

321

Facial reconstruction: The art of the science Facial reconstruction has now become a very important part  

E-print Network

important part of research considerations in Forensic Sciences. Part of the rea- son for this has been and animates any human face. Eventually, the results of this kind of work would be extremely useful to forensicEDITORIAL Facial reconstruction: The art of the science Facial reconstruction has now become a very

Frey, Pascal

322

Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition  

E-print Network

Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Beat derived descriptions are computed by Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and Probabilistic Latent Semantic and Retrieval]: Content Analysis and Indexing--Indexing Methods General Terms Algorithms, Theory Keywords Latent

Gatica-Perez, Daniel

323

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been established systematically to detect structural muscular changes after facial nerve lesion. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate quantitative assessment of MRI muscle volume data for facial muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with facial palsy were recruited. Using manual or semiautomatic segmentation of 3T MRI, volume measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control. Results: All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex or age effects were not seen (all P > 0.05). There was no facial asymmetry with exception of the zygomaticus major (larger on the left side; P = 0.012). The exploratory examination of 5 patients revealed considerably smaller muscle volumes on the palsy side 2 months after facial injury. One patient with chronic palsy showed substantial muscle volume decrease, which also occurred in another patient with incomplete chronic palsy restricted to the involved facial area. Facial nerve reconstruction led to mixed results of decreased but also increased muscle volumes on the palsy side compared with the healthy side. Conclusions: First systematic quantitative MRI volume measures of 5 different clinical presentations of facial paralysis are provided. PMID:25289366

Volk, Gerd F.; Karamyan, Inna; Klingner, Carsten M.; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.

2014-01-01

324

Experimental model for bone regeneration in oral and cranio-maxillo-facial surgery.  

PubMed

Bone and tooth loss, as a result of trauma, anatomical or congenital reasons, cancer, and periodontal disease, is a common therapeutic problem in the fields of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery and periodontics. The proposed techniques for the treatment of various bone defects encountered include bone grafts, bone substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, and distraction osteogenesis as well as their combinations. In addition, dental implants have been successfully utilized for the restoration of full or partial edentulism. The introduction and development of new therapeutic approaches and devices demand the use of appropriate animal models that present bone anatomy and healing comparable to human. Among other animal models, the pig is extensively documented in several biomedical areas and has been largely used in maxillo-facial surgery and implants dentistry-related research. Anatomical and physiological similarities with human in size, physiology, and bone biology contribute to a successful involvement of this animal to understand and treat various osseous lesions. However, improvements and standardization are requested with respect to consistency and discrimination abilities. The aim of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature related to swine models for the evaluation of cranio-maxillo-facial osseous defect healing, regeneration, and bone-implant interface. This review should assist researchers in the field to select the most appropriate model for each dedicated purpose and also contribute to stimulate an innovative thinking on the use of porcine models. PMID:23957784

Mardas, Nikos; Dereka, Xanthippi; Donos, Nikolaos; Dard, Michel

2014-02-01

325

Face processing in children with autism spectrum disorder: independent or interactive processing of facial identity and facial expression?  

PubMed

The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity disregarding emotional expression. Typically developing children processed facial identity independently from facial expressions but processed facial expressions in interaction with identity. Children with autism processed both facial expression and identity independently of each other. They selectively directed their attention to one facial parameter despite variations in the other. Results indicate that there is no interaction in processing facial identity and emotional expression in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:20839043

Krebs, Julia F; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-06-01

326

Hereditary family signature of facial expression  

PubMed Central

Although facial expressions of emotion are universal, individual differences create a facial expression “signature” for each person; but, is there a unique family facial expression signature? Only a few family studies on the heredity of facial expressions have been performed, none of which compared the gestalt of movements in various emotional states; they compared only a few movements in one or two emotional states. No studies, to our knowledge, have compared movements of congenitally blind subjects with their relatives to our knowledge. Using two types of analyses, we show a correlation between movements of congenitally blind subjects with those of their relatives in think-concentrate, sadness, anger, disgust, joy, and surprise and provide evidence for a unique family facial expression signature. In the analysis “in-out family test,” a particular movement was compared each time across subjects. Results show that the frequency of occurrence of a movement of a congenitally blind subject in his family is significantly higher than that outside of his family in think-concentrate, sadness, and anger. In the analysis “the classification test,” in which congenitally blind subjects were classified to their families according to the gestalt of movements, results show 80% correct classification over the entire interview and 75% in anger. Analysis of the movements' frequencies in anger revealed a correlation between the movements' frequencies of congenitally blind individuals and those of their relatives. This study anticipates discovering genes that influence facial expressions, understanding their evolutionary significance, and elucidating repair mechanisms for syndromes lacking facial expression, such as autism. PMID:17043232

Peleg, Gili; Katzir, Gadi; Peleg, Ofer; Kamara, Michal; Brodsky, Leonid; Hel-Or, Hagit; Keren, Daniel; Nevo, Eviatar

2006-01-01

327

Epidermal barrier formation and recovery in skin disorders  

PubMed Central

Skin is at the interface between the complex physiology of the body and the external, often hostile, environment, and the semipermeable epidermal barrier prevents both the escape of moisture and the entry of infectious or toxic substances. Newborns with rare congenital barrier defects underscore the skin’s essential role in a terrestrial environment and demonstrate the compensatory responses evoked ex utero to reestablish a barrier. Common inflammatory skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis exhibit decreased barrier function, and recent studies suggest that the complex response of epidermal cells to barrier disruption may aggravate, maintain, or even initiate such conditions. Either aiding barrier reestablishment or dampening the epidermal stress response may improve the treatment of these disorders. This Review discusses the molecular regulation of the epidermal barrier as well as causes and potential treatments for defects of barrier formation and proposes that medical management of barrier disruption may positively affect the course of common skin disorders. PMID:16670755

Segre, Julia A.

2006-01-01

328

Sympathetic skin responses of the face and neck evoked by electrical stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were recorded from different facial regions and neck in 25 subjects evoked by electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. Recordings from all regions were cross-compared with each other and within right and left sides individually. In one subject postauricular SSR, and in another subject upper lip SSR could not be elicited on

Serpil Kuyucu Yildiz; Sule Ayd?n Turkoglu; Nebil Yildiz; Ayhan Ozturk; Fatma Tore

2007-01-01

329

Unilateral Multiple Facial Nerve Branch Reconstruction Using “End-to-side Loop Graft” Supercharged by Hypoglossal Nerve  

PubMed Central

Background: Extensive facial nerve defects between the facial nerve trunk and its branches can be clinically reconstructed by incorporating double innervation into an end-to-side loop graft technique. This study developed a new animal model to evaluate the technique’s ability to promote nerve regeneration. Methods: Rats were divided into the intact, nonsupercharge, and supercharge groups. Artificially created facial nerve defects were reconstructed with a nerve graft, which was end-to-end sutured from proximal facial nerve stump to the mandibular branch (nonsupercharge group), or with the graft of which other end was end-to-side sutured to the hypoglossal nerve (supercharge group). And they were evaluated after 30 weeks. Results: Axonal diameter was significantly larger in the supercharge group than in the nonsupercharge group for the buccal (3.78 ± 1.68 vs 3.16 ± 1.22; P < 0.0001) and marginal mandibular branches (3.97 ± 2.31 vs 3.46 ± 1.57; P < 0.0001), but the diameter was significantly larger in the intact group for all branches except the temporal branch. In the supercharge group, compound muscle action potential amplitude was significantly higher than in the nonsupercharge group (4.18 ± 1.49 mV vs 1.87 ± 0.37 mV; P < 0.0001) and similar to that in the intact group (4.11 ± 0.68 mV). Retrograde labeling showed that the mimetic muscles were double-innervated by facial and hypoglossal nerve nuclei in the supercharge group. Conclusions: Multiple facial nerve branch reconstruction with an end-to-side loop graft was able to achieve axonal distribution. Additionally, axonal supercharge from the hypoglossal nerve significantly improved outcomes. PMID:25426357

Sasaki, Ryo; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Niimi, Yosuke; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Mariko; Yamato, Masayuki

2014-01-01

330

Transvenous approach to carotid-cavernous fistula via facial vein cut down.  

PubMed

Endovascular access to carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF) can be obtained through a transfemoral approach to the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) or superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). If the transfemoral approach cannot be utilized, direct surgical exposure of the SOV can provide access to the CCF. The authors present an alternate approach to a CCF in a 66-year-old woman in whom the IPS was thrombosed and the facial vein so tortuous at its origin that it could not be passed with a wire. The facial vein was exposed surgically at the angle of the mandible after percutaneous attempts failed. After localization of the anterior facial vein with ultrasound, a 1 cm skin incision was made over the margin of the mandible. The dissected vein was cannulated using a micropuncture technique and a 0.018 inch wire. A four French short access sheath was inserted and sutured to the vein. Subsequent venogram allowed navigation of an SL-10 microcatheter over a Synchro soft microwire (both Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) via the SOV into the cavernous sinus, and coil embolization was performed with angiographic cure of the fistula. No complications were encountered and the cosmetic result of the small incision of the mandibular region was excellent and less conspicuous than it would have been on the eyelid. This technical note illustrates that facial vein cut down is an attractive and safe alternate approach to endovascular management of CCF via a transvenous route in patients with a focally narrowed and tortuous IPS and common facial vein. PMID:24387933

Thiex, Ruth; Gross, Bradley A; Gupta, Rishi; Wyers, Mark C; Frerichs, Kai U; Thomas, Ajith J

2014-07-01

331

Personality profiles of youngsters with velo-cardio-facial syndrome.  

PubMed

The personality profile of 48 youngsters (24 males and 24 females, mean age 8 years, 5 months) with Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS) was compared with a group of 240 non VCFS control youngsters (matched on age and gender), and, in addition, with groups of youngsters with Prader-Willi (PWS), Fragile X (FXS), and Williams Syndromes (WS). Personality characteristics of each youngster were rated by both parents, using the California Child Q-set (CCQ). The scores on eight personality dimensions were compared, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Openness, Motor Activity, Irritability, and Dependency. Moreover, Individual differences in personality of VCFS youngsters were related to IQ level, presence or absence of cardiac defects, and de novo versus familial origin of VCFS. The personality profile of VCFS youngsters was markedly different from all non-VCFS groups. Compared to the 240 control children, they were equally extravert and agreeable, less conscientious and emotional stable and more Irritable and dependent. Some personality characteristics in youngsters with VCFS were related to IQ and Age, but not to cardiac defects or de novo versus familial genetic origin of the 22q11 deletion. PMID:12416634

Prinzie, P; Swillen, A; Vogels, A; Kockuyt, V; Curfs, L; Haselager, G; Hellinckx, W; Devriendt, K; Onghena, P; Van Lieshout, C F M; Fryns, J P

2002-01-01

332

[LLL plasty: simple procedure for coverage of cutaneous defects].  

