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1

Skin-fat composite grafts on full-thickness facial skin defects.  

PubMed

When used to cover facial skin defects, skin grafts and local flaps have limitations such as color mismatch, volume depletion, and long scar. We used skin-fat composite grafts harvested with enough fat tissue over the whole plane to cover full-thickness facial skin defects. This study enrolled 15 composite grafts, and the results were rated by 2 investigators on a scale of 1 to 5 based on skin texture, color, and volume. Skin color analysis using a spectrophotometer was performed on 9 grafts using the L*a*b* score. There were no major complications, but 1 partial loss. The clinical assessment score ranged from good to excellent. Color assessment using a spectrophotometer showed that there were no significant statistical differences in the L* and a* scores between the grafts and the adjacent skin. Skin and fat composite tissue grafts can be a good option for covering full-thickness facial skin defects. PMID:23411943

Kwon, Seung Gee; Lee, Dong Won; Rah, Dong Kyun; Lee, Won Jai

2013-08-01

2

Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders  

PubMed Central

The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:22073066

Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

2005-01-01

3

The application of reverse tubular medial upper arm flap in the reconstruction of ripped facial defects  

PubMed Central

Reverse medial upper arm flap is usually utilized in the reconstruction of defects in soft tissues of head and facial skin and is with good clinical efficacy. However, it has not been used in the reconstruction of ripped defects. In this study, we used the reverse tubular medial upper arm flap to repair the ripped facial defects. The reverse tubular skin flap from the medial upper arm was longitudinally cut into two parts. One part was used for the reconstruction of ripped facial defects. The other part was used as inner lining to repair the defects of mucosa. Using this method, 3 patients with ripped facial defects were successfully repaired. Thus the reverse tubular medial upper arm flap was successfully used in the reconstruction of ripped facial defects with little surgical trauma, simple manipulation of the operation, increased success rate of the operation and reduced incidence of complications. PMID:25550953

Dong, Xianglin; Ma, Juan; Ma, Shaolin; Wen, Hao

2014-01-01

4

Ultrastructure of elastosis in facial rhytidectomy skin  

SciTech Connect

Skin from 19 facial rhytidectomies performed in patients with chronic solar damage was compared with postauricular skin from patients of similar age. Light microscopy demonstrated large areas of amorphous material that stained PAS positive in all 19 face-lift specimens, while none of the controls had such material. Electron microscopy of the ''elastotic'' material revealed large amorphous masses of granular material, with loss of the microfilament component of normal elastin. Current theories suggest that the elastotic material in solar-damaged skin is a product of radiation-damaged fibroblasts, rather than being either collagen or degenerated elastin. Such knowledge may help the plastic surgeons encourage rhytidectomy patients to protect themselves from solar radiation.

Rudolph, R.; Woodward, M.

1981-03-01

5

Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study  

PubMed Central

Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 ?m, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2) and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore’s morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. PMID:25733918

Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

2015-01-01

6

Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-04-01

7

Combining skin texture and facial structure for face identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current face identification systems are not robust enough to accurately identify the same individual in different images with changes in head pose, facial expression, occlusion, length of hair, illumination, aging, etc. This is especially a problem for facial images that are captured using low resolution video cameras or webcams. This paper introduces a new technique for facial identification in low resolution images that combines facial structure with skin texture to accommodate changes in lighting and head pose. Experiments using this new technique show that combining facial structure features with skin texture features results in a facial identification system for low resolution images that is more robust to pose and illumination conditions than either technique used alone.

Manoni, R. E.; Canosa, R. L.

2012-03-01

8

Dermoscopic Features of Facial Pigmented Skin Lesions  

PubMed Central

Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp demarcation, pigment pattern, follicular/epidermal pattern, and vascular pattern. In SK, the most specific dermoscopic features are follicular/epidermal pattern (cerebriform pattern; 100% of lesions, milia-like cysts; 50%, and comedo-like openings; 37.50%), and sharp demarcation (54.17%). AK and LM showed a composite characteristic pattern named “strawberry pattern” in 41.18% and 25% of lesions respectively, characterized by a background erythema and red pseudo-network, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo. However, in LM “strawberry pattern” is widely covered by psewdonetwork (87.5%), homogenous structureless pigmentation (75%) and other vascular patterns. In SL, structureless homogenous pigmentation was recognized in all lesions (100%). From the above mentioned data, we developed an algorithm to guide in dermoscopic features of FPSLs. PMID:23431466

Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A. S.; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V.

2013-01-01

9

Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose. PMID:21773033

Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Consolo, U.; Seidenari, S.

2011-01-01

10

Chronic actinic damage of facial skin.  

PubMed

Chronic actinic damage of the skin manifests itself as extrinsic skin aging (photoaging) and photocarcinogenesis. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoaging. DNA photodamage and ultraviolet-generated reactive oxygen species are the initial events that lead to most of the typical histologic and clinical manifestations of chronic photodamage of the skin. Chronic actinic damage affects all layers of the skin. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells are altered by ultraviolet radiation and can result in numerous changes in human skin, particularly the skin of fair-skinned individuals. These changes include actinic keratosis, thickening and wrinkling, elastosis, telengiectasia, solar comedones, diffuse or mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin cancers. There are many options in the treatment of changes caused by chronic actinic damage. The most effective measure of prevention of the photoaging and photocarcinogenesis is sun protection. PMID:25441468

Bilaç, Cemal; ?ahin, Mustafa Turhan; Öztürkcan, Serap

2014-01-01

11

Facial skin beautification using adaptive region-aware masks.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a unified facial beautification framework with respect to skin homogeneity, lighting, and color. A novel region-aware mask is constructed for skin manipulation, which can automatically select the edited regions with great precision. Inspired by the state-of-the-art edit propagation techniques, we present an adaptive edge-preserving energy minimization model with a spatially variant parameter and a high-dimensional guided feature space for mask generation. Using region-aware masks, our method facilitates more flexible and accurate facial skin enhancement while the complex manipulations are simplified considerably. In our beautification framework, a portrait is decomposed into smoothness, lighting, and color layers by an edge-preserving operator. Next, facial landmarks and significant features are extracted as input constraints for mask generation. After three region-aware masks have been obtained, a user can perform facial beautification simply by adjusting the skin parameters. Furthermore, the combinations of parameters can be optimized automatically, depending on the data priors and psychological knowledge. We performed both qualitative and quantitative evaluation for our method using faces with different genders, races, ages, poses, and backgrounds from various databases. The experimental results demonstrate that our technique is superior to previous methods and comparable to commercial systems, for example, PicTreat, Portrait+ , and Portraiture. PMID:24710839

Liang, Lingyu; Jin, Lianwen; Li, Xuelong

2014-12-01

12

Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects  

PubMed Central

Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology. PMID:22073096

Federspil, Philipp A.

2012-01-01

13

The need for a complete platysma component for platysma myocutaneous flaps?--an introduction of the expanded cutaneous-dominant platysma flap for facial defect reconstruction.  

PubMed

Platysma flaps have been successfully used for the reconstruction of variety of facial defects as musculocutaneous. This concept had been changed by a recent anatomical investigation revealing the inherently fasciocutanous nature of the platysma flap. In the study, it was observed that all of the arterial branches furnishing the anterlateral neck skin penetrate the platysma but do not run along in the platysma layer. The switch made it possible for us to design cervical skin flaps with limited participation of muscular platysma composition in clinical practice. The platysma flap is considered to be an ideal donor source due to its thin, pliable and sufficient colour matched skin nature. When combined with the tissue expansion technique, this flap can provide adequate donor tissue that is particularly valuable for large facial defect repairs without leaving any modalities on the neck donor site. In our report, we designed and used the expanded platysma myocutaneous flap as a cutaneous-dominant skin flap for large facial defect repairs. In operation, the cervical flap is elevated at the intermediate layer between the platysma and the superficial adipofascia. A small amount platysma muscular tissue is recruited only in the area surrounding these facial artery perforators at the flap peddle region. As anticipated, the result was successful. We conclude that the expanded cutaneous-dominant platysma flap peddled by facial artery perforators provides a useful alternative for the reconstruction of facial defects and should be a valuable addition to facial reconstructive surgery. PMID:20403736

Chen, Wen; Li, Yangqun; Wang, Naili

2010-12-01

14

Skin barrier defects in atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with complex etiology that is dependent upon interactions between the host and the environment. Acute skin lesions exhibit the features of a Th2-driven inflammatory disorder, and many patients are highly atopic. The skin barrier plays key roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis, and in preventing penetration of microbial products and allergens. Defects that compromise the structural integrity or else the immune function of the skin barrier play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. This article provides an overview of the array of molecular building blocks that are essential to maintaining healthy skin. The basis for structural defects in the skin is discussed in relation to AD, with an emphasis on filaggrin and its genetic underpinnings. Aspects of innate immunity, including the role of antimicrobial peptides and proteases, are also discussed. PMID:24633617

Agrawal, Rachana; Woodfolk, Judith A

2014-05-01

15

Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

2008-02-01

16

Should all skin grafts be low fat? Composite skin and fat grafts in facial reconstruction.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the nose and scalp after resection of cutaneous malignancy can be challenging, and can involve multiple stage surgery and cause secondary scarring in adjacent facial areas. The author describes his experience of a series of 100 composite full thickness skin and fat grafts in the head and neck region using the neck as the donor site. The technique was used to reconstruct the nose (n=48) and scalp including temple and forehead (n=46), and at 6 other sites, mainly the cheek or lower eyelid. Defects ranged in size from 11 to 36mm and the thickness of fat varied from 1 to 5mm. One flap failed, one patient had necrosis of roughly 30% of the graft, which did not require surgical intervention, and one patient had early defatting of a prominent graft. The author outlines the technique used and the complications, and discusses the benefits and limitations of the technique, which, he believes, has a role in carefully selected patients. PMID:21269743

Holt, Donald Samuel

2012-03-01

17

Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity of certain bacteria in skin is known to correlate to the presence of porphyrins. In particular the presence of coproporphyrin produced by P.acnes inside plugged pores has been correlated to acne vulgaris. Another porphyrin encountered in skin is protoporphyrin IX, which is produced by the body in the pathway for production of heme. In the present work, a fluorescence spectroscopy system was developed to measure the characteristic spectrum and quantify the two types of porphyrins commonly present in human facial skin. The system is comprised of a Xe lamp both for fluorescence excitation and broadband light source for diffuse reflectance measurements. A computer-controlled filter wheel enables acquisition of sequential spectra, first excited by blue light at 405 nm then followed by the broadband light source, at the same location. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to correct the fluorescence spectrum due to the presence of skin chromophores, such as blood and melanin. The resulting fluorescence spectra were employed for the quantification of porphyrin concentration in a population of healthy subjects. The results show great variability on the concentration of these porphyrins and further studies are being conducted to correlate them with skin conditions such as inflammation and acne vulgaris.

Seo, I.; Tseng, S. H.; Cula, G. O.; Bargo, P. R.; Kollias, N.

2009-02-01

18

A newborn with grouped facial skin lesions and subsequent seizures  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital grouped skin lesions are alarming signs of a variety of threatening diagnoses of quite different origin. The present case report shows an impressive clinical pattern of a neonate and illustrates the difficulty in differential diagnosis of mixed connective tissue disease and neonatal lupus erythematosus in newborns. This reported case is to our knowledge the first description of an unrecognized mixed connective tissue disease in the mother with an unusual clinical manifestation in the newborn, comprising skin lesions, neurological damage and non-typical antibody constellation. Case presentation We report on a Caucasian female neonate from a perinatally asymptomatic mother, who presented with grouped facial pustular-like skin lesions, followed by focal clonic seizures caused by multiple ischemic brain lesions. Herpes simplex virus infection was excluded and both the mother and her infant had the antibody pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus and neonatal lupus erythematosus, respectively. However, clinical signs in the mother showed overlapping features of mixed connective tissue disease. Conclusion This case report emphasizes congenital Lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease as important differential diagnoses of grouped skin lesions in addition to Herpes simplex virus-infection. The coexistence of different criteria for mixed connective tissue disease makes it difficult to allocate precisely maternal and congenital infantile disease. PMID:24884686

2014-01-01

19

Skin and Bones: The Contribution of Skin Tone and Facial Structure to Racial Prototypicality Ratings  

PubMed Central

Previous research reveals that a more ‘African’ appearance has significant social consequences, yielding more negative first impressions and harsher criminal sentencing of Black or White individuals. This study is the first to systematically assess the relative contribution of skin tone and facial metrics to White, Black, and Korean perceivers’ ratings of the racial prototypicality of faces from the same three groups. Our results revealed that the relative contribution of metrics and skin tone depended on both perceiver race and face race. White perceivers’ racial prototypicality ratings were less responsive to variations in skin tone than were Black or Korean perceivers’ ratings. White perceivers ratings’ also were more responsive to facial metrics than to skin tone, while the reverse was true for Black perceivers. Additionally, across all perceiver groups, skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics on racial prototypicality ratings of White faces, with the reverse for Korean faces. For Black faces, the relative impact varied with perceiver race: skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics for Black and Korean perceivers, with the reverse for White perceivers. These results have significant implications for predicting who will experience racial prototypicality biases and from whom. PMID:22815966

Strom, Michael A.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Shunan; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Lee, Hoon Koo

2012-01-01

20

Skin response to cobalt 60 irradiation and the consequences for matching the color of facial prostheses  

SciTech Connect

A radiotherapy treatment (/sup 60/Co) of cancer in the head and neck region causes side effects in the skin that postpone the facial prosthetic treatment. The increasing and fading erythema and pigmentation of the skin was investigated with the use of a subtractive colorimeter. This method was verified with photographs scored according to the Oxford scoring system. Fourteen patients were investigated during a period of 24 weeks. The mean colorimetric skin response showed a peak 6 weeks after the onset of irradiation. Six to 7 weeks later, there was no significant difference between the skin color before and after irradiation. At this time the dry desquamation of the skin is healed. From this viewpoint, the color matching procedure for a facial prosthesis may start not earlier than 15 weeks from the onset of irradiation. If a nonirradiated control field in the facial region is present, a color match for the facial prosthesis can be started just after the irradiation period.

van Oort, R.P.; Vermey, J.; Ten Bosch, J.J.

1984-11-01

21

Pre-fabricated lined axial flaps for reconstruction of extensive post-burn facial and forehead full-thickness composite defects.  

PubMed

From January 1996 to February 1998, three patients who suffered extensive post-burn facial and forehead composite defects were treated successfully in our Burn Unit. The delto-pectoral flap and reverse radial forearm flap were pre-fabricated with lining of free split skin grafted onto the underside of the flap. The pre-fabricated flaps were sutured in situ for 2 approximately 3 weeks. The pre-fabricated lined axial flaps were then transferred for the reconstruction of facial and forehead composite defects. The flap had good blood supply and the wounds healed by first intention. The three cases presented all achieved satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. The results show that pre-fabricated lined axial flaps for the reconstruction of extensive facial and forehead composite defects are safe, effective and relatively easy for clinical application. PMID:12417167

Jia, Chi yu; Chen, Bi; Su, Ying jun

2002-11-01

22

Automatic Facial Skin Segmentation Based on EM Algorithm under Varying Illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial skin detection is an important step in facial surgical planning like as many other applications. There are many problems in facial skin detection. One of them is that the image features can be severely corrupted due to illumination, noise, and occlusion, where, shadows can cause numerous strong edges. Hence, in this paper, we present an automatic Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for facial skin color segmentation that uses knowledge of chromatic space and varying illumination conditions to correct and segment frontal and lateral facial color images, simultaneously. The proposed EM algorithm leads to a method that allows for more robust and accurate segmentation of facial images. The initialization of the model parameters is very important in convergence of algorithm. For this purpose, we use a method for robust parameter estimation of Gaussian mixture components. Also, we use an additional class, which includes all pixels not modeled explicitly by Gaussian with small variance, by a uniform probability density, and amending the EM algorithm appropriately, in order to obtain significantly better results. Experimental results on facial color images show that accurate estimates of the Gaussian mixture parameters are computed. Also, other results on images presenting a wide range of variations in lighting conditions, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed color skin segmentation algorithm compared to conventional EM algorithm.

Shamsi, Mousa; Zoroofi, Reza Aghaiezadeh; Lucas, Caro; Hasanabadi, Mohammad Sadeghi; Alsharif, Mohammad Reza

23

Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins  

PubMed Central

Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA® Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. PMID:24910280

Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

2014-01-01

24

Variations of structural components: specific intercultural differences in facial morphology, skin type, and structures.  

PubMed

Analysis of the differences in facial morphology and skin structure and tone among ethnic groups within the realm of plastic surgery is relevant due to the increasing number of ethnic individuals seeking cosmetic surgery. Previous classifications of ideal facial morphologic characteristics have been revised and challenged over the years to accurately reflect the differences in facial structure that are aesthetically pleasing to individuals of differing ethnic groups. The traditional neoclassic canons reflected the European Caucasian facial morphology and cannot be used to classify facial characteristics in ethnic groups due to drastic differences in measurement and proportion. In addition, differences in biophysiologic properties of ethnic skin types influence the progression of aging and the ability of skin to withstand environmental insults. Thickness of the stratum corneum, water content, and melanin composition are important factors that were analyzed in varying ethnic groups. Although it appears that Caucasian Americans are subject to earlier onset of skin wrinkling and sagging than are African Americans due to thinner stratum corneum layers and decreased water content, more research needs to be conducted to be inclusive of other ethnic groups. These data will enable plastic surgeons to treat these groups more effectively while preserving their unique characteristics. PMID:20676309

McKnight, Aisha; Momoh, Adeyiza O; Bullocks, Jamal M

2009-08-01

25

Improvement of Mild Inflammatory Changes of the Facial Skin Induced by Winter Environment with Daily Applications of a Moisturizing Cream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Based on our previous findings that, reflecting mild inflammation, the exposed facial skin shows much poorer functional properties of the stratum corneum (SC) in the dry and cold winter than those evaluated in the same individuals in the warm and humid summer time, we conducted a half-side test on the face to determine how the facial skin changes induced

Katsuko Kikuchi; Hiromi Kobayashi; Tetsuji Hirao; Akira Ito; Haruhito Takahashi; Hachiro Tagami

2003-01-01

26

Characterizing Facial Skin Ageing in Humans: Disentangling Extrinsic from Intrinsic Biological Phenomena  

PubMed Central

Facial skin ageing is caused by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Intrinsic ageing is highly related to chronological age. Age related skin changes can be measured using clinical and biophysical methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and how clinical characteristics and biophysical parameters are associated with each other with and without adjustment for chronological age. Twenty-four female subjects of three age groups were enrolled. Clinical assessments (global facial skin ageing, wrinkling, and sagging), and biophysical measurements (roughness, colour, skin elasticity, and barrier function) were conducted at both upper cheeks. Pearson's correlations and linear regression models adjusted for age were calculated. Most of the measured parameters were correlated with chronological age (e.g., association with wrinkle score, r = 0.901) and with each other (e.g., residual skin deformation and wrinkle score, r = 0.606). After statistical adjustment for age, only few associations remained (e.g., mean roughness (Rz) and luminance (L*),??? = ?0.507, R2 = 0.377). Chronological age as surrogate marker for intrinsic ageing has the most important influence on most facial skin ageing signs. Changes in skin elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and yellowness seem to be caused by additional extrinsic ageing. PMID:25767806

Trojahn, Carina; Dobos, Gabor; Lichterfeld, Andrea; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

2015-01-01

27

Human facial skin detection in thermal video to effectively measure electrodermal activity (EDA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, autonomic nervous system response has often been determined through measuring Electrodermal Activity (EDA), sometimes referred to as Skin Conductance (SC). Recent work has shown that high resolution thermal cameras can passively and remotely obtain an analog to EDA by assessing the activation of facial eccrine skin pores. This paper investigates a method to distinguish facial skin from non-skin portions on the face to generate a skin-only Dynamic Mask (DM), validates the DM results, and demonstrates DM performance by removing false pore counts. Moreover, this paper shows results from these techniques using data from 20+ subjects across two different experiments. In the first experiment, subjects were presented with primary screening questions for which some had jeopardy. In the second experiment, subjects experienced standard emotion-eliciting stimuli. The results from using this technique will be shown in relation to data and human perception (ground truth). This paper introduces an automatic end-to-end skin detection approach based on texture feature vectors. In doing so, the paper contributes not only a new capability of tracking facial skin in thermal imagery, but also enhances our capability to provide non-contact, remote, passive, and real-time methods for determining autonomic nervous system responses for medical and security applications.

Kaur, Balvinder; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Leonard, Kevin R.; Nelson, Jill K.

2011-06-01

28

An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin  

PubMed Central

Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

2015-01-01

29

Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream  

PubMed Central

Introduction Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan® VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects. PMID:25097471

Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

2014-01-01

30

Facial skin blood flow responses to irritant stimuli in the oral cavity.  

PubMed

To investigate whether capsaicin and menthol stimuli elicit characteristic responses in facial skin blood flow (SkBF), we observed the facial SkBF response to low and high concentrations of capsaicin and menthol stimuli of 1-ml solution applied to the oral cavity for 20s in 17 healthy subjects. High concentration of capsaicin significantly increased the SkBF in all of the facial areas monitored. High concentration of menthol stimulus significantly decreased SkBF in the nose and increased that in the eyelid, and upper and lower lips. These results demonstrated that capsaicin and menthol stimuli in the oral cavity elicit characteristic responses in facial SkBF. PMID:23265982

Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

2013-03-01

31

Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria  

PubMed Central

Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens.?  Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001).?  Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.???Keywords: aspartylglucosaminidase; lysosomal storage disease; oral mucosa; skin tumours PMID:10353787

Arvio, P.; Arvio, M.; Kero, M.; Pirinen, S.; Lukinmaa, P.

1999-01-01

32

[Current surgical and adjuvant therapy concepts of malignant tumors of the facial skin and the pinna].  

PubMed

Malignant tumors of the skin had been a rare entity 2 decades ago. Today they are spread rapidly worldwide. Malignant neoplasms of the skin, the largest human organ, may occur from all structures and layers. While previously skin cancer -occurred mainly after the age of 60, the incidence increases now in younger ages. Strong sunburns in the childhood and before the age of 20 are important risk factors for the development of malignancies of the skin. An increased exposure to UV rays is found especially in the facial skin, where basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma and Merkel cell carcinomas are the most common malignancies. Early diagnosis of malignancies and therapy-oriented mostly surgical approaches are crucial for the prognosis of all skin cancers. Therefore under the aspect of the increasing incidence these topics will be pointed out according to the latest findings including current multimodal therapy concepts and future treatment options. PMID:25658862

Kolk, A; Wermker, K; Bier, H; Götz, C; Eckert, A W

2015-02-01

33

Basic histological structure and functions of facial skin.  

PubMed

The skin and its appendages that derive from the epidermis (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) establish the integumentary system. Histologically, skin has two main layers-the epidermis and the dermis-with a subcutaneous fascia called the hypodermis, which lies deep in the dermis. The epidermis is formed of four to five layers of cells made mostly out of keratinocytes, along with three other different and less abundant cells. The dermis underlies the epidermis. The hypodermis is a looser connective tissue that is located beneath the dermis. It blends to the dermis with an unclear boundary. PMID:24314373

Arda, Oktay; Göksügür, Nadir; Tüzün, Yalç?n

2014-01-01

34

Comparison of two endotracheal tube securement techniques on unplanned extubation, oral mucosa, and facial skin integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 2 standard methods (ie, twill tape versus adhesive tape) of securement on unplanned extubation, oral mucosa, and facial skin integrity of the orally intubated patient.DESIGN: A prospective, quasi-experimental design was used for the pilot study.SETTING: The setting for the pilot study included critical care units of 3 community hospitals and 1 veterans' hospital in

Susan Barnason; Jaine Graham; M. Candice Wild; Lynette Bunde Jensen; Doris Rasmussen; Paula Schulz; Sandi Woods; Brenda Carder

1998-01-01

35

SKIN-SET, WOUND-HEALING AND RELATED DEFECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The physiology and biochemistry of resistance and susceptibility to tuber skinning/excoriation wounds, wound-healing and wound-related defects are of global importance because of the magnitude of the resulting food and financial losses. Wound related losses are difficult to determine because of the...

36

Warty skin changes, chronic scrotal lymphoedema, and facial dysmorphism  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man whose main complaints were wart-like skin changes and scrotal lymphoedema. Furthermore, our patient showed signs of a common hereditary disease: lymphoedema, short stature, webbed neck, low frontal and posterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures, pale blue iris, broad nose, flat philtrum, and prominent nasolabial folds. His ears were low set and retroverted with a thick helix. However, no diagnosis was made for 49 years. The interdisciplinary dialogue of various specialists to make the final diagnosis is presented and discussed. PMID:22750922

Felcht, Moritz; Dikow, Nicola; Goebeler, Matthias; Stroebel, Philipp; Booken, Nina; Voßmerbäumer, Urs; Merx, Kirsten; Henzler, Thomas; Marx, Alexander; Moog, Ute; Goerdt, Sergij; Klemke, Claus-Detlev

2010-01-01

37

The Use of Matriderm and Autologous Skin Graft in the Treatment of Full Thickness Skin Defects  

PubMed Central

Background For patients with full thickness skin defects, autologous Split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) are generally regarded as the mainstay of treatment. However, skin grafts have some limitations, including undesirable outcomes resulting from scars, poor elasticity, and limitations in joint movement due to contractures. In this study, we present outcomes of Matriderm grafts used for various skin tissue defects whether it improves on these drawbacks. Methods From January 2010 to March 2012, a retrospective review of patients who had undergone autologous STSG with Matriderm was performed. We assessed graft survival to evaluate the effectiveness of Matriderm. We also evaluated skin quality using a Cutometer, Corneometer, Tewameter, or Mexameter, approximately 12 months after surgery. Results A total of 31 patients underwent STSG with Matriderm during the study period. The success rate of skin grafting was 96.7%. The elasticity value of the portion on which Matriderm was applied was 0.765 (range, 0.635-0.800), the value of the trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) was 10.0 (range, 8.15-11.00) g/hr/m2, and the humidification value was 24.0 (range, 15.5-30.0). The levels of erythema and melanin were 352.0 arbitrary unit (AU) (range, 299.25-402.75 AU) and 211.0 AU (range, 158.25-297.00 AU), respectively. When comparing the values of elasticity and TEWL of the skin treated with Matriderm to the values of the surrounding skin, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that a dermal substitute (Matriderm) with STSG was adopted stably and with minimal complications. Furthermore, comparing Matriderm grafted skin to normal skin using Cutometer, Matriderm proved valuable in restoring skin elasticity and the skin barrier. PMID:25075353

Min, Jang Hwan; Yun, In Sik; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk

2014-01-01

38

Regional differences in facial skin blood flow responses to the cold pressor and static handgrip tests.  

PubMed

We have previously reported the unique regional responses of facial skin blood flow (SkBF) to oral application of the basic tastes without simultaneous systemic circulatory changes. In the present study, we determined whether a systemic circulatory challenge due to sympathetic activation induces regional differences in facial SkBF by observing the responses in facial SkBF and blood pressure to a 2-min cold pressor test (CPT) and static handgrip exercise (HG) by right hand in 20 healthy subjects. The CPT significantly increased SkBF in the forehead, eyelid, cheek, upper lip and lower lip by 6 ± 2 to 8 ± 2 % (mean ± SEM) as compared to resting baseline, with a significant simultaneous increase (13 ± 2 %) in mean arterial pressure (MAP), whereas it significantly decreased the SkBF in the nose by 5 ± 2 %. The HG significantly increased SkBF in the forehead, cheek and lower lip by 6 ± 3 to 10 ± 3 %, with a significant simultaneous increase in MAP (13 ± 2 %), while it induced no significant change in the other regions. Increases in SkBF were greater in the right than left cheek during CPT. These results demonstrate that a systemic circulatory challenge via sympathetic activation elicits regional differences in the facial SkBF response. PMID:23064980

Kashima, Hideaki; Ikemura, Tsukasa; Hayashi, Naoyuki

2013-04-01

39

Facial skin and soft tissue infection caused by Mycobacterium wolinskyi associated with cosmetic procedures  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacteirum wolinskyi is a member of the Mycobacterium smegmatis group, which is less frequently found in clinical settings than other nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) species. However, its clinical significance has recently increased in opportunistic infections. This case is the first report of facial skin and soft tissue infection by M. wolinskyi complicating cosmetic procedures. Case presentation A 56-year-old Asian female patient with a history of receiving multiple facial cosmetic procedures over the preceding 2 years was admitted to our institution with swelling, local pain, and erythema on the right cheek. Mycobacteirum fortuitum complex isolated from a pus culture was identified as M. wolinskyi by rpoB sequencing. Metallic foreign bodies and abscess were detected by radiologic imaging. The pus was incised and drained. Treatment comprised clarithromycin (500 mg every 12 h), amikacin (200 mg every 8 h), and ciprofloxacin (400 mg every 6 h). Conclusion We report the first case of facial skin and soft tissue infection with M. wolinskyi after multiple cosmetic procedures of filler injection and laser lipolysis. Increased occurrence of NTM infection in nosocomial settings suggests the importance of appropriate treatment including culturing and rpoB gene sequencing when patients who have undergone cosmetic procedures display symptoms and signs of soft tissue infection indicative of NTM infection. PMID:24131522

2013-01-01

40

Development of the Facial Skin Care Index: A Health-Related Outcomes Index for Skin Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Existing health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) tools do not appear to capture patients' specific skin cancer concerns. OBJECTIVE To describe the conceptual foundation, item generation, reduction process, and reliability testing for the Facial Skin Cancer Index (FSCI), a HRQOL outcomes tool for skin cancer researchers and clinicians. METHODS Participants in Phases I to III consisted of adult patients (N = 134) diagnosed with biopsy-proven nonmelanoma cervicofacial skin cancer. Data were collected via self-report surveys and clinical records. RESULTS Seventy-one distinct items were generated in Phase I and rated for their importance by an independent sample during Phase II; 36 items representing six theoretical HRQOL domains were retained. Test–retest I results indicated that four subscales showed adequate reliability coefficients (? = 0.60 to 0.91). Twenty-six items remained for test–retest II. Results indicated excellent internal consistency for emotional, social, appearance, and modified financial/work subscales (range 0.79 to 0.95); test–retest correlation coefficients were consistent across time (range 0.81 to 0.97; lifestyle omitted). CONCLUSION Pretesting afforded the opportunity to select items that optimally met our a priori conceptual and psychometric criteria for high data quality. Phase IV testing (validity and sensitivity before surgery and 4 months after Mohs micrographic surgery) for the 20-item FSCI is under way. PMID:16875475

Matthews, B. Alex; Rhee, John S.; Neuburg, Marcy; Burzynski, Mary L.; Nattinger, Ann B.

2006-01-01

41

Combined topical application of lotus and green tea improves facial skin surface parameters.  

PubMed

No study has yet determined the anti-wrinkle efficacy of green tea plus lotus in Asian subjects using skin image analysis technique. In this study, the efficacy of two cosmetic active formulations intended for the treatment of facial wrinkles (green tea and lotus extract) has been evaluated in healthy subjects using a non-invasive device, the Visioscan(®) VC, and software for surface evaluation of living skin (SELS). Thirty-three healthy Asian subjects, all men, were enrolled after consent in a placebo-controlled comparative study with a split face design. One group applied multiple emulsions with green tea. The second group applied multiple emulsions with lotus extract, while a third group applied a multiple emulsion with a combination of both extracts. In all three groups, active formulations were applied to one side of the face and the placebo to the other side, once daily over the 60-day treatment course. Non-invasive measurements were performed at baseline and on days 30 and 60. Interesting and significant improvements were observed for the treatment effects on skin roughness (SEr), scaliness (SEsc), smoothness (SEsm), and wrinkling (SEw). For example, a 49.99% improvement in skin smoothness (SEsm) from baseline value and -23.22% and perfection in facial wrinkles (SEw) substantiated that combined treatment is superior over single treatments. Green tea and lotus combined in multiple emulsions brought a superior synergistic anti-aging effect. We conclude that diverse anti-oxidant constituents in both plants have a potential influence on skin surface parameters, thus indicating these plants as the future of new anti-aging products. PMID:23267660

Mahmood, Tariq; Akhtar, Naveed

2013-04-01

42

Comparison of three skin-stretching devices for closing skin defects on the limbs of dogs  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of skin-stretching devices for closing defects on the extremities of dogs. Antebrachial skin defects were created on the limbs of 24 dogs randomly divided into three groups. Skin stretchers included staples and sutures passing through them (group A), sutures and hypodermic needles (group B), and Pavletic device (group C). Wounds on the left were further undermined in all groups. Tension and blood perfusion were assessed. After removing the stretchers on day 3, the defects were sutured and wound healing was clinically scored. Histological variables evaluated were cellular infiltration, edema, collagen orientation, and thickness of epidermis. Significant differences in tension were found among groups (p < 0.0005) and between measurement times for undermined (p = 0.001) or non-undermined (p < 0.0005) wounds. In contrast, blood perfusion values did not differ significantly. Clinical scores for group B seemed to be better than those for groups A and C, but differences were not significant. Primary wound closure using the Pavletic device was not feasible. No significant differences in histological variables were found between groups. Skin stretching with staples or hypodermic needles resulted in successful wound management with minor side effects on skin histology and circulation. PMID:25269717

Papazoglou, Lysimachos G.; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Psalla, Dimitra; Savvas, Ioannis; Pavlidis, Leonidas; Karayannopoulpou, Maria

2015-01-01

43

Intracranial skip metastasis from parotid and facial skin tumors: mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed Central

Perineural and endoneural tumor spread is a form of metastatic disease in which the primary tumors spread along neural pathways and gain access to noncontiguous regions. Although rare, this type of skip metastasis into the cranial cavity occurs from tumors of the parotid gland and facial skin. Recognition of this process, evaluation of the patient with proper diagnostic procedures, and its treatment are presented. Images Figures 1,4,7,10,11 Figures 2,3,5,6,8,9,12,13 PMID:8388480

Kumar, P. P.; Patil, A. A.; Ogren, F. P.; Johansson, S. L.; Reeves, M. A.

1993-01-01

44

Versatile Use of Rhomboid Flaps for Closure of Skin Defects  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study is to present our clinical experience with rhomboid flaps. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients who were operated on between January 2006 and October 2010 were included in the study. All defects were reconstructed using rhomboid flaps. Results: Twenty-four patients were operated on for various reasons, and 26 rhomboid flaps were performed. Eleven of the 24 cases were male, and the median age of participants was 47.5 years. Eight cases were operated on under general anesthesia, and 13 were locally anesthetized; the remaining cases were operated on under regional anesthesia. In 17 cases, the defect was due to a benign or malignant tumor excision, and five cases were operated on due to burn contracture. There were no occurrences of partial or total flap necrosis or hematoma in our series. Conclusion: Our series indicates that rhomboid flaps can be safely used to reconstruct small to moderately sized skin defects. PMID:25610151

Aydin, Osman Enver; Tan, Onder; Algan, Said; Kuduban, Selma Denktas; Cinal, Hakan; Barin, Ensar Zafer

2011-01-01

45

Patient satisfaction and efficacy of accent radiofrequency for facial skin wrinkle reduction  

PubMed Central

Background: Radiofrequency (RF) is a new technique to treat facial wrinkles. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Accent RF in wrinkle reduction of different areas of the face. Materials and Methods: Patients with mild to severe facial wrinkles were treated with Accent using RF energies of 35-145 W. The average energy used in this study was 83.11 W. Patients received four subsequent weekly RF sessions. Wrinkle improvement was rated by two physicians comparing 6-month post treatment photographs with pretreatment photos. Moreover, patient satisfaction was assessed at 1 and 6 months after the last session of the treatment. Results: A total of 45 women participated in this study. In terms of patient satisfaction one month after the last treatment, 8.9% of the patients declared their dissatisfaction, 53.3% were somehow satisfied, 33.3% were satisfied, and 4.4% were very satisfied. At 6 months, patient satisfaction was as follows: 4.4% dissatisfied, 31.1% somehow satisfied, 46.7% satisfied, and 17.8% very satisfied. Patient satisfaction 6 months after the last treatment was significantly higher than 1 month post treatment (P = 0.006). At 6 months, patient satisfaction was not more than 75% in any treatment areas of the face. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Accent RF may be considered as a possible effective option for facial skin rejuvenation although its efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated further in randomized controlled trials. PMID:24523783

Jaffary, Fariba; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Zarkoob, Hajar

2013-01-01

46

Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels  

SciTech Connect

The appearance of defects such as 'hollows' and 'shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of a panel may become unacceptable. Considerable time is then dedicated to minimizing their occurrence through tool modifications. This paper will investigate the use of the wavelet transform as a tool to analyze physically measured panels. The transform has two key aspects. The first is its ability to distinguish small scale local defects from large scale styling curvature. The second is its ability to characterize the shape of a defect in terms of its wavelength and a 'correlation value'. The two features of the transform enable it to be used as a tool for locating and predicting the severity of defects. The paper will describe the transform and illustrate its application on test cases.