PubMed

Skin defects may be due to several causes: trauma, surgical excision of malignant or benign, even malformative pathologies. The aim of this work is to report the interest of the LLL flap (L for Lozenge) (Dufourmental flap) in the coverage of the skin defects that sometimes may reach high dimensions or being located in areas of lower skin extensibility. We report a study involving 26 patients who all benefited from this technique having skin defects due to different causes and serving in different locations. LLL plasty allowed a first closure in all patients. The cosmetic result was good and no recovery was necessary. LL plasty was first described in 1962 to cover limited skin defects. However, it requires some precision in its execution. This is a simple and reproducible procedure with considerable interest for its potential in the coverage of cutaneous defects in the face and that can reach up than 8cm. The scar would be reduced if we took care to match the areas of sutures with the shaded areas of the face (groove…). While allowing a better distribution of tension, this technique has demonstrated its superiority compared to direct suture, which the indication is limited by the size of the defect and its location (peri-orificial…) and other techniques that are similar as the Limberg flap. PMID:21251745

Ettalbi, S; Droussi, H; Ouahbi, S; Ibnouzahir, M; Boukind, E H

2013-08-01

333

Multidirectional Vector Excision Leads to Better Outcomes than Traditional Elliptical Excision of Facial Congenital Melanocytic Nevus  

PubMed Central

Background The elliptical excision is the standard method of removing benign skin lesions, such as congenital melanocytic nevi. This technique allows for primary closure, with little to no dog-ear deformity, but may sacrifice normal tissue adjacent to the lesion, resulting in scars which are unnecessarily long. This study was designed to compare the predicted results of elliptical excision with those resulting from our excision technique. Methods Eighty-two patients with congenital melanocytic nevus on the face were prospectively studied. Each lesion was examined and an optimal ellipse was designed and marked on the skin. After an incision on one side of the nevus margin, subcutaneous undermining was performed in the appropriate direction. The skin flap was pulled up and approximated along several vectors to minimize the occurrence of dog-ear deformity. Results Overall, the final wound length was 21.1% shorter than that achieved by elliptical excision. Only 8.5% of the patients required dog-ear repair. There was no significant distortion of critical facial structures. All of the scars were deemed aesthetically acceptable based on their Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale scores. Conclusions When compared to elliptical excision, our technique appears to minimize dogear deformity and decrease the final wound length. This technique should be considered an alternative method for excision of facial nevi. PMID:24086812

Oh, Seung Il

2013-01-01

334

Selective expression of a normal action of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor in human skin fibroblasts with hereditary severe defects in multiple actions of that receptor.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated three actions of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3] in human skin fibroblasts to test for heterogeneity in hormone-response coupling. In fibroblasts from normal subjects the 1,25-(OH)2D3 concentrations for half-maximal effect (EC50) were: for mitogenic effect 0.0001-0.0005 nM, for antimitogenic effect 1 nM, and for induction of 25-OHD3 24-hydroxylase (24-OHase) 5 nM. To evaluate the effects of mutations presumed to be in the gene for the 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptor we examined cell lines representing four kindreds with hereditary resistance to 1,25-(OH)2D3 ("mutant" cell lines). In one mutant cell line all three 1,25-(OH)2D3 actions were severely abnormal. In one mutant cell line 24-OHase induction and mitogenic action were undetectable, but EC50 and maximal effect were normal for antimitogenic action of 1,25-(OH)2D3. In two mutant cell lines 24-OHase induction and antimitogenic actions were undetectable or severely impaired but mitogenic action were undetectable or severely impaired but mitogenic action was normal in EC50 and normal or increased in maximal effect. The mitogenic and antimitogenic actions in normal cells showed a similar profile of potency ratios for 1,25-(OH)2D3 and six analogues. Whenever a mutant cell showed a normal or even an abnormal mitogenic or antimitogenic effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3, these effects showed potency ratios similar to wild type, suggesting mediation by a similar 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptor. We conclude that three 1,25-(OH)2D3 actions show important differences in hormone response coupling indicated by differences in EC50 for 1,25-(OH)2D3 and by different consequences of receptor mutations. PMID:2542381

Barsony, J; McKoy, W; DeGrange, D A; Liberman, U A; Marx, S J

1989-01-01

335

Should Physicians Have Facial Piercings?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess attitudes of patrons and medical school faculty about physicians with nontraditional facial piercings. We also examined whether a piercing affected the perceived competency and trustworthiness of physicians. DESIGN Survey. SETTING Teaching hospital in the southeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS Emergency department patrons and medical school faculty physicians. INTERVENTIONS First, patrons were shown photographs of models with a nontraditional piercing and asked about the appropriateness for a physician or medical student. In the second phase, patrons blinded to the purpose of the study were shown identical photographs of physician models with or without piercings and asked about competency and trustworthiness. The third phase was an assessment of attitudes of faculty regarding piercings. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Nose and lip piercings were felt to be appropriate for a physician by 24% and 22% of patrons, respectively. Perceived competency and trustworthiness of models with these types of piercings were also negatively affected. An earring in a male was felt to be appropriate by 35% of patrons, but an earring on male models did not negatively affect perceived competency or trustworthiness. Nose and eyebrow piercings were felt to be appropriate by only 7% and 5% of faculty physicians and working with a physician or student with a nose or eyebrow piercing would bother 58% and 59% of faculty, respectively. An ear piercing in a male was felt to be appropriate by 20% of faculty, and 25% stated it would bother them to work with a male physician or student with an ear piercing. CONCLUSIONS Many patrons and physicians feel that some types of nontraditional piercings are inappropriate attire for physicians, and some piercings negatively affect perceived competency and trustworthiness. Health care providers should understand that attire may affect a patient's opinion about their abilities and possibly erode confidence in them as a clinician. PMID:15836523

Newman, Alison W; Wright, Seth W; Wrenn, Keith D; Bernard, Aline

2005-01-01

336

Reconstruction of bony facial contour deficiencies with polymethylmethacrylate implants: case report  

PubMed Central

Facial trauma can be considered one of the most serious aggressions found in the medical centers due to the emotional consequences and the possibility of deformity. In craniofacial surgery, the use of autologous bone is still the first choice for reconstructing bony defects or irregularities. When there is a shortage of donor bone or a patient refuses an intracranial operation, alloplastic materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) can be used. The PMMA prosthesis can be pre-fabricated, bringing advantages such as reduction of surgical time, easy technical handling and good esthetic results. This paper describes the procedures for rehabilitating a patient with PMMA implants in the region of the face, recovering the facial contours and esthetics of the patient. PMID:21952926

ABDO FILHO, Ruy C. C.; OLIVEIRA, Thais M.; LOURENCO, Natalino; GURGEL, Carla; ABDO, Ruy C.C.

2011-01-01

337

Facial Feature Extraction Based on Wavelet Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial feature extraction is one of the most important processes in face recognition, expression recognition and face detection. The aims of facial feature extraction are eye location, shape of eyes, eye brow, mouth, head boundary, face boundary, chin and so on. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic facial feature extraction system, which is able to identify the eye location, the detailed shape of eyes and mouth, chin and inner boundary from facial images. This system not only extracts the location information of the eyes, but also estimates four important points in each eye, which helps us to rebuild the eye shape. To model mouth shape, mouth extraction gives us both mouth location and two corners of mouth, top and bottom lips. From inner boundary we obtain and chin, we have face boundary. Based on wavelet features, we can reduce the noise from the input image and detect edge information. In order to extract eyes, mouth, inner boundary, we combine wavelet features and facial character to design these algorithms for finding midpoint, eye's coordinates, four important eye's points, mouth's coordinates, four important mouth's points, chin coordinate and then inner boundary. The developed system is tested on Yale Faces and Pedagogy student's faces.

Hung, Nguyen Viet

338

Facial Diplegia in Plasmodium vivax Malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Facial diplegia has diverse etiologies, including viral and bacterial infections such as diphtheria, syphilis and Lyme disease, and also protozoal infection in very rarely cases. Case Report A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital due to bilateral weakness of the upper and lower facial muscles. Examination revealed that the patient had a facial diplegia of the peripheral type. A peripheral blood smear demonstrated the presence of the asexual trophozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax with ring-form trophozoites, which led to a diagnosis of malaria. A serum work-up revealed increased IgG titers of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein and ganglioside GD1b. The patient was administered antimalarial treatment, 1 week after which he showed signs of recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of facial diplegia after malaria infection, providing evidence that the mechanism underlying the condition is related to immune-mediated disease. Conclusions Facial diplegia can manifest after P. vivax infection. PMID:20607050

Sim, Jae Eun; Choi, Young-Chul

2010-01-01

339

Implant-supported facial prostheses.  

PubMed

The application of the principles of osseointegration to the craniofacial skeleton can offer the patient with defects from trauma or ablative cancer surgery a functional and esthetic restoration, with minimal morbidity. Implant-supported restorations offer a retrievable prosthesis with increased retention and support, by the use of tissue bars with clip retention, magnetic retentive mechanisms, or both. Implant-supported auricular, nasal, orbital, midfacial or combination prostheses are presently being provided for patients in hospitals, maxillofacial prosthetic training programs, and private practice settings in North America and elsewhere. PMID:9520655

Baima, R F

1996-01-01

340

A novel inspection system for cosmetic defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of automotive skin panels creates desirability for a product and differentiates it from the competition. Because of the importance of skin panels, considerable care is taken in minimizing defects such as the 'hollow' defect that occur around door-handle depressions. However, the inspection process is manual, subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes the development of an objective and inspection scheme for the 'hollow' defect. In this inspection process, the geometry of a panel is captured using a structured lighting system. The geometry data is subsequently analyzed by a purpose-built wavelet-based algorithm to identify the location of any defects that may be present and to estimate the perceived severity of the defects without user intervention. This paper describes and critically evaluates the behavior of this physically-based algorithm on an ideal and real geometry and compares its result to an actual audit. The results show that the algorithm is capable of objectively locating and classifying 'hollow' defects in actual panels.