Hazra, S.; Williams, D.; Roy, R. [University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Aylmore, R.; Allen, M.; Hollingdale, D. [Land Rover, Banbury Rd, Gaydon, Warwick, CV35 0RR (United Kingdom)

2011-05-04

47

Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness  

PubMed Central

Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception of Chinese and Caucasian faces. Résumé Objectifs Le vieillissement entraine des changements caractéristiques de l'apparence de la peau du visage. Parmi ces changements on distingue les éléments topographiques (relâchement de la peau et rides), les taches brunes et les cernes sur le contour de l'œil. Bien que ces modifications cutanées avec l'âge soient similaires pour les visages caucasiens et chinois; leur âge d'apparition et leur degré de sévérité varient entre ces deux populations. Il y a très peu d'informations disponibles liées à l'influence du vieillissement cutané sur la perception des visages féminins par les femmes chinoises. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer la contribution des différents signes de vieillissement à la perception de l'âge et d'attirance chez ces femmes. Methodes Des photos de visages de femmes caucasiennes et chinoises d'environ 60 ans ont été manipulées de façon à réduire séparément les signes suivants: (i) le relâchement de la peau et les rides, (ii) les taches brunes, et (iii) les cernes. Enfin, tous les signes ont été atténués ensemble (iv). Des participantes chinoises ont estimé, à partir de ces photos, l'écart d'âge entre la version originale et chaque version modifiée; elles ont également évalué l'attirance des visages originaux et modifiés. Resultats Les femmes chinoises ont jugé les visages chinois plus jeunes après correction des taches qu'après correction des rides/relâchement, alors que les visages caucasiens ont été perçus les plus jeunes après correction des rides/relâchement. Les femmes chinoises ont jugé que les visages avec correction des taches étaient les plus attirants quelle que soit l'origine du visage. La manipulation des cernes a entraîné un rajeunissement des 2 types de visages et les a rendus plus attirants, m

Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

2014-01-01

48

Chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor microspheres repair facial nerve defects  

PubMed Central

Microspheres containing nerve growth factor for sustained release were prepared by a compound method, and implanted into chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm defects on the right buccal branches of the facial nerve in rabbits. In addition, chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor or normal saline, as well as autologous nerve, were used as controls. At 90 days post-surgery, the muscular atrophy on the right upper lip was more evident in the nerve growth factor and normal sa-line groups than in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups. physiological analysis revealed that the nerve conduction velocity and amplitude were significantly higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. Moreover, histological observation illustrated that the di-ameter, number, alignment and myelin sheath thickness of myelinated nerves derived from rabbits were higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. These findings indicate that chitosan nerve conduits bined with microspheres for sustained release of nerve growth factor can significantly improve facial nerve defect repair in rabbits. PMID:25206635

Liu, Huawei; Wen, Weisheng; Hu, Min; Bi, Wenting; Chen, Lijie; Liu, Sanxia; Chen, Peng; Tan, Xinying

2013-01-01

49

The use of digital image speckle correlation to measure the mechanical properties of skin and facial muscular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skin mechanical properties have been extensively studied and have led to an understanding of the structure and role of the collagen and elastin fibers network in the dermis and their changes due to aging. All these techniques have either isolated the skin from its natural environment (in vitro), or, when studied in vivo, attempted to minimize the effect of the underlying tissues and muscles. The human facial region is unique compared to the other parts of the body in that the underlying musculature runs through the subcutaneous tissue and is directly connected to the dermis with collagen based fibrous tissues. These fibrous tissues comprise the superficial musculoaponeurotic system, commonly referred to as the SMAS layer. Retaining ligaments anchor the skin to the periosteum, and hold the dermis to the SMAS. In addition, traditional techniques generally collect an average response of the skin. Data gathered in this manner is incomplete as the skin is anisotropic and under constant tension. We therefore introduce the Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC) method that maps in two dimensions the skin deformation under the complex set of forces involved during muscular activity. DISC, a non-contact in vivo technique, generates spatial resolved information. By observing the detailed motion of the facial skin we can infer the manner in which the complex ensemble of forces induced by movement of the muscles distribute and dissipate on the skin. By analyzing the effect of aging on the distribution of these complex forces we can measure its impact on skin elasticity and quantify the efficacy of skin care products. In addition, we speculate on the mechanism of wrinkle formation. Furthermore, we investigate the use of DISC to map the mechanism of film formation on skin of various polymers. Finally, we show that DISC can detect the involuntary facial muscular activity induced by various fragrances.

Staloff, Isabelle Afriat

50

Altered thermal sensitivity in facial skin in chronic whiplash-associated disorders  

PubMed Central

There is a close functional relationship between the jaw and neck regions and it has been suggested that trigeminal sensory impairment can follow whiplash injury. Inclusion of manageable routines for valid assessment of the facial sensory capacity is thus needed for comprehensive evaluations of patients exposed to such trauma. The present study investigated facial thermal thresholds in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) with both a qualitative method and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Ten women with pain and dysfunction following a whiplash injury were compared to 10 healthy age-matched women. Thermal detection thresholds were assessed by qualitative chair-side testing and by QST according to the method-of-limits. Seven test sites in the facial skin (overlying each trigeminal branch bilaterally, and the midpoint of the chin) were examined. The detection warm and cold thresholds were defined as the mean values of 10 individual thresholds. For the WAD patients, the qualitative assessment demonstrated both reduced and increased sensitivity compared to the healthy, whereas QST systematically showed significantly higher detection thresholds (i.e., decreased sensitivity) for both cold and warm stimuli. For the individuals who were assessed as having increased sensitivity in the qualitative assessment, the QST displayed either normal or higher thresholds, i.e., decreased sensitivity. The results suggest that QST is more sensitive for detecting thermal sensory disturbances in the face than a qualitative method. The impaired thermal sensitivity among the patients corroborates the notion of altered thermal detection capacity induced by WAD-related pain. PMID:23867844

Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Lampa, Ewa; Nordh, Erik

2013-01-01

51

Evaluation of the Driver's Mental Workload by Conversational Form based on Facial Skin Thermal Image Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lots of traffic accidents are related in physiological and psychological state of the driver. Therefore, physiological and/or psychological measurement of a driver is important for prevention of a traffic accident. The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the amount of mental workloads by Facial Skin Thermal image (FST), which is thermal image of the human face. A measurement of physiological and psychological state of the driver who is under mentally workloaded during driving task was conducted. The evaluation method for physiological index, which were FST, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), based on the correlations among those indexes was considered. A result of present experiment, an efficiency of FST in evaluation of a mental working load of a driver was shown.

Nozawa, Akio; Mizawa, Hiroki; Mizuno, Tota; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ide, Hideto

52

Xeroderma Pigmentosum: defective DNA repair causes skin cancer and neurodegeneration  

SciTech Connect

Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease with numerous malignancies on sun-exposed areas of the skin and eye because of an inability to repair DNA damage inflicted by harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sun. Because it is the only disease in which cancer is known to result from defective DNA repair, XP has received intense clinical and biochemical study during the last two decades. Furthermore, some patients with XP develop a primary neuronal degeneration, probably due to the inability of nerve cells to repair damage to their DNA caused by intraneuronal metabolites and physicochemical events that mimic the effects of UV radiation. Studies of XP neurodegeneration and DNA-repair defects have led to the conclusion that efficient DNA repair is required to prevent premature death of human nerve cells. Since XP neurodegeneration has similarities to premature death of nerve cells that occurs in such neurodegenerative disorders, XP may be the prototype for these more common neurodegenerations. Recent studies indicate that these degenerations also may have DNA-repair defects.

Robbins, J.H.

1988-07-15

53

Thermographic imaging of facial skin—gender differences and temperature changes over time in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess changes in facial skin temperature over time, to identify sources of variation related to skin temperature and to evaluate interobserver reproducibility in measurements of the thermograms. Methods 62 volunteers (32 females, 30 males, mean age 23.4, range 19.5–29.5 years) underwent thermography of the face (left and right side lateral images) on four occasions with approximately 2 months between each session. Three observers recorded the images and marked regions of interest (ROIs) in each image using dedicated software. Smoking, exercise habits and use of oral contraceptives were recorded. Results A significant difference between sessions (?1 °C, p < 0.001) and between observers (?0.11 °C, p < 0.001) was identified. The difference between sides was not significant (?0.07 °C, p = 0.7). None of the interactions between side, session and observer were significant. Smoking, exercise habits and oral contraceptive intake were not significant impact factors when included as covariates in the analysis (p > 0.1). ROI temperature was significantly higher in males than in females (0.7 °C, p < 0.001). A mixed model analysis of variance showed that observer had little impact on the expected standard deviation, whereas session and subject had a greater impact. Conclusions Face temperature is symmetrical and varies over time. The non-significant difference between sides is highly reproducible, even between observers. PMID:22554986

Christensen, J; Vaeth, M; Wenzel, A

2012-01-01

54

Role of Mitochondria in Photoaging of Human Skin: The Defective Powerhouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact pathogenesis of photoaging of the skin is not yet known. Earlier, a number of molecular pathways explaining one or more characteristics of photoaged skin have been described, but a unifying mechanistic concept is still missing. Here we propose the “Defective Powerhouse Model of Premature Skin Aging”, which reconciles most of the earlier conducted research as one concept. In

Jean Krutmann; Peter Schroeder

2009-01-01

55

Pilot histologic and ultrastructural study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chemical peels are employed for a variety of benign and premalignant skin disorders.Objective: We compared clinical and histologic features with ultrastructural changes that occur after medium-depth chemical facial peel.Methods: Three men with actinically damaged facial skin underwent a single 35% trichloroacetic acid peel. Biopsy specimens were taken before the peel, and 2 weeks and 3 months after the peel,

Bruce R Nelson; Darrell J Fader; Montgomery Gillard; Gopa Majmudar; Timothy M Johnson

1995-01-01

56

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Skin Care Protocols for Facial Resurfacing: Lessons Learned from the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation’s Skin Products Assessment Research Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Skin Products Assessment Research (SPAR) Committee was created by the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation (PSEF) in 2006. SPAR study aims were to (1) develop an infrastructure for PSEF-conducted, industry sponsored research in facial aesthetic surgery and (2) test the research process by comparing outcomes of the Obagi Nu-Derm System (ONDS) versus conventional therapy as treatment adjuncts for facial resurfacing procedures. Methods The SPAR study was designed as a multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). The study was conducted in women with Fitzpatrick type I-IV skin, moderate to severe facial photo damage, and peri-ocular and/or peri-oral fine wrinkles. Patients underwent chemical peel or laser facial resurfacing and were randomized to ONDS or a standard care regimen. The study endpoints were time to re-epithelization, erythema, and pigmentation changes. Results Fifty-six women were enrolled and 82% were followed beyond re-epithelization. There were no significant differences in mean time to re-epithelialization between ONDS and control groups. The ONDS group had a significantly higher median erythema score on day of surgery (after 4 weeks of product use) which did not persist after surgery. Test-retest photo evaluations demonstrated that both inter- and intra-rater reliability were adequate for primary study outcomes. Conclusions In a clinical RCT, we demonstrated no significant difference in time to re-epithelization between patients who used the ONDS or a standard care regimen as an adjunct to facial resurfacing procedures. The SPAR research team has also provided a discussion of future challenges for PSEF sponsored clinical research for readers of this article. PMID:21364435

Pannucci, Christopher J.; Reavey, Patrick L.; Kaweski, Susan; Hamill, Jennifer B.; Hume, Keith M.; Wilkins, Edwin G.; Pusic, Andrea L.

2011-01-01

57

Efficacy of the combined use of a facial cleanser and moisturizers for the care of mild acne patients with sensitive skin.  

PubMed

Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin. PMID:25483138

Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

2015-02-01

58

Single Treatment with 100-Microsecond Alexandrite Laser Clears Selected Acquired Melanocytic Nevi in Type IV Asian Facial Skin  

PubMed Central

Context: Small common acquired melanocytic nevi (AMNs) are common on Asian facial skin. Aims: To show that the 755 nm Alexandrite laser stacked at the 100-?s long-pulsed mode (?sAL) is an effective modality for the removal of selected AMNs. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective case series, followed up with a telephone interview. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients treated between January 2010 and April 2012 with the ?sAL laser for small AMNs was conducted. Pre- and post-treatment facial photographs and photographs of the individual lesions were analyzed by two independent dermatological surgeons for degree of clearance and complications. A telephone interview was conducted with the patients to assess their satisfaction with the procedure. Results: A total of 18 patients with 53 lesions were included. 7/18 (38.9%) of patients had ‘excellent’ results. No patients had ‘mild’ or ‘poor’ results. At 4 week post-treatment, 49/53 (92.5%) were totally cleared, with 14/53 (26.4%) reporting mild atrophy, and 11/53 (20.8%) reporting mild post-inflammatory hypopigmentation. The majority of lesions had negligible complications. 9/18 (50%) judged the procedure to be ‘excellent’, and all patients reported that they would recommend this procedure to a friend seeking removal of small facial AMNs. Conclusion: The ?sAL is an effective modality for the removal of small facial AMNs. PMID:23723600

Wang, Etienne CE; Sen, Priya; Goh, Chee-Leok; Chua, Sze-Hon

2013-01-01

59

An alternative flap choice in penis skin defects: preputial mucosal flap.  

PubMed

In this study, the authors present their experience with preputial mucosal flap usage for reconstruction of full-thickness skin loss of the penis in a patient with scald injury and discuss the possible treatment modalities in penile skin defects. During the 2-year follow-up period, no complication was encountered, and the patient healed uneventfully. PMID:19643464

Bozkurt, Mehmet; Zor, Fatih; Kulahci, Yalcin; Kapi, Emin; Karakol, Percin

2009-12-01

60

Surgical-prosthetic management of facial soft tissue defects on anterior single implant-supported restorations: a clinical report.  

PubMed

The surgical correction of soft tissue defects on the facial aspects of dental implants is documented as an unpredictable procedure. Since the customization of the prosthetic emergence profile contributes significantly to the final esthetic outcome of the soft tissue, a combined surgical-prosthetic approach has been described in the literature. In the case presented in this article, a multidisciplinary approach was used to treat a patient's anterior sextant. It included the treatment of a previously placed implant, perfectly osseointegrated, with a 2 mm recession of the facial soft tissue. Two connective tissue grafting procedures were performed, in conjunction with the modification of the prosthetic profile of the provisional restoration and the definitive abutment. The final esthetic outcome satisfied the patient and resolved the main complaint, and is documented to have been stable for 5 years. PMID:25874274

Paniz, Gianluca; Mazzocco, Fabio

2015-01-01

61

CASE REPORT Reconstruction and Characterization of Composite Mandibular Defects Requiring Double Skin Paddle Fibular Free Flaps  

PubMed Central

Objective: Fibular free flaps are the preferred method for reconstruction of composite lateral mandibular defects. This reconstructive technique is limited by the skin paddle's inability to freely rotate when attempting to fill 2 poorly aligned defects. Reconstructive surgeons have been exploring multiple methods of creating 2 independent skin paddles based on the same peroneal blood supply. We present a variation of these techniques. Method: Our patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma presented with a left retromolar recurrence and osteoradionecrosis of the mandible with a draining anterior sinus tract. The combination of these defects warranted further composite resection with fibular free flap reconstruction. Results: A subperiosteal dissection was performed to create 2 separate septocutaneous skin paddles based on the same peroneal blood supply. This dissection and discard of proximal fibula provided the rotational freedom needed for the 2 skin islands to fill both a lateral oral defect and anterior cutaneous defect. Conclusion: Although similar reconstructive methods have been reported in the literature, the characterization of defects benefiting from these techniques is scarce and unclear. We describe clear and concise characteristics of these defects, which should be meaningful to the reconstructive surgeon when considering operative technique. PMID:23653822

Badeau, Austin M.; Deleyiannis, Frederic W.-B.

2013-01-01

62

Genetics Home Reference: Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding microphthalmia with linear skin ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

63

Postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, spondylocarpal synostosis, cardiac defect, and inner ear malformation (cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome?)--a distinct syndrome?  

PubMed

We report on two unrelated cases born to nonconsanguineous parents with a similar clinical presentation: hypotonia since the neonatal period, severe failure to thrive, postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, congenital cardiac defects (septal defect and non progressive multiple valve dysplasia), shortened extremities, carpal/tarsal and extensive vertebral synostosis, delayed carpal bone age, deafness, and inner ear malformations. Presently, both patients present with normal psychomotor development. Additional abnormal findings include extra oral frenulum, nasal speech, and vesico-ureteral reflux. Molecular analysis in one patient excluded the Noggin gene and Filamin B (FLNB) was excluded in the other patient. Although some features are similar to spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome, the exclusion of FLNB and this constellation of findings suggest a new entity, closely similar to an autosomal dominant condition reported by Forney et al. 1966 in a unique family. Identification of similarly affected patients should aid in the further elucidation of this syndrome. PMID:20186786

Sousa, Sérgio B; Baujat, Geneviéve; Abadie, Véronique; Bonnet, Damien; Sidi, Daniel; Munnich, Arnold; Krakow, Deborah; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

2010-03-01

64

Signals of Personality and Health: The Contributions of Facial Shape, Skin Texture, and Viewing Angle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To what extent does information in a person's face predict their likely behavior? There is increasing evidence for association between relatively neutral, static facial appearance and personality traits. By using composite images rendered from three dimensional (3D) scans of women scoring high and low on health and personality dimensions, we aimed…

Jones, Alex L.; Kramer, Robin S. S.; Ward, Robert

2012-01-01

65

Ethanol induces the formation of water-permeable defects in model bilayers of skin lipids.  

PubMed

We show that ethanol can induce the formation of water-permeable defects in model membranes of skin, providing a fresh perspective on ethanol as a membrane modulator. We rationalise our findings in terms of the chemical nature of ethanol, i.e., a combination of its hydrogen bonding propensity and amphiphilic character. PMID:25566856

Thind, R; O'Neill, D W; Del Regno, A; Notman, R

2015-03-12

66

Skin microbiome imbalance in patients with STAT1/STAT3 defects impairs innate host defense responses  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) are primary immunodeficiencies mainly caused by mutations in STAT1 and STAT3, respectively. CMC and HIES patients have an increased risk for skin and mucosal infections with fungal pathogens and Staphylococcus aureus. However, it is unknown whether the genetic defects in these patients also affect the skin and mucosal microbiome, which in turn may influence host defense mechanisms. Methods The skin and oral microbiome of CMC and HIES patients was compared to that of healthy controls at five body sites using 16S rRNA sequencing. The influence of skin colonizers on the immune response was investigated using in-vitro experiments. Results The microbiome of CMC and HIES patients contained more Gram-negative bacteria, especially Acinetobacter spp, and less of the normal Corynebacterium spp., compared to healthy controls. Exposure of human primary leukocytes to Acinetobacter suppressed the cytokine response to C. albicans and S. aureus, while the normal Corynebacteria did not suppress cytokine responses. Discussion These results demonstrate that central mediators of immune responses like STAT1 and STAT3 not only directly influence immune responses, but also result in changes of the skin microbiome that in turn can amplify the defective immune response against fungal and microbial pathogens. PMID:23796786

Smeekens, Sanne P.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Riza, Anca; van de Veerdonk, Frank; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, Joost; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Netea, Mihai G.; Gevers, Dirk

2014-01-01

67

Face cooling with mist water increases cerebral blood flow during exercise: effect of changes in facial skin blood flow  

PubMed Central

Facial cooling (FC) increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and during exercise; however, the mechanism of this response remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that FC causes facial vasoconstriction that diverts skin blood flow (SkBFface) toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean) at rest and to a greater extent during exercise. Nine healthy young subjects (20 ± 2 years) underwent 3 min of FC by fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cold water (~4°C) at rest and during steady-state exercise [heart rate (HR) of 120 bpm]. We focused on the difference between the averaged data acquired from 1 min immediately before FC and last 1 min of FC. SkBFface, MCA Vmean, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were higher during exercise than at rest. As hypothesized, FC decreased SkBFface at rest (?32 ± 4%) and to a greater extent during exercise (?64 ± 10%, P = 0.012). Although MCA Vmean was increased by FC (Rest, +1.4 ± 0.5 cm/s; Exercise, +1.4 ± 0.6 cm/s), the amount of the FC-evoked changes in MCA Vmean at rest and during exercise differed among subjects. In addition, changes in MCA Vmean with FC did not correlate with concomitant changes in SkBFface (r = 0.095, P = 0.709). MAP was also increased by FC (Rest, +6.2 ± 1.4 mmHg; Exercise, +4.2 ± 1.2 mmHg). These findings suggest that the FC-induced increase in CBF during exercise could not be explained only by change in SkBFface. PMID:22934059

Miyazawa, Taiki; Horiuchi, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Subudhi, Andrew W.; Sugawara, Jun; Ogoh, Shigehiko

2012-01-01

68

The Cosmetic Results of a Simple Method for Repairing Preputial Skin Defect in Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective: Hypospadias is a common birth defect of the penis. Besides the abnormal position of the urethral opening, there is usually a ventral preputial defect with preputial redundancy in dorsal shaft. There are many flap procedures for correcting this defect. Here, we present our experience of skin coverage procedure with better cosmetic results. Methods: It is a prospective study on patients with mid-shaft to glandular hypospadias operated from June 2008 to December 2012. The operations were performed by one surgeon in two hospitals and the cosmetic results were evaluated by the surgeon, parents, and another pediatric surgeon by a satisfaction questionnaire. In this procedure, inner prepuce was incised curvilinearly, remaining 5 mm in medial and 8 mm in lateral aspects of the inner prepuce. For skin repair, dorsal flaps were approximated in midline along median raphe. Findings: Sixty-three patients with mean age of 25.75±8.46 (7-93) months were followed up for 7.06±3.34 (2-15( months. There were 4 complications. The overall satisfaction with penile skin coverage was 93.7% for parents and 98.4% for surgeons. Patients’ age and primary site of meatus had a significant correlation with cosmetic results (P<0.05), while urethroplasty techniques and post-operative complications were not significant. Conclusion: Reapproximation of dorsal flaps in midline is a simple method and can be used in most cases of uncomplicated primary hypospadias. By this technique a more normal appearance can be achieved. PMID:25755862

Ghavami-Adel, Maryam; Mollaeean, Mansour; Hooman, Nakysa

2014-01-01

69

Clinical spectrum of females with HCCS mutation: from no clinical signs to a neonatal lethal form of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Segmental Xp22.2 monosomy or a heterozygous HCCS mutation is associated with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) or MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea) syndrome, an X-linked disorder with male lethality. HCCS encodes the holocytochrome c-type synthase involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and programmed cell death. Methods We characterized the X-chromosomal abnormality encompassing HCCS or an intragenic mutation in this gene in six new female patients with an MLS phenotype by cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR. The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern was determined and clinical data of the patients were reviewed. Results Two terminal Xp deletions of ?11.2 Mb, two submicroscopic copy number losses, one of ~850 kb and one of ?3 Mb, all covering HCCS, 1 nonsense, and one mosaic 2-bp deletion in HCCS are reported. All females had a completely (>98:2) or slightly skewed (82:18) XCI pattern. The most consistent clinical features were microphthalmia/anophthalmia and sclerocornea/corneal opacity in all patients and congenital linear skin defects in 4/6. Additional manifestations included various ocular anomalies, cardiac defects, brain imaging abnormalities, microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, and facial dysmorphism. However, no obvious clinical sign was observed in three female carriers who were relatives of one patient. Conclusion Our findings showed a wide phenotypic spectrum ranging from asymptomatic females with an HCCS mutation to patients with a neonatal lethal MLS form. Somatic mosaicism and the different ability of embryonic cells to cope with an OXPHOS defect and/or enhanced cell death upon HCCS deficiency likely underlie the great variability in phenotypes. PMID:24735900

2014-01-01

70

Comparison of changes in facial skin temperature caused by ethyl chloride spraying, ice block rubbing and cold gel packing in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three cryotherapeutic modalities (ethyl chloride spraying, ice block rubbing and cold gel packing) on facial skin temperature. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 men, 15 women; mean age, 29·4 ± 3·2 years) participated in this study. Each of the three modalities was randomly applied to the skin over the right masseter muscle. The skin surface temperature was recorded at baseline and every 5 min for 60 min after the application of one of the three cryotherapeutic modalities. Immediately after application, cold gel packing demonstrated the greatest reduction in surface temperature (10·6 °C), followed by ethyl chloride spraying (4·3 °C) and ice block rubbing (3·7 °C) (P < 0·001). During the 60-min post-application period, ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing produced similar skin surface temperature changes. The skin surface remained coldest for the longest period of time after cold gel packing. The median time for recovery of the baseline temperature after application of the cold gel pack was about three to four times longer than that for the other modalities (P < 0·001). Ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing resulted in less reduction and faster recovery of skin surface temperature than did cold gel packing. In conclusion, ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing had a limited cooling effect on the facial skin tissue and could not reduce the skin surface temperature enough for local analgesia. Moreover, the cooling effect of cold gel packing was remarkable, but not sufficient for local analgesia. PMID:22994138

Im, Y-G; Park, H-J; Chae, H-Y; Kim, B-G; Lim, H-S; Park, J-I; Kim, J-H

2012-12-01

71

Secondary Intention Healing after Excision of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck: Statistical Evaluation of Prognostic Values of Wound Characteristics and Final Cosmetic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Most data on secondary intention healing of skin cancer defects in the head and neck are empirical and descriptive. This study statistically evaluates the prognostic value of several wound characteristics and location on the final cosmetic result of skin defects left to heal by secondary intention after tumor removal. Methods: A chart review of all facial reconstructions using secondary

Paul A. van der Eerden; Peter J. F. M. Lohuis; A. A. M. Hart; W. C. Mulder; Hade Vuyk

2008-01-01

72

Update on facial aging.  

PubMed

Facial aging was once thought to be the result of the relentless downward pull of gravity on skin and underlying fat. In turn, facial fat was believed to be a contiguous sheet of tissue. However, over the past four decades, a number of investigators have examined more closely the causes of facial aging, leading to a better understanding of age-related changes, and have confirmed and further explored the proposal by Gonzalez-Ulloa and Flores in 1965 that facial aging involves changes in muscle and bone, as well as skin and fat. Further, the recent work of Rohrich and Pessa (and other authors) has demonstrated that facial fat is not a sheet of tissue, but rather is compartmentalized throughout the face. This discovery has allowed the evolution of improved techniques for facial rejuvenation. PMID:20844296

Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Graivier, Miles H; Kane, Michael; Lorenc, Z Paul; Vleggaar, Danny; Werschler, Wm Philip; Kenkel, Jeffrey M

2010-01-01

73

Facial aesthetic analysis.  

PubMed

Consideration of the individual patient's appearance based on systematic mapping and a three-dimensional evaluation of the four levels of facial structure (bone, muscle, fat, and skin) will help the clinician choose the most appropriate modalities for facial rejuvenation. This article addresses these concepts and also discusses universal perceptions of attractiveness. PMID:20844297

Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Graivier, Miles H; Kane, Michael; Lorenc, Z Paul; Vleggaar, Danny; Werschler, Wm Philip; Kenkel, Jeffrey M

2010-01-01

74

Pollution as a Risk Factor for the Development of Melasma and Other Skin Disorders of Facial Hyperpigmentation ? Is There a Case to Be Made?.  

PubMed

Worldwide air pollution is a major health concern. There is accumulating scientific evidence that air pollution plays an important role in extrinsic aging. This article invites the reader to consider pollution as a possible emerging etiologic agent for the development of melasma. Pollution may be a risk factor for melasma and other facial pigmentary dyschromias. Air pollution in the form of airborne particulate matter (PM) and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enter the skin via nanoparticles and generate quinones, which are redox-cycling chemicals that produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). The PM increases the amount of ROS that triggers the increase of metalloproteinases that leads to extrinsic aging, which includes skin pigmentation. The incidence of disorders of facial hyperpigmentation specifically, melasma, is increased in persons of skin type III-VI living in India and South East Asia. Interestingly, these are also geographic regions with very heavy pollution. India, South East Asia, China, and United States lead the world in air pollution.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(4):337-341. PMID:25844605

Roberts, Wendy E

2015-04-01

75

A full skin defect model to evaluate vascularization of biomaterials in vivo.  

PubMed

Insufficient vascularization is considered to be one of the main factors limiting the clinical success of tissue-engineered constructs. In order to evaluate new strategies that aim at improving vascularization, reliable methods are required to make the in-growth of new blood vessels into bio-artificial scaffolds visible and quantify the results. Over the past couple of years, our group has introduced a full skin defect model that enables the direct visualization of blood vessels by transillumination and provides the possibility of quantification through digital segmentation. In this model, one surgically creates full skin defects in the back of mice and replaces them with the material tested. Molecules or cells of interest can also be incorporated in such materials to study their potential effect. After an observation time of one's own choice, materials are explanted for evaluation. Bilateral wounds provide the possibility of making internal comparisons that minimize artifacts among individuals as well as of decreasing the number of animals needed for the study. In comparison to other approaches, our method offers a simple, reliable and cost effective analysis. We have implemented this model as a routine tool to perform high-resolution screening when testing vascularization of different biomaterials and bio-activation approaches. PMID:25226211

Schenck, Thilo L; Chávez, Myra N; Condurache, Alexandru P; Hopfner, Ursula; Rezaeian, Farid; Machens, Hans-Günther; Egaña, José T

2014-01-01

76

Female infant with oncocytic cardiomyopathy and microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS): A clue to the pathogenesis of oncocytic cardiomyopathy?  

SciTech Connect

A infant girl had red stellate skin lesions on the cheeks and neck, and mildly short palpebral fissures. Her skin abnormality was typical of microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS), a newly recognized syndrome consisting of congenital linear skin defects and ocular abnormalities in females monosomic for Xp22. She died suddenly and unexpectedly at age 4 months; the cause of death was ascribed to oncocytic cardiomyopathy. Oncocytic cardiomyopathy occurs only in young children, who present with refractory arrhythmias leading to cardiac arrest. The coexistence of two rare conditions, one of which is mapped to the X chromosome, and an excess of affected females with oncocytic cardiomyopathy is also X-linked, with Xp22 being a candidate region. Overlapping manifestations in the two conditions (ocular abnormalities in cases of oncocytic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias in MLS) offer additional support for this hypothesis. 43 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Bird, L.M.; Krous, H.F.; Eichenfield, L.F.; Swalwell, C.I.; Jones, M.C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

1994-11-01

77

An alternative approach in the treatment of Dupuytren's contracture skin defects: first dorsal metacarpal artery island flap.  

PubMed

Skin defects are often present following surgery for Dupuytren's contracture. The first dorsal metacarpal artery island flap (FDMA) has been used by others for soft tissue reconstruction about the radial and dorsal aspect of the hand, thumb and fingers. We have used it successfully to fill the skin defects often seen following palmar fasciectomy for Dupuytren's contracture. The thin nature of the flap makes it suitable for this application. The FDMA arises from the radial artery just before the radial artery enters the first dorsal interosseous muscle and divides into three branches: 1 to the thumb, 1 to the index finger (radiodorsal branch) and a muscular branch. It is the radiodorsal branch that supplies the skin over the index finger. The island flap based on this artery includes the dorsal terminal branches of the radial nerve and venae comitantes. The flap is formed to include the fascia of the first dorsal interosseous muscle to avoid injury to a possible deep artery and to yield sufficient fat to promote venous drainage. The flap is passed subcutaneously through the first web space and sutured in place to cover the skin defect in the palm. A full thickness skin graft is used to cover the defect over the proximal phalanx of the index finger. PMID:16518236

Ozdemir, Oguz; Coskunol, E; Ozalp, T

2004-03-01

78

Epidermal barrier defects link atopic dermatitis with altered skin cancer susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Atopic dermatitis can result from loss of structural proteins in the outermost epidermal layers, leading to a defective epidermal barrier. To test whether this influences tumour formation, we chemically induced tumours in EPI?/? mice, which lack three barrier proteins—Envoplakin, Periplakin, and Involucrin. EPI?/? mice were highly resistant to developing benign tumours when treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The DMBA response was normal, but EPI?/? skin exhibited an exaggerated atopic response to TPA, characterised by abnormal epidermal differentiation, a complex immune infiltrate and elevated serum thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). The exacerbated TPA response could be normalised by blocking TSLP or the immunoreceptor NKG2D but not CD4+ T cells. We conclude that atopy is protective against skin cancer in our experimental model and that the mechanism involves keratinocytes communicating with cells of the immune system via signalling elements that normally protect against environmental assaults. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01888.001 PMID:24843010

Cipolat, Sara; Hoste, Esther; Natsuga, Ken; Quist, Sven R; Watt, Fiona M

2014-01-01

79

Non-destructive detection of defects in artificial skin tissue by optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of optical coherence tomography OCT in tissue engineering facilities offers great potential for the automated detection of defects or inhomogeneities in tissue products. This non-invasive and non-destructive measurement technique enables the high speed generation of two dimensional cross sections of tissue with micron resolution. The integration of an OCT device into a tissue production facility allows the monitoring and quality control of tissue engineering products. By the selective exclusion of tissue products with insufficient quality features a high degree in production standard is guaranteed. In a first study, OCT tomograms of artificial skin equivalents were acquired and compared with microscopic images of associated histologies. As a result, a well-defined analogy of the obtained images is presented. The most common defect in terms of hole structures that occurs due to a procedural steps could be detected. Further characteristics like the topography, homogeneity and layer structure was analysed. Hence, OCT provides a powerful measurement technique to monitor the quality of tissue products in automated tissue engineering facilities.

Schmitt, R.; Marx, U.; Heymer, A.; Kaufmann, M.

2009-07-01

80

Triple skin island fibula free flap: a good choice for combined mandible and tongue defect reconstruction.  

PubMed

Resections of malignant tumors involving the mandible and anterior tongue result in complex defects that are still real challenges for reconstructive surgeons. Whereas there are preferred methods for mandible reconstruction involving isolated or limited loss of soft tissues, there are no standards for extended bone-soft tissue intraoral defects. This article documents the modification of the fibula free flap where triple skin islands are used for reconstruction of anterior tongue and floor of the mouth. The technique also includes filing the submandibular space with an isolated part of the flexor hallucis longus muscle, based on individual perforator. The details of flap designing, harvesting, and insetting are also presented. Eight such reconstructions have been performed on patients who underwent complex resection of the anterior mandible together with the mobile part of the tongue. Flap survival rate was 100%. In all eight cases, understandable speech and return to unrestricted diet mastication and swallowing were achieved. Analysis of aesthetic effects showed generally very good results. The presented modification of fibula free flap can be an alternative to double flaps in complex reconstruction of the mandible and mobile tongue. PMID:18688766

Maciejewski, Adam; Szymczyk, Cezary; Wierzgo?, Janusz

2008-10-01

81

Rare complication of silicone fluid injection presenting as multiple calcification and skin defect in both legs: a case report.  

PubMed

In the past, many materials have been injected for soft tissue augmentation including paraffin (mineral oil) and other non-biocompatible products. Liquid silicone as one of these materials has a long and notorious history as an injectable material for soft tissue augmentation. However, complications, including cellulitis, ulcerations, migration, and nodule formation, have also been reported with silicone injections. This article aims to demonstrate the diagnosis and treatment of multiple calcification and skin defect after silicone fluid injection for soft tissue augmentation. A 65-year-old female presented with skin defect and calcifications had been steadily increasing in size over a 3-month period. Examination confirmed pain, swelling, induration, and 5 × 5 cm sized skin defect with marginal and adjacent calcification in the left lateral malleolar area. She had been injected silicone fluid for soft tissue of lower extremity augmentation and contouring 30 years ago. Serial surgical debridement of this entire zone of calcification and ulceration was undertaken. The defect was closed by a split thickness skin graft. She was satisfied with the aesthetic appearance of the lateral malleolar area, relieving the symptoms of cellulitis. PMID:25564484

Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hwan Jun

2015-03-01

82

Undifferentiated and differentiated adipose-derived stem cells improve nerve regeneration in a rat model of facial nerve defect.  

PubMed

Autologous nerve grafting is the current procedure used for repairing facial nerve gaps. As an alternative to this method, tissue engineering cell-based therapy using induced pluripotent stem cells, Schwann cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed. However, these cells have major problems, including tumorigenesis in induced pluripotent stem cells and invasiveness and limited tissue associated with harvesting for the other cells. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be harvested easily and repeatedly by a minimally invasive liposuction procedure. The ASCs had characteristics of mesenchymal tissue lineages and could differentiate into Schwann-like cells that were relatively simple to isolate and expand in culture. In an in vivo study, a silicone conduit containing undifferentiated ASCs, differentiated ASCs or Schwann cells were transplanted, embedded in a collagen gel and the efficacy of repair of a 7 mm-gap in the rat facial nerve examined. Morphometric quantification analysis of regenerated facial nerves after a regeneration period of 13 weeks showed that undifferentiated ASCs, differentiated ASCs, and Schwann cells had similar potential for nerve regeneration. Furthermore, the functional recovery of facial nerve regeneration using a rat facial palsy scoring system in the three groups was close to that in autologous nerve graft positive controls. These findings suggest that undifferentiated and differentiated ASCs may both have therapeutic potential in facial nerve regeneration as a source of Schwann cells in cell-based therapy performed as an alternative to autologous nerve grafts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24889763

Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Sasaki, Ryo; Matsumine, Hajime; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

2014-06-01

83

Heme synthetase deficiency in human protoporphyria. Demonstration of the defect in liver and cultured skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

The final step in heme biosynthesis is chelation of porphyrin with Fe++ catalyzed by the mitochondrial enzyme heme synthetase. We have employed a sensitive radiochemical assay for this enzyme, using 59Fe and deuteroporphyrin or protoporphyrin as substrates. In this method iron is maintained in the ferrous state, oxygen is excluded from the incubation system, and labeled heme product is extracted into ethyl acetate. This assay has been used to measure the activity of heme synthetase in homogenates of liver, obtained by needle biopsy, and in sonicates of human skin fibroblasts, cultured in vitro. In addition, activity of the first enzyme of the heme synthetic pathway, delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase, has been measured in fibroblast lysates. Lysates of fibroblasts from eight patients with protoporphyria had activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase which did not differ significantly from those of eight normal fibroblast lines, whereas activity of heme synthetase, with either deuteroporphyrin or protoporphyrin as substrate, was markedly decreased in sonicates of skin fibroblasts from these patients, the mean being 8% of control with deuteroporphyrin and 14% with protoporphyrin as substrate. In homogenates of liver from five patients with protoporphyria, activity of heme synthetase was also significantly less than that found in six patients without prophyria, the mean being 13% of control with protoporphyrin as substrate. These results provide evidence that decreased activity of heme synthetase is the basic defect in the heme synthetic pathway in protoporphyria. This deficiency is probably responsible for protoporphyrin accumulation and hence the biochemical and clinical features observed in protoporphyria. PMID:1184741

Bonkowsky, H L; Bloomer, J R; Ebert, P S; Mahoney, M J

1975-01-01

84

Effect of the thigh-cuffs on the carotid artery diameter jugular vein section and facial skin edema: HDT study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the distal arterial, venous and skin changes in a group using thigh cuffs during daytime and in a control group. Method: Cardiac, arterial, venous parameters were measured by echography and Doppler. Skin thickness was measured by high frequency echography. Results & discussion: Head down position induced plasma volume reduction, increased cerebral resistance, reduced lower limb resistance. The

Jerome Roumy; Stephane Diridillou; Stephane Herault; Galina Fomina; Irina Alferova; Philippe Arbeille

2001-01-01

85

Reduction of conspicuous facial pores by topical fullerene: possible role in the suppression of PGE2 production in the skin  

PubMed Central

Background Conspicuous facial pores are therapeutic targets for cosmeceuticals. Here we examine the effect of topical fullerene on conspicuous facial pores using a new image analyser called the VISIA® system. Ten healthy Japanese females participated in this study, and they received applications of 1% fullerene lotion to the face twice a day for 8 weeks. Findings Fullerene lotion significantly decreased conspicuous pores by 17.6% (p?facial pores after an 8-week treatment possibly through the suppression of PGE2 production in the epidermis. PMID:24559044

2014-01-01

86

Epidermal Stem Cells Cultured on Collagen-Modified Chitin Membrane Induce In Situ Tissue Regeneration of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in Mice  

PubMed Central

A Large scale of full-thickness skin defects is lack of auto-grafts and which requires the engineered skin substitutes for repair and regeneration. One major obstacle in skin tissue engineering is to expand epidermal stem cells (ESCs) and develop functional substitutes. The other one is the scaffold of the ESCs. Here, we applied type I collagen-modified chitin membrane to form collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM), which has been proved to have a great biocompatibility and degraded totally when it was subcutaneously transplanted into rat skin. ESCs were cultured, and the resulting biofilm was used to cover full-thickness skin defects in nude mice. The transplantation of ESCs- collagen- chitn biomimetic membrane (ESCs-C-CBM) has achieved in situ skin regeneration. In nude mice, compared to controls with collagen-chitin biomimetic membrane (C-CBM) only, the ESCs-C-CBM group had significantly more dermatoglyphs on the skin wound 10 w after surgery, and the new skin was relatively thick, red and elastic. In vivo experiments showed obvious hair follicle cell proliferation in the full-thickness skin defect. Stem cell markers examination showed active ESCs in repair and regeneration of skin. The results indicate that the collagen-modified chitin membrane carry with ESCs has successfully regenerated the whole skin with all the skin appendages and function. PMID:24516553

Shen, Yan; Dai, Libing; Li, Xiaojian; Liang, Rong; Guan, Guangxiong; Zhang, Zhi; Cao, Wenjuan; Liu, Zhihe; Mei, Shirley; Liang, Weiguo; Qin, Shennan; Xu, Jiake; Chen, Honghui

2014-01-01

87

Cosmetic Facial Surgery  

PubMed Central

Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

Adamson, Peter A.

1987-01-01

88

Proteolytic Activation Cascade of the Netherton Syndrome–Defective Protein, LEKTI, in the Epidermis: Implications for Skin Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) is the defective protein of the ichthyosiform condition Netherton syndrome (NS). Strongly expressed in the most differentiated epidermal layers, LEKTI is a serine protease inhibitor synthesized as three different high-molecular-weight precursors, which are rapidly processed into shorter fragments and secreted extracellularly. LEKTI polypeptides interact with several proteases to regulate skin barrier homeostasis as well as inflammatory

Paola Fortugno; Alberto Bresciani; Chantal Paolini; Chiara Pazzagli; May El Hachem; Marina D'Alessio; Giovanna Zambruno

2011-01-01

89

Effect of the thigh-cuffs on the carotid artery diameter jugular vein section and facial skin edema: HDT study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: To evaluate the distal arterial, venous and skin changes in a group using thigh cuffs during daytime and in a control group. Method: Cardiac, arterial, venous parameters were measured by echography and Doppler. Skin thickness was measured by high frequency echography. Results & discussion: Head down position induced plasma volume reduction, increased cerebral resistance, reduced lower limb resistance. The jugular vein increased whereas the femoral and popliteal veins decreased. All these changes were already observed in previous HDT. Common carotid diameter decreased, Front head skin thickness increased and Tibial skin thickness decreased. Eight hours with thigh cuffs increased the cardiac and carotid sizes which is in agreement with the plasma volume increase. Conversely they reduced the cerebral vascular resistance, jugular section and front head edema which may explain the sensation of comfort reported by the subjects. At the lower limb level the thigh cuffs restored the skin thickness to pre-HDT level but enlarged markedly the femoral and popliteal veins. HR, BP, CO, TPR did not change.

Roumy, Jerome; Diridillou, Stephane; Herault, Stephane; Fomina, Galina; Alferova, Irina; Arbeille, Philippe

2001-08-01

90

Reduction of facial pigmentation of melasma by topical lignin peroxidase: A novel fast-acting skin-lightening agent  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lignin peroxidase (LIP) as a skin-lightening agent in patients with melasma. A self-controlled clinical study was performed in 31 women who had melasma on both sides of the face. This study involved 8 weeks of a full-face product treatment. The skin color was measured at days 0, 7, 28 and 56 using a chromameter on the forehead and cheeks. Standardized digital photographic images of each side of the face of all subjects were captured by a complexion analysis system. Clinical scores of the pigmentation were determined by two dermatologists. After using the LIP whitening lotion for 7 days, the luminance (L*) values of the melasma and the normal skin were significantly increased from baseline. The L* values continued to increase at days 28 and 56. The melasma area severity index (MASI) score was statistically decreased after 28 days of treatment. No treatment-related adverse events were observed. LIP whitening lotion was able to eliminate the skin pigmentation after 7 days of treatment, and provides a completely innovative approach to rapid skin lightening. The LIP whitening lotion exhibited good compatibility and was well tolerated. PMID:25574195

ZHONG, SHAO-MIN; SUN, NAN; LIU, HUI-XIAN; NIU, YUE-QING; WU, YAN

2015-01-01

91

Repair lower face defect with an expanded flap from submental and submandibular region in children.  

PubMed

Scar and defect in the lower face always lead to serious facial deformity and asymmetry. Conventional method such as skin graft or free flap is hard to obtain a satisfactory outcome. In this article, we present a skin expanding technique. An expanded flap was designed to repair the lower face scar or defect on submental and submandibular regions. A tissue expander was implanted into the region and inflated for 2 to 3 months. After removing the expander, we harvested the flap as a rotation flap to repair the lower facial defect. The longest follow-up period was 3 years. All of the flaps were well matched to the surrounding skin with respect to color, texture, and thickness. An expanded flap on submental and submandibular regions is suitable to repair a lower face defect. PMID:25699534

Shen, Weiming; Cui, Jie; Chen, Jianbing; Zou, Jijun

2015-03-01

92

Self-Improvement of Keratinocyte Differentiation Defects During Skin Maturation in ABCA12-Deficient Harlequin Ichthyosis Model Mice  

PubMed Central

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the keratinocyte lipid transporter ABCA12. The patients often die in the first 1 or 2 weeks of life, although HI survivors’ phenotypes improve within several weeks after birth. In order to clarify the mechanisms of phenotypic recovery, we studied grafted skin and keratinocytes from Abca12-disrupted (Abca12?/?) mice showing abnormal lipid transport. Abca12?/? neonatal epidermis showed significantly reduced total ceramide amounts and aberrant ceramide composition. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of Abca12?/? neonatal epidermis revealed defective profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion and reduced protein expression of the differentiation-specific molecules, loricrin, kallikrein 5, and transglutaminase 1, although their mRNA expression was up-regulated. In contrast, Abca12?/? skin grafts kept in a dry environment exhibited dramatic improvements in all these abnormalities. Increased transepidermal water loss, a parameter representing barrier defect, was remarkably decreased in grafted Abca12?/? skin. Ten-passage sub-cultured Abca12?/? keratinocytes showed restoration of intact ceramide distribution, differentiation-specific protein expression and profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion, which were defective in primary-cultures. Using cDNA microarray analysis, lipid transporters including four ATP-binding cassette transporters were up-regulated after sub-culture of Abca12?/? keratinocytes compared with primary-culture. These results indicate that disrupted keratinocyte differentiation during the fetal development is involved in the pathomechanism of HI and, during maturation, Abca12?/? epidermal keratinocytes regain normal differentiation processes. This restoration may account for the skin phenotype improvement observed in HI survivors. PMID:20489143

Yanagi, Teruki; Akiyama, Masashi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junko; Sakai, Kaori; Miyamura, Yuki; Naoe, Ayano; Kitahara, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Shimizu, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

93

Management of massive soft tissue defects: The use of INTEGRA® artificial skin after necrotizing soft tissue infection of the chest  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing soft tissue infection, such as necrotizing fasciitis, is a group of highly lethal infections especially when the chest is involved due to increased risk of pulmonary complications. Because aggressive radical debridement of all poorly perfused tissue is required, patients frequently suffer from massive skin defects, which often requires autograft skin grafting or myocutaneous flaps. However, options are limited in patients with limited autograft donor availability, or questionable underlying wound bed viability, such as in scleroderma. Here, we report the case of a 49 year old female with scleroderma who suffered from a necrotizing soft tissue infection of the chest extending to her right upper arm, underwent multiple radical debridements, and reconstruction of the consequent massive chest wall defect with INTEGRA® bilaminar dermal regeneration template. This approach required a thinner skin graft without flaps, allowed for the inherently diseased donor site to heal adequately, and avoided major infections and wound complications. This report highlights an important management option for this challenging disease. PMID:22754676

Rashid, Omar M.; Nagahashi, Masayuki

2012-01-01

94

A single center, pilot, double-blinded, randomized, comparative, prospective clinical study to evaluate improvements in the structure and function of facial skin with tazarotene 0.1% cream alone and in combination with GliSODin® Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula  

PubMed Central

Background Superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduces the reactive oxygen species formation associated with oxidative stress. An imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants can lead to accelerated aging. GliSODin® Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula (GAAF) is an SOD-containing dietary nutricosmetic formulated with other nutraceuticals that promote improvements in the structure and function of the skin, including hydration, elasticity, structural integrity, and photoaging caused by oxidative stress. Tazarotene cream 0.1% (TAZ) is a United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drug indicated for use in the mitigation of facial fine wrinkling, facial mottled hyper- and hypopigmentation, and benign facial lentigines when taken in conjunction with a comprehensive skin care and sun avoidance program. Objective To determine if the antioxidant, anti-aging, hydrating and skin-rejuvenating properties of GAAF complement the retinoic actions of TAZ to improve the structure and function of facial skin. Method A 90-day comparative study of ten subjects with facial photodamage; daily topical application of TAZ was used in combination with three capsules of GAAF (780 mg each) or placebo orally, with food, per the randomization allocation. Results After 90 days of treatment, TAZ alone and in combination with GAAF improved fine wrinkles (?1.2 versus 2.0), mottled hyperpigmentation (?2.2 versus 2.8) and overall photodamage (?1.0 versus 1.8), as well as patient-reported response to treatment (?2.0 versus 1.6). At week 12, TAZ/GAAF combination treatment (Group A) versus TAZ treatment alone (Group C) was of significant clinical benefit, with respect to fine wrinkling (14.7%/41.7%), overall photodamage (15.6%/53.0%), skin moisture (19.1%/103.2%), skin elasticity (12.8%/87.7%), and response to treatment (8.8%/21.4%). Conclusion The study suggests GAAF in combination with TAZ is safe and provides significant clinical benefit with relative improvement in facial fine wrinkling, overall photodamage, skin moisture and elasticity. PMID:24872715

Goldberg, Lawrence D; Crysler, Corina

2014-01-01

95

Surface Facial Electromyography, Skin Conductance, and Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Light- and Season-Relevant Stimuli in Seasonal Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Learned associations between depressive behavior and environmental stimuli signaling low light availability and winter season may play a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether light and season environmental cues elicit emotional responses that are distinct in individuals with SAD. Methods Twenty-four currently depressed SAD participants were compared to 24 demographically-matched controls with no depression history on emotional responses to outdoor scenes captured under two light intensity (i.e., clear, sunny vs. overcast sky) and three season (i.e., summer with green leaves, fall with autumn foliage, and winter with bare trees) conditions. Emotion measures included surface facial electromyography (EMG) activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions, skin conductance, and self-reported mood state on the Profile of Mood States Depression–Dejection Subscale. Results Light intensity was a more salient cue than season in determining emotional reactions among SAD participants. Relative to controls, SAD participants displayed more corrugator activity, more frequent significant skin conductance responses (SCR), greater SCR magnitude, and more self-reported depressed mood in response to overcast stimuli and less corrugator activity, lower SCR magnitude, and less self-reported depressed mood in response to sunny stimuli. Limitations Study limitations include the single, as opposed to repeated, assessment and the lack of a nonseasonal depression group. Conclusions These findings suggest that extreme emotional reactivity to light-relevant stimuli may be a correlate of winter depression; and future work should examine its potential onset or maintenance significance. PMID:21600661

Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Mahon, Jennifer N.

2011-01-01

96

Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig  

SciTech Connect

Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 0.4 LD50 HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding undecontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or HD-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodard, C.L.

1993-05-13

97

Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig  

SciTech Connect

Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 20 mg/kg (approximately 0.4 LD%) HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with nothing or one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding non-decontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing of HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or ND-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodward, C.L.

1994-12-31

98

Negative-pressure wound therapy induces endothelial progenitor cell mobilization in diabetic patients with foot infection or skin defects.  

PubMed

Non healing chronic wounds are difficult to treat in patients with diabetes and can result in severe medical problems for these patients and for society. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been adopted to treat intractable chronic wounds and has been reported to be effective. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of this treatment have not been elucidated. To assess the vasculogenic effect of NPWT, we evaluated the systemic mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) during NPWT. Twenty-two of 29 consecutive patients who presented at the clinic of Seoul National Universty Hospital between December 2009 and November 2010 who underwent NPWT for diabetic foot infections or skin ulcers were included in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken before NPWT (pre-NPWT) and 7-14 days after the initiation of NPWT (during-NPWT). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis showed that the number of cells in EPC-enriched fractions increased after NPWT, and the numbers of EPC colony forming units (CFUs) significantly increased during NPWT. We believe that NPWT is useful for treating patients with diabetic foot infections and skin ulcers, especially when these conditions are accompanied by peripheral arterial insufficiency. The systemic mobilization of EPCs during NPWT may be a mechanism for healing intractable wounds in diabetic patients with foot infections or skin defects via the formation of increased granulation tissue with numerous small blood vessels. PMID:24232261

Seo, Sang Gyo; Yeo, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji-Beom; Cho, Tae-Joon; Lee, Dong Yeon

2013-01-01

99

Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation for the treatment of postoperative hand infection with a skin defect in diabetes mellitus: A case report  

PubMed Central

Among stem cells, autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal for transplantation by virtue of limited rejection reactions and marked proliferative ability. This study presents a novel method by which MSCs were harvested from the bone marrow of a patient who presented with severe post-traumatic infection and a non-healing skin defect in the hand, secondary to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM). An autologous MSC suspension was injected into the persistent skin defect after stabilizing the blood glucose level and appropriate infection control. During the course of a regular 18-month postoperative follow-up, the patient exhibited immediate recovery with no transplant-associated complications, as well as no evidence of tumorigenicity. Thus, transplantation of autologous MSCs may play a role in the clinical application of stem cells, particularly for treatment of skin defects following surgery in cases of DM and for those caused by various other traumas. PMID:24932248

LIU, YIHONG; LIU, YUCHEN; WANG, PUJIE; TIAN, HAOMING; AI, JIANZHONG; LIU, YANGBO; ZHOU, YI; LIU, ZHONGWEN; GUO, WENJUN; YANG, SHENKE

2014-01-01

100

Overexpression of Galectin-7 in Mouse Epidermis Leads to Loss of Cell Junctions and Defective Skin Repair  

PubMed Central

Background The proteins of the galectin family are implicated in many cellular processes, including cell interactions, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. In human and mouse, galectin-7 is almost exclusively expressed in stratified epithelia, notably in the epidermis. Galectin-7 expression is also altered in several human tumors of epithelial origin. This study aimed at dissecting the consequences of galectin-7 overexpression on epidermis structure and functions in vivo. Methods We established transgenic mice specifically overexpressing galectin-7 in the basal epidermal keratinocytes and analyzed the consequences on untreated skin and after UVB irradiation or mechanical injury. Results The intercellular cohesion of the epidermis is impaired in transgenic animals, with gaps developing between adjacent keratinocytes, associated with loss of adherens junctions. The epidermal architecture is aberrant with perturbations in the multilayered cellular organisation of the tissue, and structural defects in the basement membrane. These transgenic animals displayed a reduced re-epithelialisation potential following superficial wound, due to a defective collective migration of keratinocytes. Finally, a single mild dose of UVB induced an abnormal apoptotic response in the transgenic epidermis. Conclusion These results indicate that an excess of galectin-7 leads to a destabilisation of adherens junctions associated with defects in epidermal repair. As this phenotype shares similarities with that of galectin-7 null mutant mice, we conclude that a critical level of this protein is required for maintaining proper epidermal homeostasis. This study brings new insight into the mode of action of galectins in normal and pathological situations. PMID:25741714

Dang, Tien; Deshayes, Frédérique; Delacour, Delphine; Pichard, Evelyne; Advedissian, Tamara; Sidhu, Sukhvinder S.; Viguier, Mireille; Magnaldo, Thierry; Poirier, Francoise

2015-01-01

101

Analysis of the Effects of Residual Strains and Defects on Skin/Stiffener Debonding using Decohesion Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delamination is one of the predominant forms of failure in laminated composites especially when there is no reinforcement in the thickness direction. To develop composite structures that are more damage tolerant, it is necessary to understand how delamination develops and how it can affect the residual performance. A number of factors such as residual thermal strains, matrix curing shrinkage, and manufacturing defects affect how damage will grow in a composite structure. It is important to develop analysis methods that are computationally efficient that can account for all such factors. The objective of the current work is to apply a newly developed decohesion element to investigate the debond strength of skin/stiffener composite specimens. The process of initiation of delaminations and the propagation of delamination fronts is investigated. The numerical predictions are compared with published experimental results.

Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.

2003-01-01

102

Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...

103

Proteolytic activation cascade of the Netherton syndrome-defective protein, LEKTI, in the epidermis: implications for skin homeostasis.  

PubMed

Lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) is the defective protein of the ichthyosiform condition Netherton syndrome (NS). Strongly expressed in the most differentiated epidermal layers, LEKTI is a serine protease inhibitor synthesized as three different high-molecular-weight precursors, which are rapidly processed into shorter fragments and secreted extracellularly. LEKTI polypeptides interact with several proteases to regulate skin barrier homeostasis as well as inflammatory and/or immunoallergic responses. Here, by combining antibody mapping, N-terminal sequencing, and site-specific mutagenesis, we defined the amino-acid sequence of most of the LEKTI polypeptides physiologically generated in human epidermis. We also identified three processing intermediates not described so far. Hence, a proteolytic cascade model for LEKTI activation is proposed. We then pinpointed the most effective fragments against the desquamation-related kallikreins (KLKs) and we proved that LEKTI is involved in stratum corneum shedding as some of its polypeptides inhibit the KLK-mediated proteolysis of desmoglein-1. Finally, we quantified the individual LEKTI fragments in the uppermost epidermis, showing that the ratios between LEKTI polypeptides and active KLK5 are compatible with a fine-tuned inhibition. These findings are relevant both to the understanding of skin homeostasis regulation and to the design of novel therapeutic strategies for NS. PMID:21697885

Fortugno, Paola; Bresciani, Alberto; Paolini, Chantal; Pazzagli, Chiara; El Hachem, May; D'Alessio, Marina; Zambruno, Giovanna

2011-11-01

104

In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

105

In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser.  

PubMed

In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology. PMID:23212157

Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

2013-03-01

106

Motion-artifact-robust, polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on rapid polarization switching with electro-optic Pockells cell and its application to in vivo visualization of collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin  

PubMed Central

Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this article, we constructed a motion-artifact-robust, PR-SHG microscope based on rapid polarization switching at every pixel with an electro-optic Pockells cell (PC) in synchronization with step-wise raster scanning of the focus spot and alternate data acquisition of a vertical-polarization-resolved SHG signal and a horizontal-polarization-resolved one. The constructed PC-based PR-SHG microscope enabled us to visualize orientation mapping of dermal collagen fiber in human facial skin in vivo without the influence of motion artifacts. Furthermore, it implied the location and/or age dependence of the collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin. The robustness to motion artifacts in the collagen orientation measurement will expand the application scope of SHG microscopy in dermatology and collagen-related fields. PMID:24761292

Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Ogura, Yuki; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Hirao, Tetsuji; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

2014-01-01

107

Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism  

PubMed Central

Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with the latter produce some melanin. We hypothesized that increasing plasma tyrosine concentrations using nitisinone, an FDA-approved inhibitor of tyrosine degradation, could stabilize tyrosinase and improve pigmentation in individuals with OCA1. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mice homozygous for either the Tyrc-2J null allele or the Tyrc-h allele, which model OCA-1A and OCA-1B, respectively. Only nitisinone-treated Tyrc-h/c-h mice manifested increased pigmentation in their fur and irides and had more pigmented melanosomes. High levels of tyrosine improved the stability and enzymatic function of the Tyrc-h protein and also increased overall melanin levels in melanocytes from a human with OCA-1B. These results suggest that the use of nitisinone in OCA-1B patients could improve their pigmentation and potentially ameliorate vision loss. PMID:21968110

Onojafe, Ighovie F.; Adams, David R.; Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Dolinska, Monika B.; Alur, Ramakrishna P.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Gahl, William A.; Brooks, Brian P.

2011-01-01

108

Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism.  

PubMed

Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with the latter produce some melanin. We hypothesized that increasing plasma tyrosine concentrations using nitisinone, an FDA-approved inhibitor of tyrosine degradation, could stabilize tyrosinase and improve pigmentation in individuals with OCA1. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mice homozygous for either the Tyrc-2J null allele or the Tyrc-h allele, which model OCA-1A and OCA-1B, respectively. Only nitisinone-treated Tyrc-h/c-h mice manifested increased pigmentation in their fur and irides and had more pigmented melanosomes. High levels of tyrosine improved the stability and enzymatic function of the Tyrc-h protein and also increased overall melanin levels in melanocytes from a human with OCA-1B. These results suggest that the use of nitisinone in OCA-1B patients could improve their pigmentation and potentially ameliorate vision loss. PMID:21968110

Onojafe, Ighovie F; Adams, David R; Simeonov, Dimitre R; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M; Sergeev, Yuri V; Dolinska, Monika B; Alur, Ramakrishna P; Brilliant, Murray H; Gahl, William A; Brooks, Brian P

2011-10-01

109

Skin Photorejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term ‘photorejuvenation’ describes the simultaneous improvement of various epidermal changes related to aging. Sun exposure\\u000a and smoking are the main factors that induce premature skin aging. Rhytides are due to a decrease in facial skin elasticity\\u000a causing accentuation of lines and wrinkles. There are three main mechanisms of non-ablative technology involved in skin rejuvenation:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Heating that leads to

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman

110

Facial tics  

MedlinePLUS

Tic - facial; Mimic spasm ... Tics may involve repeated, uncontrolled spasm-like muscle movements, such as: Eye blinking Grimacing Mouth twitching Nose wrinkling Squinting Repeated throat clearing or grunting may also be ...

111

Facial trauma  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2013:chap 42. Hill JD, Hamilton III GS. Facial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck ...

112

Facial paralysis  

MedlinePLUS

Paralysis of the face. ... from the brain to the muscles of the face Damage to the area of the brain that sends signals to the muscles of the face In people who are otherwise healthy, facial paralysis ...

113

Effects of a Facial Cream Containing the Minor Alkaloid Anatabine on Improving the Appearance of the Skin in Mild to Moderate Rosacea: An Open-Label Case Series Study  

PubMed Central

Background Current medical and scientific research indicates that rosacea, a chronic and often debilitating skin condition that primarily affects the central face, may be caused by an overactive or excessive inflammatory immune response. Regardless of etiology, the accompanying redness and inflammation is unsightly and difficult for the patient. Anatabine is an alkaloid from the plant family Solanaceae that has been shown in several preclinical studies to modulate proinflammatory signaling pathways. Objective A cream containing anatabine was developed and evaluated in an open-label case series study for safety and effects on the appearance of the skin in 10 patients with mild to moderate rosacea. Methods Patients applied the cream to the face twice daily for a period of 30 days. Patients and the study physician completed safety and efficacy assessments at study end. Results Results showed that 50% of the patients self-reported improvement in the appearance of their skin, and the physician noted improvement in 70% of the patients. Photographs taken before and after 30 days of cream use provide visual evidence of the improvement in several patients. There were no complications or adverse events reported by any of the patients in the study, indicating that the anatabine cream was safe and very well tolerated. Conclusion The results of this open-label case series show that a facial cream containing anatabine can improve the appearance of the skin in patients with mild to moderate rosacea and suggest that a double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial in a larger number of subjects is warranted. PMID:24348385

Lanier, Ryan K.; Cohen, Amy E.; Weinkle, Susan H.

2013-01-01

114

Advanced sclerosis of the chest wall skin secondary to chronic graft-versus-host disease: a case with severe restrictive lung defect.  

PubMed

Pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). Herein, we describe a patient with severe restrictive lung defect secondary to cGvHD. A 21-year-old male patient was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with pneumonia and respiratory distress. He had a history of aHSCT for chronic myelogeneous leukemia at the age of 17 years. Six months after undergoing aHSCT, he had developed cGvHD involving skin, mouth, eye, lung, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. At the time of PICU admission he had respiratory distress and required ventilation support. Thorax high-resolution computed tomography was consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans. Although bronchiolitis obliterans is an obstructive lung defect, a restrictive pattern became prominent in the clinical course because of the sclerotic chest wall skin. The activity of cGvHD kept increasing despite the therapy and we lost the patient because of severe respiratory distress and massive hemoptysis secondary to bronchiectasis. In conclusion, pulmonary cGvHD can present with restrictive changes related with the advanced sclerosis of the chest wall skin. Performing a fasciotomy or a scar revision for the rigid chest wall in selected patients may improve the patients ventilation. PMID:24577553

Ödek, Ça?lar; Kendirli, Tanil; ?leri, Talia; Yaman, Ayhan; Fatih Çakmakli, Hasan; Ince, Elif; ?nce, Erdal; Ertem, Mehmet

2014-10-01

115

Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

Duchovi?ová, So?a; Zahradníková, Barbora; Schreiber, Peter

2014-12-01

116

The many facets of facial interactions in mammals.  

PubMed

Facial interactions are prominent behaviors in primates. Primate facial signaling, which includes the expression of emotions, mimicking of facial movements, and gaze interactions, is visually dominated. Correspondingly, in primate brains an elaborate network of face processing areas exists within visual cortex. But other mammals also communicate through facial interactions using additional sensory modalities. In rodents, multisensory facial interactions are involved in aggressive behaviors and social transmission of food preferences. The eusocial naked mole-rat, whose face is dominated by prominent incisors, uses facial aggression to enforce reproductive suppression. In burrow-living mammals like the naked mole-rat in particular, and in rodents in general, somatosensory face representations in cortex are enlarged. Diversity of sensory domains mediating facial communication might belie underlying common mechanisms. As a case in point, neurogenetics has revealed strongly heritable traits in face processing and identified gene defects that disrupt facial interactions both in humans and rodents. PMID:22209040

Brecht, Michael; Freiwald, Winrich A

2012-04-01

117

Prepatterned, Sculpted Free Flaps for Facial Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The demands of the twenty-first century dictate aesthetic excellence as well as functional correction in complex burn reconstructions.\\u000a The severely disfigured burned face is marred by corrugated external scarring, distortion of facial features, and restricted\\u000a facial movement. Z-plasties, local flaps, and full thickness skin grafts are useful in addressing more limited functional\\u000a needs of ectropion release, nasal stenosis, perioral contractures,

Elliott H. Rose

118

Pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap combined with skin grafting for the reconstruction of anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn.  

PubMed

Successful reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn represents a very challenging surgery. Herein we report the first case using pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap combined with skin grafting to treat this injury with severe infection and exposure of pericardium and ribs in a Chinese patient. Following the performance of chest debridement to remove necrotic and infected tissues and the injection of broad-spectrum antibiotics to reduce infection, a pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap was used to cover the exposed pericardium and ribs, and skin grafting from the right leg of the patient was done to cover the exposed vital tissues. The patient was followed up for a total of 3·5 years, and satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes were obtained without complications. This report provides an effective method for the surgeons who encounter similar cases where reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall is required. PMID:23490336

Zhao, Jing-Chun; Xian, Chun-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ao; Shi, Kai

2015-02-01

119

Wound dressings composed of copper-doped borate bioactive glass microfibers stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects in a rodent model.  

PubMed

There is a need for better wound dressings that possess the requisite angiogenic capacity for rapid in situ healing of full-thickness skin wounds. Borate bioactive glass microfibers are showing a remarkable ability to heal soft tissue wounds but little is known about the process and mechanisms of healing. In the present study, wound dressings composed of borate bioactive glass microfibers (diameter = 0.4-1.2 ?m; composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 54B2O3, 2P2O5; mol%) doped with 0-3.0 wt.% CuO were created and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the fibers degraded and converted to hydroxyapatite within ?7 days, releasing ions such as Ca, B and Cu into the medium. In vitro cell culture showed that the ionic dissolution product of the fibers was not toxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts, promoted HUVEC migration, tubule formation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stimulated the expression of angiogenic-related genes of the fibroblasts. When used to treat full-thickness skin defects in rodents, the Cu-doped fibers (3.0 wt.% CuO) showed a significantly better capacity to stimulate angiogenesis than the undoped fibers and the untreated defects (control) at 7 and 14 days post-surgery. The defects treated with the Cu-doped and undoped fibers showed improved collagen deposition, maturity and orientation when compared to the untreated defects, the improvement shown by the Cu-doped fibers was not markedly better than the undoped fibers at 14 days post-surgery. These results indicate that the Cu-doped borate glass microfibers have a promising capacity to stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects. They also provide valuable data for understanding the role of the microfibers in healing soft tissue wounds. PMID:25890736

Zhao, Shichang; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Cheng, Xiangguo; Zhou, Nai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

2015-06-01

120

Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.  

PubMed

Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. PMID:169753

Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

1975-09-01

121

Experience With Esthetic Reconstruction of Complex Facial Soft Tissue Trauma: Application of the Pulsed Dye Laser  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. Patients and Methods: We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. Results: In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Conclusions: Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results. PMID:25337516

Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

2014-01-01

122

Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects (MLS) associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a patient with Familial 12.9Mb Terminal Xp deletion  

PubMed Central

Background Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant male-lethal developmental disorder characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and linear skin defects of the face and neck. Additional features affecting the eyes, heart, brain or genitourinary system can occur, corroborating the intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability. The majority of patients display monosomy of the Xp22.2 region, where the holocytochrome c-type synthase (HCCS) gene is located. Case presentation We describe a 15-year-old-female affected by MLS syndrome and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD has not previously been reported as a component of MLS. Our patient shows a large deletion of 12.9 Mb, involving Xp22.32-p22.2, which encompasses both the HCCS gene and autism X-linked genes. Conclusion Thus, patients with a large deletion at Xp22 might display MLS with ASD, due to the deletion of contiguous genes, although the highly variable phenotype of these patients could be influenced by several genetic mechanisms, including different tissue-specific X-inactivation and somatic mosaicism. PMID:25182979

2014-01-01

123

A grayscale skin and facial detection mechanism for use in conjunction with security system technology via graphical block methodologies on field programmable gate arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented in this paper is the design of a skin filter which unlike many systems already developed for use, this system will not use RGB or HSI colour but an 8-bit greyscale instead. This is done in order to make the system more convenient to employ on an FPGA, to increase the speed to better enable real-time imaging and to make it easier to combine with the previously designed binary based algorithms. This paper will discuss the many approaches and methods that could be considered such as Bayes format and thresholds, pixel extraction, mathematical morphological strings, edge detection or a combination of the previous and a discussion about which provided the best performance. The research for this skin filter was carried out in two stages, firstly on people who had an ethnic origin of White - British, Asian or Asian British, Chinese and Mixed White and Asian. The second phase which won't be included here in great detail will cover the same principles for the other ethnic backgrounds of Black or Black British - Caribbean or Africa, Other Black background, Asian or Asian British - Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi. This is due to the fact that we have to modify the parameters that govern the detection process to account for greyscale changes in the skin tone, texture and intensity; however the same principles would still be applied for general detection and integration into the previous algorithm. The latter is discussed and what benefits it will give.

Tickle, Andrew J.; Smith, Jeremy S.; Wu, Q. Henry

2008-04-01

124

Young Children's Ability to Match Facial Features Typical of Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined (1) the ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to racially classify Negro and Caucasian facial features in the absence of skin color as a racial cue; and (2) the relative value attached to the facial features of Negro and Caucasian races. Subjects were 21 middle income, Caucasian children from a privately owned nursery school in…

Lacoste, Ronald J.

125

Mutations of the serine protease CAP1/Prss8 lead to reduced embryonic viability, skin defects, and decreased ENaC activity.  

PubMed

CAP1/Prss8 is a membrane-bound serine protease involved in the regulation of several different effectors, such as the epithelial sodium channel ENaC, the protease-activated receptor PAR2, the tight junction proteins, and the profilaggrin polypeptide. Recently, the V170D and the G54-P57 deletion mutations within the CAP1/Prss8 gene, identified in mouse frizzy (fr) and rat hairless (fr(CR)) animals, respectively, have been proposed to be responsible for their skin phenotypes. In the present study, we analyzed those mutations, revealing a change in the protein structure, a modification of the glycosylation state, and an overall reduction in the activation of ENaC of the two mutant proteins. In vivo analyses demonstrated that both fr and fr(CR) mutant animals present analogous reduction of embryonic viability, similar histologic aberrations at the level of the skin, and a significant decrease in the activity of ENaC in the distal colon compared with their control littermates. Hairless rats additionally had dehydration defects in skin and intestine and significant reduction in the body weight. In conclusion, we provided molecular and functional evidence that CAP1/Prss8 mutations are accountable for the defects in fr and fr(CR) animals, and we furthermore demonstrate a decreased function of the CAP1/Prss8 mutant proteins. Therefore, fr and fr(CR) animals are suitable models to investigate the consequences of CAP1/Prss8 action on its target proteins in the whole organism. PMID:22705055

Frateschi, Simona; Keppner, Anna; Malsure, Sumedha; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Sergi, Chloé; Merillat, Anne-Marie; Fowler-Jaeger, Nicole; Randrianarison, Nadia; Planès, Carole; Hummler, Edith

2012-08-01

126

Clinical case-study describing the use of skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the auricular concha to cover large defects of the nose  

PubMed Central

Background The composite graft from the conchal cartilage is a graft that is often used, especially in surgery on the nose, due to its capacity to resolve problems of cover and tissue deficit, arising from the removal of neoplasms or as the result of trauma, burns or following over-aggressive rhinoplasty. We have started to use skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the ear to cover large areas of the nose with very satisfying results as well as we describe in the reported clinical case. Methods The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum, which had previously been removed, using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. After this, the skin edges of the fistula were turned to recreate the inner lining of the nose and form a vascular base of wide area to accept the composite graft. The case concerns a female 74-year old patient who had undergone several oncological surgery for a relapsing basal cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the nose. The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. Results The perichondrial cutaneous graft has shown in this surgical case very favorable peculiarities that make it usable even in facial plastic surgery. Conclusions We believe that the positive experience that we achieved in the use of composite grafts for the reconstruction of large areas of the nose could be interesting for others surgeons. PMID:22429738

2012-01-01

127

Sensitivity of a Method for the Analysis of Facial Mobility. I. Vector of Displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: (1) To determine which facial landmarks show the greatest move- ment during specific facial animations and (2) to determine the sensitivity of our instrument in using these landmarks to detect putatively abnormal facial movements. Design: Movements of an array of skin-based landmarks on five healthy hu- man subjects (2 men and 3 women; mean age, 27.6 years; range, 26

Carroll-Ann Trotman; Julian J. Faraway; Kirsten T. Silvester; Geoffrey M. Greenlee; Lysle E. Johnston

1998-01-01

128

Measuring Facial Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

1976-01-01

129

Human facial dysostoses.  

PubMed

The human facial dysostoses can be subdivided into mandibulofacial dysostoses (MFDs) and acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs). The craniofacial phenotypes of the two groups of patients are similar. Both types are thought to be related to abnormal migration of neural crest cells to the pharyngeal arches and the face. The craniofacial anomalies shared by the two groups consist of downslanting palpebral fissures, coloboma of the lower eyelid, from which the eyelashes medial to the defect may be absent, hypoplasia of the zygomatic complex, micrognathia, and microtia, which is often associated with hearing loss. These facial deformities are associated with limb anomalies in the AFDs. All MFDs present with the typical craniofacial phenotype, but some have additional features that help to distinguish them clinically: intellectual disability, microcephaly, chest deformity, ptosis, cleft lip/palate, macroblepharon, or blepharophimosis. The limb anomalies in the AFDs can be classified into pre-axial, post-axial, and others not fitting into the first two AFD types. Of the pre-axial types, Nager syndrome and of the post-axial types, Miller syndrome are the best-known disorders of their AFD subgroups. Several other AFDs with unknown molecular genetic bases, including lethal ones, have been described. This article reviews the MFDs and AFDs published to date. PMID:23565775

Wieczorek, D

2013-06-01

130

The transverse outer preputial (TOP) island flap: an easy method to cover urethroplasties and skin defects in hypospadias repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe transverse outer preputial (TOP) island flap, a simple procedure inspired by the double-faced island flap, is proposed as a substitute for the Byars repair to provide skin coverage for most of the current reconstructive techniques for hypospadias.