Hazra, S.; Roy, R.; Williams, D.; Aylmore, R.; Hollingdale, D.

2013-12-01

341

Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

2014-01-01

342

A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Spontaneous Facial Action Modeling and Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expression is a natural and powerful means of human communication. Recognizing spontaneous facial actions, however, is very challenging due to subtle facial deformation, frequent head movements, and ambiguous and uncertain facial motion measurements. Because of these challenges, current research in facial expression recognition is limited to posed expressions and often in frontal view. A spontaneous facial expression is characterized

Yan Tong; Jixu Chen; Qiang Ji

2010-01-01

343

Genetics Home Reference: Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Research studies OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (often shortened to CCFDN ) ... definitions Reviewed April 2010 What is CCFDN? Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (CCFDN) is a rare ...

344

Personalized low polygon count facial models for real time applications  

E-print Network

Low polycount facial models are useful in interactive applications such as games or interactive virtual reality environments. In this thesis, I present an approach to create a wide range of low polygon count facial models. Using this approach, I...

Mitchell, Ryan Troy

2012-06-07

345

About face, computergraphic synthesis and manipulation of facial imagery  

E-print Network

A technique of pictorially synthesizing facial imagery using optical videodiscs under computer control is described. Search, selection and averaging processes are performed on a catalogue of whole faces and facial features ...

Weil, Peggy

1982-01-01

346

Relationships among Facial Mimicry, Emotional Experience, and Emotion Recognition  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on scales of valence and arousal for experienced emotions (Study 1) and for experienced and recognized emotions (Study 2) while participants viewed dynamic and static facial expressions of negative and positive emotions. Path analyses showed that the facial EMG activity consistently predicted the valence ratings for the emotions experienced in response to dynamic facial expressions. The experienced valence ratings in turn predicted the recognized valence ratings in Study 2. Conclusion These results suggest that facial mimicry influences the sharing and recognition of emotional valence in response to others' dynamic facial expressions. PMID:23536774

Sato, Wataru; Fujimura, Tomomi; Kochiyama, Takanori; Suzuki, Naoto

2013-01-01

347

On the ethics of facial transplantation research.  

PubMed

Transplantation continues to push the frontiers of medicine into domains that summon forth troublesome ethical questions. Looming on the frontier today is human facial transplantation. We develop criteria that, we maintain, must be satisfied in order to ethically undertake this as-yet-untried transplant procedure. We draw on the criteria advanced by Dr. Francis Moore in the late 1980s for introducing innovative procedures in transplant surgery. In addition to these we also insist that human face transplantation must meet all the ethical requirements usually applied to health care research. We summarize the achievements of transplant surgery to date, focusing in particular on the safety and efficacy of immunosuppressive medications. We also emphasize the importance of risk/benefit assessments that take into account the physical, aesthetic, psychological, and social dimensions of facial disfiguration, reconstruction, and transplantation. Finally, we maintain that the time has come to move facial transplantation research into the clinical phase. PMID:16192123

Wiggins, Osborne P; Barker, John H; Martinez, Serge; Vossen, Marieke; Maldonado, Claudio; Grossi, Federico; Francois, Cedric; Cunningham, Michael; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Kon, Moshe; Banis, Joseph C

2004-01-01

348

Facial Dysostoses: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Management  

PubMed Central

Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in-utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981

Trainor, Paul A.; Andrews, Brian T.

2013-01-01

349

Facial dysostoses: Etiology, pathogenesis and management.  

PubMed

Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981

Trainor, Paul A; Andrews, Brian T

2013-11-01

350

Assessment of health-related quality of life in Turkish patients with facial prostheses  

PubMed Central

Background Facial prostheses are intended to provide a non-operative rehabilitation for patients with acquired facial defects. By improving aesthetics and quality of life (QOL), this treatment involves reintegration of the patient into family and social life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of QOL in adult patients with facial prostheses and to compare this perception with that of a control group. Methods The study participants consisted of 72 patients, who were divided into three equal-sized groups according to the type of prosthesis (OP- orbital prosthesis, AP- auricular prosthesis, NP - nasal prosthesis) and 24 healthy control participants without any congenital or acquired deformity of face or body. Clinical and socio-demographic data were gathered from each person’s medical chart. Participants completed the Turkish version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF). Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, Pearson's chi-square test, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Pearson correlation were used to analyse the data. Results Compared with the control participants, patients with NP scored lower on the all domains of QOL and all three patient groups had lower scores on overall QOL and its domains of physical and environmental health. Patients with OP reported significantly lower physical health scores than those with AP, while patients with NP reported significantly lower overall QOL and psychological health scores than those with AP. Female patients had lower environmental domain scores than did male patients. The patient’s age and income correlated with social relationships QOL, while the patient’s income and the age of facial prosthesis were correlated with environmental QOL. Conclusion Patients with facial prostheses had lower scores in overall QOL, physical and environmental health domains than the control participants. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, income, localization of the defect, and age of facial prosthesis were associated with patients’ QOL. These findings may provide valuable information about the specific health needs of these patients that may affect their well-being. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. Use of the WHOQOL-BREF may provide valuable information for determining patients’ needs and priorities as well as for planning and developing comprehensive prosthetic rehabilitation programs. PMID:23351906

2013-01-01

351

A muscle model for animation three-dimensional facial expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a parameterized facial muscle process, that incorporates the use of a model to create realistic facial animation is described.Existing methods of facial parameterization have the inherent problem of hard-wiring performable actions. The development of a muscle process that is controllable by a limited number of parameters and is non-specific to facial topology allows a richer vocabulary and

Keith Waters

1987-01-01

352

The effect of scrotal reconstruction with skin flaps and skin grafts on testicular function.  

PubMed

Due to its unique composition, the reconstruction of scrotal skin defects is a major clinical challenge. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of scrotal reconstruction, using skin grafts and skin flaps, on spermatogenesis. In Group 1, the rats did not undergo surgery and were used as controls. In Group 2, after removal of all of the scrotal skin to expose the testicles, the defect was repaired using a skin flap from the right groin region. In Group 3, the reconstruction was achieved using skin grafts. All the rats were killed at 2 months postoperatively and evaluated. The mean wet weights of the testicles in the control group were significantly higher compared with that of the graft group. The mean height of the germinal epithelium was significantly greater in the control and flap groups compared with that of the graft group. The Johnsen score for spermatogenesis in the control group was higher than that in the graft group. The use of flaps resulted in testicular function that was comparable to that of the control group, whereas the use of grafts resulted in diminished testicular function. Therefore, we suggest that flaps may be the first choice for scrotal reconstruction. PMID:21629096

Demir, Yavuz; Aktepe, Fatma; Kandal, Sebahattin; Sancaktar, Nazli; Turhan-Haktanir, Nurten

2012-03-01

353

Quantitative parameters of facial motor evoked potential during vestibular schwannoma surgery predict postoperative facial nerve function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Facial motor evoked potential (FMEP) amplitude ratio reduction at the end of the surgery has been identified as a good predictor\\u000a for postoperative facial nerve outcome. We sought to investigate variations in FMEP amplitude and waveform morphology during\\u000a vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection and to correlate these measures with postoperative facial function immediately after\\u000a surgery and at the last follow-up.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Intraoperative

Marcus André Acioly; Alireza Gharabaghi; Marina Liebsch; Carlos Henrique Carvalho; Paulo Henrique Aguiar; Marcos Tatagiba

2011-01-01

354

Complete calvarial agenesis in conjunction with a tessier 1-13 facial cleft.  

PubMed

Amniotic band sequence (ABS) is a condition in which rupture of the amniotic sac leads to the development of a broad spectrum of fetal anomalies. A newborn male presented at term with multiple craniofacial and skeletal anomalies, including attachment of the placenta to the head, a paramedian facial cleft, and multiple skeletal anomalies. The patient has undergone several operations to date. The initial operation was performed to remove the attached placenta off the underlying dura, which was with a collagen matrix bound to a silicone membrane. The patient subsequently underwent split-thickness skin grafting with complete survival of the graft. PMID:22839097

Addona, Tommaso; Friedman, Ariella; Post, Alexander; Weiss, Nirit; Silver, Lester; Taub, Peter J

2012-07-01

355

3D mechanical modeling of facial soft tissue for surgery simulation.  

PubMed

State of the art medical image acquisition, image analysis procedures and numerical calculation techniques are used to realize a computer model of the face capable of realistically represent the force-deformation characteristics of soft tissue. The model includes a representation of the superficial layers of the face (skin, superficial musculoaponeurotic system, fat), and most facial muscles. The whole procedure is illustrated for determining geometrical information, assigning mechanical properties to each soft tissue represented in the model, and validating model predictions based on a comparison with experimental observations. The capabilities, limitations and possible future use of this approach are discussed. PMID:22004857

Mazza, Edoardo; Barbarino, Giuseppe Giovanni

2011-11-01

356

Preliminary report on use of a p(HEMA)-collagen composite in maxillo-facial surgery.  

PubMed

After being thoroughly tested on animals, a composite polymer material based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and calf skin collagen has been allowed in a limited clinical trial in the Czech Republic. Up to now, the medical use of the biomaterial comprises implants for maxillo-facial surgery, i.e. augmentation of soft tissues (seven cases); reparation of fractured eye sockets (12 cases) and in special indications (two cases). The clinical results obtained so far are presented here as case reports. These preliminary results are very encouraging for a broader utilization of this type of biomaterial in the surgical fields of human medicine. PMID:8312464

St?stný, K; Hora, K; Stol, M

1993-11-01

357

Intense Pulsed Light Treatment of 1,000 Consecutive Patients with Facial Vascular Marks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:  Facial teleangectasias or vascular marks often represent a very cosmetically detracting problem for the affected patient,\\u000a who tries to cover the lesions by camouflage strategies. This study describes the response of these vascular lesions after\\u000a an intense pulsed light source was used on 1,000 consecutive patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:   Between October 1998 and April 2005, 1,000 consecutive patients with various skin types

Matteo Tretti Clementoni; Patrizia Gilardino; Gabriele F. Muti; Massimo Signorini; Antonio Pistorale; Paolo G. Morselli; Carlo Cavina

2006-01-01

358

Clinical applications of CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of various pathologic skin disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 laser skin resurfacing devices are widely used in cosmetic surgery for the treatment of facial rhytides, acne scars and aging skin. This technique is also useful in the treatment of various benign and premalignant or multiple pathological skin conditions and disorders originating in the epidermal, dermal and skin appendages, vascular lesions, epidermal nevi, infected wounds and ulcers, and keloids. Various surgical techniques have been developed in our clinic using laser resurfacing in the treatment of more than 2,000 patients with various skin pathologic disorders. We describe our experience with the various techniques used. The precise depth control and ablation properties combined with the hemostatic and sterilizing effects of the CO2 laser beam, reduction of the possibility of bleeding, infection and damage to healthy tissues, make the CO2 laser resurfacing techniques the treatment of choice for cosmetic surgery and treatment of benign, premalignant and multiple pathologic skin conditions.