R.-B. Galifer; N. Kalfa

2005-01-01

131

Facial features  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

THE STATE STANDARDS for this project are as follows; STANDARD 1 Making: Students will assemble and create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media and by learning the art elements and principles. STANDARD 2 Perceiving: Students will find meaning by analyzing, criticizing, and evaluating works of art. STANDARD 3 Expressing: Students will create meaning in art. STANDARD 4 Contextualizing: Students will find meaning in works of art through settings and other modes of learning. Below is a list of useful site to help in drawing facial features, along with useful tutorial and resources. QUICK TEST (test your ability and knowledge) * Draw a circle. * Draw a light vertical line at the center of the circle. * Make light horizontal dashes a little above the center of the circle. ...

Mrs. Allan

2008-09-21

132

Special locations dermoscopy: facial, acral, and nail.  

PubMed

Although dermoscopy reflects the anatomy, skin anatomy is different on facial and acral skin as well as in the nail unit. Malignant patterns on acral sites include the parallel ridge pattern and irregular diffuse pigmentation, whose presence should lead to a biopsy. Malignant patterns on the face include features of follicular invasion (signet-ring images, annular granular images, and rhomboidal structures) and atypical vessels. Malignant patterns on the nail unit include the micro-Hutchinson sign and irregular longitudinal lines. PMID:24075549

Thomas, Luc; Phan, Alice; Pralong, Pauline; Poulalhon, Nicolas; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Dalle, Stéphane

2013-10-01

133

[Quality of life of patients with malignant facial and skin tumors--development of a questionnaire and initial findings of a study].  

PubMed

Assisted by Deutsche Krebshilfe, the German cancer aid fund, a questionnaire for assessment of quality of life in patients with life-threatening skin tumours and disfiguring tumour sequels was developed at Fachklinik Hornheide between 1986 and 1988. A first step toward determining quality of life and for enhancing treatment-integrated rehabilitative work is the assessment of the subjective distress and problems experienced due to the illness and its treatment. This is the objective of the Hornheider Fragebogen, a questionnaire developed in the framework of the study on the basis of extensive literature search, structured interviews with patients and treating staff. This self-assessment instrument was answered by 131 patients with malignant tumours of the skin, twice during in-patient treatment and a third time some 6 months after discharge. Statistical analysis of the data collected proved the questionnaire to be valid, reliable and practicable. Additionally, it has been possible to draw up a number of significant results of immediate relevancy. It turned out that persons who are unemployed, divorced, or married but separated, as well as persons without school leaving certificate, experienced greater distress and more problems in many dimensions than the other respondents. The questionnaire was viewed as meaningful and as helpful by the patients in order to voice unspecific anxiety and questions. Also, the study entailed positive implications for our rehabilitative work already in this initial testing phase, by enabling us to give more specific support to the patients. The Hornheider Fragebogen, after review and abridgment, consists of 27 problem-oriented questions relating to eight dimensions of life. PMID:2367741

Tilkorn, M; Mawick, R; Sommerfeld, S; Strittmatter, G

1990-05-01

134

Cloning and characterization of a putative human holocytochrome c-type synthetase gene (HCCS) isolated from the critical region for microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS)  

SciTech Connect

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) is an X-linked male-lethal disorder associated with X chromosomal rearrangements resulting in monosomy from Xpter to Xp22. Features include microphthalmia, sclerocornea, linear skin defects, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Using a cross-species conservation strategy, an expressed sequence from the 450- to the 550-kb MLS critical region on Xp22 was identified by screening a human embryo cDNA library. Northern analysis revealed a transcript of {approx}2.6 kb in all tissues examined, with weaker expression of {approx}1.2- and {approx}5.2-kb transcripts. The strongest expression was observed in heart and skeletal muscle. Sequence analysis of a 3-kb cDNA contig revealed an 807-bp open reading frame encoding a putative 268-amino-acid-protein. Comparison of the sequence with sequences in the databases revealed homology with holocytochrome c-type synthetases, which catalyze the covalent addition of a heme group onto c-type cytochromes in the mitochondria. The c-type cytochromes are required for proper functioning of the electron transport pathway. The human gene (HGMW-approved symbol HCCS) and the corresponding murine gene characterized in this paper are the first mammalian holocytochrome c-type synthetases to be described in the literature. Because of the lack of a neuromuscular phenotype in MLS, it is uncertain whether the deletion of a mitochondrial holocytochrome synthetase would contribute to the phenotype seen in MLS. The expression pattern of this gene and knowledge about the function of holocytochrome synthetases, however, suggest that it is a good candidate for X-linked encephalomyopathies typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. 25 refs., 4 figs.

Schaefer, L.; Ballabio, A.; Zoghbi, H.Y. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-06-01

135

Autosomal-recessive SASH1 variants associated with a new genodermatosis with pigmentation defects, palmoplantar keratoderma and skin carcinoma.  

PubMed

SASH1 (SAM and SH3 domain-containing protein 1) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in the tumorigenesis of a spectrum of solid cancers. Heterozygous SASH1 variants are known to cause autosomal-dominant dyschromatosis. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous Moroccan family with two affected siblings presenting an unclassified phenotype associating an abnormal pigmentation pattern (hypo- and hyperpigmented macules of the trunk and face and areas of reticular hypo- and hyperpigmentation of the extremities), alopecia, palmoplantar keratoderma, ungueal dystrophy and recurrent spinocellular carcinoma. We identified a homozygous variant in SASH1 (c.1849G>A; p.Glu617Lys) in both affected individuals. Wound-healing assay showed that the patient's fibroblasts were better able than control fibroblasts to migrate. Following the identification of SASH1 heterozygous variants in dyschromatosis, we used reverse phenotyping to show that autosomal-recessive variants of this gene could be responsible for an overlapping but more complex phenotype that affected skin appendages. SASH1 should be added to the list of genes responsible for autosomal-dominant and -recessive genodermatosis, with no phenotype in heterozygous patients in the recessive form, and to the list of genes responsible for a predisposition to skin cancer.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 15 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.213. PMID:25315659

Courcet, Jean-Benoît; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Duplomb, Laurence; Tajir, Mariam; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Thevenon, Julien; Gigot, Nadège; Marle, Nathalie; Aral, Bernard; Duffourd, Yannis; Sarasin, Alain; Naim, Valeria; Courcet-Degrolard, Emilie; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Martin, Laurent; Abrid, Jamal Eddin; Thauvin, Christel; Sefiani, Abdelaziz; Vabres, Pierre; Faivre, Laurence

2014-10-15

136

Mini-temporalis transposition: a less invasive procedure of smile restoration for long-standing incomplete facial paralysis.  

PubMed

Facial paralysis is a common craniofacial deformity that is responsible for significant psychological and functional impairment. Free muscle transfer in 2 stages and latissimus dorsi transfer in one stage may be the most effective surgical procedure for achieving a symmetrical spontaneous smile for a patient with complete facial paralysis. However, these 2 procedures are unsuitable for many incomplete patients. The authors introduce a less invasive procedure, termed mini-temporalis transposition that is able to achieve a symmetrical spontaneous smile in incomplete patients. Through a zigzag incision into the temporal region, the middle third of the temporalis is transferred and elongated with the palmaris longus tendon or combined with the deep temporal fascia. The strips are anchored to key points at the modiolus and the middle of the ipsilateral orbicularis oris muscle through a small intraoral incision and subcutaneous tunnel. The key points are marked during preoperative smile analysis. This procedure was applied to 15 patients with long-standing incomplete facial paralysis. All patients obtained improvements in smile symmetry after the operation, and patients' satisfaction was high. In addition, no damage to residual facial nerve functions or development of procedure-induced complications (such as a facial contour defect, lip eversion or puckering, or skin tethering) was observed in any of the patients. Nevertheless, slight temporal hollowing was observed in 4 patients, and mild bulkiness over the zygomatic arch was a common observation. In summary, the mini-temporalis transfer technique is a safe and effective method of smile restoration for long-standing incomplete facial paralysis. PMID:25759922

Chen, Gang; Yang, Xianxian; Wang, Wei; Li, Qingfeng

2015-03-01

137

Facial Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

138

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

139

Facial Plastic Surgery Today  

MedlinePLUS

... Shopping Cart Trust Your Face To A Facial Plastic Surgeon.® Home Meetings & Courses Find a Surgeon Physicians’ ... FAQ's For Patients Procedures What is a Facial Plastic Surgeon Facelift Surgery Wrinkle Treatment Nose Surgery Eyelid ...

140

Considerations in non-Caucasian facial rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Aging of the face is inevitable and undeniable. This process includes a loss of skeletal support, soft tissue volume depletion, and a decrease in skin elasticity. The contribution of these 3 factors varies between individuals with noticeable hereditary influence. Characteristic ethnic features have been described in the literature, but as societies have changed, many of these ethnic variations have blended together. Facial cosmetic procedures must to be tailored to address these variations in anatomy, and consideration must be given to enhancing the facial skeleton, adequately lifting the soft tissues, and planning careful incisions to be closed under no tension. PMID:25049130

Sykes, Jonathan M; Nolen, David

2014-08-01

141

PRFM enhance wound healing process in skin graft.  

PubMed

Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery often used skin graft on defects that cannot be covered primarily by a local flap. However, wound healing using skin graft is slow, most of the time the graft is contractured and the take of graft is not optimal. Platelet rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) is a new generation of concentrated platelets that produce natural fibrin and reported to speed up the healing process. Application of PRFM in the skin graft implants is expected to increase the survival of the graft. We used porcine as animal models to elucidate the effect of autologous PRFM on wound healing in full-thickness (FTSG) and split-thickness (STSG) skin grafts. Survival level of the skin graft was determined by using ImageJ software based on the formation of collagen type 1 and graft take. We observed that the use of PRFM in FTSG and STSG increased type 1 collagen formation. We also found that PRFM addition in STSG gave the best skin graft take. PMID:25536135

Reksodiputro, Mirta; Widodo, Dini; Bashiruddin, Jenny; Siregar, Nurjati; Malik, Safarina

2014-12-01

142

Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of homeobox A4 by human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells repairs full-thickness skin defects.  

PubMed

A number of types of stem cells have been shown to be effective in wound repair. In the present study the effect of homeobox A4 (HOXA4) overexpression by human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) on full?thickness skin repair was evaluated. Isolated hUMSCs were transfected with a lentivirus expressing HOXA4 and cultured for 21 days. Expression of the epidermal cell?specific markers, cytokeratins 14 and 18, was detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Full?thickness skin defects (1.5 cm x 1.5 cm) were made on the backs of 45 nude mice, which were randomly divided into the following three treatment groups: Collagen membrane with lenti?HOXA4 hUMSC seed cells; collagen membrane with lentivirus expressing green fluorescent protein; and collagen membrane alone. On days 7, 14 and 21 following transplantation, tissue samples were harvested and examined by histology and western blot analysis. Flow cytometry showed that the transfection efficiency was 95.41% at a multiplicity of infection of 100, and that the lenti?HOXA4 hUMSCs differentiated into epidermal cells, expressing cytokeratins 14 and 18. In addition, re?epithelialization of wounds treated with lenti?HOXA4 hUMSCs was significantly greater than that in the control groups in the first week. By week three the epidermis was significantly thicker in the lenti?HOXA4 group than the control groups. Thus, transplantation of hUMSCs modified with Ad?HOXA4 promoted wound healing. PMID:25592724

He, Ling; Tu, Huai-Jun; He, Wen-Feng; Guo, Ling-Ling; Yu, Song-Xia; Li, Jie; Wu, Qiong; Li, Jian

2015-05-01

143

Mutations in NDUFB11, Encoding a Complex I Component of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain, Cause Microphthalmia with Linear Skin Defects Syndrome.  

PubMed

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is an X-linked male-lethal disorder also known as MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea). Additional clinical features include neurological and cardiac abnormalities. MLS syndrome is genetically heterogeneous given that heterozygous mutations in HCCS or COX7B have been identified in MLS-affected females. Both genes encode proteins involved in the structure and function of complexes III and IV, which form the terminal segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). However, not all individuals with MLS syndrome carry a mutation in either HCCS or COX7B. The majority of MLS-affected females have severe skewing of X chromosome inactivation, suggesting that mutations in HCCS, COX7B, and other as-yet-unidentified X-linked gene(s) cause selective loss of cells in which the mutated X chromosome is active. By applying whole-exome sequencing and filtering for X-chromosomal variants, we identified a de novo nonsense mutation in NDUFB11 (Xp11.23) in one female individual and a heterozygous 1-bp deletion in a second individual, her asymptomatic mother, and an affected aborted fetus of the subject's mother. NDUFB11 encodes one of 30 poorly characterized supernumerary subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, known as complex I (cI), the first and largest enzyme of the MRC. By shRNA-mediated NDUFB11 knockdown in HeLa cells, we demonstrate that NDUFB11 is essential for cI assembly and activity as well as cell growth and survival. These results demonstrate that X-linked genetic defects leading to the complete inactivation of complex I, III, or IV underlie MLS syndrome. Our data reveal an unexpected role of cI dysfunction in a developmental phenotype, further underscoring the existence of a group of mitochondrial diseases associated with neurocutaneous manifestations. PMID:25772934

van Rahden, Vanessa A; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Alawi, Malik; Brand, Kristina; Fellmann, Florence; Horn, Denise; Zeviani, Massimo; Kutsche, Kerstin

2015-04-01

144

Visible skin color distribution plays a role in the perception of age, attractiveness, and health in female faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary psychologists have proposed that preferences for facial characteristics, such as symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism, may reflect adaptations for mate choice because they signal aspects of mate quality. Here, we show that facial skin color distribution significantly influences the perception of age and attractiveness of female faces, independent of facial form and skin surface topography. A set of three-dimensional

Bernhard Fink; Karl Grammer; Paul J. Matts

2006-01-01

145

Rhinosporidiosis Presenting as a Facial Swelling: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Rhinosporidiosis caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi is a fungal infection, which affects chiefly the mucus membranes of the nose, oropharynx, and nasopharynx, as well as the larynx, skin, eyes, and genital mucosa. Soil and water act as a reservoir for the organism. Here, we present a case of Rhinosporidiosis, which clinically manifested as a facial swelling indicating that fungal infections should also be considered as one of the differential diagnoses whenever facial swellings are encountered.

Rameshkumar, Annasamy; Gnanaselvi, U Punitha; Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Raghuram, P H; Bharanidharan, R; Rajkumar, K

2015-01-01

146

Evaluation of craniofacial surgery in the treatment of facial deformities.  

PubMed Central

Surgical access to the cranial, orbital, and facial areas, as developed by Tessier, has produced not only definitive repair of previously uncorrectable congenital deformities such as orbital hypertelorism and facial stenosis (e.g., Crouzon's, Apert's syndromes) but also has improved markedly the treatment of traumatic and neoplastic defects. The surgical approach allows complete dissection of facial soft tisses including the orbits from the underlying bones followed by corrective osteotomies and fixation. Mobilization of the frontal lobes through a frontal bone flap exposure may be required. The ramifications of this latest intrusion by surgeons into a previously inviolate anatomic area have involved neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, and dental and psycho-social disciplines. The disciplines of genetics and embryology are being influenced by this new field of surgery, much as the study of immunology was influenced by transplantation surgery two decades ago. This report analyzes a 10 year experience with over 100 patients with emphasis on patient selection by disease, age, intellectual status, morbidity, complications, and the psycho-social reactions of patient and family. Procedures initially planned to correct dental and aesthetic defects are proving beneficial for other functions including hearing, taste and smell, articulation and tongue movement, respiratory function, vision, and possibly bone growth. The development of self image, a normal process always in operation, is also strikingly altered. These operations may last as long as 14 to 16 hours. We have had no deaths or postoperative blindness. One postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was successfully repaired. Three partial losses of bone grafts and four instances of late cellulitis have occurred. Prevention of infection seems related to avoidance of dead spaces and primary closure of all mucosal, dural, conjunctival and skin surfaces. Images Figs. 1 a and b. Fig. 1c., Fig. 1d. Fig. 1f. Fig. 1g. Fig. 1h. Fig. 1i. Fig. 1m. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b., Fig. 2c., Fig. 2d. Fig. 2e. Figs. 3 a and b. Fig. 3d., Fig. 3e. Fig. 3f. Fig. 4a., Fig. 4b. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b., Fig. 5c. Figs. 5d and e. Fig. 5f. Figs. 5g. and 5h. Fig. 6a., Fig. 6b. Fig. 6c. Fig. 7a. Fig. 7b. Figs. 7e and f. Fig. 8a. Fig. 8b. Fig. 8c. Fig. 8d., Fig. 8e. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Figs. 9c. and d. Fig. 9e. Fig. 9f. Figs. 9g. and h. Figs. 11a, b, and c. Figs. 11d, e, f. PMID:169753

Murray, J E; Swanson, L T; Strand, R D; Hricko, G M

1975-01-01

147

Facial Burns - Our Experience  

PubMed Central

Facial burns are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational burns compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving burn victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational burns reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial burns dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial burns in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial burns in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458

Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.

2013-01-01

148

Facial Soft Tissue Trauma  

PubMed Central

Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459

Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

2010-01-01

149

Skin Cancer Skin Cancer  

E-print Network

Gardening and Your Health: Gardening and Your Health: Sunburn & Skin Cancer Sunburn & Skin Cancer therapy and surface chemotherapy, but most skin cancers are removed by surgical exci sion. Precancers can groups can get tans, freckles, and wrinkles. Although skin cancer is rare with this skin type

Liskiewicz, Maciej

150

Sensitivity of a Method for the Analysis of Facial Mobility. I. Vector of Displacement  

E-print Network

of an array of skin-based landmarks on five healthy hu- man subjects (2 men and 3 women; mean age, 27.6 years the instrument sensitivity, we analyzed facial movements during maximal smile animations in six patients that is representative of specific animations. During the smile animation, landmarks on the mid- and lower facial regions

Faraway, Julian

151

Application of Silver Sulfadiazine Cream With Early Surgical Intervention in Patients Suffering From Combined Burn-Blast Injury Facial Tattoos  

PubMed Central

Severe combined burn-blast injury is a great challenge to surgical teams due to its high mortality. It also results in unsightly traumatic tattoos. The aims of these case reports were to clarify the clinical characteristic of the dynamite explosion burn-blast facial injuries and discuss appropriate management of these patients. We report two patients suffering from facial burn-blast injury following dynamite explosion in which after primary stabilization, silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to the wounds and 12 hours later the wounds were cleaned under general anesthesia with vigorous saline solution irrigation and brushing. The foreign particles were meticulously removed from wounds and simultaneous repairing of defects was done with nylon 6-0 sutures. We conclude application of silver sulfadiazine cream on facial burn-blast injury tattoos several hours before surgical removal of particles is highly efficacious in facilitating particle removal and attaining a good result following surgical intervention, and primary repair. Treatment of combined burn-blast tattoos is different from other types of tattoos not associated with burns. Debridement and removal of foreign particles under general anesthesia from skin immediately and primary reconstruction of wounds is essential. We recommend application of the topical agent silver sulfadiazine to wounds about 12 hours before surgical intervention. PMID:24829894

Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

2012-01-01

152

Extratemporal facial nerve injury.  

PubMed

Isolated traumatic facial nerve injury, frequently seen in wartime combat, may also be encountered among civilians. The clinical picture occurring as a result of such injury may be confusing because partial, or incomplete, damage to the peripheral nerve may mimic impairment of the central facial motor mechanism. In treating the patient with facial injury, life-threatening aspects of the injury must be assessed and stabilized first. Then, attention may be focused on the injured facial nerve, for which prompt surgical repair is the treatment of choice. Prior to surgery, the assessment of taste and hearing, as well as mastoid and skull x-ray films and electrodiagnostic tests are helpful in localizing the facial nerve injury. PMID:933404

Sternbach, G L; Rosen, P; Meislin, H W

1976-04-01

153

Automatic facial pattern extraction from color images using knowledge-based multistep filtering technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper described a technique for extracting the facial patterns from color images recorded in different imaging media. First, we extracted the skin-color pixels on the basis of statistical probability analysis of ellipsoid distributions of skin-color pixels' hue and saturation in the lightness intervals. The skin-color regions were segmented and labeled by applying the techniques of binary digital image processing. We observed 20 values of mensuration pattern variables in each region. The facial patterns were extracted from skin-color regions by evaluating their pattern variable values using the knowledge-based multistep filtering technique. This technique could extract the facial patterns from color images simply and automatically as verified by the experimental results. It is significant for operations or systems where locating and detecting the facial pattern are critical important.

Sanger, Demas S.; Haneishi, Hideaki; Miyake, Yoichi

1995-08-01

154

Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2007-01-01

155

Skin graft  

MedlinePLUS

Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

156

Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research  

PubMed Central

Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

157

Realistic modeling for facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major unsolved problem in computer graphics is the construc- tion and animation of realistic human facial models. Traditionally, facial models have been built painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by ad hoc parametrically controlled facial mesh defor- mations or kinematic approximation of muscle actions. Fortunately, animators are now able to digitize facial geometries through the use of scanning range

Yuencheng Lee; Demetri Terzopoulos; Keith Walters

1995-01-01

158

PCA facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

2013-12-01

159

Defective expression of HLA class I and CD1a molecules in boy with Marfan-like phenotype and deep skin ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a boy with low expression of HLA class I molecules on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which is associated with immunodeficiency. The patient, who had a Marfan-like phenotype, had chronic deep skin ulcers and sinobronchiectasis. Immunohistologic examination of the ulcerated skin showed a dense perivascular infiltrate composed of normal mature lymphocytes and macrophages. All cells in

Alessandro Plebani; Virginia Monafo; Roberto Cattaneo; Graziella Carella; Duilio Brugnoni; Fabio Facchetti; Simonetta Battocchio; Antonella Meini; Luigi D. Notarangelo; Marzia Duse; Alberto G. Ugazio

1996-01-01

160

Image ratio features for facial expression recognition application.  

PubMed

Video-based facial expression recognition is a challenging problem in computer vision and human-computer interaction. To target this problem, texture features have been extracted and widely used, because they can capture image intensity changes raised by skin deformation. However, existing texture features encounter problems with albedo and lighting variations. To solve both problems, we propose a new texture feature called image ratio features. Compared with previously proposed texture features, e.g., high gradient component features, image ratio features are more robust to albedo and lighting variations. In addition, to further improve facial expression recognition accuracy based on image ratio features, we combine image ratio features with facial animation parameters (FAPs), which describe the geometric motions of facial feature points. The performance evaluation is based on the Carnegie Mellon University Cohn-Kanade database, our own database, and the Japanese Female Facial Expression database. Experimental results show that the proposed image ratio feature is more robust to albedo and lighting variations, and the combination of image ratio features and FAPs outperforms each feature alone. In addition, we study asymmetric facial expressions based on our own facial expression database and demonstrate the superior performance of our combined expression recognition system. PMID:19884092

Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Liu, Zicheng; Li, Xuelong; Zhou, Mengchu

2010-06-01

161

Orbital and facial fractures.  

PubMed

This article reviews the importance of particular radiologic findings related to facial trauma and their implications for clinical and surgical management. An emphasis is placed on critical imaging signs that warrant immediate surgical attention. PMID:25086804

Uzelac, Alina; Gean, Alisa D

2014-08-01

162

Self-relevance appraisal of gaze direction and dynamic facial expressions: effects on facial electromyographic and autonomic reactions.  

PubMed

What processes or mechanisms mediate interpersonal matching of facial expressions remains a debated issue. As theoretical approaches to underlying processes (i.e., automatic motor mimicry, communicative intent, and emotional appraisal) make different predictions about whether facial responses to others' facial expressions are influenced by perceived gaze behavior, we examined the impact of gaze direction and dynamic facial expressions on observers' autonomic and rapid facial reactions (RFRs). We recorded facial electromyography activity over 4 muscle regions (Corrugator Supercilli, Zygomaticus Major, Lateral Frontalis, and Depressor Anguli Oris), skin conductance response and heart rate changes in participants passively exposed to virtual characters displaying approach-oriented (anger and happiness), and avoidance-oriented (fear and sadness) emotion expressions with gaze either directed at or averted from the observer. Consistent with appraisal theories, RFRs were potentiated by mutual eye contact when participants viewed happy and angry expressions, while RFRs occurred only to fear expressions with averted gaze. RFRs to sad expressions were not affected by gaze direction. The interaction between emotional expressions and gaze direction was moderated by participants' gender. The pattern of autonomic reactivity was consistent with the view that salient social stimuli increase physiological arousal and attentional resources, with gaze direction, nature of emotion, and gender having moderating effects. These results suggest the critical role of self-relevance appraisal of senders' contextual perceptual cues and individual characteristics to account for interpersonal matching of facial displays. PMID:22985342

Soussignan, Robert; Chadwick, Michèle; Philip, Léonor; Conty, Laurence; Dezecache, Guillaume; Grèzes, Julie

2013-04-01

163

Facial bacterial infections: folliculitis.  

PubMed

Facial bacterial infections are most commonly caused by infections of the hair follicles. Wherever pilosebaceous units are found folliculitis can occur, with the most frequent bacterial culprit being Staphylococcus aureus. We review different origins of facial folliculitis, distinguishing bacterial forms from other infectious and non-infectious mimickers. We distinguish folliculitis from pseudofolliculitis and perifolliculitis. Clinical features, etiology, pathology, and management options are also discussed. PMID:25441463

Laureano, Ana Cristina; Schwartz, Robert A; Cohen, Philip J

2014-01-01

164

Producing computer facial animation  

E-print Network

be the basis of the film that launches a new motion picture process in which we will be creating synthetic, realistic human ? and humanoid ? characters [41]. " During the production of "Dragonheart", design work required sketched images of the dragon based... on the mouth and facial movements of Sean Connery to help the artists develop key poses for the dragon's mouth, in addition to new software tools to automate facial animation tasks [33]. An excerpt from a published magazine article had some insights...

Koehlert, Erik Wulf

1998-01-01

165

Computerized forensic facial reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigations frequently utilize facial reconstructions\\/approximations to stimulate recognition and identification.\\u000a Over the past 25 years, many computer-based systems have been developed, and with the recent rapid advances in medical imaging\\u000a and computer technology, the current systems claim high levels of efficiency, objectivity, and flexibility. The history of\\u000a computerized facial approximation\\/reconstruction is presented, along with a discussion of the advantages

Caroline Wilkinson

2005-01-01

166

Classifying Facial Actions  

PubMed Central

The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

2010-01-01

167

Sagging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... more"> 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with skin cancer every year Any suspicious new growths or changes ... ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

168

Facial reconstruction – anatomical art or artistic anatomy?  

PubMed Central

Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury. PMID:20447245

Wilkinson, Caroline

2010-01-01

169

Goltz Syndrome: A Newborn with Ectrodactyly and Skin Lesions  

PubMed Central

Goltz syndrome or Focal Dermal Hypoplasia is a rare multisystem disorder, involving all the three germ cell layers. The disease is thought to be inherited in X-linked dominant fashion with heterogeneous mutations of the PORCN gene at Xp11.23 locus. Majority of the cases are sporadic, mainly due to postzygotic somatic mutations. The clinical spectrum includes characteristic cutaneous manifestations, multiple skeletal anomalies, and involvement of the eyes, hair, nails, kidneys, and so on. Considerable variability is noted in the clinical expression of the disease probably due to genomic mosaicism. Around 300 cases of Goltz syndrome have been reported in the literature. Here, we report such a case with characteristic skin lesions, multiple bony defects, distinctive facial features, coloboma of iris, and bilateral hydronephrosis. The diagnosis was evident immediately after birth due to the characteristic clinical picture of the baby.

Sarkar, Shatanik; Patra, Chaitali; Das, Amit; Roy, Sutirtha

2015-01-01

170

Goltz syndrome: a newborn with ectrodactyly and skin lesions.  

PubMed

Goltz syndrome or Focal Dermal Hypoplasia is a rare multisystem disorder, involving all the three germ cell layers. The disease is thought to be inherited in X-linked dominant fashion with heterogeneous mutations of the PORCN gene at Xp11.23 locus. Majority of the cases are sporadic, mainly due to postzygotic somatic mutations. The clinical spectrum includes characteristic cutaneous manifestations, multiple skeletal anomalies, and involvement of the eyes, hair, nails, kidneys, and so on. Considerable variability is noted in the clinical expression of the disease probably due to genomic mosaicism. Around 300 cases of Goltz syndrome have been reported in the literature. Here, we report such a case with characteristic skin lesions, multiple bony defects, distinctive facial features, coloboma of iris, and bilateral hydronephrosis. The diagnosis was evident immediately after birth due to the characteristic clinical picture of the baby. PMID:25814752

Sarkar, Shatanik; Patra, Chaitali; Das, Amit; Roy, Sutirtha

2015-01-01

171

Simultaneous anterolateral thigh flap and temporalis tendon transfer to optimize facial form and function after radical parotidectomy.  

PubMed

Background Extirpation of aggressive parotid or cutaneous facial tumors often involves facial nerve sacrifice and the creation of a large soft-tissue defect. We describe a method for single-stage reconstruction during radical parotidectomy to restore facial form and function without additional morbidity. Methods We conducted a review of immediate reconstruction/reanimation of radical parotidectomy defects with the use of anterolateral thigh (ALT) fat and fascia flaps for facial contouring, orthodromic temporalis tendon transfer (OTTT), cable grafting of the facial nerve, and fascia lata lower lip suspension. Results Five patients (mean age, 67.4 years) underwent extirpation of malignant tumors with facial nerve sacrifice resulting in large soft-tissue deficits. All patients had ALT free tissue transfer to correct facial contour defects and OTTT to restore facial form and function. Four patients underwent cable grafting of facial nerve branches. Branches of the motor nerve to the vastus lateralis harvested from the ALT surgical site were used for cable nerve grafting in 3 patients. Fascia lata from the same ALT harvest site was used for lower lip suspension to the OTTT in 4 patients. There were no donor site complications. All patients achieved midfacial symmetry at rest, oral competence with dynamic corner-of-mouth movement, and full eye closure. Conclusions Tumor clearance, symmetric facial appearance, as well as dynamic facial rehabilitation were accomplished in a single-stage procedure using the method described herein. The ALT free flap provides versatile options for soft-tissue defects as well as access to motor nerves optimal for grafting without additional morbidity. Patients undergoing extirpation of malignant tumors requiring facial nerve sacrifice can undergo immediate free tissue contour reconstruction and facial reanimation procedures with no additional morbidity. PMID:22431814

Revenaugh, Peter C; Knott, P Daniel; Scharpf, Joseph; Fritz, Michael A

2012-01-01

172

Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Boosted Discriminatory  

E-print Network

Facial Expression Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Boosted Discriminatory Classifiers Stephen Moore approach to facial expression recognition in video sequences. Low cost contour features are introduced information to build boosted classifiers for frontal facial expression recognition in video sequences. Facial

Bowden, Richard

173

Skin Barrier Disruption: A Requirement for Allergen Sensitization?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For at least half a century, noninvasive techniques have been available to quantify skin barrier function, and these have shown that a number of human skin conditions and disorders are associated with defects in skin permeability. In the past decade, several genes responsible for skin barrier defects observed in both monogenetic and complex polygenic disorders have been elucidated and functionally

Anna De Benedetto; Akiharu Kubo; Lisa A Beck

2012-01-01

174

Proliferative Defects in Dyskeratosis Congenita Skin Keratinocytes are Corrected by Expression of the Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase, TERT, or by Activation of Endogenous Telomerase through Expression of Papillomavirus E6/E7 or the Telomerase RNA Component, TERC  

PubMed Central

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is characterized by the triad of reticulate skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and leukoplakia. Epidermal atrophy, hair growth defects, bone marrow failure, and increased risk of cancer are also common in DC patients. DC is caused by mutations in genes encoding for telomerase complex factors. Although there is an association of epidermal abnormalities with DC, epidermal cells from DC donors have not been previously characterized. We have isolated skin keratinocytes from affected members of a family with an autosomal dominant form of DC that is due to a mutation in the RNA component of telomerase, TERC. Here we demonstrate that, similar to DC fibroblasts from these donors, DC keratinocytes have short telomeres and a short lifespan. DC keratinocytes also exhibited impaired colony forming efficiency and migration capacity. Exogenous expression of the reverse transcriptase component of telomerase, TERT, activated telomerase levels to half that of TERT expressing normal cells and maintained telomeres at a short length with concomitant extension of lifespan. Unlike fibroblasts, transduction of human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7 genes into DC keratinocytes activated telomerase to half that of E6/E7 expressing normal cells, and robust proliferation was observed. While expression of TERC has no measurable effect on telomerase in fibroblasts, expression of TERC in keratinocytes upregulated telomerase activity and, rarely, allowed rescue of proliferative defects. Our results point to important differences between DC fibroblasts and keratinocytes and show, for the first time, that expression of TERC can increase the lifespan of primary human epithelial cells. PMID:19558498

Gourronc, Francoise A.; Robertson, Mckaylee M.; Herrig, Annie K.; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Goldman, Frederick D.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

2010-01-01

175

Facial palsy: unusual etiology.  

PubMed

This is a report of three patients who presented at the Mayo Clinic over a two-year period. All were initially diagnosed as having Bell's palsy but were later found to have a malignant neoplasm causing the paralysis. Two of the patients had breast carcinoma metastases involving the mastoid portion of the facial nerve. The third patient had an adenocarcinoma of the deep lobe of the parotid that involved the facial nerve distal to the stylomastoid foramen. The course of the facial paralysis in the two patients with the metastitic breast disease was almost identical. It consisted of episodes of pain in the mastoid area. generally in the late evening or during the night, often awakening the patient from sleep. This was then followed by peripheral facial-nerve paralysis, sometimes partial and at other times complete. These episodes lasted from 10 minutes to several hours and then resolved completely. They recurred over several months. The patients were completely asymptomatic and normal on examination in the intervals between episodes of paralysis until it became permanent. Metastatic lesions causing facial paralysis are extremely rare in the literature. In those cases that have been reported, the paralysis was progressive from the start and in the vast majority of cases was either painless or associated with other aural symptoms such as otorrhea, hearing loss, and periauricular swelling. There are two unusual features of these two cases: 1. the initial presentation of a breast metastasis as a facial paralysis; in the first case there were no other metastatic lesions present at diagnosis, whereas the second patient had other, asymptomatic, metastatic nodules; and 2. the multiple, brief, recurring episodes of facial paralysis, which have not previously been reported as a mode of presentation of metastitic disease. The third patient was diagnosed as having Bell's palsy. A facial nerve decompression was performed, and the nerve apparently looked normal. The paralysis failed to resolve. He was later found to have adenocarcinoma of the deep lobe of the parotid that involved the facial nerve distal to the stylomastoid foramen. A report of only one similar case could be found in the literature. The sequence of events in these three cases emphasizes the importance of submitting a patient suspected of having Bell's palsy to a thorough otoneurologic examination. PMID:831048

Breadon, G E; Cody, D T; Weiland, L H

1977-01-01

176

The relation between catastrophizing and facial responsiveness to pain.  

PubMed

Pain catastrophizing has recently been suggested to have a social function based on a positive association observed with facial responsiveness to noxious stimulation. However, this assumption is based on studies applying nociceptive stimuli of fixed intensity, such that high catastrophizers not only displayed increased pain behavior but also rated the stimulation as being more painful. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between catastrophizing and facial responsiveness while controlling for individual differences in pain sensitivity. The facial expression of pain was investigated in 44 young and pain-free individuals in response to painful and non-painful phasic heat stimuli. Painful temperatures were tailored to the individual sensitivity to produce moderate pain. Facial responses were videotaped and objectively examined using the Facial Action Coding System. We also assessed skin conductance activity as an autonomic indicator of pain-related responses. Catastrophizing was assessed using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). In accordance with previous findings, subjects scoring higher on pain catastrophizing required lower thermal intensities to induce a moderately painful sensation (r=-0.40, p=0.007). However, catastrophizing did not correlate with facial responsiveness to perceptually controlled painful stimulation (r=-0.02, p=0.88). Moreover, correlation analyses revealed no significant associations between catastrophizing and skin conductance responses. The present findings provide further support for the impact of pain catastophizing on pain sensitivity. However, our finding of no relation between catastrophizing and facial responsiveness when participants are experiencing comparable psychophysical pain intensities, challenges previous assumptions that high catastrophizers display amplified pain behavior; at least in young and pain-free individuals. PMID:18783885

Kunz, Miriam; Chatelle, Camille; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Rainville, Pierre

2008-11-15

177

Cues of Fatigue: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Facial Appearance  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Measurements: Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. Results: The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life. Citation: Sundelin T; Lekander M; Kecklund G; Van Someren EJW; Olsson A; Axelsson J. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1355-1360. PMID:23997369

Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

2013-01-01

178

Pediatric Facial Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Falls, motor vehicle accidents, and sports-related activities are the leading causes of facial trauma in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Children below 6 years of age suffer more orbital roof and skull fractures than facial fractures due to proportionally larger\\u000a cranial volume.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Nasal and dentoalveolar fractures are the most common facial fractures in children. Nasal septal hematoma need to be detected

T. J. O-Lee; Peter J. Koltai

179

Acneiform facial eruptions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972

Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

2005-01-01

180

Smoothing, Tightening And Contouring Skin Has Never Been Faster or Easier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A skin tightening procedure for the treatment of facial wrinkles without surgery, Thermage reduces the signs of aging skin, giving you a more youthful appearance. The Thermage procedure targets the collagen in your skin, which is a building block that supports the structure of the skin. Over time, collagen becomes depleted or damaged by the sun or other environmental factors.

Holly Vitchers

181

Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin  

E-print Network

Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin What you know about your skin Your skin is the organ that comes-hahy-DREY-shun), and keeps harmful microbes (MYE- krobs) out--without it, we would get infections. Your skin is full of nerve get badly hurt and not even know it! What you might not know about your skin Skin is actually your

Baker, Chris I.

182

[Advantage of facial rehabilitation after facial palsy].  

PubMed

Visible and immediate trauma, facial palsy (FP) covers functional but also psychological damage and it is essential to evaluate before a comprehensive therapeutic care tailored. Few patients, however, are emerging with a prescription for rehabilitation after a consultation. Why? This rehabilitation is it ignored? Is it absolutely necessary? It is evident in the extension of medical care to minimize the effects. Yet the foundation of rehabilitation is sadly little known and often poorly enforced. In addition to its specificity, this therapy preceded by a report called "pretreatments offers a prognosis for recovery to patient" regardless of the origin and degree of involvement of the PF. PMID:22046678

Gatignol, Peggy; Lannadère, Elodie; Bernat, Isabelle; Tankéré, Frédéric; Lamas, Georges

2011-10-01

183

TRPA1 contributes to capsaicin-induced facial cold hyperalgesia in rats.  