Giler, Shamai

1997-12-01

359

The Skin Deep Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From blemishes to suntans, young people are naturally fascinated by skin. The Skin Deep Project takes advantage of this curiosity, introducing students in grades 6 through 12 to the science of skin, including its role in protecting the body from invading microbes, maintaining temperature, and sensing the environment. As they learn how their skin protects them, they also learn how they can protect their skinâÂÂfrom the sunâÂÂs ultraviolet rays and from germs that can cause acne and other blemishes. With skin cancer cases increasing and more young people being affected, it is imperative that students understand what tools they have to protect themselves.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) (AAAS;)

2010-05-26

360

Audit on titanium reconstruction of mandibular defects for jaw lesions  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of the study is to audit the titanium reconstruction of jaw defects in benign conditions in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore. Methods and Material: A retrospective study of titanium reconstruction of mandibular defects due to jaw lesions at Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India, between May 2008 and May 2011. Results: Mouth opening, facial symmetry, occlusion, chewing ability, plate exposure and patient satisfaction were used as outcome measures. Conclusions: The three-dimensional titanium plate is a reasonable material for immediate mandible reconstruction after surgical resection of benign jaw pathologies. PMID:25210382

Paul, S. Arun; Karthik, A. Kaneesh; Chacko, Rabin; Karunya, Whinny

2014-01-01

361

Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Background?Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods?We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results?The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions?This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy. PMID:25083397

Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Gidley, Paul W.

2014-01-01

362

Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma.  

PubMed

Background?Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods?We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results?The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions?This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy. PMID:25083397

Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Gidley, Paul W

2014-08-01

363

Psychological management and body image issues in facial transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial transplantation, although controversial, is proposed as a major advance in facial reconstructive surgery, with the first partial transplant having taken place in France in November 2005. Although the psychological impact of facial transplantation will not be understood until several procedures have been carried out, this article examines the psychological issues likely to arise with particular reference to body image.

Simon E. Brill; Alex Clarke; David M. Veale; Peter E. M. Butler

2006-01-01

364

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph. Results indicated that, independent of trait

Steven J. Kirsh; Jeffrey R. W. Mounts; Paul V. Olczak

2006-01-01

365

Facial Expression Recognition as A Creative Interface Roberto Valenti1  

E-print Network

1 Facial Expression Recognition as A Creative Interface Roberto Valenti1 , Alejandro Jaimes2 , Nicu.jaimes@idiap.ch ABSTRACT We present an audiovisual creativity tool that automatically recognizes facial expressions in real, sonification, facial therapy interface, gesture-based interaction. ACM Classification Keywords H5.2. User

Sebe, Nicu

366

Sensing Facial Emotions in a Continuous 2D Affective Space  

E-print Network

expressive manner humans display emotions is through facial expressions. Facial expression is the mostSensing Facial Emotions in a Continuous 2D Affective Space Isabelle Hupont Reference Centre for emotional sensing and it constitutes an indispensable part of affective Human Computer Interface designs

Baldassarri, Sandra

367

Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph.…

Kirsh, Steven J.; Mounts, Jeffrey R. W.; Olczak, Paul V.

2006-01-01

368

Intelligent Expression Blending for Performance Driven Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance-Driven Facial Animation (PDFA) allows an animator to specify the desired facial action in terms of detected face movements of a performer. The animation system works by mimicking the actions of the performer on an animated character. Research efforts in PDFA have mostly concentrated on efficient tracking and re-targeting of facial expressions; very little attention has been paid to the

Assia Khanam; Muid Mufti

2007-01-01

369

Face Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Independent or Interactive Processing of Facial Identity and Facial Expression?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated if deficits in processing emotional expression affect facial identity processing and vice versa in children with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autism and IQ and age matched typically developing children classified faces either by emotional expression, thereby ignoring facial identity or by facial identity…

Krebs, Julia F.; Biswas, Ajanta; Pascalis, Olivier; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmuth; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-01-01

370

Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

2008-01-01

371

Rapid facial reactions to emotional facial expressions in typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social–emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study evaluated mechanisms underlying RFRs during childhood and examined possible impairment in children with

Paula M. Beall; Eric J. Moody; Daniel N. McIntosh; Susan L. Hepburn; Catherine L. Reed

2008-01-01

372

Facial Caricaturing Robot “COOPER" for Proposing New Facial Media and Its Field Test at EXPO2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed the facial caricaturing robot “COOPER” that was exhibited at the Prototype Robot Exhibition of EXPO 2005, Aichi Japan during 11 days from Jun.9 to Jun.19. COOPER watches the face of a person seated at the chair, obtains facial images, and analyzes the images to extract 251 feature points to generate his facial line drawings with deformation. It is noted that the caricature was drawn on the specialized “Shrimp rice cracker” in about 4 minutes. To do this, we customized the original system PICASSO by coping with the illumination circumstances in EXPO pavilion. This paper illustrates the outline of the COOPER and the details of the image processing in it. And we discuses on the prospects of the future subjects based on more than 352 facial caricatures obtained at EXPO2005.

Funahashi, Takuma; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takashi; Tokuda, Naoya; Takino, Fuminori; Koshimizu, Hiroyasu

373

Studying Our Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigative activities enabling students to explore the many purposes of our skin can create meaningful understanding of its functions. These activities can also help children construct an understanding of the skin as an always present but constantly ch

Sunal, Cynthia S.; Walters, Jeffrey J.

1999-11-01

374

Caring for Tattooed Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Education and quality care AAD professional education Clinical guidelines PQRS State melanoma reporting Appropriate use criteria MOC ... scarring or developing a skin disease such as psoriasis. Injuring the skin by tattooing it can trigger ...

375

Squamous cell skin cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

376

Skin Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Actinic Keratosis Basal Cell Carcinoma Dysplastic Nevi Melanoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Facts Ask the Experts Early Detection ... Actinic Keratosis Basal Cell Carcinoma Dysplastic Nevi Melanoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Facts Early Detection Mohs Surgery Videos ...

377

Hormones and the Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... available; hair is returning to its normal growth cycle. Menopause Skin care changes Thinning of the skin with loss of elasticity and increased sensitivity due to lower levels of estrogen . Treatment options include prescription retinoids or over-the- ...

378

Keeping Your Skin Healthy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... epidermis is the outermost layer. It contains a substance called keratin that helps waterproof the skin. The ... middle layer of the skin. It contains a substance called collagen for strength, blood vessels for nutrition, ...

379

Examine Your Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ...

380

Natural ingredients for darker skin types: growing options for hyperpigmentation.  

PubMed

Dyschromia is one of the most common dermatological concerns in patients with darker skin.1 Disorders of hyperpigmentation, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, and miscellaneous causes of facial hyperpigmentation, are the most frequently treated dyschromias and can have a considerable psychosocial impact. Given the high prevalence of hyperpigmentation and the considerable demand for an even complexion, newer treatment options for hyperpigmentation are of growing interest among consumers, manufacturers, and dermatologists. Blinded, controlled studies demonstrating skin lightening effects in soy, niacinamide, n-acetylglucosamine, licorice extract, arbutin, vitamin c, kojic acid, emblica extract, lignin peroxidase, and glutathione have led to the development of a growing list of non-prescription skin care products that can be incorporated (mostly as adjuncts) in the management of hyperpigmentation. PMID:24002160

Alexis, Andrew F; Blackcloud, Paul

2013-09-01

381

Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mech- anism of FMN (facial motoneuron) survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system)-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenyl- ate cyclase-activating polypeptide) is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results

Derek A Wainwright; Junping Xin; Nichole A Mesnard; Taylor R Beahrs; Christine M Politis; Virginia Sanders; Kathryn Jones

2009-01-01

382

Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring (IFNM) Predicts Facial Nerve Outcome after Resection of Vestibular Schwannoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IFNM) is a suitable technique for intraoperative facial nerve identification and\\u000a dissection, especially in large vestibular schwannomas (VS) (acoustic neuroma). To evaluate its feasibility for estimating\\u000a functional nerve outcome after VS resection 60 patients underwent surgery using IFNM. Out of this group the last 40 patients\\u000a were included in a prospective study evaluating the prognostic

S. B. Sobottka; G. Schackert; S. A. May; M. Wiegleb; G. Reiß

1998-01-01

383

Automated Prediction of Preferences Using Facial Expressions  

E-print Network

on covert videos of the observers' faces. The two algorithms are almost as accurate as human judges stimuli are preferred by human observers just by viewing covertly recorded videos of the observers' faces, tends to focus on the six basic emotions defined by [10], and the Facial Action Coding System [11

Todorov, Alex

384

Stereotactic Mesencephalotomy for Cancer - Related Facial Pain  

PubMed Central

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

Kim, Deok-ryeong; Lee, Sang-won

2014-01-01

385

A facial electromyographic investigation of affective contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective contrast refers to the tendency for stimuli to be judged as less evocative when preceded by more evocative same- valence stimuli. The authors used facial electromyographic (EMG) activity over corrugator supercilii, which is inversely related to affective valence, to determine if context influences underlying affective reactions. In Experiment 1, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when

J. IAN

386

A facial electromyographic investigation of affective contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective contrast refers to the tendency for stimuli to be judged as less evocative when preceded by more evocative same-valence stimuli. The authors used facial electromyographic (EMG) activity over corrugator supercilii , which is inversely related to affective valence, to determine if context influences underlying affective reactions. In Experiment 1, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when

Jeff T. Larsen; J. Ian Norris

2009-01-01

387

Facial Appearance, Gender, and Emotion Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western gender stereotypes describe women as affiliative and more likely to show happiness and men as dominant and more likely to show anger. The authors assessed the hypothesis that the gender-stereotypic effects on perceptions of anger and happiness are partially mediated by facial appearance markers of dominance and affiliation by equating men's and women's faces for these cues. In 2

Ursula Hess; Robert E. Kleck

2004-01-01

388

Flexible signal generator for facial nerve detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

During surgical intervention on patient face, the facial nerve must be protected. To avoid the risk of its damage, we propose an electronic device that could detect the presence of this nerve. Thanks to its excitability, it was possible therefore to record a noticeable muscular electric reaction on the face. An active stimulating electrode would be placed on the patient

Habib ELKHORCHANI; Hamadi GHARIANI; A. Benhamida; M. Ghorbel

2004-01-01

389

?-Facial Selectivity of Diels-Alder Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most fundamental and important reactions for organic synthesis. In this chapter we review the studies of the ?-facial selectivity in the Diels-Alder reactions of the dienes having unsymmetrical ?-plane. The theories proposed as the origin of the selectivity are discussed.

Ishida, Masaru; Inagaki, Satoshi

390

Facial displays, emotional expressions and conversational acts  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Emotional expression is multifaceted – expression is determined both by a person’s reaction to an event and by the attempt to manipulate this expression for strategic reasons in social interaction.” (Scherer, 2001). In this\\u000apaper we present some thoughts on the relation between emotion, facial expression and dialogue that have lead us to develop a model of dialogue in which

Dirk Heylen; R. Trappl

2006-01-01

391

Hierarchical Ranking of Facial Attributes Ankur Datta  

E-print Network

containing physical traits of a person (e.g., red hat, beard, and sunglasses), and an input database of face to queries containing facial attributes, such as baldness, presence of beard, sunglasses, eyeglasses, hat (e.g., bald, sunglasses, etc.), and an input database of face images, our goal is to retrieve

California at Santa Barbara, University of

392

Atypical facial pain and orbital cancer.  

PubMed

A patient complaining of facial pain was found to have primary squamous cell cancer of the orbit. The treatment included surgery and radiotherapy. The patient having this extremely rare disease has been followed up for seven years with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:3985856

Ruff, T; Lenis, A; Diaz, J A

1985-05-01

393

Stereotactic mesencephalotomy for cancer - related facial pain.  

PubMed

Cancer-related facial pain refractory to pharmacologic management or nondestructive means is a major indication for destructive pain surgery. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy can be a valuable procedure in the management of cancer pain involving the upper extremities or the face, with the assistance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiologic mapping. A 72-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of intractable left-sided facial pain. When pharmacologic and nondestructive measures failed to provide pain alleviation, he was reexamined and diagnosed with inoperable hard palate cancer with intracranial extension. During the concurrent chemoradiation treatment, his cancer-related facial pain was aggravated and became medically intractable. After careful consideration, MRI-based stereotactic mesencephalotomy was performed at a point 5 mm behind the posterior commissure, 6 mm lateral to and 5 mm below the intercommissural plane using a 2-mm electrode, with the temperature of the electrode raised to 80? for 60 seconds. Up until now, the pain has been relatively well-controlled by intermittent intraventricular morphine injection and oral opioids, with the pain level remaining at visual analogue scale 4 or 5. Stereotactic mesencephalotomy with the use of high-resolution MRI and electrophysiologic localization is a valuable procedure in patients with cancer-related facial pain. PMID:25289131

Kim, Deok-Ryeong; Lee, Sang-Won; Son, Byung-Chul

2014-07-01

394

Facial feature extraction based on GSLDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a general and efficient facial feature extraction approach, global search linear discriminant analysis (GSLDA), is presented. It is designed to solve the puzzle of standard linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for small sample size problems (SSSP). Compared with PCA-LDA, in GSLDA, raw data dimension can be greatly decreased without discarding important discriminant information. In this process, all basis

Li Meng; Yong Cai; Yuanxing Li; Min Wang

2009-01-01

395

Facial mimicry in the animal kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large variety of animals have developed facial likenesses to common vertebrates, presumably serving to deter attack by their predators. Likenesses run the gamut from unbelievable artistic perfection to ridiculous (to us) caricatures. These images of mock predators may either remain as a constantly visible deterrent or be flashed when an attack is pressed home and combined with rhythmic display

John Langerholc

1991-01-01

396

Constructing Facial Identity Surfaces for Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to face recognition by constructing facial identity structures across views and over time, referred to as identity surfaces, in a Kernel Discriminant Analysis (KDA) feature space. This approach is aimed at addressing three challenging problems in face recognition: modelling faces across multiple views, extracting non-linear discriminatory features, and recognising faces over time. First, a multi-view

Yongmin Li; Shaogang Gong; Heather M. Liddell

2003-01-01

397

Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo.  

PubMed

Photoaging accounts for most age-related changes in skin appearance. It has been suggested that both astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, and collagen hydrolysate can be used as antiaging modalities in photoaged skin. However, there is no clinical study using astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate. We investigated the effects of using a combination of dietary astaxanthin and collagen hydrolysate supplementation on moderately photoaged skin in humans. A total of 44 healthy subjects were recruited and treated with astaxanthin (2 mg/day) combined with collagen hydrolysate (3 g/day) or placebos, which were identical in appearance and taste to the active supplementation for 12 weeks. The elasticity and hydration properties of facial skin were evaluated using noninvasive objective devices. In addition, we also evaluated the expression of procollagen type I, fibrillin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -12, and ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in artificially UV-irradiated buttock skin before and after treatment. The supplement group showed significant improvements in skin elasticity and transepidermal water loss in photoaged facial skin after 12 weeks compared with the placebo group. In the supplement group, expression of procollagen type I mRNA increased and expression of MMP-1 and -12 mRNA decreased compared with those in the placebo group. In contrast, there was no significant difference in UV-induced DNA damage between groups. These results demonstrate that dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate can improve elasticity and barrier integrity in photoaged human facial skin, and such treatment is well tolerated. PMID:24955642

Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Hyun Hee; Cho, Soyun; Lee, Se-Rah; Shin, Mi-Hee; Chung, Jin Ho

2014-07-01

398

Until they have faces: the ethics of facial allograft transplantation.  

PubMed

The ethical discussion of facial allograft transplantation (FAT) for severe facial deformity, popularly known as facial transplantation, has been one sided and sensationalistic. It is based on film and fiction rather than science and clinical experience. Based on our experience in developing the first IRB approved protocol for FAT, we critically discuss the problems with this discussion, which overlooks the plight of individuals with severe facial deformities. We discuss why FAT for facial deformity is ethically and surgically justified despite its negative portrayal in the media. PMID:16319234

Agich, G J; Siemionow, M

2005-12-01

399

Multi-curve spectrum representation of facial movements and expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method of multi-curve spectrum representation of facial movements and expressions. Based on 3DMCF (3D muscle-controlled facial) model, facial movements and expressions are controlled by 21 virtual muscles. So, facial movements and expressions can be described by a group of time-varying curves of normalized muscle contraction, called multi-curve spectrum. The structure and basic characters of multi-curve spectrum is introduced. The performance of the proposed method is among the best. This method needs small quantity of data, and is easy to apply. It can also be used to transplant facial animation between different faces.

Pei, Li; Zhang, Zhijiang; Chen, Zhixiang; Zeng, Dan

2009-07-01

400

Perception and memory of facial affect following brain injury.  

PubMed

Brain-lesioned patients and controls were shown a series of happy, sad, fearful, and angry faces and asked to identify verbally the facial emotion and later freely recall the affect when shown some of the faces having neutral expressions. Greater misperception of facial affect was associated with posterior lesions when bilateral lesions were removed from data analysis. Unilateral and bilateral frontal lesions, however, were associated with memory deficits for facial affect. As a group, right versus left hemisphere-lesioned patients were not different from each other in the perception or memory of facial affect. Right frontal lesions, however, seemed especially to disrupt recall of facial emotion. PMID:7099895

Prigatano, G P; Pribram, K H

1982-06-01

401

Femoral-facial syndrome with malformations in the central nervous system.  

PubMed

The femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome (FFS) is a very rare association of femoral and facial abnormalities. Maternal diabetes mellitus has been mainly involved as the causal agent. We report the second case of FFS with anomalies in the central nervous system (CNS) including corticosubcortical atrophy, colpocephaly, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of the falx cerebri and absent septum pellucidum. The psychomotor development has been normal. We propose that the CNS defects observed in these patients are part of the spectrum of abnormalities in the FFS. PMID:12504316

Leal, Evelia; Macías-Gómez, Nelly; Rodríguez, Lisa; Mercado, F Miguel; Barros-Núñez, Patricio

2003-01-01

402

Biology of Skin Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

Corcos, Alain

1983-01-01

403

Taste response in the facial nerve of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

The stimulating effect of taste substances on the external chemoreceptors of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., was studied by recording the electrical activity from the facial taste fibers innervating the facial skin surface. The integrated responses from each whole nerve bundle of the trigemino-facial complex nerve revealed that gustatory receptors on the snout of the carp were extremely sensitive to salts, acids and the extract of silk worm pupae. Quinine-HCl and sucrose elicited relatively small responses. Responses occurred to several amino acids, and especially to betaine. The threshold concentration for both mono- and di-valent salts was estimated to be about 5 X 10-3 M and that for acids about 10-4 M. Single fiber analysis was performed on 77 preparations. According to responsiveness to the 4 basic chemicals, the fibers were classified into 5 types: type I, activated by one stimulus (22 fibers out of 77); type II by two (29); type III by three (11); type IV by four (13); and type V showing inhibition by quinine-HCl (2) as their notable feature. Single fibers responsive to several amino acids, and the worm extract were found, among which the last was the most effective stimulus as shown in the whole nerve experiments. PMID:7300043

Funakoshi, M; Kawakita, K; Marui, T

1981-01-01

404

Affective engagement for facial expressions and emotional scenes: the influence of social anxiety.  