PubMed

Orofacial cold hyperalgesia is known to cause severe persistent pain in the face following trigeminal nerve injury or inflammation, and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankylin 1 (TRPA1) are thought to be involved in cold hyperalgesia. However, how these two receptors are involved in cold hyperalgesia is not fully understood. To clarify the mechanisms underlying facial cold hyperalgesia, nocifensive behaviors to cold stimulation, the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, and TG neuronal excitability to cold stimulation following facial capsaicin injection were examined in rats. The head-withdrawal reflex threshold (HWRT) to cold stimulation of the lateral facial skin was significantly decreased following facial capsaicin injection. This reduction of HWRT was significantly recovered following local injection of TRPV1 antagonist as well as TRPA1 antagonist. Approximately 30% of TG neurons innervating the lateral facial skin expressed both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and about 64% of TRPA1-positive neurons also expressed TRPV1. The TG neuronal excitability to noxious cold stimulation was significantly increased following facial capsaicin injection and this increase was recovered by pretreatment with TRPA1 antagonist. These findings suggest that TRPA1 sensitization via TRPV1 signaling in TG neurons is involved in cold hyperalgesia following facial skin capsaicin injection. PMID:25371244

Honda, Kuniya; Shinoda, Masamichi; Furukawa, Akihiko; Kita, Kozue; Noma, Noboru; Iwata, Koichi

2014-12-01

184

Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects  

PubMed Central

Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

2014-01-01

185

Dry skin  

MedlinePLUS

Skin - dry; Winter itch ... Dry skin is common. It happens more often in the winter when cold air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The skin loses moisture and may ...

186

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments Q - T Skin cancer Skin cancer It is possible to find skin cancer early. ... a dermatologist. Learn more. Common types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) This is the most ...

187

Conservative procedures in skin reconstitution  

PubMed Central

Skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of skin and its expression of antimicrobial peptides are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. Stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Therapeutic options are discussed with special emphasis of radiodermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis in patients with hearing device. The use of antimicrobial peptides is illustrated by facial inflammatory skin diseases. In wound healing new developments include biotechnological developments of matrix- and growth factors and tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In everyday wound care of chronic wounds the concept of wound bed preparation (TIME) constitutes the base of successful treatment. PMID:22073065

Wollina, Uwe

2005-01-01

188

Two 46,XX,t(X;Y) females with linear skin defects and congenital microphthalmia: a new syndrome at Xp22.3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two females with de novo X;Y translocations, who presented at birth with irregular linear areas of erythematous skin hypoplasia involving the head and neck, along with eye findings that included microphthalmia, corneal opacities, and orbital cysts. The features in these children are similar to but distinct from those seen in females with Goltz syndrome and incontinentia pigmenti. Cytogenetic

L I al-Gazali; R F Mueller; A Caine; A Antoniou; A McCartney; M Fitchett; N R Dennis

1990-01-01

189

Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... diseases and immune system problems can cause dermatitis, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such ... rely on information about you and your family. Hives —Red and sometimes itchy bumps on your skin. ...

190

Facial diplegia: a clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical entity and presents as a diagnostic challenge. Unlike its unilateral counterpart facial diplegia is seldom secondary to Bell's palsy. Occurring at a frequency of 0.3% to 2% of all facial palsies it often indicates ominous medical conditions. Guillian-Barre syndrome needs to be considered as a differential in all given cases of facial diplegia where timely treatment would be rewarding. Here a case of bilateral facial palsy due to Guillian-Barre syndrome with atypical presentation is reported. PMID:24761505

Chakrabarti, Debaprasad; Roy, Mukut; Bhattacharyya, Amrit K

2013-06-01

191

The psychology of facial appearance.  

PubMed

Facial attractiveness is now recognized as being important in situations as diverse as education, relationships and employment. An individual's facial appearance is one of their most obvious characteristics and facial disfigurements are judged to be among the least desirable 'handicaps'. A face which deviates from the norm becomes a stigma. This paper looks at the complex area of facial appearance and its importance in the field of dentistry. The relationship between facial attractiveness and varying forms of dental and surgical intervention are discussed, as well as some of the problems which may be encountered during treatment. PMID:10765787

Cunningham, S J

1999-12-01

192

Female facial attractiveness increases  

E-print Network

. Keywords: facial attractiveness; mate choice; beauty; oestrus; monogamy 1. INTRODUCTION Human females lack of Humanities, Charles University, Legerova 63, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic 3 Department of Parasitology, and 4 Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7

Flegr, Jaroslav

193

Lasers for Facial Rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser and laser-like assisted facial rejuvenation has become very popular during the last decade. Although a myriad of techniques are available, such approaches can be divided into four basic approaches. There are those that (i) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and provide a significant thermal effect (CO2 lasers); (ii) ablate the epidermis, cause dermal wounding, and minimal thermal effects

David J. Goldberg

2003-01-01

194

Complex reconstruction of facial deformity and function after severe gunshot injury: one case report  

PubMed Central

In this report, we described clinical outcomes of a multi-stage surgery integrating multiple techniques in restoration of facial morphology and function of a 17-year-old boy with severe gunshot injuries. This multi-stage surgery was applied in treatment of one rare case of gunshot-caused complicated facial deformities involving most parts of the face (labrum, left nose wing, nasal columella, nasal septum, maxillary alveolar process, hard palate, soft palate, bilateral maxillary bones, left zygoma, suborbital bone defects) and clinical efficacy upon restoring facial form and function were retrospectively evaluated. The patient was diagnosed with massive facial defects and deformities caused by gunshot, which led to feeding difficulty, severe articulation disorders and serious facial disfigurement. To reconstruct facial form and restore functions of mastication and articulation, multiple examinations and surgical procedures including mirror imaging, rapid prototyping technique, porous titanium implants, microscopic surgical technique, dental implants, osteomyocutaneous flap, muscular flap, shifting and repairing of adjacent tissue flaps and free bone graft reconstruction were undertaken. Postoperatively, reconstruction of severe facial disfigurement and restoring basic functions including articulation and feeding for the first time and relatively sound clinical outcomes have been obtained, which may add clinical evidence to the treatment of similar cases of severe facial deformities. PMID:25785151

Wang, Weijian; Duan, Jianmin; Wang, Qiao; Kuang, Wei

2015-01-01

195

The identification of a new role for LEKTI in the skin: The use of protein 'bait' arrays to detect defective trafficking of dermcidin in the skin of patients with Netherton syndrome.  

PubMed

Lympho-Epithelial Kazal-Type-related Inhibitor (LEKTI) has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor of various kallikreins and is thought to play a role in the regulation of skin desquamation. In order to identify and investigate the potential of LEKTI to interact with other proteins, a method was developed using immobilised proteins onto arrays and nanoUPLC/MALDI-TOF MS. Using various domains of LEKTI, we demonstrated that these domains bound a number of kallikreins (5, 13 and 14) to varied extents on the array surface. Inhibitory assays confirmed that binding on the protein array surface corresponded directly to levels of inhibition. The method was then tested using skin epidermal extracts. All forms of rLEKTI with the exception of rLEKTI 12-15, demonstrated the binding of several potential candidate proteins. Surprisingly, the major binding partners of LEKTI were found to be the antimicrobial peptide dermcidin and the serine protease cathepsin G and no kallikreins. Using confocal microscopy and Netherton syndrome skin sections, we confirmed the co-localisation of LEKTI with dermcidin and demonstrated altered trafficking of dermcidin in these patients. This potential new role for LEKTI as a multifunctional protein in the protection and transport of proteins in the epidermis and its role in disease are discussed. PMID:22588119

Bennett, Kate; Heywood, Wendy; Di, Wei-Li; Harper, John; Clayman, Gary L; Jayakumar, Arumugam; Callard, Robin; Mills, Kevin

2012-07-16

196

Mechanism of Ultraviolet B-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in G2\\/M Phase in Immortalized Skin Keratinocytes with Defective p53  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultraviolet B (UVB) portion (280–320 nm) of solar radiation is considered to be a major etiologic factor in human skin cancer and is a known cause of extensive DNA damage. In this study, we observed that UVB exposure of immortalized epidermal keratinocytes (HaCat cells) harboring mutant p53 leads to G2\\/M cell cycle arrest in both asynchronously growing and synchronized

Mohammad Athar; Arianna L. Kim; Nihal Ahmad; Hasan Mukhtar; Jean Gautier; David R. Bickers

2000-01-01

197

Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)  

SciTech Connect

Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. (Univ. of Toronto School of Medicine, Ontario (Canada))

1989-12-01

198

Effect of Mixed Transplantation of Autologous and Allogeneic Microskin Grafts on Wound Healing in a Rat Model of Acute Skin Defect  

PubMed Central

The treatment of extensive thermal injuries with insufficient autologous skin remains a great challenge to burn surgeons. In this study, we investigated the influence of the ratio of autologous and allogeneic tissue in mixed microskin grafts on wound healing in order to develop an effective method for using limited donor skin to cover a large open wound. Four different mixtures were tested: autologous microskin at an area expansion ratio of 10?1 with allogeneic microskin at an area expansion ratio of 10?1 or 10?3 and autologous microskin at an expansion ratio of 20?1 with allogeneic microskin at an expansion ratio of 20?3 or 20?6. Wound healing, wound contraction, and integrin ?1 expression were measured. Mixed microskin grafting facilitated wound healing substantially. The mixture of autologous microskin at an expansion ratio of 10?1 with the same amount of allogeneic microskin achieved the most satisfactory wound healing among the 4 tested mixtures. Histological examination revealed the presence of obviously thickened epidermis and ectopic integrin ?1 expression. Keratinocytes expressing integrin ?1 were scattered in the suprabasal layer. Higher levels of integrin ?1 expression were associated with faster wound healing, implying that ectopic expression of integrin ?1 in keratinocytes may play a pivotal role in wound healing. In conclusion, this study proves that this new skin grafting technique may improve wound healing. PMID:24465646

Lin, Heng; Yang, Yanni; Wang, Yong; Wang, Lihua; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Jing; Peng, Daizhi

2014-01-01

199

Separation of Mouse Embryonic Facial Ectoderm and Mesenchyme  

PubMed Central

Orofacial clefts are the most frequent craniofacial defects, which affect 1.5 in 1,000 newborns worldwide1,2. Orofacial clefting is caused by abnormal facial development3. In human and mouse, initial growth and patterning of the face relies on several small buds of tissue, the facial prominences4,5. The face is derived from six main prominences: paired frontal nasal processes (FNP), maxillary prominences (MxP) and mandibular prominences (MdP). These prominences consist of swellings of mesenchyme that are encased in an overlying epithelium. Studies in multiple species have shown that signaling crosstalk between facial ectoderm and mesenchyme is critical for shaping the face6. Yet, mechanistic details concerning the genes involved in these signaling relays are lacking. One way to gain a comprehensive understanding of gene expression, transcription factor binding, and chromatin marks associated with the developing facial ectoderm and mesenchyme is to isolate and characterize the separated tissue compartments. Here we present a method for separating facial ectoderm and mesenchyme at embryonic day (E) 10.5, a critical developmental stage in mouse facial formation that precedes fusion of the prominences. Our method is adapted from the approach we have previously used for dissecting facial prominences7. In this earlier study we had employed inbred C57BL/6 mice as this strain has become a standard for genetics, genomics and facial morphology8. Here, though, due to the more limited quantities of tissue available, we have utilized the outbred CD-1 strain that is cheaper to purchase, more robust for husbandry, and tending to produce more embryos (12-18) per litter than any inbred mouse strain8. Following embryo isolation, neutral protease Dispase II was used to treat the whole embryo. Then, the facial prominences were dissected out, and the facial ectoderm was separated from the mesenchyme. This method keeps both the facial ectoderm and mesenchyme intact. The samples obtained using this methodology can be used for techniques including protein detection, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, microarray studies, and RNA-seq. PMID:23603693

Li, Hong; Williams, Trevor

2013-01-01

200

Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

2014-01-01

201

Hemifacial spasm and involuntary facial movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by tonic and clonic contractions of the muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve. It is important to distinguish this from other causes of facial spasms, such as psychogenic facial spasm, facial tic, facial myokymia, blepharospasm, and tardive dyskinesia. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography studies frequently demonstrate vascular compression of the root exit zone

N.-C. TAN; L.-L. CHAN; E.-K. TAN

2002-01-01

202

Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment. PMID:25141118

Gabana-Silveira, Jesus Claudio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Braga, Arnaldo Feitosa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

2014-01-01

203

Mental retardation, congenital heart defect, cleft palate, short stature, and facial anomalies: A new X-linked multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome: Clinical description and molecular studies  

SciTech Connect

We report on two brothers and their two maternal uncles with severe mental retardation, congenital heart defect, cleft or highly arched palate, short stature and craniofacial anomalies consisting of microcephaly, abnormal ears, bulbous nose, broad nasal bridge, malar hypoplasia, and micro-gnathia. Three of the four patients died at an early age. The mother of the two brothers had an atrial septal defect. She is assumed to be manifesting carrier of a mutant gene, which is expressed in her two sons and two brothers. By multipoint linkage analysis it is found that the most likely location of the responsible gene is the pericentromeric region Xp21.3-q21.3 with DMD and DXS3 as flanking markers. Maximum information is obtained with marker DXS453 (Z = 1.20 at {theta} = 0.0). 24 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Hamel, B.C.J.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Ropers, H.H. [University Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schoonbrood-Lenssen, A.M.J. [Institute for the Mentally Retarded, Echt (Netherlands)

1994-07-15

204

Skin optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin

M. J. C. Van Gemert; S. L. Jacques; H. J. C. M. Sterenborg; W. M. Star

1989-01-01

205

Human facial beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that human faces judged to be attractive by people possess two features—averageness and symmetry—that promoted\\u000a adaptive mate selection in human evolutionary history by way of production of offspring with parasite resistance. Facial composites\\u000a made by combining individual faces are judged to be attractive, and more attractive than the majority of individual faces.\\u000a The composites possess both symmetry

Randy Thorrthill; Steven W. Gangestad

1993-01-01

206

Successful reconstruction of a large helical rim defect using retroauricular artery perforator-based island flap.  

PubMed

The retroauricular flap has many applications, providing coverage for various portions of the face as a pedicled flap or a free flap. The retroauricular skin, having similar attributes to the facial skin, is an ideal donor site for facial reconstruction. Also, the donor site can be primarily closed without morbidity, which is also an advantage. In this article, a large helical defect resulting from a traumatic amputation was reconstructed using the contralateral conchal cartilage graft and a retroauricular perforator-based island flap. Using the "perforator pedicled propeller flap" concept, no meticulous dissection around the perforator was done, and the flap was elevated only until sufficient rotation arc was achieved. There was some degree of venous congestion on the flap for 3 days postoperatively, but the flap survived completely. By using the conchal cartilage from the contralateral side, the final contour of the ear was maintained aesthetically. The flap had some bulkiness on the posterior side of the auricle where it was transposed, but it was inconspicuous on frontal or lateral view because the conchoscaphal angle had not changed. The patient was satisfied with the aesthetic results. The retroauricular flap is useful for resurfacing any portion of the ear, and by using the propeller flap method, significant reduction in operative time can be achieved without compromising the final results. PMID:21403543

Youn, Seungki; Kim, Youn Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Ng, Siew-Weng

2011-03-01

207

Granuloma faciale: a rare disease from a dermoscopy perspective.  

PubMed

The granuloma faciale is a rare and benign skin disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic leukocitoclastic vasculitis. It is characterized by skin lesions predominantly facial whose course is chronic and slowly progressive. The diagnosis is based on clinical features, histopathology and, more recently, in dermoscopy. We describe the case of a male patient, 40 years old, with a sarcoid lesion on the malar site, whose histopathological examination revealed a mixed inflammatory infiltrate with presence of Grenz zone. Dermoscopy revealed a pink background with white striations. The definitive diagnosis is made by histopathologic evaluation, and dermatoscopy can be helpful. It is known to be resistant to therapy, oral medications, intralesional and surgical procedures are options. PMID:24346891

Teixeira, Danilo Augusto; Estrozi, Bruna; Ianhez, Mayra

2013-01-01

208

Granuloma faciale: a rare disease from a dermoscopy perspective*  

PubMed Central

The granuloma faciale is a rare and benign skin disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic leukocitoclastic vasculitis. It is characterized by skin lesions predominantly facial whose course is chronic and slowly progressive. The diagnosis is based on clinical features, histopathology and, more recently, in dermoscopy. We describe the case of a male patient, 40 years old, with a sarcoid lesion on the malar site, whose histopathological examination revealed a mixed inflammatory infiltrate with presence of Grenz zone. Dermoscopy revealed a pink background with white striations. The definitive diagnosis is made by histopathologic evaluation, and dermatoscopy can be helpful. It is known to be resistant to therapy, oral medications, intralesional and surgical procedures are options. PMID:24346891

Teixeira, Danilo Augusto; Estrozi, Bruna; Ianhez, Mayra

2013-01-01

209

Family Facial Patch Resemblance Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Family members have close facial resemblances to one another; especially for certain specific parts of the face but the resemblance\\u000a part differ from family to family. However, we have no problem in identifying such facial resemblances to guess the family\\u000a relationships. This paper attempts to develop such human capability in computers through measurements of the resemblance of\\u000a each facial patch

Mohammad Ghahramani; Wei-Yun Yau; Eam Khwang Teoh

2010-01-01

210

Living related hemi-face skin transplant using radial forearm free flap for a xeroderma pigmentosa patient: early outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Xeroderma pigmentosa (XP) is a hereditary disease characterized by deficient repair of DNA damage that occurred on exposure of the skin to ultraviolet irradiation. The affected children have a propensity to develop multiple skin cancers mainly in the face and eventually die before the age of 20. HYPOTHESIS: Allograft replacement of facial skin by a healthy skin from normal

Ayman Amin; Mahmoud Bassiouny; Kareem Sallam; Galal Ghally; Hanaa El-Karaksy; Alaa El-Haddad

2010-01-01

211

Skin Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

212

Aging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

213

Down syndrome detection from facial photographs using machine learning techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition; one in every 691 babies in United States is born with it. Patients with Down syndrome have an increased risk for heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems and the early detection of the syndrome is fundamental for managing the disease. Clinically, facial appearance is an important indicator in diagnosing Down syndrome and it paves the way for computer-aided diagnosis based on facial image analysis. In this study, we propose a novel method to detect Down syndrome using photography for computer-assisted image-based facial dysmorphology. Geometric features based on facial anatomical landmarks, local texture features based on the Contourlet transform and local binary pattern are investigated to represent facial characteristics. Then a support vector machine classifier is used to discriminate normal and abnormal cases; accuracy, precision and recall are used to evaluate the method. The comparison among the geometric, local texture and combined features was performed using the leave-one-out validation. Our method achieved 97.92% accuracy with high precision and recall for the combined features; the detection results were higher than using only geometric or texture features. The promising results indicate that our method has the potential for automated assessment for Down syndrome from simple, noninvasive imaging data.

Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Sze, Raymond; Zand, Dina; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George

2013-02-01

214

Problems with India ink skin markings.  

PubMed

India ink skin markings allow consistently reproducible radiation field setups. The authors report a case in which a facial tattoo was applied with an injection, resulting in permanent "black eyes." The vaccination technique has not been associated with this complication. PMID:7352251

Haselow, R E; Krause, D A

1980-02-01

215

Comparing sensitivity to facial asymmetry and facial identity  

PubMed Central

Bilateral symmetry is a facial feature that plays an important role in the aesthetic judgments of faces. The extent to which symmetry contributes to the identification of faces is less clear. We investigated the relationship between facial asymmetry and identity using synthetic face stimuli where the geometric identity of the face can be precisely controlled. Thresholds for all observers were 2 times lower for discriminating facial asymmetry than they were for discriminating facial identity. The advantage for discriminating asymmetrical forms was not observed using nonface shape stimuli, suggesting this advantage is face-specific. Moreover, asymmetry thresholds were not affected when faces were either inverted or constructed about a nonmean face. These results, taken together, suggest that facial asymmetry is a characteristic that we are exquisitely sensitive to, and that may not contribute to face identification. This conclusion is consistent with neuroimaging evidence that suggests that face symmetry and face identity are processed by different neural mechanisms. PMID:24349698

Anderson, Nicole D.; Gleddie, Chris

2013-01-01

216

Conservative Treatment of a Large Facial Midroot Perforation  

PubMed Central

Aim. To report on the endodontic and periodontal management of a root and alveolar process perforation in a maxillary front tooth. Summary. Perforation during access cavity preparation is an infrequent complication during endodontic therapy, leading to potential periodontal tissue breakdown. The case described the two-stage management of a massive facial root perforation requiring a connective tissue graft to correct a mucosal fenestration persisting after orthograde repair of the root defect with MTA.

Bronnec, François

2015-01-01

217

Facial three-dimensional morphometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional facial morphometry was investigated in a sample of 40 men and 40 women, with a new noninvasive computerized method. Subjects ranged in age between 19 and 32 years, had sound dentitions, and no craniocervical disorders. For each subject, 16 cutaneous facial landmarks were automatically collected by a system consisting of two infrared camera coupled device (CCD) cameras, real time

Virgilio F. Ferrario; Chiarella Sforza; Carlo E. Poggio; Graziano Serrao

1996-01-01

218

Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma.  

PubMed

Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG) is a condition that is commonly encountered in clinical practice, but is rarely reported. It appears in childhood and its pathogenesis is still unknown. It has a benign course with resolution within a few months without aggressive treatment. Microbiological tests are negative and histological findings are nonspecific. It is possible that this condition is part of the spectrum of granulomatous rosacea in childhood. We present two cases in which diagnosis of IFAG was established and resolved without sequelae following topical antibiotic treatment. PMID:25557471

González Rodríguez, A J; Jordá Cuevas, E

2015-04-01

219

Management of Chronic Facial Pain  

PubMed Central

Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies. PMID:22110799

Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.

2009-01-01

220

Cardiovascular responses to apneic facial immersion during altered cardiac filling.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that reduced cardiac filling, as a result of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and postexercise hypotension (PEH), would attenuate the reflex changes to heart rate (HR), skin blood flow (SkBF), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) normally induced by facial immersion was tested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular control mechanisms associated with apneic facial immersion during different cardiovascular challenges. Six subjects randomly performed 30-s apneic facial immersions in 6.0 +/- 1.2 degrees C water under the following conditions: 1) -20 mmHg LBNP, 2) +40 mmHg lower body positive pressure (LBPP), 3) during a period of PEH, and 4) normal resting (control). Measurements included SkBF at one acral (distal phalanx of the thumb) and one nonacral region of skin (ventral forearm), HR, and MAP. Facial immersion reduced HR and SkBF at both sites and increased MAP under all conditions (P < 0.05). Reduced cardiac filling during LBNP and PEH significantly attenuated the absolute HR nadir observed during the control immersion (P < 0.05). The LBPP condition did not result in a lower HR nadir than control but did result in a nadir significantly lower than that of the LBNP and PEH conditions (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in either SkBF or MAP between conditions; however, the magnitude of SkBF reduction was greater at the acral site than at the nonacral site for all conditions (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the cardiac parasympathetic response during facial immersion can be attenuated when cardiac filling is compromised. PMID:12598488

Journeay, W Shane; Reardon, Francis D; Kenny, Glen P

2003-06-01

221

An Experiment in Facial Reconstructive Surgery in a Prison Population  

PubMed Central

A 10-year study of the effects of reconstructive surgery on selected inmates in a British Columbia provincial prison is described. It is proposed that physical defects can be dominant causes of crime, and that the correction of facial defects in inmates of a penal institution can effect a striking improvement in their conduct during imprisonment, and make them more confident on re-entry into society. This survey, covering 450 patients operated on in a 10-year period, demonstrates a marked decrease in the rate of criminal recidivism. PMID:14270207

Lewison, Edward

1965-01-01

222

Identifying new candidate genes for hereditary facial paresis on chromosome 3q21–q22 by RNA in situ hybridization in mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP) belongs to the family of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders and is characterized by an isolated dysfunction of the facial nerve (nVII). While genetic defects have been identified for several members of this disease family, genes underlying congenital facial paresis and Möbius syndrome remain to be discovered. Here we focus on HCFP linked to chromosome 3q21–q22

Bert van der Zwaag; J. Peter H. Burbach; Curt Scharfe; Peter J. Oefner; Han G. Brunner; George W. Padberg; Hans van Bokhoven

2005-01-01

223

Laser skin treatment in non-Caucasian patients.  

PubMed

The demand for facial rejuvenation and cosmetic procedures is rising among all ethnicities and skin types. The authors present a review of lasers and how to select a laser based on skin type and the treatment goals of laser resurfacing: skin laxity, dyschromia, hair removal, keloid, and hypertrophic scarring. In addition, they discuss preprocedural and postprocedural considerations, potential complications, and their management to maximize patient outcomes and minimize risk. PMID:25049127

Richter, Amy Li; Barrera, Jose; Markus, Ramsey F; Brissett, Anthony

2014-08-01

224

Full-thickness nasal defect: Place of prosthetic reconstruction.  

PubMed

Extensive rhinectomy or full-thickness defects are not uncommon, in particular in the treatment of skin cancer. The present study lays out the principles of choice and creation of prostheses for nasal reconstruction. Prosthetic nasal reconstruction in France depends on a specialist prescription drawn up under the "Ocular and Facial Prostheses" rubric of the official List of Products and Procedures. National health insurance cover is 100% on condition that the prosthesis is produced by an approved prosthetist. The present study describes production stages, forms and means of fixation, and the timeline of implantation. Nasal prosthetic repair is simple, fast and functional, allowing social rehabilitation despite full respect of carcinologic margins, and without ruling out subsequent multilayer reconstruction. Benefits and drawbacks, and the factors determining repair options according to pathologic context are discussed. Nasal prostheses are an integral option in the repair of full-thickness nasal defects and total rhinectomies. The head and neck surgeon needs expertise in indications and techniques of reconstruction, so as to prescribe nasal prostheses as the context demands. PMID:25547274

Malard, O; Lanhouet, J; Michel, G; Dreno, B; Espitalier, F; Rio, E

2015-04-01

225

Cross-evaluation of facial hyper-pigmentation using fluorescence and polarization color images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging modalities have been utilized as important tools to evaluate skin lesions. Accurate analysis of hyper-pigmentation is important in the evaluation of sun damage, inflammation, and other skin disorders. In this study, both cross-polarization and fluorescent color images were obtained at identical facial skin region and hyper-pigmentation regions were extracted by applying a series of image processing. Cross-polarization image provides subsurface skin information without specular reflection and fluorescence image emphasizes pigmentation in epidermal region. The results were quantitatively evaluated and compared to investigate the difference between two imaging modalities in the evaluation of hyper-pigmentation regions.

Kim, Eunji; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Dongyoun; Choi, Eung-Ho; Jung, Byungjo

2012-02-01

226

Metabolism of [1-(14)C] and [2-(14)C] leucine in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with isovaleric acidemia. Characterization of metabolic defects.  

PubMed Central

Leucine metabolism in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with isovaleric acidemia was compared with that in normal fibroblasts and in cells from patients with maple syrup urine disease using [1-(14)C] and [2-(14)C] leucine as substrates. Inhibitory effects of methylenecyclopropylacetic acid on leucine metabolism in normal cells were also investigated. Production of 14CO2 from [2-(14)C] leucine was very reduced (96-99%) in both types of mutant cells. Radioactive isovaleric acid accumulated in assay media with isovaleric acidemia cells but not in those with maple syrup urine disease cells. Unexpectedly, 14CO2 production from [1-(14)C] leucine was partially depressed (80%) in isovaleric acidemia cells whereas in maple syrup urine disease cells it was strongly depressed (99%) as expected. These two mutant cells were clearly distinguished by detection of 14C-isovaleric acid accumulation after incubation with [2-(14)C] leucine. A pattern of inhibition of leucine oxidation similar to that seen in isovaleric acidemia cells was induced in normal cells by the addition of 0.7 mM methylenecyclopropylacetic acid to the assay medium. The partial inhibition of [1-(14)C] leucine oxidation seen in isovaleric acidemia cells and also in normal cells in the presence of the inhibitor appears to be, at least in part, due to an accumulation of isovalerate in the cells. Isovaleric acid (5-10) mM) inhibited [1-(14)C] leucine oxidation 32-68% when added to the assay medium with normal cells. Addition of flavin adenine dinucleoside to culture medium or assay medium or both did not restore oxidation of either leucine substrate in isovaleric acidemia cells. PMID:932204

Tanaka, K; Mandell, R; Shih, V E

1976-01-01

227

Seborrheic Area Erythema as a Common Skin Manifestation in Japanese Patients with Dermatomyositis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although dermatomyositis (DM)-associated facial erythema was noted in the nasolabial folds of Japanese patients, DM-associated facial erythema other than heliotrope rash has drawn little attention in previous studies. Objectives: To characterize phenotypical features and frequencies of erythema, especially those in the seborrheic area of the head, in DM patients. Methods: A retrospective study on skin manifestations in 33 DM

N. Okiyama; H. Kohsaka; N. Ueda; T. Satoh; I. Katayama; K. Nishioka; H. Yokozeki

2008-01-01

228

Spatiotemporal Features for Effective Facial Expression Recognition  

E-print Network

Spatiotemporal Features for Effective Facial Expression Recognition Hatice C¸inar Akakin and B schemes for automatic recognition of emotion related facial expressions. In one scheme facial landmark- sion database and a state-of-the-art 95.34 % recognition performance is achieved. Key words: facial

229

Birth Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Birth Defects: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are birth defects? Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities ...

230

7 CFR 52.1008 - Absence of defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Allowances and Limitations for Defects in...Broken skin. Checking. Deformity...Seriously damaged by checking. Seriously damaged...material. Decay. limitations Not more than...Allowances and Limitations for Defects in...seriously damaged by checking. Not more...

2010-01-01

231

Dental infection simulating skin lesion.  

PubMed

Orocutaneous fistulas or cutaneous sinus, a tract of dental origin, is an uncommon but well-documented condition that usually requires emergency treatment. Such condition may be misdiagnosed by physicians and dentists and may sometimes be confused with bone and skin tumor, osteomyelitis, congenital fistula, salivary gland fistula, pyogenic granuloma, infected cyst, deep mycotic infection, and other pathologies. A case of facial sinus tract that was initially misdiagnosed by a physician as a nonodontogenic lesion is presented. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy was the treatment of choice for this case. Facial cutaneous sinus tracts must be considered of dental origin. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment minimize patient discomfort and esthetic problems, reducing the possibility of further complications such as sepsis and osteomyelitis. PMID:22892779

Abuabara, Allan; Schramm, Celso Alfredo; Zielak, João César; Baratto-Filho, Flares

2012-01-01

232

Skin flicks  

E-print Network

The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-

1993-01-01

233

Skin Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

234

Skin Size  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get all wrapped up in a lesson about skin! In this activity, learners measure and calculate the approximate surface area of skin on someone's body as well as the amount of atmospheric force pushing on their body.

Eric Muller

1998-01-01

235

Skin Aging  

MedlinePLUS

... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

236

Skin Pigment  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Melasma Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Pigment Disorders 4 Overview ...

237

Automated interactive facial caricature generation  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis was to develop a concept to automatically generate facial caricatures based on anthropometric measurements. Based on this concept, a system was created to automate caricature generation with minimal user input...

Logan, Ryan C

2000-01-01

238

Detection and inpainting of facial wrinkles using texture orientation fields and Markov random field modeling.  

PubMed

Facial retouching is widely used in media and entertainment industry. Professional software usually require a minimum level of user expertise to achieve the desirable results. In this paper, we present an algorithm to detect facial wrinkles/imperfection. We believe that any such algorithm would be amenable to facial retouching applications. The detection of wrinkles/imperfections can allow these skin features to be processed differently than the surrounding skin without much user interaction. For detection, Gabor filter responses along with texture orientation field are used as image features. A bimodal Gaussian mixture model (GMM) represents distributions of Gabor features of normal skin versus skin imperfections. Then, a Markov random field model is used to incorporate the spatial relationships among neighboring pixels for their GMM distributions and texture orientations. An expectation-maximization algorithm then classifies skin versus skin wrinkles/imperfections. Once detected automatically, wrinkles/imperfections are removed completely instead of being blended or blurred. We propose an exemplar-based constrained texture synthesis algorithm to inpaint irregularly shaped gaps left by the removal of detected wrinkles/imperfections. We present results conducted on images downloaded from the Internet to show the efficacy of our algorithms. PMID:24968171

Batool, Nazre; Chellappa, Rama

2014-09-01

239

Sensitivity of a Method for the Analysis of Facial Mobility. II. Interlandmark Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study demonstrates a method of quantifying facial move- ments based on distortions of the skin surface. Design: Landmarks were identified on the faces of five healthy human sub- jects (2 men and 3 women; mean age, 27.6 years; range, 26 to 29 years), and the distortions were characterized by changes in the separation between 20 pairs of landmark

Carroll-Ann Trotman; Julian J. Faraway

1998-01-01

240

Can Facial Cosmetics Affect the Matching Accuracy of Face Recognition Antitza Dantcheva, Cunjian Chen, Arun Ross  

E-print Network

Can Facial Cosmetics Affect the Matching Accuracy of Face Recognition Systems? Antitza Dantcheva-permanent cosmetic alterations, such as makeup, tend to be simple, cost efficient and socially ac- ceptable; and (h) alter the perceived skin quality and color. In addition to the aforementioned effects, cosmetics

Ross, Arun Abraham

241

Facial input to neck motoneurons: trigemino-cervical reflexes in the conscious and anaesthetised cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous facial inputs influencing head movement were examined in the conscious and anaesthetised cat. EMG recordings were made in neck muscles of conscious, unrestrained cats in which an unexpected light cutaneous stimulus was applied to the glabrous skin of the planum nasale (PN). These observations established that head aversion movements were associated with synchronised activation of both deep and superficial

V. C. Abrahams; A. A. Koril; G. E. Loeb; F. J. R. Richmond; P. K. Rose; S. A. Keirstead

1993-01-01

242

Introduction to volumetric facial rejuvenation.  

PubMed

The volumetric techniques of injectable fillers and autologous fat transfer are an important tool in the treatment of facial aging. Rapid widespread adoption has outpaced a sophisticated understanding of the goals of volume rejuvenation. The development of shadows and shadow patterns are the fundamental changes that occur with volumetric facial aging. A detailed examination of these shadows will lead to an understanding of how to apply volumetric techniques to create natural appearing results. PMID:25763891

Glasgold, Mark

2015-02-01

243

Skin immunity.  

PubMed

As the major barrier of the body to the outside, the skin is constantly confronted with microbial, chemical and physical insults. However, the skin does not only function as a mechanical barrier but also uses the immune system for protection. Therefore, the skin is endowed with the capacity to generate immune responses of the innate as well as of the adaptive type. PMID:14616336

Schwarz, T

2003-11-01

244

Birth Defects  

MedlinePLUS

A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

245

Peripheral facial palsy in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

2014-11-01

246

The Sensitive Skin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

2012-01-01

247

The sensitive skin syndrome.  

PubMed

Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

2012-11-01

248

Making saturated facial images useful again  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturation here refers to electronic saturation of the camera sensors which produces clipped colors, and not the purity of color as in the hue-saturation and value scale. Saturated images are routinely discarded in image analysis yet there are situations when they cannot be avoided. This paper proposes two strategies to recover color information in facial images taken under non-ideal conditions to make them useful for further processing. The first assumes that the skin is matte and that there are parts of the image which are not clipped. Ratios between R, G and B values of unclipped pixels belonging to the same parts of the image may then be used to compute for lost channel values. The second approach uses color eigenfaces computed from our physics-based face database obtained under different illuminants and camera calibration conditions. Skin color is recovered by transforming the first few eigenface coefficients towards ideal condition values. Excellent color recovery for clipped images is achieved when these two techniques are combined and used on face images captured under daylight illuminant with a camera white balanced for incandescent light.

Soriano, Maricor N.; Marszalec, Elzbieta A.; Martinkauppi, J. Birgitta; Pietikaeinen, Matti

1999-09-01

249

Artificial skin.  

PubMed

Replacement of skin has been one of the most challenging aims for surgeons ever since the introduction of skin grafts in 1871. It took more than one century until the breakthrough of Rheinwald and Green in 1975 that opened new possibilities of skin replacement. The combination of cell culture and polymer chemistry finally led to the field of tissue engineering. Many researchers all over the world have been fascinated by the chance of creating a skin-like substitute ex vivo without any further harm to the patients, especially those with massive burns. Many different approaches to create new substitutes and further improvements in genetical and stem cell research led to today's skin equivalents. But still, the "gold standard" for wound coverage is the autologous split-thickness skin graft. Future research will aim at originating biologically and physiologically equal skin substitutes for the treatment of severe burns and chronic ulcers. PMID:18085209

Föhn, M; Bannasch, H

2007-01-01

250

Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Using Boosted Discriminatory Classifiers  

E-print Network

Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Using Boosted Discriminatory Classifiers Stephen Moore background of research into automatic facial expression recognition is presented. Section 3 ex- plains on Automatic Facial expression recognition by Ekman [8], intro- duced the Facial Action Coding System (FACS

Bowden, Richard

251

Facial tissue depths in children with cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a craniofacial malformation affecting more than seven million people worldwide that results in defects of the hard palate, teeth, maxilla, nasal spine and floor, and maxillodental asymmetry. CLP facial soft-tissue depth (FSTD) values have never been published. The purpose of this research is to report CLP FSTD values and compare them to previously published FSTD values for normal children. Thirty-eight FSTDs were measured on cone beam computed tomography images of CLP children (n = 86; 7-17 years). MANOVA and ANOVA tests determined whether cleft type, age, sex, and bone graft surgical status affect tissue depths. Both cleft type (unilateral/bilateral) and age influence FSTDs. CLP FSTDs exhibit patterns of variation that differ from normal children, particularly around the oronasal regions of the face. These differences should be taken into account when facial reconstructions of children with CLP are created. PMID:25442980

Starbuck, John M; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine

2015-03-01

252

Genetic Modifiers of the Physical Malformations in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome/DiGeorge Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid, and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that "Tbx1", a…

Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

2008-01-01

253

A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Spontaneous Facial Action Modeling  

E-print Network

recognition is limited to posed expressions and often in frontal view. A spontaneous facial expression knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, facial action recognition is accomplished facial expressions. Index Terms--Facial action unit recognition, face pose estimation, facial action

254

Compound facial expressions of emotion  

PubMed Central

Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.