PubMed

Pictures of emotional facial expressions or natural scenes are often used as cues in emotion research. We examined the extent to which these different stimuli engage emotion and attention, and whether the presence of social anxiety symptoms influences responding to facial cues. Sixty participants reporting high or low social anxiety viewed pictures of angry, neutral, and happy faces, as well as violent, neutral, and erotic scenes, while skin conductance and event-related potentials were recorded. Acoustic startle probes were presented throughout picture viewing, and blink magnitude, probe P3 and reaction time to the startle probe also were measured. Results indicated that viewing emotional scenes prompted strong reactions in autonomic, central, and reflex measures, whereas pictures of faces were generally weak elicitors of measurable emotional response. However, higher social anxiety was associated with modest electrodermal changes when viewing angry faces and mild startle potentiation when viewing either angry or smiling faces, compared to neutral. Taken together, pictures of facial expressions do not strongly engage fundamental affective reactions, but these cues appeared to be effective in distinguishing between high and low social anxiety participants, supporting their use in anxiety research. PMID:22643041

Wangelin, Bethany C; Bradley, Margaret M; Kastner, Anna; Lang, Peter J

2012-09-01

405

Ethanol-induced Retinal Defects are Rescued by Retinoic Acid Supplement in Developing Zebrafish Pooja Muralidharan, Swapnalee Sarmah, James A. Marrs  

E-print Network

, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing a spectrum of defects including facial abnormalities, sensory (visual defect syndrome. Advisor: James A. Marrs, Department of Biology, School of Science, Indiana University

Zhou, Yaoqi

406

Accurate landmarking of three-dimensional facial data in the presence of facial expressions and occlusions using a three-dimensional statistical facial feature model.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional face landmarking aims at automatically localizing facial landmarks and has a wide range of applications (e.g., face recognition, face tracking, and facial expression analysis). Existing methods assume neutral facial expressions and unoccluded faces. In this paper, we propose a general learning-based framework for reliable landmark localization on 3-D facial data under challenging conditions (i.e., facial expressions and occlusions). Our approach relies on a statistical model, called 3-D statistical facial feature model, which learns both the global variations in configurational relationships between landmarks and the local variations of texture and geometry around each landmark. Based on this model, we further propose an occlusion classifier and a fitting algorithm. Results from experiments on three publicly available 3-D face databases (FRGC, BU-3-DFE, and Bosphorus) demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in terms of landmarking accuracy and robustness, in the presence of expressions and occlusions. PMID:21622076

Zhao, Xi; Dellandréa, Emmanuel; Chen, Liming; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

2011-10-01

407

Multilevel analysis of facial expressions of emotion and script: self-report (arousal and valence) and psychophysiological correlates  

PubMed Central

Background The paper explored emotion comprehension in children with regard to facial expression of emotion. The effect of valence and arousal evaluation, of context and of psychophysiological measures was monitored. Indeed subjective evaluation of valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low), and contextual (facial expression vs. facial expression and script) variables were supposed to modulate the psychophysiological responses. Methods Self-report measures (in terms of correct recognition, arousal and valence attribution) and psychophysiological correlates (facial electromyography, EMG, skin conductance response, SCR, and heart rate, HR) were observed when children (N?=?26; mean age?=?8.75 y; range 6-11 y) looked at six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust) and six emotional scripts (contextualized facial expressions). The competencies about the recognition, the evaluation on valence and arousal was tested in concomitance with psychophysiological variations. Specifically, we tested for the congruence of these multiple measures. Results Log-linear analysis and repeated measure ANOVAs showed different representations across the subjects, as a function of emotion. Specifically, children’ recognition and attribution were well developed for some emotions (such as anger, fear, surprise and happiness), whereas some other emotions (mainly disgust and sadness) were less clearly represented. SCR, HR and EMG measures were modulated by the evaluation based on valence and arousal, with increased psychophysiological values mainly in response to anger, fear and happiness. Conclusions As shown by multiple regression analysis, a significant consonance was found between self-report measures and psychophysiological behavior, mainly for emotions rated as more arousing and negative in valence. The multilevel measures were discussed at light of dimensional attribution model. PMID:25261242

2014-01-01

408

Evaluation of a kojic acid, emblica extract, and glycolic acid formulation compared with hydroquinone 4% for skin lightening.  

PubMed

Hydroquinone has been the standard prescription agent for skin lightening; however, its use recently has become controversial. Hydroquinone is banned in Europe and parts of Asia because of potential long-term consequences, including carcinogenesis when orally consumed. These concerns have stimulated research to develop alternative skin lightening agents with efficacy comparable to hydroquinone but with a better safety profile. This double-blind study examined the skin lightening ability of a topical formulation containing kojic acid, emblica extract, and glycolic acid compared with prescription generic hydroquinone cream 4%. Eighty multiethnic participants with mild to moderate facial dyschromia were randomly assigned to use the study product or hydroquinone 4% twice daily for 12 weeks to evaluate product efficacy, tolerability, and safety using investigator assessment, participant assessment, and dermospectrophotometry. Study results demonstrated efficacy parity between the study product and hydroquinone 4%. Thus this novel skin lightening preparation is an alternative to hydroquinone 4% for participants with mild to moderate facial dyschromia. PMID:21049734

Draelos, Zoe Diana; Yatskayer, Margarita; Bhushan, Pragya; Pillai, Sreekumar; Oresajo, Christian

2010-09-01

409

Keystone flaps in coloured skin: Flap technology for the masses?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Viscoelastic properties of skin in coloured ethnic groups are less favourable compared to Caucasians for executing Keystone flaps. Keystone flaps have so far been evaluated and reported only in Caucasians. The potential of Keystone flaps in a coloured ethnic group is yet unknown. Aim: This article reviews the experience to reconstruct skin defects presenting in a coloured ethnic group, by using Keystone flaps, with a review of existing literature. Design: Uncontrolled case series. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review involves 55 consecutive Keystone flaps used from 2009 to 2012, for skin defects in various locations. Patient demographic data, medical history, co-morbidity, surgical indication, defect features, complications, and clinical outcomes are evaluated and presented. Results: In this population group with Fitzpatrick type 4 and 5 skin, the average patient age was 35.73. Though 60% of flaps (33/55) in the series involved specific risk factors, only two flaps failed. Though seven flaps had complications, sound healing was achieved by suitable intervention giving a success rate of 96.36%. Skin grafts were needed in only four cases. Conclusions: Keystone flaps achieve primary wound healing for a wide spectrum of defects with an acceptable success rate in a coloured skin population with unfavorable biophysical properties. By avoiding conventional local flaps and at times even microsurgical flaps, good aesthetic outcome is achieved without additional skin grafts or extensive operative time. All advantages seen in previous studies were verified. These benefits can be most appreciated in coloured populations, with limited resources and higher proportion of younger patients and unfavorable defects. PMID:23960304

Bhat, Satish P.

2013-01-01

410

Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer  

Cancer.gov

No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

411

Novel application method of artificial dermis: One-step grafting procedure of artificial dermis and skin, rat experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCurrently, to treat skin defects with artificial dermis (AD), two surgical procedures where the artificial dermis grafting and another secondary skin grafting are required. The purpose of this study was to achieve simultaneous grafting of the artificial dermis and the split-skin. To enhance the wound angiogenesis, cultured endothelial cells, fibroblasts and PDWHF (platelet derived wound healing factor) were employed.

Kazutaka Soejima; Xin Chen; Motohiro Nozaki; Keijiro Hori; Hiroyuki Sakurai; Masaki Takeuchi

2006-01-01

412

Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization is promoted by barrier disruption and leads to local inflammation.  

PubMed

Experimental mouse models of bacterial skin infections that have been described show that pathogenic microorganisms can readily invade the epidermis and dermis to produce localized infections. We used an epicutaneous mouse skin infection model to determine how the level of barrier disruption by tape-stripping correlates with persistence of Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization, concomitant induction of cutaneous inflammation and infection. Furthermore, we investigated how murine skin responds to S. aureus colonization in a physiologic setting by analysing proinflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides in mouse skin. We show that previous cutaneous damage allows skin inflammation to develop and favours S. aureus persistence leading to cutaneous colonization, suggesting an interdependence of cutaneous bacteria and skin. Our study suggests that skin barrier defects favour S. aureus skin colonization, which is associated with profound cutaneous inflammation. PMID:23362876

Wanke, Ines; Skabytska, Yuliya; Kraft, Beatrice; Peschel, Andreas; Biedermann, Tilo; Schittek, Birgit

2013-02-01

413

An Axisymmetric Computational Model of Skin Expansion and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin expansion is the principal technique used in plastic surgery to repair large cutaneous defects, typically after tumour\\u000a removal, burn care, craniofacial surgery and post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. It allows a gain of new tissue by means\\u000a of gradual expansion of a prosthesis, surgically implanted beneath the patient’s skin. Nevertheless, wide clinical use is\\u000a not supported by a deep quantitative knowledge

L. Socci; G. Pennati; F. Gervaso; P. Vena

2007-01-01

414

A new simple technique for making facial dimples.  

PubMed

In Asia, especially in China, women think a dimple is an important part of a beautiful smiling face. The dimple can make them more confident. Unfortunately, not all women have dimples. Hence, with the development of the Chinese economy, there is an increasing demand among Chinese women for the creation of dimples. Most women hope the impairment of the operation will be slight and the period of recovery short so they can go to work as quickly as possible. Some of them want to have dimples only when they smile. The authors have used a new simple technique to form 56 dimples for 36 women. During the operation, they use a syringe needle to guide a monofilament nylon suture through the dermis and the active facial muscles (usually the buccinator). A sling is formed between the skin and the buccinator muscle. The knot is tied, and the dimple is created. After the operation, patients have been satisfied with the shape of the dimples. Furthermore, hematoma and infection never occurred. As a result, on the basis of their experience, the authors conclude that this technique is simple and easy to duplicate. Moreover, this technique has many benefits. For example, with this procedure, it is easy to adjust the bulk of dimples by adjusting the tension of the knot and the amount of dermis tissue the injection needle sutures. Because no tissue is resected, there is mild postoperative swelling. Consequently, patients can return to work or other activities 2 days after the operation. PMID:17549557

Bao, Shiwei; Zhou, Chuande; Li, Senkai; Zhao, Muxin

2007-01-01

415

Sensorineural Deafness, Distinctive Facial Features and Abnormal Cranial Bones  

PubMed Central

The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. PMID:18553554

Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

2008-01-01

416

Skin Bacteria and Skin Disinfection Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large discrepancies in the available data on skin microbiology stimulated investigations of the number, interactions, and location of commensals and the true efficiency of disinfection by using skin biopsy, culture of frozen sections, and other methods.Most current procedures were less than 0·5% as sensitive as the biopsy method described. This gave mean bacterial counts ranging from 4,400\\/cm2 on the breast

Sydney Selwyn; Harold Ellis

1972-01-01

417

Selective dermal rejuvenation using intradermal injection of carbon dioxide and hyaluronic acid for facial wrinkles.  

PubMed

This study assessed selective dermal rejuvenation using sequential intradermal injections of carbon dioxide and hyaluronic acid as a treatment of facial wrinkles. An injection device was designed. After topical anesthesia, 0.1-mL carbon dioxide was gently injected intradermally so as to spread diffusely. A volume of 0.01- to 0.02-mL diluted hyaluronic acid was sequentially injected until the skin rose slightly. Overlapping injections were performed at 3 to 5 mm intervals. This process was repeated until the wrinkles were smoothened. This study included 36 cases of facial wrinkles in 34 patients. The follow-up period was 3 to 11 months. Temporary adverse effects were injection-site pain, mild edema, and redness. Most cases showed obvious improvement in skin thickness, elasticity, and smoothening. Complications included irregularities and hyperpigmentation in 3 cases, and 91% were highly satisfied with the antiwrinkle treatment. This method was a safe, economical, and clinically effective antiwrinkle treatment. PMID:23241811

Chin, Sae Hoon; Burm, Jin Sik; Kim, Youn Wha

2013-06-01

418

Anatomic study of full facial and scalp allografts without cutaneous facial scars.  

PubMed

Conventional reconstructive procedures for face and scalp reconstruction fall short of aesthetic and functional goals because of the unique quality and quantity of facial and scalp soft tissue. The purpose of this cadaver study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a flap design for full face and scalp composite tissue allotransplantation, without cutaneous facial scars. Six fresh human cadavers were dissected with sagittal scalp and mucosal incisions for full face and scalp harvest without cutaneous facial incisions. Sub-galeal and sub-SMAS dissection allowed for inclusion of the external carotid and internal jugular systems. Time of facial-scalp flap harvesting, length of the arterial and venous pedicles, length of sensory nerves (that were included in the facial flaps) and approximate surface area of the flaps were measured. Three of six flaps were transferred to recipient cadavers and the time of transfer was recorded. As a proof of concept, the external carotid arteries of one of six cadavers was flushed to remove clots and perfused with a radio-opaque latex polymer, Microfil (Flow Tech Inc.), to study flap perfusion by X-ray imaging. In the donor cadaver, the mean harvesting time of the total facial-scalp flap was 105 ± 19 minutes. The mean length of the supraorbital, infraorbital, mental and great auricular nerves were 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.1, and 4.8 ± 0.6 cm, respectively. The mean length of the external carotid artery and external jugular vein were 8.7 ± 0.3 and 9.2 ± 0.4 cm, respectively. The approximate area of the harvested flap was 1063 ± 60 cm(2). In preparation for full face and scalp allotransplantation in humans, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of a full face and scalp flap without visible facial incisions. PMID:23647571

Bastidas, Nicholas; Runyan, Christopher M; Jones, Donna C; Taylor, Jesse A

2013-12-01

419

Effect of Locally Administered Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor on the Survival of Transected and Repaired Adult Sheep Facial Nerve  

PubMed Central

Objective to determine whether the administration of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) at the site of repaired facial nerve enhances regeneration in the adult sheep model. Methods Ten adult sheep were divided into 2 groups: control and study group (CNTF group). In the CNTF group, the buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected and then repaired by epineural sutures. CNTF was injected over the left depressor labii maxillaris muscle in the vicinity of the transected and repaired nerve for 28 days under local anesthesia. In the CNTF group, the sheep were again anesthetized after nine months and the site of facial nerve repair was exposed. Detailed electrophysiological, tension experiments and morphometric studies were carried out and then analyzed statistically. Results The skin CV min, refractory period, Jitter and tension parameters were marginally raised in the CNTF group than the control but the difference was statistically insignificant between the two groups. Morphometric indices also did not show any significant changes in the CNTF group. Conclusion CNTF has no profound effect on neuronal regeneration of adult sheep animal model. Keywords CNTF; Neurtrophic factors; Sheep; Facial nerve; Regeneration. PMID:24936272

Al Abri, Rashid; Kolethekkat, Arif Ali; Kelleher, Michael O.; Myles, Lynn M.; Glasby, Michael A.

2014-01-01

420

Methylisothiazolinone: An Emergent Allergen in Common Pediatric Skin Care Products  

PubMed Central

Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as “gentle,” “sensitive,” “organic,” or “hypoallergenic” often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children.

Schlichte, Megan J.

2014-01-01

421

Event-Related Alpha Suppression in Response to Facial Motion  

PubMed Central

While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors. PMID:24586735

Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J.; Spencer, Janine V.; O'Brien, Justin M. D.

2014-01-01

422

A Collodion Baby with Facial Dysmorphism, Limb Anomalies, Pachygyria and Genital Hypoplasia: A Mild Form of Neu-Laxova Syndrome or a New Entity?  

PubMed Central

Neu-Laxova syndrome is a rare, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, central nervous system anomalies, skin findings, such as ichthyosis, edema, collodion baby and harlequin fetus, facial dysmorphic features, limb anomalies and genital hypoplasia. Although it is generally a lethal condition, cases of such patients who lived beyond 6 months and 10 months of age have been reported. Here, we describe an 8-year-old boy who was born with collodion membrane, facial dysmorphic features, limb anomalies, genital hypoplasia and pachygyria. He had no major health problems over the course of 8 years of follow-up, except for mild mental/motor retardation, ichthyosis, facial dysmorphic features and limb anomalies. Based on these features, we suggest that because Neu-Laxova syndrome represents a heterogeneous phenotype, our case may be a milder variant of this syndrome or a new genetic entity. PMID:24371398

Derbent, Murat; Seckin, Deniz; Bikmaz, Yunus Emre; Agildere, Muhtesem; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Levy, Nicolas; Gurakan, Berkan

2013-01-01

423

Kallikrein Protease Involvement in Skin Pathologies Supports a New View of the Origin of Inflamed Itchy Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Skin barrier defects in common dermatological diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, are mostly attributed to\\u000a anomalies in T-cell immunity. A new viewpoint of inflammatory dermatoses onset was recently suggested, in which barrier defects\\u000a trigger secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by stressed keratinocyte cells, which activate the T-cell immune system and\\u000a further deteriorate the barrier. Herein, we review epidermal keratinocytes

Azza Eissa; Eleftherios P. Diamandis

424

Processes underlying congruent and incongruent facial reactions to emotional facial expressions.  

PubMed

The present electromyographic study is a first step toward shedding light on the involvement of affective processes in congruent and incongruent facial reactions to facial expressions. Further, empathy was investigated as a potential mediator underlying the modulation of facial reactions to emotional faces in a competitive, a cooperative, and a neutral setting. Results revealed less congruent reactions to happy expressions and even incongruent reactions to sad and angry expressions in the competition condition, whereas virtually no differences between the neutral and the cooperation condition occurred. Effects on congruent reactions were found to be mediated by cognitive empathy, indicating that the state of empathy plays an important role in the situational modulation of congruent reactions. Further, incongruent reactions to sad and angry faces in a competition setting were mediated by the emotional reaction of joy, supporting the assumption that incongruent facial reactions are mainly based on affective processes. Additionally, strategic processes (specifically, the goal to create and maintain a smooth, harmonious interaction) were found to influence facial reactions while being in a cooperative mindset. Now, further studies are needed to test for the generalizability of these effects. PMID:21668100

Likowski, Katja U; Mühlberger, Andreas; Seibt, Beate; Pauli, Paul; Weyers, Peter

2011-06-01

425

Exogenous attention to facial vs non-facial emotional visual stimuli  

PubMed Central

The capacity of the two types of non-symbolic emotional stimuli most widely used in research on affective processes, faces and (non-facial) emotional scenes, to capture exogenous attention, was compared. Negative, positive and neutral faces and affective scenes were presented as distracters to 34 participants while they carried out a demanding digit categorization task. Behavioral (reaction times and number of errors) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials—ERPs) indices of exogenous attention were analyzed. Globally, facial expressions and emotional scenes showed similar capabilities to attract exogenous attention. Electrophysiologically, attentional capture was reflected in the P2a component of ERPs at the scalp level, and in left precentral areas at the source level. Negatively charged faces and scenes elicited maximal P2a/precentral gyrus activity. In the case of scenes, this negativity bias was also evident at the behavioral level. Additionally, a specific effect of facial distracters was observed in N170 at the scalp level, and in the fusiform gyrus and inferior parietal lobule at the source level. This effect revealed maximal attention to positive expressions. This facial positivity offset was also observed at the behavioral level. Taken together, the present results indicate that faces and non-facial scenes elicit partially different and, to some extent, complementary exogenous attention mechanisms. PMID:22689218

Kessel, Dominique; Carboni, Alejandra; Lopez-Martin, Sara; Albert, Jacobo; Tapia, Manuel; Mercado, Francisco; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, Jose A.

2013-01-01

426

Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Bilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a rare condition, representing less than 2% of all cases of FNP. Majority of these patients have underlying medical conditions, ranging from neurologic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, or metabolic disorders. Objective. The differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive and hence can present as a diagnostic challenge. Emergency physicians should be aware of these various diagnostic possibilities, some of which are potentially fatal. Case Report. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with sequential bilateral facial nerve paralysis which could not be attributed to any particular etiology and, hence, presented a diagnostic dilemma. Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant. PMID:23326715

Pothiawala, Sohil; Lateef, Fatimah

2012-01-01

427

Facial Experience During the First Year  

PubMed Central

Parents of 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-month-olds used two scales we developed to provide information about their infants’ facial experience with familiar and unfamiliar individuals during one week. Results showed large discrepancies in the race, sex, and age of faces that infants experience during their first year with the majority of their facial experience being with their primary caregiver, females, and other individuals of the same race and age as their primary caregiver. The infant’s age and an unfamiliar individual’s sex were predictive of their time spent interacting with one another. Moreover, an unfamiliar individual’s sex was predictive of the attention infants allocated during social interactions. Differences in frequency and length of interactions with certain types of faces, as well as in infant attention toward certain individuals, all likely contribute to the development of expertise in processing commonly experienced face types and deficiencies in processing less commonly experienced face types. PMID:18554724

Rennels, Jennifer L.; Simmons, Rachel E.