2014-01-01

255

Shape Analysis of Local Facial Patches for 3D Facial Expression Recognition  

E-print Network

Shape Analysis of Local Facial Patches for 3D Facial Expression Recognition Ahmed Maaleja. Abstract In this paper we address the problem of 3D facial expression recognition. We propose a local identity-independent12 facial expression recognition based on a local shape analysis. Unlike the13 identity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

256

Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition  

E-print Network

Latent Semantic Analysis of Facial Action Codes for Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Beat. Copyright 2004 ACM 1-58113-940-3/04/0010 ...$5.00. 1. INTRODUCTION Automatic facial expression recognition, Switzerland gatica@idiap.ch ABSTRACT For supervised training of automatic facial expression recog- nition

Gatica-Perez, Daniel

257

Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Karen L. Schmidt  

E-print Network

1 Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations: Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

258

Automated Facial Expression Recognition System Andrew Ryan  

E-print Network

jeffcohn@cs.cmu.edu, slucey@cs.cmu.edu, jsaragih@andrew.cmu.edu, ftorre@cs.cmu.edu Adam Rossi Platinum facial expressions with one of the seven universal expressions of emotion [1]. II. FACIAL ACTION CODING

259

Facial coloration tracks changes in women's estradiol.  

PubMed

Red facial coloration is an important social cue in many primate species, including humans. In such species, the vasodilatory effects of estradiol may cause red facial coloration to change systematically during females' ovarian cycle. Although increased red facial coloration during estrus has been observed in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), evidence linking primate facial color changes directly to changes in measured estradiol is lacking. Addressing this issue, we used a longitudinal design to demonstrate that red facial coloration tracks within-subject changes in women's estradiol, but not within-subject changes in women's progesterone or estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. Moreover, the relationship between estradiol and facial redness was observed in two independent samples of women (N=50 and N=65). Our results suggest that changes in facial coloration may provide cues of women's fertility and present the first evidence for a direct link between estradiol and female facial redness in a primate species. PMID:25796069

Jones, Benedict C; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Wincenciak, Joanna; Kandrik, Michal; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M

2015-06-01

260

[No interrupted surgical defects of the white upper lip: repair by a combined advancement and rotation flap in the lip subunit].  

PubMed

A solid understanding of anatomy, basic surgical principles, and tissue movement is essential when undertaking the reconstruction of facial cutaneous surgical defects. Aesthetic facial reconstruction requires understanding ability to use the tissue adjacent to the defect to create a reconstruction that preserves the function of the area and the cosmetic facial units and subunits. The closure of non interrupted white upper lip defects by using a combined advancement and rotation flap is preferred for defects not overtaking 2.5 cm in diameter. PMID:25252575

Guillot, P

2013-01-01

261

[Psychological aspects of facial trauma].  

PubMed

The anatomic lesions resulting from facial trauma have serious psychological implications. The topic can be divided into three parts. First, the psychological trauma begins by a simple conception of the psychic structure. Secondly, an external crust protects an inner structure whose role is to maintain a vital function and a pleasure function. Thirdly, the face materializes these two functions. Facial trauma totally disrupts the external crust with staggering psychic implications, releasing the archaic process of survival. After this initial event, a second step is required where the trauma is interiorized leading to a highly variable clinical course which involves recovery, disturbed memory, and a depressive syndrome. The clinical manifestations and possibilities for preventing the post-commotional syndrome are also discussed together with the psychological disorders implied with facial traumatism: disorders linked to the perception of the face, esthetic damage, neurological and sensorial disorders. The course is basically linked to the personality of the patient. PMID:17003762

Kosakevitch-Ricbourg, L

2006-09-01

262

[Small fiber neuropathy in a patient with complete Heerfordt syndrome manifesting as refractory facial pain].  

PubMed

We report a case of complete Heerfordt syndrome accompanied by the involvement of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) manifesting as refracory facial pain. A 30-year-old man presented with pyrexia, a 2-week history of facial burning pain, and difficulty of mastication. After admission to our hospital, neurological examinations showed bilateral facial pain, trigeminal motor palsy, left facial nerve palsy, bilateral sensory neural deafness, uveitis and swelling of the parotid gland. Other examinations revealed bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, high serum titer of angiotensin coenzyme, and no response in a tuberculin-tested, non-caseating epithelioid granuloma from lip biopsy, leading to the diagnosis of complete Heerfordt syndrome. Mandibular skin biopsy with immunostaining for PGP 9.5 showed SFN. High-dose corticosteroids proved somewhat effective against SFN as facial pain, but reducing the corticosteroid dose proved difficult, as symptoms were refractory to other immunosuppressants and pain-control drugs such as anti-epileptics and anti-depressants. The patient died of acute pancreatitis 3 years after disease onset. Autopsy showed no granuloma in hilar lymph node, trigeminal nerve, cranial base, nerve root, and muscle. SFN in this case probably represent a cause of refractory facial pain. PMID:25087562

Hirai, Toshiaki; Miyagawa, Shinji; Matsui, Kazutaka; Kurita, Akira

2014-01-01

263

Thermology and facial telethermography: Part II. Current and future clinical applications in dentistry.  

PubMed

Selected clinical applications using thermal imaging as an aid in dentistry are reviewed. Facial skin temperature can easily be measured in a clinical setting, without direct skin contact, by monitoring the emitted infrared radiation. This is the basis of static area telethermography (SAT) and dynamic area telethermography (DAT). SAT has recently been shown to be of help to the dentist in (1) the diagnosis of chronic orofacial pain, (2) as a unique tool in assessment of TMJ disorders, (3) as an aid in assessment of inferior alveolar nerve deficit, and (4) as a promising research tool. DAT, recently made possible by advances in computing technology combined with advanced infrared sensor technology, extracts quantitative information about hemodynamic processes from hundreds to thousands of digital thermal images of the affected facial areas, measured and collected within less than 3 min. DAT has promise of offering a better insight into aberrations of the neuronal control of facial skin perfusion and aiding our understanding of the correlation between orofacial pain and facial thermal abnormalities. This promising new insight may help in the management of orofacial pain. PMID:9656869

Gratt, B M; Anbar, M

1998-03-01

264

Facial expression recognition for neonatal pain assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial expressions are considered a critical factor in neonatal pain assessment. This paper attempts to apply modern facial expression recognition techniques to the task of distinguishing pain expression from non-pain expression. Firstly, 2D Gabor filter is applied to extract the expression features from facial images. Then we apply Adaboost as a feature selection tool to remove the redundant Gabor features.

Guanming Lu; Xiaonan Li; Haibo Li

2008-01-01

265

Modulation of facial mimicry by attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current experiment explored the influence of attitudes on facial reactions to emotional faces. The participants’ attitudes (positive, neutral, and negative) towards three types of characters were manipulated by written reports. Afterwards participants saw happy, neutral, and sad facial expressions of the respective characters while their facial muscular reactions (M. Corrugator supercilii and M. Zygomaticus major) were recorded electromyografically. Results

Katja U. Likowski; Andreas Mühlberger; Beate Seibt; Paul Pauli; Peter Weyers

2008-01-01

266

The computer-aided facial reconstruction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer imaging system was introduced into the facial reconstruction process. The system, which consists of the image processing unit for skull morphometry and the image editing unit for compositing facial components on the skull images, was an original construction. The image processor generates the framework for building a face onto the digitized skull image. For reconstructing a facial image

S. Miyasaka; M. Yoshino; K. Imaizumi; S. Seta

1995-01-01

267

Toronto Facial Grading System: Interobserver reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Toronto Facial Grading System (TFGS) is an observer scale for rating facial nerve dysfunction. The TFGS scores aspects of resting symmetry, symmetry of voluntary movement, and synkinesis for each division of the face (subscores) and then provides calculated total scores and an overall composite score of facial function. The developers of the scale have validated its sensitivity for identifying

FATMA TULIN KAYHAN; DAVID ZURAKOWSKI; STEVEN D. RAUCH

2000-01-01

268

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome: a three generational family with markedly variable phenotype including neonatal lethality.  

PubMed

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition with variable expressivity, caused by mutations in the TFAP2A gene. We report a three generational family with four affected individuals. The consultand has typical features of BOFS including infra-auricular skin nodules, coloboma, lacrimal duct atresia, cleft lip, conductive hearing loss and typical facial appearance. She also exhibited a rare feature of preaxial polydactyly. Her brother had a lethal phenotype with multiorgan failure. We also report a novel variant in TFAP2A gene. This family highlights the variable severity of BOFS and, therefore, the importance of informed genetic counselling in families with BOFS. PMID:25325185

Titheradge, Hannah L; Patel, Chirag; Ragge, Nicola K

2015-01-01

269

Inhibition of Rel\\/Nuclear Factor-?B signaling in skin results in defective DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and Haras and p53-independent tumor development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years a growth inhibitory role in skin for the Rel\\/NF-?B transcription factors has been established, and the block of Rel\\/NF-?B signaling results in rapid development of spontaneous skin cancer. The molecular mechanism underlying tumor development is however unknown. In the present study, we show that inhibition of NF-?B signaling in mouse skin by targeted expression of degradation resistant

Max van Hogerlinden; Gert Auer; Rune Toftgård

2002-01-01

270

Function and occurrence of facial flushing in birds.  

PubMed

So far overlooked as a pigment involved in visual communication, the haemoglobin contained in the blood of all birds is responsible for the red flushing colours in bare skin areas of some species. Our aim has been twofold: (1) to study sub-epidermical adaptations for blood circulation in two flushing species: the crested caracara (Polyborus plancus) and the hooded vulture (Necrosyrtes monachus), and (2) to provide the first compilation of avian species with flushing skin. The bare facial skin of both the caracara and the hooded vulture contains a highly vascularised tissue under the epidermis that may be filled with blood and would thus produce red skin colours. In contrast, feathered areas of the head show very few vessels immersed in connective tissue and have no potential for colour changes. Species with flushing colours are few but phylogenetically diverse, as they belong to 12 different avian orders and at least 20 families. The majority are dark-coloured, large-sized species living in hot environments that may have originally evolved highly vascularised skin patches for thermoregulation. Bird behaviour as well as sex and age differences within species suggest that a signalling system for condition or status based on haemoglobin may have been super-imposed to the physiological process of heat dissipation. PMID:16337158

Negro, Juan José; Sarasola, José Hernán; Fariñas, Fernando; Zorrilla, Irene

2006-01-01

271

7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2740 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2014-01-01

272

7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2014-01-01

273

7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2013-01-01

274

7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2740 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2013-01-01

275

7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2012-01-01

276

7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2012-01-01

277

7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2740 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2012-01-01

278

7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2013-01-01

279

7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2014-01-01

280

7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2011-01-01

281

7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2010-01-01

282

7 CFR 51.2720 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2720 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2011-01-01

283

7 CFR 51.2740 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2740 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2011-01-01

284

7 CFR 51.2762 - Minor defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions § 51.2762 Minor defects. Minor defects means that the peanut kernel is not damaged but is affected by one or more of the following: (a) Skin discoloration which is dark brown, dark gray, dark blue or black and covers more...

2010-01-01

285

After sun reversal of DNA damage: enhancing skin repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV-induced DNA damage has been directly linked to skin cancer, and DNA repair is an important protection against this neoplasm. This is illustrated by the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum wherein a serious defect in DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers dramatically increases the rate of skin cancer. In other instances in which skin cancer rates are elevated, deficits in DNA

Daniel B. Yarosh; Matthew T. Canning; Danielle Teicher; David A. Brown

2005-01-01

286

Skin Substitutes  

PubMed Central

In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

2014-01-01

287

Corrective cosmetics are effective for women with facial pigmentary disorders.  

PubMed

Visible facial lesions are a common and burdensome skin problem. This study examines the impact of corrective cosmetics in women with severe facial pigmentary disorders. Enrollment consisted of 73 women with one or more of the following conditions: acne, dermatosis papulosis, hypopigmentation, lentigines, melasma, rosacea, vascular proliferations, or other facial scars. The corrective cosmetic (Dermablend) was applied at the initial visit, at which time instructions and a supply of product were provided. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 2-week, 4-week, and 3-month follow-up visits on 63 patients using the Skindex-16. The corrective cosmetic was well tolerated. There was improvement in Skindex-16 scores after application of the corrective cosmetic, which continued at each follow-up visit and after adjustment for baseline confounders using multiple regression analyses. At 3 months, there was a 30% improvement in Skindex-16 score (P < .001). The corrective cosmetic was well tolerated and represents a valuable option that dermatologists can offer to patients with these conditions. PMID:15839363

Balkrishnan, Rajesh; McMichael, Amy J; Hu, Judy Y; Camacho, Fabian T; Kaur, Mandeep; Bouloc, Anne; Rapp, Stephen R; Feldman, Steven R

2005-03-01

288

Antimicrobial peptides, skin infections, and atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

The innate immune system evolved more than 2 billion years ago to first recognize pathogens then eradicate them. Several distinct defects in this ancient but rapidly responsive element of human immune defense account for the increased incidence of skin infections in atopics. These defects include abnormalities in the physical barrier of the epidermis, alterations in microbial pattern recognition receptors such as toll receptors and nucleotide binding oligomerization domains, and a diminished capacity to increase the expression of antimicrobial peptides during inflammation. Several antimicrobial peptides are affected including; cathelicidin, HBD-2, and HBD-3, which are lower in lesional skin of atopics compared with other inflammatory skin diseases, and dermcidin, which is decreased in sweat. Other defects in the immune defense barrier of atopics include a relative deficiency in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In the future, understanding the cause of these defects may allow therapeutic intervention to reduce the incidence of infection in atopic individuals and potentially decrease the severity of this disorder. PMID:18620136

Hata, Tissa R; Gallo, Richard L

2008-06-01

289

The facial interpersonal perception inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop an interpersonal perception inventory which would demonstrate that various ratings of facial caricature drawings when made by a husband and wife can be used as a predictor of marital adjustment. The subjects in this study were 30 operationally defined adjusted and 30 non-adjusted couples. A series of three tests were administered to

Joseph J. Luciani

1979-01-01

290

Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery  

E-print Network

Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences University. The procedure is done under anesthesia administered by an anesthesiologist. After surgery, you

Chapman, Michael S.

291

Rosacea as a Disease of Cathelicidins and Skin Innate Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosacea is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease most frequently seen in groups of genetically related individuals. Although the symptoms of rosacea are heterogeneous, they are all related by the presence of characteristic facial or ocular inflammation involving both the vascular and tissue stroma. Until recently, the pathophysiology of this disease was limited to descriptions of a wide variety

Kenshi Yamasaki; Richard L Gallo

2011-01-01

292

Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review  

PubMed Central

Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers. PMID:23766904

Gupta, Sachin; Mends, Francine; Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish; Roehm, Pamela C.

2013-01-01

293

Complex toe syndactyly with characteristic facial phenotype: a new syndrome?  

PubMed

Nonsyndromic syndactyly is a common, heterogeneous hereditary condition of webbed fingers and toes that can be cutaneous or bony, unilateral or bilateral. We describe a patient with complex toe syndactyly and oligodactyly, some interesting skeletal hand findings and atypical facial features without other case like this described before. Cenani-Lenz syndrome (CLS) is a rare disorder with total syndactyly and irregular synostosis of carpal, metacarpal and phalanges, it may involve ulna and radius and digital rays may be absent, some of these were described with atypical facial features and one patient had renal hypoplasia and vertebral anomalies but our patient does not have the oligodactyly or syndactyly of the hands that is consistently present in all patients with CLS. The atypical facial features of our patient resemble Kabuki syndrome but oligodactyly and complex syndactyly have not been described in Kabuki syndrome and this patient has normal intelligence, and extreme eyelid defect (resembling ablepharon). Therefore, for our patient, we suggested to treat in a new condition of limb anomalies and atypical face. PMID:18512233

Sobreira, Nara Lygia Macena; Cernach, Mirlene Cecilia S P; Brunoni, Decio; Perez, Ana Beatriz Alvarez

2008-07-01

294

[Neurological disease and facial recognition].  

PubMed

To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system. PMID:22764352

Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

2012-07-01

295

Frontal-view face detection and facial feature extraction using color, shape and symmetry based cost functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an algorithm for detecting human faces and facial features, such as thelocation of the eyes, nose, and mouth. First, a supervised pixel-based color classifier isemployed to mark all pixels that are within a prespecified distance of "skin color," which iscomputed from a training set of skin patches. This color-classification map is then smoothedby Gibbs random field model-based filters

Eli Saber; A. Murat Tekalp

1998-01-01

296

Lip segmentation and tracking for facial palsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed the asymmetry analyzing system for facial palsy patient's rehabilitation progress study. Using PC standard imaging device, captured 640*480 RGB image is converted into HSV space. A Lip-shape mask is extracted by thresholding. By taking 5 regions consisted in one region on lip and four regions on face skin, reasonable thresholds are determined by Fuzzy C-Means clustering. The extreme points on the lip shape mask are extracted to get the seeds for tracking. Segmented seed points are tracking by Iterative Lucas-Kanade tracking method in pyramids at 30 fps and recording simultaneously. To reduce the disk writing load on computer, we use asynchronous mode file writing, which is going to transfer to and review by clinician. Tracking shows quite reliable results, but sometimes the tracked points are following along the lip line because of the similar contrasts. Therefore, the first strategy to improve the reliability of tracking is using the high contrast points, such as left and right maximal point of lip shape. The second is clustering some points near the maximal points and eliminating outlying tracking points. The third is rechecking the lip shape using lip segmentation when the operator confirms that subject's maximal lip moving. Left and right tracking points are compared in forms of trajectory plot.

Park, MinJae; Seo, JongMo; Park, KwangSuk

2006-02-01

297

Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.

Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

298

Stellate ganglion block can relieve symptoms and pain and prevent facial nerve damage  

PubMed Central

Ramsay hunt syndrome[1] is a varicella zoster virus infection of the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. It is typically associated with a red rash and blister (inflamed vesicles or tiny water filled sacks in the skin) in or around the ear and eardrum and sometimes on the roof of the mouth or tongue. Corticosteroid, oral acyclovir, and anticonvulsant are used for treatment of this. In addition to this sympathetic neural blockade via stellate ganglion block is used to prevent facial nerve damage and relieve symptoms. We present a case of Ramsay hunt syndrome in which pain and symptoms are not relieved by oral medication but by daily sittings of stellate ganglion block with local anesthetic and steroid, pain, and other symptoms are relieved, and facial nerve damage is prevented.

Gogia, Anoop Raj; Chandra, Kumar Naren

2015-01-01

299

Papulopustular rosacea, skin immunity and Demodex: pityriasis folliculorum as a missing link.  

PubMed

Papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is a common facial skin disease, characterized by erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. Its physiopathology is still being discussed, but recently several molecular features of its inflammatory process have been identified: an overproduction of Toll-Like receptors 2, of a serine protease, and of abnormal forms of cathelicidin. The two factors which stimulate the Toll-like receptors to induce cathelicidin expression are skin infection and cutaneous barrier disruption: these two conditions are, at least theoretically, fulfilled by Demodex, which is present in high density in PPR and creates epithelial breaches by eating cells. So, the major pathogenic mechanisms of Demodex and its role in PPR are reviewed here in the context of these recent discoveries. In this review, the inflammatory process of PPR appears to be a consequence of the proliferation of Demodex, and strongly supports the hypothesis that: (1) in the first stage a specific (innate or acquired) immune defect against Demodex allows the proliferation of the mite; (2) in the second stage, probably when some mites penetrate into the dermis, the immune system is suddenly stimulated and gives rise to an exaggerated immune response against the Demodex, resulting in the papules and the pustules of the rosacea. In this context, it would be very interesting to study the immune molecular features of this first stage, named "pityriasis folliculorum", where the Demodex proliferate profusely with no, or a low immune reaction from the host: this entity appears to be a missing link in the understanding of rosacea. PMID:22017468

Forton, F M N

2012-01-01

300

The soft tissue landmarks to avoid injury to the facial artery during filler and neurotoxin injection at the nasolabial region.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to locate the course of the facial artery and to propose "the danger line" vulnerable to vascular complications following filler injection. The entire facial soft tissues were harvested from 14 Thai soft embalmed cadavers as a facial flap specimen. Measurements of the distance, the depth, and the diameter of the facial artery were done at level of the oral commissure and the nasal ala. The distance between the facial artery and the oral commissure was 15.3 ± 3.7 mm and the depth from the skin was 11.1 ± 3.1 mm. The distance between the facial artery and the nasal ala was 6.7 ± 4.4 mm and the depth was 11.6 ± 3.7 mm. The diameters of the facial artery at level of the oral commissure and the nasal ala were 2.6 ± 0.8 and 1.9 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. Maximum risk of arterial complication from dermal filler injection lateral to the oral commissure is located approximately 15 mm at the depth of 11 mm. High risk of arterial injury at the lateral nasal ala is located at 7 mm with the depth of 12 mm. PMID:25098578

Phumyoo, Thirawass; Tansatit, Tanvaa; Rachkeaw, Natthida

2014-09-01

301

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

302

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

303

Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits ... Skin cancer Prevention and care Cosmetic treatments Gold Triangle Awards Media contacts Public service advertisements View PSAs ...

304

Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis Erythema Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Paronychia A to Z: ...

305

E4F1 is essential for epidermal stem cell maintenance and skin homeostasis Matthieu Lacroix1, 3, 4, 10, &  

E-print Network

1 E4F1 is essential for epidermal stem cell maintenance and skin homeostasis Matthieu Lacroix1, 3: Role of E4F1 in skin homeostasis Key words: E4F1, p53, knock-out, epidermal stem cells, skin inserm in the entire skin or in the basal compartment of the epidermis induces skin homeostasis defects, as evidenced

Boyer, Edmond

306

Senescent Skin  

PubMed Central

The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

Kushniruk, William

1974-01-01

307

Sun & Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students discuss what they already know about the impact sun exposure has on their skin and what they typically do to protect themselves, if anything. Using a number of online resources, they then learn how to care for their skin, about the damaging effects of sunburns and tanning, and how sunscreens provide protection from the sun's harmful UV rays.

Science Netlinks

2005-03-10

308

Skin color - patchy  

MedlinePLUS

Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...

309

Skin care and incontinence  

MedlinePLUS

Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

310

Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such prototypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze facial expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal-view face image sequence. The AFA system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression into action units (AUs) of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), instead of a few prototypic expressions. Multistate face and facial component models are proposed for tracking and modeling the various facial features, including lips, eyes, brows, cheeks, and furrows. During tracking, detailed parametric descriptions of the facial features are extracted. With these parameters as the inputs, a group of action units (neutral expression, six upper face AUs and 10 lower face AUs) are recognized whether they occur alone or in combinations. The system has achieved average recognition rates of 96.4 percent (95.4 percent if neutral expressions are excluded) for upper face AUs and 96.7 percent (95.6 percent with neutral expressions excluded) for lower face AUs. The generalizability of the system has been tested by using independent image databases collected and FACS-coded for ground-truth by different research teams. PMID:25210210

Tian, Ying-li; Kanade, Takeo; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

2010-01-01

311

Moving Facial Image Transformations Based on Static 2D Prototypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method for creating visually realistic moving facial image sequences that retain an actor's personality (individuality, expression and characteristic movements) while altering the facial appearance along a certain specified facial dimension. We combine two existing technologies, facial feature tracking and facial image transformation, to create the sequences. Examples are given of transforming the apparent age, race

Bernard Tiddeman; David I. Perrett

2001-01-01

312

The effect of double bridles and jaw-clamping crank nosebands on facial cutaneous and ocular temperature in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any apparatus that restricts a horse’s movement can compromise welfare. Eye temperature as measured remotely using infrared thermography is emerging as a correlate of salivary cortisol concentrations in horses. This article explores the effect on the temperature of the eyes and facial skin of horses wearing devices that restrict jaw movements. In certain equestrian disciplines, unacceptable equine oral activity, such

Paul McGreevy; Amanda Warren-Smith; Yann Guisard

313

Restoration of facial symmetry in a patient with bell palsy using a modified maxillary complete denture: a case report.  

PubMed

Permanent facial paralysis can be devastating for a patient. Modern society's emphasis on appearance and physical beauty contributes to this problem and often leads to isolation of patients embarrassed by their appearance. Lagophthalmos with ocular exposure, loss of oral competence with resultant drooling, alar collapse with nasal airway obstruction, and difficulties with mastication and speech production are all potential consequences of facial paralysis. Affected patients are confronted with both a cosmetic defect and the functional deficits associated with loss of facial nerve function. In this case history report, a modified maxillary complete denture permitted a patient with Bell palsy to carry on daily activities with minimal facial distortion, pain, speech difficulty, and associated emotional trauma. PMID:22545260

Bagchi, Gautam; Nath, Dilip Kumar

2012-01-01

314

Mapping and manipulating facial expression.  

PubMed

Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of nonverbal visual behavior during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions. PMID:19624037

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R; Brick, Timothy R; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Boker, Steven M

2009-01-01

315

Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression  

PubMed Central

Non-verbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this paper we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and non-verbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of non-verbal visual behaviour during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions. PMID:19624037

Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

2009-01-01

316

Targeted gene transfer into rat facial muscles by nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the feasibility of using nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) for gene transfer into rat facial muscles. LISWs are generated by irradiating a black natural rubber disk placed on the target tissue with nanosecond pulsed laser light from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, which is widely used in head and neck surgery and proven to be safe. After injection of plasmid deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) coding for Lac Z into rat facial muscles, pulsed laser is used to irradiate the laser target on the skin surface without incision or exposure of muscles. Lac Z expression is detected by X-gal staining of excised rat facial skin and muscles. Strong Lac Z expression is observed seven days after gene transfer, and sustained for up to 14 days. Gene transfer is achieved in facial muscles several millimeters deep from the surface. Gene expression is localized to the tissue exposed to LISWs. No tissue damage from LISWs is observed. LISW is a promising nonviral target gene transfer method because of its high spatial controllability, easy applicability, and minimal invasiveness. Gene transfer using LISW to produce therapeutic proteins such as growth factors could be used to treat nerve injury and paralysis.

Kurita, Akihiro; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Satoh, Yasushi; Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Obara, Minoru; Shiotani, Akihiro

2011-09-01

317

Targeted gene transfer into rat facial muscles by nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves.  

PubMed

We investigate the feasibility of using nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) for gene transfer into rat facial muscles. LISWs are generated by irradiating a black natural rubber disk placed on the target tissue with nanosecond pulsed laser light from the second harmonics (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, which is widely used in head and neck surgery and proven to be safe. After injection of plasmid deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) coding for Lac Z into rat facial muscles, pulsed laser is used to irradiate the laser target on the skin surface without incision or exposure of muscles. Lac Z expression is detected by X-gal staining of excised rat facial skin and muscles. Strong Lac Z expression is observed seven days after gene transfer, and sustained for up to 14 days. Gene transfer is achieved in facial muscles several millimeters deep from the surface. Gene expression is localized to the tissue exposed to LISWs. No tissue damage from LISWs is observed. LISW is a promising nonviral target gene transfer method because of its high spatial controllability, easy applicability, and minimal invasiveness. Gene transfer using LISW to produce therapeutic proteins such as growth factors could be used to treat nerve injury and paralysis. PMID:21950944

Kurita, Akihiro; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Satoh, Yasushi; Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Obara, Minoru; Shiotani, Akihiro

2011-09-01

318

Combined immunodeficiency develops with age in Immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome 2 (ICF2).  

PubMed

The autosomal recessive immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome (ICF) is characterized by immunodeficiency, developmental delay, and facial anomalies. ICF2, caused by biallelic ZBTB24 gene mutations, is acknowledged primarily as an isolated B-cell defect. Here, we extend the phenotype spectrum by describing, in particular, for the first time the development of a combined immune defect throughout the disease course as well as putative autoimmune phenomena such as granulomatous hepatitis and nephritis. We also demonstrate impaired cell-proliferation and increased cell death of immune and non-immune cells as well as data suggesting a chromosome separation defect in addition to the known chromosome condensation defect. PMID:25330735

von Bernuth, Horst; Ravindran, Ethiraj; Du, Hang; Fröhler, Sebastian; Strehl, Karoline; Krämer, Nadine; Issa-Jahns, Lina; Amulic, Borko; Ninnemann, Olaf; Xiao, Mei-Sheng; Eirich, Katharina; Kölsch, Uwe; Hauptmann, Kathrin; John, Rainer; Schindler, Detlev; Wahn, Volker; Chen, Wei; Kaindl, Angela M

2014-10-21

319

Diminished immune response in sun-damaged skin  

SciTech Connect

In previously sensitized volunteers, higher concentrations of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene were necessary to elicit positive patch test reactions on the sun-damaged skin of the neck than on the protected skin of the upper part of the back. This difference was not found in subjects without evidence of sun damage, and there was no difference between sun-damaged and nondamaged skin in response to a primary irritant. Responses to intradermally injected common antigens were also less intense in sun-damaged skin that in nonexposed skin. These findings suggest the existence of a local defect in cell-mediated immunity in skin altered by long-term sun exposure.

O'Dell, B.L.; Jessen, R.T.; Becker, L.E.; Jackson, R.T.; Smith, E.B.

1980-05-01

320

Techniques of facial nerve block.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure was measured and lid motility determined on a subjective score scale. Whereas the modified O'Brien and lid blocks nearly abolished the muscle activity recorded in the EMG (p < 0.003), the Atkinson and van Lint blocks did not significantly affect these variables. The O'Brien and lid blocks decreased the force of lid closure and lid movements far more effectively than the Atkinson and van Lint blocks (p < 0.0001). The topographic distribution of a mixture of metrizamide and lignocaine solutions was evaluated radiographically in eight additional patients, to assess potential causes for differences in the efficacy of the block techniques. The radiological results showed involvement of the region of the facial nerve trunk and its temporal and cervical divisions by the modified O'Brien block. The lid block, on the other hand, affected terminal branches of the facial nerve's temporal division. In this study, complete lid akinesia was achieved by both the modified O'Brien block and the lid block. However, because the modified O'Brien block involves the risk of neural injury to the facial nerve or its main divisions, the lid block is recommended as the most effective and safe method to achieve akinesia of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Images PMID:7696239

Schimek, F; Fahle, M

1995-01-01

321

Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.  

PubMed

Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed. PMID:23504599

Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai

2013-06-01

322

Facial Resurfacing With Coblation Technology  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe our experience with coblation technology for facial resurfacing Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients treated with coblation at our institution Results Twenty-four patients (22 female) underwent a total of 29 coblation procedures for aging face (n = 21) or acne scarring (n = 3). The perioral region was the most frequently treated aesthetic subunit (n = 14), followed by the lower eyelid (n = 7). Five patients underwent full-face coblation. Three patients underwent a second coblation procedure for aging face while a single patient with severe acne scarring underwent 3 procedures. Repeat coblation was delayed at least 5 months (mean, 9 months). Seventeen coblation procedures (59%) were performed concurrently with procedures including, but not limited to, injection treatment, rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, or combined face/necklift; no adverse events occurred. Seven procedures, including a full-face coblation, were performed in the office under local anesthesia and oral sedation without any adverse events. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1 week to 24 months). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the results after their final coblation treatment. Conclusions Facial coblation is a safe and effective treatment modality for facial resurfacing. PMID:18769690

Weber, Stephen M.; Downs, Brian W.; Ferraz, Mario B.J.; Wang, Tom D.; Cook, Ted A.

2008-01-01

323

How is facial expression coded?  

PubMed

Facial expression is theorized to be visually represented in a multidimensional expression space, relative to a norm. This norm-based coding is typically argued to be implemented by a two-pool opponent coding system. However, the evidence supporting the opponent coding of expression cannot rule out the presence of a third channel tuned to the center of each coded dimension. Here we used a paradigm not previously applied to facial expression to determine whether a central-channel model is necessary to explain expression coding. Participants identified expressions taken from a fear/antifear trajectory, first at baseline and then in two adaptation conditions. In one condition, participants adapted to the expression at the center of the trajectory. In the other condition, participants adapted to alternating images from the two ends of the trajectory. The range of expressions that participants perceived as lying at the center of the trajectory narrowed in both conditions, a pattern that is not predicted by the central-channel model but can be explained by the opponent-coding model. Adaptation to the center of the trajectory also increased identification of both fear and antifear, which may indicate a functional benefit for adaptive coding of facial expression. PMID:25556250

Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

2015-01-01

324

Facial expression form and function  

PubMed Central

From an evolutionary perspective, facial expressions would serve adaptive functions that promote genetic fitness. While many ideas have been proposed,1 the specific adaptive functions of expressing emotion on the face have largely remained untested since Darwin proposed a set of expressive functional principles over 130 years ago.2 Recently, we showed that expressions of fear and disgust alter the biomechanical properties of the face, such that fear increases while disgust decreases sensory exposure.3 Additional vector flow analyses presented here reveal that anger and surprise expressions may similarly be shaped by sensory contraction and expansion action tendencies. An examination of the temporal dynamics of sensory modulation may reveal a general principle shaping expressive form rather than a specific adaptation shaping fear and disgust. Furthermore, if sensory modulation is a general principle, this function should be present across species rather than only in humans. Although facial morphology differs across species, detailed examination of sensory intake in different species may reveal the origins of facial expressions inherited by humans. PMID:19704875

Anderson, Adam K

2008-01-01

325

Facial expression form and function.  

PubMed

From an evolutionary perspective, facial expressions would serve adaptive functions that promote genetic fitness. While many ideas have been proposed,1 the specific adaptive functions of expressing emotion on the face have largely remained untested since Darwin proposed a set of expressive functional principles over 130 years ago.2 Recently, we showed that expressions of fear and disgust alter the biomechanical properties of the face, such that fear increases while disgust decreases sensory exposure.3 Additional vector flow analyses presented here reveal that anger and surprise expressions may similarly be shaped by sensory contraction and expansion action tendencies. An examination of the temporal dynamics of sensory modulation may reveal a general principle shaping expressive form rather than a specific adaptation shaping fear and disgust. Furthermore, if sensory modulation is a general principle, this function should be present across species rather than only in humans. Although facial morphology differs across species, detailed examination of sensory intake in different species may reveal the origins of facial expressions inherited by humans. PMID:19704875

Susskind, Joshua M; Anderson, Adam K

2008-01-01

326

Touraine Solente Gole syndrome: The elephant skin disease.  

PubMed

Touraine Solente Gole syndrome is a rare hereditary syndrome of primary pachydermoperiostosis, with the characteristic triad of pachydermia (or elephant like skin), periostosis and acropachia. A 27-year-old patient presented with aesthetic deformity of forehead due to deep skin folds and coarsening of facial features due to progressive thickening of skin. Associated palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with broadened of finger and toe tips and digital clubbing were noticed. Dermatologic evaluation revealed cutis verticis gyrata of scalp, seborrhoeic hyperplasia of face and hyperhidrosis. Natural history of the disease and aetiopathogenesis were reviewed. Aesthetic correction of forehead through frontal rhytidectomy was attempted. PMID:24459353

Rajan, T M Sheeja; Sreekumar, N C; Sarita, S; Thushara, K R

2013-09-01

327

Touraine Solente Gole syndrome: The elephant skin disease  

PubMed Central

Touraine Solente Gole syndrome is a rare hereditary syndrome of primary pachydermoperiostosis, with the characteristic triad of pachydermia (or elephant like skin), periostosis and acropachia. A 27-year-old patient presented with aesthetic deformity of forehead due to deep skin folds and coarsening of facial features due to progressive thickening of skin. Associated palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with broadened of finger and toe tips and digital clubbing were noticed. Dermatologic evaluation revealed cutis verticis gyrata of scalp, seborrhoeic hyperplasia of face and hyperhidrosis. Natural history of the disease and aetiopathogenesis were reviewed. Aesthetic correction of forehead through frontal rhytidectomy was attempted. PMID:24459353

Rajan, T. M. Sheeja; Sreekumar, N. C.; Sarita, S.; Thushara, K. R.

2013-01-01

328

Facial Asymmetry in Young Adults with Condylar Hyperplasia-Unusual Changes in the Facial Bones  

PubMed Central

Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; JK, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

2015-01-01

329

The Relationships between Processing Facial Identity, Emotional Expression, Facial Speech, and Gaze Direction during Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…

Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

2010-01-01

330

3D Facial Performance Capture From A Single RGBD Camera  

E-print Network

Realistic facial animation remains one of the most challenging problems in computer graphics, where facial performance capture of real people has been a key component. The current state-of-the-art technologies used to capture facial performances...

Chen, Yen-Lin

2013-05-28

331

Brief Communications Superior Facial Expression, But Not Identity Recognition, in  

E-print Network

Brief Communications Superior Facial Expression, But Not Identity Recognition, in Mirror expressionontothesamesensorimotorrepresentationsthatareactiveduringtheexperienceoftheperceivedemotion.Toinvestigatethis view, the present study examines facial expression and identity recognition-touch synesthetes outperformed nonsynesthetic partic- ipants on measures of facial expression recognition

Duchaine, Bradley C.

332

Recognition of Facial Attributes using Adaptive Sparse Representations  

E-print Network

Recognition of Facial Attributes using Adaptive Sparse Representations of Random Patches Domingo recognition of facial attributes by proposing a new general approach called Adap- tive Sparse Representation representation, soft biometrics, gender recognition, race recognition, facial expression recognition. 1

Bowyer, Kevin W.

333

Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition  

E-print Network

Conditional Mutual Information Based Boosting for Facial Expression Recognition Caifeng Shan for facial expression recognition by boosting Local Binary Patterns (LBP) based classifiers. Low-cost LBP a classifier of improved classification per- formance. 1 Introduction Automatic facial expression recognition

Gong, Shaogang

334

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250...Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture fixation appliance is a...

2013-04-01

335

21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250...Devices § 878.3250 External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture fixation appliance is a...

2014-04-01

336

The neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain.  

PubMed

This article reviews the definition, etiology and evaluation, and medical and neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain. A neuropathic origin for facial pain should be considered when evaluating a patient for rhinologic surgery because of complaints of facial pain. Neuropathic facial pain is caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve in the prepontine cistern and is characterized by an intermittent prickling or stabbing component or a constant burning, searing pain. Medical treatment consists of anticonvulsant medication. Neurosurgical treatment may require microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:24680498

Brown, Jeffrey A

2014-04-01

337

Skin Cancer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains skin cancer and how it is treated. It reviews the anatomy of the skin, what to look for during self-examination, and gives tips for preventing skin cancer. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

338

[Smoking and the skin].  

PubMed

Smoking is the main modifiable cause of disease and death in the developed world. Tobacco consumption is directly linked to cardiovascular disease, chronic bronchitis, and many malignant diseases. Tobacco also has many cutaneous effects, most of which are harmful. Smoking is closely associated with several dermatologic diseases such as psoriasis, pustulosis palmoplantaris, hidrosadenitis suppurativa, and systemic and discoid lupus erythematosus, as well as cancers such as those of the lip, oral cavity, and anogenital region. A more debatable relationship exists with melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma, and acne. In contrast, smoking seems to protect against mouth sores, rosacea, labial herpes simplex, pemphigus vulgaris, and dermatitis herpetiformis. In addition to the influence of smoking on dermatologic diseases, tobacco consumption is also directly responsible for certain dermatoses such as nicotine stomatitis, black hairy tongue, periodontal disease, and some types of urticaria and contact dermatitis. Furthermore, we should not forget that smoking has cosmetic repercussions such as yellow fingers and fingernails, changes in tooth color, taste and smell disorders, halitosis and hypersalivation, and early development of facial wrinkles. PMID:18358192

Just-Sarobé, M

2008-04-01

339

Eyebrow Reconstruction Using a Composite Skin Graft from Sideburns  

PubMed Central

Summary: Wide resection of malignant skin tumors in the upper orbital region often results in soft-tissue defects involving the eyebrow. We used composite skin grafts from the area around the sideburns for 1-stage reconstruction of skin and eyebrow defects. The results were aesthetically satisfying because the hair and shape of these regions were similar to those of the original eyebrow, and donor-site closure was easy with inconspicuous scar. The survival of full-thickness skin graft area of composite grafts from sideburn facilitates revascularization of thicker hair follicles in the graft and allows safe, natural eyebrow reconstruction. PMID:25674371

Shibata, Minoru; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Kubo, Tateki; Hosokawa, Ko

2015-01-01

340

Autologous fat grafting and facial reconstruction.  

PubMed

There is tremendous interest in autologous fat grafting for the management of soft tissue volume deficiencies, treatment of cutaneous injuries, and regeneration of missing parts. Given its relative abundance and proximity to the surface of the skin, adipose tissue seems an excellent choice for the treatment of both congenital and acquired soft tissue defects, but the mesenchymal stem cells contained within the fat may provide unexpected opportunities for tissue replacement and repair. Although adipose transfer has been successfully used for reconstructive purposes since the end of the 19th century, numerous controversies about adipose harvesting, processing, delivery, survival, and efficacy still persist today. The purpose of this article was to highlight current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications of fat grafting for reconstruction of the face. PMID:22337433

Wetterau, Meredith; Szpalski, Caroline; Hazen, Alexes; Warren, Stephen M

2012-01-01

341

Unmasking Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to Unmasking Skin, a feature article in the November 2000 issue of National Geographic Magazine, which offers an in-depth look at the body's largest organ. Visitors are invited to "go skin deep and beyond" with a photo gallery, a multimedia interview with the story's photographer, and related Web sites. The site also includes a portion of the feature article, a related Online Extra article, and a short piece about goosebumps. While not as comprehensive as the print article itself, this Web site provides an intriguing look at a part of the body that's often taken for granted.

2002-01-01

342

Modified free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap in the reconstruction of extensive postoncologic defects in the head and neck region.  

PubMed

Oncological resection of advanced carcinoma in the head and neck region results in vast defects. The free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap (FLDMF) is one of the most commonly used flaps for the repair of complex head and neck defects. We tried to modify FLDMF to multiple segments or combine it with acellular dermis to fit through-and-through defects in the oral-facial region during the last decade. A retrospective review of patients with FLDMF reconstruction between 2004 and 2012 was undertaken. Demographics, histology, surgical management, disease control and overall survival, complications, radiotherapy, aesthetic outcome, as well as economic results were analyzed. The majority of the patients (66.7%) had recurrent tumors, and the rest of the patients had primary tumor with stage IV. Fourteen patients (38.9%) had a history of prior radiation therapy, whereas 27.8% of the patients had postoperative radiation therapy. The areas of the defects vary from 52 cm to 180 cm (mean, 86.4 cm). The flap failed in 1 of the 37 patients. The complications at the recipient site include hematoma (n = 6, 16.7%), venous insufficiency (n = 4, 11.1%), infection (n = 3, 8.3), and partial flap necrosis (n = 2, 5.5%). The donor-site complications include delayed healing, necrosis of skin graft, and limited shoulder function. The 5-year overall survival rate was 39.1%, and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 22.1%. In conclusion, the FLDMF could be modified to fit vast defects where voluminous tissue is needed to be transferred in the head and neck region. PMID:25723665

Zhu, Guiquan; Li, Chunhua; Chen, Jin; Cai, Yongcong; Li, Ling; Wang, Zhaohui

2015-03-01

343

Facial Action Unit Recognition by Exploiting Their Dynamic and Semantic Relationships  

E-print Network

Facial Action Unit Recognition by Exploiting Their Dynamic and Semantic Relationships Yan Tong measurements yields significant improvement of AU recognition, especially for spontaneous facial expressions. Index Terms--Facial action unit recognition, facial expression analysis, Facial Action Coding System

344

Skin to skin care:heat balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed

H Karlsson

1996-01-01

345

Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

2007-01-01

346

Manual stimulation of facial muscles improves functional recovery after hypoglossal–facial anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafting of the facial nerve in adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facial nerve in humans is often prone to injuries requiring surgical intervention. In the best case, nerve reconstruction is achieved by a facial–facial anastomosis (FFA), i.e. suture of the proximal and distal stumps of the severed facial nerve. Although a method of choice, FFA rarely leads to a satisfactory functional recovery. We have recently devised and validated, in an

Orlando Guntinas-Lichius; Gregor Hundeshagen; Thomas Paling; Michael Streppel; Maria Grosheva; Andrey Irintchev; Emmanouil Skouras; Athanasia Alvanou; Srebrina K. Angelova; Stefanie Kuerten; Nektarios Sinis; Sarah A. Dunlop; Doychin N. Angelov

2007-01-01

347

Facial, Cervical, and Mediastinal Emphysema of the Clarinet Player: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervicofacial emphysema may arise due to the leakage of air from a defect in the aerodigestive tract to the fascial layers of neck and face. Rarely, it may be caused by insufflation of air through the Stensen’s duct. Case Report: We present a case with diffuse facial, cervical and mediastinal emphysema due to playing a wind instrument immediately after a facial trauma. There was no mucosal defect or laceration noticed by examination which could explain the origin of the emphysema. Despite the widespread cervicofacial emphysema with mediastinal involvement, the patient significantly improved within 48 hours without any intervention. Conclusion: Even though cervicofacial emphysema ameliorates spontaneously, increased care must be taken, especially when there is pneumomediastinum and/or pneumothorax. PMID:25667794

Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kesgin, Selcan; Tezcan, Erkan; Köyba??, Serap

2014-01-01

348

A finite element model of the face including an orthotropic skin model under in vivo tension.  

PubMed

Computer models of the human face have the potential to be used as powerful tools in surgery simulation and animation development applications. While existing models accurately represent various anatomical features of the face, the representation of the skin and soft tissues is very simplified. A computer model of the face is proposed in which the skin is represented by an orthotropic hyperelastic constitutive model. The in vivo tension inherent in skin is also represented in the model. The model was tested by simulating several facial expressions by activating appropriate orofacial and jaw muscles. Previous experiments calculated the change in orientation of the long axis of elliptical wounds on patients' faces for wide opening of the mouth and an open-mouth smile (both 30(o)). These results were compared with the average change of maximum principal stress direction in the skin calculated in the face model for wide opening of the mouth (18(o)) and an open-mouth smile (25(o)). The displacements of landmarks on the face for four facial expressions were compared with experimental measurements in the literature. The corner of the mouth in the model experienced the largest displacement for each facial expression (?11-14 mm). The simulated landmark displacements were within a standard deviation of the measured displacements. Increasing the skin stiffness and skin tension generally resulted in a reduction in landmark displacements upon facial expression. PMID:23919890

Flynn, Cormac; Stavness, Ian; Lloyd, John; Fels, Sidney

2015-01-01

349

Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

2014-01-01

350

Skin Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how to protect their skin while applying pesticides to plants. Learners conduct a series of simulation experiments and discover that some clothing fabrics provide only minimal protection from the dangers of pesticides. Learners work in groups during this activity and use a data table to record their observations.

2012-12-13

351

The effect of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further recurrence of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy.  

PubMed

The objective is to study the role of total facial nerve decompression in preventing further episodes and promoting facial nerve recovery of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy. 24 cases with idiopathic recurrent facial palsy were involved in the study, among which 16 undergoing total facial nerve decompression were classified into the surgery group, and 8 who refused surgery and received prednisolone were included in the control group. The recurrence rate and facial nerve function recovery of the two groups were compared. The mean follow-up of surgery and control group was 4.9 years (range 3-7 years) and 5.0 years (range 3-8 years), respectively. Further attacks of facial palsy affected 1 of 16 cases (6.2 %) among surgery group in comparison to 4 of 8 cases (50 %) among control group, with statistical difference (p < 0.05). 15 of 16 cases (93.8 %) recovered to Grade I or Grade II in surgery group in contrast to 6 of 8 cases (75.0 %) in control group, without statistical difference (p > 0.05). In conclusion, total facial nerve decompression is effective to prevent further episodes of facial palsy in idiopathic recurrent facial palsy, but ineffective to promote facial nerve recovery. PMID:24493560

Li, Yang; Li, Zhi; Yan, Cheng; Hui, Liu

2015-05-01

352

The relationships between processing facial identity, emotional expression, facial speech, and gaze direction during development.  

PubMed

Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction or, alternatively, according to facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction while disregarding facial identity. Reaction times showed that children and adults were able to direct their attention selectively to facial identity despite variations of other kinds of face information, but when sorting according to facial speech and emotional expression, they were unable to ignore facial identity. In contrast, gaze direction could be processed independently of facial identity in all age groups. Apart from shorter reaction times and fewer classification errors, no substantial change in processing facial information was found to be correlated with age. We conclude that adult-like face processing routes are employed from 5 years of age onward. PMID:19892363

Spangler, Sibylle M; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna

2010-01-01

353

Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

2007-01-01

354

Crowdsourcing Facial Responses to Online Videos  

E-print Network

statistics from this corpus to those from the Cohn-Kanade+ (CK+) and MMI databases and show or compensation of participants. Index Terms--Crowdsourcing, facial expressions, nonverbal behavior, advertising and cognitive information [1]. In relation to advertising it as been shown that facial expressions exhibited

355

Examining categorical perception of emotional facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals perceive emotional facial expressions in categories. Specifically, for basic emotional expressions, discrimination performance is better for pairs of stimuli that fall on either side of a perceptual category boundary than for those within a perceptual category. In this thesis I have examined categorical perception of emotional facial expressions from a number of different perspectives. In Chapter 2, I found

Jenna L Cheal

2010-01-01

356

Ophthalmic involvement in cranio-facial trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This is a retrospective descriptive case study which will look into the spectrum of ophthalmic involvement in cases with orbital and eye injuries after cranio-facial trauma and to analyse the visual and motility outcome. Material: One hundred and four cases with ophthalmic involvement after cranio-facial trauma that were referred to and seen in the eye department of a tertiary

Shantha Amrith; Seang Mei Saw; Thiam Chye Lim; Timothy Kam Yiu Lee

2000-01-01

357

Classification Algorithms Research on Facial Expression Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the reliability of facial expression recognition system, and reduce the chance of false positives caused by error, classification strategy is important in recognition process. In the process, the k-nearest neighbor algorithm is improved. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is excellent when it is applied to facial expression recognition system.

Ou, Jun

358

Isolated facial palsy: a new lacunar syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cases of sudden isolated upper motor neuron facial palsy and two with associated pseudobulbar palsy have been seen. All were without significant limb weakness. Computed tomography demonstrated small deep infarcts in the internal capsular\\/corona radiata regions. Pure upper motor neuron facial palsy may be another lacunar syndrome, due to a lesion in the internal capsule or corona radiata.

C Y Huang; G Broe

1984-01-01

359

Comprehensive Database for Facial Expression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past decade, significant effort has occurred in developing methods of facial expression analysis. Because most investigators have used relatively limited data sets, the generalizability of these various methods remains unknown. We describe the problem space for facial expression analysis, which includes level of description, transitions among expression, eliciting conditions, reliability and validity of training and test data, individual

Takeo Kanade; Ying-li Tian; Jeffrey F. Cohn

2000-01-01

360

Modified wind chill temperatures determined by a whole body thermoregulation model and human-based facial convective coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) were estimated by a modified Fiala's whole body thermoregulation model of a clothed person. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients applied in the computations concurrently with environmental radiation effects were taken from a recently derived human-based correlation. Apart from these, the analysis followed the methodology used in the derivation of the currently used wind chill charts. WCET values are summarized by the following equation: Results indicate consistently lower estimated facial skin temperatures and consequently higher WCETs than those listed in the literature and used by the North American weather services. Calculated dynamic facial skin temperatures were additionally applied in the estimation of probabilities for the occurrence of risks of frostbite. Predicted weather combinations for probabilities of "Practically no risk of frostbite for most people," for less than 5 % risk at wind speeds above 40 km h-1, were shown to occur at air temperatures above -10 °C compared to the currently published air temperature of -15 °C. At air temperatures below -35 °C, the presently calculated weather combination of 40 km h-1/-35 °C, at which the transition for risks to incur a frostbite in less than 2 min, is less conservative than that published: 60 km h-1/-40 °C. The present results introduce a fundamentally improved scientific basis for estimating facial skin temperatures, wind chill temperatures and risk probabilities for frostbites over those currently practiced.

Shabat, Yael Ben; Shitzer, Avraham; Fiala, Dusan

2014-08-01

361

Skin Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Skin Cancer Screening Key Points for This Section Tests ... trials is available from the NCI Web site . Skin exams are used to screen for skin cancer. ...

362

Neuromodulators for Aging Skin  

MedlinePLUS

... Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options ... of the overlying skin. Why choose neuromodulators for aging skin Non-invasive — does not require surgery. Can ...

363

Skin Care and Aging  

MedlinePLUS

... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

364

Bacterial Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Lymphangitis Necrotizing Skin Infections Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Skin Disorders > Bacterial Skin Infections 4 ...

365

Enhanced Facial Symmetry Assessment in Orthodontists.  

PubMed

Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff-orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness. PMID:24319342

Jackson, Tate H; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R

2013-01-01

366

Enhanced Facial Symmetry Assessment in Orthodontists  

PubMed Central

Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff—orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness. PMID:24319342

Jackson, Tate H.; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

367

Mutual information-based facial expression recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

2013-12-01

368

Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

2014-06-01

369

Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

370

Robust facial expression recognition via compressive sensing.  

PubMed

Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP), are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN), linear support vector machines (SVM) and the nearest subspace (NS), experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks. PMID:22737035

Zhang, Shiqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Lei, Bicheng

2012-01-01

371

Relationship between natural tooth shade and skin colour.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of skin colour and tooth shade. One hundred and twenty six individuals aging between 18 to 25 years participated in this study. Colour of the maxillary central incisors was examined by VITA easy shade. Tooth shades were assigned to four ordinal values. Nivea Beauty Protect Foundation shade sample was used as a guide to assess facial skin colour Shin colours were also assigned to four ordinal values. Spearman test revealed that there was a significant relationship between tooth shade and skin colour Total co-relation factor was 51.6% (p <0 .01). Co-relation factors were 57% for women and 27% for men (p <0 .01). The highest tooth shade prevalence belonged to the second group and the highest skin colour prevalence was also in the second skin colour group. PMID:23888526

Nourbakhsh, M; Mousavinejad, N; Adli, A R; Harati, M

2013-06-01

372

Split-thickness skin graft in nonhelical ear reconstruction.  

PubMed

Defects of the nonhelical ear after skin cancer extirpation can be challenging. When other reconstructive options are not optimal, split-thickness grafting is an easy and effective technique for successful aesthetic and functional restoration of the ear. PMID:16970699

Hendi, Ali; Brodland, David G

2006-09-01

373

Cutaneous skin tag  

MedlinePLUS

Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

374

The Science Inside Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science Inside Skin, created as part of the Skin Deep Project, offers readers a closer peek at the body's surface. Inside they'll find information about the three layers of skin, how skin changes during a lifetime, various skin ailments (ranging from acne to the three types of skin cancer), and sun safety.

Kirstin Fearnley (AAAS; )

2009-01-01

375

Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facial dysmorphism and hypogonadism. Para-infectious rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication reported in an increasing number of patients. During general anaesthesia, patients with CCFDN require careful monitoring as they have an elevated risk of complications. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. Diagnosis is clinical and is supported by electrophysiological and brain imaging studies. The major differential diagnosis is Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. The definitive diagnosis is molecular, based on homozygosity for the CTDP1 mutation. CTDP1 maps to 18qter and encodes a protein phosphatase whose only known substrate is the phosphorylated serine residues of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, indicating that CCFDN affects basic cellular processes of gene expression and developmental regulation. Families benefit from genetic counselling and predictive testing. Management includes surgical treatment of the cataracts, and rehabilitation and corrective orthopaedic surgery for the peripheral neuropathy. Thus, the most disabling manifestations, though not curable, are manageable, and allow an acceptable quality of life and everyday living. Current data indicate that patients survive well into adulthood. PMID:16939648

Kalaydjieva, Luba

2006-01-01

376

Collagen scaffolds combined with collagen-binding ciliary neurotrophic factor facilitate facial nerve repair in mini-pigs.  

PubMed

The preclinical studies using animal models play a very important role in the evaluation of facial nerve regeneration. Good models need to recapitulate the distance and time for axons to regenerate in humans. Compared with the most used rodent animals, the structure of facial nerve in mini-pigs shares more similarities with humans in microanatomy. To evaluate the feasibility of repairing facial nerve defects by collagen scaffolds combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), 10-mm-long gaps were made in the buccal branch of mini-pigs' facial nerve. Three months after surgery, electrophysiological assessment and histological examination were performed to evaluate facial nerve regeneration. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscope observation showed that collagen scaffolds with collagen binding (CBD)-CNTF could promote better axon regeneration, Schwann cell migration, and remyelination at the site of implant device than using scaffolds alone. Electrophysiological assessment also showed higher recovery rate in the CNTF group. In summary, combination of collagen scaffolds and CBD-CNTF showed promising effects on facial nerve regeneration in mini-pig models. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1669-1676, 2015. PMID:25098760

Lu, Chao; Meng, Danqing; Cao, Jiani; Xiao, Zhifeng; Cui, Yi; Fan, Jingya; Cui, Xiaolong; Chen, Bing; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jinling; Pan, Juli; Dai, Jianwu

2015-05-01

377

An unusual congenital facial anomaly: erectile proboscis-like structure.  

PubMed

We report a 3-week-old male infant with an unusual congenital facial anomaly, which is characterized by a proboscis-like erectile structure arising from the right malar region. Although it is a tubular structure resembling the proboscis lateralis, this case was more likely to be a new congenital anomaly because of the following reasons: (1) in contrast with the proboscis lateralis, which originates from the medial portion of the orbital roof, the structure was located at the right malar region in our case; (2) although it was soft and freely dangling on the face, this proboscis-like structure was strongly erectile, with contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle when the infant cried; (3) histopathological examination revealed that the structure was composed by normal fibroadipose tissue and striated muscle covered with a healthy skin and subcutaneous tissue. In contrast with histopathological characteristics of a proboscis lateralis, there was neither osteocartilaginous tissue nor mucosa in the structure. Although it is a typical finding for a proboscis lateralis, no lumen was found in the presented anomaly. Because of these unique characteristics, which remarkably differ from previously reported facial anomalies, we thought this case worth reporting. A literature review revealed that no similar case has been reported in the literature. PMID:16799319

Mutaf, Mehmet; Isik, Da?han; Büyükgüral, Berker

2006-07-01

378

Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton  

SciTech Connect

Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 mGy for the parotid gland, 0.15 mGy for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field. The mean energy imparted from a full series of paranasal sinus projections was 4.8 mJ and from a total series of the facial skeleton, 7.9 mJ.

Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

1984-11-01

379

Amphibian Skin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of permeability to better understand why amphibians are extremely sensitive to pollution. Learners soak one regular hard-boiled egg and one peeled hard-boiled egg in dyed water and then record how the eggs' circumference and appearance change after 24 hours. Learners investigate how the peeled egg represents amphibian skin and how amphibians are affected by pollution.

2012-12-20

380

Guidelines and recommendations for assessment of somatosensory function in oro-facial pain conditions--a taskforce report.  

PubMed

The goals of an international taskforce on somatosensory testing established by the Special Interest Group of Oro-facial Pain (SIG-OFP) under the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) were to (i) review the literature concerning assessment of somatosensory function in the oro-facial region in terms of techniques and test performance, (ii) provide guidelines for comprehensive and screening examination procedures, and (iii) give recommendations for future development of somatosensory testing specifically in the oro-facial region. Numerous qualitative and quantitative psychophysical techniques have been proposed and used in the description of oro-facial somatosensory function. The selection of technique includes time considerations because the most reliable and accurate methods require multiple repetitions of stimuli. Multiple-stimulus modalities (mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical) have been applied to study oro-facial somatosensory function. A battery of different test stimuli is needed to obtain comprehensive information about the functional integrity of the various types of afferent nerve fibres. Based on the available literature, the German Neuropathic Pain Network test battery appears suitable for the study of somatosensory function within the oro-facial area as it is based on a wide variety of both qualitative and quantitative assessments of all cutaneous somatosensory modalities. Furthermore, these protocols have been thoroughly described and tested on multiple sites including the facial skin and intra-oral mucosa. Standardisation of both comprehensive and screening examination techniques is likely to improve the diagnostic accuracy and facilitate the understanding of neural mechanisms and somatosensory changes in different oro-facial pain conditions and may help to guide management. PMID:21241350

Svensson, P; Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; List, T; Eliav, E; Ettlin, D; Michelotti, A; Tsukiyama, Y; Matsuka, Y; Jääskeläinen, S K; Essick, G; Greenspan, J D; Drangsholt, M

2011-05-01

381

The subcutaneous fat compartments in relation to aesthetically important facial folds and rhytides.  

PubMed

The ideal treatment of the nasolabial fold, the tear trough, the labiomandibular fold and the mentolabial sulcus is still discussed controversially. The detailed topographical anatomy of the fat compartments may clarify the anatomy of facial folds and may offer valuable information for choosing the adequate treatment modality. Nine non-fixed cadaver heads in the age range between 72 and 89 years (five female and four male) were investigated. Computed tomographic scans were performed after injection of a radiographic contrast medium directly into the fat compartments surrounding prominent facial folds. The data were analysed after multiplanar image reconstruction. The fat compartments surrounding the facial folds could be defined in each subject. Different arrangement patterns of the fat compartments around the facial rhytides were found. The nasolabial fold, the tear trough and the labiomandibular fold represent an anatomical border between adjacent fat compartments. By contrast, the glabellar fold and the labiomental sulcus have no direct relation to the boundaries of facial fat. Deep fat, underlying a facial rhytide, was identified underneath the nasolabial crease and the labiomental sulcus. In conclusion, an improvement by a compartment-specific volume augmentation of the nasolabial fold, the tear trough and the labiomandibular fold is limited by existing boundaries that extend into the skin. In the area of the nasolabial fold and the mentolabial sulcus, deep fat exists which can be used for augmentation and subsequent elevation of the folds. The treatment of the tear trough deformity appears anatomically the most challenging area since the superficial and deep fat compartments are separated by an osseo-cutaneous barrier, the orbicularis retaining ligament. In severe cases, a surgical treatment should be considered. By contrast, the glabellar fold shows the most simple anatomical architecture. The fold lies above one subcutaneous fat compartment that can be used for augmentation. PMID:22658728

Gierloff, M; Stöhring, C; Buder, T; Wiltfang, J

2012-10-01

382

Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton  

SciTech Connect

Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 MgY for the parotid gland, 0.15 MgY for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field.

Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

1984-11-01

383

Common birth defects in South African Blacks.  

PubMed

The prevalence rates of some of the common birth defects have been ascertained in a Black population in South Africa. The births of 29,633 infants were studied retrospectively from hospital records. The commonest defect was found to be polydactyly (10,4/1,000 births), and the other defects investigated were talipes equinovarus (1,55/1000 births), hydrocephalus (1,3/1,000 births), spina bifida and anencephaly (0,78 and 0,40/1,000 births respectively) and facial clefts (0,30/1,000 births). These rates were compared with those found in other population groups in South Africa and, in some cases, in other African countries and in Negro groups in the USA and Canada. PMID:6750816

Kromberg, J G; Jenkins, T

1982-10-16

384

Coding, Analysis, Interpretation, and Recognition of Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a computer vision system for observing facial motion by using an optimal estimation optical flow method coupled with geometric, physical and motion-based dynamic models describing the facial structure. Our method produces a reliable parametric representation of the face's independent muscle action groups, as well as an accurate estimate of facial motion. Previous efforts at analysis of facial expression

Irfan A. Essa; Alex P. Pentland

1997-01-01

385

A Facial Sketch Animation Generator for Mobile Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to analyze and reproduce specific-person facial expression is an important multimedia content service for mobile communication. In this paper, a novel three-layer facial animation model is presented for generating the personalized facial sketch animation, and the three layers are motion sequence layer, the reference shape layer, and the painting shape layer. Based on the model, a facial sketch

Yuehu Liu; Yuanqi Su; Yang Yang; Fengjuan Wang; Maojun Yuan; Zhen Ren

2007-01-01

386

A prototype for automatic recognition of spontaneous facial actions  

E-print Network

A prototype for automatic recognition of spontaneous facial actions M.S. Bartlett, G. Littlewort, B recognition of spon- taneous facial actions. Spontaneous facial expressions differ substan- tially from posed. Previous methods for automatic facial expression recognition assumed images were collected in controlled

Bartlett, Marian Stewart

387

Data-Free Prior Model for Facial Action Unit Recognition  

E-print Network

Data-Free Prior Model for Facial Action Unit Recognition Yongqiang Li, Jixu Chen, Yongping Zhao, and Qiang Ji Abstract--Facial action recognition is concerned with recognizing the local facial motions from units recognition, Bayesian networks, knowledge-driven model Ã? 1 INTRODUCTION FACIAL behavior analysis

388

Bioactive glass-ceramics in facial skeleton contouring.  

PubMed

The removal of certain facial-bone defects is a prerequisite to restoration of function, stability, and appearance. Synthetic bone substitutes are beneficial in cases where other operative techniques would be an unacceptable burden for a patient. Satisfactory results can be achieved in one surgical intervention with low costs and low demand on technical equipment. Osteoconductive, biocompatible, non-resorbable glass-ceramic implants based on oxyfluoroapatite and wollastonite permit osteointegration--a direct physical and chemical bond between live bone tissue and the implant without formation of a fibrous capsule. They display better stress durability in simulated body fluid than hydroxyapatite implants do. This material was used for facial skeletal framework, contour restoration in 44 cases under conditions where other solutions were doubtful. Patients were observed for 24.8 months. Immediate healing occurred without any adverse reaction. The main problem was extrusion, observed in 20.45% cases over a 2-3 month period after the implantation. All cases, with one exception, were solved with a satisfactory final result by reoperation, implant size reduction, and increased soft tissue cover. This approach was found to be a suitable technique, especially for patients exhausted by prior incompetent treatment but still dissatisfied with their appearance. Successful reconstruction with a bone substitute may remarkably increase quality of life for affected persons and, at the same time, reduce surgery-related time and costs. PMID:12397450

Dusková, Markéta; Smahel, Zbynek; Vohradník, Milos; Tvrdek, Miroslav; Mazánek, Jirí; Kozák, Jirí; Kot'ová, Magdalena; Strnadel, Tomás

2002-01-01

389

Modeling 3D Facial Shape from DNA  

PubMed Central

Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127

Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.

2014-01-01

390

Cerebral regulation of facial expressions of pain.  

PubMed

Facial expression of affective states plays a key role in social interactions. Interestingly, however, individuals differ substantially in their level of expressiveness, ranging from high expressive to stoic individuals. Here, we investigate which brain mechanisms underlie the regulation of facial expressiveness to acute pain. Facial responses, pain ratings, and brain activity (BOLD-fMRI) evoked by noxious heat and warm (control) stimuli were recorded in 34 human volunteers with different degrees of facial expressiveness. Within-subject and between-subject variations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses were examined specifically in relation to facial responses. Pain expression was inversely related to frontostriatal activity, consistent with a role in downregulating facial displays. More detailed analyses of the peak activity in medial prefrontal cortex revealed negative BOLD responses to thermal stimuli, an effect generally associated with the default mode network. Given that this negative BOLD response was weaker in low expressive individuals during pain, it could reflect stronger engagement in, or reduced disengagement from, self-reflective processes in stoic individuals. The occurrence of facial expressions during pain was coupled with stronger primary motor activity in the face area and-interestingly-in areas involved in pain processing. In conclusion, these results indicate that spontaneous pain expression reflects activity within nociceptive pathways while stoicism involves the active suppression of expression, a manifestation of learned display rules governing emotional communication and possibly related to an increased self-reflective or introspective focus. PMID:21677157

Kunz, Miriam; Chen, Jen-I; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Rainville, Pierre

2011-06-15

391

Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions  

PubMed Central

The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166

Milutinovic, Jovana

2014-01-01

392

ANS responses and facial expressions differentiate between the taste of commercial breakfast drinks.  

PubMed

The high failure rate of new market introductions, despite initial successful testing with traditional sensory and consumer tests, necessitates the development of other tests. This study explored the ability of selected physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to distinguish between repeated exposures to foods from a single category (breakfast drinks) and with similar liking ratings. In this within-subject study 19 healthy young adults sipped from five breakfast drinks, each presented five times, while ANS responses (heart rate, skin conductance response and skin temperature), facial expressions, liking, and intensities were recorded. The results showed that liking was associated with increased heart rate and skin temperature, and more neutral facial expressions. Intensity was associated with reduced heart rate and skin temperature, more neutral expressions and more negative expressions of sadness, anger and surprise. Strongest associations with liking were found after 1 second of tasting, whereas strongest associations with intensity were found after 2 seconds of tasting. Future studies should verify the contribution of the additional information to the prediction of market success. PMID:24714107

de Wijk, René A; He, Wei; Mensink, Manon G J; Verhoeven, Rob H G; de Graaf, Cees

2014-01-01

393

ANS Responses and Facial Expressions Differentiate between the Taste of Commercial Breakfast Drinks  

PubMed Central

The high failure rate of new market introductions, despite initial successful testing with traditional sensory and consumer tests, necessitates the development of other tests. This study explored the ability of selected physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to distinguish between repeated exposures to foods from a single category (breakfast drinks) and with similar liking ratings. In this within-subject study 19 healthy young adults sipped from five breakfast drinks, each presented five times, while ANS responses (heart rate, skin conductance response and skin temperature), facial expressions, liking, and intensities were recorded. The results showed that liking was associated with increased heart rate and skin temperature, and more neutral facial expressions. Intensity was associated with reduced heart rate and skin temperature, more neutral expressions and more negative expressions of sadness, anger and surprise. Strongest associations with liking were found after 1 second of tasting, whereas strongest associations with intensity were found after 2 seconds of tasting. Future studies should verify the contribution of the additional information to the prediction of market success. PMID:24714107

de Wijk, René A.; He, Wei; Mensink, Manon G. J.; Verhoeven, Rob H. G.; de Graaf, Cees

2014-01-01

394

Psychologic consequences of facial dermatoses.  

PubMed

The attractiveness of the human body has always been an important issue in the fields of sociology, psychology, and psychiatry and also in the field of dermatology. In psychodermatology, one often discovers how all these fields intermingle to produce elaborate situations and extreme human difficulties. Perfect skin is widely adored in literature, poetry, and biblical texts, as well as in advertisements, movies, and television. Because in most societies the face is the body part that is visible, imperfections of the skin are also visible; therefore, its flawed appearance bears the potential to become a source of misery to some. PMID:25441470

Orion, Edith; Wolf, Ronni

2014-01-01

395

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 22, NO. 7, JULY 2013 2559 Simultaneous Facial Feature Tracking and Facial  

E-print Network

Tracking and Facial Expression Recognition Yongqiang Li, Shangfei Wang, Member, IEEE, Yongping Zhao, and Qiang Ji, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images--Bayesian network, expression recognition, facial action unit recognition, facial feature tracking, simultaneous

396

Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction: CT evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction may have a clinically apparent or occult cause. The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 36 patients with peripheral facial nerve dysfunction to obtain information on the location of the suspected lesion and the number, sequence, and type of radiographic evaluations performed. Inadequate clinical evaluations before computed tomography (CT) was done and unnecessary CT examinations were also noted. They have suggested a practical clinical and radiographic scheme to evaluate progressive peripheral facial dysfunction with no apparent cause. If this scheme is applied, unnecessary radiologic tests and delays in diagnosis and treatment may be avoided.

Disbro, M.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Osborn, A.G.

1985-06-01

397

[Summery and recommendations for acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis].  

PubMed

Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems. PMID:22256658

Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping

2011-12-01

398

Facial Sketch Rendering and Animation for Fun Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to analyze a human’s facial expressions and reproduce them is important for fun communication. In this paper,\\u000a a novel model is presented for generating the facial sketch of pen-and-ink style and reproducing facial expressions in facial\\u000a sketch animation. Facial sketch rendering is implemented by combing the painting path and line template, in which personalized\\u000a painting path ensures the

Yuanqi Su; Yuehu Liu; Yunfeng Zhu; Zhen Ren

2006-01-01

399

Recognition of facial expressions is influenced by emotional scene gist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of facial expressions has traditionally been investigated by presenting facial expressions without any context\\u000a information. However, we rarely encounter an isolated facial expression; usually, we perceive a persons facial reaction as\\u000a part of the surrounding context. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether emotional scenes influence the\\u000a explicit recognition of facial expressions. In three experiments, participants

Ruthger Righart; Beatrice de Gelder

2008-01-01

400

Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779413

Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

2011-01-01

401

Facial behaviometrics: The case of facial deformation in spontaneous smile\\/laughter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the use of dense facial deformation in spontaneous smile\\/laughter as a biometric signature. The facial deformation is calculated between a neutral image (as neutral we define the least expressive image of the smile\\/laughter episode) and the apex of spontaneous smile\\/laughter (as apex we define the frame of the maximum facial change\\/deformation) and its complex representation

Stefanos Zafeiriou; Maja Pantic

2011-01-01

402

Preliminary performance assessment of computer automated facial approximations using computed tomography scans of living individuals.  

PubMed

ReFace (Reality Enhancement Facial Approximation by Computational Estimation) is a computer-automated facial approximation application jointly developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and GE Global Research. The application derives a statistically based approximation of a face from a unidentified skull using a dataset of ~400 human head computer tomography (CT) scans of living adult American individuals from four ancestry groups: African, Asian, European and Hispanic (self-identified). To date only one unpublished subjective recognition study has been conducted using ReFace approximations. It indicated that approximations produced by ReFace were recognized above chance rates (10%). This preliminary study assesses: (i) the recognizability of five ReFace approximations; (ii) the recognizability of CT-derived skin surface replicas of the same individuals whose skulls were used to create the ReFace approximations; and (iii) the relationship between recognition performance and resemblance ratings of target individuals. All five skin surface replicas were recognized at rates statistically significant above chance (22-50%). Four of five ReFace approximations were recognized above chance (5-18%), although with statistical significance only at the higher rate. Such results suggest reconsideration of the usefulness of the type of output format utilized in this study, particularly in regard to facial approximations employed as a means of identifying unknown individuals. PMID:24314512

Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H; Monson, Keith L

2013-12-10

403

Performance-driven facial animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computer graphics technique rises to the challenge of rendering lifelike performers, more lifelike performance is required. The techniques used to animate robots, arthropods, and suits of armor, have been extended to flexible surfaces of fur and flesh. Physical models of muscle and skin have been devised. But more complex databases and sophisticated physical modeling do not directly address the

Lance Williams

1990-01-01

404

Crowdsourced data collection of facial responses  

E-print Network

In the past, collecting data to train facial expression and affect recognition systems has been time consuming and often led to data that do not include spontaneous expressions. We present the first crowdsourced data ...

el Kaliouby, Rana

405

Greater perceptual sensitivity to happy facial expression.  