2008-01-01

428

Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

2014-06-01

429

Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations  

PubMed Central

The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is discussed. PMID:19503770

Bowler, Patrick J

2009-01-01

430

Facial Expression Recognition in Nonvisual Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents two novel approaches that allow computer vision applications to perform human facial expression recognition\\u000a (FER). From a prob lem standpoint, we focus on FER beyond the human visual spectrum, in long-wave infrared imagery, thus allowing\\u000a us to offer illumination-independent solutions to this important human-computer interaction problem. From a methodological\\u000a stand point, we introduce two different feature extraction

Gustavo Olague; Riad Hammoud; Leonardo Trujillo; Benjamín Hernández; Eva Romero

2009-01-01

431

Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters\\u000a of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections,\\u000a trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the\\u000a presence of typical symptoms

Josef Finsterer

2008-01-01

432

[Hemiparesis and facial palsy caused by methotrexate].  

PubMed

Methotrexate used in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia, can cause neurotoxicity, including a rare presentation with hemiparesis. We describe two teenagers, who during the implementation of the M phase of the protocol, suffered hemiparesis, facial paresis and dysarthria which quickly reversed. Leukemia involvement of the central nervous system and stroke, were ruled out. We briefly review the pathophysiology of methotrexate neurotoxicity, the characteristics of the focal paresis presentation and magnetic resonance image findings. PMID:23786802

Rueda Arenas, E; García Corzo, J; Franco Ospina, L

2013-12-01

433

LIFE-THREATENING ORO-FACIAL INFECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Four cases of oro-facial infection leading to life- threatening complications are reported. Although all had been treated with antibiotics prior to con- sultation, lack of surgical intervention had allowed the infection to progress. These cases are a re- minder that acute spreading odontogenic infection can be life-threatening. Definitive treatment in- cludes airway management, adequate resuscitation and optimization of pre-existing

E. K. AMPONSAH; P. DONKOR

434

Facial Fracture Management in Northwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial fracture is gradually become a public health problem in our community due to the attendant morbidity and mortality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the pattern of facial fracture in Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to provide information regarding gender, age, etiology, and diagnosis of patients with maxillofacial fractures. Materials and Methods: A 1-year review of patients diagnosed and treated for facial fractures in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital between January 2011 and December 2011. The diagnosis was based on radiographic data and clinical examination. The main analysis outcome measures were etiology, age, gender, site, and treatment. Data were organized and presented by means of descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: A total of 40 patients were treated in this period. Over 95% were male, 81% were caused by road traffic crash (RTC) and 86.4% were in the 21-30 years group. Most patients (52%) had mandibular fractures, and the most common site was the body. Most patients with midfacial fractures had fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary region (36%), while fractures of the parasymphyseal region were more common in the mandible 156 (31%). The most common treatment for jaw fractures was mandibulomaxillary fixation (MMF). Stable zygomatic complex fractures were reduced (elevated) intraorally, and unstable ones were supported by antral packs. Conclusions: This study highlights facial fractures secondary to RTC as a serious public health problem in our environment. Preventive strategies remain the cheapest way to reduce direct and indirect costs of the sequelae of RTC. It also bring to the fore the necessity to shift to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of fractures. PMID:24741422

Taiwo, Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Godwin, Ndubuizi Ugochukwu; Ibikunle, Adebayo Aremu

2013-01-01

435

Some Results of Our Research on Composite Facial Allograft Transplantation in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite facial allograft transplantation is a complicated surgical procedure, requiring evaluation of several questions. How should the facial allograft be preserved? What are the proper surgical skills to reduce surgery duration? Can composite facial allograft transplantation rebuild the motor functions of the facial muscles? In our research, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution was used to preserve canine facial tissue. We

D. Yu; Q. Li; S. Zheng; H. Wang; Q. Liu

2010-01-01

436

A life history perspective on skin cancer and the evolution of skin pigmentation.  

PubMed

The ancestral state of human skin pigmentation evolved in response to high ultraviolet radiation (UVR) stress. Some argue that pigmentation evolved to limit folate photolysis, therein limiting neural tube defects. Pigmentation also protects against sunburn which decreases the efficiency of sweating and potentiates skin infection. Pigmentation increases the efficacy of skin as a barrier to infection. Skin cancer has been rejected or minimized as a selective pressure because it is believed to have little or no effect on mortality during reproductive years. This argument ignores evidence of human longevity as a derived life history trait and the adaptive value of investment in offspring and kin, particularly during the post-reproductive lifespan. Opponents argue that lifespan in prehistoric hunter-gatherers was too short to be relevant to the evolution of skin pigmentation. This argument is flawed in that it relies on estimates of longevity at birth rather than adolescence. When appropriate estimates are used, it is clear that human longevity has a deep evolutionary history. We use a life history perspective to demonstrate the value of skin pigmentation as an adaptation to skin cancer with the following points: UVR exposure increases dysregulation of gene expression in skin cells leading to immortal cell lines; cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) affects individuals throughout reproductive years; and lifespan was longer than has previously been acknowledged, providing the opportunity for kin selection. This hypothesis is not at odds with the folate or barrier hypotheses. We stress that the evolution of skin pigmentation is complex and is an ongoing process. PMID:24459698

Osborne, Daniel L; Hames, Raymond

2014-01-01

437

The skin microbiome  

PubMed Central

The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The development of molecular methods to identify microorganisms has led to an emerging view of the resident skin bacteria as highly diverse and variable. An enhanced understanding of the skin microbiome is necessary to gain insight into microbial involvement in human skin disorders and to enable novel promicrobial and antimicrobial therapeutic approaches for their treatment. PMID:21407241

Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.

2012-01-01

438

Voiceless Arabic vowels recognition using facial EMG.  

PubMed

This work attempts to recognize the Arabic vowels based on facial electromyograph (EMG) signals, to be used for people with speech impairment and for human computer interface. Vowels were selected since they are the most difficult letters to recognize by people in Arabic language. Twenty subjects (7 females and 13 males) were asked to pronounce three Arabic vowels continuously in a random order. Facial EMG signals were recorded over three channels from the three main facial muscles that are responsible for speech. The EMG signals are then pre-processed to eliminate noise and interference signals. Segmentation procedure was implemented to extract the time event that corresponds to each vowel based on a moving standard deviation window. The accuracy of the segmentation procedure was found to be 94%. The recognition of the vowels was carried out by extracting features from the EMG in three domains: the temporal, the spectral, and the time frequency using the wavelet packet transform. Classification of the extracted features was then finally performed using different classification methods implemented in the WEKA software. The random forest classifier with time frequency features showed the best performance with an accuracy of 77% evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation. PMID:21409427

Fraiwan, Luay; Lweesy, Khaldon; Al-Nemrawi, Ayat; Addabass, Sondos; Saifan, Rasha

2011-07-01

439

Color stability of polymers for facial prosthesis.  

PubMed

Color stability of resin and silicone is an important factor for longevity of facial prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resins and silicone for facial prostheses. Three brands of acrylic resin and 1 of facial silicone were evaluated considering pigment incorporation for the colorless materials. Ten samples of each material were fabricated and submitted to measurements of chromatic alteration initially and after 252, 504, and 1008 hours of weathering through visual analysis and spectrophotometry. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey test (P < 0.05). Results showed a statistically significant difference in color alteration among materials independent of aging. According to visual analysis, the color difference between pigmented and colorless Silastic MDX4-4210 and between pigmented and colorless Classico acrylic resin was statistically significant for the 3 weathering periods. Aging for 1008 hours represented a significant influence on color alteration of all resins. All materials presented chromatic alteration after accelerated artificial aging. PMID:20061973

dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Ribeiro, Paula do Prado; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho

2010-01-01

440

Geometric Facial Gender Scoring: Objectivity of Perception  

PubMed Central

Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

2014-01-01

441

Geometric facial gender scoring: objectivity of perception.  

PubMed

Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores. PMID:24923319

Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal

2014-01-01

442

Facial Expression Generation from Speaker's Emotional States in Daily Conversation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework for generating facial expressions from emotional states in daily conversation is described. It provides a mapping between emotional states and facial expressions, where the former is represented by vectors with psychologically-defined abstract dimensions, and the latter is coded by the Facial Action Coding System. In order to obtain the mapping, parallel data with rated emotional states and facial expressions were collected for utterances of a female speaker, and a neural network was trained with the data. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by a subjective evaluation test. As the result, the Mean Opinion Score with respect to the suitability of generated facial expression was 3.86 for the speaker, which was close to that of hand-made facial expressions.

Mori, Hiroki; Ohshima, Koh

443

Facial symmetry detection ability changes across the menstrual cycle.  

PubMed

The effects of menstrual cycle phase and hormones on women's visual ability to detect symmetry and visual preference for symmetry were examined. Participants completed tests of symmetry detection and preference for male facial symmetry at two of three menstrual cycle phases (menses, periovulatory, and luteal). Women were better at detecting facial symmetry during the menses than luteal phase of their cycle. A trend indicated the opposite pattern for dot symmetry detection. Similarly, change in salivary progesterone levels across the cycle was negatively related to change in facial symmetry detection scores. However, there was no clear evidence of a greater preference for facial symmetry at any cycle phase, despite an overall preference for facial symmetry across phases. These findings suggest a menses phase advantage and a low progesterone advantage in women's ability to detect facial symmetry. The results are discussed in the context of hormonal, evolutionary mate selection, and functional neurocognitive theories. PMID:17316956

Oinonen, Kirsten A; Mazmanian, Dwight

2007-05-01

444

Genetics Home Reference: Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... The HCCS gene carries instructions for producing an enzyme called holocytochrome c-type synthase. This enzyme is active in many tissues of the body ... Within the mitochondria, the holocytochrome c-type synthase enzyme helps produce a molecule called cytochrome c. Cytochrome ...