PubMed

Perception of subtle facial expressions is essential for social functioning; yet it is unclear if human perceptual sensitivities differ in detecting varying types of facial emotions. Evidence diverges as to whether salient negative versus positive emotions (such as sadness versus happiness) are preferentially processed. Here, we measured perceptual thresholds for the detection of four types of emotion in faces--happiness, fear, anger, and sadness--using psychophysical methods. We also evaluated the association of the perceptual performances with facial morphological changes between neutral and respective emotion types. Human observers were highly sensitive to happiness compared with the other emotional expressions. Further, this heightened perceptual sensitivity to happy expressions can be attributed largely to the emotion-induced morphological change of a particular facial feature (end-lip raise). PMID:25669052

Maher, Stephen; Ekstrom, Tor; Chen, Yue

2014-01-01

406

Embedded Defects  

E-print Network

We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the $Z$ string and a one parameter family of strings called the $W(\\alpha )$ string. It is argued that, although the members of this family are gauge equivalent when considered in isolation, each member should be considered distinct when multi-string solutions are considered. We then turn to the issue of stability of embedded defects and demonstrate the instability of a large class of such solutions in the absence of bound states or condensates. The $Z$ string is shown to be unstable when the Weinberg angle ($\\theta_w$) is $\\pi /4$ for all values of the Higgs mass. The $W$ strings are also shown to be unstable for a large range of parameters. Embedded monopoles suffer from the Brandt-Neri-Coleman instability. A simple physical understanding of this instability is provided in terms of the phenomenon of W-condensation. Finally, we connect the electroweak string solutions to the sphaleron: ``twisted'' loops of W string and finite segments of W and Z strings collapse into the sphaleron configuration, at least, for small values of $\\theta_w$.

Manuel Barriola; Tanmay Vachaspati; Martin Bucher

1993-06-22

407

SCI: Skin Cancer Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin Care Investigations offers students the chance to learn more about skin and skin cancer before entering the virtual world of Glowell Clinic, where they will spend time at the helpdesk answering callers' questions about skin protection and in the laboratory assessing whether skin abnormalities are cancerous or not. An interactive assessment allows students and teachers to gauge understanding at this level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2010-05-26

408

Cochlear implant and delayed facial palsy.  

PubMed

Delayed facial nerve palsy following cochlear implant surgery is less documented though it poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Apart from the functional, aesthetic and emotional concerns, it can raise important medico legal issues. The objectives of this study were: to report a case of delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery in a patient who had positive viral antibody markers pre operatively; and to review the literature on delayed onset facial paralysis following viral reactivation and its relation to cochlear implant surgery. An extensive literature review was done using internet and medical search engines and library facilities. Important articles on the topic were identified and summarised. Data on delayed facial palsy following cochlear implant surgery were collected, constructed in a coherent way and details discussed. Postulated mechanisms of delayed facial palsy include neural oedema, vasospasm and viral reactivation. Of these, reactivation of previous herpes simplex virus infection has special significance, as many of these patients are positive for viral antibody markers. Manipulation of sensory branches of the facial nerve and chorda tympani can be a mechanism in such cases. Correlation of clinical presentation and pre operative positive viral antibody markers with positive polymerase chain reaction can be strongly suggestive of viral reactivation. It is concluded that patients with positive viral antibody markers are more susceptible to facial palsy from viral reactivation. Corticosteroids, antiviral agents and physiotherapy can be useful in producing a quicker and complete recovery. An experienced cochlear implant surgery team and pre operative radiological evaluations are mandatory to decrease the chances of direct facial nerve trauma. Proper irrigation lowers the risk of neural oedema. PMID:19194876

Joseph, Shawn Thadathil; Vishwakarma, Rajesh; Ramani, Mukesh Kumar; Aurora, Rupa

2009-12-01

409

Laptop Computer - Based Facial Recognition System Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to assess the performance of the leading commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) facial recognition software package when used as a laptop application. We performed the assessment to determine the system's usefulness for enrolling facial images in a database from remote locations and conducting real-time searches against a database of previously enrolled images. The assessment involved creating a database of 40 images and conducting 2 series of tests to determine the product's ability to recognize and match subject faces under varying conditions. This report describes the test results and includes a description of the factors affecting the results. After an extensive market survey, we selected Visionics' FaceIt{reg_sign} software package for evaluation and a review of the Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000). This test was co-sponsored by the US Department of Defense (DOD) Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office, the National Institute of Justice, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Administered in May-June 2000, the FRVT 2000 assessed the capabilities of facial recognition systems that were currently available for purchase on the US market. Our selection of this Visionics product does not indicate that it is the ''best'' facial recognition software package for all uses. It was the most appropriate package based on the specific applications and requirements for this specific application. In this assessment, the system configuration was evaluated for effectiveness in identifying individuals by searching for facial images captured from video displays against those stored in a facial image database. An additional criterion was that the system be capable of operating discretely. For this application, an operational facial recognition system would consist of one central computer hosting the master image database with multiple standalone systems configured with duplicates of the master operating in remote locations. Remote users could perform real-time searches where network connectivity is not available. As images are enrolled at the remote locations, periodic database synchronization is necessary.

R. A. Cain; G. B. Singleton

2001-03-01

410

Bilateral Candida albicans dacryocystitis with facial cellulitis.  

PubMed

Candida albicans rarely infects the lacrimal drainage system. This paper describes a case of bilateral C. albicans dacryocystitis following midfacial trauma. The patient presented with recurrent facial cellulitis and a fistula opening onto the cheek. The condition was controlled only after bilateral dacryocystorhinostomy along with amphotericin B therapy. This appears to be the first reported case in which the lacrimal sacs acted as a reservoir for microorganisms causing recurrent facial cellulitis. PMID:7127203

Codère, F; Anderson, R L

1982-08-01

411

Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy syndrome.  

PubMed

Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy syndrome is a delineated genetic disease exclusively manifested in the Roma population. The pattern of inheritance is autosomal recessive, and a causative mutation is evident in the CTDP1 gene. Affected patients display congenital cataracts, microcornea, peripheral neuropathy, mild facial dysmorphism, hypogonadism, and psychomotor delay. We present the second case of this syndrome in a Greek Roma family, diagnosed in early infancy, along with the prenatal diagnosis in a subsequent pregnancy. PMID:21824574

Tzifi, Flora; Pons, Roser; Athanassaki, Corina; Poulou, Myrto; Kanavakis, Emmanuel

2011-09-01

412

The Nonrandom Distribution of Facial Hemangiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To map sites of occurrence of facial infan- tile hemangiomas and correlate these with pattern of tu- mor growth, clinical complications, and proximity to structural and developmental landmarks. Design: A retrospective medical record review of 205 patients diagnosed with facial infantile hemangioma. Setting:ArkansasChildren'sHospital,LittleRock,a250- bedteachinghospitalaffiliatedwiththeUniversityofAr- kansas for Medical Sciences. Patients: Based on their clinical photographs, 232 of the hemangiomas were

Milton Waner; Paula E. North; Katherine A. Scherer; Ilona J. Frieden; Alexandra Waner

2003-01-01

413

Ventricular septal defect (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Ventricular septal defect is a congenital defect of the heart, that occurs as an abnormal opening in the wall that separates the right and left ventricles. Ventricular septal defect may also be associated with other heart defects. ...

414

Facial allograft transplantation, personal identity and subjectivity  

PubMed Central

An analysis of the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation is provided in this paper. The identity issues involved in organ transplantation in general, under both theoretical accounts of personal identity and subjective accounts provided by organ recipients, are examined. It is argued that the identity issues involved in facial allograft transplantation are similar to those involved in organ transplantation in general, but much stronger because the face is so closely linked with personal identity. Recipients of facial allograft transplantation have the potential to feel that their identity is a mix between their own and the donor's, and the donor's family is potentially likely to feel that their loved one “lives on”. It is also argued that facial allograft transplantation allows the recipients to regain an identity, because they can now be seen in the social world. Moreover, they may regain expressivity, allowing for them to be seen even more by others, and to regain an identity to an even greater extent. Informing both recipients and donors about the role that identity plays in facial allograft transplantation could enhance the consent process for facial allograft transplantation and donation. PMID:17664301

Swindell, J S

2007-01-01

415

Classifying chimpanzee facial expressions using muscle action.  

PubMed

The Chimpanzee Facial Action Coding System (ChimpFACS) is an objective, standardized observational tool for measuring facial movement in chimpanzees based on the well-known human Facial Action Coding System (FACS; P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978). This tool enables direct structural comparisons of facial expressions between humans and chimpanzees in terms of their common underlying musculature. Here the authors provide data on the first application of the ChimpFACS to validate existing categories of chimpanzee facial expressions using discriminant functions analyses. The ChimpFACS validated most existing expression categories (6 of 9) and, where the predicted group memberships were poor, the authors discuss potential problems with ChimpFACS and/or existing categorizations. The authors also report the prototypical movement configurations associated with these 6 expression categories. For all expressions, unique combinations of muscle movements were identified, and these are illustrated as peak intensity prototypical expression configurations. Finally, the authors suggest a potential homology between these prototypical chimpanzee expressions and human expressions based on structural similarities. These results contribute to our understanding of the evolution of emotional communication by suggesting several structural homologies between the facial expressions of chimpanzees and humans and facilitating future research. PMID:17352572

Parr, Lisa A; Waller, Bridget M; Vick, Sarah J; Bard, Kim A

2007-02-01

416

Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation. PMID:22575677

Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren

2012-08-01

417

Management of Velopharyngeal Defects: A Review  

PubMed Central

Success in Maxillofacial Prosthetics depends on full cognizance of the principles that underlie facial harmony, anchorage and retention, weight bearing and leverage, durability, tissue compatibility and tolerance. The maxillofacial prosthodontist normally provides appliances to restore aesthetics and function to the patients who cannot be restored to normal appearances or functions by means of plastic reconstructions. The velopharynx is a dynamic anatomic structure which is essential for normal breathing, eating, and speaking. The soft palate acts as a separator between oral and nasal cavities. Impairment of velopharyngeal function can be caused by insufficiency or incompetency. This article describes in brief about velopharyngeal defects and their management. PMID:24783161

Shetty, Nitin Bhaskar; Shetty, Sanyuktha; E., Nagraj; D’Souza, Raina; Shetty, Omkar

2014-01-01

418

Management of velopharyngeal defects: a review.  

PubMed

Success in Maxillofacial Prosthetics depends on full cognizance of the principles that underlie facial harmony, anchorage and retention, weight bearing and leverage, durability, tissue compatibility and tolerance. The maxillofacial prosthodontist normally provides appliances to restore aesthetics and function to the patients who cannot be restored to normal appearances or functions by means of plastic reconstructions. The velopharynx is a dynamic anatomic structure which is essential for normal breathing, eating, and speaking. The soft palate acts as a separator between oral and nasal cavities. Impairment of velopharyngeal function can be caused by insufficiency or incompetency. This article describes in brief about velopharyngeal defects and their management. PMID:24783161

Shetty, Nitin Bhaskar; Shetty, Sanyuktha; E, Nagraj; D'Souza, Raina; Shetty, Omkar

2014-03-01

419

Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

2013-01-17

420

Unilateral Multiple Facial Nerve Branch Reconstruction Using “End-to-side Loop Graft” Supercharged by Hypoglossal Nerve  

PubMed Central

Background: Extensive facial nerve defects between the facial nerve trunk and its branches can be clinically reconstructed by incorporating double innervation into an end-to-side loop graft technique. This study developed a new animal model to evaluate the technique’s ability to promote nerve regeneration. Methods: Rats were divided into the intact, nonsupercharge, and supercharge groups. Artificially created facial nerve defects were reconstructed with a nerve graft, which was end-to-end sutured from proximal facial nerve stump to the mandibular branch (nonsupercharge group), or with the graft of which other end was end-to-side sutured to the hypoglossal nerve (supercharge group). And they were evaluated after 30 weeks. Results: Axonal diameter was significantly larger in the supercharge group than in the nonsupercharge group for the buccal (3.78 ± 1.68 vs 3.16 ± 1.22; P < 0.0001) and marginal mandibular branches (3.97 ± 2.31 vs 3.46 ± 1.57; P < 0.0001), but the diameter was significantly larger in the intact group for all branches except the temporal branch. In the supercharge group, compound muscle action potential amplitude was significantly higher than in the nonsupercharge group (4.18 ± 1.49 mV vs 1.87 ± 0.37 mV; P < 0.0001) and similar to that in the intact group (4.11 ± 0.68 mV). Retrograde labeling showed that the mimetic muscles were double-innervated by facial and hypoglossal nerve nuclei in the supercharge group. Conclusions: Multiple facial nerve branch reconstruction with an end-to-side loop graft was able to achieve axonal distribution. Additionally, axonal supercharge from the hypoglossal nerve significantly improved outcomes. PMID:25426357

Sasaki, Ryo; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Niimi, Yosuke; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Mariko; Yamato, Masayuki

2014-01-01

421

CSD skin test  

MedlinePLUS

Cat scratch disease skin test ... cat scratch disease is injected just under the skin. After 48 to 72 hours, a health care ... no special preparation. People with dermatitis or other skin irritations should have the test performed on an ...

422

Skin lesion biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Punch biopsy; Shave biopsy; Skin biopsy; Biopsy - skin ... There are several ways to do a skin biopsy. Most procedures are easily done in your doctor's office or an outpatient medical office. Which procedure you have depends on the location, ...

423

Skin Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Gala Young Associates After-Party A Night the Stars Shine On Road to Healthy Skin Tour International ... The Skin Cancer Foundation Gala A Night the Stars Shine On The Road to Healthy Skin Tour ...

424

Skin (Pressure) Sores  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

425

Components of skin  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... with immunity against foreign invaders like germs and bacteria. The very bottom layer of the skin is ... glands also helps to soften hair and kill bacteria that get in the skin’s pores. These oil ...

426

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been established systematically to detect structural muscular changes after facial nerve lesion. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate quantitative assessment of MRI muscle volume data for facial muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with facial palsy were recruited. Using manual or semiautomatic segmentation of 3T MRI, volume measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control. Results: All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex or age effects were not seen (all P > 0.05). There was no facial asymmetry with exception of the zygomaticus major (larger on the left side; P = 0.012). The exploratory examination of 5 patients revealed considerably smaller muscle volumes on the palsy side 2 months after facial injury. One patient with chronic palsy showed substantial muscle volume decrease, which also occurred in another patient with incomplete chronic palsy restricted to the involved facial area. Facial nerve reconstruction led to mixed results of decreased but also increased muscle volumes on the palsy side compared with the healthy side. Conclusions: First systematic quantitative MRI volume measures of 5 different clinical presentations of facial paralysis are provided. PMID:25289366

Volk, Gerd F.; Karamyan, Inna; Klingner, Carsten M.; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

2014-01-01

427

Facial Pain Followed by Unilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Case Report with Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the commonest cranial nerve motor neuropathy. The causes range from cerebrovascular accident to iatrogenic damage, but there are few reports of facial nerve paralysis attributable to odontogenic infections. In majority of the cases, recovery of facial muscle function begins within first three weeks after onset. This article reports a unique case of 32-year-old male patient who developed facial pain followed by unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection. The treatment included extraction of the associated tooth followed by endodontic treatment of the neighboring tooth which resulted in recovery of facial nerve plasy. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making any diagnosis. It is essential to rule out other causes of facial paralysis before making the definitive diagnosis, which implies the intervention. The authors hereby, report a case of 32-year-old male patient who developed unilateral facial nerve paralysis due to odontogenic infection with a good prognosis after appropriate treatment. PMID:25302280

GV, Sowmya; Goel, Saurabh; Singh, Mohit Pal; Astekar, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

428

The use of facial motion and facial form during the processing of identity  

E-print Network

research has shown that facial motion can carry information about age, gender, emotion and, at least? Previous research has shown that facial motion can convey information about gender (Berry, 1991; Hill signature independent of other sources of information. A twisted smile for example or a characteristic head

Jegelka, Stefanie

429

Recordings from the facial nucleus in the rat: signs of abnormal facial muscle response  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of results of electrophysiological studies in patients undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) operations to relieve hemifacial spasm (HFS), we have postulated that the abnormal muscle response characteristically found in patients with HFS is the result of irritation of the facial nerve by the blood vessel that is compressing the facial nerve near its exit from the brainstem in

A. R. Møller; C. N. Sen

1990-01-01

430

Edema facial en síndrome de vena cava superior Facial Edema in Superior Vena Cava Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We report two cases of superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The first symptom was facial edema. The etiology of the first case was a thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma. The second case was caused by a central endovenous catheter for chemoterapy, inducing trombosis in the rigth jugular vein. We reviewed the etiology of facial edema including the SVCS. We emphasize the

Manuela Yuste Chaves; Juan Carlos Santos Durán; Juan Sánchez Estella

431

The Neuropsychology of Facial Identity and Facial Expression in Children with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We indirectly determined how children with mental retardation analyze facial identity and facial expression, and if these analyses of identity and expression were controlled by independent cognitive processes. In a reaction time study, 20 children with mild mental retardation were required to determine if simultaneously presented photographs of…

Singh, Nirbhay N.; Oswald, Donald P.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Ellis, Cynthia R.; Sage, Monica; Ferris, Jennifer R.

2005-01-01

432

Soccer-related facial fractures: postoperative management with facial protective shields.  

PubMed

Facial fractures are one of the most common orofacial injury sustained during participation in sporting events.The frequency of maxillofacial lesions varies according to the popularity that each sport has in a particular country. Soccer is the most popular sport in Italy, and it is responsible for a large number of facial traumas.Traumas and fractures in soccer mainly involve the zygomatic and nasal regions and are especially caused by direct contact that takes place mainly when the ball is played with the forehead. In particular, elbow-head and head-head impacts are the most frequent dangerous contacts.Soccer is not a violent sport, and the use of protective helmets is not allowed because it could be dangerous especially when players play the ball with the head. The use of protective facial shields are exclusively permitted to preserve players who underwent surgery for facial fractures.The use of a facial protection mask after a facial fracture treatment has already been reported. This article describes a clinical experience of management of 4 soccer-related facial fractures by means of fabrication of individual facial protective shields. PMID:19164981

Procacci, Pasquale; Ferrari, Francesca; Bettini, Giordana; Bissolotti, Guido; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Nocini, Pier Francesco

2009-01-01

433

Sympathetic skin responses of the face and neck evoked by electrical stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were recorded from different facial regions and neck in 25 subjects evoked by electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. Recordings from all regions were cross-compared with each other and within right and left sides individually. In one subject postauricular SSR, and in another subject upper lip SSR could not be elicited on

Serpil Kuyucu Yildiz; Sule Ayd?n Turkoglu; Nebil Yildiz; Ayhan Ozturk; Fatma Tore

2007-01-01

434

Sebaceous Gland Secretion is a Major Physiologic Route of Vitamin E Delivery to Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin plays an important part in the protection against oxidative stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and chemicals. This study was based on the observation that upper facial stratum corneum contained significantly higher levels of the antioxidant ?-tocopherol than corresponding layers of arm stratum corneum. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanism involves sebaceous gland secretion of vitamin E. To test

Jens J. Thiele; Stefan U. Weber; Lester Packer

1999-01-01

435

Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India  

E-print Network

A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

2010-01-01

436

Transvenous approach to carotid-cavernous fistula via facial vein cut down.  

PubMed

Endovascular access to carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF) can be obtained through a transfemoral approach to the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) or superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). If the transfemoral approach cannot be utilized, direct surgical exposure of the SOV can provide access to the CCF. The authors present an alternate approach to a CCF in a 66-year-old woman in whom the IPS was thrombosed and the facial vein so tortuous at its origin that it could not be passed with a wire. The facial vein was exposed surgically at the angle of the mandible after percutaneous attempts failed. After localization of the anterior facial vein with ultrasound, a 1 cm skin incision was made over the margin of the mandible. The dissected vein was cannulated using a micropuncture technique and a 0.018 inch wire. A four French short access sheath was inserted and sutured to the vein. Subsequent venogram allowed navigation of an SL-10 microcatheter over a Synchro soft microwire (both Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) via the SOV into the cavernous sinus, and coil embolization was performed with angiographic cure of the fistula. No complications were encountered and the cosmetic result of the small incision of the mandibular region was excellent and less conspicuous than it would have been on the eyelid. This technical note illustrates that facial vein cut down is an attractive and safe alternate approach to endovascular management of CCF via a transvenous route in patients with a focally narrowed and tortuous IPS and common facial vein. PMID:24387933

Thiex, Ruth; Gross, Bradley A; Gupta, Rishi; Wyers, Mark C; Frerichs, Kai U; Thomas, Ajith J

2014-07-01

437

Corticosteroid transdermal delivery to target swelling, edema and inflammation following facial rejuvenation procedures  

PubMed Central

Background and aim The use of transdermal therapeutic systems has spread worldwide since they allow effective local drug delivery. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new betamethasone valerate medicated plaster (Betesil®) to manage facial swelling, edema, inflammation, ecchymosis, and hematoma, when applied immediately after a facial rejuvenation procedure. Materials and methods We applied the plaster to the skin of 20 healthy patients for 12 hours immediately after hyaluronic acid-based procedure performed with the aim of erasing facial wrinkles of perioral and nasolabial folds and improving chin and eye contour. A further 20 patients underwent the same cosmetic procedure, but they were treated with an aescin 10% cream (applied immediately after the procedure, in the evening, and the morning after) and served as control group. Results Betesil® application resulted in a significant improvement in swelling/edema/inflammation score, if compared with aescin 10% cream (P < 0.01). As for facial ecchymosis and hematoma around the needle injection track, only two patients in the active treatment group displayed minimal ecchymosis and hematoma. In the control group, two patients presented minimal ecchymosis and three slight hematoma. However, using the ecchymosis/hematoma score, no significant difference between Betesil® and aescin 10% cream groups was observed. Patients’ satisfaction was significantly higher among subjects receiving Betesil®, if compared to patients receiving aescin 10% cream (P < 0.01). Conclusion The present study supports the use of Betesil® plaster immediately after facial cosmetic procedures in order to safely control swelling, edema, and inflammation. PMID:24101860

Iannitti, T; Rottigni, V; Palmieri, B

2013-01-01

438

Multiple skin testing in leprosy.  

PubMed Central

Groups of patients with lepromatous and tuberculoid leprosy and hospital staff from six leprosaria in East Africa and 'non-contact' groups of villagers or staff from general hospitals have been skin tested with 10 reagents. These were prepared by ultrasonic disintegration from M. tuberculosis, M. duvalii, M. chelonei and 7 other species identified in the Ugandan environment. Comparisons were made of the percentages of positive reactors in each study group for each reagent. The 'specific' defect of lepromatous patients was found to apply to a variable extent to six of the species tested, but not to M. tuberculosis, M. avium or M. 'A'. The defect applied most noticeably to M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae, suggesting that they are more closely related to M. leprae than are the other species tested. The reagent Chelonin produced unexpected and anomalous results in the lepromatous group. It is suggested that this was due to an unusually slow clearing of Arthus' reaction. PMID:807619

Paul, R. C.; Stanford, J. L.; Carswell, J. W.

1975-01-01

439

Identification, Characterization, and Precise Mapping of a Human Gene Encoding a Novel Membrane-Spanning Protein from the 22q11 Region Deleted in Velo–Cardio–Facial Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velo–cardio–facial syndrome (VCFS) and DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) are characterized by a wide spectrum of phenotypes including cleft palate, conotruncal heart defects, and facial dysmorphology. Hemizygosity for a portion of chromosome 22q11 has been detected in 80– 85% of VCFS\\/DGS patients. Using a cDNA selection protocol, we have identified a new gene, TMVCF (transmembrane protein deleted in VCFS), which maps to

Howard Sirotkin; Bernice Morrow; Bruno Saint-Jore; Anne Puech; Ruchira Das Gupta; Sankhavaram R. Patanjali; Arthur Skoultchi; Sherman M. Weissman; Raju Kucherlapati

1997-01-01

440

Restorative interventions for HIV facial lipoatrophy.  

PubMed

Facial lipoatrophy is a common and distressing manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy. The changes in facial appearance can reduce quality of life, self esteem and antiretroviral adherence. Apart from the modest benefits of thymidine-based nucleoside analog cessation, there are no proven therapies for lipoatrophy. Management of established fat loss can be challenging as restoration of lost fat mass is extremely gradual. Plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures can restore lost facial volume. Both biodegradable and permanent filling agents have been investigated for HIV facial lipoatrophy. Biodegradable products offer a good safety profile, but maintenance of aesthetic benefits necessitates reinjection over time. Although permanent products offer longevity and lower treatment costs, adverse events should they occur can be serious and of long duration. Despite the substantial increase in options for soft-tissue augmentation in recent years, well-performed clinical studies in HIV-infected adults with facial lipoatrophy are scarce, and long-term clinical safety data are lacking. This review will summarize available efficacy and safety data of the biodegradable and permanent agents utilized for soft-tissue augmentation in this population. Difficulties associated with comparing treatment efficacy data, assessment of facial lipoatrophy presence and severity, and measurement of facial fat will be discussed. Available data indicate that in HIV-infected adults, most filling agents have short-term clinically safety, and can provide aesthetic improvement and improve well-being, social functioning and quality of life. However, well-designed studies with objectively assessed endpoints are needed to elucidate optimal treatments for this distressing condition. PMID:18615122

Carey, Dianne; Liew, Steven; Emery, Sean

2008-01-01

441

Blink detection robust to various facial poses.  

PubMed

Applications based on eye-blink detection have increased, as a result of which it is essential for eye-blink detection to be robust and non-intrusive irrespective of the changes in the user's facial pose. However, most previous studies on camera-based blink detection have the disadvantage that their performances were affected by the facial pose. They also focused on blink detection using only frontal facial images. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed a new method for blink detection, which maintains its accuracy despite changes in the facial pose of the subject. This research is novel in the following four ways. First, the face and eye regions are detected by using both the AdaBoost face detector and a Lucas-Kanade-Tomasi (LKT)-based method, in order to achieve robustness to facial pose. Secondly, the determination of the state of the eye (being open or closed), needed for blink detection, is based on two features: the ratio of height to width of the eye region in a still image, and the cumulative difference of the number of black pixels of the eye region using an adaptive threshold in successive images. These two features are robustly extracted irrespective of the lighting variations by using illumination normalization. Thirdly, the accuracy of determining the eye state - open or closed - is increased by combining the above two features on the basis of the support vector machine (SVM). Finally, the SVM classifier for determining the eye state is adaptively selected according to the facial rotation. Experimental results using various databases showed that the blink detection by the proposed method is robust to various facial poses. PMID:20826183

Lee, Won Oh; Lee, Eui Chul; Park, Kang Ryoung

2010-11-30

442

The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions  

PubMed Central

The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions. PMID:22438875

Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Wallraven, Christian

2012-01-01

443

Epidermal barrier formation and recovery in skin disorders  

PubMed Central

Skin is at the interface between the complex physiology of the body and the external, often hostile, environment, and the semipermeable epidermal barrier prevents both the escape of moisture and the entry of infectious or toxic substances. Newborns with rare congenital barrier defects underscore the skin’s essential role in a terrestrial environment and demonstrate the compensatory responses evoked ex utero to reestablish a barrier. Common inflammatory skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis exhibit decreased barrier function, and recent studies suggest that the complex response of epidermal cells to barrier disruption may aggravate, maintain, or even initiate such conditions. Either aiding barrier reestablishment or dampening the epidermal stress response may improve the treatment of these disorders. This Review discusses the molecular regulation of the epidermal barrier as well as causes and potential treatments for defects of barrier formation and proposes that medical management of barrier disruption may positively affect the course of common skin disorders. PMID:16670755

Segre, Julia A.

2006-01-01

444

Hyaluronic acid gel fillers in the management of facial aging  

PubMed Central

Time affects facial aging by producing cellular and anatomical changes resulting in the consequential loss of soft tissue volume. With the advent of new technologies, the physician has the opportunity of addressing these changes with the utilization of dermal fillers. Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers are the most popular, non-permanent injectable materials available to physicians today for the correction of soft tissue defects of the face. This material provides an effective, non invasive, non surgical alternative for correction of the contour defects of the face due to its enormous ability to bind water and easiness of implantation. HA dermal fillers are safe and effective. The baby-boomer generation, and their desire of turning back the clock while enjoying an active lifestyle, has expanded the popularity of these fillers. In the US, there are currently eight HA dermal fillers approved for commercialization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This article reviews the innate properties of FDA-approved HA fillers and provides an insight on future HA products and their utilization for the management of the aging face. PMID:18488885

Brandt, Fredric S; Cazzaniga, Alex

2008-01-01

445

Noninvasive skin tightening: focus on new ultrasound techniques  

PubMed Central

Microfocused ultrasound (MFU) has been recently developed to meet the ever-growing public demand for achieving significant, noninvasive skin lifting and tightening. MFU can be focused on subcutaneous tissue where the temperature briefly reaches greater than 60°C, producing small (<1 mm3) thermal coagulation points to a depth of up to 5 mm within the mid-to-deep reticular layer of the dermis and subdermis. The intervening papillary dermal and epidermal layers of skin remain unaffected. The application of heat at these discrete thermal coagulation points causes collagen fibers in the facial planes such as the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and platysma, as well as the deep reticular dermis, to become denatured, contracting and stimulating de novo collagen. A commercially available device combines MFU with high-resolution ultrasound imaging (MFU-V), which enables visualization of tissue planes to a depth of 8 mm and allows the user to see where the MFU energy will be applied (Ultherapy®; Ulthera Inc., Mesa, AZ, USA). Using different transducers, MFU-V treatment can be customized to meet the unique physical characteristics of each patient by adjusting energy and focal depth of the emitted ultrasound. By targeting the facial superficial musculoaponeurotic system, noninvasive tightening and lifting of sagging facial and neck skin and improvements in the appearance of wrinkles can be achieved. MFU-V can also improve lines and wrinkles of the décolleté. Treatment protocols for the use of MFU-V continue to be refined, and its use in combination with other rejuvenation techniques has been demonstrated. Brief discomfort that often occurs during treatment can be minimized with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Other treatment-related adverse events include transient erythema, edema, and occasional bruising. MFU-V is best suited for patients with mild-to-moderate skin and soft tissue laxity. For older patients with severe skin laxity and marked platysmal banding, surgical treatment should be considered. PMID:25709486

Fabi, Sabrina Guillen

2015-01-01

446

How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications Español How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer To detect skin cancer early, examine your skin all over your body ... Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma Skin Cancer Posted: September 16, 2011 We Can Answer Your ...

447

A novel inspection system for cosmetic defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of automotive skin panels creates desirability for a product and differentiates it from the competition. Because of the importance of skin panels, considerable care is taken in minimizing defects such as the 'hollow' defect that occur around door-handle depressions. However, the inspection process is manual, subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes the development of an objective and inspection scheme for the 'hollow' defect. In this inspection process, the geometry of a panel is captured using a structured lighting system. The geometry data is subsequently analyzed by a purpose-built wavelet-based algorithm to identify the location of any defects that may be present and to estimate the perceived severity of the defects without user intervention. This paper describes and critically evaluates the behavior of this physically-based algorithm on an ideal and real geometry and compares its result to an actual audit. The results show that the algorithm is capable of objectively locating and classifying 'hollow' defects in actual panels.

Hazra, S.; Roy, R.; Williams, D.; Aylmore, R.; Hollingdale, D.

2013-12-01

448

Contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions.  

PubMed

Participants viewed dynamic facial expressions that moved from a neutral expression to varying degrees of angry, happy, or sad or from these emotionally expressive faces to neutral.A contrast effect was observed for expressions that moved to a neutral state. That is, a neutral expression that began as angry was rated as having a mildly positive expression, whereas the same neutral expression was rated as negatively valenced when it began with a smile. In Experiment 2, static expressions presented sequentially elicited contrast effects, but they were weaker than those following dynamic expressions. Experiment 3 assessed a broad range of facial movements across varying degrees of angry and happy expressions. We observed momentum effects for movements that ended at mildly expressive points (25% and 50% expressive). For such movements, affect ratings were higher, as if the perceived expression moved beyond their endpoint. Experiment 4 assessed sad facial expressions and found both contrast and momentum effects for dynamic expressions to and from sad faces. These findings demonstrate new and potent contextual influences on dynamic facial expressions and highlight the importance of facial movements in social-emotional communication. PMID:23505959

Marian, Diane E; Shimamura, Arthur P

2013-01-01

449

Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS). In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature. PMID:22966449

Fatouros-Bergman, H.; Spang, J.; Merten, J.; Preisler, G.; Werbart, A.

2012-01-01

450

Facial Diplegia in Plasmodium vivax Malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Facial diplegia has diverse etiologies, including viral and bacterial infections such as diphtheria, syphilis and Lyme disease, and also protozoal infection in very rarely cases. Case Report A 20-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital due to bilateral weakness of the upper and lower facial muscles. Examination revealed that the patient had a facial diplegia of the peripheral type. A peripheral blood smear demonstrated the presence of the asexual trophozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax with ring-form trophozoites, which led to a diagnosis of malaria. A serum work-up revealed increased IgG titers of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein and ganglioside GD1b. The patient was administered antimalarial treatment, 1 week after which he showed signs of recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of facial diplegia after malaria infection, providing evidence that the mechanism underlying the condition is related to immune-mediated disease. Conclusions Facial diplegia can manifest after P. vivax infection. PMID:20607050

Sim, Jae Eun; Choi, Young-Chul

2010-01-01

451

Facial Soft Tissue Measurement in Microgravity-induces Fluid Shifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid shifts are a well-known phenomenon in microgravity, and one result is facial edema. Objective measurement of tissue thickness in a standardized location could provide a correlate with the severity of the fluid shift. Previous studies of forehead tissue thickness (TTf) suggest that when exposed to environments that cause fluid shifts, including hypergravity, head-down tilt, and high-altitude/lowpressure, TTf changes in a consistent and measurable fashion. However, the technique in past studies is not well described or standardized. The International Space Station (ISS) houses an ultrasound (US) system capable of accurate sub-millimeter measurements of TTf. We undertook to measure TTf during long-duration space flight using a new accurate, repeatable and transferable technique. Methods: In-flight and post-flight B-mode ultrasound images of a single astronaut's facial soft tissues were obtained using a Vivid-q US system with a 12L-RS high-frequency linear array probe (General Electric, USA). Strictly mid-sagittal images were obtained involving the lower frontal bone, the nasofrontal angle, and the osseo-cartilaginous junction below. Single images were chosen for comparison that contained identical views of the bony landmarks and identical acoustical interface between the probe and skin. Using Gingko CADx DICOM viewing software, soft tissue thickness was measured at a right angle to the most prominent point of the inferior frontal bone to the epidermis. Four independent thickness measurements were made. Conclusions: Forehead tissue thickness measurement by ultrasound in microgravity is feasible, and our data suggest a decrease in tissue thickness upon return from microgravity environment, which is likely related to the cessation of fluid shifts. Further study is warranted to standardize the technique with regard to the individual variability of the local anatomy in this area.

Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Pavela, James; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot

2014-01-01

452

Relationships among Facial Mimicry, Emotional Experience, and Emotion Recognition  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on scales of valence and arousal for experienced emotions (Study 1) and for experienced and recognized emotions (Study 2) while participants viewed dynamic and static facial expressions of negative and positive emotions. Path analyses showed that the facial EMG activity consistently predicted the valence ratings for the emotions experienced in response to dynamic facial expressions. The experienced valence ratings in turn predicted the recognized valence ratings in Study 2. Conclusion These results suggest that facial mimicry influences the sharing and recognition of emotional valence in response to others' dynamic facial expressions. PMID:23536774

Sato, Wataru; Fujimura, Tomomi; Kochiyama, Takanori; Suzuki, Naoto

2013-01-01

453

Dynamics Analysis of Facial Expressions for Person Identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method for analyzing the dynamics of facial expressions to identify persons using Active Appearance Models and accurate facial feature point tracking. Several methods have been proposed to identify persons using facial images. In most methods, variations in facial expressions are one trouble factor. However, the dynamics of facial expressions are one measure of personal characteristics. In the proposed method, facial feature points are automatically extracted using Active Appearance Models in the first frame of each video. They are then tracked using the Lucas-Kanade based feature point tracking method. Next, a temporal interval is extracted from the beginning time to the ending time of facial expression changes. Finally, a feature vector is obtained. In the identification phase, an input feature vector is classified by calculating the distance between the input vector and the training vectors using dynamic programming matching. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method using smile videos from the MMI Facial Expression Database.

Tanaka, Hidenori; Saito, Hideo

454

Skin Cancer: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments Q - T Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Skin cancer: Signs and symptoms The most common warning sign ... appears in many ways. Learn more about skin cancer: Skin cancer Skin cancer: Who gets and causes ...

455

3D mechanical modeling of facial soft tissue for surgery simulation.  

PubMed

State of the art medical image acquisition, image analysis procedures and numerical calculation techniques are used to realize a computer model of the face capable of realistically represent the force-deformation characteristics of soft tissue. The model includes a representation of the superficial layers of the face (skin, superficial musculoaponeurotic system, fat), and most facial muscles. The whole procedure is illustrated for determining geometrical information, assigning mechanical properties to each soft tissue represented in the model, and validating model predictions based on a comparison with experimental observations. The capabilities, limitations and possible future use of this approach are discussed. PMID:22004857

Mazza, Edoardo; Barbarino, Giuseppe Giovanni

2011-11-01

456

The face is not an empty canvas: how facial expressions interact with facial appearance  

PubMed Central

Faces are not simply blank canvases upon which facial expressions write their emotional messages. In fact, facial appearance and facial movement are both important social signalling systems in their own right. We here provide multiple lines of evidence for the notion that the social signals derived from facial appearance on the one hand and facial movement on the other interact in a complex manner, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes contradicting one another. Faces provide information on who a person is. Sex, age, ethnicity, personality and other characteristics that can define a person and the social group the person belongs to can all be derived from the face alone. The present article argues that faces interact with the perception of emotion expressions because this information informs a decoder's expectations regarding an expresser's probable emotional reactions. Facial appearance also interacts more directly with the interpretation of facial movement because some of the features that are used to derive personality or sex information are also features that closely resemble certain emotional expressions, thereby enhancing or diluting the perceived strength of particular expressions. PMID:19884144

Hess, Ursula; Adams, Reginald B.; Kleck, Robert E.

2009-01-01

457

Augmentation of facial skeleton with ceramics in congenital disorders and in post-traumatic or postoperative deformities: a preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reconstruction of defects of the facial skeleton resulting from congenital faults, tumor removal, or trauma should provide\\u000a function and form. Synthetic bone substitutes can be used in patients in which autologous bone graft or other operative techniques\\u000a are contraindicated by the patient’s condition or would not achieve the expected result. The advantages of synthetic substances\\u000a are obvious: there is

M. Duäková; J. Kozák; J. Mazánek; Z. Šámahel; M. Vohradník

2000-01-01